WorldWideScience

Sample records for habitat source reduction

  1. Modeling the effects of integrating larval habitat source reduction and insecticide treated nets for malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Yakob

    Full Text Available Integrated vector management for malaria control has received a lot of recent interest. Attacking multiple points in the transmission cycle is hoped to act synergistically and improve upon current single-tool interventions based on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In the present study, we theoretically examined the application of larval habitat source reduction with ITNs in reducing malaria transmission. We selected this type of environmental management to complement ITNs because of a potential secondary mode of action that both control strategies share. In addition to increasing vector mortality, ITNs reduce the rate at which female mosquitoes locate human hosts for blood feeding, thereby extending their gonotrophic cycle. Similarly, while reducing adult vector emergence and abundance, source reduction of larval habitats may prolong the cycle duration by extending delays in locating oviposition sites. We found, however, that source reduction of larval habitats only operates through this secondary mode of action when habitat density is below a critical threshold. Hence, we illustrate how this strategy becomes increasingly effective when larval habitats are limited. We also demonstrate that habitat source reduction is better suited to human populations of higher density and in the presence of insecticide resistance or when the insecticidal properties of ITNs are depleted.

  2. [Water sources of Nitraria sibirica and response to precipitation in two desert habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Wen Zhi; He, Zhi Bin

    2017-07-18

    Nitraria sibirica usually exists in a form of nebkhas, and has strong ecological adaptability. The plant species has distinctive function for wind prevention and sand fixation, and resistance drought and salt. However, the water condition is still a limiting factor for the plant survival and development. In order to understand the water use strategy of the plant in different desert habitats, we selected the N. sibirica growing in sandy desert habitat and gravel desert habitat to study the seaso-nal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation at the edge of the oasis of Linze in the Hexi Corridor. We measured the oxygen stable isotope of the plant stem water and the different potential water sources (precipitation, soil water and ground water), and used the IsoSource model to calculate the proportion of water sources from the potential water. The results showed that there were significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ 18 O value and water source of stem water for the plant in the two habitats. In the sandy habitat, the plant used more ground water in the less precipitation seasons including spring and fall, and more than 50% of the water sources absorbed from ground water. However, under the condition of gravel habitat, the plant could not achieve the ground water level depth of 11.5 m, and its water source was controlled by precipitation, which had large seasonal variability. The water sources of N. sibirica had significant responses to the change of precipitation in the two desert habitats. Following the rapid decrease of soil water content after the precipitation events, the plant in the sandy habitat turned to use the abundant ground water as the main sources of water, while the plant in the gravel habitat only used the less water from precipita-tion infiltration to the deep soil. Therefore, different water use strategies of the plant in the two habitats were the main reason for the difference in growth characteristics, and it had a

  3. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  4. Source Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel Contaminated Sites, Technical Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This report assesses the degree to which various types or engineered source-reduction efforts at selected fuel-contaminated sites have resulted in decreasing concentrations of fuel constituents dissolved in groundwater...

  5. Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Sarmiento, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    Underground storage organs (USOs) have been proposed as critical fallback foods for early hominins in savanna, but there has been little discussion as to which habitats would have been important sources of USOs. USOs consumed by hominins could have included both underwater and underground storage organs, i.e., from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Shallow aquatic habitats tend to offer high plant growth rates, high USO densities, and relatively continuous USO availability throughout the year. Baboons in the Okavango delta use aquatic USOs as a fallback food, and aquatic or semiaquatic USOs support high-density human populations in various parts of the world. As expected given fossilization requisites, the African early- to mid-Pleistocene shows an association of Homo and Paranthropus fossils with shallow-water and flooded habitats where high densities of plant-bearing USOs are likely to have occurred. Given that early hominins in the tropics lived in relatively dry habitats, while others occupied temperate latitudes, ripe, fleshy fruits of the type preferred by African apes would not normally have been available year round. We therefore suggest that water-associated USOs were likely to have been key fallback foods, and that dry-season access to aquatic habitats would have been an important predictor of hominin home range quality. This study differs from traditional savanna chimpanzee models of hominin origins by proposing that access to aquatic habitats was a necessary condition for adaptation to savanna habitats. It also raises the possibility that harvesting efficiency in shallow water promoted adaptations for habitual bipedality in early hominins.

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  7. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  8. California Air Resources board's mobil source emission reduction credit guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunwoody Lentz, C.; Werner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has developed guidance for the generation and use of mobil source emission reduction credits. Mobil source credits can be used to improve air quality, or to mitigate increases in emissions associated with industrial and non-industrial sources. They are created by programs which reduce mobile source emission beyond the reductions required by federal, state, and local laws or air quality attainment plans. Significant amounts of credit can be generated by some types of programs which reduce mobile source emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and reactive organic gases (ROG). Mobile source credit programs must be carefully structured to ensure that emission reductions are real, accurately quantified, enforceable, and have a defined life. Three potentially feasible programs for the creation of mobile source credits include accelerated retirement of older vehicles, purchase of low-emission buses, and purchase of zero-emission vehicles. These programs are evaluated for their ability to generate credit and to assess their cost effectiveness. Based on the examples presented, two methods of generating mobile source credits, the accelerated retirement of older vehicles and the purchase of low-emission buses, appear to be cost-effective when compared to other emission control measures

  9. Identifying Greater Sage-Grouse source and sink habitats for conservation planning in an energy development landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Christopher P; Beck, Jeffrey L; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Holloran, Matthew J; Miller, Scott N

    2015-06-01

    Conserving a declining species that is facing many threats, including overlap of its habitats with energy extraction activities, depends upon identifying and prioritizing the value of the habitats that remain. In addition, habitat quality is often compromised when source habitats are lost or fragmented due to anthropogenic development. Our objective was to build an ecological model to classify and map habitat quality in terms of source or sink dynamics for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), a developing coalbed natural gas field in south-central Wyoming, USA. We used occurrence and survival modeling to evaluate relationships between environmental and anthropogenic variables at multiple spatial scales and for all female summer life stages, including nesting, brood-rearing, and non-brooding females. For each life stage, we created resource selection functions (RSFs). We weighted the RSFs and combined them to form a female summer occurrence map. We modeled survival also as a function of spatial variables for nest, brood, and adult female summer survival. Our survival-models were mapped as survival probability functions individually and then combined with fixed vital rates in a fitness metric model that, when mapped, predicted habitat productivity (productivity map). Our results demonstrate a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables at multiple scales that were predictive of occurrence and survival. We created a source-sink map by overlaying our female summer occurrence map and productivity map to predict habitats contributing to population surpluses (source habitats) or deficits (sink habitat) and low-occurrence habitats on the landscape. The source-sink map predicted that of the Sage-Grouse habitat within the ARPA, 30% was primary source, 29% was secondary source, 4% was primary sink, 6% was secondary sink, and 31% was low occurrence. Our results provide evidence that energy development and avoidance of

  10. EDF source term reduction project main outcomes and further developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranchoux, Gilles; Bonnefon, Julien; Benfarah, Moez; Wintergerst Matthieu; Gressier, Frederic; Leclercq, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    The dose reduction is a strategic purpose for EDF in link with the stakes of, nuclear acceptability, respect of regulation and productivity gains. This consists not only in improving the reactor shutdown organization (time spent in control area, biological shielding,...) but also in improving the radiological state of the unit and the efficiency of the source term reduction operations. Since 2003, EDF has been running an innovative project called 'Source Term Reduction' federating the different EDF research and engineering centers in order to: - participate to the long term view about Radiological Protection issues (international feedback analyses), - develop contamination prediction tools (OSCAR software) suitable for the industrial needs (operating units and EPR design), - develop scientific models useful for the understanding of contamination mechanisms to support the strategic decision processes, - carry on with updating and analyzing of contamination measurements feedback in corrosion products (EMECC and CZT campaigns), - carry on with the operational support at short or middle term by optimizing startup and shutdown processes, pre-oxidation or and by improving purification efficiency or material characteristics. This paper will show in a first part the main 2011 results in occupational exposure (collective and individual dose, RCS index...). In a second part, an overview of the main EDF outcomes of the last 3 years in the field of source term reduction will be presented. Future developments extended to contamination issues in EDF NPPs will be also pointed out in this paper. (authors)

  11. Reduction Assessment of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, YiCheng; Zang, Wenbin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    NPS (Non-point source) pollution has become a key impact element to watershed environment at present. With the development of technology, application of models to control NPS pollution has become a very common practice for resource management and Pollutant reduction control in the watershed scale of China. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a semi-conceptual model, which was put forward to estimate pollutant production & the influences on water quantity-quality under different...

  12. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Seasonal Effects of Habitat on Sources and Rates of Snowshoe Hare Predation in Alaskan Boreal Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashiell Feierabend

    Full Text Available Survival and predation of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus has been widely studied, yet there has been little quantification of the changes in vulnerability of hares to specific predators that may result from seasonal changes in vegetation and cover. We investigated survival and causes of mortalities of snowshoe hares during the late increase, peak, and decline of a population in interior Alaska. From June 2008 to May 2012, we radio-tagged 288 adult and older juvenile hares in early successional and black spruce (Picea mariana forests and, using known-fate methods in program MARK, evaluated 85 survival models that included variables for sex, age, and body condition of hares, as well as trapping site, month, season, year, snowfall, snow depth, and air temperature. We compared the models using Akaike's information criterion with correction for small sample size. Model results indicated that month, capture site, and body condition were the most important variables in explaining survival rates. Survival was highest in July, and more generally during summer, when alternative prey was available to predators of hares. Low survival rates coincided with molting periods, breeding activity in the spring, and the introduction of juveniles to the sample population in the fall. We identified predation as the cause of mortality in 86% of hare deaths. When the source of predation could be determined, hares were killed more often by goshawks (Accipiter gentilis than other predators in early successional forest (30%, and more often by lynx (Lynx canadensis than other predators in black spruce forest (31%. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus and coyotes (Canis latrans represented smaller proportions of hare predation, and non-predatory causes were a minor source (3% of mortality. Because hares rely on vegetative cover for concealment from predators, we measured cover in predation sites and habitats that the hares occupied and concluded that habitat type had a

  14. Root distribution of Nitraria sibirica with seasonally varying water sources in a desert habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zheng, Xinjun; Li, Shoujuan

    2015-07-01

    In water-limited environments, the water sources used by desert shrubs are critical to understanding hydrological processes. Here we studied the oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ (18)O) of stem water of Nitraria sibirica as well as those of precipitation, groundwater and soil water from different layers to identify the possible water sources for the shrub. The results showed that the shrub used a mixture of soil water, recent precipitation and groundwater, with shallow lateral roots and deeply penetrating tap (sinker) roots, in different seasons. During the wet period (in spring), a large proportion of stem water in N. sibirica was from snow melt and recent precipitation, but use of these sources declined sharply with the decreasing summer rain at the site. At the height of summer, N. sibirica mainly utilized deep soil water from its tap roots, not only supporting the growth of shoots but also keeping the shallow lateral roots well-hydrated. This flexibility allowed the plants to maintain normal metabolic processes during prolonged periods when little precipitation occurs and upper soil layers become extremely dry. With the increase in precipitation that occurs as winter approaches, the percentage of water in the stem base of a plant derived from the tap roots (deep soil water or ground water) decreased again. These results suggested that the shrub's root distribution and morphology were the most important determinants of its ability to utilize different water sources, and that its adjustment to water availability was significant for acclimation to the desert habitat.

  15. Resolution of habitat-associated ecogenomic signatures in bacteriophage genomes and application to microbial source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Lesley A; Nzakizwanayo, Jonathan; Guppy, Fergus M; Dedi, Cinzia; Diston, David; Taylor, Huw; Ebdon, James; Jones, Brian V

    2018-04-01

    Just as the expansion in genome sequencing has revealed and permitted the exploitation of phylogenetic signals embedded in bacterial genomes, the application of metagenomics has begun to provide similar insights at the ecosystem level for microbial communities. However, little is known regarding this aspect of bacteriophage associated with microbial ecosystems, and if phage encode discernible habitat-associated signals diagnostic of underlying microbiomes. Here we demonstrate that individual phage can encode clear habitat-related 'ecogenomic signatures', based on relative representation of phage-encoded gene homologues in metagenomic data sets. Furthermore, we show the ecogenomic signature encoded by the gut-associated ɸB124-14 can be used to segregate metagenomes according to environmental origin, and distinguish 'contaminated' environmental metagenomes (subject to simulated in silico human faecal pollution) from uncontaminated data sets. This indicates phage-encoded ecological signals likely possess sufficient discriminatory power for use in biotechnological applications, such as development of microbial source tracking tools for monitoring water quality.

  16. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  17. Invasion by nonnative brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of local habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Dare, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Panther Creek, a tributary to the Salmon River, Idaho. Habitat variables included measures of summer and winter temperature, instream cover, and channel size. The abundance of native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within sampled sites was used as a measure of biotic resistance. We also considered the connectivity of sample sites to unconfined valley bottoms, which were considered habitats that may serve as sources for the spread of established populations of brook trout. We analyzed the occurrence of small (<150‐mm [fork length]) and large (≥150‐mm) brook trout separately, assuming that the former represents an established invasion while accounting for the higher potential mobility of the latter. The occurrence of small brook trout was strongly associated with the proximity of sites to large, unconstrained valley bottoms, providing evidence that such habitats may serve as sources for the spread of brook trout invasion. Within sites, winter degree‐days and maximum summer temperature were positively associated with the occurrence of small brook trout. The occurrence of large brook trout was not related to any of the variables considered, perhaps due to the difficulty of linking site‐specific habitat factors to larger and more mobile individuals. The abundance of rainbow trout was not conclusively associated with the occurrence of either small or large brook trout, providing little support for the role of biotic resistance. Overall, our results suggest that source connectivity and local habitat characteristics, but not biotic resistance, influence the establishment and spread of

  18. Response of a tropical tree to non-timber forest products harvest and reduction in habitat size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouagou, M’Mouyohoun; Natta, Armand K.; Gado, Choukouratou

    2017-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are widely harvested by local people for their livelihood. Harvest often takes place in human disturbed ecosystems. However, our understanding of NTFPs harvesting impacts in fragmented habitats is limited. We assessed the impacts of fruit harvest, and reduction in habitat size on the population structures of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) across two contrasting ecological regions (dry vs. moist) in Benin. In each region, we selected three populations for each of the three fruit harvesting intensities (low, medium and high). Harvesting intensities were estimated as the proportion of fruits harvested per population. Pentadesma butyracea is found in gallery forests along rivers and streams. We used the width of gallery forests as a measure of habitat size. We found negative effects of fruit harvest on seedling and adult density but no significant effect on population size class distribution in both ecological regions. The lack of significant effect of fruit harvest on population structure may be explained by the ability of P. butyracea to compensate for the negative effect of fruit harvesting by increasing clonal reproduction. Our results suggest that using tree density and population structure to assess the ecological impacts of harvesting clonal plants should be done with caution. PMID:28850624

  19. Response of a tropical tree to non-timber forest products harvest and reduction in habitat size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orou G Gaoue

    Full Text Available Non-timber forest products (NTFPs are widely harvested by local people for their livelihood. Harvest often takes place in human disturbed ecosystems. However, our understanding of NTFPs harvesting impacts in fragmented habitats is limited. We assessed the impacts of fruit harvest, and reduction in habitat size on the population structures of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae across two contrasting ecological regions (dry vs. moist in Benin. In each region, we selected three populations for each of the three fruit harvesting intensities (low, medium and high. Harvesting intensities were estimated as the proportion of fruits harvested per population. Pentadesma butyracea is found in gallery forests along rivers and streams. We used the width of gallery forests as a measure of habitat size. We found negative effects of fruit harvest on seedling and adult density but no significant effect on population size class distribution in both ecological regions. The lack of significant effect of fruit harvest on population structure may be explained by the ability of P. butyracea to compensate for the negative effect of fruit harvesting by increasing clonal reproduction. Our results suggest that using tree density and population structure to assess the ecological impacts of harvesting clonal plants should be done with caution.

  20. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  1. Source term reduction at DAEC (including stellite ball recycling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Schebler, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Duane Arnold Energy Center was seeking methods to reduce dose rates from the drywell due to Co-60. Duane Arnold is known in the industry to have one of the highest drywell dose rates from the industry standardized 'BRAC' point survey. A prime method to reduce dose rates due to Co-60 is the accelerated replacement of stellite pins and rollers in control rod blades due to their high stellite (cobalt) content. Usually the cobalt content in alloys of stellite is greater than 60% cobalt by weight. During the RFO-12 refueling outage at Duane Arnold, all of the remaining cobalt bearing control rod blades were replaced and new stellite free control rod blades were installed in the core. This left Duane Arnold with the disposal of highly radioactive stellite pins and rollers. The processing of control rod blades for disposal is a very difficult evolution. First, the velocity limiter (a bottom portion of the component) and the highly radioactive upper stellite control rod blade ins and rollers are separated from the control rod blade. Next, the remainder of the control rod blade is processed (chopped and/or crushed) to aid packaging the waste for disposal. The stellite bearings are then often carefully placed in with the rest of the waste in a burial liner to provide shielding for disposal or more often are left as 'orphans' in the spent fuel pool because their high specific activity create shipping and packaging problems. Further investigation by the utility showed that the stellite balls and pins could be recycled to a source manufacturer rather than disposed of in a low-level burial site. The cost savings to the utility was on the order of $200,000 with a gross savings of $400,000 in savings in burial site charges. A second advantage of the recycling of the stellite pins and rollers was a reduction in control in radioactive waste shipments

  2. Economic Analysis of Nitrate Source Reductions in California Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R.; Rosenstock, T.; Harter, T.; Pettygrove, S. G.; Dzurella, K.; Lund, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an analytical approach to assess the economic impact of improving nitrogen management practices in California agriculture. We employ positive mathematical programming to calibrate crop production to base input information. The production function representation is a nested constant elasticity of substitution with two nests: one for applied water and one for applied nitrogen. The first nest accounts for the tradeoffs between irrigation efficiency and capital investments in irrigation technology. The second nest represents the tradeoffs between nitrogen application efficiency and the marginal costs of improving nitrogen efficiency. In the production function nest, low elasticities of substitution and water and nitrogen stress constraints keep agricultural crop yields constant despite changes in nitrogen management practices. We use the Tulare Basin, and the Salinas Valley in California's Central Valley and Central Coast respectively as our case studies. Preliminary results show that initial reductions of 25% in nitrogen loads to groundwater may not impose large costs to agricultural crop production as substitution of management inputs results in only small declines in net revenue from farming and total land use. Larger reductions in the nitrogen load to groundwater of 50% imposes larger marginal costs for better nitrogen management inputs and reductions in the area of lower valued crops grown in the study areas. Despite the shortage of data on quantitative effects of improved nitrogen efficiency; our results demonstrate the potential of combining economic and agronomic data into a model that can reflect differences in cost and substitutabilty in nitrogen application methods, that can be used to reduce the quantity of nitrogen leaching into groundwater.

  3. Reduction of NOx emission from stationary combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts of NO x emission from stationary combustion sources are briefly described. These include the formation of both acid rain and photochemical smog, major environmental problems. The three mechanisms which have been identified for the formation of NO x in combustion (thermal, prompt and fuel) are also briefly outlined. Recently stringent standards have been introduced to control emissions of NO x and the review describes the major primary and secondary measures. 10 refs. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Disaster Risk Reduction through Innovative Uses of Crowd Sourcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Greene, M.

    2010-12-01

    Crowd sourcing can be described as a method of distributed problem-solving. It takes advantage of the power of the crowd, which can in some cases be a community of experts and in other cases the collective insight of a broader range of contributors with varying degrees of domain knowledge. The term crowd sourcing was first used by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” and is a combination of the terms “crowd” and “outsourcing.” Some commonly known examples of crowd sourcing, in its broadest sense, include Wikepedia, distributed participatory design projects, and consumer websites such as Yelp and Angie’s List. The popularity and success of early large-scale crowd sourcing activities is made possible through leveraging Web 2.0 technologies that allow for mass participation from distributed individuals. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) in Oakland, California recently participated in two crowd sourcing projects. One was initiated and coordinated by EERI, while in the second case EERI was invited to contribute once the crowd sourcing activity was underway. In both projects there was: 1) the determination of a problem or set of tasks that could benefit immediately from the engagement of an informed volunteer group of professionals; 2) a segmenting of the problem into discrete pieces that could be completed in a short period of time (from ten minutes to four hours); 3) a call to action, where an interested community was made aware of the project; and 4) the collection, aggregation, vetting and ultimately distribution of the results in a relatively short period of time. The first EERI crowd sourcing example was the use of practicing engineers and engineering students in California to help estimate the number of pre-1980 concrete buildings in the high seismic risk counties in the state. This building type is known to perform poorly in earthquakes, and state officials were interested in understanding

  5. Greenhouse Gas reduction for scenarios of power sources development of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions, Moldova power sources development options up to 2033 are evaluated, and for the six scenarios selected the greenhouse gas reduction impact is determined.

  6. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, T

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed ...

  7. Controlling range expansion in habitat networks by adaptively targeting source populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Wolff, Nicholas H; Beeden, Roger; Hoey, Jessica; Condie, Scott A; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Controlling the spread of invasive species, pests, and pathogens is often logistically limited to interventions that target specific locations at specific periods. However, in complex, highly connected systems, such as marine environments connected by ocean currents, populations spread dynamically in both space and time via transient connectivity links. This results in nondeterministic future distributions of species in which local populations emerge dynamically and concurrently over a large area. The challenge, therefore, is to choose intervention locations that will maximize the effectiveness of the control efforts. We propose a novel method to manage dynamic species invasions and outbreaks that identifies the intervention locations most likely to curtail population expansion by selectively targeting local populations most likely to expand their future range. Critically, at any point during the development of the invasion or outbreak, the method identifies the local intervention that maximizes the long-term benefit across the ecosystem by restricting species' potential to spread. In so doing, the method adaptively selects the intervention targets under dynamically changing circumstances. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method we applied it to controlling the spread of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster sp.) outbreaks across Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Application of our method resulted in an 18-fold relative improvement in management outcomes compared with a random targeting of reefs in putative starfish control scenarios. Although we focused on applying the method to reducing the spread of an unwanted species, it can also be used to facilitate the spread of desirable species through connectivity networks. For example, the method could be used to select those fragments of habitat most likely to rebuild a population if they were sufficiently well protected. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Using landscape metrics to model source habitat for Neotropical migrants in the midwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter T. Fauth; Eric J. Gustafson; Kerry N. Rabenold

    2000-01-01

    Size of a forest patch is a useful predictor of density and reproductive success of Neotropical migratory birds in much of eastern North America. Within these forested landscapes, large forest tracts appear to be sources-fragments in which surpluses of offspring are produced and can potentially colonize new fragments including woodlot sinks where reproduction fails to...

  9. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenbecker Michael J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective

  10. Invasion by non-native brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Benjamin; Jason B. Dunham; Matthew R. Dare

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus...

  11. Using mobile source emission reductions to offset stationary surce rule requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, M.A.; Beruldsen, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of mobile source strategies have been evaluated that could potentially be used as an alternative means of compliance with existing stationary source regulations, at a lower cost. The evaluation was spurred by both public and private sector interest in identifying the lowest cost air pollution reduction strategies, and the realization that mobile sources are the predominate contributor to the air pollution problem in the South Coast Air Quality Basin. Strategies evaluated included removing older vehicles from the in-use population, use of alternative fuels, inspection and maintenance measures, application of remote sensing technology, exceeding AVR requirements, as well as a number of other strategies. Key implementation issues have been identified, so that the viability of each mobile source strategies could be assessed. These issues include: (1) quantification of emissions benefits, (2) determining whether the mobile source strategy would generate emission reductions surplus to existing and planned mobile source regulations, and (3) assessing the potential for enforceability. The results of evaluation indicate that there are a number of promising mobile source emission strategies that could provide quantifiable, surplus, and enforceable emission reductions

  12. Analysis of inconsistent source sampling in monte carlo weight-window variance reduction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Griesheimer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of Monte Carlo (MC to large-scale fixed-source problems has recently become possible with new hybrid methods that automate generation of parameters for variance reduction techniques. Two common variance reduction techniques, weight windows and source biasing, have been automated and popularized by the consistent adjoint-driven importance sampling (CADIS method. This method uses the adjoint solution from an inexpensive deterministic calculation to define a consistent set of weight windows and source particles for a subsequent MC calculation. One of the motivations for source consistency is to avoid the splitting or rouletting of particles at birth, which requires computational resources. However, it is not always possible or desirable to implement such consistency, which results in inconsistent source biasing. This paper develops an original framework that mathematically expresses the coupling of the weight window and source biasing techniques, allowing the authors to explore the impact of inconsistent source sampling on the variance of MC results. A numerical experiment supports this new framework and suggests that certain classes of problems may be relatively insensitive to inconsistent source sampling schemes with moderate levels of splitting and rouletting.

  13. Flux and Mass Reduction Resulting from ZVIClay Remediation of a PCE DNAPL Source Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Kjeldsen, Peter; Riis, C.

    2010-01-01

    of bentonite clay. The degradation of PCE in the treated source area and the development in the downstream flux of chlorinated compounds have been monitored in six sampling campaigns. A PCE half-life of 50 days and a reduction of the average concentration of PCE of more than 99% were found during the first...

  14. Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations

  15. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  16. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  17. Research of noise emission sources in railway transport and effective ways of their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the EU conditions attention is systematically paid to noise reduction on the railways. Because TSI rules systematically tighten limits for noise emissions from railway vehicles, noise research must be addressed by all Member States, as the main technical solutions for railway vehicles and construction technological aspects of railway operations can result in lower noise exposure of affected areas or objects. The paper focuses on theoretical investigation of sources and paths of sound propagation, possibilities of noise reduction both on vehicles and by infrastructure and experimental measurements of the situation in transport practice. Methodology for reducing railway noise around tracks has been presented, too.

  18. Reduction at the source of household wastes: why not trying the inciting tariffing?; La reduction a la source des dechets menagers: pourquoi ne pas essayer la tarification incitative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glachant, M.

    2002-11-01

    This article discusses how the existing financing tools of the household wastes management implemented in France can be changed to become inciting tools for the reduction of the volume of wastes at the source. It comprises 5 parts: the first part presents the present day way of financing of the public utility of household wastes in France and discusses its (very modest) inciting effect. In the next two parts the possible modalities to make it more inciting are discussed. These parts stresses on two questions: is it better to charge the upstream producers via contributions to chartered companies or to charge the downstream households via volume- or weight-proportional fees? How much should they pay? Then some experiences of inciting tariffing are briefly reviewed: the Duales German system of upstream charging and the US and Dutch downstream charging systems. (J.S.)

  19. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  20. Reduction of sources of error and simplification of the Carbon-14 urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Carbon-14 urea breath testing is established in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate possible further simplification and identification of error sources in the 14 C urea kit extensively used at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Thirty six patients with validated H. pylon status were tested with breath samples taken at 10,15, and 20 min. Using the single sample value at 15 min, there was no change in the diagnostic category. Reduction or errors in analysis depends on attention to the following details: Stability of absorption solution, (now > 2 months), compatibility of scintillation cocktail/absorption solution. (with particular regard to photoluminescence and chemiluminescence), reduction in chemical quenching (moisture reduction), understanding counting hardware and relevance, and appropriate response to deviation in quality assurance. With this experience, we are confident of the performance and reliability of the RAPID-14 urea breath test kit now available commercially

  1. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  2. Prediction With Dimension Reduction of Multiple Molecular Data Sources for Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kaplan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictive modeling from high-dimensional genomic data is often preceded by a dimension reduction step, such as principal component analysis (PCA. However, the application of PCA is not straightforward for multisource data, wherein multiple sources of ‘omics data measure different but related biological components. In this article, we use recent advances in the dimension reduction of multisource data for predictive modeling. In particular, we apply exploratory results from Joint and Individual Variation Explained (JIVE, an extension of PCA for multisource data, for prediction of differing response types. We conduct illustrative simulations to illustrate the practical advantages and interpretability of our approach. As an application example, we consider predicting survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme from 3 data sources measuring messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and DNA methylation. We also introduce a method to estimate JIVE scores for new samples that were not used in the initial dimension reduction and study its theoretical properties; this method is implemented in the R package R.JIVE on CRAN, in the function jive.predict.

