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Sample records for habitat improvement volume

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, 1984 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Rod

    1986-02-01

    This volume contains reports on habitat improvement and fisheries enhancement projects conducted in the following subbasins: (1) Clackamas River; (2) Hood River; :(3) Deschutes River; (4) John Day River; (5) Umatilla River; and (6) Grande Ronde River. (ACR)

  2. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 2, Idaho, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hair, Don

    1986-09-01

    The individual reports in this volume have been separately abstracted for inclusion in the data base. The reports describe fish habitat enhancement projects on the Lochsa River, Eldorado and Camas Creeks, and the Clearwater River. (ACR)

  3. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  4. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1986 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Amy

    1987-01-01

    This report describes activities implemented for fisheries habitat improvement work on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Hood River sub-basins. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the reports on individual projects. (ACR)

  5. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken

    1986-10-01

    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  6. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, Supplement B, White River Falls Fish Passage, 1983 Annual Report.

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    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-04-01

    White River Falls are located in north central Oregon approximately 25 miles south of the City of The Dalles. The project site is characterized by a series of three natural waterfalls with a combined fall of 180 ft. In the watershed above the falls are some 120 miles of mainstem habitat and an undetermined amount of tributary stream habitat that could be opened to anadromous fish, if passage is provided around the falls. The purpose of this project is to determine feasibility of passage, select a passage scheme, and design and construct passage facilities. This report provides information on possible facilities that would pass adult anadromous fish over the White River Falls. 25 references, 29 figures, 12 tables. (ACR)

  7. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  8. Computational Model for Spacecraft/Habitat Volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that funding to Dr. Simon Hsiang, a critical co-investigator for the development of the Spacecraft Optimization Layout and Volume (SOLV) model, was...

  9. Field review of fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschta, R.L.; Griffith, J.; Wesche, T.A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho

  10. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat conditions. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, through the restoration of stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2005 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2005), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). This report also summarizes activities associated with Program Administration, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education.

  11. Forest Stakeholder Participation in Improving Game Habitat in Swedish Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene E. Ezebilo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although in Sweden the simultaneous use of forests for timber production and game hunting are both of socioeconomic importance it often leads to conflicting interests. This study examines forest stakeholder participation in improving game habitat to increase hunting opportunities as well as redistribute game activities in forests to help reduce browsing damage in valuable forest stands. The data for the study were collected from a nationwide survey that involved randomly selected hunters and forest owners in Sweden. An ordered logit model was used to account for possible factors influencing the respondents’ participation in improving game habitat. The results showed that on average, forest owning hunters were more involved in improving game habitat than non-hunting forest owners. The involvement of non-forest owning hunters was intermediate between the former two groups. The respondents’ participation in improving game habitat were mainly influenced by factors such as the quantity of game meat obtained, stakeholder group, forests on hunting grounds, the extent of risk posed by game browsing damage to the economy of forest owners, importance of bagging game during hunting, and number of hunting days. The findings will help in designing a more sustainable forest management strategy that integrates timber production and game hunting in forests.

  12. Yakima Habitat Improvement Project Master Plan, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder Associates, Inc.

    2003-04-22

    The Yakima Urban Growth Area (UGA) is a developing and growing urban area in south-central Washington. Despite increased development, the Yakima River and its tributaries within the UGA continue to support threatened populations of summer steelhead and bull trout as well as a variety of non-listed salmonid species. In order to provide for the maintenance and recovery of these species, while successfully planning for the continued growth and development within the UGA, the City of Yakima has undertaken the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project. The overall goal of the project is to maintain, preserve, and restore functioning fish and wildlife habitat within and immediately surrounding the Yakima UGA over the long term. Acquisition and protection of the fish and wildlife habitat associated with key properties in the UGA will prevent future subdivision along riparian corridors, reduce further degradation or removal of riparian habitat, and maintain or enhance the long term condition of aquatic habitat. By placing these properties in long-term protection, the threat of development from continued growth in the urban area will be removed. To most effectively implement the multi-year habitat acquisition and protection effort, the City has developed this Master Plan. The Master Plan provides the structure and guidance for future habitat acquisition and restoration activities to be performed within the Yakima Urban Area. The development of this Master Plan also supports several Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs) of the NOAA Fisheries 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), as well as the Water Investment Action Agenda for the Yakima Basin, local planning efforts, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program. This Master Plan also provides the framework for coordination of the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project with other fish and wildlife habitat acquisition and protection activities currently being implemented in the area. As a

  13. 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, B.G.; Cowie, D.M.

    2005-01-15

    Formed in 1979 after the completion of the Peace Canyon Dam, Dinosaur Reservoir is 21 km long and backs water up to the tailrace of W.A.C. Bennett Dam. BC Hydro has funded studies to evaluate fish stocking programs and assess habitat limitations and potential enhancements as part of a water licence agreement. The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Programs (PWFWCP) have undertaken a number of projects to address fish habitat limitations, entrainment and stocking assessments as a result of recommendations stemming from these studies. It was determined that existing baseline fish data was needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these activities. A preliminary boat electro-fishing program which was started in October 2001, noted that a propensity for rainbow trout to concentrate near woody debris. In response, a program was started in 2002 to add woody debris to embayment areas throughout the reservoir. These enhanced woody debris structures are located in small sheltered bays and consist of a series of large trees cabled together and anchored to the shore. The area between the cabled trees and the shoreline is filled with woody debris and root wads collected from along the shoreline. The 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir presents the findings from a study that compares the number of fish captured using trap nets, angling, and minnow traps, at the woody debris structures to sites with similar physical characteristics where woody debris had not been added. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Umatilla River subbasin fish habitat improvement project. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T.D.; Laws, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) procurement of one access easement with a private landowner, (2) design, layout, and implementation of 3.36 miles of instream structure maintenance, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 15.1 miles of fence, (4) revegetation along 3.36 miles of stream, (5) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, (6) extensive interagency coordination, and (7) environmental education activities with local high school students

  15. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  16. Predicted riparian vegetation - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  17. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  19. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  20. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  1. Predicting occurrence of juvenile shark habitat to improve conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Beverly Z L; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2017-06-01

    Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of habitat suitability for juvenile sharks. We assessed occurrence patterns at the order and species levels. We included all juvenile sharks sampled and the 3 most abundant species sampled separately (grey reef [Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos], sandbar [Carcharhinus plumbeus], and whitetip reef sharks [Triaenodon obesus]). We predicted the occurrence of juvenile sharks across 490,515 km 2 of coastal waters and quantified the representation of highly suitable habitats within MPAs. Our species-level models had higher accuracy (ĸ ≥ 0.69) and deviance explained (≥48%) than our order-level model (ĸ = 0.36 and deviance explained of 10%). Maps of predicted occurrence revealed different species-specific patterns of highly suitable habitat. These differences likely reflect different physiological or resource requirements between individual species and validate concerns over the utility of conservation targets based on aggregate species groups as opposed to a species-focused approach. Highly suitable habitats were poorly represented in MPAs with the most restrictions on extractive activities. This spatial mismatch possibly indicates a lack of explicit conservation targets and information on species distribution during the planning process. Non-extractive BRUVS provided a useful platform for building the suitability models across large scales to assist conservation planning across

  2. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  3. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-02-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and reconstruction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2004 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2004), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance, and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation. This report also summarizes Program Administrative, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education activities.

  4. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    underlying mechanisms of critical Lake St. Croix metabolic processes. The CE–QUAL–W2 model tracked nitrate plus nitrite, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus throughout the year. Inflow nutrient contributions (loads), largely dominated by upstream St. Croix River loads, were the most important controls on Lake St. Croix water quality. Close to 60 percent of total phosphorus to the lake was from phosphorus derived from organic matter, and about 89 percent of phosphorus to Lake St. Croix was delivered by St. Croix River inflows. The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model offered potential mechanisms for the effect of external and internal loadings on the biotic response regarding the modeled algal community types of diatoms, green algae, and blue-green algae. The model also suggested the seasonal dominance of blue-green algae in all four pools of the lake.A sensitivity analysis was completed to test the total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction scenario responses of total phosphorus and chlorophyll a. The modeling indicates that phosphorus reductions would result in similar Lake St. Croix reduced concentrations, although chlorophyll a concentrations did not decrease in the same proportional amounts as the total phosphorus concentrations had decreased. The smaller than expected reduction in algal growth rates highlighted that although inflow phosphorus loads are important, other constituents also can affect the algal response of the lake, such as changes in light penetration and the breakdown of organic matter releasing nutrients.The available habitat suitable for lake sturgeon was evaluated using the modeling results to determine the total volume of good-growth habitat, optimal growth habitat, and lethal temperature habitat. Overall, with the calibrated model, the fish habitat volume in general contained a large proportion of good-growth habitat and a sustained period of optimal growth habitat in the summer. Only brief periods of lethal oxy-thermal habitat were present in

  5. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  6. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  7. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  8. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  9. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  10. Challenges in Aquatic Physical Habitat Assessment: Improving Conservation and Restoration Decisions for Contemporary Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Hubbart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution of in-stream biological impairment to anthropogenic activities and prioritization for restoration and/or conservation can be challenging in contemporary mixed-land-use watersheds. Critical information necessary to improve decision making can be costly and labor intensive, and thus unobtainable for many municipalities. A reduced cost, rapid stream physical habitat assessment (rPHA can yield information that, when paired with land use data may reveal causal patterns in aquatic physical habitat degradation, and thus assist targeting sites for restoration. However, a great deal of work is needed to reduce associated costs, and validate the potential of rPHA for documenting fine-scale incremental change in physical habitat conditions in complex contemporary watersheds. The following commentary serves to draw attention to rPHA challenges and research needs including (but not limited to field-based validation and optimization of new remote sensing technologies, evaluation of the accuracy and representativeness of rapid vegetation survey methods, refinement of analytical methods, and consideration of legacy land use impacts and hydrologic system evolution in rPHA results interpretation. Considering the value of rPHA-generated data for improvement of watershed resource management, such challenges constitute timely, high-impact research opportunities for investigators wishing to advance complex, contemporary aquatic ecosystem management.

  11. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement Idaho: Lolo Creek and Upper Lochsa, Clearwater National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, F.A. Jr.; Lee, Kristine M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1983, the Clearwater National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contractual agreement to improve anadromous fish habitat in selected tributaries of the Clearwater River Basin. This agreement was drawn under the auspices of the Northwest Power Act of 1980 and the Columbia River basin Fish and Wildlife Program (section 700). The Program was completed in 1990 and this document constitutes the Final Report'' that details all project activities, costs, accomplishments, and responses. The overall goal of the Program was to enhance spawning, rearing, and riparian habitats of Lolo Creek and major tributaries of the Lochsa River so that their production systems could reach full capability and help speed the recovery of salmon and steelhead within the basin.

  12. Natural propagation and habitat improvement Idaho: Lolo Creek and Upper Lochsa, Clearwater National Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, F.A. Jr.; Lee, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1983, the Clearwater National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contractual agreement to improve anadromous fish habitat in selected tributaries of the Clearwater River Basin. This agreement was drawn under the auspices of the Northwest Power Act of 1980 and the Columbia River basin Fish and Wildlife Program (section 700). The Program was completed in 1990 and this document constitutes the ''Final Report'' that details all project activities, costs, accomplishments, and responses. The overall goal of the Program was to enhance spawning, rearing, and riparian habitats of Lolo Creek and major tributaries of the Lochsa River so that their production systems could reach full capability and help speed the recovery of salmon and steelhead within the basin

  13. Volume de água armazenado no tanque de bromélias, em restingas da costa brasileira Water volume stored in bromeliad tanks in Brazilian restinga habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cogliatti-Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Muitas espécies de bromélias armazenam água da chuva em seu interior, sendo esta característica resultado da distribuição espiralada de suas folhas, que formam pequenos tanques. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar o volume de água efetivamente armazenado e o volume máximo que pode ser armazenado no tanque de diferentes espécies de bromélias de 13 restingas brasileiras. Em cada restinga, em 100 plots de 100 m² cada, registramos as espécies de bromélias-tanque, os parâmetros morfométricos e o volume efetivo e máximo em 20 indivíduos de cada espécie. Encontramos 32 espécies de bromélias-tanque, para as quais medimos o volume máximo e o volume efetivo de água armazenado. Em 59.007 rosetas, estimamos o volume máximo em 44.388 litros e medimos 17.000 litros de água efetivamente armazenados. Encontramos diferenças interespecíficas nos volumes máximo e efetivamente reservado de água, na biomassa, no número de folhas e no volume do cone da planta. Aechmea aquilega, A. blanchetiana e Hohenbergia castelanosii tiveram os maiores volumes efetivos. Somente A. nudicaulis e Billbergia amoena diferiram entre suas populações em todos os parâmetros analisados. As restingas de Maricá, Prado, Trancoso e Jurubatiba tiveram os maiores volumes de água.ha-1 armazenada nas bromélias-tanque. O volume máximo de água estimado para as bromélias-tanque variou entre espécies devido a diferenças na forma e no tamanho das bromélias.Many bromeliad species store rain water in tanks, as a result of the spiraled distribution of their leaves. The aim of this study was to evaluate how much water is stored and what is the maximum volume of water possible to be stored in different tank-bromeliad species in 13 different Brazilian restingas. The species were recorded in 100 plots of 100 m2, in each restinga habitat. For each bromeliad species, the effective and the maximum water stored in the tanks were measured. We found 32 tank

  14. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  15. Understanding Existing Salmonid Habitat Availability and Connectivity to Improve River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; Yager, E.; Tonina, D.; Benjankar, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest river restoration is common for salmon conservation. Mangers need methods to help target restoration to problem areas in rivers to create habitat that meets a species' needs. Hydraulic models and habitat suitability curves provide basic information on habitat availability and overall quality, but these analyses need to be expanded to address habitat quality based on the accessibility of habitats required for multiple life stages. Scientists are starting to use connectivity measurements to understand the longitudinal proximity of habitat patches, which can be used to address the habitat variability of a reach. By evaluating the availability and quality of habitat and calculating the connectivity between complementary habitats, such as spawning and rearing habitats, we aim to identify areas that should be targeted for restoration. To meet these goals, we assessed Chinook salmon habitat on the Lemhi River in Idaho. The depth and velocity outputs from a 2D hydraulic model are used in conjunction with locally created habitat suitability curves to evaluate the availability and quality of habitat for multiple Chinook salmon life stages. To assess the variability of the habitat, connectivity between habitat patches necessary for different life stages is calculated with a proximity index. A spatial representation of existing habitat quality and connectivity between complimentary habitats can be linked to river morphology by the evaluation of local geomorphic characteristics, including sinuosity and channel units. The understanding of the current habitat availability for multiple life stage needs, the connectivity between these habitat patches, and their relationship with channel morphology can help managers better identify restoration needs and direct their limited resources.

  16. Silvicultural and agronomic practices for improving Tuber magnatum habitat in natural woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliaferro F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003 IPLA is taking part, in the project “Innovative interventions for the natural habitat protection and connection in order to create an ecological network” promoted by GAL Alta Langa. The final aim of the project, that has finished at the end of 2006, is to realize an ecological network where the elements are also truffi�res in which management practices are carried out in order to improve the Tuber magnatum Pico habitat. Using two SIR (Site of regional interest, located in Langa, as core areas three truffi�res have been selected; since spring 2004, the experimental activities have been carried out. The first truffi�res (Barbaresco, CN is located in a mixed white poplar wood with black locust. The first practices were the trees and shrubs thinning in order to increase the light and water availability and improve the organic matter cycle. The second one (Monchiero-CN is an oak (Quercus robur and black poplar wood of limited extension (less than 1000 square meters. Here the first practices were the shrubs thinning and the digging of narrow channels in contour in order to make easier the soil wetting. The last truffi�res (Murazzano-CN is a young black poplar wood grown after the cutting of some big trees; here at first Rubus sp., that covers a great part of the undergrowth, has been cut. This first management practices gave good results and the experimental activities will be carried on.

  17. Using Technology to Improve Student Learning. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahala, Jan, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on how technology can help improve student learning. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who work closely with technology issues. Their…

  18. Effect of habitat improvement on Atlantic salmon in the regulated river Suldalslaagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raastad, J.E.; Lillehammer, A.; Lillehammer, L.; Eie, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The River Suldaalslagen, which holds a population of large Atlantic salmon, has been regulated twice for hydropower production. The first regulation occurred in 1968 and the second in 1980. Present problems include the reduced density of benthic fauna, the reduced growth rate of young salmon, the low survival of 0 + fish and the increased time required for smoltification. A programme of habitat restoration includes building a rearing channel system where water flow and the substrate can be controlled. The salmon fry are stocked in the rearing channel and in an adjacent tributary stream. The effects on macrobenthos of introduced dead organic material were also studied. Improvement of physical habitat increased the density of benthic animals, and the survival of 1 + salmon was about 30%. Experiments that included adding 115 g wheat/m 2 resulted in a threefold increase in benthic fauna compared with a control area. The largest increase in numbers was Chironomidae in August-September, when benthic Crustacea also showed a significant increase. An increase in macrobenthos is expected to increase the growth and survival of young salmon fry. (Author)

  19. Effect of habitat improvement on Atlantic salmon in the regulated river Suldalslaagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raastad, J.E.; Lillehammer, A.; Lillehammer, L. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Zoological Museum); Kaasa, H. (Statkraft, Hoevik (Norway)); Eie, J.A. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, Oslo (Norway))

    1993-05-01

    The River Suldaalslagen, which holds a population of large Atlantic salmon, has been regulated twice for hydropower production. The first regulation occurred in 1968 and the second in 1980. Present problems include the reduced density of benthic fauna, the reduced growth rate of young salmon, the low survival of 0[sup +] fish and the increased time required for smoltification. A programme of habitat restoration includes building a rearing channel system where water flow and the substrate can be controlled. The salmon fry are stocked in the rearing channel and in an adjacent tributary stream. The effects on macrobenthos of introduced dead organic material were also studied. Improvement of physical habitat increased the density of benthic animals, and the survival of 1[sup +] salmon was about 30%. Experiments that included adding 115 g wheat/m[sup 2] resulted in a threefold increase in benthic fauna compared with a control area. The largest increase in numbers was Chironomidae in August-September, when benthic Crustacea also showed a significant increase. An increase in macrobenthos is expected to increase the growth and survival of young salmon fry. (Author)

  20. Habitat mosaics and path analysis can improve biological conservation of aquatic biodiversity in ecosystems with low-head dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2018-04-01

    Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species richness

  1. Habitat mosaics and path analysis can improve biological conservation of aquatic biodiversity in ecosystems with low-head dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M.; Mather, Martha E.; Smith, Joseph M.; Fencl, Jane S.

    2018-01-01

    Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species

  2. Applications of genetic data to improve management and conservation of river fishes and their habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Landguth, Erin L.; Luikart, Gordon; Infante, Dana M.; Whelan, Gary; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental variation and landscape features affect ecological processes in fluvial systems; however, assessing effects at management-relevant temporal and spatial scales is challenging. Genetic data can be used with landscape models and traditional ecological assessment data to identify biodiversity hotspots, predict ecosystem responses to anthropogenic effects, and detect impairments to underlying processes. We show that by combining taxonomic, demographic, and genetic data of species in complex riverscapes, managers can better understand the spatial and temporal scales over which environmental processes and disturbance influence biodiversity. We describe how population genetic models using empirical or simulated genetic data quantify effects of environmental processes affecting species diversity and distribution. Our summary shows that aquatic assessment initiatives that use standardized data sets to direct management actions can benefit from integration of genetic data to improve the predictability of disturbance–response relationships of river fishes and their habitats over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales.

  3. Hungry Horse Dam fisheries mitigation program: Fish passage and habitat improvement in the Upper Flathead River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, W.L.; Deleray, M.; Marotz, B.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects

  4. Improved determination of left ventricular volume with myocardial tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshock, R.M.; Takai, H.; Baker, K.V.; Clarke, G.D.; McDonald, G.G.; Parkey, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cine MR imaging can be used to determine ventricular volume and ejection fraction. However, definition of the endocardial surface can be difficult, leading some investigators to suggest that black-blood studies are preferable. Grid tagging with use of spatial modulation of magnetization has been used to improve assessments of wall motion. The purpose of this paper, is to determine if grid tagging would also facilitate definition of the endocardial border for volume and ejection fraction calculations. Grid tagging based on spatial modulation of magnetization was implemented on a Toshiba 0.5-T MR imaging device. Standard RAO images were obtained in 10 normal volunteers with use of standard cine MR imaging sequences (33/22) with and without grid tagging. Images were analyzed to determine ventricular volume, cardiac output and wall motion. Images obtained without tagging generally showed good contrast at end diastole, but definition of the endocardial border was frequently more difficult in middle to late systole. Images with tagging provided significantly better definition of endocardial borders, particularly during systole

  5. Improving extinction projections across scales and habitats using the countryside species-area relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Inês Santos; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2017-10-10

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has been often used to project species extinctions as a consequence of habitat loss. However, recent studies have suggested that the SAR may overestimate species extinctions, at least in the short-term. We argue that the main reason for this overestimation is that the classic SAR ignores the persistence of species in human-modified habitats. We use data collected worldwide to analyse what is the fraction of bird and plant species that remain in different human-modified habitats at the local scale after full habitat conversion. We observe that both taxa have consistent responses to the different land-use types, with strongest reductions in species richness in cropland across the globe, and in pasture in the tropics. We show that the results from these studies cannot be linearly scaled from plots to large regions, as this again overestimates the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity. The countryside SAR provides a unifying framework to incorporate both the effect of species persistence in the landscape matrix and the non-linear response of the proportion of species extinctions to sampling area, generating more realistic projections of biodiversity loss.

  6. Estimating habitat carrying capacity for migrating and wintering waterfowl: Considerations, pitfalls and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Dugger, Bruce D.; Brasher, Michael G.; Coluccy, John M.; Cramer, Dane M.; Eadie, John M.; Gray, Matthew J.; Hagy, Heath M.; Livolsi, Mark; McWilliams, Scott R.; Petrie, Matthew; Soulliere, Gregory J.; Tirpak, John M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and population-level energy demands at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and translate these values into regional habitat objectives. While simple in principle, there are both empirical and theoretical challenges associated with calculating energy supply and demand including: 1) estimating food availability, 2) estimating the energy content of specific foods, 3) extrapolating site-specific estimates of food availability to landscapes for focal species, 4) applicability of estimates from a single species to other species, 5) estimating resting metabolic rate, 6) estimating cost of daily behaviours, and 7) estimating costs of thermoregulation or tissue synthesis. Most models being used are daily ration models (DRMs) whose set of simplifying assumptions are well established and whose use is widely accepted and feasible given the empirical data available to populate such models. However, DRMs do not link habitat objectives to metrics of ultimate ecological importance such as individual body condition or survival, and largely only consider food-producing habitats. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a possible alternative for creating more biologically realistic models under some conditions; however, ABMs require different types of empirical inputs, many of which have yet to be estimated for key North American waterfowl. Decisions about how JVs can best proceed with habitat conservation would benefit from the use of sensitivity analyses that could identify the empirical and theoretical uncertainties that have the greatest influence on efforts to estimate habitat carrying capacity. Development of ABMs at

  7. Conflation and aggregation of spatial data improve predictive models for species with limited habitats: a case of the threatened yellow-billed cuckoo in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Charles; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian vegetation provides important wildlife habitat in the Southwestern United States, but limited distributions and spatial complexity often leads to inaccurate representation in maps used to guide conservation. We test the use of data conflation and aggregation on multiple vegetation/land-cover maps to improve the accuracy of habitat models for the threatened western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis). We used species observations (n = 479) from a state-wide survey to develop habitat models from 1) three vegetation/land-cover maps produced at different geographic scales ranging from state to national, and 2) new aggregate maps defined by the spatial agreement of cover types, which were defined as high (agreement = all data sets), moderate (agreement ≥ 2), and low (no agreement required). Model accuracies, predicted habitat locations, and total area of predicted habitat varied considerably, illustrating the effects of input data quality on habitat predictions and resulting potential impacts on conservation planning. Habitat models based on aggregated and conflated data were more accurate and had higher model sensitivity than original vegetation/land-cover, but this accuracy came at the cost of reduced geographic extent of predicted habitat. Using the highest performing models, we assessed cuckoo habitat preference and distribution in Arizona and found that major watersheds containing high-probably habitat are fragmented by a wide swath of low-probability habitat. Focus on riparian restoration in these areas could provide more breeding habitat for the threatened cuckoo, offset potential future habitat losses in adjacent watershed, and increase regional connectivity for other threatened vertebrates that also use riparian corridors.

  8. Dam operations may improve aquatic habitat and offset negative effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; McKean, James A; Sohrabi, Mohammad M; Chen, Quiwen; Vidergar, Dmitri

    2018-05-01

    Dam operation impacts on stream hydraulics and ecological processes are well documented, but their effect depends on geographical regions and varies spatially and temporally. Many studies have quantified their effects on aquatic ecosystem based mostly on flow hydraulics overlooking stream water temperature and climatic conditions. Here, we used an integrated modeling framework, an ecohydraulics virtual watershed, that links catchment hydrology, hydraulics, stream water temperature and aquatic habitat models to test the hypothesis that reservoir management may help to mitigate some impacts caused by climate change on downstream flows and temperature. To address this hypothesis we applied the model to analyze the impact of reservoir operation (regulated flows) on Bull Trout, a cold water obligate salmonid, habitat, against unregulated flows for dry, average, and wet climatic conditions in the South Fork Boise River (SFBR), Idaho, USA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intravascular volume in cirrhosis. Reassessment using improved methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of blood volume (BV) in cirrhosis have either not adjusted BV properly for body size; determined plasma volume from the dilution of labeled albumin 10-20 min postinjection, when some extravascular redistribution has already occurred; and/or not used the correct whole body-peripheral hematocrit ratio (0.82) in calculating whole BV from plasma volume and the peripheral hematocrit. We measured BV with attention to these considerations in 19 patients with cirrhosis and reexamined the determinants of vascular volume and the relationship between vascular volume and sodium retention. BV was calculated as plasma volume (determined from extrapolated plasma activity of intravenously injected [ 131 I]+albumin at time 0) divided by (peripheral hematocrit X 0.82). The result was expressed per kilogram dry body weight, determined by subtracting the mass of ascites (measured by isotope dilution; 1 liter = 1 kg) from the actual body weight of nonedematous patients. Measured and expressed in this way, BV correlated strongly with esophageal variceal size (r = 0.87, P less than 0.05), although not with net portal, right atrial, inferior vena caval, or arterial pressure, and was significantly greater in patients with sodium retention as compared to patients without sodium retention. The principal modifier of vascular volume in cirrhosis is vascular capacity, which is probably mainly determined by the extent of the portasystemic collateral circulation. Increased vascular volume in patients with sodium retention as compared to patients without sodium retention supports the overflow theory of ascites formation

  10. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  11. POWER-GEN '90 conference papers: Volume 7 (Fossil plant performance availability and improvement) and Volume 8 (Nuclear power issues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This is book 4 of papers presented at the Third International Exhibition and Conference for the Power Generation Industries, December 4-6, 1990. This book contains Volume 7, Fossil Plant Performance Availability and Improvement, and Volume 8, Nuclear Power Issues. The topics of the papers include computer applications in plant operations and maintenance, managing aging plants, plant improvements, plant operations and maintenance, the future of nuclear power, achieving cost effective plant operation, managing nuclear plant aging and license renewal, and the factors affecting a decision to build a new nuclear plant

  12. Improving School Leadership. Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…

  13. Ecological Flow Assessment to Improve the Spawning Habitat for the Four Major Species of Carp of the Yangtze River: A Study on Habitat Suitability Based on Ultrasonic Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiong Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four major species of Chinese carp, namely black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, are important economic freshwater fish varieties in China. They primarily inhabit and breed in the Yangtze River. Unfortunately, the construction and operation of the Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Dam have dramatically changed the hydrodynamic conditions in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, leading to a sharp decline in the reproduction rates of these carp. The egg abundance of the four species of carp downstream from the Three Gorges Dam reached 8.35 billion in 1965, but abundance during 2005–2012 was only 0.25 billion. One of the main reasons was that the hydrodynamic conditions of the spawning ground could not meet the four species’ breeding requirements. However, due to the limitations of traditional detection tools, the spawning characteristics of these four species of carp were still unclear. In this study, the ultrasonic telemetry and a three–dimensional hydrodynamic model were utilized to build the habitat suitability index (HSI curves for the four species of carp. The habitat suitability model was then built based on HSI curves to assess spawning habitat quantity under different flow conditions. Finally, the habitat suitability model in the Yidu spawning ground was validated using 32 groups of sampling data in 2015 and 2017. The statistical results showed that the most suitable velocity ranged from 0.78 m/s to 0.93 m/s. The most suitable water depth ranged from 14.56 m to 16.35 m, and the most suitable Froude number ranged from 0.049 to 0.129. The habitat suitability model simulation results indicated that when the discharge was between 15,000 m3/s and 21,300 m3/s, the weighted usable area (WUA values in both the Yidu and Zhicheng spawning grounds would remain at a high level. The validation results showed that most

  14. Performance Improvement Quarterly. Volume 15, Number 1, 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Performance Improvement Quarterly (PIQ) is a peer-reviewed journal whose goal is to stimulate professional discussion in the field and to advance the discipline of performance technology through the publication of scholarly works...