  3. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Clare; Barry, D.A.; McCarty, Perry L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kouznetsova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  4. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: clare.robinson@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Barry, D.A., E-mail: andrew.barry@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McCarty, Perry L., E-mail: pmccarty@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Gerhard, Jason I., E-mail: j.gerhard@ed.ac.uk [Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Kouznetsova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kouznetsova@ed.ac.uk [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  5. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  6. Endogenous NO3- in the root as a source of substrate for reduction in the light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufty, T.W. Jr.; Volk, R.J.; MacKown, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the reduction of endogenous NO 3 - , which had been taken up by plants in darkness, during the course of the subsequent light period. Vegetative, nonnodulated soybean plant (Glycine max [L.]. Merrill, Ransom) were exposed to 1.0 millimolar 15 NO 3 - for 12 hours in darkness and then returned to a solution containing 1.0 millimolar 14 NO 3 - for the 12 hours chase period in the light. Another set of plants was exposed to 15 NO 3 - during the light period to allow a direct comparison of contributions of substrate from the endogenous and exogenous sources. At the end of the 15 NO 3 - exposure in the dark, 70% of the absorbed 15 NO 3 - remained unreduced, and 83% of this unreduced NO 3 - was retained in roots. The pool of endogenous 15 NO 3 - in roots was depleted at a steady rate during the initial 9 hours of light and was utilized almost exclusively in the formation of insoluble reduced-N in leaves. Unlabeled endogenous NO 3 - , which had accumulated in the root prior to the previous dark period, also was depleted in the light. When exogenous 15 NO 3 - was supplied during the light period, the rate of assimilation progressively increased, reflecting an increased rate of uptake and decreased accumulation of NO 3 - in the root tissue. The dark-absorbed endogenous NO 3 - in the root was the primary source of substrate for whole-plant NO 3 - reduction in the first 6 hours of the light period, and exogenous NO 3 - was the primary source of substrate thereafter

  7. Reduction of gas flow into a hollow cathode ion source for a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Akiba, M.; Arakawa, Y.; Horiike, H.; Sakuraba, J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies have been made on the reduction of the gas flow rate into ion sources which utilize a hollow cathode. The electron emitter of the hollow cathode was a barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten tube. The hollow cathode was mounted to a circular or a rectangular bucket source and the following results were obtained. There was a tendency for the minimum gas flow rate for the stable source operation to decrease with increasing orifice diameter of the hollow cathode up to 10 mm. A molybdenum button with an appropriate diameter set in front of the orifice reduced the minimum gas flow rate to one half of that without button. An external magnetic field applied antiparallel to the field generated by the heater current stabilized the discharges and reduced the minimum gas flow rate to one half of that without field. Combination of the button and the antiparallel field reduced the minimum gas flow rate from the initial value (9.5 Torr 1/s) to 2.4 Torr 1/s. The reason for these effects was discussed on the basis of the theory for arc starvation

  8. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  9. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  10. NO{sub 2} and CO nonattainment areas: a pragmatic approach to source reduction assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, S; Giugliano, M; Marzolo, F [D.I.I.A.R. - Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Environmental Section

    1996-12-31

    Many Italian large conurbations have CO and NO{sub 2} air quality standards exceeded and, consequently, require control enforcement plans to attain and maintain regulations not respected. In planning the interventions to be undertaken a fundamental issue is represented by the relationships between active emission sources and air quality, commonly described through mathematical models for evaluating the expected effects of the different reduction scenarios. This approach, relatively feasible for slightly or non reactive pollutants like CO, becomes not as easy to be applied for secondary pollutants, like NO{sub 2}, mainly for the complex photo chemical reaction systems involved in their atmospheric presence and the consequent modeling difficulties related either to the description of the system itself than to the detail in input data required. A practicable alternative in this framework relies in the utilization of statistical models for deriving, through the empirical description of the relationships between the parameters of interest, the reduction levels required for complying with the standards. Following an approach already applied with useful results to the same area, present work reports on the development and application to Milan urban area of statistical models for describing the relationships between CO and NO{sub x} annual concentration averages and the corresponding air quality standard parameters (number of standard exceedances for CO and 98th percentile of hourly concentrations for NO{sub 2}). The models are utilised upstream to simple roll-back models for the assessment of the reduction in emissions strength required for attaining air quality standards for the area. (author)

  11. NO{sub 2} and CO nonattainment areas: a pragmatic approach to source reduction assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, S.; Giugliano, M.; Marzolo, F. [D.I.I.A.R. - Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Environmental Section

    1995-12-31

    Many Italian large conurbations have CO and NO{sub 2} air quality standards exceeded and, consequently, require control enforcement plans to attain and maintain regulations not respected. In planning the interventions to be undertaken a fundamental issue is represented by the relationships between active emission sources and air quality, commonly described through mathematical models for evaluating the expected effects of the different reduction scenarios. This approach, relatively feasible for slightly or non reactive pollutants like CO, becomes not as easy to be applied for secondary pollutants, like NO{sub 2}, mainly for the complex photo chemical reaction systems involved in their atmospheric presence and the consequent modeling difficulties related either to the description of the system itself than to the detail in input data required. A practicable alternative in this framework relies in the utilization of statistical models for deriving, through the empirical description of the relationships between the parameters of interest, the reduction levels required for complying with the standards. Following an approach already applied with useful results to the same area, present work reports on the development and application to Milan urban area of statistical models for describing the relationships between CO and NO{sub x} annual concentration averages and the corresponding air quality standard parameters (number of standard exceedances for CO and 98th percentile of hourly concentrations for NO{sub 2}). The models are utilised upstream to simple roll-back models for the assessment of the reduction in emissions strength required for attaining air quality standards for the area. (author)

  12. Pupal habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a rural village in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuku, Francis M; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Vulule, John M; Kamau, Luna; Walker, Edward D; Kabiru, Ephantus; Hawley, William A

    2006-01-01

    The productivity of larval habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae for pupae (the stage preceding adult metamorphosis) is poorly known, yet adult emergence from habitats is the primary determinant of vector density. To assess it, we used absolute sampling methods in four studies involving daily sampling for 25 days in 6 habitat types in a village in western Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. comprised 82.5% of emergent adults and Anopheles arabiensis the remainder. Pupal production occurred from a subset of habitats, primarily soil burrow pits, and was discontinuous in time, even when larvae occupied all habitats continuously. Habitat stability was positively associated with pupal productivity. In a dry season, pupal productivity was distributed between burrow pits and pools in streambeds. Overall, these data support the notion that source reduction measures against recognizably productive habitats would be a useful component of an integrated management program for An. gambiae in villages.

  13. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya.A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines.These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control programme should be targeted with larval

  14. Reduction of PM emissions from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 emissions. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important emission reductions of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high

  15. Reducing plant radiation fields by source term reduction - tracking cobalt and antimony to their sources at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, P.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    the same specifications at Gentilly-2 as at other CANDU 6 plants. Consequently, the task group revisited operating and maintenance practices, going back through station operating history to identify operational practices that could have lead to increased 59 Co release and/or 60 Co production. The focus rapidly moved to the fuel handling system, as it had long been suspected, but never proven, that the Stellite ram balls were a major source of 59 Co; the fuelling machines provide a direct route for the introduction of corrosion or wear products into the reactor core. Data on the gamma fields measured in the fuelling machine D 2 O supply room from 1995 to the present were reviewed. Water samples were taken and chemically analysed. The results confirmed the presence of 59 Co, probably generated by the wear and corrosion of the Stellite ram balls, and also confirmed the presence of antimony in the system. As part of the task group program, γ-spectrometry was performed in the course of a refuelling cycle. The results showed that variations in the general radiation fields observed in the fuelling machine D 2 O supply room resulted from variations of the 122 Sb and 124 Sb concentrations in the process water. The presence of 122 Sb (t 1/2 3.2 d) suggested that the antimony was recently released from the reactor core. 60 Co was also detected but the level was constant; 59 Co from the ram balls is invisible to γ-spectrometry before it is activated to 60 Co. Remedial actions were implemented in mid-July, 2004. Shortly after, a significant reduction in the radiation fields in the Gentilly-2 fuelling machine D2 O supply room was confirmed. During an unplanned outage in December 2004, a decrease in fields, in particular those due to 60 Co and radioantimony, was found at the reactor face. Activity monitoring scheduled for the 2005 annual outage should confirm if the source of the abnormally high fields has finally been identified. This presentation will describe the task force

  16. Reduction of non-point source contaminants associated with road-deposited sediments by sweeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gun; Kang, Hee-Man; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2017-09-19

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on an expressway, residual RDS collected after sweeping, and RDS removed by means of sweeping were analyzed to evaluate the degree to which sweeping removed various non-point source contaminants. The total RDS load was 393.1 ± 80.3 kg/km and the RDS, residual RDS, and swept RDS were all highly polluted with organics, nutrients, and metals. Among the metals studied, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, and Fe were significantly enriched, and most of the contaminants were associated with particles within the size range from 63 μm to 2 mm. Sweeping reduced RDS and its associated contaminants by 33.3-49.1% on average. We also measured the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of RDS in the present work, representing to our knowledge the first time that this has been done; we found that RDS contains a significant amount of biodegradable organics and that the reduction of BOD by sweeping was higher than that of other contaminants. Significant correlations were found between the contaminants measured, indicating that the organics and the metals originated from both exhaust and non-exhaust particles. Meanwhile, the concentrations of Cu and Ni were higher in 63 μm-2 mm particles than in smaller particles, suggesting that some metals in RDS likely exist intrinsically in particles, rather than only as adsorbates on particle surfaces. Overall, the results in this study showed that sweeping to collect RDS can be a good alternative for reduction of contaminants in runoff.

  17. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  18. Strategic GHG reduction through the use of ground source heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanova, J; Dowlatabadi, H

    2007-01-01

    Higher energy prices and concern about climate change is drawing increasing attention to ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. Their clear advantage lies in being able to provide heating using 25 to 30% of the energy consumed by even the most efficient conventional alternatives. Their drawback has been high capital costs and uncertainty about whether the emissions associated with the electric power used to energise the system has higher system-wide emissions than the highest-efficiency furnaces. This study delineates circumstances under which GSHP systems achieve net emission reductions, for different electricity generation methods, heat pump efficiencies, and heating loads. We illustrate the effect of relative fuel prices on annual operating savings using fuel prices in multiple countries. Annual operating savings determine how rapidly the technology achieves payback and then generates return on the initial capital investment. Finally, we highlight the least cost supply curve for using GSHP to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Using the United States as a base reference case, this study explores the potential of GSHP in cold-climate countries worldwide

  19. ZVI-Clay remediation of a chlorinated solvent source zone, Skuldelev, Denmark: 2. Groundwater contaminant mass discharge reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Lange, Ida Vedel; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    The impact of source mass depletion on the down-gradient contaminant mass discharge was monitored for a 19-month period as a part of a field demonstration of the ZVI-Clay soil mixing remediation technology. Groundwater samples were collected from conventional monitoring wells (120 samples) and a ...... down-gradient contaminant mass discharge reduction (76%) for the parent compound (PCE), while the overall reduction of chlorinated ethenes was smaller (21%)....

  20. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program: implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  1. ZVI-Clay remediation of a chlorinated solvent source zone, Skuldelev, Denmark: 1. Site description and contaminant source mass reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Riis, Charlotte; Christensen, Anders G.

    2012-01-01

    Field investigations on the effects of ZVI-Clay soil mixing were conducted at a small DNAPL source zone with PCE as the parent compound. In a one-year monitoring program, soil samples were collected at three horizontal sampling planes (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5m bgs.). PCE was found to have a pseudo first...

  2. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  3. Research on numerical method for multiple pollution source discharge and optimal reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingchang; Dai, Mingxin; Zhou, Bin; Zou, Bin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the optimal method for reduction program is proposed by the nonlinear optimal algorithms named that genetic algorithm. The four main rivers in Jiangsu province, China are selected for reducing the environmental pollution in nearshore district. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is studied as the only pollutant. The environmental status and standard in the nearshore district is used to reduce the discharge of multiple river pollutant. The research results of reduction program are the basis of marine environmental management.

  4. An extended dual input dual output three level Z source inverter with improved switch loss reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Deshmukh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverter (MLI is a proven technology used for industrial applications due to low output total harmonic distortion (THD, high power handling capability and low active device rating. Dual output inverter is a recent trend associated with inverter topologies for specialized applications. This paper deals with three phase three level dual input dual output inverter topology with minimum active device count. Reduction in switch count leads to reduction in losses and improves reliability. Both the input sources share power equally as neutral point current ripple is maintained low. For further reduction in switching losses at higher switching frequencies, the concept of “no switching zone” or discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM has been put forth recently. This paper proposes modification in the placement of “no switching zone” in order to optimize switching losses and output THD (output filtering requirements for low power factor load. This study also proposes novel graphical approach to analyze the loss reduction along with its effect on output THD. The sinusoidal PWM (SPWM is used which gives satisfactory switching loss reduction without complex calculations. Moreover, the proposed topology is generalized to provide dual output at higher voltage levels. It is seen that the components reduction phenomenon becomes more pronounced as number of levels goes on increasing. The proposed converter is simulated in MATLAB software environment and results are obtained.

  5. DrSPINE - New approach to data reduction and analysis for neutron spin echo experiments from pulsed and reactor sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnierczuk, P.A.; Ohl, M.; Holderer, O.; Monkenbusch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron spin echo (NSE) method at a pulsed neutron source presents new challenges to the data reduction and analysis as compared to the instruments installed at reactor sources. The main advantage of the pulsed source NSE is the ability to resolve the neutron wavelength and collect neutrons over a wider bandwidth. This allows us to more precisely determine the symmetry phase and measure the data for several Q-values at the same time. Based on the experience gained at the SNS NSE - the first, and to date the only one, NSE instrument installed at a pulsed spallation source, we propose a novel and unified approach to the NSE data processing called DrSPINE. The goals of the DrSPINE project are: -) exploit better symmetry phase determination due to the broader bandwidth at a pulsed source; -) take advantage of larger Q coverage for TOF instruments; -) use objective statistical criteria to get the echo fits right; -) provide robust reduction with report generation; -) incorporate absolute instrument calibration; and -) allow for background subtraction. The software must be able to read the data from various instruments, perform data integrity, consistency and compatibility checks and combine the data from compatible sets, partial scans, etc. We chose to provide a console-based interface with the ability to process macros (scripts) for batch evaluation. And last and not the least, a good software package has to provide adequate documentation. DrSPINE software is currently under development

  6. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  7. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L.; Griffin, Justin M.; Matzke, James L.; Pearson, Michael W.; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (sm b ullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (sm b ullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (sm b ullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (sm b ullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (sm b ullet) Technology transfer of

  8. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin K. Field; Robin Gerlach; Sridhar Viamajala; Laura K. Jennings; Alfred B. Cunningham; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel

    2011-09-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect of remediation processes at Department of Energy (DOE) and other contaminated sites. Cellulomonas species are found at several Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated locations at the DOE site in Hanford, Washington. Members of this genus have demonstrated the ability to effectively reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) fermentatively and therefore play a potential role in hexavalent chromium remediation at this site. Batch studies were conducted with Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to assess the influence of various carbon sources, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds on Cr(VI) reduction. These chemical species are likely to be present in these terrestrial environments during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that there were a number of interactions between these compounds that influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. The type of carbon source as well as the type of electron shuttle present influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. When an electron shuttle, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was present in the system, reduction rates increased significantly. Biologically reduced AQDS (AHDS) reduced Cr(VI) almost instantaneously. The presence of iron minerals and their concentrations did not significantly influence Cr(VI) reduction rates. However, strain ES6 or AQDS could directly reduce surface-associated Fe(III) to Fe(II) which was capable of reducing Cr(VI) at a near instantaneous rate. These results suggest the rate limiting step in these systems is the transfer of electrons from strain ES6 to the intermediate or terminal electron acceptor whether that is Cr(VI), Fe(III), or AQDS.

  9. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  10. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Orozco, A.M.; Contreras, E.M.; Zaritzky, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q Cr ) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey ∼ lactose > glucose > citrate > acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  11. Implementation of variance-reduction techniques for Monte Carlo nuclear logging calculations with neutron sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for nuclear logging applications are considered to be highly demanding transport problems. In this paper, the implementation of weight-window variance reduction schemes in a 'manual' fashion to improve the efficiency of calculations for a neutron logging tool is presented.

  12. Tracking Poverty Reduction in Bhutan: Income Deprivation Alongside Deprivation in Other Sources of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses poverty reduction in Bhutan between two points in time--2003 and 2007--from a multidimensional perspective. The measures estimated include consumption expenditure as well as other indicators which are directly (when possible) or indirectly associated to valuable functionings, namely, health, education, access to electricity,…

  13. REDUCTION IN ASTHMA MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN AS A RESULT OF HOME REMEDIATION AIMED AT MOISTURE SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Home dampness, presence of mold and allergens have been associated with asthma morbidity. We examined changes in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources.Design: Prospective, randomized controlled trial.Part...

  14. DISSOLVED OXYGEN REDUCTION IN THE DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM ION SOURCE COOLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YIP, H.; BUSATH, J.; HARRISON, S.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 Neutral beam ion sources (NBIS) are critical components for the neutral beam injection system supporting the DIII-D tokamak. The NBIS must be cooled with 3028 (ell)/m (800 gpm) of de-ionized and de-oxygenated water to protect the sources from overheating and failure. These ions sources are currently irreplaceable. Since the water cooled molybdenum components will oxidize in water almost instantaneously in the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO), de-oxygenation is extremely important in the NBIS water system. Under normal beam operation the DO level is kept below 5 ppb. However, during weeknights and weekends when neutral beam is not in operation, the average DO level is maintained below 10 ppb by periodic circulation with a 74.6 kW (100 hp) pump, which consumes significant power. Experimental data indicated evidence of continuous oxygen diffusion through non-metallic hoses in the proximity of the NBIS. Because of the intermittent flow of the cooling water, the DO concentration at the ion source(s) could be even higher than measured downstream, and hence the concern of significant localized oxidation/corrosion. A new 3.73 kW (5 hp) auxiliary system, installed in the summer of 2003, is designed to significantly reduce the peak and the time-average DO levels in the water system and to consume only a fraction of the power

  15. The Reduction of Vertical Interchannel Crosstalk: The Analysis of Localisation Thresholds for Natural Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Wallis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In subjective listening tests, natural sound sources were presented to subjects as vertically-oriented phantom images from two layers of loudspeakers, ‘height’ and ‘main’. Subjects were required to reduce the amplitude of the height layer until the position of the resultant sound source matched that of the same source presented from the main layer only (the localisation threshold. Delays of 0, 1 and 10 ms were applied to the height layer with respect to the main, with vertical stereophonic and quadraphonic conditions being tested. The results of the study showed that the localisation thresholds obtained were not significantly affected by sound source or presentation method. Instead, the only variable whose effect was significant was interchannel time difference (ICTD. For ICTD of 0 ms, the median threshold was −9.5 dB, which was significantly lower than the −7 dB found for both 1 and 10 ms. The results of the study have implications both for the recording of sound sources for three-dimensional (3D audio reproduction formats and also for the rendering of 3D images.

  16. Speckle noise reduction on a laser projection display via a broadband green light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, Ju Won; Kang, Heejong; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Fu, Shih-Hao; Liou, Jiun-Wei; Kung, Andy H; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Peng, Lung-Han

    2014-02-10

    A broadband green light source was demonstrated using a tandem-poled lithium niobate (TPLN) crystal. The measured wavelength and temperature bandwidth were 6.5 nm and 100 °C, respectively, spectral bandwidth was 36 times broader than the periodically poled case. Although the conversion efficiency was smaller than in the periodic case, the TPLN device had a good figure of merit owing to the extremely large bandwidth for wavelength and temperature. The developed broadband green light source exhibited speckle noise approximately one-seventh of that in the conventional approach for a laser projection display.

  17. Specific power reduction of an ion source due to heating and cathode sputtering of electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, G.U.; Semashko, N.N.

    The potentialities and limitations of the water-cooled ion-optical system of the ion source designed for continuous operation of the high-power neutral beam injector are determined. The following problems are analyzed: thermal expansion and deformation of electrodes, electrode sputtering as a result of bombardment, and heat transfer to turbulent flow of water

  18. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Fang, Yi-Liang; Zheng, Ai-Hua

    2016-12-17

    In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49%) were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants ( p Android mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  19. Synthesis of AuPd alloyed nanoparticles via room-temperature electron reduction with argon glow discharge as electron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Manman; Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Argon glow discharge has been employed as a cheap, environmentally friendly, and convenient electron source for simultaneous reduction of HAuCl4 and PdCl2 on the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate. The thermal imaging confirms that the synthesis is operated at room temperature. The reduction is conducted with a short time (30 min) under the pressure of approximately 100 Pa. This room-temperature electron reduction operates in a dry way and requires neither hydrogen nor extra heating nor chemical reducing agent. The analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm all the metallic ions have been reduced. The characterization with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that AuPd alloyed nanoparticles are formed. There also exist some highly dispersed Au and Pd monometallic particles that cannot be detected by XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) because of their small particle sizes. The observed AuPd alloyed nanoparticles are spherical with an average size of 14 nm. No core-shell structure can be observed. The room-temperature electron reduction can be operated in a larger scale. It is an easy way for the synthesis of AuPd alloyed nanoparticles.

  20. Contaminant Flux Reduction Barriers for Managing Difficult-to-Treat Source Zones in Unconsolidated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    estimated viscosity of 3-4 cP.  Solutions-IES Novel Silica Gel/Veg-Oil Grout: 5 wt- % of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), 10 wt-% of sodium...site must have a lower low permeability unit such as a clay to prevent up flow; and a four sided barrier is recommended (three sided barriers are...depth to groundwater (ង ft)  Transmissive zone preferably with an underlying clay layer  Good accessibility to source zone  Availability of

  1. Stator Current Harmonic Reduction in a Novel Half Quasi-Z-Source Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudao Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The generator stator current gets distorted with unacceptable levels of total harmonic distortion (THD because impedance-source wind power generation systems use three-phase diode rectifiers. The stator current harmonics will cause increasing losses and torque ripple, which reduce the efficiency and stability of the system. This paper proposes a novel half quasi-Z-source inverter (H-qZSI for grid-connected wind power generation systems, which can reduce the generator stator current harmonics a great deal. When H-qZSI operates in the shoot-through zero state, the derivative of the generator stator current is only determined by the instantaneous value of the generator stator voltage, so the nonlinear relationship between generator stator current and stator voltage is improved compared with the traditional impedance-source inverter. Theoretically, it is indicated that the stator current harmonics can be reduced effectively by means of the proposed H-qZSI. Finally, simulation and experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  2. Quad Cities Unit 2 Main Steam Line Acoustic Source Identification and Load Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBoo, Guy; Ramsden, Kevin; Gesior, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 have a history of steam line vibration issues. The implementation of an Extended Power Up-rate resulted in significant increases in steam line vibration as well as acoustic loading of the steam dryers, which led to equipment failures and fatigue cracking of the dryers. This paper discusses the results of extensive data collection on the Quad Cities Unit 2 replacement dryer and the Main Steam Lines. This data was taken with the intent of identifying acoustic sources in the steam system. Review of the data confirmed that vortex shedding coupled column resonance in the relief and safety valve stub pipes were the principal sources of large magnitude acoustic loads in the main steam system. Modifications were developed in sub-scale testing to alter the acoustic properties of the valve standpipes and add acoustic damping to the system. The modifications developed and installed consisted of acoustic side branches that were attached to the Electromatic Relief Valve (ERV) and Main Steam Safety Valve (MSSV) attachment pipes. Subsequent post-modification testing was performed in plant to confirm the effectiveness of the modifications. The modifications have been demonstrated to reduce vibration loads at full Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) conditions to levels below those at Original Licensed Thermal Power (OLTP). (authors)

  3. Stratospheric ozone reduction and its relation to natural and man made sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, I S [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geophysics

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 90 % of the total ozone mass is in the stratosphere (between approximately 12 and 50 km), the rest is in the troposphere (below 12 km). The global distribution of ozone in the stratosphere and its variation over time have been studied extensively over several decades. These studies include observations by ground based instruments (e.g. Dobson instruments), instruments on airborne platforms (e.g. ozone sondes) and on satellites, and model studies which simulate the chemical and dynamical behaviour of the stratosphere. These studies have given good information about the processes which determine the ozone distribution, and how man made emissions affect the distribution. Observations have revealed that there are large year to year variations in stratospheric ozone above a particular location. These variations are difficult to predict as they are connected to irregular weather patterns. However, the observations have shown that there has been a long term decrease in stratospheric ozone on a global scale during the last two decades. The decrease has been most pronounced during the last five to six years and is seen both in the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. The strong decrease in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent, which has been observed since the mid 80s, and which has reduced the total ozone column with more than 50 % compared with earlier observations, is proven to be a result of increased man made emissions of CFCs. There are also mounting evidences that Northern Hemispheric ozone reductions observed since 1980 are connected to man made emissions of CFCs

  4. Stratospheric ozone reduction and its relation to natural and man made sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, I.S. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 90 % of the total ozone mass is in the stratosphere (between approximately 12 and 50 km), the rest is in the troposphere (below 12 km). The global distribution of ozone in the stratosphere and its variation over time have been studied extensively over several decades. These studies include observations by ground based instruments (e.g. Dobson instruments), instruments on airborne platforms (e.g. ozone sondes) and on satellites, and model studies which simulate the chemical and dynamical behaviour of the stratosphere. These studies have given good information about the processes which determine the ozone distribution, and how man made emissions affect the distribution. Observations have revealed that there are large year to year variations in stratospheric ozone above a particular location. These variations are difficult to predict as they are connected to irregular weather patterns. However, the observations have shown that there has been a long term decrease in stratospheric ozone on a global scale during the last two decades. The decrease has been most pronounced during the last five to six years and is seen both in the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. The strong decrease in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent, which has been observed since the mid 80s, and which has reduced the total ozone column with more than 50 % compared with earlier observations, is proven to be a result of increased man made emissions of CFCs. There are also mounting evidences that Northern Hemispheric ozone reductions observed since 1980 are connected to man made emissions of CFCs

  5. Recent habitat fragmentation caused by major roads leads to reduction of gene flow and loss of genetic variability in ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Irene; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2003-02-22

    Although habitat fragmentation is suspected to jeopardize the long-term survival of many species, few data are available on its impact on the genetic variability of invertebrates. We assess the genetic population structure of the flightless ground beetle Carabus violaceus L., 1758 in a Swiss forest, which is divided into several fragments by a highway and two main roads. Eight samples were collected from different forest fragments and analysed at six microsatellite loci. The largest genetic differentiation was observed between samples separated by roads and in particular by the highway. The number of roads between sites explained 44% of the variance in pairwise F(ST) estimates, whereas the age of the road and the geographical distance between locations were not significant factors. Furthermore, a comparison of allelic richness showed that the genetic variability in a small forest fragment isolated by the highway was significantly lower than in the rest of the study area. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that large roads are absolute barriers to gene flow in C. violaceus, which may lead to a loss of genetic variability in fragmented populations.

  6. Alaska earthquake source for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter B in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen; Scholl, David; von Huene, Roland E.; Wells, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Tsunami modeling has shown that tsunami sources located along the Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone have the greatest impacts on southern California shorelines by raising the highest tsunami waves for a given source seismic moment. The most probable sector for a Mw ~ 9 source within this subduction segment is between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands in what we call the Semidi subduction sector; these bounds represent the southwestern limit of the 1964 Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake rupture and the northeastern edge of the Shumagin sector that recent Global Positioning System (GPS) observations indicate is currently creeping. Geological and geophysical features in the Semidi sector that are thought to be relevant to the potential for large magnitude, long-rupture-runout interplate thrust earthquakes are remarkably similar to those in northeastern Japan, where the destructive Mw 9.1 tsunamigenic earthquake of 11 March 2011 occurred. In this report we propose and justify the selection of a tsunami source seaward of the Alaska Peninsula for use in the Tsunami Scenario that is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) Project. This tsunami source should have the potential to raise damaging tsunami waves on the California coast, especially at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Accordingly, we have summarized and abstracted slip distribution from the source literature on the 2011 event, the best characterized for any subduction earthquake, and applied this synoptic slip distribution to the similar megathrust geometry of the Semidi sector. The resulting slip model has an average slip of 18.6 m and a moment magnitude of Mw = 9.1. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was not anticipated, despite Japan having the best seismic and geodetic networks in the world and the best historical record in the world over the past 1,500 years. What was lacking was adequate paleogeologic data on prehistoric earthquakes

  7. Reduction of Methane Emission during Slurry Storage by the Addition of Effective Microorganisms and Excessive Carbon Source from Brewing Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Mohd Saufi B; Jones, Davey L; Chadwick, David R

    2016-11-01

    Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5.0, through "self-acidification" caused by lactic acid production. Subsequently, CH emissions were significantly reduced by 87 and 99% in the cool and warm environments, respectively. The effective microorganism treatment did not change the chemical characteristics of the slurry but reduced CH emissions by 17 and 27% ( < 0.05) in the cool and warm environments, respectively. These results suggest that self-acidification after addition of a carbon source may be a promising alternative to slurry acidification using concentrated acids. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Taming a Tiger in the City: Comparison of Motorized Backpack Applications and Source Reduction Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    TAMING A TIGER IN THE CITY: COMPARISON OF MOTORIZED BACKPACK APPLICATIONS AND SOURCE REDUCTION AGAINST THE ASIAN TIGER MOSQUITO, AEDES ALBOPICTUS...FONSECA2 AND ARY FARAJOLLAHI2,3,7 ABSTRACT. We evaluated 2 strategies to manage Aedes albopictus: 1) motorized backpack applications and 2) source...the community level. KEY WORDS Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti, methoprene, hand applications, backpack applications INTRODUCTION Aedes

  9. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  10. Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fælled, Casper Cæsar

    2012-01-01

    breeding population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota has experienced substantial changes in habitat use at this traditional autumn staging area. Declines in seagrasses have caused birds to depend increasingly on Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca in recent years, and forced birds into terrestrial...

  11. Instream habitat restoration and stream temperature reduction in a whirling disease-positive Spring Creek in the Blackfoot River Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ron; Podner, Craig; Marczak, Laurie B; Jones, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming of stream temperature and the presence of exotic diseases such as whirling disease are both contemporary threats to coldwater salmonids across western North America. We examined stream temperature reduction over a 15-year prerestoration and postrestoration period and the severity of Myxobolus cerebralisinfection (agent of whirling disease) over a 7-year prerestoration and postrestoration period in Kleinschmidt Creek, a fully reconstructed spring creek in the Blackfoot River basin of western Montana. Stream restoration increased channel length by 36% and reduced the wetted surface area by 69% by narrowing and renaturalizing the channel. Following channel restoration, average maximum daily summer stream temperatures decreased from 15.7°C to 12.5°C, average daily temperature decreased from 11.2°C to 10.0°C, and the range of daily temperatures narrowed by 3.3°C. Despite large changes in channel morphology and reductions in summer stream temperature, the prevalence and severity of M. cerebralis infection for hatchery Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss remained high (98–100% test fish with grade > 3 infection) versus minimal for hatchery Brown Trout Salmo trutta (2% of test fish with grade-1 infection). This study shows channel renaturalization can reduce summer stream temperatures in small low-elevation, groundwater-dominated streams in the Blackfoot basin to levels more suitable to native trout. However, because of continuous high infections associated with groundwater-dominated systems, the restoration of Kleinschmidt Creek favors brown trout Salmo trutta given their innate resistance to the parasite and the higher relative susceptibility of other salmonids.

  12. The Habitat Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)

  13. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  14. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  15. Geomorphology and Sustainable Subsistence Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Kruger, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Climatic, tectonic, and human-related impacts are changing the distribution of shoreline habitats and associated species used as food resources. There is a need to summarize current and future shoreline geomorphic - biotic relationships and better understand potential impacts to native customary and traditional gathering patterns. By strategically integrating Native knowledge and observations, we create an inclusive vulnerability assessment strategy resulting in a win-win opportunity for resource users and research scientists alike. We merged the NOAA ShoreZone database with results from over sixty student intern discussions in six southeast Alaska Native communities. Changes in shore width and unit length were derived using near shore bathymetry depths and available isostatic rebound, tectonic movement, and rates of sea level rise. Physical attributes including slope, substrate, and exposure were associated with presence and abundance of specific species. Student interns, selected by Tribes and Tribal associations, conducted resource-based discussions with community members to summarize species use, characteristics of species habitat, transportation used to access collection areas, and potential threats to habitats. Geomorphic trends and community observations were summarized to assess potential threats within a spatial context. Given current measured rates of uplift and sea level rise, 2.4 to 0 m of uplift along with 0.20 m of sea level rise is expected in the next 100 years. Coastlines of southeast Alaska will be subject to both drowning (primarily to the south) and emergence (primarily to the north). We predict decreases in estuary and sediment-dominated shoreline length and an increase in rocky habitats. These geomorphic changes, combined with resident's concerns, highlight six major interrelated coastal vulnerabilities including: (1) reduction of clam and clam habitat quantity and quality, (2) reduction in chiton quality and quantity, (3) harmful expansion of

  16. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogenation efficiency Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  17. Global Emissions of Nitrous Oxide: Key Source Sectors, their Future Activities and Technical Opportunities for Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiwarter, W.; Höglund-Isaksson, L.; Klimont, Z.; Schöpp, W.; Amann, M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide originates primarily from natural biogeochemical processes, but its atmospheric concentrations have been strongly affected by human activities. According to IPCC, it is the third largest contributor to the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (after carbon dioxide and methane). Deep decarbonization scenarios, which are able to constrain global temperature increase within 1.5°C, require strategies to cut methane and nitrous oxide emissions on top of phasing out carbon dioxide emissions. Employing the Greenhouse gas and Air pollution INteractions and Synergies (GAINS) model, we have estimated global emissions of nitrous oxide until 2050. Using explicitly defined emission reduction technologies we demonstrate that, by 2030, about 26% ± 9% of the emissions can be avoided assuming full implementation of currently existing reduction technologies. Nearly a quarter of this mitigation can be achieved at marginal costs lower than 10 Euro/t CO2-eq with the chemical industry sector offering important reductions. Overall, the largest emitter of nitrous oxide, agriculture, also provides the largest emission abatement potentials. Emission reduction may be achieved by precision farming methods (variable rate technology) as well as by agrochemistry (nitrification inhibitors). Regionally, the largest emission reductions are achievable where intensive agriculture and industry are prevalent (production and application of mineral fertilizers): Centrally Planned Asia including China, North and Latin America, and South Asia including India. Further deep cuts in nitrous oxide emissions will require extending reduction efforts beyond strictly technological solutions, i.e., considering behavioral changes, including widespread adoption of "healthy diets" minimizing excess protein consumption.

  18. Assessment of GHG Emission Reduction Potential from Source-separated Organic Waste (SOW) Management: Case Study in a Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.G.; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)

  19. Spatial pattern of a fish assemblage in a seasonal tropical wetland: effects of habitat, herbaceous plant biomass, water depth, and distance from species sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaias M Fernandes

    Full Text Available The influence of habitat, biomass of herbaceous vegetation, depth and distance from permanent water bodies on the structure of fish assemblages of a seasonal floodplain was evaluated using data collected along 22 transects in an area of 25 km² in the floodplain of Cuiabá River, Pantanal, Brazil. Each transect was sampled for fish using throw traps and gillnets during the flood period of 2006. Multivariate multiple regression analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that depth was the only variable that affected the structure of the fish assemblage, both for quantitative data (abundance and qualitative data (presence-absence. Species such as Neofundulus parvipinnis and Laetacara dorsigera were more abundant in shallower sites (below 25 cm, while Serrasalmus maculatus and Metynnis mola were found mostly in the deepest areas (over 55 cm. However, species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus occurred at all sampled depths. Although the distribution of most species was restricted to a few sites, there was a positive relationship between species richness and depth of the water body. Surprisingly, the replacement of native vegetation by exotic pasture did not affect the fish assemblage in the area, at the probability level considered.

  20. Photo-illuminated diamond as a solid-state source of solvated electrons in water for nitrogen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Zhang, Linghong; Ruther, Rose E; Hamers, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of N₂ to NH₃ is typically hampered by poor binding of N₂ to catalytic materials and by the very high energy of the intermediates involved in this reaction. Solvated electrons directly introduced into the reactant solution can provide an alternative pathway to overcome such limitations. Here we demonstrate that illuminated hydrogen-terminated diamond yields facile electron emission into water, thus inducing reduction of N₂ to NH₃ at ambient temperature and pressure. Transient absorption measurements at 632 nm reveal the presence of solvated electrons adjacent to the diamond after photoexcitation. Experiments using inexpensive synthetic diamond samples and diamond powder show that photocatalytic activity is strongly dependent on the surface termination and correlates with the production of solvated electrons. The use of diamond to eject electrons into a reactant liquid represents a new paradigm for photocatalytic reduction, bringing electrons directly to reactants without requiring molecular adsorption to the surface.

  1. Complete Mapping of Complex Disulfide Patterns with Closely-Spaced Cysteines by In-Source Reduction and Data-Dependent Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V

    2017-01-01

    bonds are present in complicated patterns. This includes the presence of disulfide bonds in nested patterns and closely spaced cysteines. Unambiguous mapping of such disulfide bonds typically requires advanced MS approaches. In this study, we exploited in-source reduction (ISR) of disulfide bonds during...... the electrospray ionization process to facilitate disulfide bond assignments. We successfully developed a LC-ISR-MS/MS methodology to use as an online and fully automated partial reduction procedure. Postcolumn partial reduction by ISR provided fast and easy identification of peptides involved in disulfide bonding......Mapping of disulfide bonds is an essential part of protein characterization to ensure correct cysteine pairings. For this, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used technique due to fast and accurate characterization. However, MS-based disulfide mapping is challenged when multiple disulfide...

  2. The role of sink to source re-colonisation in the population dynamics of insects living in unstable habitats: an example of terrestrial chironomids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 93, - (2001), s. 50-58 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/P156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911; CEZ:MSM 123100004 Keywords : population dynamic * metapopulations * source -sink population Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2001

  3. Coastal Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate critical habitat, areas of habitat essential to the species' conservation, for ESA...

  4. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  5. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  6. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Joan Evans Ogden

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although shorebirds spending the winter in temperate areas frequently use estuarine and supratidal (upland feeding habitats, the relative contribution of each habitat to individual diets has not been directly quantified. We quantified the proportional use that Calidris alpina pacifica (Dunlin made of estuarine vs. terrestrial farmland resources on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N of blood from 268 Dunlin over four winters, 1997 through 2000. We tested for individual, age, sex, morphological, seasonal, and weather-related differences in dietary sources. Based on single- (δ13C and dual-isotope mixing models, the agricultural habitat contributed approximately 38% of Dunlin diet averaged over four winters, with the balance from intertidal flats. However, there was a wide variation among individuals in the extent of agricultural feeding, ranging from about 1% to 95% of diet. Younger birds had a significantly higher terrestrial contribution to diet (43% than did adults (35%. We estimated that 6% of adults and 13% of juveniles were obtaining at least 75% of their diet from terrestrial sources. The isotope data provided no evidence for sex or overall body size effects on the proportion of diet that is terrestrial in origin. The use of agricultural habitat by Dunlin peaked in early January. Adult Dunlin obtained a greater proportion of their diet terrestrially during periods of lower temperatures and high precipitation, whereas no such relationship existed for juveniles. Seasonal variation in the use of agricultural habitat suggests that it is used more during energetically stressful periods. The terrestrial farmland zone appears to be consistently important as a habitat for juveniles, but for adults it may provide an alternative feeding site used as a buffer against starvation during periods of extreme weather. Loss or reduction of agricultural habitat adjacent to estuaries may negatively impact

  7. More gas, less coal, and less CO2? Unilateral CO2 reduction policy with more than one carbon energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Henriet, Fanny; Schubert, Katheline

    -productive, ultimately increasing world emissions. Thus, we establish testable conditions as to whether a governmental emission-reduction commitment warrants the exploitation of gas, and whether such a strategy increases global emissions. We also characterize the extent to which this unilateral policy makes the rest...... of the world’s emission commitments more difficult to meet. Finally, we apply our results to the case of the US....

  8. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S.; Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10 19 m −3 to 1 × 10 19 m −3 . Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10 18 m −3 . The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented

  9. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy [Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc., 119 W. Denny Way, Suite 210, Seattle, Washington 98119 (United States); Wrobel, Jonathan S. [979B West Moorhead Circle, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  10. Source zone remediation by ZVI-clay soil-mixing: Reduction of tetrachloroethene mass and mass discharge at a Danish DNAPL site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Lange, Ida Vedel; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    The presence of chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality. The remediation of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) sites is especially challenging and the development of innovative remediation technologies is needed. Zero-valent iron (ZVI......) technologies have proven effective for remediation of chlorinated compounds. ZVI-Clay soil-mixing is a new remediation technology, which combines abiotic degradation (via ZVI addition) and immobilization (via soil-mixing and clay addition), whereby a great potential for reduction of both contaminant mass....... The concentrations of chlorinated ethenes were monitored via soil sampling at the source zone and groundwater sampling at a control plane with multilevel samplers covering the entire contaminated plume down-gradient (3 m) of the source zone. The results showed a significant mass depletion of PCE (2-3 orders...

  11. Development of dynamic loudspeakers modified as incident pressure sources for noise reduction in a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Crocker, Malcolm J.; Pawelczyk, Marek; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  12. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-01-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  13. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, G. Neil [Health Physicist, HazMat CATS, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  14. Riverine habitat dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The physical habitat template is a fundamental influence on riverine ecosystem structure and function. Habitat dynamics refers to the variation in habitat through space and time as the result of varying discharge and varying geomorphology. Habitat dynamics can be assessed at spatial scales ranging from the grain (the smallest resolution at which an organism relates to its environment) to the extent (the broadest resolution inclusive of all space occupied during its life cycle). In addition to a potentially broad range of spatial scales, assessments of habitat dynamics may include dynamics of both occupied and nonoccupied habitat patches because of process interactions among patches. Temporal aspects of riverine habitat dynamics can be categorized into hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Hydrodynamics refers to habitat variation that results from changes in discharge in the absence of significant change of channel morphology and at generally low sediment-transport rates. Hydrodynamic assessments are useful in cases of relatively high flow exceedance (percent of time a flow is equaled or exceeded) or high critical shear stress, conditions that are applicable in many studies of instream flows. Morphodynamics refers to habitat variation resulting from changes to substrate conditions or channel/floodplain morphology. Morphodynamic assessments are necessary when channel and floodplain boundary conditions have been significantly changed, generally by relatively rare flood events or in rivers with low critical shear stress. Morphodynamic habitat variation can be particularly important as disturbance mechanisms that mediate population growth or for providing conditions needed for reproduction, such as channel-migration events that erode cutbanks and provide new pointbar surfaces for germination of riparian trees. Understanding of habitat dynamics is increasing in importance as societal goals shift toward restoration of riverine ecosystems. Effective investment in restoration

  15. Technical Guidance Manual: Contaminant Flux Reduction Barriers for Managing Difficult-to-Treat Source Zones in Unconsolidated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    zone, the site must be:  Comprised of unconsolidated material (gravel, sand, silt, clay )  Have access around the source zone to building the...lower low permeability unit such as a clay to prevent up flow  For accessing the lower cost silica gel grouting technology, the hydraulic...hydraulic conductivity with sodium silicate grout.” (page 4-20).  Viscosities of typical grouts (Powers Figure 22.10)  Typical properties of Sodium

  16. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ping Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49% were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants (p < 0.05. Mosquito larvae were collected from all plastic road barriers, used tires, and underground water. Aedes albopictus larvae were found from small and large containers, stumps, among others. The overall route index (RI was 11.3, which was 14.2 times higher than the grade C criteria of the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee (NPHCC, China. The higher RIs were found from the bird and flower markets, schools, and underground parking lots. The results indicated that Android mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  17. Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Efficiency and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions as Main Sources Development of 'Green Economy' in Croatia until 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosic, B.; Duic, N.; Krajacic, G.; Novosel, T.; Puksec, T.; Ridjan, I.

    2012-01-01

    Most countries will need a shift in their energy strategies in order to limit the increase in global warming and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is worrying that while technologies with little or no greenhouse gas emissions exist, and are used for a couple of decades now, the increase of their market share is extremely low and the investments and subsidies in fossil fuels are substantially larger on a world wide scale. For changes to accrue it is necessary to carefully plan both the energy consumption and supply. A correct and rational prediction of future energy consumption is the basic assumption for the advanced analysis and modelling of energy systems and it will, as an input, have a profound influence on them. In this paper a bottom up approach was selected because it is the most suitable methodology to describe the legal, economic or purely technical mechanisms. Scenarios for the energy supply in 100% renewable systems in 2050 and the possibility to create a low-carbon society were simulated using the EnergyPLAN model for energy system analysis. Comparison of the necessary useful energy for space heating in 2050 shows a difference greater than 16% for different rates of renovation of the existing buildings in the residential sector of 1% and 3% annually. The electrification of road transport for passenger cars in combination with increased requirements for energy efficiency of internal combustion engines can reduce the energy consumption in the transport sector by 30% in comparison to the reference scenario for 2050. It is possible to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 82% in the period 2030-2050 and the use of renewable energy sources and the production of synthetic fuels can enable a transition to a 100% renewable energy system in Croatia in 2050. Doing so would create 192000 jobs in plant maintenance and fuel production alone, increase the security of energy supply and reduce the expenditure for the purchase of fossil fuels by 4

  18. Switching Loss Reduction in the Three-Phase Quasi-Z-Source Inverters Utilizing Modified Space Vector Modulation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Several single-stage topologies have been introduced since kicking off the three-phase Z-source inverter (ZSI), and among these topologies, the quasi-ZSI (qZSI) is the most common one due to its simple structure and continuous input current. Furthermore, different modulation strategies, utilizing...... multiple reference signals, have been developed as well. However, prior art modulation methods have some demerits, such as the complexity of generating the gate signals, the increased number of switch commutations with continuous commutation at high current level during the entire fundamental cycle...... the generation of the gate signals by utilizing only three reference signals, and achieving a single switch commutation at a time. These modulation strategies are analyzed and compared to the conventional ones, where a reduced-scale 1 kVA three-phase qZSI is designed and simulated using these different...

  19. Stratification of habitats for identifying habitat selection by Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Habitat selection patterns of Merriam’s Turkeys were compared in hierarchical analyses of three levels of habitat stratification. Habitat descriptions in first-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation. Habitat descriptions in second-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation and overstory canopy cover. Habitat descriptions in third-...

  20. Reducing the global threat of radiological terrorism in Central Asia and Caucus regions. The global threat reduction initiative approach to radioactive source security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2010-01-01

    The security of radioactive sources is of worldwide concern, due to their wide use in civilian commerce and the potentially devastating effects of their misuse. In cooperation with host countries and international partners, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative has utilized a proven process for providing technical and financial assistance to protect radioactive sources in diverse uses and unique circumstances at hundreds of sites worldwide. The mission of the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's program includes reducing the risk posed by vulnerable radiological materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device). The program's objectives are to identify, consolidate, secure, and/or dispose of high-activity radiological materials to prevent their theft and malicious use. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program's scope is global, with projects in over 100 countries at more than 755 radiological sites, including industrial, medical and commercial facilities. In addition to working bilaterally, the Program works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other partner countries. (author)

  1. Effects of various organic carbon sources on simultaneous V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liting; Zhang, Baogang; Cheng, Ming; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-02-01

    Four ordinary carbon sources affecting V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Acetate supported highest maximum power density of 589.1mW/m(2), with highest V(V) removal efficiency of 77.6% during 12h operation, compared with glucose, citrate and soluble starch. Exorbitant initial V(V) concentration led to lower V(V) removal efficiencies and power outputs. Extra addition of organics had little effect on the improvement of MFCs performance. V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation were enhanced and then suppressed by the increase of conductivity. The larger the external resistance, the higher the V(V) removal efficiencies and voltage outputs. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis implied the accumulation of Enterobacter which had the capabilities of V(V) reduction, electrochemical activity and fermentation, accompanied with other functional species as Pseudomonas, Spirochaeta, Sedimentibacter and Dysgonomonas. This study steps forward to remediate V(V) contaminated environment based on MFC technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface Habitat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  3. Efficacy of a dynamic collimator for overranging dose reduction in a second- and third-generation dual source CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Ronald; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Straten, Marcel van [Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 2240, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the renewed dynamic collimator in a third-generation dual source CT (DSCT) scanner and to determine the improvements over the second-generation scanner. Collimator efficacy is defined as the percentage overranging dose in terms of dose-length product (DLP) that is blocked by the dynamic collimator relative to the total overranging dose in case of a static collimator. Efficacy was assessed at various pitch values and different scan lengths. The number of additional rotations due to overranging and effective scan length were calculated on the basis of reported scanning parameters. On the basis of these values, the efficacy of the collimator was calculated. The second-generation scanner showed decreased performance of the dynamic collimator at increasing pitch. Efficacy dropped to 10% at the highest pitch. For the third-generation scanner the efficacy remained above 50% at higher pitch. Noise was for some pitch values slightly higher at the edge of the imaged volume, indicating a reduced scan range to reduce the overranging dose. The improved dynamic collimator in the third-generation scanner blocks the overranging dose for more than 50% and is more capable of shielding radiation dose, especially in high pitch scan modes. (orig.)

  4. Efficacy of a dynamic collimator for overranging dose reduction in a second- and third-generation dual source CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Ronald; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Straten, Marcel van

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the renewed dynamic collimator in a third-generation dual source CT (DSCT) scanner and to determine the improvements over the second-generation scanner. Collimator efficacy is defined as the percentage overranging dose in terms of dose-length product (DLP) that is blocked by the dynamic collimator relative to the total overranging dose in case of a static collimator. Efficacy was assessed at various pitch values and different scan lengths. The number of additional rotations due to overranging and effective scan length were calculated on the basis of reported scanning parameters. On the basis of these values, the efficacy of the collimator was calculated. The second-generation scanner showed decreased performance of the dynamic collimator at increasing pitch. Efficacy dropped to 10% at the highest pitch. For the third-generation scanner the efficacy remained above 50% at higher pitch. Noise was for some pitch values slightly higher at the edge of the imaged volume, indicating a reduced scan range to reduce the overranging dose. The improved dynamic collimator in the third-generation scanner blocks the overranging dose for more than 50% and is more capable of shielding radiation dose, especially in high pitch scan modes. (orig.)

  5. Information to support to monitoring and habitat restoration on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and

  6. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  7. Wildlife habitat considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fire, insects, disease, harvesting, and precommercial thinning all create mosaics on Northern Rocky Mountain landscapes. These mosaics are important for faunal habitat. Consequently, changes such as created openings or an increase in heavily stocked areas affect the water, cover, and food of forest habitats. The “no action” alternative in ecosystem management of low...

  8. Critical Habitat :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    occupied by the species at the time of listing, if they contain physical or biological features essential essential for conservation. Critical Habitat Maps NOTE: The critical habitat maps provided here are for Data Leatherback Turtle (U.S. West Coast) » Biological Report » Economic Report 2012 77 FR 4170 Go to

  9. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  10. Transmission thresholds for dengue in terms of Aedes aegypti pupae per person with discussion of their utility in source reduction efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focks, D A; Brenner, R J; Hayes, J; Daniels, E

    2000-01-01

    The expense and ineffectiveness of drift-based insecticide aerosols to control dengue epidemics has led to suppression strategies based on eliminating larval breeding sites. With the notable but short-lived exceptions of Cuba and Singapore, these source reduction efforts have met with little documented success; failure has chiefly been attributed to inadequate participation of the communities involved. The present work attempts to estimate transmission thresholds for dengue based on an easily-derived statistic, the standing crop of Aedes aegypti pupae per person in the environment. We have developed these thresholds for use in the assessment of risk of transmission and to provide targets for the actual degree of suppression required to prevent or eliminate transmission in source reduction programs. The notion of thresholds is based on 2 concepts: the mass action principal-the course of an epidemic is dependent on the rate of contact between susceptible hosts and infectious vectors, and threshold theory-the introduction of a few infectious individuals into a community of susceptible individuals will not give rise to an outbreak unless the density of vectors exceeds a certain critical level. We use validated transmission models to estimate thresholds as a function of levels of pre-existing antibody levels in human populations, ambient air temperatures, and size and frequency of viral introduction. Threshold levels were estimated to range between about 0.5 and 1.5 Ae. aegypti pupae per person for ambient air temperatures of 28 degrees C and initial seroprevalences ranging between 0% to 67%. Surprisingly, the size of the viral introduction used in these studies, ranging between 1 and 12 infectious individuals per year, was not seen to significantly influence the magnitude of the threshold. From a control perspective, these results are not particularly encouraging. The ratio of Ae. aegypti pupae to human density has been observed in limited field studies to range

  11. Discovery of anaerobic lithoheterotrophic haloarchaea, ubiquitous in hypersaline habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Messina, E.; Smedile, F; Roman, P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Ciordia, S.; Mena, M.C.; Ferrer, M.; Golyshin, P.N.; Kublanov, I.V.; Samarov, N.I.; Toshchakov, S.V.; La Cono, V.; Yakimov, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypersaline anoxic habitats harbour numerous novel uncultured archaea whose metabolic and ecological roles remain to be elucidated. Until recently, it was believed that energy generation via dissimilatory reduction of sulfur compounds is not functional at salt saturation conditions. Recent discovery

  12. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  13. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations

  14. Evaluation of non-point source pollution reduction by applying best management practices using a SWAT model and QuickBird high resolution satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, MiSeon; Park, GeunAe; Park, MinJi; Park, JongYoon; Lee, JiWan; Kim, SeongJoon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reduction effect of non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs) to a 1.21 km2 small agricultural watershed using a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Two meter QuickBird land use data were prepared for the watershed. The SWAT was calibrated and validated using daily streamflow and monthly water quality (total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and suspended solids (SS)) records from 1999 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2002. The average Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency was 0.63 for the streamflow and the coefficients of determination were 0.88, 0.72, and 0.68 for SS, TN, and TP, respectively. Four BMP scenarios viz. the application of vegetation filter strip and riparian buffer system, the regulation of Universal Soil Loss Equation P factor, and the fertilizing control amount for crops were applied and analyzed.

  15. The effectiveness of environmental strategies on noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit: creation of single-patient bedrooms and reducing noise sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Emine; Aydın, Perihan; Dursun, Oguz

    2015-07-01

    Noise is a substantial problem for both patients and healthcare workers in hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of environmental strategies (creating single-patient rooms and reducing noise sources) in noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit. Noise measurement in the unit was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, measurements aimed at determining the unit's present level of noise were performed over 4 weeks in December 2013. During the month following the first measurement phase, the intensive care unit (ICU) was moved to a new location and noise-reducing strategies were implemented. The second phase, in May 2014, measured noise levels in the newly constructed environment. The noise levels before and after environmental changes were statistically significant at 72.6 dB-A and 56 dB-A, respectively (p noise-reducing strategies can be effective in controlling environmental noise in the ICU. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette Martina; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal tetrachloroethene (PCE) remediation by steam injection in a sandy aquifer led to the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aquifer sediments resulting in more reduced redox conditions, accelerated PCE biodegradation, and changes in microbial populations. These changes were...... documented by comparing data collected prior to the remediation event and eight years later. Based on the premise that dual C-Cl isotope slopes reflect ongoing degradation pathways, the slopes associated with PCE and TCE suggest the predominance of biotic reductive dechlorination near the source area. PCE...... is supported by the relative lack of Dhc in the downgradient part of the plume. The results of this study show that thermal remediation can enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, and that this effect can be traced to the mobilisation of DOC due to steam injection. This, in turn, results in more...

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 15: The Wildlife Habitat Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilliod

    2005-01-01

    The Wildlife Habitat Response Model (WHRM) is a Web-based computer tool for evaluating the potential effects of fuel-reduction projects on terrestrial wildlife habitats. It uses species-habitat associations in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), dry-type Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus...

  18. BioXTAS RAW: improvements to a free open-source program for small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jesse Bennett; Gillilan, Richard E; Skou, Soren

    2017-10-01

    BioXTAS RAW is a graphical-user-interface-based free open-source Python program for reduction and analysis of small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data. The software is designed for biological SAXS data and enables creation and plotting of one-dimensional scattering profiles from two-dimensional detector images, standard data operations such as averaging and subtraction and analysis of radius of gyration and molecular weight, and advanced analysis such as calculation of inverse Fourier transforms and envelopes. It also allows easy processing of inline size-exclusion chromatography coupled SAXS data and data deconvolution using the evolving factor analysis method. It provides an alternative to closed-source programs such as Primus and ScÅtter for primary data analysis. Because it can calibrate, mask and integrate images it also provides an alternative to synchrotron beamline pipelines that scientists can install on their own computers and use both at home and at the beamline.

  19. Protein source in a high-protein diet modulates reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Jennifer L; Devassy, Jessay G; Wu, Yinghong; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    High-protein diets are being promoted to reduce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the effect of protein source in high-protein diets on reducing insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was examined. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided normal-protein (15% of energy) casein, high-protein (35% of energy) casein, high-protein soy, or high-protein mixed diets with animal and plant proteins. The high-protein mixed diet reduced area under the curve for insulin during glucose tolerance testing, fasting serum insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, homeostatic model assessment index, insulin to glucose ratio, and pancreatic islet cell area. The high-protein mixed and the high-protein soy diets reduced hepatic lipid concentrations, liver to body weight ratio, and hepatic steatosis rating. These improvements were observed despite no differences in body weight, feed intake, or adiposity among high-protein diet groups. The high-protein casein diet had minimal benefits. A high-protein mixed diet was the most effective for modulating reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of weight loss, indicating that the source of protein within a high-protein diet is critical for the management of these metabolic syndrome parameters. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Designated Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Critical habitats include those areas documented as currently supporting self-sustaining populations of any threatened or endangered species of wildlife as well as...

  1. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  2. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  3. Smalltooth Sawfish Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinatat) as designated by 74 FR 45353, September 2, 2009, Rules and Regulations.

  4. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  5. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Johnson's Seagrass as designated by Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 66, Wednesday, April 5, 2000, Rules and Regulations.

  6. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  7. Habitat Mapping Camera (HABCAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset entails imagery collected using the HabCam towed underwater vehicle and annotated data on objects or habitats in the images and notes on image...

  8. Seasonal habitat associations of the wolverine in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Copeland; James M. Peek; Craig R. Groves; Wayne E. Melquist; Kevin S. Mckelvey; Gregory W. McDaniel; Clinton D. Long; Charles E. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Although understanding habitat relationships remains fundamental to guiding wildlife management, these basic prerequisites remain vague and largely unstudied for the wolverine. Currently, a study of wolverine ecology conducted in Montana, USA, in the 1970s is the sole source of information on habitat requirements of wolverines in the conterminous United States. The...

  9. Field spectroscopy of estuarine intertidal habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Jesus, B.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of portable, low‐cost hyperspectral radiometers for measuring the reflectance of marine intertidal habitats has considerable promise, first as a source of reference spectra for airborne and satellite remote sensing, and second as a survey technique in its own right. This

  10. Short-term effects of habitat fragmentation on the abundance and species richness of beetles in experimental alfalfa micro-landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    GREZ, AUDREY A.; ZAVIEZO, TANIA; REYES, SUSANA

    2004-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered as the main causes of biodiversity depression. Habitat loss implies a reduction of suitable habitat for organisms, and habitat fragmentation is a change in the spatial configuration of the landscape, with the remaining fragments resulting more or less isolated. Recent theory indicates that the effects of habitat loss are more important than those of habitat fragmentation, however there are few experimental studies evaluating both processes separat...

  11. Influence of habitat degradation on fish replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M. I.; Moore, J. A. Y.; Munday, P. L.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of fish settlement patterns found that ten times as many fish settled to healthy coral than sub-lethally bleached coral. Species diversity of settling fishes was least on bleached coral and greatest on dead coral, with healthy coral having intermediate levels of diversity. Laboratory experiments using light-trap caught juveniles showed that different damselfish species chose among healthy, bleached and dead coral habitats using different combinations of visual and olfactory cues. The live coral specialist, Pomacentrus moluccensis, preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral, using mostly visual cues to inform their habitat choice. The habitat generalist, Pomacentrus amboinensis, also preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral but selected these habitats using both visual and olfactory cues. Trials with another habitat generalist, Dischistodus sp., suggested that vision played a significant role. A 20 days field experiment that manipulated densities of P. moluccensis on healthy and bleached coral heads found an influence of fish density on juvenile weight and growth, but no significant influence of habitat quality. These results suggests that coral bleaching will affect settlement patterns and species distributions by influencing the visual and olfactory cues that reef fish larvae use to make settlement choices. Furthermore, increased fish density within the remaining healthy coral habitats could play an important role in influencing population dynamics.

  12. SOURCE REDUCTION BEHAVIOR AS AN INDEPENDENT MEASUREMENT OF THE IMPACT OF A PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION CAMPAIGN IN AN INTEGRATED VECTOR MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE ASIAN TIGER MOSQUITO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3)...

  13. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  14. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  15. Partitioning mechanisms of predator interference in different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Byers, James E

    2006-01-01

    Prey are often consumed by multiple predator species. Predation rates on shared prey species measured in isolation often do not combine additively due to interference or facilitation among the predator species. Furthermore, the strength of predator interactions and resulting prey mortality may change with habitat type. We experimentally examined predation on amphipods in rock and algal habitats by two species of intertidal crabs, Hemigrapsus sanguineus (top predators) and Carcinus maenas (intermediate predators). Algae provided a safer habitat for amphipods when they were exposed to only a single predator species. When both predator species were present, mortality of amphipods was less than additive in both habitats. However, amphipod mortality was reduced more in rock than algal habitat because intermediate predators were less protected in rock habitat and were increasingly targeted by omnivorous top predators. We found that prey mortality in general was reduced by (1) altered foraging behavior of intermediate predators in the presence of top predators, (2) top predators switching to foraging on intermediate predators rather than shared prey, and (3) density reduction of intermediate predators. The relative importance of these three mechanisms was the same in both habitats; however, the magnitude of each was greater in rock habitat. Our study demonstrates that the strength of specific mechanisms of interference between top and intermediate predators can be quantified but cautions that these results may be habitat specific.

  16. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  17. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  18. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  19. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography: intraindividual comparison of image quality of full-dose standard and half-dose iterative reconstructions with dual-source computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias S; Wüst, Wolfgang; Brand, Michael; Stahl, Christian; Allmendinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2011-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the image quality of iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) in half-dose (HD) datasets compared with full-dose (FD) and HD filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction in abdominal computed tomography (CT). To acquire data with FD and HD simultaneously, contrast-enhanced abdominal CT was performed with a dual-source CT system, both tubes operating at 120 kV, 100 ref.mAs, and pitch 0.8. Three different image datasets were reconstructed from the raw data: Standard FD images applying FBP which served as reference, HD images applying FBP and HD images applying IRIS. For the HD data sets, only data from 1 tube detector-system was used. Quantitative image quality analysis was performed by measuring image noise in tissue and air. Qualitative image quality was evaluated according to the European Guidelines on Quality criteria for CT. Additional assessment of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, and edge sharpness was performed. : Image noise in soft tissue was substantially decreased in HD-IRIS (-3.4 HU, -22%) and increased in HD-FBP (+6.2 HU, +39%) images when compared with the reference (mean noise, 15.9 HU). No significant differences between the FD-FBP and HD-IRIS images were found for the visually sharp anatomic reproduction, overall diagnostic acceptability (P = 0.923), lesion conspicuity (P = 0.592), and edge sharpness (P = 0.589), while HD-FBP was rated inferior. Streak artifacts and beam hardening was significantly more prominent in HD-FBP while HD-IRIS images exhibited a slightly different noise pattern. Direct intrapatient comparison of standard FD body protocols and HD-IRIS reconstruction suggest that the latest iterative reconstruction algorithms allow for approximately 50% dose reduction without deterioration of the high image quality necessary for confident diagnosis.

  20. Radiation Dose Reduction of Chest CT with Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space - Part I: Studies on Image Quality Using Dual Source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Jeon; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Jin Seong; Song, Jae Woo; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Song Soo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the image quality (IQ) is improved with iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS), and whether IRIS can be used for radiation reduction in chest CT. Standard dose chest CT (SDCT) in 50 patients and low dose chest CT (LDCT) in another 50 patients were performed, using a dual-source CT, with 120 kVp and same reference mAs (50 mAs for SDCT and 25 mAs for LDCT) employed to both tubes by modifying a dual-energy scan mode. Full-dose data were obtained by combining the data from both tubes and half-dose data were separated from a single tube. These were reconstructed by using a filtered back projection (FBP) and IRIS: full-dose FBP (F-FBP); full-dose IRIS (F-IRIS); half-dose FBP (H-FBP) and half-dose IRIS (H-IRIS). Objective noise was measured. The subjective IQ was evaluated by radiologists for the followings: noise, contrast and sharpness of mediastinum and lung. Objective noise was significantly lower in H-IRIS than in F-FBP (p < 0.01). In both SDCT and LDCT, the IQ scores were highest in F-IRIS, followed by F-FBP, H-IRIS and H-FBP, except those for sharpness of mediastinum, which tended to be higher in FBP. When comparing CT images between the same dose and different reconstruction (F-IRIS/F-FBP and H-IRIS/H-FBP) algorithms, scores tended to be higher in IRIS than in FBP, being more distinct in half-dose images. However, despite the use of IRIS, the scores were lower in H-IRIS than in F-FBP. IRIS generally helps improve the IQ, being more distinct at the reduced radiation. However, reduced radiation by half results in IQ decrease even when using IRIS in chest CT.