  15. Volume 11 No. 1 February 2011 4527 ADOPTION OF IMPROVED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... (innovations) in soyabean processing and utilization in Tafawa Balewa ... recommended level of protein intake of 0.6g/kg body weight [5]. ... Factors that may influence adoption of improved soyabean technologies include.

  16. Improving School Leadership. Volume 1: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    As countries strive to reform education systems and improve student results, school leadership is high on education policy agendas. But in many countries, the men and women who run schools are overburdened, underpaid and near retirement. And few people are lining up for their jobs. Based on an OECD study of school leadership practices and policies…

  17. 6409 Volume 12 No. 5 August 2012 IMPROVEMENT OF INJERA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAHGOUB, S. (DR.)

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... The major quality attribute of a good injera is its slightly sour taste, which is due to the acidic (low. pH)nature of injera [5]. Unfortunately, injera storage period ... levels to control mould spoilage and improve shelf life of injera. ... Penicillium and Rhizopus were assessed by inoculating spores on ISA media.

  18. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  19. An Improved Neural Network for Regional Giant Panda Habitat Suitability Mapping: A Case Study in Ya’an Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Song

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge is a combination of prior information and subjective opinions based on long-experience; as such it is often not sufficiently objective to produce convincing results in animal habitat suitability index mapping. In this study, an animal habitat assessment method based on a learning neural network is proposed to reduce the level of subjectivity in animal habitat assessments. Based on two hypotheses, this method substitutes habitat suitability index with apparent density and has advantages over conventional ones such as those based on analytical hierarchy process or multivariate regression approaches. Besides, this method is integrated with a learning neural network and is suitable for building non-linear transferring functions to fit complex relationships between multiple factors influencing habitat suitability. Once the neural network is properly trained, new earth observation data can be integrated for rapid habitat suitability monitoring which could save time and resources needed for traditional data collecting approaches through extensive field surveys. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca natural habitat in Ya’an prefecture and corresponding landsat images, DEM and ground observations are tested for validity of using the methodology reported. Results show that the method scores well in key efficiency and performance indicators and could be extended for habitat assessments, particularly of other large, rare and widely distributed animal species.

  20. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  1. Audiovisual biofeedback guided breath-hold improves lung tumor position reproducibility and volume consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be used to improve the reproducibility and consistency of breath-hold lung tumor position and volume, respectively. These results may provide a pathway to achieve more accurate lung cancer radiation treatment in addition to improving various medical imaging and treatments by using breath-hold procedures.

  2. Habitat Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Griffin, Brand N.

    2014-01-01

    Future missions under consideration requiring human habitation beyond the International Space Station (ISS) include deep space habitats in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar missions, satellite servicing, and Mars vehicle servicing missions. Habitat designs are also under consideration for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including transfers to near-Earth asteroids and Mars orbital destinations. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS designs and those that could be fabricated from the Space Launch System (SLS) propellant tanks. This paper presents a comparison showing several options for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats using ISS derived and SLS derived modules and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that the larger SLS diameter modules offer built-in compatibility with the launch vehicle, single launch capability without on-orbit assembly, improved radiation protection, lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long duration missions without resupply. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume comparison data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning efforts.

  3. Research and development of improved type radioactive waste volume reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Yamaoka, Katsuaki; Masaki, Tetsuo; Akagawa, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    Development and research had been conducted since 1978 on an improved type radioactive waste volume reduction system incorporating calcining and incinerating fluidized bed type furnaces. This system can dispose of concentrated liquid wastes, combustible solid wastes, spent ion exchange resins and so forth by calcination or incineration to turn them into reduced-volume products. Recently a pilot test facility has constructed and tests has been conducted to demonstrate actual performance. Representative results of pilot tests are reported in this paper. (author)

  4. Going the Extra Mile: Improved Survival for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Traveling to High-volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Michael E; Sun, Zhifei; Nussbaum, Daniel P; Adam, Mohamed A; Speicher, Paul J; Blazer, Dan G

    2017-08-01

    This study compares outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients treated at local, low-volume centers and those traveling to high-volume centers. Although outcomes for PD are superior at high-volume institutions, not all patients live in proximity to major medical centers. Theoretical advantages for undergoing surgery locally exist. The 1998 to 2012 National Cancer Data Base was queried for T1-3N0-1M0 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent PD. Travel distances to treatment centers were calculated. Overlaying the upper and lower quartiles of travel distance with institutional volume established short travel/low-volume (ST/LV) and long travel/high-volume (LT/HV) cohorts. Overall survival was evaluated. Of 7086 patients, 773 ST/LV patients traveled ≤6.3 (median 3.2) miles to centers performing ≤3.3 PDs yearly, and 758 LT/HV patients traveled ≥45 (median 97.3) miles to centers performing ≥16 PDs yearly. LT/HV patients had higher stage disease (P travel to a high-volume center remained associated with reduced long-term mortality (hazard ratio 0.75, P travel burden, patients treated at high-volume centers had improved perioperative outcomes, short-term mortality, and overall survival. These data support ongoing efforts to centralize care for patients undergoing PD.

  5. High volume improves outcomes: The argument for centralization of rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquina, Christopher T; Probst, Christian P; Becerra, Adan Z; Iannuzzi, James C; Kelly, Kristin N; Hensley, Bradley J; Rickles, Aaron S; Noyes, Katia; Fleming, Fergal J; Monson, John R T

    2016-03-01

    Centralization of care to "centers of excellence" in Europe has led to improved oncologic outcomes; however, little is known regarding the impact of nonmandated regionalization of rectal cancer care in the United States. The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) was queried for elective abdominoperineal and low anterior resections for rectal cancer from 2000 to 2011 in New York with the use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Surgeon volume and hospital volume were grouped into quartiles, and high-volume surgeons (≥ 10 resections/year) and hospitals (≥ 25 resections/year) were defined as the top quartile of annual caseload of rectal cancer resection and compared with the bottom 3 quartiles during analyses. Bivariate and multilevel regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with restorative procedures, 30-day mortality, and temporal trends in these endpoints. Among 7,798 rectal cancer resections, the overall rate of no-restorative proctectomy and 30-day mortality decreased by 7.7% and 1.2%, respectively, from 2000 to 2011. In addition, there was a linear increase in the proportion of cases performed by both high-volume surgeons and high-volume hospitals and a decrease in the number of surgeons and hospitals performing rectal cancer surgery. High-volume surgeons at high-volume hospitals were associated independently with both less nonrestorative proctectomies (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.89) and mortality (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.87) rates. No patterns of significant improvement within the volume strata of the surgeon and hospitals were observed over time. This study suggests that the current trend toward regionalization of rectal cancer care to high-volume surgeons and high-volume centers has led to improved outcomes. These findings have implications regarding the policy of health care delivery in the United States, supporting referral to high-volume

  6. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  7. Should I stay or should I go? A habitat-dependent dispersal kernel improves prediction of movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Vinatier

    Full Text Available The analysis of animal movement within different landscapes may increase our understanding of how landscape features affect the perceptual range of animals. Perceptual range is linked to movement probability of an animal via a dispersal kernel, the latter being generally considered as spatially invariant but could be spatially affected. We hypothesize that spatial plasticity of an animal's dispersal kernel could greatly modify its distribution in time and space. After radio tracking the movements of walking insects (Cosmopolites sordidus in banana plantations, we considered the movements of individuals as states of a Markov chain whose transition probabilities depended on the habitat characteristics of current and target locations. Combining a likelihood procedure and pattern-oriented modelling, we tested the hypothesis that dispersal kernel depended on habitat features. Our results were consistent with the concept that animal dispersal kernel depends on habitat features. Recognizing the plasticity of animal movement probabilities will provide insight into landscape-level ecological processes.

  8. Should I stay or should I go? A habitat-dependent dispersal kernel improves prediction of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, Fabrice; Lescourret, Françoise; Duyck, Pierre-François; Martin, Olivier; Senoussi, Rachid; Tixier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of animal movement within different landscapes may increase our understanding of how landscape features affect the perceptual range of animals. Perceptual range is linked to movement probability of an animal via a dispersal kernel, the latter being generally considered as spatially invariant but could be spatially affected. We hypothesize that spatial plasticity of an animal's dispersal kernel could greatly modify its distribution in time and space. After radio tracking the movements of walking insects (Cosmopolites sordidus) in banana plantations, we considered the movements of individuals as states of a Markov chain whose transition probabilities depended on the habitat characteristics of current and target locations. Combining a likelihood procedure and pattern-oriented modelling, we tested the hypothesis that dispersal kernel depended on habitat features. Our results were consistent with the concept that animal dispersal kernel depends on habitat features. Recognizing the plasticity of animal movement probabilities will provide insight into landscape-level ecological processes.

  9. Does Flywheel Paradigm Training Improve Muscle Volume and Force? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez Sanchez, Francisco J; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Núñez Sanchez, FJ and Sáez de Villarreal, E. Does flywheel paradigm training improve muscle volume and force? A meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3177-3186, 2017-Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of flywheel paradigm training for improving or benefiting muscle volume and force. A meta-analysis of 13 studies with a total of 18 effect sizes was performed to analyse the role of various factors on the effectiveness of flywheel paradigm training. The following inclusion criteria were employed for the analysis: (a) randomized studies; (b) high validity and reliability instruments; (c) published in a high quality peer-reviewed journal; (d) healthy participants; (e) studies where the eccentric programme were described; and (f) studies where increases in muscle volume and force were measured before and after training. Increases in muscle volume and force were noted through the use of flywheel systems during short periods of training. The increase in muscle mass appears was not influenced by the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The increase in force was significantly higher with the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by strength and conditioning professionals regarding the most appropriate dose response trends for flywheel paradigm systems to optimize the increase in muscle volume and force.

  10. Surface Habitat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  11. Combining MRI with PET for partial volume correction improves image-derived input functions in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Eleanor; Buonincontri, Guido [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, David [Athinoula A Martinos Centre, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Methner, Carmen [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Rob C [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ansorge, Richard E [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kreig, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Carpenter, T Adrian [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-29

    Kinetic modelling in PET requires the arterial input function (AIF), defined as the time-activity curve (TAC) in plasma. This measure is challenging to obtain in mice due to low blood volumes, resulting in a reliance on image-based methods for AIF derivation. We present a comparison of PET- and MR-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to obtain image-derived AIFs from the left ventricle (LV) of a mouse model. ROI-based partial volume correction (PVC) was performed to improve quantification.

  12. Combining MRI with PET for partial volume correction improves image-derived input functions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Eleanor; Buonincontri, Guido; Izquierdo, David; Methner, Carmen; Hawkes, Rob C; Ansorge, Richard E; Kreig, Thomas; Carpenter, T Adrian; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic modelling in PET requires the arterial input function (AIF), defined as the time-activity curve (TAC) in plasma. This measure is challenging to obtain in mice due to low blood volumes, resulting in a reliance on image-based methods for AIF derivation. We present a comparison of PET- and MR-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to obtain image-derived AIFs from the left ventricle (LV) of a mouse model. ROI-based partial volume correction (PVC) was performed to improve quantification.

  13. Integrating DNA-based data into bioassessments improves our understanding of species distributions and species habitat relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of DNA-based identification methods into bioassessments could result in more accurate representations of species distributions and species-habitat relationships. DNA-based approaches may be particularly informative for tracking the distributions of rare and/or inv...

  14. Improved wrist pannus volume measurement from contrast-enhanced MRI in rheumatoid arthritis using shuffle transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Emily; Hutchinson, Charles E; Adams, Judith E; Bruce, Ian N; Nash, Anthony F P; Holmes, Andrew P; Taylor, Christopher J; Waterton, John C

    2007-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is of value in assessing rheumatoid pannus in the hand, but the images are not always easy to quantitate. To develop and evaluate an improved measurement of volume of enhancing pannus (VEP) in the hand in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MR images of the hand and wrist were obtained for 14 patients with RA at 0, 1 and 13 weeks. Volume of enhancing pannus was measured on images created by subtracting precontrast T1-weighted images from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images using a shuffle transformation technique. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and 3D volume rendering of the images were used as a guide to identify the pannus and any contrast-enhanced veins. Visualisation of pannus was much improved following the shuffle transform. Between 0 weeks and 1 week, the mean value of the within-subject coefficient of variation (CoV) was 0.13 and the estimated total CoV was 0.15. There was no evidence of significant increased variability within the 13-week interval for the complete sample of patients. Volume of enhancing pannus can be measured reproducibly in the rheumatoid hand using 3D contrast-enhanced MRI and shuffle transform.

  15. Association Between Treatment at High-Volume Facilities and Improved Overall Survival in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Sriram; Nead, Kevin T; Sebro, Ronnie; Guttmann, David M; Sharma, Sonam; Simone, Charles B; Levin, William P; Wilson, Robert J; Weber, Kristy L; Shabason, Jacob E

    2018-03-15

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare malignancies that require complex multidisciplinary management. Therefore, facilities with high sarcoma case volume may demonstrate superior outcomes. We hypothesized that STS treatment at high-volume (HV) facilities would be associated with improved overall survival (OS). Patients aged ≥18 years with nonmetastatic STS treated with surgery and radiation therapy at a single facility from 2004 through 2013 were identified from the National Cancer Database. Facilities were dichotomized into HV and low-volume (LV) cohorts based on total case volume over the study period. OS was assessed using multivariable Cox regression with propensity score-matching. Patterns of care were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 9025 total patients, 1578 (17%) and 7447 (83%) were treated at HV and LV facilities, respectively. On multivariable analysis, high educational attainment, larger tumor size, higher grade, and negative surgical margins were statistically significantly associated with treatment at HV facilities; conversely, black race and non-metropolitan residence were negative predictors of treatment at HV facilities. On propensity score-matched multivariable analysis, treatment at HV facilities versus LV facilities was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.87, 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.95; P = .001). Older age, lack of insurance, greater comorbidity, larger tumor size, higher tumor grade, and positive surgical margins were associated with statistically significantly worse OS. In this observational cohort study using the National Cancer Database, receipt of surgery and radiation therapy at HV facilities was associated with improved OS in patients with STS. Potential sociodemographic disparities limit access to care at HV facilities for certain populations. Our findings highlight the importance of receipt of care at HV facilities for patients with STS and warrant further study into improving access to

  16. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  17. Improving the clinical correlation of multiple sclerosis black hole volume change by paired-scan analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger C; Traboulsee, Anthony; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B

    2012-01-01

    The change in T 1-hypointense lesion ("black hole") volume is an important marker of pathological progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Black hole boundaries often have low contrast and are difficult to determine accurately and most (semi-)automated segmentation methods first compute the T 2-hyperintense lesions, which are a superset of the black holes and are typically more distinct, to form a search space for the T 1w lesions. Two main potential sources of measurement noise in longitudinal black hole volume computation are partial volume and variability in the T 2w lesion segmentation. A paired analysis approach is proposed herein that uses registration to equalize partial volume and lesion mask processing to combine T 2w lesion segmentations across time. The scans of 247 MS patients are used to compare a selected black hole computation method with an enhanced version incorporating paired analysis, using rank correlation to a clinical variable (MS functional composite) as the primary outcome measure. The comparison is done at nine different levels of intensity as a previous study suggests that darker black holes may yield stronger correlations. The results demonstrate that paired analysis can strongly improve longitudinal correlation (from -0.148 to -0.303 in this sample) and may produce segmentations that are more sensitive to clinically relevant changes.

  18. Improvement of 137Cs analysis in small volume seawater samples using the Ogoya underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K.; Kanazawa University, Ishikawa; Aoyama, M.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs in seawater is one of the most powerful tracers of water motion. Large volumes of samples have been required for determination of 137 Cs in seawater. This paper describes improvement of separation and purification processes of 137 Cs in seawater, which includes purification of 137 Cs using hexachloroplatinic acid in addition to ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) precipitation. As a result, we succeeded the 137 Cs determination in seawater with a smaller sample volume of 10 liter by using ultra-low background gamma-spectrometry in the Ogoya underground facility. 137 Cs detection limit was about 0.1 mBq (counting time: 10 6 s). This method is applied to determine 137 Cs in small samples of the South Pacific deep waters. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the BD BACTEC FX blood volume monitoring system as a continuous quality improvement measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, L; Van den Abeele, A-M

    2015-07-01

    The yield of blood cultures is proportional to the volume of blood cultured. We evaluated an automatic blood volume monitoring system, recently developed by Becton Dickinson within its BACTEC EpiCenter module, that calculates mean volumes of negative aerobic bottles and generates boxplots and histograms. First, we evaluated the filling degree of 339 aerobic glass blood cultures by calculating the weight-based volume for each bottle. A substantial amount of the bottles (48.3%) were inadequately filled. Evaluation of the accuracy of the monitoring system showed a mean bias of -1.4 mL (-15.4%). Additional evaluation, using the amended software on 287 aerobic blood culture bottles, resulted in an acceptable mean deviation of -0.3 mL (-3.3%). The new software version was also tested on 200 of the recently introduced plastic bottles, which will replace the glass bottles in the near future, showing a mean deviation of +2.8 mL (+26.7%). In conclusion, the mean calculated volumes can be used for the training of a single phlebotomist. However, filling problems appear to be masked when using them for phlebotomist groups or on wards. Here, visual interpretation of boxplots and histograms can serve as a useful tool to observe the spread of the filling degrees and to develop a continuous improvement program. Re-adjustment of the software has proven to be necessary for use with plastic bottles. Due to our findings, BD has developed further adjustments to the software for validated use with plastic bottles, which will be released soon.

  20. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  1. Volume arc therapy of gynaecological tumours: target volume coverage improvement without dose increase for critical organs; Arctherapie volumique des tumeurs gynecologiques: amelioration de la couverture du volume cible sans augmentation de la dose aux organes critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducteil, A.; Kerr, C.; Idri, K.; Fenoglietto, P.; Vieillot, S.; Ailleres, N.; Dubois, J.B.; Azria, D. [CRLC Val-d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the application of conventional intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and volume arc-therapy (RapidArc) for the treatment of cervical cancers, with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Dosimetric plans associated with each of these techniques have been compared. Dose-volume histograms of these three plans have also been compared for the previsional target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and sane tissue. IMCT techniques are equivalent in terms of sparing of organs at risk, and improve target volume coverage with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Arc-therapy reduces significantly treatment duration. Short communication

  2. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  3. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  4. GLACIER VOLUME CHANGE ESTIMATION USING TIME SERIES OF IMPROVED ASTER DEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Girod

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1 satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter

  5. α(1)-adrenoceptor blocker naftopidil improves sleep disturbance with reduction in nocturnal urine volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Tsujimura, Akira; Takao, Tetsuya; Namiki, Mikio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-04-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying improvements in nocturia by α(1)-blockers, we investigated whether the α(1)-blocker naftopidil acts on nocturia with sleep disturbance using a frequency/volume chart (FVC). A total of 56 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were as follows: eight or more points on the I-PSS; three or more points on the I-PSS score for nocturia; and prostate volume larger than 20 ml. Patients received 50 mg of naftopidil once daily for 4 weeks, and non-responders received 75 mg for another 4 weeks. All patients were examined, and their data entered into FVC for 2 days before and after administration of naftopidil. Quality of sleep was also evaluated using modified Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Patients with sleep quality scores of three or four were assigned to sleep disturbance group (n = 33), while those with scores of less than three were assigned to non-disturbance group (n = 23). After administration of naftopidil, total I-PSS decreased and nocturia score decreased from 3.5 to 2.6 (P < 0.01). Total mean score of modified PSQI in sleep disturbance group became significantly lower after administration of naftopidil (from 16.9 to 14.0; P < 0.01). Naftopidil significantly decreased nocturnal urine volume, resulting in a decrease in the nocturnal polyuria index in both sleep disturbance and non-disturbance groups. These results suggest that α(1)-blockers have the ability to normalize sleep disorders. Naftopidil improved nocturnal polyuria regardless of the presence of sleep disturbance, meaning that it might directly reduce nocturnal urine production.

  6. IMRT: Improvement in treatment planning efficiency using NTCP calculation independent of the dose-volume-histogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, Grigor N.; Chow, James C.L.; Grigorov, Lenko; Jiang, Runqing; Barnett, Rob B.

    2006-01-01

    The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is a predictor of radiobiological effect for organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the NTCP is based on the dose-volume-histogram (DVH) which is generated by the treatment planning system after calculation of the 3D dose distribution. Including the NTCP in the objective function for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization would make the planning more effective in reducing the postradiation effects. However, doing so would lengthen the total planning time. The purpose of this work is to establish a method for NTCP determination, independent of a DVH calculation, as a quality assurance check and also as a mean of improving the treatment planning efficiency. In the study, the CTs of ten randomly selected prostate patients were used. IMRT optimization was performed with a PINNACLE3 V 6.2b planning system, using planning target volume (PTV) with margins in the range of 2 to 10 mm. The DVH control points of the PTV and OAR were adapted from the prescriptions of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol P-0126 for an escalated prescribed dose of 82 Gy. This paper presents a new model for the determination of the rectal NTCP ( R NTCP). The method uses a special function, named GVN (from Gy, Volume, NTCP), which describes the R NTCP if 1 cm 3 of the volume of intersection of the PTV and rectum (R int ) is irradiated uniformly by a dose of 1 Gy. The function was 'geometrically' normalized using a prostate-prostate ratio (PPR) of the patients' prostates. A correction of the R NTCP for different prescribed doses, ranging from 70 to 82 Gy, was employed in our model. The argument of the normalized function is the R int , and parameters are the prescribed dose, prostate volume, PTV margin, and PPR. The R NTCPs of another group of patients were calculated by the new method and the resulting difference was <±5% in comparison to the NTCP calculated by the PINNACLE3 software where Kutcher's dose

  7. CT angiography and CT perfusion improve prediction of infarct volume in patients with anterior circulation stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeters, Tom van; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Horsch, Alexander D.; Niesten, Joris M.; Luitse, Merel J.A.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Majoie, Charles B.L.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Jan Albert [St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schonewille, Wouter J. [St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Neurology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Walderveen, Marianne A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wermer, Marieke J.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands); Duijm, Lucien E.M. [Catharina Hospital, Department of Radiology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Keizer, Koos [Catharina Hospital, Department of Neurology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bot, Joseph C.J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Marieke C. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dippel, Diederik W.J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kesselring, F.O.H.W. [Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Radiology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Hofmeijer, Jeannette [Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Neurology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Lycklama a Nijeholt, Geert J. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Boiten, Jelis [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Neurology, The Hague (Netherlands); Rooij, Willem Jan van [St. Elisabeth Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kort, Paul L.M. de [St. Elisabeth Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijer, Frederick J.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pleiter, C.C. [St. Franciscus Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: Dutch acute stroke study (DUST) investigators

    2016-04-15

    We investigated whether baseline CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) in acute ischemic stroke could improve prediction of infarct presence and infarct volume on follow-up imaging. We analyzed 906 patients with suspected anterior circulation stroke from the prospective multicenter Dutch acute stroke study (DUST). All patients underwent baseline non-contrast CT, CTA, and CTP and follow-up non-contrast CT/MRI after 3 days. Multivariable regression models were developed including patient characteristics and non-contrast CT, and subsequently, CTA and CTP measures were added. The increase in area under the curve (AUC) and R{sup 2} was assessed to determine the additional value of CTA and CTP. At follow-up, 612 patients (67.5 %) had a detectable infarct on CT/MRI; median infarct volume was 14.8 mL (interquartile range (IQR) 2.8-69.6). Regarding infarct presence, the AUC of 0.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.85) for patient characteristics and non-contrast CT was improved with addition of CTA measures (AUC 0.85 (95 % CI 0.82-0.87); p < 0.001) and was even higher after addition of CTP measures (AUC 0.89 (95 % CI 0.87-0.91); p < 0.001) and combined CTA/CTP measures (AUC 0.89 (95 % CI 0.87-0.91); p < 0.001). For infarct volume, adding combined CTA/CTP measures (R{sup 2} = 0.58) was superior to patient characteristics and non-contrast CT alone (R{sup 2} = 0.44) and to addition of CTA alone (R{sup 2} = 0.55) or CTP alone (R{sup 2} = 0.54; all p < 0.001). In the acute stage, CTA and CTP have additional value over patient characteristics and non-contrast CT for predicting infarct presence and infarct volume on follow-up imaging. These findings could be applied for patient selection in future trials on ischemic stroke treatment. (orig.)

  8. Pelagic habitat visualization: the need for a third (and fourth) dimension: HabitatSpace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle-Krause, C; Vance, Tiffany; Reusser, Debbie; Stuebe, David; Howlett, Eoin

    2009-01-01

    Habitat in open water is not simply a 2-D to 2.5-D surface such as the ocean bottom or the air-water interface. Rather, pelagic habitat is a 3-D volume of water that can change over time, leading us to the term habitat space. Visualization and analysis in 2-D is well supported with GIS tools, but a new tool was needed for visualization and analysis in four dimensions. Observational data (cruise profiles (xo, yo, z, to)), numerical circulation model fields (x,y,z,t), and trajectories (larval fish, 4-D line) need to be merged together in a meaningful way for visualization and analysis. As a first step toward this new framework, UNIDATA’s Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) has been used to create a set of tools for habitat analysis in 4-D. IDV was designed for 3-D+time geospatial data in the meteorological community. NetCDF JavaTM libraries allow the tool to read many file formats including remotely located data (e.g. data available via OPeNDAP ). With this project, IDV has been adapted for use in delineating habitat space for multiple fish species in the ocean. The ability to define and visualize boundaries of a water mass, which meets specific biologically relevant criteria (e.g., volume, connectedness, and inter-annual variability) based on model results and observational data, will allow managers to investigate the survival of individual year classes of commercially important fisheries. Better understanding of the survival of these year classes will lead to improved forecasting of fisheries recruitment.

  9. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-04-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  10. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-06-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  11. Postoperative radiotherapy for glioma: improved delineation of the clinical target volume using the geodesic distance calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanFang Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTS: To introduce a new method for generating the clinical target volume (CTV from gross tumor volume (GTV using the geodesic distance calculation for glioma. METHODS: One glioblastoma patient was enrolled. The GTV and natural barriers were contoured on each slice of the computer tomography (CT simulation images. Then, a graphic processing unit based on a parallel Euclidean distance transform was used to generate the CTV considering natural barriers. Three-dimensional (3D visualization technique was applied to show the delineation results. Speed of operation and precision were compared between this new delineation method and the traditional method. RESULTS: In considering spatial barriers, the shortest distance from the point sheltered from these barriers equals the sum of the distance along the shortest path between the two points; this consists of several segments and evades the spatial barriers, rather than being the direct Euclidean distance between two points. The CTV was generated irregularly rather than as a spherical shape. The time required to generate the CTV was greatly reduced. Moreover, this new method improved inter- and intra-observer variability in defining the CTV. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the traditional CTV delineation, this new method using geodesic distance calculation not only greatly shortens the time to modify the CTV, but also has better reproducibility.