  1. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  2. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  3. The value of carbon sequestration and storage in coastal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in coastal margin habitats. Changes in UK coastal habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of coastal habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If coastal habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capacity of the coastal habitats both to sequester and store CO2 will be significantly reduced, with a reduction in value of around £0.25 billion UK sterling (2000-2060; 3.5% discount rate). If loss-trends due to sea level rise or land reclamation worsen, this loss in value will be greater. This case study provides valuable site specific information, but also highlights global issues regarding the quantification and valuation of carbon sequestration and storage. Whilst our ability to value ecosystem services is improving, considerable uncertainty remains. If such ecosystem valuations are to be incorporated with confidence into national and global policy and legislative frameworks, it is necessary to address this uncertainty. Recommendations to achieve this are outlined.

  4. Sound solutions for habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Christina D. Vojta

    2015-01-01

    For agencies and organizations to effectively manage wildlife, knowledge about the status and trend of wildlife habitat is critical. Traditional wildlife monitoring, however, has focused on populations rather than habitat, because ultimately population status drives long-term species viability. Still, habitat loss has contributed to the decline of nearly all at-risk...

  5. Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: Habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed empirical models predicting both species occurrence and fitness across a landscape are necessary to understand processes related to population persistence. Failure to consider both occurrence and fitness may result in incorrect assessments of habitat importance leading to inappropriate management strategies. We took a two-stage approach to identifying critical nesting and brood-rearing habitat for the endangered Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Alberta at a landscape scale. First, we used logistic regression to develop spatial models predicting the relative probability of use (occurrence) for Sage-Grouse nests and broods. Secondly, we used Cox proportional hazards survival models to identify the most risky habitats across the landscape. We combined these two approaches to identify Sage-Grouse habitats that pose minimal risk of failure (source habitats) and attractive sink habitats that pose increased risk (ecological traps). Our models showed that Sage-Grouse select for heterogeneous patches of moderate sagebrush cover (quadratic relationship) and avoid anthropogenic edge habitat for nesting. Nests were more successful in heterogeneous habitats, but nest success was independent of anthropogenic features. Similarly, broods selected heterogeneous high-productivity habitats with sagebrush while avoiding human developments, cultivated cropland, and high densities of oil wells. Chick mortalities tended to occur in proximity to oil and gas developments and along riparian habitats. For nests and broods, respectively, approximately 10% and 5% of the study area was considered source habitat, whereas 19% and 15% of habitat was attractive sink habitat. Limited source habitats appear to be the main reason for poor nest success (39%) and low chick survival (12%). Our habitat models identify areas of protection priority and areas that require immediate management attention to enhance recruitment to secure the viability of this population. This novel

  6. Habitat Use Database - Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Habitat Use Database (HUD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Habitat Use Database (HUD) was specifically designed to address the need for habitat-use analyses in support of groundfish EFH, HAPCs, and fishing and nonfishing...

  7. Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in farmland consisting of a mosaic of distinct habitat (land use types. Based on extensive long-term data on reproduction and survival, habitats characterised by tall field layers (spring- and autumn-sown crop fields, ungrazed grasslands displayed negative stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s: -0.332, -0.429, -0.168, respectively, that were markedly lower than growth rates of habitats characterised by permanently short field layers (pastures grazed by cattle or horses, and farmyards, log lambda(s: -0.056, +0.081, -0.059. Although habitats differed with respect to reproductive performance, differences in habitat-specific population growth were largely due to differences in adult and first-year survival rates, as shown by a life table response experiment (LTRE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that estimation of survival rates is important for realistic assessments of habitat quality. Results also indicate that grazed grasslands and farmyards may act as source habitats, whereas crop fields and ungrazed grasslands with tall field layers may act as sink habitats. We suggest that the strong decline of northern wheatears in Swedish farmland may be linked to the corresponding observed loss of high quality breeding habitat, i.e. grazed semi-natural grasslands.

  8. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  9. Varying energetic costs of Brent Geese along a continuum from aquatic to agricultural habitats: the importance of habitat-specific energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fox, Anthony David

    2013-01-01

    and alert than birds feeding in aquatic areas, and also spent much less time roosting. Frequency of disturbance was found to be higher in terrestrial habitats compared to aquatic habitats. These stress-related behavioural differences between habitats highlight the vulnerability of the species associated...... with adapting to different food sources. Combining time-budgets with activity-specific BMR-multiplicators showed that activity-based metabolic rates ranged from 1.7 to 2.7 × BMR within habitats exploited by Brent Geese, and emphasized that aquatic areas represent the energetically least expensive foraging...... habitat for these birds. This is largely the result of habitat-specific variation in time spent flying. These findings underline the importance of measuring habitat-specific behaviour and disturbance when studying avian energetics, and demonstrate the risk of uncritically using allometric relationships...

  10. Evaluation of landscape level habitat characteristics of golden eagle habitat in Northwestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Vinaja, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis Linnaeus 1758) are declining in some areas throughout their Nearctic range (Sauer et al. 2011). This reduction is linked to changes in their habitat caused by human activities. Golden eagles inhabit an extensive range of environments (Watson 1997, Kochert et al. 2002). In the American Continent, the golden eagleâ s range encompasses Alaska, Canada, the United States and the Northern and Central portions of Mexico. Northern golden eagle populations...

  11. Harm reduction services as a point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Guirguis-Younger, Manal; Dilley, Laura B; Aubry, Tim D; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-05-17

    Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life. Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death. While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population.

  12. Does fragmentation of Urtica habitats affect phytophagous and predatory insects differentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Jörg; Tscharntke, Teja

    1998-09-01

    Effects of habitat fragmentation on the insect community of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) were studied, using 32 natural nettle patches of different area and degree of isolation in an agricultural landscape. Habitat fragmentation reduced the species richness of Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha, and Coleoptera, and the abundance of populations. Habitat isolation and area reduction did not affect all insect species equally. Monophagous herbivores had a higher probability of absence from small patches than all (monophagous and polyphagous) herbivore species, and the percentage of monophagous herbivores increased with habitat area. Abundance and population variability of species were negatively correlated and could both be used as a predictor of the percentage of occupied habitats. Species richness of herbivores correlated (positively) with habitat area, while species richness of predators correlated (negatively) with habitat isolation. In logistic regressions, the probability of absence of monophagous herbivores from habitat patches could only be explained by habitat area (in 4 out of 10 species) and predator absence probability only by habitat isolation (in 3 out of 14 species). Presumably because of the instability of higher-trophic-level populations and dispersal limitation, predators were more affected by habitat isolation than herbivores, while they did not differ from herbivore populations with respect to abundance or variability. Thus increasing habitat connectivity in the agricultural landscape should primarily promote predator populations.

  13. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  14. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  16. Vacant habitats in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    The search for life on other planets usually makes the assumption that where there is a habitat, it will contain life. On the present-day Earth, uninhabited habitats (or vacant habitats) are rare, but might occur, for example, in subsurface oils or impact craters that have been thermally sterilized in the past. Beyond Earth, vacant habitats might similarly exist on inhabited planets or on uninhabited planets, for example on a habitable planet where life never originated. The hypothesis that vacant habitats are abundant in the Universe is testable by studying other planets. In this review, I discuss how the study of vacant habitats might ultimately inform an understanding of how life has influenced geochemical conditions on Earth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Smartphone technologies and Bayesian networks to assess shorebird habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara; Thieler, E. Robert; Gutierrez, Ben; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hines, Megan K.; Fraser, James D.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Karpanty, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding patterns of habitat selection across a species’ geographic distribution can be critical for adequately managing populations and planning for habitat loss and related threats. However, studies of habitat selection can be time consuming and expensive over broad spatial scales, and a lack of standardized monitoring targets or methods can impede the generalization of site-based studies. Our objective was to collaborate with natural resource managers to define available nesting habitat for piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) throughout their U.S. Atlantic coast distribution from Maine to North Carolina, with a goal of providing science that could inform habitat management in response to sea-level rise. We characterized a data collection and analysis approach as being effective if it provided low-cost collection of standardized habitat-selection data across the species’ breeding range within 1–2 nesting seasons and accurate nesting location predictions. In the method developed, >30 managers and conservation practitioners from government agencies and private organizations used a smartphone application, “iPlover,” to collect data on landcover characteristics at piping plover nest locations and random points on 83 beaches and barrier islands in 2014 and 2015. We analyzed these data with a Bayesian network that predicted the probability a specific combination of landcover variables would be associated with a nesting site. Although we focused on a shorebird, our approach can be modified for other taxa. Results showed that the Bayesian network performed well in predicting habitat availability and confirmed predicted habitat preferences across the Atlantic coast breeding range of the piping plover. We used the Bayesian network to map areas with a high probability of containing nesting habitat on the Rockaway Peninsula in New York, USA, as an example application. Our approach facilitated the collation of evidence-based information on habitat selection

  18. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  19. Determining Mass and Persistence of a Reactive Brominated-Solvent DNAPL Source Using Mass Depletion-Mass Flux Reduction Relationships During Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C. D.; Davis, G. B.; Bastow, T.; Annable, M. D.; Trefry, M. G.; Furness, A.; Geste, Y.; Woodbury, R.; Rhodes, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measures of the source mass and depletion characteristics of recalcitrant dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants are critical elements for assessing performance of remediation efforts. This is in addition to understanding the relationships between source mass depletion and changes to dissolved contaminant concentration and mass flux in groundwater. Here we present results of applying analytical source-depletion concepts to pumping from within the DNAPL source zone of a 10-m thick heterogeneous layered aquifer to estimate the original source mass and characterise the time trajectory of source depletion and mass flux in groundwater. The multi-component, reactive DNAPL source consisted of the brominated solvent tetrabromoethane (TBA) and its transformation products (mostly tribromoethene - TriBE). Coring and multi-level groundwater sampling indicated the DNAPL to be mainly in lower-permeability layers, suggesting the source had already undergone appreciable depletion. Four simplified source dissolution models (exponential, power function, error function and rational mass) were able to describe the concentration history of the total molar concentration of brominated organics in extracted groundwater during 285 days of pumping. Approximately 152 kg of brominated compounds were extracted. The lack of significant kinetic mass transfer limitations in pumped concentrations was notable. This was despite the heterogeneous layering in the aquifer and distribution of DNAPL. There was little to choose between the model fits to pumped concentration time series. The variance of groundwater velocities in the aquifer determined during a partitioning inter-well tracer test (PITT) were used to parameterise the models. However, the models were found to be relatively insensitive to this parameter. All models indicated an initial source mass around 250 kg which compared favourably to an estimate of 220 kg derived from the PITT. The extrapolated concentrations from the

  20. European red list of habitats. Part 1: Marine habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbay, S.; Sanders, N.; Haynes, T.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Rodwell, J.R.; Nieto, A.; Garcia Criado, M.; Beal, S.; Borg, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk
    of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and
    freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent
    regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and
    criteria, and detailed data

  1. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  2. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  3. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  4. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  5. Food technology in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  6. Vegetation Structure of Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Habitat in Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation Central Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ervina Rahmawati; Jafron Wasiq Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation is ebony leaf monkey’s habitats in Central Java Indonesia. Continuously degradation of their population is caused by illegal hunting and habitat degradation that made this species being vulnerable. Habitat conservation is one of important aspects to prevent them from extinction. The purpose of this research was to analyze the vegetation’s structure and composition, which was potentially, becomes habitat and food source for the monkeys. Data collected usi...

  7. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Kumaran P; Jayakumar M

    2013-01-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO 2 . These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  9. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  10. Habitats and Species Covered by the EEC Habitats Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, S.; Søgaard, B.; Ejrnæs, R.

    of Conservation (SAC's), Natura 2000. The designations are based upon the presence of 60 of the natural habitat types listed in Annex I of the Directive and approx. 44 of the species listed in Annex II which occur within the territory of Denmark and for the conservation of which the Community has a special...... and the Danish county authorities have initiated a co-operative programme to provide and compile the data necessary to assess the conservation status of the natural habitat types and species concerned. The purpose of this report is to present the conservation status of the habitats and species in Denmark...

  11. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette Martina; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    -Cl isotope analysis together with the almost absent VC 13C depletion in comparison to cDCE 13C depletion suggested that cDCE was subject to abiotic degradation due to the presence of pyrite, possible surface-bound iron (II) or reduced iron sulphides in the downgradient part of the plume. This interpretation...... reduced redox conditions which favor active reductive dechlorination and/or may lead to a series of redox reactions which may consecutively trigger biotically induced abiotic degradation. Finally, this study illustrates the valuable complementary application of compound-specific isotopic analysis combined...

  12. Reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin for chemicals and fuels using formic acid as an in-situ hydrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanhua; Mahmood, Nubla; Tymchyshyn, Matthew; Yuan, Zhongshun; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2014-11-01

    In this study, formic acid (FA) was employed as an in-situ hydrogen donor for the reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin (KL). Under the optimum operating conditions, i.e., 300 °C, 1 h, 18.6 wt.% substrate concentration, 50/50 (v/v) water-ethanol medium with FA at a FA-to-lignin mass ratio of 0.7, KL (Mw∼10,000 g/mol) was effectively de-polymerized, producing de-polymerized lignin (DL, Mw 1270 g/mol) at a yield of ∼90 wt.% and polymerization of KL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  14. Habitat use by 0+ cyprinid fish in the River Great Ouse, East Anglia

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Paul

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the habitat use of several species of 0+ cyprinid in the regulated River Great Ouse and to determine the reasons for specific habitat use. In general, all fish species were found associated with the marginal zone, with little diel variation. Use of shallow habitats in the presence of macrophytes correlated well with the distribution of zooplankton in the river channel, the preferred food source of 0+ cyprinids. During the early to late larval phase, all spec...

  15. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  16. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds122

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Coastal California Steelhead ESUs (evolutionarily...

  17. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  19. Space Vector Modulation for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction in Back-To-Back Current Source Converters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Xu, David; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Back-to-back converters have been typically used to interconnect the microgrids. For a back-to-back current source converter, the dc-link current ripple is one of the important parameters. A large ripple will cause the electromagnetic interference, undesirable high-frequency losses, and system...... instability. Conventionally, with a given switching frequency and rated voltage, the current ripple can be reduced by increasing the dc-link inductor, but it leads to bulky size, high cost and slow dynamic response. In order to solve this problem, this paper reveals that the current ripple can...

  20. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  1. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  3. Leatherback Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for leatherback turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 17711, March 23, 1979, Rules and Regulations....

  4. Hawksbill Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for hawksbill turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations....

  5. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  6. Contrast volume reduction using third generation dual source computed tomography for the evaluation of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Daniel O. [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Arnold, Martin; Klinghammer, Lutz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M.; Muschiol, Gerd; Gauss, Soeren; Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chronic renal failure is common in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). CT angiography is recommended and provides crucial information prior to TAVI. We evaluated the feasibility of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging. Forty consecutive patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition using a novel third-generation dual-source CT system; 38 ml contrast agent was used. Image quality was graded on a visual scale (1-4). Contrast attenuation was measured at the level of the aortic root and at the iliac bifurcation. Mean patient age was 82 ± 6 years (23 males; 58 %). Mean attenuation/average image quality was 285 ± 60 HU/1.5 at the aortic annulus compared to 289 ± 74 HU/1.8 at the iliac bifurcation (p = 0.77/p = 0.29). Mean estimated effective radiation dose was 2.9 ± 0.3 mSv. A repeat acquisition was necessary in one patient due to image quality. Out of the 35 patients who underwent TAVI, 31 (89 %) patients had no or mild aortic regurgitation. Thirty-two (91 %) patients were discharged successfully. Pre-procedural CTA with a total of 38 ml contrast volume is feasible and clinically useful, using third-generation dual-source CT, allowing comprehensive imaging for procedural success. (orig.)

  7. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  8. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05 compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should

  9. The search for geologic evidence of distant-source tsunamis using new field data in California: Chapter C in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Jaffe, Bruce; Richmond, Bruce; Peters, Robert; Graehl, Nick; Kelsey, Harvey; Leeper, Robert; Watt, Steve; McGann, Mary; Hoirup, Don F.; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Caldwell, Dylan; Loofbourrow, Casey

    2014-01-01

    A statewide assessment for geological evidence of tsunamis, primarily from distant-source events, found tsunami deposits at several locations, though evidence was absent at most locations evaluated. Several historical distant-source tsunamis, including the 1946 Aleutian, 1960 Chile, and 1964 Alaska events, caused inundation along portions of the northern and central California coast. Recent numerical tsunami modeling results identify the eastern Aleutian Islands subduction zone as the “worstcase” distant-source region, with the potential for causing tsunami runups of 7–10 m in northern and central California and 3–4 m in southern California. These model results, along with a review of historical topographic maps and past geotechnical evaluations, guided site selection for tsunami deposit surveys. A reconnaissance of 20 coastal marshlands was performed through site visits and coring of shallow surface sediments to determine if evidence for past tsunamis existed. Although conclusive evidence of tsunami deposits was not found at most of the sites evaluated, geologic evidence consistent with tsunami inundation was found at two locations: Three marshes in the Crescent City area and Pillar Point marsh near Half Moon Bay. Potential tsunami deposits were also evaluated at the Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve in Santa Barbara County. In Crescent City, deposits were ascribed to tsunamis on the basis of stratigraphic architecture, particle size, and microfossil content, and they were further assigned to the 1964 Alaska and 1700 Cascadia tsunamis on the basis of dating by cesium-137 and radiocarbon methods, respectively. The 1946 tsunami sand deposit was clearly identified throughout Pillar Point marsh, and one to two other similar but highly discontinuous sand layers were present within 0.5 m of the surface. A tsunami-origin interpretation for sand layers at Carpinteria is merely consistent with graded bedding and unsupported by diatom or foraminiferal assemblages

  10. Genetic diversity of pheasants from natural habitat and farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The original source of the pheasants living in the natural habitat is the farm, and the present genetic variation between the two groups of birds can be interpreted as an effect of natural selection. Keywords: Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), genetic distance, genetic polymorphism, genetic similarities, genetic ...

  11. Field-scale evaluation of biological uranium reduction and reoxidation in the near-source zone at the NABIR Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig S. Criddle; Peter Kitanidis; Scott Fendorf; Weimin Wu; Philip M. Jardine; Jizhong Zhou; Baohua Gu

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to advance the understanding and predictive capability of coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological processes that control the in situ transport and bioremediation radionuclides and co-contaminants at multiple scales. Specific objectives include: (1) Investigate the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of uranium in a highly contaminated region within the subsurface of Area 3 of the DoE ERSP FRC (2) Using a variety of tracer strategies, develop and model a system that establishes hydraulic control of the target region for biostimulation (3) Perform long term in situ biostimulation studies that create a microbial communities capable of reducing residual nitrate to N2 and mobile U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV) (4) Use a variety of solid and solution phase interrogation techniques to quantify the extent of in situ reduction and immobilization of U(VI). (5) Investigate a variety of geochemical factors that influence the stability and possible reoxidation of reduced uranium

  12. Reduction of thoracic aorta motion artifact with high-pitch 128-slice dual-source computed tomographic angiography: a historical control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Tasaki, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Takeo; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Ukai, Isao; Tahara, Kenichi; Ogura, Hiroshi; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated imaging combined with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) has reduced cardiac motion artifacts, but it was not practical in the emergency setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a high-pitch, 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner to reduce motion artifacts in patients admitted to the emergency room. This study comprised 100 patients suspected of having thoracic aorta lesions. We examined 47 patients with the 128-slice DSCT scanner (DSCT group), and 53 patients were examined with a 64-slice MDCT scanner (MDCT group). Six anatomic areas in the thoracic aorta were evaluated. Computed tomography images in the DSCT group were distinct, and significant differences were observed in images of all areas between the 2 groups except for the descending aorta. The high-pitch DSCT scanner can reduce motion artifacts of the thoracic aorta and enable radiological diagnosis even in patients with tachycardia and without breath hold.

  13. Appennino: A GIS Tool for Analyzing Wildlife Habitat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ferretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test Appennino, a tool used to evaluate the habitats of animals through compositional analysis. This free tool calculates an animal’s habitat use within the GIS platform for ArcGIS and saves and exports the results of the comparative land uses to other statistical software. Visual Basic for Application programming language was employed to prepare the ESRI ArcGIS 9.x utility. The tool was tested on a dataset of 546 pheasant positions obtained from a study carried out in Tuscany (Italy. The tool automatically gave the same results as the results obtained by calculating the surfaces in ESRI ArcGIS, exporting the data from the ArcGIS, then using a commercial spreadsheet and/or statistical software to calculate the animal’s habitat use with a considerable reduction in time.

  14. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  15. Green house gas emissions in German agriculture. Sources and technical reduction capacities under special consideration of biogas; Treibhausgas-Emissionen in der deutschen Landwirtschaft. Herkunft und technische Minderungspotenziale unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Jens-Karl

    2006-12-15

    This monograph is concerned with different aspects of green house gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture. The first part summarizes the total amount of GHG emissions and analyses them regarding their composition. A differentiation is made between the emissions which are already linked to agriculture (source group agriculture: ''digestion'', ''manure-management'' and ''agricultural soils'') within the ''National Report on GHG Emissions'' and those which can be counted primarily in addition to agriculture (''energy'' and ''land use and land use change''). Depending on which database is used, agriculture is participating in emitting green house gases with 6.3% or 11.1% of total German GHG emissions in 2004. This means that agriculture is an important polluter. The development of GHG emissions in agriculture compared to the year 1990 is -18.5% for the source group agriculture. This means that the source group has reduced more emissions than the average (-17.5%) over all domains published within the National Report. Regarding the sources ''energy'' and ''land use and land use change'' in addition emission reduction is -16.4% in the same period and thus worse than the average. Moreover, realized emission reductions are predominantly based on structural changes, less on systematical measures. This fact raises the question how agriculture can make a contribution to the reduction of GHG emissions in future particularly with regard to higher aims in climate politics. For this reason the second part of the monograph identifies capacities for the reduction of GHG emissions by using available agricultural biomass for energetic purposes. Due to the heterogeneity of biomass and the variety of its possible products, a lot of technical processes concerning the conversion of biomass into energy exist in practice. Since all of

  16. New England wildlife: management forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak; John W. Lanier

    1992-01-01

    Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices for species occurrence and utilization by forested and nonforested habitats, habitat breadth and size class, and structural habitat features for the 338 wildlife species...

  17. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  18. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KUN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  19. Short-term effects of habitat fragmentation on the abundance and species richness of beetles in experimental alfalfa micro-landscapes Efectos a corto plazo de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre la abundancia y riqueza de especies de coleópteros en micro-paisajes experimentales de alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    AUDREY A. GREZ; TANIA ZAVIEZO; SUSANA REYES

    2004-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered as the main causes of biodiversity depression. Habitat loss implies a reduction of suitable habitat for organisms, and habitat fragmentation is a change in the spatial configuration of the landscape, with the remaining fragments resulting more or less isolated. Recent theory indicates that the effects of habitat loss are more important than those of habitat fragmentation, however there are few experimental studies evaluating both processes separat...

  20. Fish breeding and habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type... text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  2. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  3. Abolition of set-aside schemes and its impacts on habitat styructure in Denmark from 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for 65% of the Danish land area. Habitats for wild species are characterized by small patches, surrounded by intensive agriculture. Due to extensive management, set-aside land can if located close to habitats, improve habitat structure in terms of patch size and connectivity....... In 2008 set-aside schemes were abolished, leading to a decline in the area of set-aside land from 6% of all agricultural land in 2007 to 3% in 2008. We developed an indicator aiming to measure the effect of the reduced area of set-aside land on habitat structure. The indicator combines distance...... to habitats, potential corridors between habitats and area percentage of set-aside land. Analyses show that the halving of the area of set-aside land has led to a 55% reduction of the effect of set-aside land on habitat structure....

  4. Automated tube voltage selection for radiation dose and contrast medium reduction at coronary CT angiography using 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Poole, Zachary B.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Rome (Italy); Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the relationship between automated tube voltage selection (ATVS) and body mass index (BMI) and its effect on image quality and radiation dose of coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We evaluated 272 patients who underwent CCTA with 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT (DSCT). Prospectively ECG-triggered spiral acquisition was performed with automated tube current selection and advanced iterative reconstruction. Tube voltages were selected by ATVS (70-120 kV). BMI, effective dose (ED), and vascular attenuation in the coronary arteries were recorded. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used for subjective image quality analysis. Image quality was rated good to excellent in 98.9 % of examinations without significant differences for proximal and distal attenuation (all p ≥.0516), whereas image noise was rated significantly higher at 70 kV compared to ≥100 kV (all p <.0266). However, no significant differences were observed in SNR or CNR at 70-120 kV (all p ≥.0829). Mean ED at 70-120 kV was 1.5 ± 1.2 mSv, 2.4 ± 1.5 mSv, 3.6 ± 2.7 mSv, 5.9 ± 4.0 mSv, 7.9 ± 4.2 mSv, and 10.7 ± 4.1 mSv, respectively (all p ≤.0414). Correlation analysis showed a moderate association between tube voltage and BMI (r =.639). ATVS allows individual tube voltage adaptation for CCTA performed with 3{sup rd} generation DSCT, resulting in significantly decreased radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. (orig.)

  5. Duration of liquid water habitats on early Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckay, C.P.; Davis, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    The duration of ice-covered lakes after the initial freezing of the early Mars is presently estimated via a climate model whose critical parameter is the existence of peak seasonal temperatures above freezing, and in which the variability of insolation is included. Under conditions in which meltwater was supplied by an ice source, it is found that water habitats could have been maintained under relatively thin ice sheets for as many as 700 million years after the onset of below-freezing global temperatures. The duration of such habitats on the early Mars therefore exceeds the upper limit of the time envisioned for the emergence of aquatic life on earth. 45 refs

  6. Integration of georeferencing, habitat, sampling, and genetic data for documentation of wild plant genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic resource collections provide novel materials to the breeding and research communities. Availability of detailed documentation of passport, phenotypic, and genetic data increases the value of the genebank accessions. Inclusion of georeferenced sources, habitats, and sampling data in co...

  7. Ghost of habitat past: historic habitat affects the contemporary distribution of giant garter snakes in a modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Historic habitat conditions can affect contemporary communities and populations, but most studies of historic habitat are based on the reduction in habitat extent or connectivity. Little is known about the effects of historic habitat on contemporary species distributions when historic habitat has been nearly completely removed, but species persist in a highly altered landscape. More than 93% of the historic wetlands in the Central Valley of California, USA, have been drained and converted to agricultural and other uses, but agricultural wetlands, such as rice and its supporting infrastructure of canals, allow some species to persist. Little is known about the distribution of giant garter snakes Thamnophis gigas, a rare aquatic snake species inhabiting this predominantly agricultural landscape, or the variables that affect where this species occurs. We used occupancy modeling to examine the distribution of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale in the Sacramento Valley (northern portion of the Central Valley) of California, with an emphasis on the relative strength of historic and contemporary variables (landscape-scale habitat, local microhabitat, vegetation composition and relative prey counts) for predicting giant garter snake occurrence. Proximity to historic marsh best explained variation in the probability of occurrence of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale, with greater probability of occurrence near historic marsh. We suspect that the importance of distance to historic marsh represents dispersal limitations of giant garter snakes. These results suggest that preserving and restoring areas near historic marsh, and minimizing activities that reduce the extent of marsh or marsh-like (e.g. rice agriculture, canal) habitats near historic marsh may be advantageous to giant garter snakes.

  8. Sex- and habitat-specific movement of an omnivorous semi-terrestrial crab controls habitat connectivity and subsidies: a multi-parameter approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Lena; Pennings, Steven C; Zimmer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Distinct habitats are often linked through fluxes of matter and migration of organisms. In particular, intertidal ecotones are prone to being influenced from both the marine and the terrestrial realms, but whether or not small-scale migration for feeding, sheltering or reproducing is detectable may depend on the parameter studied. Within the ecotone of an upper saltmarsh in the United States, we investigated the sex-specific movement of the semi-terrestrial crab Armases cinereum using an approach of determining multiple measures of across-ecotone migration. To this end, we determined food preference, digestive abilities (enzyme activities), bacterial hindgut communities (genetic fingerprint), and the trophic position of Armases and potential food sources (stable isotopes) of males versus females of different sub-habitats, namely high saltmarsh and coastal forest. Daily observations showed that Armases moved frequently between high-intertidal (saltmarsh) and terrestrial (forest) habitats. Males were encountered more often in the forest habitat, whilst gravid females tended to be more abundant in the marsh habitat but moved more frequently. Food preference was driven by both sex and habitat. The needlerush Juncus was preferred over three other high-marsh detrital food sources, and the periwinkle Littoraria was the preferred prey of male (but not female) crabs from the forest habitats; both male and female crabs from marsh habitat preferred the fiddler crab Uca over three other prey items. In the field, the major food sources were clearly vegetal, but males have a higher trophic position than females. In contrast to food preference, isotope data excluded Uca and Littoraria as major food sources, except for males from the forest, and suggested that Armases consumes a mix of C4 and C3 plants along with animal prey. Digestive enzyme activities differed significantly between sexes and habitats and were higher in females and in marsh crabs. The bacterial hindgut community

  9. Scenario-Led Habitat Modelling of Land Use Change Impacts on Key Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Geary

    Full Text Available Accurate predictions of the impacts of future land use change on species of conservation concern can help to inform policy-makers and improve conservation measures. If predictions are spatially explicit, predicted consequences of likely land use changes could be accessible to land managers at a scale relevant to their working landscape. We introduce a method, based on open source software, which integrates habitat suitability modelling with scenario-building, and illustrate its use by investigating the effects of alternative land use change scenarios on landscape suitability for black grouse Tetrao tetrix. Expert opinion was used to construct five near-future (twenty years scenarios for the 800 km2 study site in upland Scotland. For each scenario, the cover of different land use types was altered by 5-30% from 20 random starting locations and changes in habitat suitability assessed by projecting a MaxEnt suitability model onto each simulated landscape. A scenario converting grazed land to moorland and open forestry was the most beneficial for black grouse, and 'increased grazing' (the opposite conversion the most detrimental. Positioning of new landscape blocks was shown to be important in some situations. Increasing the area of open-canopy forestry caused a proportional decrease in suitability, but suitability gains for the 'reduced grazing' scenario were nonlinear. 'Scenario-led' landscape simulation models can be applied in assessments of the impacts of land use change both on individual species and also on diversity and community measures, or ecosystem services. A next step would be to include landscape configuration more explicitly in the simulation models, both to make them more realistic, and to examine the effects of habitat placement more thoroughly. In this example, the recommended policy would be incentives on grazing reduction to benefit black grouse.

  10. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T; Makino, M; Morijiri, R; Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  11. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  12. Loss and modification of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.; Wilkinson, John W.; Heatwole, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  13. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  14. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  15. Sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.; Cogan, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Decision makers need to know the reliability of output products from GIS analysis. For many GIS applications, it is not possible to compare these products to an independent measure of 'truth'. Sensitivity analysis offers an alternative means of estimating reliability. In this paper, we present a CIS-based statistical procedure for estimating the sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in input data and model assumptions. The approach is demonstrated in an analysis of habitat associations derived from a GIS database for the endangered California condor. Alternative data sets were generated to compare results over a reasonable range of assumptions about several sources of uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis indicated that condor habitat associations are relatively robust, and the results have increased our confidence in our initial findings. Uncertainties and methods described in the paper have general relevance for many GIS applications.

  16. Habitat classification modelling with incomplete data: Pushing the habitat envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoebe L. Zarnetske; Thomas C. Edwards; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2007-01-01

    Habitat classification models (HCMs) are invaluable tools for species conservation, land-use planning, reserve design, and metapopulation assessments, particularly at broad spatial scales. However, species occurrence data are often lacking and typically limited to presence points at broad scales. This lack of absence data precludes the use of many statistical...