  12. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  13. Improved tolerance of abdominal large-volume radiotherapy due to ornithine aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuttig, H.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of ornithine aspartate on supporting the hepatic function was investigated in a group of 47 patients with tumour dissemination in the pelvic and abdominal region, randomised on the basis of the progress of the serum enzymes GOT, GPT, LAD, LDH, LAP and the alkaline phosphatase during and following completion of a course of large-volume radiotherapy. The adjuvant therapy with ornithine aspartate resulted in reduced enzyme movement with an earlier tendency to normalisation. The results, which are borne out by statistics, clearly show an improvement in the hepatic function on detoxication of toxic degradation products of radiotherapy with reduced impairment of the body's own defence mechanisms. Subjectively too, the course of treatment with ornithine aspartate showed a reduced ratio of side effects as regards lassitude and impairment of the patient's general well-being as compared with the group of patients to whom ornithine aspartate was not simultaneously administered. (orig.) [de

  14. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  15. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for volume-rendered computed tomography portovenography. Improvement of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Izuru; Hanaoka, Shohei; Akahane, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is a reconstruction technique for computed tomography (CT) that reduces image noise. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether ASIR improves the quality of volume-rendered (VR) CT portovenography. Institutional review board approval, with waived consent, was obtained. A total of 19 patients (12 men, 7 women; mean age 69.0 years; range 25-82 years) suspected of having liver lesions underwent three-phase enhanced CT. VR image sets were prepared with both the conventional method and ASIR. The required time to make VR images was recorded. Two radiologists performed independent qualitative evaluations of the image sets. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis. Contrast-noise ratios (CNRs) of the portal and hepatic vein were also evaluated. Overall image quality was significantly improved by ASIR (P<0.0001 and P=0.0155 for each radiologist). ASIR enhanced CNRs of the portal and hepatic vein significantly (P<0.0001). The time required to create VR images was significantly shorter with ASIR (84.7 vs. 117.1 s; P=0.014). ASIR enhances CNRs and improves image quality in VR CT portovenography. It also shortens the time required to create liver VR CT portovenographs. (author)

  16. Is the Distance Worth It? Patients With Rectal Cancer Traveling to High-Volume Centers Experience Improved Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaomin; Becerra, Adan Z; Justiniano, Carla F; Boodry, Courtney I; Aquina, Christopher T; Swanger, Alex A; Temple, Larissa K; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    It is unclear whether traveling long distances to high-volume centers would compensate for travel burden among patients undergoing rectal cancer resection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether operative volume outweighs the advantages of being treated locally by comparing the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer treated at local, low-volume centers versus far, high-volume centers. This was a population-based study. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with rectal cancer. Patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2012 were included. The outcomes of interest were margins, lymph node yield, receipt of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, readmission within 30 days, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and 5-year overall survival. A total of 18,605 patients met inclusion criteria; 2067 patients were in the long-distance/high-volume group and 1362 in the short-distance/low-volume group. The median travel distance was 62.6 miles for the long-distance/high-volume group and 2.3 miles for the short-distance/low-volume group. Patients who were younger, white, privately insured, and stage III were more likely to have traveled to a high-volume center. When controlled for patient factors, stage, and hospital factors, patients in the short-distance/low-volume group had lower odds of a lymph node yield ≥12 (OR = 0.51) and neoadjuvant chemoradiation (OR = 0.67) and higher 30-day (OR = 3.38) and 90-day mortality (OR = 2.07) compared with those in the long-distance/high-volume group. The short-distance/low-volume group had a 34% high risk of overall mortality at 5 years compared with the long-distance/high-volume group. We lacked data regarding patient and physician decision making and surgeon-specific factors. Our results indicate that when controlled for patient, tumor, and hospital factors, patients who traveled a long distance to a high-volume center had improved lymph node yield

  17. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  18. Postimplantation Analysis Enables Improvement of Dose-Volume Histograms and Reduction of Toxicity for Permanent Seed Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, Peter; Postrach, Johanna; Kahmann, Frank; Henkel, Thomas; Graf, Reinhold; Cho, Chie Hee; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate how postimplantation analysis is useful for improving permanent seed implantation and reducing toxicity. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 197 questionnaires completed by patients after permanent seed implantation (monotherapy between 1999 and 2003). For 70% of these patients, a computed tomography was available to perform postimplantation analysis. The index doses and volumes of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were determined and categorized with respect to the date of implantation. Differences in symptom scores relative to pretherapeutic status were analyzed with regard to follow-up times and DVH descriptors. Acute and subacute toxicities in a control group of 117 patients from an earlier study (June 1999 to September 2001) by Wust et al. (2004) were compared with a matched subgroup from this study equaling 110 patients treated between October 2001 and August 2003. Results: Improved performance, identifying a characteristic time dependency of DVH parameters (after implantation) and toxicity scores, was demonstrated. Although coverage (volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose of the prostate) increased slightly, high-dose regions decreased with the growing experience of the users. Improvement in the DVH and a reduction of toxicities were found in the patient group implanted in the later period. A decline in symptoms with follow-up time counteracts this gain of experience and must be considered. Urinary and sexual discomfort was enhanced by dose heterogeneities (e.g., dose covering 10% of the prostate volume, volume covered by 200% of prescription dose). In contrast, rectal toxicities correlated with exposed rectal volumes, especially the rectal volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: The typical side effects occurring after permanent seed implantation can be reduced by improving the dose distributions. An improvement in dose distributions and a reduction of toxicities were identified with elapsed time between

  19. Process Improvement to Enhance Quality in a Large Volume Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ashley M; Bohannon, Jessica; Porthouse, Lisa; Thompson, Heather; Vago, Tony

    using the Lean process, frontline clinicians identified areas that needed improvement, developed and implemented successful strategies that addressed each gap, and enhanced the quality and safety of care for a large volume perinatal service.

  20. Prostate volume did not affect voiding function improvements in diode laser enucleation of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Chiang, I-Ni; Lin, Chia-Da; Chang, Shang-Jen

    2013-03-01

    We compared safety and surgical outcomes in patients with different prostate sizes treated with diode laser enucleation of the prostate. From 2008 to 2012 consecutive patients with benign prostatic obstruction undergoing diode laser prostate enucleation at our institution were enrolled for analysis. A single surgeon performed diode laser prostate enucleation with an end firing, continuous wave diode laser (980 nm). Based on preoperative prostate volume on transrectal ultrasound, patients were stratified into 2 groups, including group 1-65 with less than 60 ml and group 2-55 with 60 ml or greater. Baseline and perioperative characteristics, and postoperative surgical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 120 men with a mean ± SD age of 70.2 ± 9.0 years were enrolled for analysis. Compared with group 1 patients, those in group 2 had larger mean total prostate volume (85.0 ± 24.6 vs 40.9 ± 10.8 ml), longer mean operative time (117.7 ± 48.2 vs 60.7 ± 25.0 minutes), higher mean retrieved prostate weight (37.3 ± 16.1 vs 12.5 ± 7.3 gm) and a higher mean tissue retrieval ratio (74.4% ± 22.2% vs 58.8% ± 23.2%, p laser energy, voiding function improvements and surgical complication rates of diode laser prostate enucleation were comparable in patients with a larger vs smaller prostate. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 1, Performance evaluation and maintenance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.E.; Taylor, J.H.; Sugarman, A.C.; Sheets, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    This report constitutes the first of the three volumes under this NUREG. The report presents recommendations for developing a cost-effective program for performance evaluation and maintenance of electric motors in nuclear power plants. These recommendations are based on current industry practices, available techniques for monitoring degradation in motor components, manufacturer's recommendations, operating experience, and results from two laboratory tests on aged motors. Two laboratory test reports on a small and a large motor are presented in separate volumes of this NUREG. These provide the basis for the various functional indicators recommended for maintenance programs in this report. The overall preventive maintenance program is separated into two broad areas of activity aimed at mitigating the potential effects of equipment aging: Performance Evaluation and Equipment Maintenance. The latter involves actually maintaining the condition of the equipment while the former involves those activities undertaken to monitor degradation due to aging. These monitoring methods are further categorized into periodic testing, surveillance testing, continuous monitoring and inspections. This study focuses on the methods and procedures for performing the above activities to maintain the motors operationally ready in a nuclear facility. This includes an assessment of various functional indicators to determine their suitability for trending to monitor motor component condition. The intrusiveness of test methods and the present state-of-the-art for using the test equipment in a plant environment are discussed. In conclusion, implementation of the information provided in this report, will improve motor reliability in nuclear power plants. The study indicates the kinds of tests to conduct, how and when to conduct them, and to which motors the tests should be applied. 44 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs

  2. Restoring the habitat of Corn Crake (Crex crex) on arable land: the challenge to improve the soil nutrient status and hydrological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Maud; De Schrijver, An; Louette, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    A full implementation of the Habitats Directive implies that all enlisted habitats and species attain a favourable conservation status all over the European territory. In Northern Belgium an expansion of natural landscapes and forests with 25 000 ha is necessary. To fulfill this target a conversion of nutrient enriched agricultural land is often needed. The restoration of habitats on former agricultural land has shown variable success. One of the most important bottlenecks for ecosystem resto...

  3. Time-delayed contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of brain metastases and apparent treatment volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnirsky, Marina; Nguyen, Vinh; Katz, Joel S; Steinklein, Jared; Rosen, Lisa; Warshall, Craig; Schulder, Michael; Knisely, Jonathan P S

    2016-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is the preeminent diagnostic test for brain metastasis (BM). Detection of BMs for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) planning may improve with a time delay following administration of a high-relaxivity agent for 1.5-T and 3-T imaging systems. Metastasis detection with time-delayed MRI was evaluated in this study. Fifty-three volumetric MRI studies from 38 patients undergoing SRS for BMs were evaluated. All studies used 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco Diagnostics) immediately after injection, followed by 2 more axial T1-weighted sequences after 5-minute intervals (final image acquisition commenced 15 minutes after contrast injection). Two studies were motion limited and excluded. Two hundred eighty-seven BMs were identified. The studies were randomized and examined separately by 3 radiologists, who were blinded to the temporal sequence. Each radiologist recorded the number of BMs detected per scan. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared BM numbers between scans. One radiologist determined the scan on which BMs were best defined. All confirmed, visible tumors were contoured using iPlan RT treatment planning software on each of the 3 MRI data sets. A linear mixed model was used to analyze volume changes. The interclass correlations for Scans 1, 2, and 3 were 0.7392, 0.7951, and 0.7290, respectively, demonstrating excellent interrater reliability. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the second scan as compared with the first in 35.3% of subjects (95% CI 22.4%-49.9%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 1 and 2 ranged from 1 to 10. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the third scan as compared with the second in 21.6% of subjects (95% CI 11.3%-35.3%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 2 and 3 ranged from 1 to 9. Between Scans 1 and 3, additional tumors were seen on 43.1% of scans (increase ranged from 1 to 14). The median increase in tumor number for all comparisons was 1. There was a significant increase in number

  4. Public Reporting of Hospital-Level Cancer Surgical Volumes in California: An Opportunity to Inform Decision Making and Improve Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A; Asch, Steven M; Baker, Laurence; Bilimoria, Karl; Dudley, R Adams; Fong, Niya; Holliday-Hanson, Merry L; Hopkins, David S P; Imholz, Elizabeth M; Malin, Jennifer; Moy, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Maryann; Parker, Joseph P; Saigal, Christopher S; Spurlock, Bruce; Teleki, Stephanie; Zingmond, David; Lang, Lance

    2016-10-01

    Most patients, providers, and payers make decisions about cancer hospitals without any objective data regarding quality or outcomes. We developed two online resources allowing users to search and compare timely data regarding hospital cancer surgery volumes. Hospital cancer surgery volumes for all California hospitals were calculated using ICD-9 coded hospital discharge summary data. Cancer surgeries included (bladder, brain, breast, colon, esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, rectum, and stomach) were selected on the basis of a rigorous literature review to confirm sufficient evidence of a positive association between volume and mortality. The literature could not identify threshold numbers of surgeries associated with better or worse outcomes. A multidisciplinary working group oversaw the project and ensured sound methodology. In California in 2014, about 60% of surgeries were performed at top-quintile-volume hospitals, but the per-hospital median numbers of surgeries for esophageal, pancreatic, stomach, liver, or bladder cancer surgeries were four or fewer. At least 670 patients received cancer surgery at hospitals that performed only one or two surgeries for a particular cancer type; 72% of those patients lived within 50 miles of a top-quintile-volume hospital. There is clear potential for more readily available information about hospital volumes to help patient, providers, and payers choose cancer surgery hospitals. Our successful public reporting of hospital volumes in California represents an important first step toward making publicly available even more provider-specific data regarding cancer care quality, costs, and outcomes, so those data can inform decision-making and encourage quality improvement.

  5. Improving nuclear regulation. NEA regulatory guidance booklets volumes 1-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A common theme throughout the series of NEA regulatory guidance reports, or 'green booklets', is the premise that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are continuously maintained and operated in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective the regulator must bear in mind that it is the operator that has responsibility for safely operating the nuclear facility; the role of the regulator is to assess and to provide assurance regarding the operator's activities in terms of assuming that responsibility. The full series of these reports was brought together in one edition for the first time in 2009 and was widely found to be a useful resource. This second edition comprises 14 volumes, including the latest on The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services. The reports address various challenges that could apply throughout the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including design, siting, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning. The compilation is intended to serve as a knowledge management tool both for current regulators and the new nuclear professionals and organisations entering the regulatory field. Contents: Executive Summary; Regulatory Challenges: 1. The Role of the Nuclear Regulator in Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture; 2. Regulatory Response Strategies for Safety Culture Problems; 3. Nuclear Regulatory Challenges Related to Human Performance; 4. Regulatory Challenges in Using Nuclear Operating Experience; 5. Nuclear Regulatory Review of Licensee Self-assessment (LSA); 6. Nuclear Regulatory Challenges Arising from Competition in Electricity Markets; 7. The Nuclear Regulatory Challenge of Judging Safety Back-fits; 8. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors; 9. The Nuclear Regulator's Role in Assessing Licensee Oversight of Vendor and Other Contracted Services

  6. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  7. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  8. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  10. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  11. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Shih, Helen A; Menze, Bjoern H; Ayache, Nicholas; Konukoglu, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  12. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume IV. Caribbean Region Air Traffic Services System Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    OASIS) U Final Report This report i.s one of a set of companion documents which includes the following volumes: Volume I Executive Summary and...Northern Coastal Region of 4 the Directorate of Engineering and Systems (Direccion de Ingenieria y Sistemas ), which is responsible for maintenance of the

  13. ACCURATUM: improved calcium volume scoring using a mesh-based algorithm - a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, Stefan C.; Szekely, Gabor; Alkadhi, Hatem; Desbiolles, Lotus; Cattin, Philippe C.

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the classical volume scoring method for quantifying coronary calcifications, including accuracy, variability between examinations, and dependency on plaque density and acquisition parameters, a mesh-based volume measurement method has been developed. It was evaluated and compared with the classical volume scoring method for accuracy, i.e., the normalized volume (measured volume/ground-truthed volume), and for variability between examinations (standard deviation of accuracy). A cardiac computed-tomography (CT) phantom containing various cylindrical calcifications was scanned using different tube voltages and reconstruction kernels, at various positions and orientations on the CT table and using different slice thicknesses. Mean accuracy for all plaques was significantly higher (p<0.0001) for the proposed method (1.220±0.507) than for the classical volume score (1.896±1.095). In contrast to the classical volume score, plaque density (p=0.84), reconstruction kernel (p=0.19), and tube voltage (p=0.27) had no impact on the accuracy of the developed method. In conclusion, the method presented herein is more accurate than classical calcium scoring and is less dependent on tube voltage, reconstruction kernel, and plaque density. (orig.)

  14. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Volume 2: Supplemental papers and data documentation; Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary

  15. The Importance of psychological constructs for training volume and performance improvement. A structural equation model for youth speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; De Roos, Ilse; Torenbeek, Marjolein; Fokkema, Tryntsje; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the importance of self-regulated learning, motivation, and goal orientation for training volume and performance improvement, 63 talented Dutch speed skaters (n=35 male; n=28 female) aged 11 to 22 completed the Self-Regulation of Learning-Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS; Toering et al.,

  16. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Pesus; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional hazard model, patients with NPC treated by high-volume physicians (caseload ≥ 35) had better survival rates (p = 0.001) after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p < 0.001). Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate

  17. The Habitat Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)

  18. Improved Short-Term Outcomes following Orthognathic Surgery Are Associated with High-Volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Tuggle, Charles T; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies assessing outcomes following orthognathic surgery rely primarily on single-center/surgeon experience. In addition to issues of generalizability, these studies are limited in evaluating the effect of operative volume on patient outcomes. Orthognathic procedures were identified in the 1999 to 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes included occurrence of any in-hospital complication, extended length of stay (>2 days), and increased costs (>$10,784). High-volume hospitals were defined as the 90th percentile of case volume or higher (>31 cases/year). Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of outcomes. Trend analyses were performed to assess changes in the annual rate of patients treated at high-volume hospitals over the study period. Among 101,692 orthognathic surgery patients, 19.6 percent underwent concurrent ancillary procedures (i.e., genioplasty, rhinoplasty, or septoplasty), and 37.6 percent underwent double-jaw surgery. Fifty-three percent were treated at high-volume hospitals. High-volume hospitals more often performed ancillary procedures (21.4 percent versus 17.4 percent; p surgery (41.3 percent versus 33.4 percent; p orthognathic cases nationwide are performed at a small number of high-volume hospitals. These hospitals discharge patients earlier, perform more complex procedures, and have fewer complications. Risk, III.

  19. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  20. Improving volume loss estimates of the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet 2002-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    Studies have been carried out using various methods to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Remote sensing techniques used to determine the ice sheet volume includes airborne and satellite radar and laser methods and measurements of ice flow of outlet glaciers use InSAR satellite radar......) does not work on sloping surfaces and is affected by radar penetration into the snow. InSAR estimates require knowledge of outlet glacier thickness. GRACE has limited spatial resolution and is affected by mass variations not just from ice changes, but also from hydrologic and ocean mass variability...... and mass redistribution within the solid Earth. The accuracy of ice mass and ice volume estimates can be assessed by comparing results from different techniques. Here, we focus on volume loss estimates from ICESat, ATM and LVIS data. We estimate catchment-wide ice volume change in northwest Greenland...

  1. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  3. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-06-01

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M.; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution proton density-weighted images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8–25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus. PMID:28342999

  5. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  6. Use of soft data in a GIS to improve estimation of the volume of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, L.A.M.; Leummens, H.; Stein, A.; Bruijn, P.J. de

    1998-01-01

    In the practice of soil remediation, organoleptic observations such as the smell or the colour of contaminated soil play an important role when determining well-defined volumes of contaminated soil. A geographical information system (GIS) is then used to combine quantitative measurements with such soft data. In this study general procedures concerning how to deal with this type of observation are presented. The procedures were applied to a former gas works site, which was contaminated with cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Netherlands. The volume of contaminated soil was determined. Use of soft data reduced the uncertainty in the volume of contaminated soil 4 to 16%. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Use of soft data in a GIS to improve estimation of the volume of contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, L.A.M.; Leummens, H.; Stein, A.; Bruijn, P.J. de [Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Soil Science and Geology

    1998-01-01

    In the practice of soil remediation, organoleptic observations such as the smell or the colour of contaminated soil play an important role when determining well-defined volumes of contaminated soil. A geographical information system (GIS) is then used to combine quantitative measurements with such soft data. In this study general procedures concerning how to deal with this type of observation are presented. The procedures were applied to a former gas works site, which was contaminated with cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Netherlands. The volume of contaminated soil was determined. Use of soft data reduced the uncertainty in the volume of contaminated soil 4 to 16%. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Breathing circuit compliance and accuracy of displayed tidal volume during pressure-controlled ventilation of infants: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenski, Todd A; Diehl, Carrie; Clopton, Rachel G; Friesen, Robert H

    2017-09-01

    Anesthesia machines have evolved to deliver desired tidal volumes more accurately by measuring breathing circuit compliance during a preuse self-test and then incorporating the compliance value when calculating expired tidal volume. The initial compliance value is utilized in tidal volume calculation regardless of whether the actual compliance of the breathing circuit changes during a case, as happens when corrugated circuit tubing is manually expanded after the preuse self-test but before patient use. We noticed that the anesthesia machine preuse self-test was usually performed on nonexpanded pediatric circuit tubing, and then the breathing circuit was subsequently expanded for clinical use. We aimed to demonstrate that performing the preuse self-test in that manner could lead to incorrectly displayed tidal volume on the anesthesia machine monitor. The goal of this quality improvement project was to change the usual practice and improve the accuracy of displayed tidal volume in infants undergoing general anesthesia. There were four stages of the project: (i) gathering baseline data about the performance of the preuse self-test and using infant and adult test lungs to measure discrepancies of displayed tidal volumes when breathing circuit compliance was changed after the initial preuse self-test; (ii) gathering clinical data during pressure-controlled ventilation comparing anesthesia machine displayed tidal volume with actual spirometry tidal volume in patients less than 10 kg before (machine preuse self-test performed while the breathing circuit was nonexpanded) and after an intervention (machine preuse self-test performed after the breathing circuit was fully expanded); (iii) performing department-wide education to help implement practice change; (iv) gathering postintervention data to determine the prevalence of proper machine preuse self-test. At constant pressure-controlled ventilation through fully expanded circuit tubing, displayed tidal volume was 83

  9. Server-based enterprise collaboration software improves safety and quality in high-volume PET/CT practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Kessler, Marcus M; Hightower, Jeremy L; Henry, Susan D; Deloney, Linda A

    2013-12-01

    With increasing volumes of complex imaging cases and rising economic pressure on physician staffing, timely reporting will become progressively challenging. Current and planned iterations of PACS and electronic medical record systems do not offer workflow management tools to coordinate delivery of imaging interpretations with the needs of the patient and ordering physician. The adoption of a server-based enterprise collaboration software system by our Division of Nuclear Medicine has significantly improved our efficiency and quality of service.

  10. Optimization of Large Volume Injection for Improved Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Ghorbani, Faranak

    2008-01-01

    Detection of PAH of six benzene rings is somewhat troublesome and lowering the limits of detection (LODs) for these compounds in food is necessary. For this purpose, we optimized a Programmable-Temperature-Vaporisation (PTV) injection with Large Volume Injection (LVI) with regard to the GC-MS det...

  11. Improved hepatocyte function of future liver remnant of cirrhotic rats after portal vein ligation: a bonus other than volume shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Liao, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2009-02-01

    Preoperative portal vein embolization is increasingly employed for those with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis to gain a volume-shifting effect. However, the alterations of histologic architecture and hepatocyte function of future liver remnant (FLR) remain unexplored. Portal vein ligation (PVL) was performed in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic rats. Regeneration indices that include the DNA synthesis index, restituted liver mass, and the redistributed volume ratio were measured. The indocyanine green 15' retention test (ICG-R15), histologic changes, total Knodell score, and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were measured before and after PVL. Tc-99m sulfur-colloid liver single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and diisopropyl iminoacetic acid (DISIDA) SPECT were conducted. The redistributed volume ratio of cirrhotic rats was less than noncirrhotic rats (63% vs 80%, P baseline (6.0 +/- 4.1% vs 15.8 +/- 4.6%, P baseline. The redistributed volume ratio of noncirrhotic and cirrhotic rats based on 99mTc sulfur-colloid SPECT were 79% and 64%, respectively. The clearance T(1/2) of FLR in cirrhotic rats based on DISIDA SPECT was decreased compared with baseline (5.2 +/- 1.9 min vs 8.6 +/- 3.1 min). The regenerated functional liver mass of cirrhotic rats after PVL is less than noncirrhotic rats, whereas the hepatocyte function of FLR in cirrhotic rats is improved relevant to tissue remodeling.

  12. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  13. Feasibility study on improving SO/sub 2/ abatement economics through improvements in byproduct utilization. Final report. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-17

    This study was undertaken to assess the technical feasibility of improving SO/sub 2/ abatement economics through improvements in byproduct utilization, and to recommend the most appropriate strategy for fostering the development and commericalization of such technology. Existing byproduct technology was reviewed and the potential for new technology assessed. This was done by a literature review and a survey of individuals and organizations actively engaged in this area. The assessment is confined to technical aspects only. This phase of the study concludes that there is a wide range of abatement byproduct technology, at various stages of development, which if appropriately exploited, offers the potential of improving byproduct utility and value, and hence the economics of Canadian SO/sub 2/ abatement. The second phase of this study addresses the problem of the most effective strategy for ensuring the development and commercialization of appropriate byproduct technology. This is based on discussions with individuals and organizations involved in the field, and assessment of the motivation and potential effectiveness of alternative approaches within the context of a diverse Canadian industry, the technology status in Canada and the national need. Includes 51-page bibliography. 400 refs., 14 tabs.

  14. On the Use of Generalized Volume Scattering Models for the Improvement of General Polarimetric Model-Based Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a general polarimetric model-based decomposition framework was proposed by Chen et al., which addresses several well-known limitations in previous decomposition methods and implements a simultaneous full-parameter inversion by using complete polarimetric information. However, it only employs four typical models to characterize the volume scattering component, which limits the parameter inversion performance. To overcome this issue, this paper presents two general polarimetric model-based decomposition methods by incorporating the generalized volume scattering model (GVSM or simplified adaptive volume scattering model, (SAVSM proposed by Antropov et al. and Huang et al., respectively, into the general decomposition framework proposed by Chen et al. By doing so, the final volume coherency matrix structure is selected from a wide range of volume scattering models within a continuous interval according to the data itself without adding unknowns. Moreover, the new approaches rely on one nonlinear optimization stage instead of four as in the previous method proposed by Chen et al. In addition, the parameter inversion procedure adopts the modified algorithm proposed by Xie et al. which leads to higher accuracy and more physically reliable output parameters. A number of Monte Carlo simulations of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data are carried out and show that the proposed method with GVSM yields an overall improvement in the final accuracy of estimated parameters and outperforms both the version using SAVSM and the original approach. In addition, C-band Radarsat-2 and L-band AIRSAR fully polarimetric images over the San Francisco region are also used for testing purposes. A detailed comparison and analysis of decomposition results over different land-cover types are conducted. According to this study, the use of general decomposition models leads to a more accurate quantitative retrieval of target parameters. However, there

  15. Improved estimates for the role of grey matter volume and GABA in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Del Pin, Simon Hviid; Andersen, Lau Møller; Rees, Geraint; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-01

    Across a century or more, ambiguous stimuli have been studied scientifically because they provide a method for studying the internal mechanisms of the brain while ensuring an unchanging external stimulus. In recent years, several studies have reported correlations between perceptual dynamics during bistable perception and particular brain characteristics such as the grey matter volume of areas in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the relative GABA concentration in the occipital lobe. Here, we attempt to replicate previous results using similar paradigms to those used in the studies first reporting the correlations. Using the original findings as priors for Bayesian analyses, we found strong support for the correlation between structure-from-motion percept duration and anterior SPL grey matter volume. Correlations between percept duration and other parietal areas as well as occipital GABA, however, were not directly replicated or appeared less strong than previous studies suggested. Inspection of the posterior distributions (current "best guess" based on new data given old data as prior) revealed that several original findings may reflect true relationships although no direct evidence was found in support of them in the current sample. Additionally, we found that multiple regression models based on grey matter volume at 2-3 parietal locations (but not including GABA) were the best predictors of percept duration, explaining approximately 35% of the inter-individual variance. Taken together, our results provide new estimates of correlation strengths, generally increasing confidence in the role of the aSPL while decreasing confidence in some of the other relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With High-Volume Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenmin; Hong, Jie; Zeng, Qiyi; Tao, Jianping; Chen, Feiyan; Dang, Run; Liang, Yufeng; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for improvement of oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain controversial. These questions were addressed by retrospective analysis of severe ARDS patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital from 2009 to 2015 who received high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during mechanical ventilation. There was a significant improvement in partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 24 hours after CRRT onset compared with baseline (median change = 51.5; range = -19 to 450.5; P Improvement in oxygenation is likely related to both restoration of fluid balance and clearance of inflammatory mediators.

  17. Development of base technology for high burnup PWR fuel improvement Volume 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Eun; Lee, Sang Hee; Bae, Seong Man [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Chung, Jin Gon; Chung, Sun Kyo; Kim, Sun Du [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Won; Chung, Sun Kyo; Kim, Sun Du [Korea Nuclear Fuel Development Inst., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Development of base technology for high burnup nuclear fuel -Development of UO{sub 2} pellet manufacturing technology -Improvement of fuel rod performance code -Improvement of plenum spring design -Study on the mechanical characteristics of fuel cladding -Organization of fuel failure mechanism Establishment of next stage R and D program (author). 226 refs., 100 figs.