  17. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat conditions. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, through the restoration of stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2005 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2005), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). This report also summarizes activities associated with Program Administration, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education.

  18. Seasonal Habitat Patterns of Japanese Common Squid (Todarodes Pacificus Inferred from Satellite-Based Species Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D. Alabia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the spatio-temporal distributions of the species habitat in the marine environment is central to effectual resource management and conservation. Here, we examined the potential habitat distributions of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan during a four-year period. The seasonal patterns of preferential habitat were inferred from species distribution models, built using squid occurrences detected from night-time visible images and remotely-sensed environmental factors. The predicted squid habitat (i.e., areas with high habitat suitability revealed strong seasonal variability, characterized by a reduction of potential habitat, confined off of the southern part of the basin during the winter–spring period (December–May. Apparent expansion of preferential habitat occurred during summer–autumn months (June–November, concurrent with the formation of highly suitable habitat patches in certain regions of the Sea of Japan. These habitat distribution patterns were in response to changes in oceanographic conditions and synchronous with seasonal migration of squid. Moreover, the most important variables regulating the spatio-temporal patterns of suitable habitat were sea surface temperature, depth, sea surface height anomaly, and eddy kinetic energy. These variables could affect the habitat distributions through their impacts on growth and survival of squid, local nutrient transport, and the availability of favorable spawning and feeding grounds.

  19. Diagnostic Performance of an Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm for Low-Contrast Detectability with a Third-Generation Dual-Source Multidetector CT Scanner: Potential for Radiation Dose Reduction in a Multireader Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Justin; Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effect of radiation dose reduction on low-contrast detectability by using an advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) algorithm in a contrast-detail phantom with a third-generation dual-source multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanner. A proprietary phantom with a range of low-contrast cylindrical objects, representing five contrast levels (range, 5-20 HU) and three sizes (range, 2-6 mm) was fabricated with a three-dimensional printer and imaged with a third-generation dual-source CT scanner at various radiation dose index levels (range, 0.74-5.8 mGy). Image data sets were reconstructed by using different section thicknesses (range, 0.6-5.0 mm) and reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection [FBP] and ADMIRE with a strength range of three to five). Eleven independent readers blinded to technique and reconstruction method assessed all data sets in two reading sessions by measuring detection accuracy with a two-alternative forced choice approach (first session) and by scoring the total number of visible object groups (second session). Dose reduction potentials based on both reading sessions were estimated. Results between FBP and ADMIRE were compared by using both paired t tests and analysis of variance tests at the 95% significance level. During the first session, detection accuracy increased with increasing contrast, size, and dose index (diagnostic accuracy range, 50%-87%; interobserver variability, ±7%). When compared with FBP, ADMIRE improved detection accuracy by 5.2% on average across the investigated variables (P material is available for this article. RSNA, 2015

  20. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    , and house structure modulated Anopheles abundance, but the effect varied with Anopheles species and sex. Variation in the abundance of indoor-resting Anopheles in rural houses of western Kenya varies with clearly identifiable factors. Results suggest that LLIN use continues to function in reducing vector abundance, and that larval source management in this region could lead to further reductions in malaria risk by reducing the amount of an obligatory resource for mosquitoes near people's homes.

  1. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages and disadvanta......The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... suit their situations. This paper analyses the potential of different methods available for water managers to assess hydrological and geomorphological impacts on the habitats of stream biota, as requested by the WFD. The review considers both conventional and new advanced research-based instream...... physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water...

  2. Habitats: staging life and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of habitat. It is a bounded chunk of space/time that isdesigned to accommodate a delimited set of activities. It accommodates the activities by in-cludingphysical artefacts that can be used in the activities and signs that offer activity-relevantinformation. The hab...

  3. Oak woodlands as wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tietje; K. Purcell; S. Drill

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides local planners and policymakers with information on the diversity and abundance of oak woodland wildlife, wildlife habitat needs, and how local planning activities can influence wildlife abundance and diversity. Federal and state laws, particularly the federal and California Endangered Species Act and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...

  4. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Migratory connectivity magnifies the consequences of habitat loss from sea-level rise for shorebird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Takuya; Possingham, Hugh P; Chadès, Iadine; Minton, Clive; Murray, Nicholas J; Rogers, Danny I; Treml, Eric A; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-06-22

    Sea-level rise (SLR) will greatly alter littoral ecosystems, causing habitat change and loss for coastal species. Habitat loss is widely used as a measurement of the risk of extinction, but because many coastal species are migratory, the impact of habitat loss will depend not only on its extent, but also on where it occurs. Here, we develop a novel graph-theoretic approach to measure the vulnerability of a migratory network to the impact of habitat loss from SLR based on population flow through the network. We show that reductions in population flow far exceed the proportion of habitat lost for 10 long-distance migrant shorebirds using the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. We estimate that SLR will inundate 23-40% of intertidal habitat area along their migration routes, but cause a reduction in population flow of up to 72 per cent across the taxa. This magnifying effect was particularly strong for taxa whose migration routes contain bottlenecks-sites through which a large fraction of the population travels. We develop the bottleneck index, a new network metric that positively correlates with the predicted impacts of habitat loss on overall population flow. Our results indicate that migratory species are at greater risk than previously realized.

  6. Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbahale Susan S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil, habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant, application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89 % and 91 % chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats

  7. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  8. Chinook Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds124

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Coastal Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU -...

  9. A Conceptual Approach to Recreation Habitat Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, H. R

    1996-01-01

    .... The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) is a commonly used technique for assessing human impacts on the vigor of wildlife species, and serves as the model for the Recreation Habitat Analysis Method (RHAM...

  10. Beaked Whale Habitat Characterization and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Jessica A; Mitchell, Glenn H; Farak, Amy M; Keane, Ellen P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize known beaked whale habitat and create a predictive beaked whale habitat model of the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of the United States using available...

  11. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  12. Reduction corporoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  13. Marine Debris and Plastic Source Reduction Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plastic food service ware items originate on college and university campuses—in cafeterias, snack rooms, cafés, and eateries with take-out dining options. This Campus Toolkit is a detailed “how to” guide for reducing plastic waste on college campuses.

  14. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post

  15. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  16. A technical guide for monitoring wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Rowland; C.D. Vojta

    2013-01-01

    Information about status and trend of wildlife habitat is important for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to accomplish its mission and meet its legal requirements. As the steward of 193 million acres (ac) of Federal land, the Forest Service needs to evaluate the status of wildlife habitat and how it compares with desired conditions. Habitat monitoring...

  17. Habitat preference of Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Habitat Preference, Roan Antelope, Seasons. INTRODUCTION. Habitat quality and quantity have been identified as the primary limiting factors that influence animal population dynamics. (Jansen et al., 2001). Habitat influences the presence, abundance, distribution, movement and behavior of game animals.

  18. Creating complex habitats for restoration and reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Ladle, R.J.; Bouma, T.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Simplification of natural habitats has become a major conservation challenge and there is a growing consensus that incorporating and enhancing habitat complexity is likely to be critical for future restoration efforts. Habitat complexity is often ascribed an important role in controlling species

  19. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the... physical constituent elements within the defined area of Critical Habitat that are essential to the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94...

  20. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  1. Macrofaunal communities associated with chemosynthetic habitats from the U.S. Atlantic margin: A comparison among depth and habitat types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jill R.; Robertson, Craig M.; Brooke, Sandra; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seeps support distinct benthic communities capable of tolerating extreme environmental conditions and utilizing reduced chemical compounds for nutrition. In recent years, several locations of methane seepage have been mapped along the U.S. Atlantic continental slope. In 2012 and 2013, two newly discovered seeps were investigated in this region: a shallow site near Baltimore Canyon (BCS, 366–412 m) and a deep site near Norfolk Canyon (NCS, 1467–1602 m), with both sites containing extensive chemosynthetic mussel bed and microbial mat habitats. Sediment push cores, suction samples, and Ekman box cores were collected to quantify the abundance, diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna (>300 μm) in mussel beds, mats, and slope habitats at both sites. Community data from the deep site were also assessed in relation to the associated sediment environment (organic carbon and nitrogen, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, and depth). Infaunal assemblages and densities differed both between depths and among habitat types. Macrofaunal densities in microbial mats were four times greater than those present in mussel beds and slope sediments and were dominated by the annelid families Dorvilleidae, Capitellidae, and Tubificidae, while mussel habitats had higher proportions of crustaceans. Diversity was lower in BCS microbial mat habitats, but higher in mussel and slope sediments compared to NCS habitats. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed specific sediment properties as important for distinguishing the macrofaunal communities, including larger grain sizes present within NCS microbial mat habitats and depleted stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in sediments present at mussel beds. These results suggest that habitat differences in the quality and source of organic matter are driving the observed patterns in the infaunal assemblages, including high β diversity and high variability in the macrofaunal community composition. This

  2. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  3. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, Anna; Fryxell, John M; Eberly, Lynn; Packer, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Habitat quality is typically inferred by assuming a direct relationship between consumer density and resource abundance, although it has been suggested that consumer fitness may be a more accurate measure of habitat quality. We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. A 40-year average of female reproductive success (yearling cubs per female) was best explained by proximity to river confluences, whereas patterns of productivity (yearling cubs per km(2)) and adult female density (individuals per km(2)) were associated with more general measures of habitat quality and areas of shelter in poor habitat. This suggests that density may not accurately distinguish between high-quality 'source' areas and low-quality sites that merely provide refuges for effectively non-reproductive individuals. Our results indicate that density may be a misleading indicator of real estate value, particularly for populations that do not conform to an ideal free distribution.

  4. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  5. An approach of habitat degradation assessment for characterization on coastal habitat conservation tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Yin; Lei, Kun; Meng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Coastal zones are population and economy highly intensity regions all over the world, and coastal habitat supports the sustainable development of human society. The accurate assessment of coastal habitat degradation is the essential prerequisite for coastal zone protection. In this study, an integrated framework of coastal habitat degradation assessment including landuse classification, habitat classifying and zoning, evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation and coastal habitat degradation index has been established for better regional coastal habitat assessment. Through establishment of detailed three-class landuse classification, the fine landscape change is revealed, the evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation through internal comparison based on the results of habitat classifying and zoning could indicate the levels of habitat degradation and distinguish the intensity of human disturbances in different habitat subareas under the same habitat classification. Finally, the results of coastal habitat degradation assessment could be achieved through coastal habitat degradation index (CHI). A case study of the framework is carried out in the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, China, and the main results show the following: (1) The accuracy of all land use classes are above 90%, which indicates a satisfactory accuracy for the classification map. (2) The Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast is divided into 3 kinds of habitats and 5 subareas. (3) In the five subareas of the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, the levels of coastal habitat degradation own significant difference. The whole Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast generally is in a worse state according to area weighting of each habitat subarea. This assessment framework of coastal habitat degradation would characterize the landuse change trend, realize better coastal habitat degradation assessment, reveal the habitat conservation tendency and distinguish intensity of human disturbances. Furthermore, it would support for accurate coastal

  6. Modelling Fish Habitat Suitability in the Eastern English Channel. Application to community habitat level

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Sandrine; Carpentier, Andre; Loots, Christophe; Koubbi, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Valuable marine habitats and living resources can be found in the Eastern English Channel and in 2003, a Franco-British Interreg IIIA project, ‘Eastern Channel Habitat Atlas for Marine Resource Management’ (CHARM), was initiated to support decision-making for management of essential fish habitats. Fish habitat corresponds to geographic areas within which ranges of environmental factors define the presence of a particular species. Habitat Suitability index (HSI) modelling was used to relate fi...

  7. Value of 100 kVp scan with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction algorithm on a single-source CT system during whole-body CT for radiation and contrast medium dose reduction: an intra-individual feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y; Nakaura, T; Oda, S; Tsuji, A; Urata, J; Furusawa, M; Tanoue, S; Utsunomiya, D; Yamashita, Y

    2018-02-01

    To perform an intra-individual investigation of the usefulness of a contrast medium (CM) and radiation dose-reduction protocol using single-source computed tomography (CT) combined with 100 kVp and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) for whole-body CT (WBCT; chest-abdomen-pelvis CT) in oncology patients. Forty-three oncology patients who had undergone WBCT under both 120 and 100 kVp protocols at different time points (mean interscan intervals: 98 days) were included retrospectively. The CM doses for the 120 and 100 kVp protocols were 600 and 480 mg iodine/kg, respectively; 120 kVp images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP), whereas 100 kVp images were reconstructed with FBP (100 kVp-F) and the SAFIRE (100 kVp-S). The size-specific dose estimate (SSDE), iodine load and image quality of each protocol were compared. The SSDE and iodine load of 100 kVp protocol were 34% and 21%, respectively, lower than of 120 kVp protocol (SSDE: 10.6±1.1 versus 16.1±1.8 mGy; iodine load: 24.8±4versus 31.5±5.5 g iodine, p<0.01). Contrast enhancement, objective image noise, contrast-to-noise-ratio, and visual score of 100 kVp-S were similar to or better than of 120 kVp protocol. Compared with the 120 kVp protocol, the combined use of 100 kVp and SAFIRE in WBCT for oncology assessment with an SSCT facilitated substantial reduction in the CM and radiation dose while maintaining image quality. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction Corporoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Introduction Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. Materials and Methods: We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Conclusions Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  9. Prioritizing tropical habitats for long-distance migratory songbirds: an assessment of habitat quality at a stopover site in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Bayly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migratory birds are declining globally and migration has been identified as the primary source of mortality in this group. Despite this, our lack of knowledge of habitat use and quality at stopovers, i.e., sites where the energy for migration is accumulated, remains a barrier to designing appropriate conservation measures, especially in tropical regions. There is therefore an urgent need to assess stopover habitat quality and concurrently identify efficient and cost-effective methods for doing so. Given that fuel deposition rates directly influence stopover duration, departure fuel load, and subsequent speed of migration, they are expected to provide a direct measure of habitat quality and have the advantage of being measurable through body-mass changes. Here, we examined seven potential indicators of quality, including body-mass change, for two ecologically distinct Neotropical migratory landbirds on stopover in shade-coffee plantations and tropical humid premontane forest during spring migration in Colombia: (1 rate of body-mass change; (2 foraging rate; (3 recapture rate; (4 density; (5 flock size; (6 age and sex ratios; and (7 body-mass distribution. We found higher rates of mass change in premontane forest than in shade-coffee in Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina, a difference that was mirrored in higher densities and body masses in forest. In Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus, a lack of recaptures in shade-coffee and higher densities in forest, also suggested that forest provided superior fueling conditions. For a reliable assessment of habitat quality, we therefore recommend using a suite of indicators, taking into account each species' ecology and methodological considerations. Our results also imply that birds stopping over in lower quality habitats may spend a longer time migrating and require more stopovers, potentially leading to important carryover effects on reproductive fitness. Evaluating habitat quality is

  10. Convergent adaptation to a marginal habitat by homoploid hybrids and polyploid ecads in the seaweed genus Fucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Pearson, Gareth A.; Serrao, Ester A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2006-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidy are two major sources of genetic variability that can lead to adaptation in new habitats. Most species of the brown algal genus Fucus are found along wave-swept rocky shores of the Northern Hemisphere, but some species have adapted to brackish and salt marsh habitats.

  11. Snubber reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Singh, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants have been oversupported. Since snubbers make up a large percentage of the pipe supports or restraints used in a plant, a plant's snubber population is much larger than required to adequately restrain the piping. This has resulted in operating problems and unnecessary expenses for maintenance and inservice inspections (ISIs) of snubbers. This paper presents an overview of snubber reduction, including: the incentives for removing snubbers, a historical perspective on how piping became oversupported, why it is possible to remove snubbers, and the costs and benefits of doing so

  12. Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Harun N; Mutuku, Francis M; Ndenga, Bryson A; Musunzaji, Peter S; Mbakaya, Joel O; Aswani, Peter; Irungu, Lucy W; Mukoko, Dunstan; Vulule, John; Kitron, Uriel; LaBeaud, Angelle D

    2017-07-12

    abundant outdoors and that only a few containers produce a majority of the pupae. Although the numbers were lower, productive habitats were detected within households. Targeting source reduction efforts towards these productive containers both inside and outside homes is likely to be a cost-effective way to reduce arboviral transmission in these regions.

  13. Climate and air pollution impacts on habitat suitability of Austrian forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnböck, Thomas; Djukic, Ika; Kitzler, Barbara; Kobler, Johannes; Mol-Dijkstra, Janet P; Posch, Max; Reinds, Gert Jan; Schlutow, Angela; Starlinger, Franz; Wamelink, Wieger G W

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N) are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses) in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nutrient enrichment may threaten these habitats. We applied a dynamic geochemical soil model (VSD+) together with a novel niche-based plant response model (PROPS) to 5 forest habitat types (18 forest sites) protected under the EU Directive in Austria. We assessed how future climate change and N deposition might affect habitat suitability, defined as the capacity of a site to host its typical plant species. Our evaluation indicates that climate change will be the main driver of a decrease in habitat suitability in the future in Austria. The expected climate change will increase the occurrence of thermophilic plant species while decreasing cold-tolerant species. In addition to these direct impacts, climate change scenarios caused an increase of the occurrence probability of oligotrophic species due to a higher N immobilisation in woody biomass leading to soil N depletion. As a consequence, climate change did offset eutrophication from N deposition, even when no further reduction in N emissions was assumed. Our results show that climate change may have positive side-effects in forest habitats when multiple drivers of change are considered.

  14. Climate and air pollution impacts on habitat suitability of Austrian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Ika; Kitzler, Barbara; Kobler, Johannes; Mol-Dijkstra, Janet P.; Posch, Max; Reinds, Gert Jan; Schlutow, Angela; Starlinger, Franz; Wamelink, Wieger G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N) are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses) in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nutrient enrichment may threaten these habitats. We applied a dynamic geochemical soil model (VSD+) together with a novel niche-based plant response model (PROPS) to 5 forest habitat types (18 forest sites) protected under the EU Directive in Austria. We assessed how future climate change and N deposition might affect habitat suitability, defined as the capacity of a site to host its typical plant species. Our evaluation indicates that climate change will be the main driver of a decrease in habitat suitability in the future in Austria. The expected climate change will increase the occurrence of thermophilic plant species while decreasing cold-tolerant species. In addition to these direct impacts, climate change scenarios caused an increase of the occurrence probability of oligotrophic species due to a higher N immobilisation in woody biomass leading to soil N depletion. As a consequence, climate change did offset eutrophication from N deposition, even when no further reduction in N emissions was assumed. Our results show that climate change may have positive side-effects in forest habitats when multiple drivers of change are considered. PMID:28898262

  15. Climate and air pollution impacts on habitat suitability of Austrian forest ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dirnböck

    Full Text Available Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nutrient enrichment may threaten these habitats. We applied a dynamic geochemical soil model (VSD+ together with a novel niche-based plant response model (PROPS to 5 forest habitat types (18 forest sites protected under the EU Directive in Austria. We assessed how future climate change and N deposition might affect habitat suitability, defined as the capacity of a site to host its typical plant species. Our evaluation indicates that climate change will be the main driver of a decrease in habitat suitability in the future in Austria. The expected climate change will increase the occurrence of thermophilic plant species while decreasing cold-tolerant species. In addition to these direct impacts, climate change scenarios caused an increase of the occurrence probability of oligotrophic species due to a higher N immobilisation in woody biomass leading to soil N depletion. As a consequence, climate change did offset eutrophication from N deposition, even when no further reduction in N emissions was assumed. Our results show that climate change may have positive side-effects in forest habitats when multiple drivers of change are considered.

  16. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Douglas, David C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, Mark C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, Jon; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  17. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  18. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In ...

  19. Ground beetle habitat templets and riverbank integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Kris; Vanacker, Stijn; Jochems, Hans; De Blust, Geert; Dufrêne, M

    2006-01-01

    The habitat templet approach was used in a scale-sensitive bioindicator assessment for the ecological integrity of riverbanks and for specific responses to river management. Ground beetle habitat templets were derived from a catchment scale sampling, integrating the overall variety of bank types. This coarse-filter analysis was integrated in the reach scale fine-filtering approaches of community responses to habitat integrity and river management impacts. Higher species diversity was associat...

  20. Seasonal and interannual effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in central Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Kristin K.; Beletsky, Dmitry; DePinto, Joseph; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Scavia, Donald; Schwab, David J.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2011-01-01

    1. Hypoxia occurs seasonally in many stratified coastal marine and freshwater ecosystems when bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are depleted below 2–3 mg O2 L-1. 2. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in the central basin of Lake Erie from 1987 to 2005, using bioenergetic growth rate potential (GRP) as a proxy for habitat quality. We compared the effect of hypoxia on habitat quality of (i) rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax mordax Mitchill (young-of-year, YOY, and adult), a cold-water planktivore, (ii) emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque (adult), a warm-water planktivore, (iii) yellow perch, Perca flavescens Mitchill (YOY and adult), a cool-water benthopelagic omnivore and (iv) round goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas (adult) a eurythermal benthivore. Annual thermal and DO profiles were generated from 1D thermal and DO hydrodynamics models developed for Lake Erie’s central basin. 3. Hypoxia occurred annually, typically from mid-July to mid-October, which spatially and temporally overlaps with otherwise high benthic habitat quality. Hypoxia reduced the habitat quality across fish species and life stages, but the magnitude of the reduction varied both among and within species because of the differences in tolerance to low DO levels and warm-water temperatures. 4. Across years, trends in habitat quality mirrored trends in phosphorus concentration and water column oxygen demand in central Lake Erie. The per cent reduction in habitat quality owing to hypoxia was greatest for adult rainbow smelt and round goby (mean: -35%), followed by adult emerald shiner (mean: -12%), YOY rainbow smelt (mean: -10%) and YOY and adult yellow perch (mean: -8.5%). 5. Our results highlight the importance of differential spatiotemporally interactive effects of DO and temperature on relative fish habitat quality and quantity. These effects have the potential to influence the performance of individual fish species as well as population dynamics

  1. Seasonal water stress tolerance and habitat associations within four neotropical tree genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraloto, Christopher; Morneau, François; Bonal, Damien; Blanc, Lilian; Ferry, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between habitat association and physiological performance in four congeneric species pairs exhibiting contrasting distributions between seasonally flooded and terra firme habitats in lowland tropical rain forests of French Guiana, including Virola and Iryanthera (Myristicaceae), Symphonia (Clusiaceae), and Eperua (Caesalpiniaceae). We analyzed 10-year data sets of mapped and measured saplings (stems >150 cm in height and or =10 cm dbh) across 37.5 ha of permanent plots covering a 300-ha zone, within which seasonally flooded areas (where the water table never descends below 1 m) have been mapped. Additionally, we tested the response of growth, survival, and leaf functional traits of these species to drought and flood stress in a controlled experiment. We tested for habitat preference using a modification of the torus translation method. Strong contrasting associations of the species pairs of Iryanthera, Virola, and Symphonia were observed at the sapling stage, and these associations strengthened for the tree stage. Neither species of Eperua was significantly associated with flooded habitats at the sapling stage, but E. falcata was significantly and positively associated with flooded forests at the tree stage, and trees of E. grandiflora were found almost exclusively in nonflooded habitats. Differential performance provided limited explanatory support for the observed habitat associations, with only congeners of Iryanthera exhibiting divergent sapling survival and tree growth. Seedlings of species associated with flooded forest tended to have higher photosynthetic capacity than their congeners at field capacity. In addition, they tended to have the largest reductions in leaf gas exchange and growth rate in response to experimental drought stress and the least reductions in response to experimental inundation. The corroboration of habitat association with differences in functional traits and, to a lesser extent, measures of performance

  2. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  3. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  4. Habitat stability, predation risk and 'memory syndromes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesman, S; Rendle, A; Dall, S R X

    2015-05-27

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits ('memory syndrome') related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population.

  5. Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkema, Katie K; Wood, Spencer A; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Verutes, Gregory; Rosenthal, Amy; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; McField, Melanie; De Zegher, Joann

    2014-01-01

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios. (letter)

  6. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun Im

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  7. Habitat Ecology Visual Surveys of Demersal Fishes and Habitats off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1992, the Habitat Ecology team has been conducting fishery independent, visual surveys of demersal fishes and associated habitats in deep water (20 to 900...

  8. A Baltic Sea estuary as a phosphorus source and sink after drastic load reduction: seasonal and long-term mass balances for the Stockholm inner archipelago for 1968-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walve, Jakob; Sandberg, Maria; Larsson, Ulf; Lännergren, Christer

    2018-05-01

    Internal phosphorus (P) loading from sediments, controlled by hypoxia, is often assumed to hamper the recovery of lakes and coastal areas from eutrophication. In the early 1970s, the external P load to the inner archipelago of Stockholm, Sweden (Baltic Sea), was drastically reduced by improved sewage treatment, but the internal P loading and its controlling factors have been poorly quantified. We use two slightly different four-layer box models to calculate the area's seasonal and annual P balance (input-export) and the internal P exchange with sediments in 1968-2015. For 10-20 years after the main P load reduction, there was a negative P balance, small in comparison to the external load, and probably due to release from legacy sediment P storage. Later, the stabilized, near-neutral P balance indicates no remaining internal loading from legacy P, but P retention is low, despite improved oxygen conditions. Seasonally, sediments are a P sink in spring and a P source in summer and autumn. Most of the deep-water P release from sediments in summer-autumn appears to be derived from the settled spring bloom and is exported to outer areas during winter. Oxygen consumption and P release in the deep water are generally tightly coupled, indicating limited iron control of P release. However, enhanced P release in years of deep-water hypoxia suggests some contribution from redox-sensitive P pools. Increasing deep-water temperatures that stimulate oxygen consumption rates in early summer have counteracted the effect of lowered organic matter sedimentation on oxygen concentrations. Since the P turnover time is short and legacy P small, measures to bind P in Stockholm inner archipelago sediments would primarily accumulate recent P inputs, imported from the Baltic Sea and from Lake Mälaren.

  9. Loss of 'blue carbon' from coastal salt marshes following habitat disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I Macreadie

    Full Text Available Increased recognition of the global importance of salt marshes as 'blue carbon' (C sinks has led to concern that salt marshes could release large amounts of stored C into the atmosphere (as CO2 if they continue undergoing disturbance, thereby accelerating climate change. Empirical evidence of C release following salt marsh habitat loss due to disturbance is rare, yet such information is essential for inclusion of salt marshes in greenhouse gas emission reduction and offset schemes. Here we investigated the stability of salt marsh (Spartinaalterniflora sediment C levels following seagrass (Thallasiatestudinum wrack accumulation; a form of disturbance common throughout the world that removes large areas of plant biomass in salt marshes. At our study site (St Joseph Bay, Florida, USA, we recorded 296 patches (7.5 ± 2.3 m(2 mean area ± SE of vegetation loss (aged 3-12 months in a salt marsh meadow the size of a soccer field (7 275 m(2. Within these disturbed patches, levels of organic C in the subsurface zone (1-5 cm depth were ~30% lower than the surrounding undisturbed meadow. Subsequent analyses showed that the decline in subsurface C levels in disturbed patches was due to loss of below-ground plant (salt marsh biomass, which otherwise forms the main component of the long-term 'refractory' C stock. We conclude that disturbance to salt marsh habitat due to wrack accumulation can cause significant release of below-ground C; which could shift salt marshes from C sinks to C sources, depending on the intensity and scale of disturbance. This mechanism of C release is likely to increase in the future due to sea level rise; which could increase wrack production due to increasing storminess, and will facilitate delivery of wrack into salt marsh zones due to higher and more frequent inundation.

  10. Impact of habitat degradation on species diversity and nest abundance of five African stingless bee species in a tropical rainforest of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiatoko, Nkoba; Raina, Suresh Kumar; Langevelde, Van Frank

    2017-01-01

    Natural habitat degradation often involves the reduction or disappearance of bee species. In Africa, stingless bees are hunted for honey, which is used as food, for medicinal purposes, and for traditional rituals. Severe habitat degradation due to human settlement is hypothesized to have a negative

  11. Small Habitat Commonality Reduces Cost for Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Lepsch, Roger; Martin, John; Howard, Robert; Rucker, Michelle; Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Howe, Scott; Mary, Natalie; Nerren, Philip (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Most view the Apollo Program as expensive. It was. But, a human mission to Mars will be orders of magnitude more difficult and costly. Recently, NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) mapped out a step-wise approach for exploring Mars and the Mars-moon system. It is early in the planning process but because approximately 80% of the total life cycle cost is committed during preliminary design, there is an effort to emphasize cost reduction methods up front. Amongst the options, commonality across small habitat elements shows promise for consolidating the high bow-wave costs of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) while still accommodating each end-item's functionality. In addition to DDT&E, there are other cost and operations benefits to commonality such as reduced logistics, simplified infrastructure integration and with inter-operability, improved safety and simplified training. These benefits are not without a cost. Some habitats are sub-optimized giving up unique attributes for the benefit of the overall architecture and because the first item sets the course for those to follow, rapidly developing technology may be excluded. The small habitats within the EMC include the pressurized crew cabins for the ascent vehicle,

  12. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  13. A habitat selection model for Javan deer (Rusa timorensis in Wanagama I Forest, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANANG WAHYU PURNOMO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purnomo DW. 2010. A Habitat selection model for Javan deer (Rusa timorensis in Wanagama I Forest, Yogyakarta. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 84-89. Wanagama I Forest is the natural breeding habitat of Javan deer (Rusa timorensis de Blainville, 1822. Habitat changes had affected Timor’s resource selection and caused the deer to move from undisturbed areas to developed areas with agriculture and human settlements. We suspected that this shift was caused by the degradation of natural habitat. The research aimed to identify factors that might influence future habitat selection. Habitat selection was analyzed by comparing proportions of sites actually used to sites that we considered available to use. The results of a logistic regression of site categories showed there are three habitat variables that influence resource selection: sum of tree species (expß=1.305, slope (expß=1.061, and distance to a water source (expß=1.002. The three variables influence the deer existing in a certain site of Wanagama Forest and arrange resource selection probability function (RSPF.

  14. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Björklund

    Full Text Available Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, common buzzard (Buteo buteo and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus. We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  15. Modeling of Iranian Cheetah Habitat using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (Case Study: Dare Anjir Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zamani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of habitat sustainability indexes is essential in wildlife management and conservation of rare species. Suitable habitats are required in wildlife managements and conservation also, they increase reproduction and survival rate of species. In this study in order to mapping habitat sustainability and recognizing habitat requirements of Iranian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, field data from Dare Anjir  wildlife refuge were collected since autumn 2009 until summer 2011. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis approach has been used to develop habitat suitability model. In this method primary maps of  habitat variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation cover, distance from water sources and environmental monitoring stations have been produced by Idrisi and Biomapper software and imported in Biomapper. The output scores obtained from the analysis showed that Iranian cheetah tends to mountain areas where has more topographical features for camouflage in order to hunting, and northern aspects which have more humidity, denser vegetation cover and more preys . Our result showed that the Iranian cheetah has medium niche width and prefer marginal habitats.

  16. Habitus constitution in habitat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Romano Reschilian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the approach suggested by Pierre Bourdieu's sociology, this article demonstrates that the construction of the notion of habitus can reflect on the production of habitat in the form of precarious settlements, such as substandard housing or shantytowns. This study employs a multidimensional perspective, because precarious settlements are not rational and do not follow modern established or existing social and urbanistic rules and parameters. The review will extend beyond the scope suggested by historical materialism under the marxian view of urban sociology. To investigate this phenomenon, the author of this article studied a precarious settlement in the municipality of São José dos Campos, called Nova Tatetuba, which was removed in 2004 as part of a shantytown clearing program established by that city in 2000.