  18. An improved approach to reduce partial volume errors in brain SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Hatton, B.F.; Michael, G.; Barnden, L.; QUT, Brisbane, QLD; The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, SA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Limitations in SPET resolution give rise to significant partial volume error (PVE) in small brain structures We have investigated a previously published method (Muller-Gartner et al., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;16: 650-658) to correct PVE in grey matter using MRI. An MRI is registered and segmented to obtain a grey matter tissue volume which is then smoothed to obtain resolution matched to the corresponding SPET. By dividing the original SPET with this correction map, structures can be corrected for PVE on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Since this approach is limited by space-invariant filtering, modification was made by estimating projections for the segmented MRI and reconstructing these using identical parameters to SPET. The methods were tested on simulated brain scans, reconstructed with the ordered subsets EM algorithm (8,16, 32, 64 equivalent EM iterations) The new method provided better recovery visually. For 32 EM iterations, recovery coefficients were calculated for grey matter regions. The effects of potential errors in the method were examined. Mean recovery was unchanged with one pixel registration error, the maximum error found in most registration programs. Errors in segmentation > 2 pixels results in loss of accuracy for small structures. The method promises to be useful for reducing PVE in brain SPET

  19. Does increased nerve length within the treatment volume improve trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery? a prospective double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, John C.; Pollock, Bruce E.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Phuong, Loi K.; Foote, Robert L.; Stafford, Scott L.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increasing the nerve length within the treatment volume for trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery would improve pain relief. Methods and Materials: Eighty-seven patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia were randomized to undergo retrogasserian gamma knife radiosurgery (75 Gy maximal dose with 4-mm diameter collimators) using either one (n=44) or two (n=43) isocenters. The median follow-up was 26 months (range 1-36). Results: Pain relief was complete in 57 patients (45 without medication and 12 with low-dose medication), partial in 15, and minimal in another 15 patients. The actuarial rate of obtaining complete pain relief (with or without medication) was 67.7%±5.1%. The pain relief was identical for one- and two-isocenter radiosurgery. Pain relapsed in 30 of 72 responding patients. Facial numbness and mild and severe paresthesias developed in 8, 5, and 1 two-isocenter patients vs. 3, 4, and 0 one-isocenter patients, respectively (p=0.23). Improved pain relief correlated with younger age (p=0.025) and fewer prior procedures (p=0.039) and complications (numbness or paresthesias) correlated with the nerve length irradiated (p=0.018). Conclusions: Increasing the treatment volume to include a longer nerve length for trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery does not significantly improve pain relief but may increase complications

  20. Coastal Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate critical habitat, areas of habitat essential to the species' conservation, for ESA...

  1. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  2. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  3. Improving estimation of glacier volume change: a GLIMS case study of Bering Glacier System, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Beedle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS project has developed tools and methods that can be employed by analysts to create accurate glacier outlines. To illustrate the importance of accurate glacier outlines and the effectiveness of GLIMS standards we conducted a case study on Bering Glacier System (BGS, Alaska. BGS is a complex glacier system aggregated from multiple drainage basins, numerous tributaries, and many accumulation areas. Published measurements of BGS surface area vary from 1740 to 6200 km2, depending on how the boundaries of this system have been defined. Utilizing GLIMS tools and standards we have completed a new outline (3630 km2 and analysis of the area-altitude distribution (hypsometry of BGS using Landsat images from 2000 and 2001 and a US Geological Survey 15-min digital elevation model. We compared this new hypsometry with three different hypsometries to illustrate the errors that result from the widely varying estimates of BGS extent. The use of different BGS hypsometries results in highly variable measures of volume change and net balance (bn. Applying a simple hypsometry-dependent mass-balance model to different hypsometries results in a bn rate range of −1.0 to −3.1 m a−1 water equivalent (W.E., a volume change range of −3.8 to −6.7 km3 a−1 W.E., and a near doubling in contributions to sea level equivalent, 0.011 mm a−1 to 0.019 mm a−1. Current inaccuracies in glacier outlines hinder our ability to correctly quantify glacier change. Understanding of glacier extents can become comprehensive and accurate. Such accuracy is possible with the increasing volume of satellite imagery of glacierized regions, recent advances in tools and standards, and dedication to this important task.

  4. Improved dose–volume histogram estimates for radiopharmaceutical therapy by optimizing quantitative SPECT reconstruction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lishui; Hobbs, Robert F; Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C; Segars, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, an understanding of the dose distribution in normal and target tissues is important for optimizing treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry takes into account patient anatomy and the nonuniform uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in tissues. Dose–volume histograms (DVHs) provide a useful summary representation of the 3D dose distribution and have been widely used for external beam treatment planning. Reliable 3D dosimetry requires an accurate 3D radioactivity distribution as the input. However, activity distribution estimates from SPECT are corrupted by noise and partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we systematically investigated OS-EM based quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) image reconstruction in terms of its effect on DVHs estimates. A modified 3D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that incorporated a non-uniform kidney model and clinically realistic organ activities and biokinetics was used. Projections were generated using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation; noise effects were studied using 50 noise realizations with clinical count levels. Activity images were reconstructed using QSPECT with compensation for attenuation, scatter and collimator–detector response (CDR). Dose rate distributions were estimated by convolution of the activity image with a voxel S kernel. Cumulative DVHs were calculated from the phantom and QSPECT images and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. We found that noise, PVEs, and ringing artifacts due to CDR compensation all degraded histogram estimates. Low-pass filtering and early termination of the iterative process were needed to reduce the effects of noise and ringing artifacts on DVHs, but resulted in increased degradations due to PVEs. Large objects with few features, such as the liver, had more accurate histogram estimates and required fewer iterations and more smoothing for optimal results. Smaller objects with fine details, such as the kidneys, required more iterations and less

  5. Improved dose-volume histogram estimates for radiopharmaceutical therapy by optimizing quantitative SPECT reconstruction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lishui; Hobbs, Robert F.; Segars, Paul W.; Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C.

    2013-06-01

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, an understanding of the dose distribution in normal and target tissues is important for optimizing treatment. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry takes into account patient anatomy and the nonuniform uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in tissues. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) provide a useful summary representation of the 3D dose distribution and have been widely used for external beam treatment planning. Reliable 3D dosimetry requires an accurate 3D radioactivity distribution as the input. However, activity distribution estimates from SPECT are corrupted by noise and partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we systematically investigated OS-EM based quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) image reconstruction in terms of its effect on DVHs estimates. A modified 3D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that incorporated a non-uniform kidney model and clinically realistic organ activities and biokinetics was used. Projections were generated using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation; noise effects were studied using 50 noise realizations with clinical count levels. Activity images were reconstructed using QSPECT with compensation for attenuation, scatter and collimator-detector response (CDR). Dose rate distributions were estimated by convolution of the activity image with a voxel S kernel. Cumulative DVHs were calculated from the phantom and QSPECT images and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. We found that noise, PVEs, and ringing artifacts due to CDR compensation all degraded histogram estimates. Low-pass filtering and early termination of the iterative process were needed to reduce the effects of noise and ringing artifacts on DVHs, but resulted in increased degradations due to PVEs. Large objects with few features, such as the liver, had more accurate histogram estimates and required fewer iterations and more smoothing for optimal results. Smaller objects with fine details, such as the kidneys, required more iterations and less

  6. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  7. BOX MEDIA MODEL THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS IN VOLUME BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rohaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated Cilengkrang Elementary School fifth grade students in the learning of the beam volume is still experiencing difficulties. This happens because the learning process that takes place is conventional. Learning by applying a contextual model chosen researchers by reason students will know if the learning is associated with the real world of students. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Tujuanpenelitianini is to obtain an overview of the planning, implementation and improvement of students' understanding of the results of the application of the concept model of contextual learning in the classroom beam volume V Elementary School Cilengkrang. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Taggart. Based on the implementation of the actions performed by three cycles, as a whole has shown an increase from the initial data, both process and outcomes of learning. So that the application of contextual models can enhance students' understanding of class V SDN Cilengkrang Northern District of Sumedang Sumedang district of the concept of the beam volume.   Keywords: Contextual Model, Mathematics, Mathematics Learning Objectives     Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi siswa kelas V SDN Cilengkrang dalam pembelajaran volume balok masih mengalami kesulitan. Ini terjadi karena proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung bersifat konvensional. Pembelajaran dengan menerapkan model kontekstual dipilih peneliti dengan alasan siswa akan paham jika pembelajaran dikaitkan dengan dunia nyata siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan rancangan prosedur penelitiannya mengacu pada model spiral Kemmis dan MC. Tujuanpenelitianini yaitu untuk memperoleh

  8. The SEA of the Future: Leveraging Performance Management to Support School Improvement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This inaugural edition of…

  9. Corticospinal tract integrity and lesion volume play different roles in chronic hemiparesis and its improvement through motor practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Dean, Phil J A; Szameitat, Andre J; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Shen, Shan

    2014-05-01

    Initial evidence suggests that the integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is strongly related to motor function in the chronic state but not the treatment gain induced by motor rehabilitation. We examined the association of motor status and treatment benefit by testing patients with a wide range of severity of hemiparesis of the left and right upper extremity. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 22 patients beyond 12 months after onset of stroke with severe to moderate hemiparesis. Motor function was tested before and after 2 weeks of modified constraint-induced movement therapy. CST integrity, but not lesion volume, correlated with the motor ability measures of the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Motor Activity Log. No differences were found between left and right hemiparesis. Motor performance improved significantly with the treatment regime, and did so equally for patients with left and right arm paresis. However, treatment benefit was not associated with either CST integrity or lesion volume. CST integrity correlated best in this small trial with chronic long-term status but not treatment-induced improvements. The CST may play a different role in the mechanisms mediating long-term outcome compared to those underlying practice-induced gains after a chronic plateau in motor function.

  10. Riverine habitat dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The physical habitat template is a fundamental influence on riverine ecosystem structure and function. Habitat dynamics refers to the variation in habitat through space and time as the result of varying discharge and varying geomorphology. Habitat dynamics can be assessed at spatial scales ranging from the grain (the smallest resolution at which an organism relates to its environment) to the extent (the broadest resolution inclusive of all space occupied during its life cycle). In addition to a potentially broad range of spatial scales, assessments of habitat dynamics may include dynamics of both occupied and nonoccupied habitat patches because of process interactions among patches. Temporal aspects of riverine habitat dynamics can be categorized into hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Hydrodynamics refers to habitat variation that results from changes in discharge in the absence of significant change of channel morphology and at generally low sediment-transport rates. Hydrodynamic assessments are useful in cases of relatively high flow exceedance (percent of time a flow is equaled or exceeded) or high critical shear stress, conditions that are applicable in many studies of instream flows. Morphodynamics refers to habitat variation resulting from changes to substrate conditions or channel/floodplain morphology. Morphodynamic assessments are necessary when channel and floodplain boundary conditions have been significantly changed, generally by relatively rare flood events or in rivers with low critical shear stress. Morphodynamic habitat variation can be particularly important as disturbance mechanisms that mediate population growth or for providing conditions needed for reproduction, such as channel-migration events that erode cutbanks and provide new pointbar surfaces for germination of riparian trees. Understanding of habitat dynamics is increasing in importance as societal goals shift toward restoration of riverine ecosystems. Effective investment in restoration

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  12. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  13. Variable tidal volumes improve lung protective ventilation strategies in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter M; Carvalho, Alysson R; Pelosi, Paolo; Hoehn, Catharina; Meissner, Christoph; Kasper, Michael; Hübler, Matthias; von Neindorff, Matthias; Dassow, Constanze; Barrenschee, Martina; Uhlig, Stefan; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2009-04-15

    Noisy ventilation with variable Vt may improve respiratory function in acute lung injury. To determine the impact of noisy ventilation on respiratory function and its biological effects on lung parenchyma compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation strategies. In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, we randomly combined noisy ventilation with the ARDS Network protocol or the open lung approach (n = 9 per group). Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and distribution of pulmonary blood flow were measured at intervals over a 6-hour period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage, mechanical stress, and inflammation. We found that, at comparable minute ventilation, noisy ventilation (1) improved arterial oxygenation and reduced mean inspiratory peak airway pressure and elastance of the respiratory system compared with the ARDS Network protocol and the open lung approach, (2) redistributed pulmonary blood flow to caudal zones compared with the ARDS Network protocol and to peripheral ones compared with the open lung approach, (3) reduced histological damage in comparison to both protective ventilation strategies, and (4) did not increase lung inflammation or mechanical stress. Noisy ventilation with variable Vt and fixed respiratory frequency improves respiratory function and reduces histological damage compared with standard protective ventilation strategies.

  14. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell' orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  15. Improved Optical Document Security Techniques Based on Volume Holography and Lippmann Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    Optical variable devices (OVDs), such as holograms, are now common in the field of document security. Up until now mass-produced embossed holograms or other types of mass-produced OVDs are used not only for banknotes but also for personalized documents, such as passports, ID cards, travel documents, driving licenses, credit cards, etc. This means that identical OVDs are used on documents issued to individuals. Today, there is need for a higher degree of security on such documents and this chapter covers new techniques to make improved mass-produced or personalized OVDs.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THE REDLICH-KWONG EQUATION OF STATE BY MODIFICATION OF CO-VOLUME PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cubic equations of state are widely used in phase-equilibrium calculations because of their simplicity and accuracy. Most equations of states are not accurate enough for predicting density of liquid and dense gas. A modification on the Redlich-Kwong (RK equation of state is developed. Parameter b is modified by introducing a new parameter,b, which is a function of molecular weight and temperature. The modification gives a significant improvement over the original RK equation for predicting density. For 6538 data points of 27 compounds, the proposed equation gives only 2.8% of average absolute deviation (AAD, while the original RK and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations give 11.4% and 11.7%, respectively. The proposed modification improves the performance of the RK equation for predicting vapor pressure as well. For 2829 data points of 94 compounds, the proposed modification lowers the AAD of the RK equation from 1460% down to 30.8%. It is comparable to the famous SRK equation, which give 5.8% of AAD. The advantage of the proposed equation is that it uses only critical pressure and temperature as other equations of states do, and molecular weight, which is easily calculated. Another advantage is that the proposed equation simpler than the SRK equation of state.

  17. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  18. Evaluation of two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector intervention and control programs require reliable and accurate information about vector abundance and their seasonal distribution. The availability of reliable information on the spatial and temporal productivity of larval vector habitats can improve targeting of larval control interventions and our understanding of local malaria transmission and epidemics. The main objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in the western Kenyan highlands, the aerial sampler and the emergence trap. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up for sixty days in each season in three habitat types: drainage ditches, natural swamps, and abandoned goldmines. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up in eleven places in each habitat type. The success of each in estimating habitat productivity was assessed according to method, habitat type, and season. The effect of other factors including algae cover, grass cover, habitat depth and width, and habitat water volume on species productivity was analysed using stepwise logistic regression Results Habitat productivity estimates obtained by the two sampling methods differed significantly for all species except for An. implexus. For for An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, aerial samplers performed better, 21.5 and 14.6 folds, than emergence trap respectively, while the emergence trap was shown to be more efficient for culicine species. Seasonality had a significant influence on the productivity of all species monitored. Dry season was most productive season. Overall, drainage ditches had significantly higher productivity in all seasons compared to other habitat types. Algae cover, debris, chlorophyll-a, and habitat depth and size had significant influence with respect to species. Conclusion These findings suggest that the aerial sampler is the

  19. Market of dwelling improvement. Energy mastery in existing dwellings in France; Marche de l'amelioration de l'habitat. La maitrise de l'energie dans l'habitat existant en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videau, S.; Le Fur, B.

    2003-09-01

    This documentary study represents a basis of thinking for the development of the market of energy mastery works in existing accommodations. It integrates, analyzes and synthesizes a huge number of data about energy and environment gathered from several sources (Energy Observatory, French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe), national program of fight against climatic change (PNLCC), etc..). It presents first, the economical, environmental and social stakes of such a market (energy dependence of France, environmental commitments, energy over-consumption of old buildings), and then it lists the different points that would lead to significant energy savings: use of energy efficient appliances (consumer information), insulation and space heating improvements, and promotion of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  20. Ecological research on offshore wind energy development in the North and Baltic sea. Part: Environmental planning instruments: Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA), Habitats Assessment and Strategic Environmetnal Assessment (SEA). Volumes 1-4 and final report; Oekologische Begleitforschung zur Windenergienutzung im Offshore-Bereich der Nord- und Ostsee. Teilbereich 'Instrumente des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes: Strategische Umweltpruefung, Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und Flora-Fauna-Habitat-Vertraeglichkeitspruefung'. Band 1-4 und Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppel, J.; Langenheld, A.; Peters, W.; Wende, W.; Sommer, S.; Finger, A.; Koeller, J.; Kraetzschmer, D.; Kerber, N.; Mahlburg, S.; Mueller, C.

    2003-07-01

    Within the licensing procedure of offshore wind farms several environmental planning instruments have to be taken into account to assess the probable effects of turbines on the marine environment. So far only little experiences were available on how to fulfil legal and methodical demands with regard to these environmental planning instruments offshore. Hence it was the principle task of this project to analyse how instruments like the environmental impacts assessment (EIA), the habitats assessment and the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can be adapted to the special conditions of the marine environment and the legal requirements of the licensing procedure in the German EEZ according to the offshore installations ordinance. Since according to the offshore installations ordinance the construction and operation of offshore wind farms can only be refused for environmental reasons when the marine environment is endangered, the project first investigated for different aspects of the marine environment (e.g. marine mammals, birds, benthos, visual landscape) which kind of conflicts can possibly be caused by the construction and operation of turbines and of which legal significance they are with regard to the licensing procedure. Referring to those environmental impacts which have been considered as relevant for the licensing procedure the state of knowledge has been investigated by means of expert interviews and literature research. Practicable starting points for the impact assessment were suggested. With regard to the required environmental assessment within the licensing procedure one result of the project is a structured documentation of the standard of knowledge (volume I). Further on the project developed proposals for the application of the planning instruments EIA, habitats assessment and SEA offshore based on legal regulations. The result is a catalogue of requirements regarding the content and proceedings of the instruments implementation in connection

  1. An improved distance-to-dose correlation for predicting bladder and rectum dose-volumes in knowledge-based VMAT planning for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Phillip D. H.; Carver, Robert L.; Fontenot, Jonas D.

    2018-01-01

    The overlap volume histogram (OVH) is an anatomical metric commonly used to quantify the geometric relationship between an organ at risk (OAR) and target volume when predicting expected dose-volumes in knowledge-based planning (KBP). This work investigated the influence of additional variables contributing to variations in the assumed linear DVH-OVH correlation for the bladder and rectum in VMAT plans of prostate patients, with the goal of increasing prediction accuracy and achievability of knowledge-based planning methods. VMAT plans were retrospectively generated for 124 prostate patients using multi-criteria optimization. DVHs quantified patient dosimetric data while OVHs quantified patient anatomical information. The DVH-OVH correlations were calculated for fractional bladder and rectum volumes of 30, 50, 65, and 80%. Correlations between potential influencing factors and dose were quantified using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (R). Factors analyzed included the derivative of the OVH, prescribed dose, PTV volume, bladder volume, rectum volume, and in-field OAR volume. Out of the selected factors, only the in-field bladder volume (mean R  =  0.86) showed a strong correlation with bladder doses. Similarly, only the in-field rectal volume (mean R  =  0.76) showed a strong correlation with rectal doses. Therefore, an OVH formalism accounting for in-field OAR volumes was developed to determine the extent to which it improved the DVH-OVH correlation. Including the in-field factor improved the DVH-OVH correlation, with the mean R values over the fractional volumes studied improving from  -0.79 to  -0.85 and  -0.82 to  -0.86 for the bladder and rectum, respectively. A re-planning study was performed on 31 randomly selected database patients to verify the increased accuracy of KBP dose predictions by accounting for bladder and rectum volume within treatment fields. The in-field OVH led to significantly more precise

  2. Stratification of habitats for identifying habitat selection by Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Habitat selection patterns of Merriam’s Turkeys were compared in hierarchical analyses of three levels of habitat stratification. Habitat descriptions in first-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation. Habitat descriptions in second-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation and overstory canopy cover. Habitat descriptions in third-...

  3. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 3. Recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and criteria. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 3 presents recommendations for improvement of equipment qualification methodology and procedural clarification/modification. The fifth category identifies issues where adequate information does not exist to allow a recommendation to be made

  4. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  5. Wildlife habitat considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fire, insects, disease, harvesting, and precommercial thinning all create mosaics on Northern Rocky Mountain landscapes. These mosaics are important for faunal habitat. Consequently, changes such as created openings or an increase in heavily stocked areas affect the water, cover, and food of forest habitats. The “no action” alternative in ecosystem management of low...

  6. Critical Habitat :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    occupied by the species at the time of listing, if they contain physical or biological features essential essential for conservation. Critical Habitat Maps NOTE: The critical habitat maps provided here are for Data Leatherback Turtle (U.S. West Coast) » Biological Report » Economic Report 2012 77 FR 4170 Go to

  7. Improved longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Dong-Liang; Shi, Gao-Feng; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Junichi; Li, Xue-Ying; Liu, Hui; Yao, Chen; Chang, Joe Y

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Forty-two patients from December 2011 to June 2012 with esophageal SCC who underwent radical surgery were analyzed. Routine computed tomography (CT) scan, T2-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were employed before surgery. Diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken at 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 . Gross tumor volumes (GTV) were delineated using CT, T2-weighted MRI and DWI on different b-value images. GTV longitude length measured using the imaging modalities listed above was compared with pathologic lesion length to determine the most accurate imaging modality. CMS Xio radiotherapy planning system was used to fuse DWI scans and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineating GTV on fused images. The differences between the GTV length according to CT, T2-weighted MRI and pathology were 3.63 ± 12.06 mm and 3.46 ± 11.41 mm, respectively. When the diffusion-sensitive gradient b-value was 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 , the differences between the GTV length using DWI and pathology were 0.73 ± 6.09 mm, -0.54 ± 6.03 mm and −1.58 ± 5.71 mm, respectively. DWI scans and CT images were fused accurately using the radiotherapy planning system. GTV margins were depicted clearly on fused images. DWI displays esophageal SCC lengths most precisely when compared with CT or regular MRI. DWI scans fused with CT images can be used to improve accuracy to delineate GTV in esophageal SCC

  8. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  9. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  10. Extension of Local Disease in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Improvement of Clinical Target Volume Delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shaobo; Sun Ying; Liu Lizhi; Chen Yong; Chen Lei; Mao Yanping; Tang Linglong; Tian Li; Lin Aihua; Liu Mengzhong; Li Li; Ma Jun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define by MRI the local extension patterns in patients presenting with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to improve clinical target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients (N = 943) with newly diagnosed and untreated NPC were included in this study. All patients underwent MRI of the nasopharynx and neck, which was reviewed by two radiologists. Results: According to the incidence rates of tumor invasion, the anatomic sites surrounding the nasopharynx were initially classified into three risk grades: high risk (≥ 35%), medium risk (≥ 5-35%), and low risk (< 5%). Incidence rates of tumor invasion into anatomic sites at medium risk were increased, reaching 55.2%, when adjacent high-risk anatomic sites were involved. However, the rates were substantially lower, mostly < 10%, when adjacent high-risk sites were not involved. The incidence rates of concurrent tumor invasion into bilateral sites were < 10%, except in the case of prevertebral muscle involvement (13.1%). Among the 178 incidences of cavernous sinus invasion, there were often two or more simultaneous infiltration routes (60.6%); when only one route was involved, the foramen ovale was the most common (26.4%). Conclusions: In patients presenting with NPC, local disease spreads stepwise from proximal sites to more distal sites. Tumors extend quickly through privileged pathways such as neural foramina. The anatomic sites surrounding the nasopharynx are at low risk of concurrent bilateral tumor invasion. Selective radiotherapy of the local disease in NPC may be feasible.

  11. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Chantel E; Chow-Fraser, Gillian; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015) and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water) and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  12. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel E Markle

    Full Text Available Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015 and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  13. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  14. Teaching animal habitat selection using wildlife tracking equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Jessica; Gillespie, Caitlyn R.; Corral, Lucia; Oden, Amy; Fricke, Kent A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hands-on outdoor activity coupled with classroom discussion to teach students about wildlife habitat selection, the process by which animals choose where to live. By selecting locations or habitats with many benefits (e.g., food, shelter, mates) and few costs (e.g., predators), animals improve their ability to survive and reproduce. Biologists track animal movement using radio telemetry technology to study habitat selection so they can better provide species with habitats that promote population growth. We present a curriculum in which students locate “animals” (transmitters) using radio telemetry equipment and apply math skills (use of fractions and percentages) to assess their “animal's” habitat selection by comparing the availability of habitat types with the proportion of “animals” they find in each habitat type.

  15. Designated Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Critical habitats include those areas documented as currently supporting self-sustaining populations of any threatened or endangered species of wildlife as well as...

  16. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  17. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  18. Smalltooth Sawfish Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinatat) as designated by 74 FR 45353, September 2, 2009, Rules and Regulations.

  19. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  20. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Johnson's Seagrass as designated by Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 66, Wednesday, April 5, 2000, Rules and Regulations.

  1. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  2. Habitat Mapping Camera (HABCAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset entails imagery collected using the HabCam towed underwater vehicle and annotated data on objects or habitats in the images and notes on image...

  3. Variable effectiveness of stepwise implementation of nudge-type interventions to improve provider compliance with intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Shah, Vikas N; Easton, George S; Jabaley, Craig S; Lynde, Grant C

    2018-05-18

    Identifying mechanisms to improve provider compliance with quality metrics is a common goal across medical disciplines. Nudge interventions are minimally invasive strategies that can influence behavioural changes and are increasingly used within healthcare settings. We hypothesised that nudge interventions may improve provider compliance with lung-protective ventilation (LPV) strategies during general anaesthesia. We developed an audit and feedback dashboard that included information on both provider-level and department-level compliance with LPV strategies in two academic hospitals, two non-academic hospitals and two academic surgery centres affiliated with a single healthcare system. Dashboards were emailed to providers four times over the course of the 9-month study. Additionally, the default setting on anaesthesia machines for tidal volume was decreased from 700 mL to 400 mL. Data on surgical cases performed between 1 September 2016 and 31 May 2017 were examined for compliance with LPV. The impact of the interventions was assessed via pairwise logistic regression analysis corrected for multiple comparisons. A total of 14 793 anaesthesia records were analysed. Absolute compliance rates increased from 59.3% to 87.8%preintervention to postintervention. Introduction of attending physician dashboards resulted in a 41% increase in the odds of compliance (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.69, p=0.002). Subsequently, the addition of advanced practice provider and resident dashboards lead to an additional 93% increase in the odds of compliance (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.46, p<0.001). Lastly, modifying ventilator defaults led to a 376% increase in the odds of compliance (OR 3.76, 95% CI 3.1 to 4.57, p<0.001). Audit and feedback tools in conjunction with default changes improve provider compliance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  4. Solid phase extraction of large volume of water and beverage samples to improve detection limits for GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A and four other bisphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Popovic, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) of large volumes of water and beverage products was investigated for the GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), and bisphenol B (BPB). While absolute recoveries of the method were improved for water and some beverage products (e.g. diet cola, iced tea), breakthrough may also have occurred during SPE of 200 mL of other beverages (e.g. BPF in cola). Improvements in method detection limits were observed with the analysis of large sample volumes for all bisphenols at ppt (pg/g) to sub-ppt levels. This improvement was found to be proportional to sample volumes for water and beverage products with less interferences and noise levels around the analytes. Matrix effects and interferences were observed during SPE of larger volumes (100 and 200 mL) of the beverage products, and affected the accurate analysis of BPF. This improved method was used to analyse bisphenols in various beverage samples, and only BPA was detected, with levels ranging from 0.022 to 0.030 ng/g for products in PET bottles, and 0.085 to 0.32 ng/g for products in cans.

  5. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuekui Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB; an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m; lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%; artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land; frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3; single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category. At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01 and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05; and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01. Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56; caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.