  17. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  18. Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 2. Changes in shallow-water habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.

    2003-09-01

    This is the second part of an investigation that analyzes human alteration of shallow-water habitat (SWH) available to juvenile salmonids in the tidal Lower Columbia River. Part 2 develops a one-dimensional, subtidal river stage model that explains ˜90% of the stage variance in the tidal river. This model and the tidal model developed in part 1 [, 2003] uncouple the nonlinear interaction of river tides and river stage by referring both to external forcing by river discharge, ocean tides, and atmospheric pressure. Applying the two models, daily high-water levels were predicted for a reach from rkm-50 to rkm-90 during 1974 to 1998, the period of contemporary management. Predicted water levels were related to the bathymetry and topography to determine the changes in shallow-water habitat area (SWHA) caused by flood control dikes and altered flow management. Model results suggest that diking and a >40% reduction of peak flows have reduced SWHA by ˜62% during the crucial spring freshet period during which juvenile salmon use of SWHA is maximal. Taken individually, diking and flow cycle alteration reduced spring freshet SWHA by 52% and 29%, respectively. SWHA has been both displaced to lower elevations and modified in its character because tidal range has increased. Our models of these processes are economical for the very long simulations (seasons to centuries) needed to understand historic changes and climate impacts on SWH. Through analysis of the nonlinear processes controlling surface elevation in a tidal river, we have identified some of the mechanisms that link freshwater discharge to SWH and salmonid survival.

  19. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, Devanshi [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-18

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18% of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  20. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  1. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Jindong; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Viña, Andrés; Shortridge, Ashton; Li, Rengui; Liu, Dian; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types) at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking. PMID:27627805

  2. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  3. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  4. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and

  5. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hull

    Full Text Available Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking.

  6. Fish thermal habitat current use and simulation of thermal habitat availability in lakes of the Argentine Patagonian Andes under climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliano, Pablo H; Rechencq, Magalí M; Fernández, María V; Lippolt, Gustavo E; Macchi, Patricio J

    2018-09-15

    Habitat use in relation to the thermal habitat availability and food source as a forcing factor on habitat selection and use of Percichthys trucha (Creole perch), Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta (brown trout) and Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) were determined as well as future potential thermal habitat availability for these species under climate change scenarios Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5. This study was conducted in three interconnected lakes of Northern Patagonia (Moreno Lake system). Data on fish abundance was obtained through gill netting and hydroacoustics, and thermal profiles and fish thermal habitat suitability index curves were used to identify current species-specific thermal habitat use. Surface air temperatures from the (NEX GDDP) database for RCP scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 were used to model monthly average temperatures of the water column up to the year 2099 for all three lakes, and to determine potential future habitat availability. In addition, data on fish diet were used to determine whether food could act as a forcing factor in current habitat selection. The four species examined do not use all the thermally suitable habitats currently available to them in the three lakes, and higher fish densities are not necessarily constrained to their "fundamental thermal niches" sensu Magnuson et al. (1979), as extensive use is made of less suitable habitats. This is apparently brought about by food availability acting as a major forcing factor in habitat selection and use. Uncertainties related to the multidimensionality inherent to habitat selection and climate change imply that fish resource management in Patagonia will not be feasible through traditional incremental policies and strategic adjustments based on short-term predictions, but will have to become highly opportunistic and adaptive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott L Matchett

    Full Text Available The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration

  8. Retention of habitat complexity minimizes disassembly of reef fish communities following disturbance: a large-scale natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Emslie

    Full Text Available High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year, spatially extensive (∼ 115,000 kms(2 dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef.

  9. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L; Fleskes, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  10. Projected impacts of climate, urbanization, water management, and wetland restoration on waterbird habitat in California’s Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006–2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the “existing” landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  11. Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, G.D.; MacMillan, D.B.; Katopodis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  12. L-Reactor Habitat Mitigation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The L-Reactor Fish and Wildlife Resource Mitigation Study was conducted to quantify the effects on habitat of the L-Reactor restart and to identify the appropriate mitigation for these impacts. The completed project evaluated in this study includes construction of a 1000 acre reactor cooling reservoir formed by damming Steel Creek. Habitat impacts identified include a loss of approximately 3,700 average annual habitat units. This report presents a mitigation plan, Plan A, to offset these habitat losses. Plan A will offset losses for all species studied, except whitetailed deer. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department strongly recommends creation of a game management area to provide realistic mitigation for loss of deer habitats. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kail

    Full Text Available River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact

  14. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Minakawa

    Full Text Available The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  15. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Rode, Karyn D; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-08-17

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; Rode, Karyn D.; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears.

  17. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  18. Combined effects of local habitat, anthropogenic stress, and dispersal on stream ecosystems: a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Jarno; Louhi, Pauliina; Mykrä, Heikki; Aroviita, Jukka; Putkonen, Emmi; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2018-06-06

    The effects of anthropogenic stressors on community structure and ecosystem functioning can be strongly influenced by local habitat structure and dispersal from source communities. Catchment land uses increase the input of fine sediments into stream channels, clogging the interstitial spaces of benthic habitats. Aquatic macrophytes enhance habitat heterogeneity and mediate important ecosystem functions, being thus a key component of habitat structure in many streams. Therefore, the recovery of macrophytes following in-stream habitat modification may be prerequisite for successful stream restoration. Restoration success is also affected by dispersal of organisms from the source community, with potentially strongest responses in relatively isolated headwater sites that receive limited amount of dispersing individuals. We used a factorial design in a set of stream mesocosms to study the independent and combined effects of an anthropogenic stressor (sand sedimentation), local habitat (macrophytes, i.e. moss transplants) and enhanced dispersal (two levels: high vs. low) on organic matter retention, algal accrual rate, leaf decomposition and macroinvertebrate community structure. Overall, all responses were simple additive effects with no interactions between treatments. Sand reduced algal accumulation, total invertebrate density and density of a few individual taxa. Mosses reduced algal accrual rate and algae-grazing invertebrates, but enhanced organic matter retention and detritus- and filter-feeders. Mosses also reduced macroinvertebrate diversity by increasing the dominance by a few taxa. Mosses also reduced leaf-mass loss, possibly because the organic matter retained by mosses provided an additional food source for leaf-shredding invertebrates and thus reduced shredder aggregation into leaf packs. The effect of mosses on macroinvertebrate communities and ecosystem functioning was distinct irrespective of the level of dispersal, suggesting strong environmental

  19. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  20. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  1. Effects of Climate Change on Habitat Availability and Configuration for an Endemic Coastal Alpine Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Jackson

    Full Text Available North America's coastal mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet harbour a number of endemic species. With little room "at the top" to track shifting climate envelopes, alpine species may be especially negatively affected by climate-induced habitat fragmentation. We ask how climate change will affect the total amount, mean patch size, and number of patches of suitable habitat for Vancouver Island White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura saxatilis; VIWTP, a threatened, endemic alpine bird. Using a Random Forest model and a unique dataset consisting of citizen science observations combined with field surveys, we predict the distribution and configuration of potential suitable summer habitat for VIWTP under baseline and future (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climates using three general circulation models and two greenhouse gas scenarios. VIWTP summer habitat is predicted to decline by an average of 25%, 44%, and 56% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, under the low greenhouse gas scenario and 27%, 59%, and 74% under the high scenario. Habitat patches are predicted to become fragmented, with a 52-79% reduction in mean patch size. The average elevation of suitable habitat patches is expected to increase, reflecting a loss of patches at lower elevations. Thus ptarmigan are in danger of being "squeezed off the mountain", as their remaining suitable habitat will be increasingly confined to mountaintops in the center of the island. The extent to which ptarmigan will be able to persist in increasingly fragmented habitat is unclear. Much will depend on their ability to move throughout a more heterogeneous landscape, utilize smaller breeding areas, and survive increasingly variable climate extremes. Our results emphasize the importance of continued monitoring and protection for high elevation specialist species, and suggest that White-tailed Ptarmigan should be considered an indicator species for alpine ecosystems in the face of

  2. Umatilla River subbasin fish habitat improvement project. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T.D.; Laws, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) procurement of one access easement with a private landowner, (2) design, layout, and implementation of 3.36 miles of instream structure maintenance, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 15.1 miles of fence, (4) revegetation along 3.36 miles of stream, (5) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, (6) extensive interagency coordination, and (7) environmental education activities with local high school students

  3. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  5. The Earth Observation Data for Habitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard; Blonda, Palma; Bunting, Peter; Jones, Gwawr; Inglada, Jordi; Arias, Marcela; Kosmidou, Vasiliki; Petrou, Zisis I.; Manakos, Ioannis; Adamo, Maria; Charnock, Rebecca; Tarantino, Cristina; Mücher, Caspar A.; Jongman, Rob H. G.; Kramer, Henk; Arvor, Damien; Honrado, Joāo Pradinho; Mairota, Paola

    2015-05-01

    To support decisions relating to the use and conservation of protected areas and surrounds, the EU-funded BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species (BIO_SOS) project has developed the Earth Observation Data for HAbitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system for consistent mapping and monitoring of biodiversity. The EODHaM approach has adopted the Food and Agriculture Organization Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy and translates mapped classes to General Habitat Categories (GHCs) from which Annex I habitats (EU Habitats Directive) can be defined. The EODHaM system uses a combination of pixel and object-based procedures. The 1st and 2nd stages use earth observation (EO) data alone with expert knowledge to generate classes according to the LCCS taxonomy (Levels 1 to 3 and beyond). The 3rd stage translates the final LCCS classes into GHCs from which Annex I habitat type maps are derived. An additional module quantifies changes in the LCCS classes and their components, indices derived from earth observation, object sizes and dimensions and the translated habitat maps (i.e., GHCs or Annex I). Examples are provided of the application of EODHaM system elements to protected sites and their surrounds in Italy, Wales (UK), the Netherlands, Greece, Portugal and India.

  6. Manor gardens: Harbors of local natural habitats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, M.; Demková, K.; Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 205, JAN 2017 (2017), s. 16-22 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : park * human impact * habitat network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016

  7. habitat are of special scientific, educative and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Over 50% of all sightings were achieved in the matured forest. Keywords: ... hotspots, eco- tourism potential for game viewing, ... conservation is the increasing rate of habitat loss or ... to relatively undisturbed natural areas for educational,.

  8. Expandable Habitat Outfit Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Topic H3.01 captures the need for robust, multipurpose deployable structures with high packing efficiencies for next generation orbital habitats. Multiple launch and...

  9. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  10. Habitat Mapping Cruise (HB0805, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  11. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  12. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  13. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  14. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  15. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  16. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  17. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  18. Movements and habitat utilization of nembwe, Serranochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distance migrations onto the floodplains. It is concluded that although staying within relatively small home ranges, nembwe appears as a species with a variable and flexible habitat utilization. Keywords: fish, radio-tagging, telemetry, home range ...

  19. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  20. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  1. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  2. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laury Cullen

    Full Text Available Jaguar (Panthera onca populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.

  3. Habitat diversity in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: Selected video clips from the Gulfstream Natural Gas Pipeline digital archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; D'Anjou, Robert; Pope, Domonique K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    This project combines underwater video with maps and descriptions to illustrate diverse seafloor habitats from Tampa Bay, Florida, to Mobile Bay, Alabama. A swath of seafloor was surveyed with underwater video to 100 meters (m) water depth in 1999 and 2000 as part of the Gulfstream Natural Gas System Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Florida, in cooperation with Eckerd College and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), produced an archive of analog-to-digital underwater movies. Representative clips of seafloor habitats were selected from hundreds of hours of underwater footage. The locations of video clips were mapped to show the distribution of habitat and habitat transitions. The numerous benthic habitats in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico play a vital role in the region's economy, providing essential resources for tourism, natural gas, recreational water sports (fishing, boating, scuba diving), materials, fresh food, energy, a source of sand for beach renourishment, and more. These submerged natural resources are important to the economy but are often invisible to the general public. This product provides a glimpse of the seafloor with sample underwater video, maps, and habitat descriptions. It was developed to depict the range and location of seafloor habitats in the region but is limited by depth and by the survey track. It should not be viewed as comprehensive, but rather as a point of departure for inquiries and appreciation of marine resources and seafloor habitats. Further information is provided in the Resources section.

  4. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L L; Akçakaya, H Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.

  5. Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% of Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, P = 0.04 and r = 0.76, P = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate approximately 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology and behavior of the target species. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Habitat-Lite: A GSC case study based on free text terms for environmental metadata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Hirschman, Lynette; Clark, Cheryl; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Mardis, Scott; Luciano, Joanne; Kottmann, Renzo; Cole, James; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Field, Dawn

    2008-04-01

    There is an urgent need to capture metadata on the rapidly growing number of genomic, metagenomic and related sequences, such as 16S ribosomal genes. This need is a major focus within the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and Habitat is a key metadata descriptor in the proposed 'Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence' (MIGS) specification. The goal of the work described here is to provide a light-weight, easy-to-use (small) set of terms ('Habitat-Lite') that captures high-level information about habitat while preserving a mapping to the recently launched Environment Ontology (EnvO). Our motivation for building Habitat-Lite is to meet the needs of multiple users, such as annotators curating these data, database providers hosting the data, and biologists and bioinformaticians alike who need to search and employ such data in comparative analyses. Here, we report a case study based on semi-automated identification of terms from GenBank and GOLD. We estimate that the terms in the initial version of Habitat-Lite would provide useful labels for over 60% of the kinds of information found in the GenBank isolation-source field, and around 85% of the terms in the GOLD habitat field. We present a revised version of Habitat-Lite and invite the community's feedback on its further development in order to provide a minimum list of terms to capture high-level habitat information and to provide classification bins needed for future studies.

  7. Assessing habitat selection when availability changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, S.; Garner, G.; ,

    1996-01-01

    We present a method of comparing data on habitat use and availability that allows availability to differ among observations. This method is applicable when habitats change over time and when animals are unable to move throughout a predetermined study area between observations. We used maximum-likelihood techniques to derive an index that estimates the probability that each habitat type would be used if all were equally available. We also demonstrate how these indices can be used to compare relative use of available habitats, assign them ranks, and assess statistical differences between pairs of indices. The set of these indices for all habitats can be compared between groups of animals that represent different seasons, sex or age classes, or experimental treatments. This method allows quantitative comparisons among types and is not affected by arbitrary decisions about which habitats to include in the study. We provide an example by comparing the availability of four categories of sea ice concentration to their use by adult female polar bears, whose movements were monitored by satellite radio tracking in the Bering and Chukchi Seas during 1990. Use of ice categories by bears was nonrandom, and the pattern of use differed between spring and late summer seasons.

  8. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and

  10. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; van Manen, Frank T; Haroldson, Mark A; Ebinger, Michael R; Cain, Steven L; Gunther, Kerry A; Bjornlie, Daniel D

    2014-05-01

    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August-30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate temporal changes in habitat use and movements during 2000-2011. We calculated Manly-Chesson (MC) indices for selectivity of WBP habitat and secure habitat (≥500 m from roads and human developments), determined dates of WBP use, and documented net daily movement distances and activity radii. To evaluate temporal trends, we used regression, model selection, and candidate model sets consisting of annual WBP production, sex, and year. One-third of sampled grizzly bears had fall ranges with little or no mapped WBP habitat. Most other bears (72%) had a MC index above 0.5, indicating selection for WBP habitats. From 2000 to 2011, mean MC index decreased and median date of WBP use shifted about 1 week later. We detected no trends in movement indices over time. Outside of national parks, there was no correlation between the MC indices for WBP habitat and secure habitat, and most bears (78%) selected for secure habitat. Nonetheless, mean MC index for secure habitat decreased over the study period during years of good WBP productivity. The wide diet breadth and foraging plasticity of grizzly bears likely allowed them to adjust to declining WBP. Bears reduced use of WBP stands without increasing movement rates, suggesting they obtained alternative fall foods within their local surroundings. However, the reduction in mortality risk historically associated with use of secure, high-elevation WBP habitat may be diminishing for bears residing in multiple-use areas.

  11. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M.; van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Cain, Steven L.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August–30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate temporal changes in habitat use and movements during 2000–2011. We calculated Manly–Chesson (MC) indices for selectivity of WBP habitat and secure habitat (≥500 m from roads and human developments), determined dates of WBP use, and documented net daily movement distances and activity radii. To evaluate temporal trends, we used regression, model selection, and candidate model sets consisting of annual WBP production, sex, and year. One-third of sampled grizzly bears had fall ranges with little or no mapped WBP habitat. Most other bears (72%) had a MC index above 0.5, indicating selection for WBP habitats. From 2000 to 2011, mean MC index decreased and median date of WBP use shifted about 1 week later. We detected no trends in movement indices over time. Outside of national parks, there was no correlation between the MC indices for WBP habitat and secure habitat, and most bears (78%) selected for secure habitat. Nonetheless, mean MC index for secure habitat decreased over the study period during years of good WBP productivity. The wide diet breadth and foraging plasticity of grizzly bears likely allowed them to adjust to declining WBP. Bears reduced use of WBP stands without increasing movement rates, suggesting they obtained alternative fall foods within their local surroundings. However, the reduction in mortality risk historically associated with use of secure, high-elevation WBP habitat may be diminishing for bears residing in multiple-use areas.

  12. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan

    2016-06-01

    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat

  14. Development of a Regional Habitat Classification Scheme for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development, image processing techniques and field survey methods are outlined. Habitat classification, and regional-scale comparisons of relative habitat composition are described. The study demonstrates the use of remote sensing data to construct digital habitat maps for the comparison of regional habitat coverage, ...

  15. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  16. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Chantel E; Chow-Fraser, Gillian; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015) and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water) and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  17. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel E Markle

    Full Text Available Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015 and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  18. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the “Nestedness Temperature Calculator” to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island. Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD, indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  19. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  20. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  1. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Habitat selection of the Mauritian lowland forest day gecko at multiple spatial scales: A baseline for translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeves Buckland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 30 known subpopulations of Phelsuma guimbeaui, 18 are in patches of exotic forest and are predicted to disappear in the next decade. One possible means of mitigating the reduction in genetic diversity associated with the loss of subpopulations is to translocate “at risk” subpopulations to more secure habitats. Prior to any such intervention, it is important to identify a species’ basic ecological needs. We had three main objectives: to calculate home range sizes of adult geckos; characterise habitat selection among age groups; and identify the order of importance of each habitat predictor. Habitat selection of P. guimbeaui was explored at the population, home range and microhabitat levels. Males had larger home ranges than females, and overlapped temporally with more females than males. We showed that habitat selection differed between age groups. In order of importance, tree diversity, tree species, tree height, trunk dbh and cavity density were important habitat predictors. We discuss how these data can be used to inform the choice of sites for the translocation of threatened subpopulations. Our results also highlight the importance of undertaking habitat restoration for the long-term conservation of the 12 subpopulations that survive in patches of endemic forest.

  3. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Langevelde, van, F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat connectivity affects processes at population and individual level. In this thesis, I report on a study of effects of habitat fragmentation and opportunities to mitigate these effects by planning ecological n...

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-winged blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  6. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  7. Habitat Management: A Tool to Modify Ecosystem Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Power

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been shown to affect both the structure and the function of heathland ecosystems. Heathlands are semi-natural habitats and, as such, undergo regular management by mowing or burning. Different forms of management remove more or less nutrients from the system, so habitat management has the potential to mitigate some of the effects of atmospheric deposition. Data from a dynamic vegetation model and two field experiments are presented. The first involves nitrogen addition following different forms of habitat management. The second tests the use of habitat management to promote heathland recovery after a reduction in nitrogen deposition. Both modelling and experimental approaches suggest that plant and microbial response to nitrogen is affected by management. Shoot growth and rates of decomposition were lowest in plots managed using more intensive techniques, including mowing with litter removal and a high temperature burn. Field data also indicate that ecosystem recovery from prolonged elevated inputs of nitrogen may take many years, or even decades, even after the removal of plant and litter nitrogen stores which accompanies the more intensive forms of habitat management.

  8. Habitat connectivity as a metric for aquatic microhabitat quality: Application to Chinook salmon spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Carnie; Daniele Tonina; Jim McKean; Daniel Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Quality of fish habitat at the scale of a single fish, at the metre resolution, which we defined here as microhabitat, has been primarily evaluated on short reaches, and their results have been extended through long river segments with methods that do not account for connectivity, a measure of the spatial distribution of habitat patches. However, recent...

  9. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malison, Rachel L; Kuzishchin, Kirill V; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3-12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99-1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  10. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts

  11. VisTrails SAHM: visualization and workflow management for species habitat modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Talbert, Colin B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Talbert, Marian; Silva, Claudio; Koop, David; Swanson, Alan; Young, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre- and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model through the established workflow management and visualization VisTrails software. This paper provides an overview of the VisTrails:SAHM software including a link to the open source code, a table detailing the current SAHM modules, and a simple example modeling an invasive weed species in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

  12. Managing harvest and habitat as integrated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik; Runge, Michael C.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Austin, Jane E.; Boomer, G. S.; Clark, R. G.; Devers, P.; Eadie, J. M.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common modelling framework could help these management streams to better understand their mutual effects. Particularly, how does successful habitat management increase harvest potential? Also, how do regional habitat programmes and large-scale harvest strategies affect continental population sizes (a metric used to express habitat goals)? In the ensuing five years, several projects took on different aspects of these challenges. While all of these projects are still on-going, and are not yet sufficiently developed to produce guidance for management decisions, they have been influential in expanding the dialogue and producing some important emerging lessons. The first lesson has been that one of the more difficult aspects of integration is not the integration across decision contexts, but the integration across spatial and temporal scales. Habitat management occurs at local and regional scales. Harvest management decisions are made at a continental scale. How do these actions, taken at different scales, combine to influence waterfowl population dynamics at all scales? The second lesson has been that consideration of the interface of habitat and harvest management can generate important insights into the objectives underlying the decision context. Often the objectives are very complex and trade-off against one another. The third lesson follows from the second – if an understanding of the fundamental objectives is paramount, there is no escaping the need for a better understanding of human dimensions, specifically the desires of hunters and nonhunters and the role they play in conservation. In the end, the compelling question is

  13. Eder Acquisition 2007 Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Eder acquisition in July 2007 to determine how many protection habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. Baseline HEP surveys generated 3,857.64 habitat units or 1.16 HUs per acre. HEP surveys also served to document general habitat conditions. Survey results indicated that the herbaceous plant community lacked forbs species, which may be due to both livestock grazing and the late timing of the surveys. Moreover, the herbaceous plant community lacked structure based on lower than expected visual obstruction readings (VOR); likely a direct result of livestock impacts. In addition, introduced herbaceous vegetation including cultivated pasture grasses, e.g. crested wheatgrass and/or invader species such as cheatgrass and mustard, were present on most areas surveyed. The shrub element within the shrubsteppe cover type was generally a mosaic of moderate to dense shrubby areas interspersed with open grassland communities while the 'steppe' component was almost entirely devoid of shrubs. Riparian shrub and forest areas were somewhat stressed by livestock. Moreover, shrub and tree communities along the lower reaches of Nine Mile Creek suffered from lack of water due to the previous landowners 'piping' water out of the stream channel.

  14. The importance of historical land use in the maintenance of early successional habitat for a threatened rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. McCluskey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how historic habitat changes have impacted species and searching the past for clues to better understand the current plight of threatened species can help inform and improve future conservation efforts. We coupled species distribution modeling with historical imagery analysis to assess how changes in land use/land cover have influenced the distribution of eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus, a federally threatened species, and its habitat in northeastern Ohio over the past ∼75 years. We also examined land use/land cover changes throughout southern Michigan for a broader perspective on the influence of historical processes on contemporary habitat. There was a pronounced shift in northeastern Ohio land cover from 1938 to 2011 with forest cover becoming the predominant land cover type as agricultural fields were abandoned and succession occurred. Most known eastern massasauga locations in the area were at some point used for agriculture and higher habitat suitability values were associated with agricultural fields that were eventually abandoned. We observed more stable habitat conditions across southern Michigan populations indicating agricultural abandonment was not as necessary for habitat creation in this part of their range. We present a new approach for linking historical landscapes to present day habitat suitability models; permitting inferences on how prior land use/land cover states have influenced the current distribution of species and their habitats. We demonstrate how agricultural abandonment was an important source of early successional habitat for a species that requires an open canopy, a finding applicable to a broad array of species with similar habitat requirements. Keywords: Eastern massasauga, Agriculture, Aerial photography, Maxent

  15. Temporal and Spatial Comparisons of Underwater Sound Signatures of Different Reef Habitats in Moorea Island, French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bertucci

    Full Text Available As environmental sounds are used by larval fish and crustaceans to locate and orientate towards habitat during settlement, variations in the acoustic signature produced by habitats could provide valuable information about habitat quality, helping larvae to differentiate between potential settlement sites. However, very little is known about how acoustic signatures differ between proximate habitats. This study described within- and between-site differences in the sound spectra of five contiguous habitats at Moorea Island, French Polynesia: the inner reef crest, the barrier reef, the fringing reef, a pass and a coastal mangrove forest. Habitats with coral (inner, barrier and fringing reefs were characterized by a similar sound spectrum with average intensities ranging from 70 to 78 dB re 1 μPa.Hz(-1. The mangrove forest had a lower sound intensity of 70 dB re 1 μPa.Hz(-1 while the pass was characterized by a higher sound level with an average intensity of 91 dB re 1 μPa.Hz(-1. Habitats showed significantly different intensities for most frequencies, and a decreasing intensity gradient was observed from the reef to the shore. While habitats close to the shore showed no significant diel variation in sound intensities, sound levels increased at the pass during the night and barrier reef during the day. These two habitats also appeared to be louder in the North than in the West. These findings suggest that daily variations in sound intensity and across-reef sound gradients could be a valuable source of information for settling larvae. They also provide further evidence that closely related habitats, separated by less than 1 km, can differ significantly in their spectral composition and that these signatures might be typical and conserved along the coast of Moorea.

  16. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction surgery entails — including possible risks and complications — as ...

  17. Potential climate change effects on the habitat of antarctic krill in the weddell quadrant of the southern ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Simeon L; Phillips, Tony; Atkinson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic krill is a cold water species, an increasingly important fishery resource and a major prey item for many fish, birds and mammals in the Southern Ocean. The fishery and the summer foraging sites of many of these predators are concentrated between 0° and 90°W. Parts of this quadrant have experienced recent localised sea surface warming of up to 0.2°C per decade, and projections suggest that further widespread warming of 0.27° to 1.08°C will occur by the late 21(st) century. We assessed the potential influence of this projected warming on Antarctic krill habitat with a statistical model that links growth to temperature and chlorophyll concentration. The results divide the quadrant into two zones: a band around the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in which habitat quality is particularly vulnerable to warming, and a southern area which is relatively insensitive. Our analysis suggests that the direct effects of warming could reduce the area of growth habitat by up to 20%. The reduction in growth habitat within the range of predators, such as Antarctic fur seals, that forage from breeding sites on South Georgia could be up to 55%, and the habitat's ability to support Antarctic krill biomass production within this range could be reduced by up to 68%. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the effects of a 50% change in summer chlorophyll concentration could be more significant than the direct effects of warming. A reduction in primary production could lead to further habitat degradation but, even if chlorophyll increased by 50%, projected warming would still cause some degradation of the habitat accessible to predators. While there is considerable uncertainty in these projections, they suggest that future climate change could have a significant negative effect on Antarctic krill growth habitat and, consequently, on Southern Ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  18. Habitat specialization through germination cueing: a comparative study of herbs from forests and open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen Pieter; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat). Seed germination response to temperature, light and stratification was tested for 17 congeneric pairs, each consisting of one forest species and one open-habitat species. A factorial design was used with temperature levels and diurnal temperature variation (10 °C constant, 15-5 °C fluctuating, 20 °C constant, 25-15 °C fluctuating), and two light levels (light and darkness) and a cold stratification treatment. The congeneric species pair design took phylogenetic dependence into account. Species from open habitats germinated better at high temperatures, whereas forest species performed equally well at low and high temperatures. Forest species tended to germinate only after a period of cold stratification that could break dormancy, while species from open habitats generally germinated without cold stratification. The empirically derived germination strategies correspond quite well with establishment opportunities for forest and open-habitat plant species in nature. Annual changes in temperature and light regime in temperate forest delimit windows of opportunity for germination and establishment. Germination strategies of forest plants are adaptations to utilize such narrow windows in time. Conversely, lack of fit between germination ecology and environment may explain why species of open habitats generally fail to establish in forests. Germination strategy should be considered an important mechanism for habitat specialization in temperate herbs to forest habitats. The findings strongly suggest that

  19. Preprocessing in a Tiered Sensor Network for Habitat Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbiao Wang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate task decomposition and collaboration in a two-tiered sensor network for habitat monitoring. The system recognizes and localizes a specified type of birdcalls. The system has a few powerful macronodes in the first tier, and many less powerful micronodes in the second tier. Each macronode combines data collected by multiple micronodes for target classification and localization. We describe two types of lightweight preprocessing which significantly reduce data transmission from micronodes to macronodes. Micronodes classify events according to their cross-zero rates and discard irrelevant events. Data about events of interest is reduced and compressed before being transmitted to macronodes for target localization. Preliminary experiments illustrate the effectiveness of event filtering and data reduction at micronodes.