  6. Book review: Aquatic insect ecology: 1. Biology and habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, Ross H.

    2010-01-01

    Book Review: A comprehensive treatment of the ecology of aquatic insects in one place is needed for both students and researchers. Professor Ward is doing this in two volumes. The first volume covers the biology and habitats, as indicated in the subtitle, of the 13 insect orders that are either entirely aquatic at some stage, or those with some members aquatic at some stage. The second volume will be devoted entirely to the feeding ecology of these aquatic species.

  7. BEST PRACTICES TO SUPPORT AND IMPROVE PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR LOW-VOLUME PAVED ROADS – PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been trying to identify the most effective methods for managing low-volume roads (LVRs). These roads are facing multiple challenges including: reductions in maintenance budgets, impact of industria...

  8. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 3. Gas and drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 3 contains papers from the sessions on natural gas supporting research, western gas sands project, drilling technology, and environmental effects. Individuals were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Whole-tumor histogram analysis of the cerebral blood volume map: tumor volume defined by 11C-methionine positron emission tomography image improves the diagnostic accuracy of cerebral glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongli; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Arisawa, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Watabe, Tadashi; Isohashi, Kayako; Hatazawa, Jun; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the tumor volume definition using conventional magnetic resonance (MR) and 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET/PET) images in the differentiation of the pre-operative glioma grade by using whole-tumor histogram analysis of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) maps. Thirty-four patients with histopathologically proven primary brain low-grade gliomas (n = 15) and high-grade gliomas (n = 19) underwent pre-operative or pre-biopsy MET/PET, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted at 3.0 T. The histogram distribution derived from the nCBV maps was obtained by co-registering the whole tumor volume delineated on conventional MR or MET/PET images, and eight histogram parameters were assessed. The mean nCBV value had the highest AUC value (0.906) based on MET/PET images. Diagnostic accuracy significantly improved when the tumor volume was measured from MET/PET images compared with conventional MR images for the parameters of mean, 50th, and 75th percentile nCBV value (p = 0.0246, 0.0223, and 0.0150, respectively). Whole-tumor histogram analysis of CBV map provides more valuable histogram parameters and increases diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of pre-operative cerebral gliomas when the tumor volume is derived from MET/PET images.

  10. Atlas-Based Segmentation Improves Consistency and Decreases Time Required for Contouring Postoperative Endometrial Cancer Nodal Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Amy V.; Wortham, Angela; Wernick, Iddo; Evans, Andrew; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate target delineation of the nodal volumes is essential for three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for endometrial cancer adjuvant therapy. We hypothesized that atlas-based segmentation ('autocontouring') would lead to time savings and more consistent contours among physicians. Methods and Materials: A reference anatomy atlas was constructed using the data from 15 postoperative endometrial cancer patients by contouring the pelvic nodal clinical target volume on the simulation computed tomography scan according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0418 trial using commercially available software. On the simulation computed tomography scans from 10 additional endometrial cancer patients, the nodal clinical target volume autocontours were generated. Three radiation oncologists corrected the autocontours and delineated the manual nodal contours under timed conditions while unaware of the other contours. The time difference was determined, and the overlap of the contours was calculated using Dice's coefficient. Results: For all physicians, manual contouring of the pelvic nodal target volumes and editing the autocontours required a mean ± standard deviation of 32 ± 9 vs. 23 ± 7 minutes, respectively (p = .000001), a 26% time savings. For each physician, the time required to delineate the manual contours vs. correcting the autocontours was 30 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 5 min (p = .003), 39 ± 12 vs. 30 ± 5 min (p = .055), and 29 ± 5 vs. 20 ± 5 min (p = .0002). The mean overlap increased from manual contouring (0.77) to correcting the autocontours (0.79; p = .038). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that autocontouring leads to increased consistency and time savings when contouring the nodal target volumes for adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer, although the autocontours still required careful editing to ensure that the lymph nodes at risk of recurrence are properly included in the target volume.

  11. 11C-methionine PET improves the target volume delineation of meningiomas treated with stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Astner, Sabrina T.; Adam, Markus; Krause, Bernd J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of 11 C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) in target volume delineation for meningiomas and to determine the interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Two independent observers performed treatment planning in 10 patients according to a prospective written protocol. In the first step, they used coregistered computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the second step, MET-PET was added to CT/MRI (image fusion based on mutual information). Results: The correlation between gross tumor volume (GTVs) delineated by the two observers based on CT/MRI was r = 0.855 (Spearman's correlation coefficient, p = 0.002) and r = 0.988 (p = 0.000) when MET-PET/CT/MRI were used. The number of patients with agreement in more then 80% of the outlined volume increased with the availability of MET-PET from 1 in 10 to 5 in 10. The median volume of intersection between the regions delineated by two observers increased significantly from 69% (from the composite volume) to 79%, by the addition of MET-PET (p = 0.005). The information of MET-PET was useful to delineate GTV in the area of cavernous sinus, orbit, and base of the skull. Conclusions: The hypothesis-generating findings of potential normal tissue sparing and reduced interobserver variability provide arguments for invasive studies of the correlation between MET-PET images and histologic tumor extension and for prospective trials of target volume delineation with CT/MRI/MET-PET image fusion

  12. Teaching Animal Habitat Selection Using Wildlife Tracking Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Jessica; Gillespie, Caitlyn; Corral, Lucia; Oden, Amy; Fricke, Kent; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hands-on outdoor activity coupled with classroom discussion to teach students about wildlife habitat selection, the process by which animals choose where to live. By selecting locations or habitats with many benefits (e.g., food, shelter, mates) and few costs (e.g., predators), animals improve their ability to survive and reproduce.…

  13. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that

  14. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  15. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  16. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Approach to Improve Volume of Diagnostic Material in CT-Guided Lung Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Philip E; Sales, Catherine M; Hodges, Dalton C; Sales, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have emphasized the importance of a multidisciplinary strategy for maximum conservation and utilization of lung biopsy material for advanced testing, which may determine therapy. This paper quantifies the effect of a multidisciplinary strategy implemented to optimize and increase tissue volume in CT-guided transthoracic needle core lung biopsies. The strategy was three-pronged: (1) once there was confidence diagnostic tissue had been obtained and if safe for the patient, additional biopsy passes were performed to further increase volume of biopsy material, (2) biopsy material was placed in multiple cassettes for processing, and (3) all tissue ribbons were conserved when cutting blocks in the histology laboratory. This study quantifies the effects of strategies #1 and #2. This retrospective analysis comparing CT-guided lung biopsies from 2007 and 2012 (before and after multidisciplinary approach implementation) was performed at a single institution. Patient medical records were reviewed and main variables analyzed include biopsy sample size, radiologist, number of blocks submitted, diagnosis, and complications. The biopsy sample size measured was considered to be directly proportional to tissue volume in the block. Biopsy sample size increased 2.5 fold with the average total biopsy sample size increasing from 1.0 cm (0.9-1.1 cm) in 2007 to 2.5 cm (2.3-2.8 cm) in 2012 (Pstrategy to CT-guided lung biopsies was effective in significantly increasing tissue volume and number of blocks available for advanced diagnostic testing.

  17. Colorectal Surgery Fellowship Improves In-hospital Mortality After Colectomy and Proctectomy Irrespective of Hospital and Surgeon Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraidaridis, Julia T; Hashimoto, Daniel A; Chang, David C; Bordeianou, Liliana G; Kunitake, Hiroko

    2018-03-01

    General surgery residents are increasingly pursuing sub-specialty training in colorectal (CR) surgery. However, the majority of operations performed by CR surgeons are also performed by general surgeons. This study aimed to assess in-hospital mortality stratified by CR training status after adjusting for surgeon and hospital volume. The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative system database was used to identify all patients who underwent colectomy/proctectomy from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014, in the state of New York. Operations performed by board-certified CR surgeons were identified. The relationships between CR board certification and in-hospital mortality, in-hospital complications, length of stay, and ostomy were assessed using multivariate regression models. Two hundred seventy thousand six hundred eighty-four patients underwent colectomy/proctectomy over the study period. Seventy-two thousand two hundred seventy-nine (26.7%) of operations were performed by CR surgeons. Without adjusting for hospital and surgeon volume, in-hospital mortality was lower for those undergoing colectomy/proctectomy by a CR surgeon (OR 0.49, CI 0.44-0.54, p = 0.001). After controlling for hospital and surgeon volume, the odds of inpatient mortality after colectomy/proctectomy for those operated on by CR surgeons weakened to 0.76 (CI 0.68-0.86, p = 0.001). Hospital and surgeon volume accounted for 53% of the reduction in in-hospital mortality when CR surgeons performed colectomy/proctectomy. Patients who underwent surgery by a CR surgeon had a shorter inpatient stay (0.8 days, p = 0.001) and a decreased chance of colostomy (OR 0.86, CI 0.78-0.95, p accounting for hospital and surgeon volume.

  18. Using dynamic Brownian bridge movement modelling to measure temporal patterns of habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Clint McCoy, J; Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Collier, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Accurately describing animal space use is vital to understanding how wildlife use habitat. Improvements in GPS technology continue to facilitate collection of telemetry data at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Application of the recently introduced dynamic Brownian bridge movement model (dBBMM) to such data is promising as the method explicitly incorporates the behavioural heterogeneity of a movement path into the estimated utilization distribution (UD). Utilization distributions defining space use are normally estimated for time-scales ranging from weeks to months, obscuring much of the fine-scale information available from high-volume GPS data sets. By accounting for movement heterogeneity, the dBBMM provides a rigorous, behaviourally based estimate of space use between each set of relocations. Focusing on UDs generated between individual sets of locations allows us to quantify fine-scale circadian variation in habitat use. We used the dBBMM to estimate UDs bounding individual time steps for three terrestrial species with different life histories to illustrate how the method can be used to identify fine-scale variations in habitat use. We also demonstrate how dBBMMs can be used to characterize circadian patterns of habitat selection and link fine-scale patterns of habitat use to behaviour. We observed circadian patterns of habitat use that varied seasonally for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and coyote (Canis latrans). We found seasonal patterns in selection by the white-tailed deer and were able to link use of conifer forests and agricultural fields to behavioural state of the coyote. Additionally, we were able to quantify the date in which a Rio Grande wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) initiated laying as well as when during the day, she was most likely to visit the nest site to deposit eggs. The ability to quantify circadian patterns of habitat use may have important implications for research and management of wildlife

  19. Diastolic chamber properties of the left ventricle assessed by global fitting of pressure-volume data: improving the gold standard of diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Pérez del Villar, Candelas; del Álamo, Juan C; Rodríguez-Pérez, Daniel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Antoranz, J Carlos; Desco, M Mar; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2013-08-15

    In cardiovascular research, relaxation and stiffness are calculated from pressure-volume (PV) curves by separately fitting the data during the isovolumic and end-diastolic phases (end-diastolic PV relationship), respectively. This method is limited because it assumes uncoupled active and passive properties during these phases, it penalizes statistical power, and it cannot account for elastic restoring forces. We aimed to improve this analysis by implementing a method based on global optimization of all PV diastolic data. In 1,000 Monte Carlo experiments, the optimization algorithm recovered entered parameters of diastolic properties below and above the equilibrium volume (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.99). Inotropic modulation experiments in 26 pigs modified passive pressure generated by restoring forces due to changes in the operative and/or equilibrium volumes. Volume overload and coronary microembolization caused incomplete relaxation at end diastole (active pressure > 0.5 mmHg), rendering the end-diastolic PV relationship method ill-posed. In 28 patients undergoing PV cardiac catheterization, the new algorithm reduced the confidence intervals of stiffness parameters by one-fifth. The Jacobian matrix allowed visualizing the contribution of each property to instantaneous diastolic pressure on a per-patient basis. The algorithm allowed estimating stiffness from single-beat PV data (derivative of left ventricular pressure with respect to volume at end-diastolic volume intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.65, error = 0.07 ± 0.24 mmHg/ml). Thus, in clinical and preclinical research, global optimization algorithms provide the most complete, accurate, and reproducible assessment of global left ventricular diastolic chamber properties from PV data. Using global optimization, we were able to fully uncouple relaxation and passive PV curves for the first time in the intact heart.

  20. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  1. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  2. Improving visit cycle time using patient flow analysis in a high-volume inner-city hospital-based ambulatory clinic serving minority New Yorkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sanjay; Michel, Raquel; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Patient waiting time and waiting room congestion are quality indicators that are related to efficiency of ambulatory care systems and patient satisfaction. Our main purpose was to test a program to decrease patient visit cycle time, while maintaining high-quality healthcare in a high-volume inner-city hospital-based clinic in New York City. Use of patient flow analysis and the creation of patient care teams proved useful in identifying areas for improvement, target, and measure effectiveness of interventions. The end result is reduced visit cycle time, improved provider team performance, and sustained patient care outcomes. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  3. SU-E-T-170: Characterization of the Location, Extent, and Proximity to Critical Structures of Target Volumes Provides Detail for Improved Outcome Predictions Among Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z; Moore, J; Rosati, L; Mian, O; Narang, A; Herman, J; McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, size, location and proximity of the target to critical structures influence treatment decisions. It has been shown that proximity of the target predicts dosimetric sparing of critical structures. In addition to dosimetry, precise location of disease has further implications such as tumor invasion, or proximity to major arteries that inhibit surgery. Knowledge of which patients can be converted to surgical candidates by radiation may have high impact on future treat/no-treat decisions. We propose a method to improve our characterization of the location of pancreatic cancer and treatment volume extent with respect to nearby arteries with the goal of developing features to improve clinical predictions and decisions. Methods: Oncospace is a local learning health system that systematically captures clinical outcomes and all aspects of radiotherapy treatment plans, including overlap volume histograms (OVH) – a measure of spatial relationships between two structures. Minimum and maximum distances of PTV and OARs based on OVH, PTV volume, anatomic location by ICD-9 code, and surgical outcome were queried. Normalized distance to center from the left and right kidney was calculated to indicate tumor location and laterality. Distance to critical arteries (celiac, superior mesenteric, common hepatic) is validated by surgical status (borderline resectable, locally advanced converted to resectable). Results: There were 205 pancreas stereotactic body radiotherapy patients treated from 2009–2015 queried. Location/laterality of tumor based on kidney OVH show strong trends between location by OVH and by ICD-9. Compared to the locally advanced group, the borderline resectable group showed larger geometrical distance from critical arteries (p=0.03). Conclusion: Our platform enabled analysis of shape/size-location relationships. These data suggest that PTV volume and attention to distance between PTVs and surrounding OARs and major arteries may be

  4. SU-E-T-170: Characterization of the Location, Extent, and Proximity to Critical Structures of Target Volumes Provides Detail for Improved Outcome Predictions Among Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Z; Moore, J; Rosati, L; Mian, O; Narang, A; Herman, J; McNutt, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, size, location and proximity of the target to critical structures influence treatment decisions. It has been shown that proximity of the target predicts dosimetric sparing of critical structures. In addition to dosimetry, precise location of disease has further implications such as tumor invasion, or proximity to major arteries that inhibit surgery. Knowledge of which patients can be converted to surgical candidates by radiation may have high impact on future treat/no-treat decisions. We propose a method to improve our characterization of the location of pancreatic cancer and treatment volume extent with respect to nearby arteries with the goal of developing features to improve clinical predictions and decisions. Methods: Oncospace is a local learning health system that systematically captures clinical outcomes and all aspects of radiotherapy treatment plans, including overlap volume histograms (OVH) – a measure of spatial relationships between two structures. Minimum and maximum distances of PTV and OARs based on OVH, PTV volume, anatomic location by ICD-9 code, and surgical outcome were queried. Normalized distance to center from the left and right kidney was calculated to indicate tumor location and laterality. Distance to critical arteries (celiac, superior mesenteric, common hepatic) is validated by surgical status (borderline resectable, locally advanced converted to resectable). Results: There were 205 pancreas stereotactic body radiotherapy patients treated from 2009–2015 queried. Location/laterality of tumor based on kidney OVH show strong trends between location by OVH and by ICD-9. Compared to the locally advanced group, the borderline resectable group showed larger geometrical distance from critical arteries (p=0.03). Conclusion: Our platform enabled analysis of shape/size-location relationships. These data suggest that PTV volume and attention to distance between PTVs and surrounding OARs and major arteries may be

  5. Sound solutions for habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Christina D. Vojta

    2015-01-01

    For agencies and organizations to effectively manage wildlife, knowledge about the status and trend of wildlife habitat is critical. Traditional wildlife monitoring, however, has focused on populations rather than habitat, because ultimately population status drives long-term species viability. Still, habitat loss has contributed to the decline of nearly all at-risk...

  6. Burn-center quality improvement: are burn outcomes dependent on admitting facilities and is there a volume-outcome "sweet-spot"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranjec, Tjasa; Turrentine, Florence E; Stukenborg, George; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G; Calland, James F

    2012-05-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting burn facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA burned, and an additional factor, percent full thickness burn (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in burn patients (P value improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high burn volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes.

  7. Habitat Use Database - Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Habitat Use Database (HUD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Habitat Use Database (HUD) was specifically designed to address the need for habitat-use analyses in support of groundfish EFH, HAPCs, and fishing and nonfishing...

  8. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  9. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; DeStefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat to sustain bird and other wildlife populations. The primary goal of this study was to integrate wildlife suitability indices to an existing national urban forest assessment tool, i-Tree. We quantified available habitat characteristics of urban forests for ten northeastern U.S. cities, and summarized bird habitat relationships from the literature in terms of variables that were represented in the i-Tree datasets. With these data, we generated habitat suitability equations for nine bird species representing a range of life history traits and conservation status that predicts the habitat suitability based on i-Tree data. We applied these equations to the urban forest datasets to calculate the overall habitat suitability for each city and the habitat suitability for different types of land-use (e.g., residential, commercial, parkland) for each bird species. The proposed habitat models will help guide wildlife managers, urban planners, and landscape designers who require specific information such as desirable habitat conditions within an urban management project to help improve the suitability of urban forests for birds.

  10. Global screening for Critical Habitat in the terrestrial realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneder, Kerstin M; Montes, Chloe; Blyth, Simon; Bennun, Leon; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hoffmann, Michael; Burgess, Neil D; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Jones, Matt I; Kapos, Val; Pilgrim, John; Tolley, Melissa J; Underwood, Emma C; Weatherdon, Lauren V; Brooks, Sharon E

    2018-01-01

    Critical Habitat has become an increasingly important concept used by the finance sector and businesses to identify areas of high biodiversity value. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) defines Critical Habitat in their highly influential Performance Standard 6 (PS6), requiring projects in Critical Habitat to achieve a net gain of biodiversity. Here we present a global screening layer of Critical Habitat in the terrestrial realm, derived from global spatial datasets covering the distributions of 12 biodiversity features aligned with guidance provided by the IFC. Each biodiversity feature is categorised as 'likely' or 'potential' Critical Habitat based on: 1. Alignment between the biodiversity feature and the IFC Critical Habitat definition; and 2. Suitability of the spatial resolution for indicating a feature's presence on the ground. Following the initial screening process, Critical Habitat must then be assessed in-situ by a qualified assessor. This analysis indicates that a total of 10% and 5% of the global terrestrial environment can be considered as likely and potential Critical Habitat, respectively, while the remaining 85% did not overlap with any of the biodiversity features assessed and was classified as 'unknown'. Likely Critical Habitat was determined principally by the occurrence of Key Biodiversity Areas and Protected Areas. Potential Critical Habitat was predominantly characterised by data representing highly threatened and unique ecosystems such as ever-wet tropical forests and tropical dry forests. The areas we identified as likely or potential Critical Habitat are based on the best available global-scale data for the terrestrial realm that is aligned with IFC's Critical Habitat definition. Our results can help businesses screen potential development sites at the early project stage based on a range of biodiversity features. However, the study also demonstrates several important data gaps and highlights the need to incorporate new and

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  13. Wildlife Habitat Improvement Guide for Minnesota Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Clifton

    This publication outlines projects to increase wildlife, primarily fowl and deer, and to help rural youth better understand wildlife requirements. The publication outlines six basic steps that are involved in initiating a wildlife project. These are: (1) Determine the types of wild animals for which the land is best suited; (2) Study the life…

  14. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  15. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Nogami, Munenobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2, Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimogato, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 {<=} r {<=} -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  16. Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  17. Considerations of anthropometric, tissue volume, and tissue mass scaling for improved patient specificity of skeletal S values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, W.E.; Patton, P.W.; Shah, A.P.; Rajon, D.A.; Jokisch, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that reference man (70 kg in mass and 170 cm in height) does not adequately represent the stature and physical dimensions of many patients undergoing radionuclide therapy, and thus scaling of radionuclide S values is required for patient specificity. For electron and beta sources uniformly distributed within internal organs, the mean dose from self-irradiation is noted to scale inversely with organ mass, provided no escape of electron energy occurs at the organ boundaries. In the skeleton, this same scaling approach is further assumed to be correct for marrow dosimetry; nevertheless, difficulties in quantitative assessments of marrow mass in specific skeletal regions of the patient make this approach difficult to implement clinically. Instead, scaling of marrow dose is achieved using various anthropometric parameters that presumably scale in the same proportion. In this study, recently developed three-dimensional macrostructural transport models of the femoral head and humeral epiphysis in three individuals (51-year male, 82-year female, and 86-year female) are used to test the abilities of different anthropometric parameters (total body mass, body surface area, etc.) to properly scale radionuclide S values from reference man models. The radionuclides considered are 33 P, 177 Lu, 153 Sm, 186 Re, 89 Sr, 166 Ho, 32 P, 188 Re, and 90 Y localized in either the active marrow or endosteal tissues of the bone trabeculae. S value scaling is additionally conducted in which the 51-year male subject is assigned as the reference individual; scaling parameters are then expanded to include tissue volumes and masses for both active marrow and skeletal spongiosa. The study concludes that, while no single anthropometric parameter emerges as a consistent scaler of reference man S values, lean body mass is indicated as an optimal scaler when the reference S values are based on 3D transport techniques. Furthermore, very exact patient-specific scaling of

  18. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  19. Association Between Treatment at a High-Volume Facility and Improved Survival for Radiation-Treated Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mahal, Brandon A. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Muralidhar, Vinayak [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nezolosky, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Martin, Neil E.; Orio, Peter F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Although the association between higher hospital volume and improved outcomes has been well-documented in surgery, there is little data about whether this effect exists for radiation-treated patients. We investigated whether treatment at a radiation facility that treats a high volume of prostate cancer patients is associated with improved survival for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to identity patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2006. The radiation case volume (RCV) of each hospital was based on its number of radiation-treated prostate cancer patients. We used propensity-score based analysis to compare the overall survival (OS) of high-risk prostate cancer patients in high versus low RCV hospitals. Primary endpoint is overall survival. Covariates adjusted for were tumor characteristics, sociodemographic factors, radiation type, and use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: A total of 19,565 radiation-treated high-risk patients were identified. Median follow-up was 81.0 months (range: 1-108 months). When RCV was coded as a continuous variable, each increment of 100 radiation-managed patients was associated with improved OS (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-0.98; P<.0001) after adjusting for known confounders. For illustrative purposes, when RCV was dichotomized at the 80th percentile (43 patients/year), high RCV was associated with improved OS (7-year overall survival 76% vs 74%, log-rank test P=.0005; AHR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.96, P=.0005). This association remained significant when RCV was dichotomized at 75th (37 patients/year), 90th (60 patients/year), and 95th (84 patients/year) percentiles but not the 50th (19 patients/year). Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment at centers with higher prostate cancer radiation case volume is associated with improved OS for radiation-treated men with high-risk prostate

  20. Understanding and Improvement of an Experiment Measuring Chemical Reaction Rates by Monitoring Volume Change of a Gas: On the Reaction between HCl(aq) and Mg(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jeong Ah; Yoon, Hee Sook; Jeong, Dae Hong; Choi, Won Ho

    2006-01-01

    In this study we analyzed and improved an experiment measuring chemical reaction rates introduced in the high school science textbooks through an understanding of the phenomena observed in carrying out the experiment. For this purpose, the contents of textbooks related to the experiment were analyzed, and the problems observed in carrying out the experiment were addressed through experimental analysis. When the experiment was carried out by the method of aquatic transposition presented in textbooks, the observed volume change of H 2 gas was delayed and chemical reaction rate was increased in the early stage of reaction period. To resolve these problems, an improved method for measuring the reaction rates was suggested. In the improved experiment the reaction rate was measured to be constant on time, which was interpreted in terms of the concentration of H + and the surface area of magnesium

  1. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  2. Asotin Creek instream habitat alteration projects : habitat evaluation, adult and juvenile habitat utilization and water temperature monitoring : 2001 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  3. Morphological image processing operators. Reduction of partial volume effects to improve 3D visualization based on CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, J.; Bittner, R.C.; Hosten, N.; Troeger, J.; Felix, R.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: The quality of segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction of anatomical structures in tomographic slices is often impaired by disturbances due to partial volume effects (PVE). The potential for artefact reduction by use of the morphological image processing operators (MO) erosion and dilation is investigated. Results: For all patients under review, the artefacts caused by PVE were significantly reduced by erosion (lung: Mean SBR pre =1.67, SBR post =4.83; brain: SBR pre =1.06, SBR post =1.29) even with only a small number of iterations. Region dilation was applied to integrate further structures (e.g. at tumor borders) into a configurable neighbourhood for segmentation and quantitative analysis. Conclusions: The MO represent an efficient approach for the reduction of PVE artefacts in 3D-CT reconstructions and allow optimised visualization of individual objects. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  5. The value of carbon sequestration and storage in coastal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in coastal margin habitats. Changes in UK coastal habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of coastal habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If coastal habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capacity of the coastal habitats both to sequester and store CO2 will be significantly reduced, with a reduction in value of around £0.25 billion UK sterling (2000-2060; 3.5% discount rate). If loss-trends due to sea level rise or land reclamation worsen, this loss in value will be greater. This case study provides valuable site specific information, but also highlights global issues regarding the quantification and valuation of carbon sequestration and storage. Whilst our ability to value ecosystem services is improving, considerable uncertainty remains. If such ecosystem valuations are to be incorporated with confidence into national and global policy and legislative frameworks, it is necessary to address this uncertainty. Recommendations to achieve this are outlined.

  6. Improved the accuracy of 99mTc-MAG3 plasma clearance method. The problem of the calculated plasma volume and its modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Nami; Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Takahashi, Kazuei

    1998-01-01

    The 99m Tc-MAG 3 plasma clearance method (MPC method), reported by Oriuchi et al., is a simple and useful count-based gamma camera method for calculating the 99m Tc-MAG 3 plasma clearance (CL MAG ). However, a discrepancy of CL MAG calculated by MPC method (MPC-CL MAG ) from the tubular extraction rate (TER) calculated by Russell's single-sample clearance determination (Russell-TER) was noted. The calculated plasma volume is assumed to be the cause. Since the plasma volume is reported to have a linear correlation with body surface area, Dissmann's formula was applied to calculate the plasma volume. Then Dissmann's formula was replaced by Ogawa's formula in the MPC method, and the procedure was then called the modified MPC method. The CL MAG were obtained using MPC method, modified MPC method and the TER was obtained Russell's method in 95 patients with urological disorders. Then the MPC-CL MAG and modified MPC-CL MAG were compared with Russell-TER. Comparison of the MPC-CL MAG with the Russell-TER demonstrated a coefficient of correlation of 0.82, but dissociation of the slope of regression lines was found between males and females. The modified MPC-CL MAG improved the coefficient of correlation to 0.92, and diminished the dissociation of the slope of regression lines between males and females. We verified that the dissociation was due to the plasma volume calculated by Ogawa's formula. Ogawa's formula included hematocrit, body weight, body height and different coefficients for gender. The plasma volume calculated by Ogawa's formula were lower in males and higher in females than that calculated by Dissmann's formula. And marked discrepancy in the plasma volume in patients with a body surface area below 0.5 m 2 was observed. So the MPC method might become more accurate by substituting Dissmann's formula for Ogawa's formula resoluting in a method that is applicable to both males and females, children and adults in clinical use. (author)

  7. Improving Results of Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair at a Low-Volume Hospital by Risk-Adjusted Selection of Treatment in the Endovascular Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibmer, Andreas; Meyer, Bernhard; Albrecht, Thomas; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Kruschewski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have observed both higher mortality rates and lower utilization of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) at low-volume centers. This article presents the results of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair at a low-volume center in the endovascular era and investigates whether postprocedural mortality can be improved by extension of EVAR application also in this setting. This is an 11.6-year retrospective cohort study of 132 patients undergoing elective surgical or endovascular AAA repair at a tertiary care academic hospital between 1997 and July 2008, i.e., a median volume of 12 cases per year. The study was divided into two periods of time according to the respective indications and contraindications for EVAR, which substantially changed in 2005. During period 1, only aneurysms with necks ≥20 mm long and not involving the iliac arteries were treated endoluminally. Beginning in 2005, indication for EVAR was expanded to aortoiliac aneurysms with a minimum neck length of 15 mm. Preoperative risk was assessed by the SVS/AAVS comorbidity score. During the first period (1997-2004) 18.4% (16/87) of all patients received EVAR. By extending anatomical confines and indications for EVAR in 2005, the utilization rate of EVAR increased to 40.0% (18/45) during the second period (2005-July 2008; p = 0.007). Prevalence of preoperative risk factors did not change during the two observation periods. In contrast to period 1, high-risk patients were preferentially treated endoluminally during the second period, resulting in a significantly higher median SVS/AAVS score in the EVAR group (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in median length of stay at the intensive/intermediate care unit (5 vs. 2 days; p = 0.006) and length of in-hospital stay (20 vs. 12.5 days; p < 0.001) was observed during period 2. Overall perioperative mortality was reduced from 6.9% during the first period to 2.2% during the second period (p = 0.256). EVAR mortality was 0%, mortality after

  8. Reduce in Variation and Improve Efficiency of Target Volume Delineation by a Computer-Assisted System Using a Deformable Image Registration Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Bhide, Shreerang FRCR; Chen, Hansen; Asper, Joshua PAC; Bush, Steven; Franklin, Gregg; Kavadi, Vivek; Liengswangwong, Vichaivood; Gordon, William; Raben, Adam; Strasser, Jon; Koprowski, Christopher; Frank, Steven; Chronowski, Gregory; Ahamad, Anesa; Malyapa, Robert; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a computer-assisted target volume delineation (CAT) system using a deformable image registration approach can reduce the variation of target delineation among physicians with different head and neck (HN) IMRT experiences and reduce the time spent on the contouring process. Materials and Methods: We developed a deformable image registration method for mapping contours from a template case to a patient case with a similar tumor manifestation but different body configuration. Eight radiation oncologists with varying levels of clinical experience in HN IMRT performed target delineation on two HN cases, one with base-of-tongue (BOT) cancer and another with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), by first contouring from scratch and then by modifying the contours deformed by the CAT system. The gross target volumes were provided. Regions of interest for comparison included the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and normal organs. The volumetric and geometric variation of these regions of interest and the time spent on contouring were analyzed. Results: We found that the variation in delineating CTVs from scratch among the physicians was significant, and that using the CAT system reduced volumetric variation and improved geometric consistency in both BOT and NPC cases. The average timesaving when using the CAT system was 26% to 29% for more experienced physicians and 38% to 47% for the less experienced ones. Conclusions: A computer-assisted target volume delineation approach, using a deformable image-registration method with template contours, was able to reduce the variation among physicians with different experiences in HN IMRT while saving contouring time

  9. Stereotactic body radiotherapy and treatment at a high volume facility is associated with improved survival in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Matthew; Malik, Renuka; Mahmood, Usama; Husain, Zain; Sher, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the comparative effectiveness of no treatment (NoTx), conventional fractionated radiotherapy (ConvRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. This population based cohort also allowed us to examine what facility level characteristics contributed to improved outcomes. Methods: We included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003 to 2006 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n = 13,036). Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: The median follow up was 68 months (interquartile range: 35–83 months) in surviving patients. Among the cohort, 52% received NoTx, 41% received ConvRT and 6% received SBRT. The 3-year OS was 28% for NoTx, 36% for ConvRT radiotherapy, and 48% for the SBRT cohort (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for SBRT and ConvRT were 0.67 and 0.77, respectively, as compared to NoTx (1.0 ref) (p < 0.0001). Patients treated at a high volume facility vs. low volume facility had a hazard ratio of 0.94 vs. 1.0 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with early stage inoperable lung cancer treated with SBRT and at a high volume facility had a survival benefit compared to patients treated with ConvRT or NoTx or to those treated at a low volume facility

  10. Vacant habitats in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    The search for life on other planets usually makes the assumption that where there is a habitat, it will contain life. On the present-day Earth, uninhabited habitats (or vacant habitats) are rare, but might occur, for example, in subsurface oils or impact craters that have been thermally sterilized in the past. Beyond Earth, vacant habitats might similarly exist on inhabited planets or on uninhabited planets, for example on a habitable planet where life never originated. The hypothesis that vacant habitats are abundant in the Universe is testable by studying other planets. In this review, I discuss how the study of vacant habitats might ultimately inform an understanding of how life has influenced geochemical conditions on Earth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  12. A Habitat-Based Approach to Management of Tallgrass Prairies at the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroeder, Richard

    1999-01-01

    .... and improving overall floristic quality. Selection of appropriate management strategies followed by monitoring and evaluation of habitat conditions will allow for adaptive management and appropriate modifications over time.

  13. ASAMPSA-E guidance for level 2 PSA Volume 3. Verification and improvement of SAM strategies with L2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahni, N.; Raimond, E.; Jan, P.; Lopez, J.; Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Kubicek, J.; Vitazkova, J.; Ivanov, I.; Groudev, P.; Lajtha, G.; Serrano, C.; Zhabin, O.; Prosek, Andrej; Dirksen, G.; Yu, S.; Oury, L.; Hultqvist, G.

    2016-01-01

    For each NPP, severe accident management (SAM) strategies shall make use of components or systems and human resources to limit as far as possible the consequences of any severe accident on-site and off-site. L2 PSA is one of the tools that can be used to verify and improve these strategies. The present report (deliverable D40.5 of the project ASAMPSA-E) provides an opportunity for a comparison of objectives in the different countries in terms of SAM strategies verification and improvement. The report summarizes also experience of each partner (including potential deficiencies) involved in this activity, in order to derive some good practices and required progress, addressing: - SAM modeling in L2 PSA, - Positive and negative aspects in current SAM practices, - Discussion on possible criteria related to L2 PSA for verification and improvement: risk reduction (in relation with WP30 activities on risk metrics), reduction of uncertainties on the severe accident progression paths until NPP stabilization, reduction of human failure conditional probabilities (depending on the SAM strategy, the environmental conditions...), - Review with a perspective of verification and improvement of the main SAM strategies (corium cooling, RCS depressurization, control of flammable gases, reactivity control, containment function, containment pressure control, limitation of radioactive releases,...), - SAM strategies to be considered in the context of an extended L2 PSA (as far possible, depending on existing experience), taking into account all operating modes, accidents also occurring in the SFPs and long term and multi-unit accidents. The deliverable D40.5 is developed from the partners' experience. Many of the topics described here are beyond the common practices of L2 PSA applications: in some countries, L2 PSA application is limited to the calculations of frequencies of release categories with no formal requirement for SAM verification and improvement. (authors)

  14. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  15. Implementing a Continuous Quality Improvement Program in a High-Volume Clinical Echocardiography Laboratory: Improving Care for Patients With Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Zainab; Minter, Stephanie; Armour, Alicia; Tinnemore, Amanda; Sivak, Joseph A; Sedberry, Brenda; Strub, Karen; Horan, Seanna M; Harrison, J Kevin; Kisslo, Joseph; Douglas, Pamela S; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The management of aortic stenosis rests on accurate echocardiographic diagnosis. Hence, it was chosen as a test case to examine the utility of continuous quality improvement (CQI) approaches to increase echocardiographic data accuracy and reliability. A novel, multistep CQI program was designed and prospectively used to investigate whether it could minimize the difference in aortic valve mean gradients reported by echocardiography when compared with cardiac catheterization. The Duke Echo Laboratory compiled a multidisciplinary CQI team including 4 senior sonographers and MD faculty to develop a mapped CQI process that incorporated Intersocietal Accreditation Commission standards. Quarterly, the CQI team reviewed all moderate- or greater-severity aortic stenosis echocardiography studies with concomitant catheterization data, and deidentified individual and group results were shared at meetings attended by cardiologists and sonographers. After review of 2011 data, the CQI team proposed specific amendments implemented over 2012: the use of nontraditional imaging and Doppler windows as well as evaluation of aortic gradients by a second sonographer. The primary outcome measure was agreement between catheterization- and echocardiography-derived mean gradients calculated by using the coverage probability index with a prespecified acceptable echocardiography-catheterization difference of <10 mm Hg in mean gradient. Between January 2011 and January 2014, 2093 echocardiograms reported moderate or greater aortic stenosis. Among cases with available catheterization data pre- and post-CQI, the coverage probability index increased from 54% to 70% (P=0.03; 98 cases, year 2011; 70 cases, year 2013). The proportion of patients referred for invasive valve hemodynamics decreased from 47% pre-CQI to 19% post-CQI (P<0.001). A laboratory practice pattern that was amenable to reform was identified, and a multistep modification was designed and implemented that produced clinically

  16. European red list of habitats. Part 1: Marine habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbay, S.; Sanders, N.; Haynes, T.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Rodwell, J.R.; Nieto, A.; Garcia Criado, M.; Beal, S.; Borg, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk
    of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and
    freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent
    regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and
    criteria, and detailed data

  17. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  18. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 1 report, Light water reactor utilization and improvement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies

  19. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  20. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Taylor, Alexandra S.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.\\ud Purpose\\ud To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk ...

  1. Current practices in the identification of critical habitat for threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaclang, Abbey E; Maron, Martine; Martin, Tara G; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-01

    The term critical habitat is used to describe the subset of habitat that is essential to the survival and recovery of species. Some countries legally require that critical habitat of listed threatened and endangered species be identified and protected. However, there is little evidence to suggest that the identification of critical habitat has had much impact on species recovery. We hypothesized that this may be due at least partly to a mismatch between the intent of critical habitat identification, which is to protect sufficient habitat for species persistence and recovery, and its practice. We used content analysis to systematically review critical habitat documents from the United States, Canada, and Australia. In particular, we identified the major trends in type of information used to identify critical habitat and in occupancy of habitat identified as critical. Information about population viability was used to identify critical habitat for only 1% of the species reviewed, and for most species, designated critical habitat did not include unoccupied habitat. Without reference to population viability, it is difficult to determine how much of a species' occupied and unoccupied habitat will be required for persistence. We therefore conclude that the identification of critical habitat remains inconsistent with the goal of protecting sufficient habitat to support persistence and recovery of the species. Ensuring that critical habitat identification aligns more closely with its intent will improve the accuracy of the designations and may therefore help improve the benefits to species recovery when combined with adequate implementation and enforcement of legal protections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Assessing juvenile salmon rearing habitat and associated predation risk in a lower Snake River reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hatten, James R.; Trachtenbarg, David A

    2015-01-01

    Subyearling fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin exhibit a transient rearing strategy and depend on connected shoreline habitats during freshwater rearing. Impoundment has greatly reduced the amount of shallow-water rearing habitat that is exacerbated by the steep topography of reservoirs. Periodic dredging creates opportunities to strategically place spoils to increase the amount of shallow-water habitat for subyearlings while at the same time reducing the amount of unsuitable area that is often preferred by predators. We assessed the amount and spatial arrangement of subyearling rearing habitat in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River to guide future habitat improvement efforts. A spatially explicit habitat assessment was conducted using physical habitat data, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling and a statistical habitat model in a geographic information system framework. We used field collections of subyearlings and a common predator [smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)] to draw inferences about predation risk within specific habitat types. Most of the high-probability rearing habitat was located in the upper half of the reservoir where gently sloping landforms created low lateral bed slopes and shallow-water habitats. Only 29% of shorelines were predicted to be suitable (probability >0.5) for subyearlings, and the occurrence of these shorelines decreased in a downstream direction. The remaining, less suitable areas were composed of low-probability habitats in unmodified (25%) and riprapped shorelines (46%). As expected, most subyearlings were found in high-probability habitat, while most smallmouth bass were found in low-probability locations. However, some subyearlings were found in low-probability habitats, such as riprap, where predation risk could be high. Given their transient rearing strategy and dependence on shoreline habitats, subyearlings could benefit from habitat creation efforts in the lower

  3. Improved method to determine the molar volume and compositions of the NaCl-H2O-CO2 system inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of Parry’s method (1986), an improved method was established to determine the molar volume (Vm) and compositions (X) of the NaCl-H2O-CO2 (NHC) system inclusion. To use this method, the determination of Vm-X only requires three microthermometric data of a NHC inclusion: partial homog-enization temperature (Th ,CO2), salinity (S) and total homogenization temperature (Th). Theoretically, four associated equations are needed containing four unknown parameters: X CO2, XNaCl, Vm and F (volume fraction of CO2 phase in total inclusion when occurring partial homogenization). When they are released, the Vm-X are determined. The former three equations, only correlated with Th ,CO2, S and F, have simplified expressions:XCO2=f1(Th,CO2,S,F),XNaCl=f2(Th,CO2,S,F),Vm=f3(Th,CO2,S,F). The last one is the thermodynamic relationship of X CO2, XNaCl, Vm and Th:f4(XCO2,XNaCl,Vm,Th)=0.Since the above four associated equations are complicated, it is necessary to adopt iterative technique to release them. The technique can be described by:(i) Freely input a F value (0≤F≤1),with Th ,CO2 and S, into the former three equations. As a result,X CO 2,XNaCl and the molar volume value recorded as Vm1 are derived. (ii) Input the X CO2 and XNaCl gotten in the step above into the last equation, and another molar volume value recorded as Vm2 is determined. (iii) If Vm1 is unequal to Vm2, the calculation will be restarted from “(i)”. The iteration is completed until Vm1 is equal to Vm2, which means that the four associated equations are released. Compared to Parry’s (1986) solution method, the improved method is more convenient to use, as well as more accurate to determine X CO 2. It is available for a NHC inlusion whose partial homogenization temperature is higher than clatherate melting temperature and there are no solid salt crystals in the inclusion at parital homogenization.

  4. Improved method to determine the molar volume and compositions of the NaCl-H2O-CO2 system inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YuCai; HU WenXuan; NI Pei; DUAN ZhenHao; ZHANG XueFeng

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of Parry's method (1986),an improved method was established to determine the molar volume(Vm)and compositions(X)of the NaCl-H2O-CO2(NHC)system inclusion.To use this method,the determination of Vm-X only requires three microthermometric data of a NHC inclusion:partial homogenization temperature(Th,CO2),salinity(s)and total homogenization temperature(Th).Theoretically,four associated equations are needed containing four unknown parameters:Xco2,XNcl,Vm and F (volume fraction of CO2 phase in total inclusion when occurring partial homogenization).When they are released,the Vm-X are determined.The former three equations,only correlated with Th,co2,S and F,have simplified expressions:XCO2=f1(Th,CO2,S,F),XNaCl=f2(Th,CO2,S,F),Vm=f3(Th,CO2,S,F).The last one is the thermodynamic relationship of Xco2,Xnacl,vm and Th:f4(XCO2,XNacl,Vm,Th)=0. Since the above four associated equations are complicated,it is necessary to adopt iterative technique to release them.The technique can be described by:(i)Freely input a F value(0≤F≤1),with Th,co2 and S,into the former three equations.As a result,Xco2,XNacl and the molar volume value recorded as Vm1 are derived.(ii)Input the Xco2 and XNacl gotten in the step above into the last equation,and another molar volume value recorded as Vm2 is determined.(iii) If Vm1 is unequal to Vm2,the calculation will be restarted from"(i)".The iteration is completed until Vm1 is equal to Vm2,which means that the four associated equations are released.Compared to Parry's (1986) solution method,the improved method is more convenient to use,as well as more accurate to determine Xco2.It is available for a NHC inlusion whose partial homogenization temperature is higher than clatherate melting temperature and there are no solid salt crystals in the inclusion at parital homogenization.

  5. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  6. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  7. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Taylor, Alexandra S; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment. To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT. Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax) interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1). MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1). VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention. Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT) and 128±44 min (MICT) (pHIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; pHIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (pHIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (pHIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables. HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  9. Interactive effects of temperature and habitat complexity on freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrine, Jennifer; Jochum, Malte; Ólafsson, Jón S; O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2017-11-01

    Warming can lead to increased growth of plants or algae at the base of the food web, which may increase the overall complexity of habitat available for other organisms. Temperature and habitat complexity have both been shown to alter the structure and functioning of communities, but they may also have interactive effects, for example, if the shade provided by additional habitat negates the positive effect of temperature on understory plant or algal growth. This study explored the interactive effects of these two major environmental factors in a manipulative field experiment, by assessing changes in ecosystem functioning (primary production and decomposition) and community structure in the presence and absence of artificial plants along a natural stream temperature gradient of 5-18°C. There was no effect of temperature or habitat complexity on benthic primary production, but epiphytic production increased with temperature in the more complex habitat. Cellulose decomposition rate increased with temperature, but was unaffected by habitat complexity. Macroinvertebrate communities were less similar to each other as temperature increased, while habitat complexity only altered community composition in the coldest streams. There was also an overall increase in macroinvertebrate abundance, body mass, and biomass in the warmest streams, driven by increasing dominance of snails and blackfly larvae. Presence of habitat complexity, however, dampened the strength of this temperature effect on the abundance of macroinvertebrates in the benthos. The interactive effects that were observed suggest that habitat complexity can modify the effects of temperature on important ecosystem functions and community structure, which may alter energy flow through the food web. Given that warming is likely to increase habitat complexity, particularly at higher latitudes, more studies should investigate these two major environmental factors in combination to improve our ability to predict the

  10. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  11. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  12. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  13. Food technology in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  14. CT image quality improvement using adaptive iterative dose reduction with wide-volume acquisition on 320-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervaise, Alban; Osemont, Benoit; Lecocq, Sophie; Blum, Alain; Noel, Alain; Micard, Emilien; Felblinger, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) on image quality and radiation dose in phantom and patient studies. A phantom was examined in volumetric mode on a 320-detector CT at different tube currents from 25 to 550 mAs. CT images were reconstructed with AIDR and with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Image noise, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution were compared between FBP and AIDR images. AIDR was then tested on 15 CT examinations of the lumbar spine in a prospective study. Again, FBP and AIDR images were compared. Image noise and SNR were analysed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In the phantom, spatial resolution assessment showed no significant difference between FBP and AIDR reconstructions. Image noise was lower with AIDR than with FBP images with a mean reduction of 40%. CNR and SNR were also improved with AIDR. In patients, quantitative and subjective evaluation showed that image noise was significantly lower with AIDR than with FBP. SNR was also greater with AIDR than with FBP. Compared to traditional FBP reconstruction techniques, AIDR significantly improves image quality and has the potential to decrease radiation dose. (orig.)

  15. Improved robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy plan quality and planning efficacy for organ-confined prostate cancer utilizing overlap-volume histogram-driven planning methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Binbin; Pang, Dalong; Lei, Siyuan; Gatti, John; Tong, Michael; McNutt, Todd; Kole, Thomas; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Collins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study is to determine if the overlap-volume histogram (OVH)-driven planning methodology can be adapted to robotic SBRT (CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System) to further minimize the bladder and rectal doses achieved in plans manually-created by clinical planners. Methods and materials: A database containing clinically-delivered, robotic SBRT plans (7.25 Gy/fraction in 36.25 Gy) of 425 patients with localized prostate cancer was used as a cohort to establish an organ’s distance-to-dose model. The OVH-driven planning methodology was refined by adding the PTV volume factor to counter the target’s dose fall-off effect and incorporated into Multiplan to automate SBRT planning. For validation, automated plans (APs) for 12 new patients were generated, and their achieved dose/volume values were compared to the corresponding manually-created, clinically-delivered plans (CPs). A two-sided, Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical comparison with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: PTV’s V(36.25 Gy) was comparable: 95.6% in CPs comparing to 95.1% in APs (p = 0.2). On average, the refined approach lowered V(18.12 Gy) to the bladder and rectum by 8.2% (p < 0.05) and 6.4% (p = 0.14). A physician confirmed APs were clinically acceptable. Conclusions: The improvements in APs could further reduce toxicities observed in SBRT for organ-confined prostate cancer

  16. EGFR-TK inhibition before radiotherapy reduces tumour volume but does not improve local control: Differential response of cancer stem cells and nontumourigenic cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Prager, Jenny; Zhou Xuanjing; Yaromina, Ala; Doerfler, Annegret; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Baumann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Waiting times before radiotherapy may reduce tumour control probability due to proliferation of tumour cells. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the growth inhibiting effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-inhibitors after surgery or tumour transplantation results in a lower tumour mass at time of irradiation and can thereby improve local tumour control. Materials and methods: The EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBX1382BS was applied over 14 days starting from microscopically non-in-sano-resection of FaDu tumours or from tumour transplantation, followed by irradiation (5f/5d). Endpoint was local tumour control. In addition, vital tumour areas, pimonidazole hypoxic fraction, BrdU labelling index, and colony forming ability in vitro were tested in control tumours and after BIBX1382BS treatment (starting from transplantation). Results: The tumour volume at start of irradiation was significantly lower in the BIBX1382BS treated tumours as compared to the control groups by factors of 11 (post-surgery setting) and 2.7 (transplantation setting). However, the reduced volume did not translate into improved local control after irradiation. The TCD 50 values after surgery were 25.4 Gy [95% CI 18; 33 Gy] in the control group and 30.5 Gy [24; 37] in the BIBX1382BS group (p = 0.25). Treatment after transplantation resulted in TCD 50 values of 41.1 Gy [35; 47] in the control group and 41.1 Gy [33; 49] in the BIBX1382BS group (p = 1). While the proportion of S-phase cells decreased after BIBX1382BS treatment, no differences were observed between the pimonidazole hypoxic fractions and in vitro colony forming ability. Conclusions: EGFR-TK inhibition with BIBX1382BS over 14 days between macroscopically complete tumour resection or tumour transplantation and start of radiotherapy significantly reduced tumour volume but did not improve local tumour control. One possible explanation is that the EGFR-TK inhibitor has a higher activity in

  17. Establishment of blue mussel beds to enhance fish habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Louise Dahl; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    Human activity has impacted many coastal fjords causing degeneration of the structure and function of the fish habitats. In Nørrefjord, Denmark, local fishermen complained of declining fish catches which could be attributed to eutrophication and extraction of sediments over several decades. This ...... directly on hemp sacs hanging on long-lines was the most effective method. This new method is potentially a useful management tool to improve fish habitats...

  18. Geomorphic and habitat response to a large-dam removal in a Mediterranean river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; East, A. E.; Smith, D. P.; Bond, R.; Logan, J. B.; Nicol, C.; Williams, T.; Boughton, D. A.; Chow, K.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of large dams has fundamentally altered physical and biological processes in riverine ecosystems, and dam removal is becoming more common as a river restoration strategy. We used a before-after-control-impact study design to investigate the geomorphic and habitat response to removal of 32-m-high San Clemente Dam on the Carmel River, CA. The project represents the first major dam removal in a Mediterranean river and is also unique among large dam removals in that most reservoir sediment was sequestered in place. We found that in the first year post-removal, a sediment pulse migrated 3.5 km downstream, filling pools and the interstitial pore spaces of gravels with sand. These sedimentary and topographic changes initially reduced the overall quality of steelhead (O. mykiss) spawning and rearing habitat in impacted reaches. Over the second winter after dam removal, a sequence of high flows flushed large volumes of sand from pools and mobilized the river bed throughout much of the active channel. The floods substantially altered fluvial evolution in the upper part of the reservoir, promoting new avulsion and the subsequent delivery of gravel and large wood to below dam reaches. These geomorphic processes increased the availability of spawning-sized gravel and enhanced channel complexity in reaches within several km of the former dam, which should improve habitat for multiple life stages of steelhead. Results indicate that when most reservoir sediment remains impounded, high flows become more important drivers of geomorphic and habitat change than dam removal alone. In such cases, the rates at which biophysical processes are reestablished will depend largely on post-dam removal flow sequencing and the upstream supply of sediment and large wood.

  19. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  20. Our use, misuse, and abandonment of a concept: Whither habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David Anthony; Park, Allysia C; Smith, Adam C; Howes, Briar J; Prouse, Brigid K; Kyssa, Naschelly G; Fairhurst, Elizabeth N; Prior, Kent A

    2018-04-01

    The foundational concept of habitat lies at the very root of the entire science of ecology, but inaccurate use of the term compromises scientific rigor and communication among scientists and nonscientists. In 1997, Hall, Krausman & Morrison showed that 'habitat' was used correctly in only 55% of articles. We ask whether use of the term has been more accurate since their plea for standardization and whether use varies across the broader range of journals and taxa in the contemporary literature (1998-2012). We searched contemporary literature for 'habitat' and habitat-related terms, ranking usage as either correct or incorrect, following a simplified version of Hall et al.'s definitions. We used generalized linear models to compare use of the term in contemporary literature with the papers reviewed by Hall et al. and to test the effects of taxa, journal impact in the contemporary articles and effects due to authors that cited Hall et al. Use of the term 'habitat' has not improved; it was still only used correctly about 55% of the time in the contemporary data. Proportionately more correct uses occurred in articles that focused on animals compared to ones that included plants, and papers that cited Hall et al. did use the term correctly more often. However, journal impact had no effect. Some habitat terms are more likely to be misused than others, notably 'habitat type', usually used to refer to vegetation type, and 'suitable habitat' or 'unsuitable habitat', which are either redundant or nonsensical by definition. Inaccurate and inconsistent use of the term can lead to (1) misinterpretation of scientific findings; (2) inefficient use of conservation resources; (3) ineffective identification and prioritization of protected areas; (4) limited comparability among studies; and (5) miscommunication of science-based findings. Correct usage would improve communication with scientists and nonscientists, thereby benefiting conservation efforts, and ecology as a science.

  1. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  2. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leon; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Bos, Merijn; de Groot, G Arjen; Kleijn, David; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Roberts, Stuart; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2015-10-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is maintained across distinct habitats and for species with different functional traits. Highly mobile species, such as bees, can be particularly challenging to model. Here, we use independent sets of occurrence data collected systematically in several agricultural habitats to test how the predictive performance of SDMs for wild bee species depends on species traits, habitat type, and sampling technique. We used a species distribution modeling approach parametrized for the Netherlands, with presence records from 1990 to 2010 for 193 Dutch wild bees. For each species, we built a Maxent model based on 13 climate and landscape variables. We tested the predictive performance of the SDMs with independent datasets collected from orchards and arable fields across the Netherlands from 2010 to 2013, using transect surveys or pan traps. Model predictive performance depended on species traits and habitat type. Occurrence of bee species specialized in habitat and diet was better predicted than generalist bees. Predictions of habitat suitability were also more precise for habitats that are temporally more stable (orchards) than for habitats that suffer regular alterations (arable), particularly for small, solitary bees. As a conservation tool, SDMs are best suited to modeling rarer, specialist species than more generalist and will work best in long-term stable habitats. The variability of complex, short-term habitats is difficult to capture in such models and historical land use generally has low thematic resolution. To improve SDMs' usefulness, models require explanatory variables and collection data that include detailed landscape characteristics, for example, variability of crops and

  3. Habitats and Species Covered by the EEC Habitats Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, S.; Søgaard, B.; Ejrnæs, R.

    of Conservation (SAC's), Natura 2000. The designations are based upon the presence of 60 of the natural habitat types listed in Annex I of the Directive and approx. 44 of the species listed in Annex II which occur within the territory of Denmark and for the conservation of which the Community has a special...... and the Danish county authorities have initiated a co-operative programme to provide and compile the data necessary to assess the conservation status of the natural habitat types and species concerned. The purpose of this report is to present the conservation status of the habitats and species in Denmark...

  4. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  5. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J; Thurow, Russell F; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B

    2007-03-01

    prioritize areas for improvement of local habitat quality, with areas not meeting minimum thresholds being deemed inappropriate for pursuit of restoration activities.

  6. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: Relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, D.J.; Thurow, R.F.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    prioritize areas for improvement of local habitat quality, with areas not meeting minimum thresholds being deemed inappropriate for pursuit of restoration activities. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds122

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Coastal California Steelhead ESUs (evolutionarily...