  20. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  1. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  2. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Sherpa, Peema; Thapa, Gokarna Jung; Kokh, Manish; Lama, Sonam Tashi; Khanal, Kapil; Thapa, Arjun; Jnawali, Shant Raj

    2017-01-01

    In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2) of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2) of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  3. Global habitat suitability for framework-forming cold-water corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Davies

    Full Text Available Predictive habitat models are increasingly being used by conservationists, researchers and governmental bodies to identify vulnerable ecosystems and species' distributions in areas that have not been sampled. However, in the deep sea, several limitations have restricted the widespread utilisation of this approach. These range from issues with the accuracy of species presences, the lack of reliable absence data and the limited spatial resolution of environmental factors known or thought to control deep-sea species' distributions. To address these problems, global habitat suitability models have been generated for five species of framework-forming scleractinian corals by taking the best available data and using a novel approach to generate high resolution maps of seafloor conditions. High-resolution global bathymetry was used to resample gridded data from sources such as World Ocean Atlas to produce continuous 30-arc second (∼1 km(2 global grids for environmental, chemical and physical data of the world's oceans. The increased area and resolution of the environmental variables resulted in a greater number of coral presence records being incorporated into habitat models and higher accuracy of model predictions. The most important factors in determining cold-water coral habitat suitability were depth, temperature, aragonite saturation state and salinity. Model outputs indicated the majority of suitable coral habitat is likely to occur on the continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The North Pacific has very little suitable scleractinian coral habitat. Numerous small scale features (i.e., seamounts, which have not been sampled or identified as having a high probability of supporting cold-water coral habitat were identified in all ocean basins. Field validation of newly identified areas is needed to determine the accuracy of model results, assess the utility of modelling efforts to identify vulnerable marine

  4. Avian BMR in marine and non-marine habitats: a test using shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Abad-Gómez, José M; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Navedo, Juan G; Masero, José A

    2012-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is closely linked to different habitats and way of life. In birds, some studies have noted that BMR is higher in marine species compared to those inhabiting terrestrial habitats. However, the extent of such metabolic dichotomy and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Migratory shorebirds (Charadriiformes) offer a particularly interesting opportunity for testing this marine-non-marine difference as they are typically divided into two broad categories in terms of their habitat occupancy outside the breeding season: 'coastal' and 'inland' shorebirds. Here, we measured BMR for 12 species of migratory shorebirds wintering in temperate inland habitats and collected additional BMR values from the literature for coastal and inland shorebirds along their migratory route to make inter- and intraspecific comparisons. We also measured the BMR of inland and coastal dunlins Calidris alpina wintering at a similar latitude to facilitate a more direct intraspecific comparison. Our interspecific analyses showed that BMR was significantly lower in inland shorebirds than in coastal shorebirds after the effects of potentially confounding climatic (latitude, temperature, solar radiation, wind conditions) and organismal (body mass, migratory status, phylogeny) factors were accounted for. This indicates that part of the variation in basal metabolism might be attributed to genotypic divergence. Intraspecific comparisons showed that the mass-specific BMR of dunlins wintering in inland freshwater habitats was 15% lower than in coastal saline habitats, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity also plays an important role in generating these metabolic differences. We propose that the absence of tidally-induced food restrictions, low salinity, and less windy microclimates associated with inland freshwater habitats may reduce the levels of energy expenditure, and hence BMR. Further research including common-garden experiments that eliminate phenotypic plasticity

  5. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Twerd

    Full Text Available Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species.In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages.Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  6. Habitat connectivity and ecosystem productivity: implications from a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E

    2007-01-01

    The import of resources (food, nutrients) sustains biological production and food webs in resource-limited habitats. Resource export from donor habitats subsidizes production in recipient habitats, but the ecosystem-scale consequences of resource translocation are generally unknown. Here, I use a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model to show how dispersive connectivity between a shallow autotrophic habitat and a deep heterotrophic pelagic habitat can amplify overall system production in metazoan food webs. This result derives from the finite capacity of suspension feeders to capture and assimilate food particles: excess primary production in closed autotrophic habitats cannot be assimilated by consumers; however, if excess phytoplankton production is exported to food-limited heterotrophic habitats, it can be assimilated by zooplankton to support additional secondary production. Transport of regenerated nutrients from heterotrophic to autotrophic habitats sustains higher system primary production. These simulation results imply that the ecosystem-scale efficiency of nutrient transformation into metazoan biomass can be constrained by the rate of resource exchange across habitats and that it is optimized when the transport rate matches the growth rate of primary producers. Slower transport (i.e., reduced connectivity) leads to nutrient limitation of primary production in autotrophic habitats and food limitation of secondary production in heterotrophic habitats. Habitat fragmentation can therefore impose energetic constraints on the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The outcomes of ecosystem restoration through habitat creation will be determined by both functions provided by newly created aquatic habitats and the rates of hydraulic connectivity between them.

  7. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  8. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    ; Marcot, 2003). For example, by puncturing bark and fragmenting sapwood, woodpeckers create sites favorable for wood-decaying organisms (Farris et al., 2004), which in turn create habitat for other species and facilitate nutrient cycling. Small mammals that use down wood for cover function in the dispersal of plant seeds and fungal spores (Carey et al., 1999). Resident cavitynesting birds may regulate insect populations by preying on overwintering arthropods (Jackson, 1979; Kroll and Fleet, 1979). These examples illustrate how dead wood not only directly provides habitat for a large number of wildlife species, but also forms the foundation of functional webs that critically influence forest ecosystems (Marcot, 2002; Marcot, 2003). The important and far-reaching implications of management of decaying wood highlight the need for conservation of dead-wood resources in managed forests. Consideration of the key ecological functions of species associated with dead wood can help guide management of dead wood in a framework consistent with the paradigm of ecosystem management (Marcot and Vander Heyden, 2001; Marcot, 2002.) As more information is revealed about the ecological and habitat values of decaying wood, concern has increased over a reduction in the current amounts of dead wood relative to historic levels (Ohmann and Waddell, 2002). Past management practices have tended to severely reduce amounts of dead wood throughout all stages of forest development (Hansen et al., 1991). The large amounts of legacy wood that characterize young post-disturbance forests are not realized in managed stands, because most of the wood volume is removed at harvest for economic and safety reasons. Mid-rotation thinning is used to “salvage” some mortality that might otherwise occur due to suppression, so fewer snags are recruited in mid-seral stages. Harvest rotations of 80 years or less truncate tree size in managed stands, and thus limit the production of large-diameter wood. As a

  9. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  10. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-02-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and reconstruction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2004 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2004), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance, and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation. This report also summarizes Program Administrative, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education activities.

  11. Asotin Creek instream habitat alteration projects : habitat evaluation, adult and juvenile habitat utilization and water temperature monitoring : 2001 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  12. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in

  13. Quantifying the effect of seasonal and vertical habitat tracking on planktonic foraminifera proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jonkers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of planktonic foraminiferal (PF calcite is routinely used to reconstruct climate variability. However, PF ecology leaves a large imprint on the proxy signal: seasonal and vertical habitats of PF species vary spatially, causing variable offsets from annual mean surface conditions recorded by sedimentary assemblages. PF seasonality changes with temperature in a way that minimises the environmental change that individual species experience and it is not unlikely that changes in depth habitat also result from such habitat tracking. While this behaviour could lead to an underestimation of spatial or temporal trends as well as of variability in proxy records, most palaeoceanographic studies are (implicitly based on the assumption of a constant habitat. Up to now, the effect of habitat tracking on foraminifera proxy records has not yet been formally quantified on a global scale. Here we attempt to characterise this effect on the amplitude of environmental change recorded in sedimentary PF using core top δ18O data from six species. We find that the offset from mean annual near-surface δ18O values varies with temperature, with PF δ18O indicating warmer than mean conditions in colder waters (on average by −0.1 ‰ (equivalent to 0.4 °C per °C, thus providing a first-order quantification of the degree of underestimation due to habitat tracking. We use an empirical model to estimate the contribution of seasonality to the observed difference between PF and annual mean δ18O and use the residual Δδ18O to assess trends in calcification depth. Our analysis indicates that given an observation-based model parametrisation calcification depth increases with temperature in all species and sensitivity analysis suggests that a temperature-related seasonal habitat adjustment is essential to explain the observed isotope signal. Habitat tracking can thus lead to a significant reduction in the amplitude of recorded environmental change

  14. Mapping habitat for multiple species in the Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Richard D.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Barr, Kelly R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Many utility scale renewable energy projects are currently proposed across the Mojave Ecoregion. Agencies that manage biological resources throughout this region need to understand the potential impacts of these renewable energy projects and their associated infrastructure (for example, transmission corridors, substations, access roads, etc.) on species movement, genetic exchange among populations, and species’ abilities to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these factors will help managers’ select appropriate project sites and possibly mitigate for anticipated effects of management activities. We used species distribution models to map habitat for 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion to aid regional land-use management planning. Models were developed using a common 1 × 1 kilometer resolution with maximum entropy and generalized additive models. Occurrence data were compiled from multiple sources, including VertNet (http://vertnet.org/), HerpNET (http://www.herpnet.org), and MaNIS (http://manisnet.org), as well as from internal U.S. Geological Survey databases and other biologists. Background data included 20 environmental covariates representing terrain, vegetation, and climate covariates. This report summarizes these environmental covariates and species distribution models used to predict habitat for the 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion.

  15. Birds and bird habitats: guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    Established in 2009, the Green Energy Act aims to increase the use of renewable energy sources including wind, water, solar and bioenergy in Ontario. The development of these resources is a major component of the province's plan, which aims to mitigate the contribution to climate change and to involve the Ontario's economy in the improvement of the quality of the environment. The Green Energy Act also considers as important the implementation of a coordinated provincial approval process, suggesting the integration of all Ministry requirements into a unique process during the evaluation of newly proposed renewable energy projects. The Ministry of the Environment's Renewable Energy Approval Regulation details the requirements for wind power projects involving significant natural features. Birds are an important part of Ontario's biodiversity and, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources, their habitats are considered as significant wildlife habitat (SWH). The Renewable Energy Approval Regulation and this guideline are meant to provide elements and guidance in order to protect bird SWH during the selection of a location of wind power facilities. . 27 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Mine-drainage treatment wetland as habitat for herptofaunal wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacki, Michael J.; Hummer, Joseph W.; Webster, Harold J.

    1992-07-01

    Land reclamation techniques that incorporate habitat features for herptofaunal wildlife have received little attention. We assessed the suitability of a wetland, constructed for the treatment of mine-water drainage, for supporting herptofaunal wildlife from 1988 through 1990 using diurnal and nocturnal surveys. Natural wetlands within the surrounding watershed were also monitored for comparison. The treatment wetland supported the greatest abundance and species richness of herptofauna among the sites surveyed. Abundance was a function of the frog density, particularly green frogs ( Rana clamitans) and pickerel frogs ( R. palustris), while species richness was due to the number of snake species found. The rich mix of snake species present at the treatment wetland was believed due to a combination of an abundant frog prey base and an amply supply of den sites in rock debris left behind from earlier surface-mining activities. Nocturnal surveys of breeding male frogs demonstrated highest breeding activity at the treatment wetland, particularly for spring peepers ( Hyla crucifer). Whole-body assays of green frog and bullfrog ( R. catesbeiana) tissues showed no differences among sites in uptake of iron, aluminum, and zinc; managanese levels in samples from the treatment wetland were significantly lower than those from natural wetlands. These results suggest that wetlands established for water quality improvement can provide habitat for reptiles and amphibians, with the species composition dependent on the construction design, the proximity to source populations, and the degree of acidity and heavy-metal concentrations in drainage waters.

  17. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  18. Potential water yield reduction due to forestation across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xiaohua Wei; Steven G. McNulty; James M. Vose

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that vegetation restoration will have positive effects on watershed health by reducing soil erosion and non-point source pollution, enhancing terrestrial and aquatic habitat, and increasing ecosystem carbon sequestration. However, the hydrologic consequences of forestation on degraded lands are not well studied in the forest hydrology community...

  19. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  20. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  1. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  2. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4-month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  3. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4 Month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  4. Habitat-related specialization of lateral-line system morphology in a habitat-generalist and a habitat-specialist New Zealand eleotrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpham, J P; Nakagawa, S; Senior, A M; Closs, G P

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of intraspecific habitat-related patterns of variation in oculoscapular lateral-line superficial neuromasts (SN) identified a decrease in the ratio of total SNs to pores, and a trend towards decreased asymmetry in SNs in the habitat-generalist common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus from fluvial habitats compared to lacustrine habitats, suggesting habitat-related phenotypic variability. A greater ratio of pores to SNs, as well as less variation in the total number and asymmetry of SNs observed in the fluvial habitat-specialist redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni may provide further evidence of variations in the oculoscapular lateral-line morphology of fluvial habitat G. cotidianus individuals serving as adaptations to more turbulent environments. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  6. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  7. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... city buildings. These results were supported by multiple statistical analyses including Mantel's test, PCOORDA and AMOVA. Genetic enrichment and epigenetic variation studies can be included in habitat fragmentation analysis and its implications in inducing homogenization and susceptibility in natural plant populations.

  8. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  9. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Dufour, Florence; Kell, Laurence T.; Merino, Gorka; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Chust, Guillem; Irigoien, Xabier; Santiago, Josu; Murua, Hilario; Fraile, Igaratza; Chifflet, Marina; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Sagarminaga, Yolanda; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Herrera, Miguel Angel; Marc Fromentin, Jean; Bonhomeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Impact of fisheries on seabed bottom habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, Gerjan; Hintzen, Niels; Quirijns, Floor

    2018-01-01

    The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) released new certification requirements in 2014. The new requirements come with new guidelines for scoring fisheries for several Performance Indicators (PIs). One of the adjusted PIs is PI 2.4.1: the Habitats outcome indicator:“The Unit of Assessment (UoA) does

  11. Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Griffin, Brand N.

    2014-01-01

    Future missions under consideration requiring human habitation beyond the International Space Station (ISS) include deep space habitats in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar missions, satellite servicing, and Mars vehicle servicing missions. Habitat designs are also under consideration for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including transfers to near-Earth asteroids and Mars orbital destinations. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS designs and those that could be fabricated from the Space Launch System (SLS) propellant tanks. This paper presents a comparison showing several options for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats using ISS derived and SLS derived modules and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that the larger SLS diameter modules offer built-in compatibility with the launch vehicle, single launch capability without on-orbit assembly, improved radiation protection, lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long duration missions without resupply. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume comparison data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning efforts.

  12. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  14. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  15. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  16. 1998 BPA habitat projects completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, WA; Ridge-Top to Ridge-Top Habitat Projects; 1998 BPA Completion Report - November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed

  17. Enhancements of the "eHabitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Dubois, G.; Schulz, M.; Skøien, J. O.; Nativi, S.; Peedell, S.; Boldrini, E.

    2012-04-01

    The number of interoperable research infrastructures has increased significantly with the growing awareness of the efforts made by the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). One of the Social Benefit Areas (SBA) that is benefiting most from GEOSS is biodiversity, given the costs of monitoring the environment and managing complex information, from space observations to species records including their genetic characteristics. But GEOSS goes beyond the simple sharing of the data as it encourages the connectivity of models (the GEOSS Model Web), an approach easing the handling of often complex multi-disciplinary questions such as understanding the impact of environmental and climatological factors on ecosystems and habitats. In the context of GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot - Phase 3 (AIP-3), the EC-funded EuroGEOSS and GENESIS projects have developed and successfully demonstrated the "eHabitat" use scenario dealing with Climate Change and Biodiversity domains. Based on the EuroGEOSS multidisciplinary brokering infrastructure and on the DOPA (Digital Observatory for Protected Areas, see http://dopa.jrc.ec.europa.eu/), this scenario demonstrated how a GEOSS-based interoperability infrastructure can aid decision makers to assess and possibly forecast the irreplaceability of a given protected area, an essential indicator for assessing the criticality of threats this protected area is exposed to. The "eHabitat" use scenario was advanced in the GEOSS Sprint to Plenary activity; the advanced scenario will include the "EuroGEOSS Data Access Broker" and a new version of the eHabitat model in order to support the use of uncertain data. The multidisciplinary interoperability infrastructure which is used to demonstrate the "eHabitat" use scenario is composed of the following main components: a) A Discovery Broker: this component is able to discover resources from a plethora of different and heterogeneous geospatial services, presenting them on a single and

  18. Chamaedorea: diverse species in diverse habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DIVERSES ESPÈCES DANS DIVERS HABITATS. Des espèces extraordinairement diverses se trouvant dans des habitats également divers caractérisent Chamaedorea, un genre qui compte environ 90 espèces dioïques limitées aux sous-bois des forêts néo-tropicales constamment dans la pluie et les nuages du Mexique à la Bolivie et à l’Équateur. Une vaste gamme de formes biologiques, de tiges, de feuilles, d’inflorescences, de fleurs, et de fruits reflète la diversité des espèces. Bien que le genre soit plus riche en espèces dans les forêts denses et humides situées entre 800-1,500 mètres d’altitude, quelques espèces exceptionnelles se trouvent dans des forêts moins denses et/ou occasionnellement sèches, sur des substances dures ou dans d’autres habitats inhabituels. DIVERSAS ESPECIES EN DIVERSOS HÁBITATS. Especies notablemente diversas presentes en habitats igualmente diversos caracterizan a Chamaedorea, un genero de aproximadamente 90 especies dioicas limitadas al sotobosque de los bosques lluviosos y nubosos neotropicales desde Mexico hasta Bolivia y Ecuador. Una amplia gama de formas biológicas, tallos, hojas, inflorescencias, flores, y frutos refleja la diversidad de las especies. Aunque el género es más rico en especies en los bosques densos y húmedos de 800-1,500 metros de altura, unas pocas especies excepcionales ocurren en bosques abiertos o ocasionalmente secos, en substrato severo o en otros habitats extraordinarios. Remarkably diverse species occurring in equally diverse habitats characterize Chamaedorea, a genus of about 90, dioecious species restricted to the understory of neotropical rain and cloud forests from Mexico to Bolivia and Ecuador. A vast array of habits, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and fruits reflect the diversity of species. Although the genus is most species-rich in dense, moist or wet, diverse forests from 800-1,500 meters elevation, a few exceptional species occur in open and/or seasonally

  19. Quantifying the role of woody debris in providing bioenergetically favorable habitat for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Hafs, A. W.; Utz, R.; Dunne, T.

    2013-12-01

    The habitat complexity of a riverine ecosystem substantially influences aquatic communities, and especially the bioenergetics of drift feeding fish. We coupled hydrodynamic and bioenergetic models to assess the influence of habitat complexity, generated via large woody debris (LWD) additions, on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth potential in a river that lacked large wood. Model simulations indicated that LWD diversified the flow field, creating pronounced velocity gradients, which enhanced fish feeding and resting activities at the micro-habitat (sub-meter) scale. Fluid drag created by individual wood structures was increased under higher wood loading rates, leading to a 5-19% reduction in the reach-averaged velocity. We found that wood loading was asymptotically related to the reach-scale growth potential, suggesting that the river became saturated with LWD and additional loading would produce minimal benefit. In our study reach, LWD additions could potentially quadruple the potential growth area available before that limit was reached. Wood depletion in the world's rivers has been widely documented, leading to widespread attempts by river managers to reverse this trend by adding wood to simplified aquatic habitats, though systematic prediction of the effects of wood on fish growth has not been previously accomplished. We offer a quantitative, theory-based approach for assessing the role of wood on habitat potential as it affects fish growth at the micro-habitat and reach-scales. Fig. 1. Predicted flow field and salmon growth potential maps produced from model simulations with no woody debris (Graphs A and D), a low density (Graphs B and E), and a high density (Graphs C and E) of woody debris.

  20. The micro-habitat methodology. Application protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C; Valentin, S; Souchon, Y

    1995-06-01

    A strong need has been felt for guidelines to help various entities in applying the micro-habitat methodology, particularly in impact studies on hydroelectric installations. CEMAGREF and Electricite de France have developed separately two protocols with five major steps: reconnaissance of the river, selection of representative units to be studied in greater depth, morpho-dynamic measurements at one or more rates of discharge and hydraulic modeling, coupling of hydraulic and biological models, calculation of habitat-quality scores for fish, analysis of results. The two approaches give very comparable results and are essentially differentiated by the hydraulic model used. CEMAGREF uses a one-dimensional model requiring measurements at only one discharge rate. Electricite de France uses a simplified model based on measurements at several rates of discharge. This approach is possible when discharge can be controlled in the study area during data acquisition, as is generally the case downstream of hydroelectric installations. The micro-habitat methodology is now a fully operational tool with which to study changes in fish habitat quality in relation to varying discharge. It provides an element of assessment pertinent to the choice of instreaming flow to be maintained downstream of a hydroelectric installation; this information is essential when the flow characteristics (velocity, depth) and the nature of the river bed are the preponderant factors governing habitat suitability for trout or salmon. The ultimate decision must nonetheless take into account any other potentially limiting factors for the biocenoses on the one hand, and the target water use objectives on the other. In many cases, compromises must be found among different uses, different species and different stages in the fish development cycle. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Ecology and conservation of the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi in “restinga” habitats of the north coast of Bahia state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Vieira Martins; Eduardo José dos Reis Dias; Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    “Restingas” are herbaceous/ shrubby coastal sand-dune habitats that cover great areas of Brazil, particularly along the Bahia state coast. The restingas are disturbed and are under strong pressure, mainly in northeastern Brazil. Fragmentation of the landscape and habitat loss within natural ecosystems are the factors which are mainly responsible for reduction of species diversity by extinction events. The goal of thepresent study was elucidate whether the conservation status of restinga habit...

  2. Habitat capacity for Sacramento delta - Life Cycle Modeling of Life History Diversity and Habitat Relationships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this project are to examine 1) the relative importance of multiple aquatic habitats (streams, estuaries, and nearshore areas, for example) used by...

  3. Data Collection and Simulation of Ecological Habitat and Recreational Habitat in the Shenandoah River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents updates to methods, describes additional data collected, documents modeling results, and discusses implications from an updated habitat-flow model that can be used to predict ecological habitat for fish and recreational habitat for canoeing on the main stem Shenandoah River in Virginia. Given a 76-percent increase in population predictions for 2040 over 1995 records, increased water-withdrawal scenarios were evaluated to determine the effects on habitat and recreation in the Shenandoah River. Projected water demands for 2040 vary by watershed: the North Fork Shenandoah River shows a 55.9-percent increase, the South Fork Shenandoah River shows a 46.5-percent increase, and the main stem Shenandoah River shows a 52-percent increase; most localities are projected to approach the total permitted surface-water and groundwater withdrawals values by 2040, and a few localities are projected to exceed these values.

  4. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  5. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island - Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  6. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  7. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  8. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  9. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  10. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  11. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  12. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  13. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  14. ADVANCING TORPOR INDUCING TRANSFER HABITATS FOR HUMAN STASIS TO MARS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SpaceWorks proposes the development of an advanced habitat system for transporting crews between the Earth and Mars. This new and innovative habitat design is...

  15. Nekton density patterns and hurricane recovery in submerged aquatic vegetation, and along non-vegetated natural and created edge habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Gordon, J.

    2012-01-01

    We compared nekton habitat value of submerged aquatic vegetation, flooded non-vegetated natural and man-made edge habitats in mesohaline interior marsh areas in southwest Louisiana using a 1-m 2 throw trap and 3-mm bag seine. When present, SAV habitats supported close to 4 times greater densities and higher species richness of nekton as compared to either natural or man-made edge habitats, which supported similar densities to one another. Three species of concern (bayou killifish, diamond killifish, chain pipefish) were targeted in the analysis, and two of the three were collected almost entirely in SAV habitat. During the course of the study, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav passed directly over the study sites in September 2008. Subsequent analyses indicated significant reductions in resident nekton density 1-mo post hurricanes, and only limited recovery 13-mo post-hurricane. Possible alteration of environmental characteristics such as scouring of SAV habitat, deposition of sediment over SAV, edge erosion and marsh loss, and extended high salinities may explain these lasting impacts. ?? 2011.

  16. Habitat quality influences population distribution, individual space use and functional responses in habitat selection by a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørneraas, Kari; Herfindal, Ivar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer Moe

    2012-01-01

    Identifying factors shaping variation in resource selection is central for our understanding of the behaviour and distribution of animals. We examined summer habitat selection and space use by 108 Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose in Norway in relation to sex, reproductive status, habitat quality, and availability. Moose selected habitat types based on a combination of forage quality and availability of suitable habitat types. Selection of protective cover was strongest for reproducing females, likely reflecting the need to protect young. Males showed strong selection for habitat types with high quality forage, possibly due to higher energy requirements. Selection for preferred habitat types providing food and cover was a positive function of their availability within home ranges (i.e. not proportional use) indicating functional response in habitat selection. This relationship was not found for unproductive habitat types. Moreover, home ranges with high cover of unproductive habitat types were larger, and smaller home ranges contained higher proportions of the most preferred habitat type. The distribution of moose within the study area was partly related to the distribution of different habitat types. Our study shows how distribution and availability of habitat types providing cover and high-quality food shape ungulate habitat selection and space use.

  17. Global threat reduction initiative (GTRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is a vital part of the global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites both in the United States and abroad directly addresses recommendations of the bipartisan 9/11 Commission. GTRI efforts are focused on the first line of defense, namely securing or removing vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at the source. The international community has promulgated guidance on the best practice on the technical and administrative aspects of radiological source security, and the GTRI seeks to provide technical assistance to national bodies and individual facilities to adopt this best practice. This presentation will discuss security concepts that are implemented by the GTRI in cooperation with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project. (author)

  18. Microplastics pollution and reduction strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Min Wu; Jun Yang; Craig S.Criddle

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic particles smaller than 5 mm in size are of increasing concern,especially in aquatic environments,such as the ocean.Primary source is microbeads (< 1 mm) used in cosmetics and cleaning agents and fiber fragments from washing of clothes,and secondary source such as broken down plastic litter and debris.These particles are mostly made from polyethylene (PE),polypropylene (PP),polystyrene (PS),polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyesters.They are ingested by diverse marine fauna,including zooplanktons,mussel,oyster,shrimp,fish etc.and can enter human food chains via several pathways.Strategy for control of microplastics pollution should primarily focus on source reduction and subsequently on the development of cost-effective clean up and remediation technologies.Recent research results on biodegradation of plastics have revealed a potential for microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of plastic pollutants,such as PE,PS and PET under appropriate conditions.

  19. Hudson Canyon benthic habitats characterization and mapping by integrated analysis of multidisciplinary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Guida, Vincent G.; Rona, Peter A.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Scranton, Mary I.; Asper, Vernon; Diercks, Arne

    2013-04-01

    Hudson Canyon, about 180 km SE of New York City, is the largest eastern U.S. submarine canyon and is under consideration for HAPC (Habitat Area of Particular Concern) status, representing a fisheries and biodiversity hot spot. Interest in the area, within the perspective of ecosystem based management, marine spatial planning, habitat and species conservation, led to a joint project between NOAA Northeast Fisheries, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Mississippi Mineral Research Institute (MMRI), National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), Stony Brook and Rutgers Universities for the study of benthic habitats, that includes the assembly of existing data with newly collected ones: acoustic mapping, visual ground-truthing, hydrographic, sedimentological, and trawl data collections. Acoustic mapping, performed using AUV-mounted multibeam sonar, provided ultra-high resolution bathymetric and backscatter imagery (3m and 1m respectively) at all water depths for identification of geomorphological features and for the characterization of surficial sediments along the two thirds of the shelf portion of the canyon. Identification of benthic and demersal communities was accomplished by visual ground thruthing with underwater vehicle video and still cameras, and from trawl catch data. A CTD-rosette sampler provided water column salinity-temperature profiles and water samples for dissolved methane analysis in the vicinity of suspected bottom sources. Analysis of data revealed a complex of topographic structures and hydrological patterns that provide a wide range of physical habitats in a relatively small area. A mosaic of sandy and muddy substrates, gravel beds, rock outcrops, and semilithified clay outcrops host rich and varied faunal assemblages, including deepwater corals and sponge communities. Pockmark fields, occurring below 300 m depth, suggest that methane-based chemosynthetic carbonate deposition contributes to creation of specific hard bottom habitats

  20. Fish habitat regression under water scarcity scenarios in the Douro River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Climate change will predictably alter hydrological patterns and processes at the catchment scale, with impacts on habitat conditions for fish. The main goals of this study are to identify the stream reaches that will undergo more pronounced flow reduction under different climate change scenarios and to assess which fish species will be more affected by the consequent regression of suitable habitats. The interplay between changes in flow and temperature and the presence of transversal artificial obstacles (dams and weirs) is analysed. The results will contribute to river management and impact mitigation actions under climate change. This study was carried out in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. A set of 29 Hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were modelled using a water modelling system (MOHID), based on meteorological data recorded monthly between 2008 and 2014. The same variables were modelled considering future climate change scenarios. The resulting variables were used in empirical habitat models of a set of key species (brown trout Salmo trutta fario, barbell Barbus bocagei, and nase Pseudochondrostoma duriense) using boosted regression trees. The stream segments between tributaries were used as spatial sampling units. Models were developed for the whole Douro basin using 401 fish sampling sites, although the modelled probabilities of species occurrence for each stream segment were predicted only for the Tâmega catchment. These probabilities of occurrence were used to classify stream segments into suitable and unsuitable habitat for each fish species, considering the future climate change scenario. The stream reaches that were predicted to undergo longer flow interruptions were identified and crossed with the resulting predictive maps of habitat suitability to compute the total area of habitat loss per species. Among the target species, the brown trout was predicted to be the most sensitive to habitat regression due to the

  1. Determination of Habitat Requirements For Birds in Suburban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Richard M. DeGraaf; Joseph C. Mawson

    1977-01-01

    Songbird populations can be related to habitat components by a method that allows the simultaneous determination of habitat requirements for a variety of species . Through correlation and multiple-regression analyses, 10 bird species were studied in a suburban habitat, which was stratified according to human density. Variables used to account for bird distribution...

  2. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  3. Mourning Dove nesting habitat and nest success in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobney, R.D.; Schulz, J.H.; Sheriff, S.L.; Fuemmeler, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting studies conducted in areas containing a mixture of edge and continuous habitats have focused on edge habitats. Consequently, little is known about the potential contribution of continuous habitats to dove production. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of these two extensive habitat types by monitoring the habitat use and nest success of 59 radio-marked doves during 1990-1991 in central Missouri. Of 83 nests initiated by our marked sample, most (81.9%) were located in edge habitats. Although continuous habitats were selected less as nest sites, the proportion of successful nests did not differ significantly from that in edge habitats. Our data indicate that continuous habitats should not be considered marginal nesting habitat. If the intensity of use and nest success that we observed are representative regionally or nationally, continuous habitats could contribute substantially to annual Mourning Dove production because of the high availability of these habitats throughout much of the Mourning Dove breeding range.

  4. Key tiger habitats in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot

    2010-01-01

    We describe assumed tiger habitat characteristics and attempt to identify potential tiger habitats in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, North East India. Conserving large forest tracts and protected wildlife habitats provides an opportunity for restoring populations of wide-ranging wildlife such as tigers and elephants. Based on limited field observations coupled...

  5. Zonation and habitat selection on a reclaimed coastal foredune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three distinct zones, four habitats and six subhabitats were identified. Zonation and habitat selection appeared to be related to cover for two small mammal species. The arthropod orders were less susceptible to zonation and strict habitat selection, although some of the species showed selection. The normally unfavourable ...

  6. Bird assemblage patterns in relation to anthropogenic habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using habitat stratification, birds were surveyed along transects in tidal and supralittoral sub-habitats using DISTANCE sampling protocol, and along the river by encounter rates to determine abundance and species richness. Indices of human activity as well as habitat structure parameters including ground cover, plant ...

  7. Integrating and interpreting the Habitats- and Birds Directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Birds Directive of 1979 and the Habitats Directive of 1992 might be seen as the two major EU nature conservation directives, both protecting a habitats network throughout Europe and species. The transposition of both the Habitats and Birds Directive (HBD) into domestic national or subnational

  8. Demographic and habitat requirements for conservation of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; John D. Mclntyre

    1993-01-01

    Elements in bull trout biology, population dynamics, habitat, and biotic interactions important to conservation of the species are identified. Bull trout appear to have more specific habitat requirements than other salmonids, but no critical thresholds of acceptable habitat condition were found. Size, temporal variation, and spatial distribution are likely to influence...

  9. 50 CFR 660.395 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 660.395... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.395 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity (16 U.S.C...