  8. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  9. Use of lean and six sigma methodology to improve operating room efficiency in a high-volume tertiary-care academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Robert R; Brown, Michael J; Hebl, James R; Moore, Robin; Rogers, James C; Kollengode, Anantha; Amstutz, Gwendolyn J; Weisbrod, Cheryl A; Narr, Bradly J; Deschamps, Claude

    2011-07-01

    Operating rooms (ORs) are resource-intense and costly hospital units. Maximizing OR efficiency is essential to maintaining an economically viable institution. OR efficiency projects often focus on a limited number of ORs or cases. Efforts across an entire OR suite have not been reported. Lean and Six Sigma methodologies were developed in the manufacturing industry to increase efficiency by eliminating non-value-added steps. We applied Lean and Six Sigma methodologies across an entire surgical suite to improve efficiency. A multidisciplinary surgical process improvement team constructed a value stream map of the entire surgical process from the decision for surgery to discharge. Each process step was analyzed in 3 domains, ie, personnel, information processed, and time. Multidisciplinary teams addressed 5 work streams to increase value at each step: minimizing volume variation; streamlining the preoperative process; reducing nonoperative time; eliminating redundant information; and promoting employee engagement. Process improvements were implemented sequentially in surgical specialties. Key performance metrics were collected before and after implementation. Across 3 surgical specialties, process redesign resulted in substantial improvements in on-time starts and reduction in number of cases past 5 pm. Substantial gains were achieved in nonoperative time, staff overtime, and ORs saved. These changes resulted in substantial increases in margin/OR/day. Use of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies increased OR efficiency and financial performance across an entire operating suite. Process mapping, leadership support, staff engagement, and sharing performance metrics are keys to enhancing OR efficiency. The performance gains were substantial, sustainable, positive financially, and transferrable to other specialties. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  11. Fisheries and Oceans Canada - habitat management program in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    On May 5, 2011, the Ontario Waterpower Association hosted the emergent hydro workshop in Peterborough. In the course of the workshop, Fisheries and Oceans Canada presented the habitat management program in Ontario. Fisheries and Oceans Canada explained that their role is to protect water resources. The Fisheries Act was passed to manage fisheries and fish habitats in Canada and to protect them from harmful alteration, disruption or destruction. The policy for the management of fish was written to interpret the Fisheries Act and enhance the productive capacity of fish habitats. In addition, two other Acts were passed, the Species at Risk Act and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, designed to protect species from extinction and improve coordination of, and public access to EA information. This presentation highlighted the different existing policies aimed at protecting fisheries and fish habitats in Canada.

  12. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  13. Headwater Stream Management Dichotomies: Local Amphibian Habitat vs. Downstream Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    Small headwater streams in mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest often do not harbor fish populations because of low water depth and high gradients. Rather, these streams provide habitat for dense assemblages of stream-dwelling amphibians. A variety of management goals have been suggested for such streams such as encouraging large woody debris recruitment to assist in sediment trapping and valley floor formation, encouraging large woody debris recruitment to provide downstream wood when debris flows occur, providing continuous linear stream buffers within forest harvest areas to provide shade and bank stability, etc. A basic problem with analying the geomorphic or biotic benefits of any of these strategies is the lack of explicit management goals for such streams. Should managers strive to optimize downstream fish habitat, local amphibian habitat, or both? Through observational data and theoretical considerations, it will be shown that these biotic goals will lead to very different geomorphic management recommendations. For instance, woody debris greater than 60 cm diameter may assist in valley floor development, but it is likely to create subsurface channel flow of unknown value to amphibians. Trapping and retention of fine sediments within headwater streams may improve downstream spawning gravels, but degrades stream-dwelling amphibian habitat. In response to the need for descriptive information on habitat and channel morphology specific to small, non-fish-bearing streams in the Pacific Northwest, morphologies and wood frequencies in forty-two first- and second-order forested streams less than four meters wide were surveyed. Frequencies and size distributions of woody debris were compared between small streams and larger fish-bearing streams as well as between second-growth and virgin timber streams. Statistical models were developed to explore dominant factors affecting channel morphology and habitat. Findings suggest geomorphological relationships

  14. Reliability of tanoak volume equations when applied to different areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman H. Pillsbury; Philip M. McDonald; Victor Simon

    1995-01-01

    Tree volume equations for tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) were developed for seven stands throughout its natural range and compared by a volume prediction and a parameter difference method. The objective was to test if volume estimates from a species growing in a local, relatively uniform habitat could be applied more widely. Results indicated...

  15. Transport infrastructure shapes foraging habitat in a raptor community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planillo, Aimara; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Malo, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Transport infrastructure elements are widespread and increasing in size and length in many countries, with the subsequent alteration of landscapes and wildlife communities. Nonetheless, their effects on habitat selection by raptors are still poorly understood. In this paper, we analyzed raptors' foraging habitat selection in response to conventional roads and high capacity motorways at the landscape scale, and compared their effects with those of other variables, such as habitat structure, food availability, and presence of potential interspecific competitors. We also analyzed whether the raptors' response towards infrastructure depends on the spatial scale of observation, comparing the attraction or avoidance behavior of the species at the landscape scale with the response of individuals observed in the proximity of the infrastructure. Based on ecological hypotheses for foraging habitat selection, we built generalized linear mixed models, selected the best models according to Akaike Information Criterion and assessed variable importance by Akaike weights. At the community level, the traffic volume was the most relevant variable in the landscape for foraging habitat selection. Abundance, richness, and diversity values reached their maximum at medium traffic volumes and decreased at highest traffic volumes. Individual species showed different degrees of tolerance toward traffic, from higher abundance in areas with high traffic values to avoidance of it. Medium-sized opportunistic raptors increased their abundance near the traffic infrastructures, large scavenger raptors avoided areas with higher traffic values, and other species showed no direct response to traffic but to the presence of prey. Finally, our cross-scale analysis revealed that the effect of transport infrastructures on the behavior of some species might be detectable only at a broad scale. Also, food availability may attract raptor species to risky areas such as motorways.

  16. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  17. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  18. Improvements in the Quantitative Assessment of Cerebral Blood Volume and Flow with the Removal of Vessel Voxels from MR Perfusion Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mu Huo Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve the quantitative assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV and flow (CBF in the brain voxels from MR perfusion images. Materials and Methods. Normal brain parenchyma was automatically segmented with the time-to-peak criteria after cerebrospinal fluid removal and preliminary vessel voxel removal. Two scaling factors were calculated by comparing the relative CBV and CBF of the segmented normal brain parenchyma with the absolute values in the literature. Using the scaling factors, the relative values were converted to the absolute CBV and CBF. Voxels with either CBV > 8 mL/100 g or CBF > 100 mL/100 g/min were characterized as vessel voxels and were excluded from the quantitative measurements. Results. The segmented brain parenchyma with normal perfusion was consistent with the angiographic findings for each patient. We confirmed the necessity of dual thresholds including CBF and CBV for proper removal of vessel voxels. The scaling factors were 0.208 ± 0.041 for CBV, and 0.168 ± 0.037, 0.172 ± 0.037 for CBF calculated using standard and circulant singular value decomposition techniques, respectively. Conclusion. The automatic scaling and vessel removal techniques provide an alternative method for obtaining improved quantitative assessment of CBV and CBF in patients with thromboembolic cerebral arterial disease.

  19. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  20. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. Leatherback Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for leatherback turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 17711, March 23, 1979, Rules and Regulations....

  2. Hawksbill Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for hawksbill turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations....

  3. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  4. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  5. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Improving low power and shutdown PSA methods and data to permit better risk comparison and trade-off decision-making. Volume 1: summary of COOPRA and WGRISK surveys; Volume 2: responses to the WGRISK survey; Volume 3: responses to the COOPRA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The COOPRA LPSD working group is charged with the responsibility to assess their Member country's plant operations at Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) conditions. The sharing of information is expected to provide each of the Member country the means from which to render informed regulatory decisions for the benefit of public health and safety. Each organization had developed a questionnaire to gather information from Member countries on LPSD PSAs experiences. The responses cover a broad spectrum of LPSD PSA topics, and identifies work for improving risk-informed trade-off decisions, using PSA techniques, between LPSD and full power operational states. Each organization recognized potential benefit for improving the state-of-the-art by combining the wealth of experiences from the questionnaire responses into a common report. This report provides a summary of the current LPSD PSAs in Member countries, covering the elements which make up the PSAs. This report identifies the uses of the LPSD PSAs, summarizes current approaches, aspects, and good practices, identifies and defines differences between methods and data in full power and LPSD PSAs, and identifies guidance, methods, data, and basic research needs to address the differences. The responses to the questionnaires are provided in the Appendixes. The information contained in this report was gathered from two surveys, one by COOPRA and the other by WGRisk, which were performed over several years. Volume 2 of this report contains the responses from the CSNI / WGRisk Survey; Volume 3 contains the responses from the COOPRA Survey

  8. New England wildlife: management forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak; John W. Lanier

    1992-01-01

    Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices for species occurrence and utilization by forested and nonforested habitats, habitat breadth and size class, and structural habitat features for the 338 wildlife species...

  9. RFID-Based Asset Management for Space Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Remote habitats are often densely packed - items necessary to sustain life - items necessary to conduct work center dot Inhabitant's time is often quite valuable, if not priceless. Resupply shipments can be infrequent and expensive. Inaccurate inventory knowledge can lead to unnecessary overstocking, which can lead to insufficient work and/or living volume. Not being able to find items when they are needed can present: - safety issues - morale issues. RFID technology has the potential solve a lot of these issues.

  10. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the Cis

  11. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KUN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  12. Effect of removal of free-floating macrophytes on zooplankton habitat in shallow wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Jong-Yun; Jeong Kwang-Seuk; La Geung-Hwan; Joo Gea-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes improve the structural heterogeneity of microhabitats in aquatic ecosystems, often providing an important habitat for zooplankton. However, excessive development of free-floating macrophytes on the water surface can reduce the biomass of submerged macrophytes and result in a relatively simple habitat structure. We hypothesized that controlling the development of free-floating macrophytes would result in a more complex habitat structure by promoting the development of sub...

  13. Management of conservation reserve program grasslands to meet wildlife habitat objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document environmental and social benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). This report offers a synopsis of findings regarding effects of establishing CRP conservation practices on the quality and distribution of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes. On individual farms, year-round provision of wildlife habitat by the CRP may appear relatively insignificant. However, considered from multi-farm to National scales, such improvements in habitat and wildlife response have proven to be extensive and profound.

  14. Implications of improved diagnostic imaging of small nodal metastases in head and neck cancer: Radiotherapy target volume transformation and dose de-escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Sven; Vogel, Wouter V; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Dijkema, Tim; Terhaard, Chris H J; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2018-05-03

    Diagnostic imaging continues to evolve, and now has unprecedented accuracy for detecting small nodal metastasis. This influences the tumor load in elective target volumes and subsequently has consequences for the radiotherapy dose required to control disease in these volumes. Small metastases that used to remain subclinical and were included in elective volumes, will nowadays be detected and included in high-dose volumes. Consequentially, high-dose volumes will more often contain low-volume disease. These target volume transformations lead to changes in the tumor burden in elective and "gross" tumor volumes with implications for the radiotherapy dose prescribed to these volumes. For head and neck tumors, nodal staging has evolved from mere palpation to combinations of high-resolution imaging modalities. A traditional nodal gross tumor volume in the neck typically had a minimum diameter of 10-15 mm, while nowadays much smaller tumor deposits are detected in lymph nodes. However, the current dose levels for elective nodal irradiation were empirically determined in the 1950s, and have not changed since. In this report the radiobiological consequences of target volume transformation caused by modern imaging of the neck are evaluated, and theoretically derived reductions of dose in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are proposed. The concept of target volume transformation and subsequent strategies for dose adaptation applies to many other tumor types as well. Awareness of this concept may result in new strategies for target definition and selection of dose levels with the aim to provide optimal tumor control with less toxicity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The importance of ambient sound level to characterise anuran habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Goutte

    Full Text Available Habitat characterisation is a pivotal step of any animal ecology study. The choice of variables used to describe habitats is crucial and need to be relevant to the ecology and behaviour of the species, in order to reflect biologically meaningful distribution patterns. In many species, acoustic communication is critical to individuals' interactions, and it is expected that ambient acoustic conditions impact their local distribution. Yet, classic animal ecology rarely integrates an acoustic dimension in habitat descriptions. Here we show that ambient sound pressure level (SPL is a strong predictor of calling site selection in acoustically active frog species. In comparison to six other habitat-related variables (i.e. air and water temperature, depth, width and slope of the stream, substrate, SPL had the most important explanatory power in microhabitat selection for the 34 sampled species. Ambient noise was particularly useful in differentiating two stream-associated guilds: torrents and calmer streams dwelling species. Guild definitions were strongly supported by SPL, whereas slope, which is commonly used in stream-associated habitat, had a weak explanatory power. Moreover, slope measures are non-standardized across studies and are difficult to assess at small scale. We argue that including an acoustic descriptor will improve habitat-species analyses for many acoustically active taxa. SPL integrates habitat topology and temporal information (such as weather and hour of the day, for example and is a simple and precise measure. We suggest that habitat description in animal ecology should include an acoustic measure such as noise level because it may explain previously misunderstood distribution patterns.

  16. Can patient safety be improved by reducing the volume of “inappropriate prescribing tasks” handed over to out-of-hours junior doctors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amis SM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Samuel Martin Amis, Tobin Henry Edgar Osicki Department of Acute Internal Medicine, South Warwickshire Foundation Trust, Warwick, UK Background: First-year doctors found that during out-of-hours shifts they were being delayed and distracted from reviewing potentially sick/deteriorating patients by a high volume of prescribing tasks. This predominately consisted of oral anticoagulation prescribing and rewrites of drug charts. We hoped that if we could reduce this burden of “inappropriate prescribing tasks”, we could not only improve junior doctors’ job satisfaction and opportunities for training but also give them more time for patient reviews. Methods: Three weekends were initially audited to quantify the number of “inappropriate prescribing tasks” using data from the hospital’s computerized task assigning system. On three subsequent weekends, a checklist was handed out to the ward teams on Friday mornings. This checklist was designed to encourage the day teams to check that drug charts would not need oral anticoagulation or rewriting over the weekend. Results: An overall reduction in “inappropriate prescribing tasks” of 46% with a specific reduction in inappropriate oral anticoagulation prescribing of 65% was observed. Inappropriate drug chart rewrites were reduced by 30%. The reduction in the mean number of pre-intervention inappropriate prescribing tasks (as a percentage of total prescribing tasks and the post-intervention mean was 6.94% (95% confidence interval −0.54 to 14.42, p-value=0.062. Conclusion: Improved job satisfaction and a perceived reduced workload were noted from post-intervention qualitative surveys. While improved patient safety directly resulting from this intervention is more difficult to establish, and the observed reduction in inappropriate prescribing was only approaching statistical significance, our colleagues commented in post-intervention feedback that they felt they had more time, and felt less

  17. A risk stratification algorithm using non-invasive respiratory volume monitoring to improve safety when using post-operative opioids in the PACU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voscopoulos, Christopher; Theos, Kimberly; Tillmann Hein, H A; George, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Late detection of respiratory depression in non-intubated patients compromises patient safety. SpO 2 is a lagging indicator of respiratory depression and EtCO 2 has proven to be unreliable in non-intubated patients. A decline in minute ventilation (MV) is the earliest sign of respiratory depression. A non-invasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) that provides accurate, continuous MV measurements enables clinicians to predict and quantify respiratory compromise. For this observational study, practitioners were blinded to the RVM measurements and pain management followed the usual routine. Patients were stratified by their MV on PACU admission and classified as "At-Risk" or "Not-At-Risk," with progression to "Low MV" status following opioids assessed for each category. The purpose was to determine if stratifying based on MV on PACU arrival could identify patients at higher risk for respiratory depression. Ability to identify in advance patients at higher risk for respiratory depression following standard opioid dosing would drive changes in pain management and improve patient care. RVM and opioid administration data from 150 PACU patients following elective joint-replacement surgery were collected in an observational study. "Predicted" MV (MV PRED ) and "Percent Predicted" (MV MEASURED /MV PRED  × 100 %) were calculated for each patient using standard formulas. Prior to opioid administration, patients were classified as either "Not-At-Risk" (MV ≥ 80 % MV PRED ) or "At-Risk" (MV safety across the continuum of care.

  18. Combination of baseline metabolic tumour volume and early response on PET/CT improves progression-free survival prediction in DLBCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaeel, N.G.; Smith, Daniel [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Clinical Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Dunn, Joel T.; Phillips, Michael; Barrington, Sally F. [King' s College London, PET Imaging Centre at St Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Moeller, Henrik [King' s College London, Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Fields, Paul A.; Wrench, David [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Haematology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The study objectives were to assess the prognostic value of quantitative PET and to test whether combining baseline metabolic tumour burden with early PET response could improve predictive power in DLBCL. A total of 147 patients with DLBCL underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before and after two cycles of RCHOP. Quantitative parameters including metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured, as well as the percentage change in these parameters. Cox regression analysis was used to test the relationship between progression-free survival (PFS) and the study variables. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis determined the optimal cut-off for quantitative variables, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The median follow-up was 3.8 years. As MTV and TLG measures correlated strongly, only MTV measures were used for multivariate analysis (MVA). Baseline MTV (MTV-0) was the only statistically significant predictor of PFS on MVA. The optimal cut-off for MTV-0 was 396 cm{sup 3}. A model combing MTV-0 and Deauville score (DS) separated the population into three distinct prognostic groups: good (MTV-0 < 400; 5-year PFS > 90 %), intermediate (MTV-0 ≥ 400+ DS1-3; 5-year PFS 58.5 %) and poor (MTV-0 ≥ 400+ DS4-5; 5-year PFS 29.7 %) MTV-0 is an important prognostic factor in DLBCL. Combining MTV-0 and early PET/CT response improves the predictive power of interim PET and defines a poor-prognosis group in whom most of the events occur. (orig.)

  19. Improved target volume definition in radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations by stereotactic correlation of MRA, MRI, blood bolus tagging, and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, L.R.; Bock, M.; Baudendistel, K.; Essig, M.; Debus, J.; Knopp, M.V.; Engenhart, R.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the sterotactic correlation of different MRI-techniques [MR angiography (MRA), MRI, blood bolus tagging (STAR), and functional MRI] in 10 patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and its application in precision radiotherapy planning. The patient's head was fixed in a stereotactic localization system. By phantom measurements different materials (steel, aluminium, titanium, plastic, wood, ceramics) used for the stereotactic system were tested for mechanical stability and geometrical MR image distortion. All metallic stereotactic rings led to a more or less dramatic geometrical distortion and signal cancellation in the MR images. The best properties - nearly no distortion and high mechanical stability - are provided by a ceramic ring. If necessary, the remaining geometrical MR image distortion can be 'corrected' by calculations based on modeling the distortion as a fourth-order 2D-polynomial. Using this method multimodality matching can be performed automatically as long as all images are acquired in the same examination and the patient is sufficiently immobilized. Precise definition of the target volume could be performed by the radiotherapist either directly in MR images or in calculated projection MR angiograms. As a result, information about the hemodynamics of the AVM was provided by a 3D-phase-contrast flow measurement and a dynamic MRA with the STAR technique leading to an improved definition of the size of the nidus, and the pattern of the venous drainage. In addition, functional MRI was performed in patients with lesions close to the primary motor cortex area leading to an improved definition of structures at risk for high-dose application in radiosurgery. (orig./MG)

  20. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Loss and modification of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.; Wilkinson, John W.; Heatwole, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  2. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  3. Geomorphology and Sustainable Subsistence Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Kruger, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Climatic, tectonic, and human-related impacts are changing the distribution of shoreline habitats and associated species used as food resources. There is a need to summarize current and future shoreline geomorphic - biotic relationships and better understand potential impacts to native customary and traditional gathering patterns. By strategically integrating Native knowledge and observations, we create an inclusive vulnerability assessment strategy resulting in a win-win opportunity for resource users and research scientists alike. We merged the NOAA ShoreZone database with results from over sixty student intern discussions in six southeast Alaska Native communities. Changes in shore width and unit length were derived using near shore bathymetry depths and available isostatic rebound, tectonic movement, and rates of sea level rise. Physical attributes including slope, substrate, and exposure were associated with presence and abundance of specific species. Student interns, selected by Tribes and Tribal associations, conducted resource-based discussions with community members to summarize species use, characteristics of species habitat, transportation used to access collection areas, and potential threats to habitats. Geomorphic trends and community observations were summarized to assess potential threats within a spatial context. Given current measured rates of uplift and sea level rise, 2.4 to 0 m of uplift along with 0.20 m of sea level rise is expected in the next 100 years. Coastlines of southeast Alaska will be subject to both drowning (primarily to the south) and emergence (primarily to the north). We predict decreases in estuary and sediment-dominated shoreline length and an increase in rocky habitats. These geomorphic changes, combined with resident's concerns, highlight six major interrelated coastal vulnerabilities including: (1) reduction of clam and clam habitat quantity and quality, (2) reduction in chiton quality and quantity, (3) harmful expansion of

  4. Intelligent Flexible Materials for Space Structures: Expandable Habitat Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jon; Sharpe, George; Lin, John; Wiley, Cliff; Timmers, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Expandable habitable elements are an enabling technology for human exploration in space and on planetary surfaces. Large geometries can be deployed from a small launch volume, allowing greater mission capability while reducing mass and improving robustness over traditional rigid shells. This report describes research performed by ILC Dover under the Intelligent Flexible Materials for Space Structures program on the design and manufacture of softgoods for LaRC's Expandable Habitat Engineering Development Unit (EDU). The EDU is a full-scale structural test article of an expandable hybrid habitat, integrating an expandable softgoods center section with two rigid end caps. The design of the bladder, restraint layer and a mock-up Thermal Micrometeoroid Cover is detailed together with the design of the interface hardware used to attach them to the end caps. The integration and design of two windows and a floor are also covered. Analysis was performed to study the effects of the open weave design, and to determine the correct webbing and fabric configuration. Stress analyses were also carried out on the interfaces between the softgoods and the end caps and windows. Testing experimentally determined the strength of the fabric and straps, and component testing was used to proof several critical parts of the design. This program established new manufacturing and design techniques that can be applied to future applications in expandable structures.

  5. Habitat classification modelling with incomplete data: Pushing the habitat envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoebe L. Zarnetske; Thomas C. Edwards; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2007-01-01

    Habitat classification models (HCMs) are invaluable tools for species conservation, land-use planning, reserve design, and metapopulation assessments, particularly at broad spatial scales. However, species occurrence data are often lacking and typically limited to presence points at broad scales. This lack of absence data precludes the use of many statistical...

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Modeling habitat split: landscape and life history traits determine amphibian extinction thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Fonseca

    Full Text Available Habitat split is a major force behind the worldwide decline of amphibian populations, causing community change in richness and species composition. In fragmented landscapes, natural remnants, the terrestrial habitat of the adults, are frequently separated from streams, the aquatic habitat of the larvae. An important question is how this landscape configuration affects population levels and if it can drive species to extinction locally. Here, we put forward the first theoretical model on habitat split which is particularly concerned on how split distance - the distance between the two required habitats - affects population size and persistence in isolated fragments. Our diffusive model shows that habitat split alone is able to generate extinction thresholds. Fragments occurring between the aquatic habitat and a given critical split distance are expected to hold viable populations, while fragments located farther away are expected to be unoccupied. Species with higher reproductive success and higher diffusion rate of post-metamorphic youngs are expected to have farther critical split distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that negative effects of habitat split are poorly compensated by positive effects of fragment size. The habitat split model improves our understanding about spatially structured populations and has relevant implications for landscape design for conservation. It puts on a firm theoretical basis the relation between habitat split and the decline of amphibian populations.

  8. Modeling habitat split: landscape and life history traits determine amphibian extinction thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Coutinho, Renato M; Azevedo, Franciane; Berbert, Juliana M; Corso, Gilberto; Kraenkel, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat split is a major force behind the worldwide decline of amphibian populations, causing community change in richness and species composition. In fragmented landscapes, natural remnants, the terrestrial habitat of the adults, are frequently separated from streams, the aquatic habitat of the larvae. An important question is how this landscape configuration affects population levels and if it can drive species to extinction locally. Here, we put forward the first theoretical model on habitat split which is particularly concerned on how split distance - the distance between the two required habitats - affects population size and persistence in isolated fragments. Our diffusive model shows that habitat split alone is able to generate extinction thresholds. Fragments occurring between the aquatic habitat and a given critical split distance are expected to hold viable populations, while fragments located farther away are expected to be unoccupied. Species with higher reproductive success and higher diffusion rate of post-metamorphic youngs are expected to have farther critical split distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that negative effects of habitat split are poorly compensated by positive effects of fragment size. The habitat split model improves our understanding about spatially structured populations and has relevant implications for landscape design for conservation. It puts on a firm theoretical basis the relation between habitat split and the decline of amphibian populations.

  9. HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wendy J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i physical activity change over five years (2007–2011 in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007 were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000. A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011, with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities, sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities, social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation, health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent

  10. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA's Deep Space Habitat Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Simpson, Morgan; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Newsham, Gerald; Stutte, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for future human exploration missions to space, NASA evaluates habitat concepts to assess integration issues, power requirements, crew operations, technology, and system performance. The concept of a Food Production System utilizes fresh foods, such as vegetables and small fruits, harvested on a continuous basis, to improve the crew's diet and quality of life. The system would need to fit conveniently into the habitat and not interfere with other components or operations. To test this concept, a plant growing "atrium" was designed to surround the lift between the lower and upper modules of the Deep Space Habitat and deployed at NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) test site in 2011 and at NASA Johnson Space Center in 2012. With this approach, no-utilized volume provided an area for vegetable growth. For the 2011 test, mizuna, lettuce, basil, radish and sweetpotato plants were grown in trays using commercially available red I blue LED light fixtures. Seedlings were transplanted into the atrium and cared for by the. crew. Plants were then harvested two weeks later following completion of the test. In 2012, mizuna, lettuce, and radish plants were grown similarly but under flat panel banks of white LEDs. In 2012, the crew went through plant harvesting, including sanitizing tlie leafy greens and radishes, which were then consumed. Each test demonstrated successful production of vegetables within a functional hab module. The round red I blue LEDs for the 2011 test lighting cast a purple light in the hab, and were less uniformly distributed over the plant trays. The white LED panels provided broad spectrum light with more uniform distribution. Post-test questionnaires showed that the crew enjoyed tending and consuming the plants and that the white LED light in 2012 provided welcome extra light for the main HAB AREA.

  11. Prédiction des propriétés volumétriques des hydrocarbures par une translation de volume améliorée Prediction of the Volumetric Properties of Hydrocarbons with an Improved Volume Translation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerer P.

    2006-12-01

    -ci, s'avère cohérente avec les règles de mélange quand l'on regroupe plusieurs constituants en un pseudo-constituant. Son application aux mélanges pétroliers apparaît donc prometteuse. This summary contains formulas (*** which can not be displayed on the screen. Following the work of Péneloux et al. (1982 , several attempts have been made to improve density calculations from equations of state by the use of alternative volume translation methods (Soreide, 1989; Magoulas and Tassios, 1990; Coniglio, 1993. The present work aims at improving these predictions, particularly in the case of oil and gas reservoirs (temperature up to 200°C and pressures as high as 120 MPa, using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. As volume translation methods sometimes show inconsistencies at high pressure (e. g. , negative thermal expansion coefficient we had to develop an original expression. For this purpose, we used high pressure density measurements instead of saturated liquid densities. Several pure hydrocarbons from various families were considered : C6 to C40 n-alkanes, cyclohexane, C6 to C12 monoaromatics. Within a good approximation, the volume translation c is thus shown to follow a linear dependancy with temperature and with molecular weight :c(T = (0. 023 - 0. 00056 MWT + (- 34. 5 + 0. 4666 MWwhere c is in cm³/mol, T in K and MW in g/mol. When this expression is used, average errors at high pressure are low (less than 3% for the C6 to C13 hydrocarbons investigated. For heavier hydrocarbons, its predictions are sensitive to critical properties and the following expression is recommended :(***where v(Tref, Pref is the liquid molar volume computed by the untranslated equation of state in the same conditions as those where a density measurement (pref is available. With the exception of the near-critical region, the method is still accurate at low pressure. The method does not display the inconsistencies of previous methods, and it is also shown to be consistent with mixing

  12. Enhancing and restoring habitat for the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 y for the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii, a federally threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave Desert and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival) a variety of shrubs on disturbed desert soils. Additionally, salvaging and reapplying topsoil using effective techniques is among the more ecologically beneficial ways to initiate plant recovery after severe disturbance. Through differences in biochemical composition and digestibility, some plant species provide better-quality forage than others. Desert tortoises selectively forage on particular annual and herbaceous perennial species (e.g., legumes), and forage selection shifts during the year as different plants grow or mature. Nonnative grasses provide low-quality forage and contribute fuel to spreading wildfires, which damage or kill shrubs that tortoises use for cover. Maintaining a diverse “menu” of native annual forbs and decreasing nonnative grasses are priorities for restoring most desert tortoise habitats. Reducing herbivory by nonnative animals, carefully timing herbicide applications, and strategically augmenting annual forage plants via seeding show promise for improving tortoise forage quality. Roads, another disturbance, negatively affect habitat in numerous ways (e.g., compacting soil, altering hydrology). Techniques such as recontouring road berms to reestablish drainage patterns, vertical mulching (“planting” dead plant material

  13. Arroyo Management Plan (Alameda County): A Plan for Implementing Access and Restoring Riparian Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent E. Watson; Jim Horner; Louise Mozingo

    1989-01-01

    Innovative techniques for restoring riparian habitats are of little value without a community endorsed plan for their implementation. A flood control district commissioned the Arroyo Management Plan in order to determine how it might provide public access and improve habitat along its current and future channels in a fast-growing area of Northern California. The Plan,...