  10. Evaluating the habitat capability model for Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Habitat capability (HABCAP) models for wildlife assist land managers in predicting the consequences of their management decisions. Models must be tested and refined prior to using them in management planning. We tested the predicted patterns of habitat selection of the R2 HABCAP model using observed patterns of habitats selected by radio-marked Merriam’s turkey (

  11. The national-economic cost of reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Comparison of investments aimed towards a reduced greenhouse gas emission in power industry, agriculture, transportation sector and other essential greenhouse gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    For a number of years the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions in the energy sector in Denmark has been investigated in detail. The same has not been the case what concerns the cost of reducing other greenhouse gases (CH 4 and N 2 O) and especially not what concerns the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases in other sectors in the Danish economy, i.e. agriculture, transport, industry, domestic waste and forestry. Thus, the objective of this project was twofold: 1) To calculate the national economic costs related to a number of options for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) by using the same methodology for all important sectors in the economy and 2) To compare the cost efficiency of these options not only wihtin the individual sectors but also across the sectoral boundaries to achieve an overall view of the reduction possibilities in society and the associated costs. (au) 80 refs.; Prepared by Forskningscenter Risoe and Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser. Afdeling for Systemanalyse

  12. Odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile as back-seat drivers of localized ant decline in urban habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salyer

    Full Text Available Invasive species and habitat disturbance threaten biodiversity worldwide by modifying ecosystem performance and displacing native organisms. Similar homogenization impacts manifest locally when urbanization forces native species to relocate or reinvade perpetually altered habitat. This study investigated correlations between ant richness and abundance in response to urbanization and the nearby presence of invasive ant species, odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile, within its native region. Surveying localized ant composition within natural, semi-natural, and urban habitat supported efforts to determine whether T. sessile appear to be primary (drivers threats as instigators or secondary (passengers threats as inheritors of indigenous ant decline. Sampling 180 sites, evenly split between all habitats with and without T. sessile present, yielded 45 total species. Although urbanization and T. sessile presence factors were significantly linked to ant decline, their interaction correlated to the greatest reduction of total ant richness (74% and abundance (81%. Total richness appeared to decrease from 27 species to 18 when natural habitat is urbanized and from 18 species to 7 with T. sessile present in urban plots. Odorous house ant presence minimally influenced ant communities within natural and semi-natural habitat, highlighting the importance of habitat alteration and T. sessile presence interactions. Results suggest urbanization releases T. sessile from unknown constraints by decreasing ant richness and competition. Within urban environment, T. sessile are pre-adapted to quickly exploit new resources and grow to supercolony strength wherein T. sessile drive adjacent biodiversity loss. Odorous house ants act as passengers and drivers of ecological change throughout different phases of urban 'invasion'. This progression through surviving habitat alteration, exploiting new resources, thriving, and further reducing interspecific competition supports a

  13. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and ecological divergence between incipient species of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Colince; Tene Fossog, Billy; Simard, Frédéric; Etouna, Joachim; Ndo, Cyrille; Kengne, Pierre; Boussès, Philippe; Etoa, François-Xavier; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Besansky, Nora J; Costantini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a prime cause in the current trend of the Earth's reduction in biodiversity. Here we show that the human footprint on the Central African rainforest, which is resulting in deforestation and growth of densely populated urban agglomerates, is associated to ecological divergence and cryptic speciation leading to adaptive radiation within the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. In southern Cameroon, the frequency of two molecular forms--M and S--among which reproductive isolation is strong but still incomplete, was correlated to an index of urbanisation extracted from remotely sensed data, expressed as the proportion of built-up surface in each sampling unit. The two forms markedly segregated along an urbanisation gradient forming a bimodal cline of ∼6-km width: the S form was exclusive to the rural habitat, whereas only the M form was present in the core of densely urbanised settings, co-occurring at times in the same polluted larval habitats of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus--a species association that was not historically recorded before. Our results indicate that when humans create novel habitats and ecological heterogeneities, they can provide evolutionary opportunities for rapid adaptive niche shifts associated with lineage divergence, whose consequences upon malaria transmission might be significant.

  14. Improving extinction projections across scales and habitats using the countryside species-area relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Inês Santos; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2017-10-10

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has been often used to project species extinctions as a consequence of habitat loss. However, recent studies have suggested that the SAR may overestimate species extinctions, at least in the short-term. We argue that the main reason for this overestimation is that the classic SAR ignores the persistence of species in human-modified habitats. We use data collected worldwide to analyse what is the fraction of bird and plant species that remain in different human-modified habitats at the local scale after full habitat conversion. We observe that both taxa have consistent responses to the different land-use types, with strongest reductions in species richness in cropland across the globe, and in pasture in the tropics. We show that the results from these studies cannot be linearly scaled from plots to large regions, as this again overestimates the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity. The countryside SAR provides a unifying framework to incorporate both the effect of species persistence in the landscape matrix and the non-linear response of the proportion of species extinctions to sampling area, generating more realistic projections of biodiversity loss.

  15. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  16. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  17. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  18. Mapping ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats in the European North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon eGalparsoro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing the ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats are a highly valuable source of information for understanding their current and potential benefits to society. The main objective of this investigation is to assess and map the ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats of the European North Atlantic Ocean, in the context of Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES programme, the European Biodiversity Strategy and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. In total, 62 habitats have been analysed in relation to 12 ecosystem services over 1.7 million km2. Results indicated that more than 90% of the mapped area provides biodiversity maintenance and food provision services; meanwhile grounds providing reproduction and nursery services are limited to half of the mapped area. Benthic habitats generally provide more services closer to shore than offshore and in shallower waters. This gradient is likely to be explained by difficult access (i.e. distance and depth and lack of scientific knowledge for most of the services provided by distant benthic habitats. This research has provided a first assessment of the benthic ecosystem services at Atlantic European scale, with the provision of ecosystem services maps and their general spatial distribution patterns. Related to the objectives of this research, the conclusions are: (i benthic habitats provide a diverse set of ecosystem services, being the food provision and biodiversity maintenance services the ones that are more extensively represented. In addition, other regulating and cultural services are provided in a more limited area; and (ii the ecosystem services assessment categories are significantly related to the distance to the coast and with depth (higher near the coast and in shallow waters.

  19. The effect of the 'no net loss' of habitat guiding principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential effect of the 'no net loss' principle on Manitoba Hydro's Conawapa hydroelectric project is assessed, including an examination of the process by which the no net loss principle will likely be implemented at the site, based on a review of past applications of the policy. The no net loss principle was developed by the federal Department of Fisheries of Oceans (DFO) as part of their 1986 Policy for the Management of Fish Habitats. The overall objective of the policy is to achieve a net gain of the productive capacity of fish habitats in Canada. Application of the policy to specific developments is based upon maintaining the productive capacity of fish habitats as well as the needs of users groups. The policy has not yet been applied to an inland hydroelectric project. Achieving no net losses may be difficult in regard to large projects such as a hydro dam, however a review of past applications of the policy reveal a number of concepts that have been employed by the DFO when applying the no net loss principle. These concepts were applied to the Conawapa project to make recommendations to achieve no net loss if the project is developed. Mitigation and compensation measures must be developed for both brook trout and lake sturgeon habitat, and should include a combination of habitat enhancement and increased protection and compliance. Measures should also be developed for other species such as lake cisco and lake whitefish, both of which may be a food source for beluga whales. The Conawapa forebay may be given consideration as compensation for lost habitat. 81 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Effects of habitat management on different feeding guilds of herbivorous insects in cacao agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Samuel M A; Macedo-Reis, Luiz E; DaRocha, Wesley D; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-06-01

    Human pressure on natural habitats increases the importance of agroforests for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cacao traditional cultivation system (CTCS) on the conservation of the herbivorous insect community when compared with a monodominant rubber agroforest, a type of agricultural system for cacao cultivation. The insects were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: native forests, CTCS and rubber agroforests. In each habitat, 18 plots of 10 m2 were established, and the structural measures were collected and herbivorous insects were sampled with a Malaise/window trap. The diversity of folivorous decreased with the simplification of vegetation structure, but species composition was similar among habitats. In addition to a decrease in the availability of resources in monodominant rubber agroforests, the latex present in these systems have limited the occurrence of species that cannot circumvent latex toxicity. The diversity of sap-sucking insects was similar among habitats, but species composition was similar only in the CTCS and native forest, and it was different in the rubber agroforest. We observed turnover and a higher frequency of individuals of the family Psyllidae in the rubber agroforest. The biology and behavior of Psyllids and absence of natural enemies enable their diversity to increase when they are adapted to a new host. We observed a shift in the composition of xylophagous insects in the rubber agroforest compared to that in other habitats. Moreover, this agroforest has low species richness, but high individual abundance. Latex extraction is likely an important additional source of volatile compounds discharged into the environment, and it increases the attraction and recruitment of coleoborers to these sites. We concluded that CTCS has an herbivorous insect community with a structure similar to the community found in native forests of the region, and they present a more

  1. Habitat risk assessment for regional ocean planning in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Katherine H; Griffin, Robert; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Fogarty, Michael; Arkema, Katie K

    2017-01-01

    Coastal habitats provide important benefits to people, including habitat for species targeted by fisheries and opportunities for tourism and recreation. Yet, such human activities also can imperil these habitats and undermine the ecosystem services they provide to people. Cumulative risk assessment provides an analytical framework for synthesizing the influence of multiple stressors across habitats and decision-support for balancing human uses and ecosystem health. To explore cumulative risk to habitats in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Ocean Planning regions, we apply the open-source InVEST Habitat Risk Assessment model to 13 habitats and 31 stressors in an exposure-consequence framework. In doing so, we advance the science priorities of EBM and both regional planning bodies by synthesizing the wealth of available data to improve our understanding of human uses and how they affect marine resources. We find that risk to ecosystems is greatest first, along the coast, where a large number of stressors occur in close proximity and secondly, along the continental shelf, where fewer, higher consequence activities occur. Habitats at greatest risk include soft and hard-bottom nearshore areas, tidal flats, soft-bottom shelf habitat, and rocky intertidal zones-with the degree of risk varying spatially. Across all habitats, our results indicate that rising sea surface temperatures, commercial fishing, and shipping consistently and disproportionally contribute to risk. Further, our findings suggest that management in the nearshore will require simultaneously addressing the temporal and spatial overlap as well as intensity of multiple human activities and that management in the offshore requires more targeted efforts to reduce exposure from specific threats. We offer a transparent, generalizable approach to evaluating cumulative risk to multiple habitats and illustrate the spatially heterogeneous nature of impacts along the eastern Atlantic coast and the importance of

  2. Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO2, CH4, N2O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussana, J.F.

    2004-04-01

    The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha -1 ) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO 2 for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO 2 per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO 2 per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on average, used for cutting. These simulations predict N 2 O

  3. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic dry valley yeasts and growth in substrate limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple stresses temperature, moisture, and for chemoheterotrophs, sources of carbon and energy of the Dry Valley Antarctica soils allow at best depauperate communities, low in species diversity and population density. The nature of community structure, the operation of biogeochemical cycles, the evolution and mechanisms of adaptation to this habitat are of interest in informing speculations upon life on other planets as well as in modeling the limits of gene life. Yeasts of the Cryptococcus vishniacil complex (Basidiobiastomycetes) are investigated, as the only known indigenes of the most hostile, lichen free, parts of the Dry Valleys. Methods were developed for isolating these yeasts (methods which do not exclude the recovery of other microbiota). The definition of the complex was refined and the importance of nitrogen sources was established as well as substrate competition in fitness to the Dry Valley habitats.

  4. The relative effects of habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation on population extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most prominent conservation concerns are typically habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. The role of habitat degradation has received comparatively little attention. But research has shown that the quality of habitat patches can significantly influence wildlife population d...

  5. Eelgrass habitat near Liberty Bay: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Takesue, Renee K.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrasses are a widespread type of marine flowering plants that grow in nearshore intertidal and subtidal zones. Seagrass beds are ecologically important because they affect physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of nearshore habitat, and they are sensitive to changes in coastal water quality (Stevenson and others, 1993; Koch, 2001; Martinez-Crego and others, 2008). Zostera marina, commonly known as eelgrass, is protected by a no-net-loss policy in Washington State where it may be used as spawning habitat by herring, a key prey species for salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals (Bargmann, 1998). Eelgrass forms broad meadows in shallow embayments or narrow fringes on open shorelines (Berry and others, 2003). Anthropogenic activities that increase turbidity, nutrient loading, and physical disturbance at the coast can result in dramatic seagrass decline (Ralph and others, 2006).

  6. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Frakes

    Full Text Available Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old adult panthers (35 males and 52 females during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations, we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males. The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25% of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology.

  7. Integration Process for the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Merbitz, Jerad; Kennedy, Kriss; Tri, Terry; Howe, A. Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an experimental exploration habitat technology and architecture test platform designed for analog demonstration activities The HDU project has required a team to integrate a variety of contributions from NASA centers and outside collaborators and poses a challenge in integrating these disparate efforts into a cohesive architecture To complete the development of the HDU from conception in June 2009 to rollout for operations in July 2010, a cohesive integration strategy has been developed to integrate the various systems of HDU and the payloads, such as the Geology Lab, that those systems will support The utilization of interface design standards and uniquely tailored reviews have allowed for an accelerated design process Scheduled activities include early fit-checks and the utilization of a Habitat avionics test bed prior to equipment installation into HDU A coordinated effort to utilize modeling and simulation systems has aided in design and integration concept development Modeling tools have been effective in hardware systems layout, cable routing and length estimation, and human factors analysis Decision processes on the shell development including the assembly sequence and the transportation have been fleshed out early on HDU to maximize the efficiency of both integration and field operations Incremental test operations leading up to an integrated systems test allows for an orderly systems test program The HDU will begin its journey as an emulation of a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) for 2010 field testing and then may evolve to a Pressurized Core Module (PCM) for 2011 and later field tests, depending on agency architecture decisions The HDU deployment will vary slightly from current lunar architecture plans to include developmental hardware and software items and additional systems called opportunities for technology demonstration One of the HDU challenges has been designing to be prepared for the integration of

  8. Lighting Automation Flying an Earthlike Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.; Kolomenski, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Currently, spacecraft lighting systems are not demonstrating innovations in automation due to perceived costs in designing circuitry for the communication and automation of lights. The majority of spacecraft lighting systems employ lamps or zone specific manual switches and dimmers. This type of 'hardwired' solution does not easily convert to automation. With advances in solid state lighting, the potential to enhance a spacecraft habitat is lost if the communication and automation problem is not tackled. If we are to build long duration environments, which provide earth-like habitats, minimize crew time, and optimize spacecraft power reserves, innovation in lighting automation is a must. This project researched the use of the DMX512 communication protocol originally developed for high channel count lighting systems. DMX512 is an internationally governed, industry-accepted, lighting communication protocol with wide industry support. The lighting industry markets a wealth of hardware and software that utilizes DMX512, and there may be incentive to space certify the system. Our goal in this research is to enable the development of automated spacecraft habitats for long duration missions. To transform how spacecraft lighting environments are automated, our project conducted a variety of tests to determine a potential scope of capability. We investigated utilization and application of an industry accepted lighting control protocol, DMX512 by showcasing how the lighting system could help conserve power, assist with lighting countermeasures, and utilize spatial body tracking. We hope evaluation and the demonstrations we built will inspire other NASA engineers, architects and researchers to consider employing DMX512 "smart lighting" capabilities into their system architecture. By using DMX512 we will prove the 'wheel' does not need to be reinvented in terms of smart lighting and future spacecraft can use a standard lighting protocol to produce an effective, optimized and

  9. Lighting Automation - Flying an Earthlike Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tori A. (Principal Investigator); Kolomenski, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Currently, spacecraft lighting systems are not demonstrating innovations in automation due to perceived costs in designing circuitry for the communication and automation of lights. The majority of spacecraft lighting systems employ lamps or zone specific manual switches and dimmers. This type of 'hardwired' solution does not easily convert to automation. With advances in solid state lighting, the potential to enhance a spacecraft habitat is lost if the communication and automation problem is not tackled. If we are to build long duration environments, which provide earth-like habitats, minimize crew time, and optimize spacecraft power reserves, innovation in lighting automation is a must. This project researched the use of the DMX512 communication protocol originally developed for high channel count lighting systems. DMX512 is an internationally governed, industry-accepted, lighting communication protocol with wide industry support. The lighting industry markets a wealth of hardware and software that utilizes DMX512, and there may be incentive to space certify the system. Our goal in this research is to enable the development of automated spacecraft habitats for long duration missions. To transform how spacecraft lighting environments are automated, our project conducted a variety of tests to determine a potential scope of capability. We investigated utilization and application of an industry accepted lighting control protocol, DMX512 by showcasing how the lighting system could help conserve power, assist with lighting countermeasures, and utilize spatial body tracking. We hope evaluation and the demonstrations we built will inspire other NASA engineers, architects and researchers to consider employing DMX512 "smart lighting" capabilities into their system architecture. By using DMX512 we will prove the 'wheel' does not need to be reinvented in terms of smart lighting and future spacecraft can use a standard lighting protocol to produce an effective, optimized and

  10. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Robert A; Belden, Robert C; Wood, Barry E; James, Frederick E

    2015-01-01

    Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old) adult panthers (35 males and 52 females) during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations), we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture) had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males). The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25%) of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology.

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  12. Environmental variation and habitat separation among small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, W.L.; Iverson, S.L.; Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.

    1989-01-01

    Habitat use and population density of five species of forest small mammals were monitored by annual spring snap-trap censuses at Pinawa, Manitoba, over 14 years. Population sizes were positively correlated among species and showed no evidence of density-dependent effects. Species were habitat selectors. Habitat use by species did not vary among years. Habitat separation between the dominant species was not correlated with environmental variables or with population size. We suggest that habitat selection and positive covariance among species abundances are the principal factors characterizing the dynamics of this community

  13. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  14. Snow as a habitat for microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoham, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    There are three major habitats involving ice and snow, and the microorganisms studied from these habitats are most eukaryotic. Sea ice is inhabited by algae called diatoms, glacial ice has sparse populations of green algai cal desmids, and the temporary and permanent snows in mountainous regions and high latitudes are inhabited mostly by green algal flagellates. The life cycle of green algal flagellates is summarized by discussing the effects of light, temperature, nutrients, and snow melts. Specific examples of optimal conditions and environmental effects for various snow algae are given. It is not likely that the eukaryotic snow algae presented are candidated for life on the planet Mars. Evolutionally, eukaryotic cells as know on Earth may not have had the opportunity to develop on Mars (if life evolved at all on Mars) since eukaryotes did not appear on Earth until almost two billion years after the first prokaryotic organisms. However, the snow/ice ecosystems on Earth present themselves as extreme habitats were there is evidence of prokaryotic life (eubacteria and cyanbacteria) of which literally nothing is known. Any future surveillances of extant and/or extinct life on Mars should include probes (if not landing sites) to investigate sites of concentrations of ice water. The possibility of signs of life in Martian polar regions should not be overlooked.

  15. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  16. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.

  17. Compensatory immigration depends on adjacent population size and habitat quality but not on landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Katrine; Kramer, Donald L

    2012-11-01

    1. Populations experiencing localized mortality can recover in the short term by net movement of individuals from adjacent areas, a process called compensatory immigration or spillover. Little is known about the factors influencing the magnitude of compensatory immigration or its impact on source populations. Such information is important for understanding metapopulation dynamics, the use of protected areas for conservation, management of exploited populations and pest control. 2. Using two small, territorial damselfish species (Stegastes diencaeus and S. adustus) in their naturally fragmented habitat, we quantified compensatory immigration in response to localized mortality, assessed its impact on adjacent source populations and examined the importance of potential immigrants, habitat quality and landscape connectivity as limiting factors. On seven experimental sites, we repeatedly removed 15% of the initial population size until none remained and immigration ceased. 3. Immigrants replaced 16-72% of original residents in S. diencaeus and 0-69% in S. adustus. The proportion of the source population that immigrated into depleted areas varied from 9% to 61% in S. diencaeus and from 3% to 21% in S. adustus. In S. diencaeus, compensatory immigration was strongly affected by habitat quality, to a lesser extent by the abundance of potential immigrants and not by landscape connectivity. In S. adustus, immigration was strongly affected by the density of potential migrants and not by habitat quality and landscape connectivity. On two control sites, immigration in the absence of creation of vacancies was extremely rare. 4. Immigration occurred in response to localized mortality and was therefore compensatory. It was highly variable, sometimes producing substantial impacts on both depleted and source populations. The magnitude of compensatory immigration was influenced primarily by the availability of immigrants and by the potential improvement in territory quality that they

  18. Regional species pools of vascular plants in habitats of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sádlo, Jiří; Chytrý, M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2007), s. 303-321 ISSN 0032-7786 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675; DAISIE(XE) SSPI-CT-2003-511202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : habitat * species pool * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2007

  19. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Lindgren, Michael A.; Schmidt, Jennifer I.; Rupp, T. Scott; Adams, Layne G.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (−21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (−11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  20. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Gustine

    Full Text Available Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs, and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (-21% than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (-11%. Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  1. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D; Brinkman, Todd J; Lindgren, Michael A; Schmidt, Jennifer I; Rupp, T Scott; Adams, Layne G

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (-21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (-11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  2. A test of the substitution-habitat hypothesis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Galán, Pedro

    2017-12-08

    Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0.16-0.28) of occurrence in original habitat, moderate probability of occurrence in substitution habitats (0.11-0.14), and low probability of occurrence in refuge habitats (0.05-0.08). Thus, the substitution-habitat hypothesis only partially applies to amphibians because the low occupancy of refuges could be due to the negligible human persecution of this group (indicating good conservation status). However, low occupancy of refuges could also be due to low tolerance of refuge conditions, which could have led to selective extinction or colonization problems due to poor dispersal capabilities. That original habitats had the highest probabilities of occupancy suggests amphibians have a good conservation status in the region. They also appeared highly adaptable to anthropogenic substitution habitats. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Does coastal lagoon habitat quality affect fish growth rate and their recruitment? Insights from fishing and acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, P.; Laugier, T.; Kantoussan, J.; Galgani, F.; Mouillot, D.

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of fish resources necessitates understanding their interaction with coastal habitats, which is becoming ever more challenging in the context of ever increasing anthropogenic pressures. The ability of coastal lagoons, exposed to major sources of disturbance, to provide resources and suitable habitats for growth and survival of juvenile fish is especially important. We analysed three lagoons with different ecological statuses and habitat quality on the basis of their eutrophication and ecotoxicity (Trix test) levels. Fish abundances were sampled using fishing and horizontal beaming acoustic surveys with the same protocols in the same year. The relative abundance of Anguilla anguilla, Dicentrarchus labrax or the Mugilidae group was not an indicator of habitat quality, whereas Atherina boyeri and Sparus aurata appeared to be more sensitive to habitat quality. Fish abundance was higher in the two lagoons with high eutrophication and ecotoxicity levels than in the less impacted lagoon, while fish sizes were significantly higher in the two most severely impacted lagoons. This leads us to suggest low habitat quality may increase fish growth rate (by the mean of a cascading effect), but may reduce lagoon juvenile abundance by increasing larval mortality. Such a hypothesis needs to be further validated using greater investigations which take into account more influences on fish growth and recruitment in such variable environments under complex multi-stressor conditions.

  4. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  5. Teaching animal habitat selection using wildlife tracking equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Jessica; Gillespie, Caitlyn R.; Corral, Lucia; Oden, Amy; Fricke, Kent A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hands-on outdoor activity coupled with classroom discussion to teach students about wildlife habitat selection, the process by which animals choose where to live. By selecting locations or habitats with many benefits (e.g., food, shelter, mates) and few costs (e.g., predators), animals improve their ability to survive and reproduce. Biologists track animal movement using radio telemetry technology to study habitat selection so they can better provide species with habitats that promote population growth. We present a curriculum in which students locate “animals” (transmitters) using radio telemetry equipment and apply math skills (use of fractions and percentages) to assess their “animal's” habitat selection by comparing the availability of habitat types with the proportion of “animals” they find in each habitat type.

  6. Reduction of LNG FOB cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1997-01-01

    To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs

  7. Habitat hydrology and geomorphology control the distribution of malaria vector larvae in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andrew J; Gamarra, Javier G P; Cross, Dónall E; Macklin, Mark G; Smith, Mark W; Kihonda, Japhet; Killeen, Gerry F; Ling'ala, George N; Thomas, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    Larval source management is a promising component of integrated malaria control and elimination. This requires development of a framework to target productive locations through process-based understanding of habitat hydrology and geomorphology. We conducted the first catchment scale study of fine resolution spatial and temporal variation in Anopheles habitat and productivity in relation to rainfall, hydrology and geomorphology for a high malaria transmission area of Tanzania. Monthly aggregates of rainfall, river stage and water table were not significantly related to the abundance of vector larvae. However, these metrics showed strong explanatory power to predict mosquito larval abundances after stratification by water body type, with a clear seasonal trend for each, defined on the basis of its geomorphological setting and origin. Hydrological and geomorphological processes governing the availability and productivity of Anopheles breeding habitat need to be understood at the local scale for which larval source management is implemented in order to effectively target larval source interventions. Mapping and monitoring these processes is a well-established practice providing a tractable way forward for developing important malaria management tools.

  8. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  9. Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarniello, Lana M; Boyce, Mark S; Seip, Dale R; Heard, Douglas C

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to show how ecologists' interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is altered by the scale of observation and also how management questions would be best addressed using predetermined scales of analysis. Using resource selection functions (RSF) we examined how variation in the spatial extent of availability affected our interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears inhabiting mountain and plateau landscapes. We estimated separate models for females and males using three spatial extents: within the study area, within the home range, and within predetermined movement buffers. We employed two methods for evaluating the effects of scale on our RSF designs. First, we chose a priori six candidate models, estimated at each scale, and ranked them using Akaike Information Criteria. Using this method, results changed among scales for males but not for females. For female bears, models that included the full suite of covariates predicted habitat use best at each scale. For male bears that resided in the mountains, models based on forest successional stages ranked highest at the study-wide and home range extents, whereas models containing covariates based on terrain features ranked highest at the buffer extent. For male bears on the plateau, each scale estimated a different highest-ranked model. Second, we examined differences among model coefficients across the three scales for one candidate model. We found that both the magnitude and direction of coefficients were dependent upon the scale examined; results varied between landscapes, scales, and sexes. Greenness, reflecting lush green vegetation, was a strong predictor of the presence of female bears in both landscapes and males that resided in the mountains. Male bears on the plateau were the only animals to select areas that exposed them to a high risk of mortality by humans. Our results show that grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. Further, the

  10. Greenhouse effect gases sources and sinks (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) in grasslands and reduction strategies. Greenhouse effect gases prairies. Final report of the second part of the project. April 2004; Sources et puits de gaz a effet de serre (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) en prairie paturee et strategies de reduction. GES-Prairies. Rapport final de la seconde tranche du projet. Avril 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussana, J.F

    2004-04-15

    The project 'GES-Prairies' (Greenhouse Gases - Grasslands) had two main objectives: 1. To measure more accurately the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of French grasslands and determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these areas. 2. To calculate the net GHG emissions of cattle production farms and finally to propose and evaluate some management scenarios leading to a reduction of GHG emissions. This project deals with three different spatial scales: the field scale, the farm scale and finally, the regional scale. At the field scale, during two years, fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured in a mid-mountain permanent grassland, previously managed intensively by cutting and grazing (Laqueuille, Auvergne, France). Results from the first complete year of measurements show that the extensification process (reduction of the stocking rate and stopping N fertilization) allows to stock more carbon in the ecosystem. At the farm scale, We developed a model (FARMSIM, coupled to PASIM) able to simulate the GHG balance of a livestock farm. FARMSIM has been tested with data obtained from a mixed livestock farm in Lorraine (dairy and meat production, annual average stocking rate = 1.3 LU ha{sup -1}) of 100 ha (including 76 ha of grasslands and 21 of annual crops). The results indicate a net emission of 175 t equivalent C-CO{sub 2} for this farm. If expressed per unit of product, it represents 1.34 t equivalent C-CO{sub 2} per LU and per year or 0.54 kg CO{sub 2} per kg of milk and per year. At the regional scale/. The PASIM model has been used to simulate the European grasslands with a spatial resolution of 1' (about 200 * 200 km). For each grid cell, a sensibility analysis allowed to determine the N application which correspond to 30% of the N application that would maximize the annual yield of the pasture. Simulation runs on mixed systems (combining grazing and cutting) show that almost one half of the grassland area is, on

  11. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  12. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in

  13. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

  14. Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-01-01

    evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems

  15. Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed land-use watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erin J.; Booth, Derek B.

    2002-07-01

    The Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144 km 2 in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concerns over flooding, loss of fish habitat, and degraded water quality. A watershed-scale sediment budget was evaluated to determine the relative effects of land-use practices, including urbanization, on sediment supply and delivery, and to guide management responses towards the most effective source-reduction strategies. Human activity in the watershed, particularly urban development, has caused an increase of nearly 50% in the annual sediment yield, now estimated to be 44 tonnes km -2 yr -1. The main sources of sediment in the watershed are landslides (50%), channel-bank erosion (20%), and road-surface erosion (15%). This assessment characterizes the role of human activity in mixed-use watersheds such as this, and it demonstrates some of the key processes, particularly enhanced stream-channel erosion, by which urban development alters sediment loads.

  16. Vegetation Structure of Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Habitat in Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation Central Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina, Rahmawati; Wasiq, Hidayat Jafron

    2018-02-01

    Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation is ebony leaf monkey's habitats in Central Java Indonesia. Continuously degradation of their population is caused by illegal hunting and habitat degradation that made this species being vulnerable. Habitat conservation is one of important aspects to prevent them from extinction. The purpose of this research was to analyze the vegetation's structure and composition, which was potentially, becomes habitat and food source for the monkeys. Data collected using purposive sampling with line transect method of four different level of vegetation. Data analysis used Important Value Index and Diversity Index. There were 43 species of vegetation at seedling stage, 18 species at sapling stage, 8 species at poles stage and 27 species at trees stage. Species that had the highest important value index at seedling was Stenochlaena palustri , at the sapling was Gnetum gnemon, at pole was Swietenia mahagoni and at tree was Tectona grandis . Species of trees those were potentially to become habitat (food source) for ebony leaf monkey were T. grandis, Dipterocarpus gracilis, Quercus sundaica and Ficus superba. The highest diversity index was at seedling gwoth stage.

  17. Vegetation Structure of Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus Habitat in Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation Central Java-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervina Rahmawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation is ebony leaf monkey’s habitats in Central Java Indonesia. Continuously degradation of their population is caused by illegal hunting and habitat degradation that made this species being vulnerable. Habitat conservation is one of important aspects to prevent them from extinction. The purpose of this research was to analyze the vegetation’s structure and composition, which was potentially, becomes habitat and food source for the monkeys. Data collected using purposive sampling with line transect method of four different level of vegetation. Data analysis used Important Value Index and Diversity Index. There were 43 species of vegetation at seedling stage, 18 species at sapling stage, 8 species at poles stage and 27 species at trees stage. Species that had the highest important value index at seedling was Stenochlaena palustri , at the sapling was Gnetum gnemon, at pole was Swietenia mahagoni and at tree was Tectona grandis . Species of trees those were potentially to become habitat (food source for ebony leaf monkey were T. grandis, Dipterocarpus gracilis, Quercus sundaica and Ficus superba. The highest diversity index was at seedling gwoth stage.

  18. Impact of groundwater abstraction on physical habitat of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small Danish stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Bøgh, E.; Pedersen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of groundwater abstraction on stream discharge and physical habitat conditions for brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small Danish stream. Stream discharge was simulated using a lumped hydrological model (NAM) and a scenario was set up for stream...... discharge reference conditions. Stream physical habitat conditions (WUA) were simulated for four life stages of trout using a hydraulic habitat model (RHYHABSIM). The impact of groundwater abstraction on WUA for trout was assessed by combined simulations from the NAM-model and the RHYHABSIM-model. The model...... predicted that groundwater abstraction reduced median annual discharge by 37 % and mean annual 90th percentile discharge by 82 %. Summer discharge was relatively most affected by groundwater abstraction (66 % reduction of median discharge) and WUA was therefore particularly affected by groundwater...

  19. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Takahata

    Full Text Available When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF. Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  20. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.