  14. Structure, function and management of semi-natural habitats for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, John M.; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Entling, Martin H.; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Smith, Barbara M.; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with

  15. Linking habitat management and conservation biocontrol through gut-content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the habitat diversity of agricultural fields can lead to more effective biocontrol of arthropod pests. Annual cropping systems are exposed to frequent disturbance and lack habitat diversity; therefore it is important to develop strategies that can improve ecosystem services such as bioco...

  16. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oaks region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  17. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oak region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  18. Physical stream habitat dynamics in Lower Bear Creek, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the roles of geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics in determining physical stream habitat in Bear Creek, a stream with a 239 km2 drainage basin in the Ozark Plateaus (Ozarks) in northern Arkansas. During a relatively wet 12-month monitoring period, the geomorphology of Bear Creek was altered by a series of floods, including at least four floods with peak discharges exceeding a 1-year recurrence interval and another flood with an estimated 2- to 4-year recurrence interval. These floods resulted in a net erosion of sediment from the study reach at Crane Bottom at rates far in excess of other sites previously studied in the Ozarks. The riffle-pool framework of the study reach at Crane Bottom was not substantially altered by these floods, but volumes of habitat in riffles and pools changed. The 2- to 4-year flood scoured gravel from pools and deposited it in riffles, increasing the diversity of available stream habitat. In contract, the smaller floods eroded gravel from the riffles and deposited it in pools, possibly flushing fine sediment from the substrate but also decreasing habitat diversity. Channel geometry measured at the beginning of the study was use to develop a two-dimensional, finite-element hydraulic model at assess how habitat varies with hydrologic dynamics. Distributions of depth and velocity simulated over the range of discharges observed during the study (0.1 to 556 cubic meters per second, cms) were classified into habitat units based on limiting depths and Froude number criteria. The results indicate that the areas of habitats are especially sensitive to change to low to medium flows. Races (areas of swift, relatively deep water downstream from riffles) disappear completely at the lowest flows, and riffles (areas of swift, relatively shallow water) contract substantially in area. Pools also contract in area during low flow, but deep scours associated with bedrock outcrops sustain some pool area even at the lowest modeled flows. Modeled

  19. High Intensity High Volume Interval Training Improves Endurance Performance and Induces a Nearly Complete Slow-to-Fast Fiber Transformation on the mRNA Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Eigendorf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax/24 s on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT. The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M. vastus lateralis biopsies by quantitative real-time PCR. In incremental tests peak power (Ppeak was increased, whereas V˙O2peak was unaltered. Prolonged time-to-exhaustion was found in endurance tests with 65 and 80% Pmax at INT and END. No changes in blood levels of lipid metabolites were detected. Training-induced decreases of hematocrit indicate hypervolemia. A shift from slow MHCI/β to fast MHCIIa mRNA expression occurred after the first and second training set. The mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of oxidative energy metabolism, decreased after the second training set. In agreement, a significant decrease was also found for citrate synthase mRNA after the second training set, indicating reduced oxidative capacity. However, mRNA expression levels of glycolytic marker enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not change after the first and second training set. HIHVT induced a nearly complete slow-to-fast fiber type transformation on the mRNA level, which, however, cannot account for the improvements of performance parameters. The latter might be explained by the well-known effects of hypervolemia on exercise performance.

  20. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages and disadvanta......The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... suit their situations. This paper analyses the potential of different methods available for water managers to assess hydrological and geomorphological impacts on the habitats of stream biota, as requested by the WFD. The review considers both conventional and new advanced research-based instream...... physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water...

  1. Habitats: staging life and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of habitat. It is a bounded chunk of space/time that isdesigned to accommodate a delimited set of activities. It accommodates the activities by in-cludingphysical artefacts that can be used in the activities and signs that offer activity-relevantinformation. The hab...

  2. Oak woodlands as wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tietje; K. Purcell; S. Drill

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides local planners and policymakers with information on the diversity and abundance of oak woodland wildlife, wildlife habitat needs, and how local planning activities can influence wildlife abundance and diversity. Federal and state laws, particularly the federal and California Endangered Species Act and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...

  3. An improved optimization algorithm of the three-compartment model with spillover and partial volume corrections for dynamic FDG PET images of small animal hearts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinlin; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2018-03-01

    The three-compartment model with spillover (SP) and partial volume (PV) corrections has been widely used for noninvasive kinetic parameter studies of dynamic 2-[18F] fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography images of small animal hearts in vivo. However, the approach still suffers from estimation uncertainty or slow convergence caused by the commonly used optimization algorithms. The aim of this study was to develop an improved optimization algorithm with better estimation performance. Femoral artery blood samples, image-derived input functions from heart ventricles and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) were derived from data on 16 C57BL/6 mice obtained from the UCLA Mouse Quantitation Program. Parametric equations of the average myocardium and the blood pool TACs with SP and PV corrections in a three-compartment tracer kinetic model were formulated. A hybrid method integrating artificial immune-system and interior-reflective Newton methods were developed to solve the equations. Two penalty functions and one late time-point tail vein blood sample were used to constrain the objective function. The estimation accuracy of the method was validated by comparing results with experimental values using the errors in the areas under curves (AUCs) of the model corrected input function (MCIF) and the 18F-FDG influx constant K i . Moreover, the elapsed time was used to measure the convergence speed. The overall AUC error of MCIF for the 16 mice averaged  -1.4  ±  8.2%, with correlation coefficients of 0.9706. Similar results can be seen in the overall K i error percentage, which was 0.4  ±  5.8% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9912. The t-test P value for both showed no significant difference. The mean and standard deviation of the MCIF AUC and K i percentage errors have lower values compared to the previously published methods. The computation time of the hybrid method is also several times lower than using just a stochastic

  4. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna B Gillen

    Full Text Available We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session.Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2 performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9 or MICT (n = 10 for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6. SIT involved 3x20-second 'all-out' cycle sprints (~500W interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W. Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W.Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both. Insulin sensitivity index (CSI, determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002 and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10-4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013 (p<0.05. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001. The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99, CSI (p = 0.63 and CS (p = 0.97.Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment.

  5. The problems in the formation of the habitat of fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat as a combination of political, economic, social and environmental conditions of human activity plays an important role in raising productivity and efficiency of the national economy. On the basis of actual data the essence of problems of formation and management of the fishery complex habitat has been revealed. The authors consider the working conditions of the crews of fishing vessels as an important component of habitat, the influence of climatic conditions and inadequate social infrastructure on turnover of out-migration from the northern regions, the low level of training that generally has a negative impact on results of the fishing industry activity. The state government fishery development programme does not contain measures to shape habitats: improving the quality of life of fishermen and their families, promoting social and environmental infrastructure. On the basis of researches some practical recommendations allowing solve the problems in formation and development of the fishery habitat have been proposed. There are the following recommendations: improving the working conditions of the crews of fishing vessels, economically advantageous working conditions for shipowners, efforts to combat poaching, training of highly qualified personnel, the development of programme of staff motivation and its interest in the work on the internal market, the development of social programmes for the protection of seafarers and their families. For successful implementation of all measures to increase the competitiveness of fisheries of Russia on the international market it is necessary to improve the quality and effectiveness of the system of fisheries complex management, including its socio-ecological-economic habitat

  6. Habitats and Surface Construction Technology and Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1997-01-01

    The vision of the technology and development teams at NASA Ames and Johnson Research Centers is to provide the capability for automated delivery and emplacement of habitats and surface facilities. The benefits of the program are as follows: Composites and Inflatables: 30-50% (goal) lighter than Al Hard Structures; Capability for Increased Habitable Volume, Launch Efficiency; Long Term Growth Potential; and Supports initiation of commercial and industrial expansion. Key Habitats and Surface Construction (H&SC) technology issues are: Habitat Shell Structural Materials; Seals and Mechanisms; Construction and Assembly: Automated Pro-Deploy Construction Systems; ISRU Soil/Construction Equipment: Lightweight and Lower Power Needs; Radiation Protection (Health and Human Performance Tech.); Life Support System (Regenerative Life Support System Tech.); Human Physiology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.); and Human Psychology of Long Duration Space Flight (Health and Human Performance Tech.) What is being done regarding these issues?: Use of composite materials for X-38 CRV, RLV, etc.; TransHAB inflatable habitat design/development; Japanese corporations working on ISRU-derived construction processes. What needs to be done for the 2004 Go Decision?: Characterize Mars Environmental Conditions: Civil Engineering, Material Durability, etc.; Determine Credibility of Inflatable Structures for Human Habitation; and Determine Seal Technology for Mechanisms and Hatches, Life Cycle, and Durability. An overview encompassing all of the issues above is presented.

  7. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  9. Chinook Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds124

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Coastal Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU -...

  10. A Conceptual Approach to Recreation Habitat Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, H. R

    1996-01-01

    .... The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) is a commonly used technique for assessing human impacts on the vigor of wildlife species, and serves as the model for the Recreation Habitat Analysis Method (RHAM...

  11. Beaked Whale Habitat Characterization and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Jessica A; Mitchell, Glenn H; Farak, Amy M; Keane, Ellen P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize known beaked whale habitat and create a predictive beaked whale habitat model of the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of the United States using available...

  12. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post

  13. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  14. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  15. Innovative study methods for the Mediterranean coralligenous habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Zapata-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coralligenous habitats are of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea because they represent one of the most important biodiversity ‘hot-spots’ and are considered of great relevance for fisheries activities in the region. Despite their importance, however, there are missing consensual methodologies for their monitoring and, despite some attempts, no environmental or ecological quality indices have been established yet. This situation could be related to the difficulties associated with their exploration and their spatial heterogeneity. These habitats are in urgent need of efficient standard monitoring and management protocols programmes to develop an effective network for their conservation. Here we reviewed the available methodologies and robotics tools used to evaluate and monitor benthic habitats, highlighting the importance of defining rapid cost-effective sampling and analyses approaches and architectures for future monitoring of changes in coralligenous habitats based on current technological developments. We identified still images acquisitions as the most effective data gathering system. Stereo photogrammetry, photomosaic elaboration and three-dimensional (3D modelling may largely improve the data analysis and therefore the quality status assessment of the coralligenous habitats. The advantage and efficiency of different approaches and methods, and whether they should be applied and standardised for further monitoring activities, were discussed.

  16. A technical guide for monitoring wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Rowland; C.D. Vojta

    2013-01-01

    Information about status and trend of wildlife habitat is important for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to accomplish its mission and meet its legal requirements. As the steward of 193 million acres (ac) of Federal land, the Forest Service needs to evaluate the status of wildlife habitat and how it compares with desired conditions. Habitat monitoring...

  17. Habitat preference of Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Habitat Preference, Roan Antelope, Seasons. INTRODUCTION. Habitat quality and quantity have been identified as the primary limiting factors that influence animal population dynamics. (Jansen et al., 2001). Habitat influences the presence, abundance, distribution, movement and behavior of game animals.

  18. Creating complex habitats for restoration and reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Ladle, R.J.; Bouma, T.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Simplification of natural habitats has become a major conservation challenge and there is a growing consensus that incorporating and enhancing habitat complexity is likely to be critical for future restoration efforts. Habitat complexity is often ascribed an important role in controlling species

  19. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the... physical constituent elements within the defined area of Critical Habitat that are essential to the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94...

  20. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  1. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  2. Differentiating aneurysm from infundibular dilatation by volume rendering MRA. Techniques for improving depiction of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takaaki; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Kohama, Ikuhide; Yonemori, Terutake; Izumo, Masaki [Hakodate Shintoshi Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    With the spread of brain dock procedures, non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is being utilized to broadly screen for brain blood vessel diseases. However, diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm can be difficult by routine MRA. In particular, differentiating aneurysms and infundibular dilatations (IDS) of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) at their bifurcations with the internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely difficult and additional studies are frequently necessary. In this situation, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and cerebral angiography have been utilized, but both techniques are invasive. Furthermore, images from cerebral angiography are only two-dimensional, and 3D-CTA requires differentiation between aneurysm and ID by observing configurational changes at the apex of the protrusion and by following gradual changes to the threshold. We therefore undertook the following steps to improve both depiction of the PCoA and AChA and differential diagnosis between aneurysm and ID: reduced slice thickness and increased number of excitations; utilized volume rendering methods to construct images; lowered thresholds for the beginning of the PCoA and AChA arteries, which represent the regions of interest. In all 11 cases that we operated on, cerebral aneurysms were diagnosed correctly and the minimum neck diameter of the cerebral aneurysm was 1.2 mm. In addition, the number of AChAs and PCoAs present in target MRA and in operational views were evaluated. In one case with an AChA aneurysm, a PCoA was not detected by target MRA, because the ICA deviated posterolaterally and pushed the PCoA to the posterior clinoid process, and blood flow was poor in operational views. In another 2 cases with AChA aneurysms, only one AChA was described in target MRA, whereas two aneurysms were present. However, one of these had a diameter less than 1 mm. In conclusion, this method offers an extremely useful aid

  3. Differentiating aneurysm from infundibular dilatation by volume rendering MRA. Techniques for improving depiction of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takaaki; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Kohama, Ikuhide; Yonemori, Terutake; Izumo, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    With the spread of brain dock procedures, non-invasive magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is being utilized to broadly screen for brain blood vessel diseases. However, diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm can be difficult by routine MRA. In particular, differentiating aneurysms and infundibular dilatations (IDS) of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) at their bifurcations with the internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely difficult and additional studies are frequently necessary. In this situation, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and cerebral angiography have been utilized, but both techniques are invasive. Furthermore, images from cerebral angiography are only two-dimensional, and 3D-CTA requires differentiation between aneurysm and ID by observing configurational changes at the apex of the protrusion and by following gradual changes to the threshold. We therefore undertook the following steps to improve both depiction of the PCoA and AChA and differential diagnosis between aneurysm and ID: reduced slice thickness and increased number of excitations; utilized volume rendering methods to construct images; lowered thresholds for the beginning of the PCoA and AChA arteries, which represent the regions of interest. In all 11 cases that we operated on, cerebral aneurysms were diagnosed correctly and the minimum neck diameter of the cerebral aneurysm was 1.2 mm. In addition, the number of AChAs and PCoAs present in target MRA and in operational views were evaluated. In one case with an AChA aneurysm, a PCoA was not detected by target MRA, because the ICA deviated posterolaterally and pushed the PCoA to the posterior clinoid process, and blood flow was poor in operational views. In another 2 cases with AChA aneurysms, only one AChA was described in target MRA, whereas two aneurysms were present. However, one of these had a diameter less than 1 mm. In conclusion, this method offers an extremely useful aid

  4. A newly developed maneuver, field change conversion (FCC), improved evaluation of the left ventricular volume more accurately on quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Osamu; Shibasaki, Masaki; Hoshi, Toshiko; Imai, Kamon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a newly developed maneuver that reduces the reconstruction area by a half more accurately evaluates left ventricular (LV) volume on quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) analysis. The subjects were 38 patients who underwent left ventricular angiography (LVG) followed by G-SPECT within 2 weeks. Acquisition was performed with a general purpose collimator and a 64 x 64 matrix. On QGS analysis, the field magnification was 34 cm in original image (Original: ORI), and furthermore it was changed from 34 cm to 17 cm to enlarge the re-constructed image (Field Change Conversion: FCC). End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) of the left ventricle were also obtained using LVG. EDV was 71±19 ml, 83±20 ml and 98±23 ml for ORI, FCC and LVG, respectively (p<0.001: ORI versus LVG, p<0.001: ORI versus FCC, p<0.001: FCC versus LVG). ESV was 28±12 ml, 34±13 ml and 41±14 ml for ORI, FCC and LVG, respectively (p<0.001: ORI versus LVG, p<0.001: ORI versus FCC, p<0.001: FCC versus LVG). FCC was better than ORI for calculating LV volume in clinical cases. Furthermore, FCC is a useful method for accurately measuring the LV volume on QGS analysis. (author)

  5. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  8. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  9. An approach of habitat degradation assessment for characterization on coastal habitat conservation tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Yin; Lei, Kun; Meng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Coastal zones are population and economy highly intensity regions all over the world, and coastal habitat supports the sustainable development of human society. The accurate assessment of coastal habitat degradation is the essential prerequisite for coastal zone protection. In this study, an integrated framework of coastal habitat degradation assessment including landuse classification, habitat classifying and zoning, evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation and coastal habitat degradation index has been established for better regional coastal habitat assessment. Through establishment of detailed three-class landuse classification, the fine landscape change is revealed, the evaluation criterion of coastal habitat degradation through internal comparison based on the results of habitat classifying and zoning could indicate the levels of habitat degradation and distinguish the intensity of human disturbances in different habitat subareas under the same habitat classification. Finally, the results of coastal habitat degradation assessment could be achieved through coastal habitat degradation index (CHI). A case study of the framework is carried out in the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, China, and the main results show the following: (1) The accuracy of all land use classes are above 90%, which indicates a satisfactory accuracy for the classification map. (2) The Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast is divided into 3 kinds of habitats and 5 subareas. (3) In the five subareas of the Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast, the levels of coastal habitat degradation own significant difference. The whole Circum-Bohai-Sea-Coast generally is in a worse state according to area weighting of each habitat subarea. This assessment framework of coastal habitat degradation would characterize the landuse change trend, realize better coastal habitat degradation assessment, reveal the habitat conservation tendency and distinguish intensity of human disturbances. Furthermore, it would support for accurate coastal

  10. Modelling Fish Habitat Suitability in the Eastern English Channel. Application to community habitat level

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Sandrine; Carpentier, Andre; Loots, Christophe; Koubbi, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Valuable marine habitats and living resources can be found in the Eastern English Channel and in 2003, a Franco-British Interreg IIIA project, ‘Eastern Channel Habitat Atlas for Marine Resource Management’ (CHARM), was initiated to support decision-making for management of essential fish habitats. Fish habitat corresponds to geographic areas within which ranges of environmental factors define the presence of a particular species. Habitat Suitability index (HSI) modelling was used to relate fi...

  11. Abolition of set-aside schemes and its impacts on habitat styructure in Denmark from 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for 65% of the Danish land area. Habitats for wild species are characterized by small patches, surrounded by intensive agriculture. Due to extensive management, set-aside land can if located close to habitats, improve habitat structure in terms of patch size and connectivity....... In 2008 set-aside schemes were abolished, leading to a decline in the area of set-aside land from 6% of all agricultural land in 2007 to 3% in 2008. We developed an indicator aiming to measure the effect of the reduced area of set-aside land on habitat structure. The indicator combines distance...... to habitats, potential corridors between habitats and area percentage of set-aside land. Analyses show that the halving of the area of set-aside land has led to a 55% reduction of the effect of set-aside land on habitat structure....

  12. Use of wall-less 18F-doped gelatin phantoms for improved volume delineation and quantification in PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoff, Marie; Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-FDG is a valuable tool for staging, planning treatment, and evaluating the treatment response for many different types of tumours. The correct volume estimation is of utmost importance in these situations. To date, the most common types of phantoms used in volume quantification in PET utilize fillable, hollow spheres placed in a circular or elliptical cylinder made of polymethyl methacrylate. However, the presence of a non-radioactive sphere wall between the hotspot and the background activity in images of this type of phantom could cause inaccuracies. To investigate the influence of the non-active walls, we developed a phantom without non-active sphere walls for volume delineation and quantification in PET. Three sizes of gelatin hotspots were moulded and placed in a Jaszczak phantom together with hollow plastic spheres of the same sizes containing the same activity concentration. 18 F PET measurements were made with zero background activity and with tumour-to-background ratios of 12.5, 10, 7.5, and 5. The background-corrected volume reproducing threshold, T vol , was calculated for both the gelatin and the plastic spheres. It was experimentally verified that the apparent background dependence of T vol , i.e., a decreasing T vol  with increasing background fraction, was not present for wall-less spheres; the opposite results were seen in plastic, hollow spheres in commercially-available phantoms. For the types of phantoms commonly used in activity quantification, the estimation of T vol  using fillable, hollow, plastic spheres with non-active walls would lead to an overestimate of the tumour volume, especially for small volumes in a high activity background. (paper)

  13. Use of wall-less 18F-doped gelatin phantoms for improved volume delineation and quantification in PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydoff, Marie; Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG is a valuable tool for staging, planning treatment, and evaluating the treatment response for many different types of tumours. The correct volume estimation is of utmost importance in these situations. To date, the most common types of phantoms used in volume quantification in PET utilize fillable, hollow spheres placed in a circular or elliptical cylinder made of polymethyl methacrylate. However, the presence of a non-radioactive sphere wall between the hotspot and the background activity in images of this type of phantom could cause inaccuracies. To investigate the influence of the non-active walls, we developed a phantom without non-active sphere walls for volume delineation and quantification in PET. Three sizes of gelatin hotspots were moulded and placed in a Jaszczak phantom together with hollow plastic spheres of the same sizes containing the same activity concentration. 18F PET measurements were made with zero background activity and with tumour-to-background ratios of 12.5, 10, 7.5, and 5. The background-corrected volume reproducing threshold, Tvol, was calculated for both the gelatin and the plastic spheres. It was experimentally verified that the apparent background dependence of Tvol, i.e., a decreasing Tvol with increasing background fraction, was not present for wall-less spheres; the opposite results were seen in plastic, hollow spheres in commercially-available phantoms. For the types of phantoms commonly used in activity quantification, the estimation of Tvol using fillable, hollow, plastic spheres with non-active walls would lead to an overestimate of the tumour volume, especially for small volumes in a high activity background.

  14. Do Red Edge and Texture Attributes from High-Resolution Satellite Data Improve Wood Volume Estimation in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Paul; Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    to overcome this issue. However, clear recommendations on the suitability of specific proxies to provide accurate biomass information in semi-arid to arid environments are still lacking. This study contributes to the understanding of using multispectral high-resolution satellite data (RapidEye), specifically...... red edge and texture attributes, to estimate wood volume in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by scarce vegetation. LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and random forest were used as predictive models relating in situ-measured aboveground standing wood volume to satellite data...

  15. Improved retrieval of land ice topography from CryoSat-2 data and its impact for volume-change estimation of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan; Gardner, Alex; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2016-01-01

    of the snow/ice surface with lower sensitivity to changes in near-surface dielectric properties. To demonstrate the utility of the new processing methodology we produce elevations, elevation changes, and total volume changes from CryoSat-2 data for the Greenland Ice Sheet during the period January 2011...... to January 2015. We find that the Greenland Ice Sheet decreased in volume at a rate of 289 ± 20km3 a-1, with high interannual variability and spatial heterogeneity in rates of loss. This rate is 65km3 a-1 more negative than rates determined from ESA's L2 product, highlighting the importance of CryoSat-2...

  16. The effects of two free-floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes on the burrow morphology and water quality characteristics of pond loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Loach exhibit conspicuous drilling behaviors in the mud of shallow waters, yet their burrow morphology and the factors affecting this behavior have received little attention. We characterized the burrow morphology and water quality of the pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in three scenarios: in tanks without plants, tanks with the free-floating plant water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, and tanks with water lettuce Pistia stratiotes. Water hyacinth effectively removed water TN, COD, NO3-N and NH4-N, and water lettuce removed water TP and NH4-N. Water hyacinth and water lettuce markedly reduced water turbidity and DO, increased TOC and EC. Water hyacinth purified water more effectively than water lettuce, providing a suitable habitat for loach feeding, living and burrowing. The burrow structures were V-shaped, Y-shaped, inverted L-shaped, or complicated dendritic networks composed of multiple V shapes. The hyacinth treatment was characterized by the greatest burrow volume, length, depth, and structural complexity, but the opening size was reduced by dense root mat coverage. Burrows in the water lettuce treatment were characterized by intermediate volume, length, branches and sinuosity, but they had the largest opening and pit size. The control treatment had a flat bottom with the smallest, shortest burrows. This study indicates that free-floating plants improve habitat suitability and change burrow morphology and may be used to improve loach breeding methods.

  17. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  18. Structure, function and management of semi-natural habitats for conservation biological control: a review of European studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John M; Bianchi, Felix Jja; Entling, Martin H; Moonen, Anna-Camilla; Smith, Barbara M; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with agri-environment scheme funding in all EU member states. Understanding the contribution of each habitat type can aid the development of conservation control strategies. Here we review the extent to which the predominant habitat types in Europe support natural enemies, whether this results in enhanced natural enemy densities in the adjacent crop and whether this leads to reduced pest densities. Considerable variation exists in the available information for the different habitat types and trophic levels. Natural enemies within each habitat were the most studied, with less information on whether they were enhanced in adjacent fields, while their impact on pests was rarely investigated. Most information was available for woody and herbaceous linear habitats, yet not for woodland which can be the most common semi-natural habitat in many regions. While the management and design of habitats offer potential to stimulate conservation biocontrol, we also identified knowledge gaps. A better understanding of the relationship between resource availability and arthropod communities across habitat types, the spatiotemporal distribution of resources in the landscape and interactions with other factors that play a role in pest regulation could contribute to an informed management of semi-natural habitats for biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Habitat Effect on Allometry of a Xeric Shrub (Artemisia ordosica Krasch in the Mu Us Desert of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models are useful for assessment of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and aboveground biomass (AGB of forests and shrubs, and are widely implemented in forest inventory and management. Multiple forms of allometric models have been used to estimate vegetation carbon storage for desert shrubland, but their validity for biomass estimation has not been tested at a region scale with different habitats. To verify the validity of habitat-specific models, general models (combining data from all habitats/sites, and previously developed models for biomass prediction, we developed both general models and habitat-specific models for aboveground biomass and ANPP of Artemisia ordosica Krasch, a dominant shrub of the Mu Us Desert. Our results showed that models based on crown area or canopy volume consistently explained large parts of the variations in aboveground biomass and ANPP. Model fitting highlighted that general allometric models were inadequate across different habitats, and habitat-specific models were useful for that specific habitat. Previous models might be inappropriate for other sites because of site quality differences. There was a strong habitat effect on the allometric relationships of A. ordosica. Although our study is a case in point, the results indicate that allometric models for desert shrubs should be used with caution and require robust validation if adopted from other studies or applied to different sites/habitats.

  20. Market of dwelling improvement. The policies of energy mastery in existing dwellings in the European Union countries; Marche de l'amelioration de l'habitat. Les politiques de maitrise de l'energie dans l'habitat existant dans les pays de l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fur, B.

    2003-09-01

    This document is an extended abstract of the study carried out by B. Le Fur about the energy mastery policies implemented by European Union countries for existing buildings: 1 - identification of the key factors of success; 2 - the two-steps methodology followed: identification of innovating policies and deeper investigation of these policies; 3 - common European policy of energy mastery in accommodations (improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings); 4 - measures already implemented in member countries (regulatory tools and financial incentives, public information, eco-taxes); 5 - precursor measures: programs of aid to renewable energies in Germany, energy certification in Denmark, regulations for existing buildings (UK and Germany), mobilization of professionals in Germany, marketing strategies of local authorities in the UK; 6 - locating of key factors of success. (J.S.)

  1. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  2. Androgen deprivation therapy for volume reduction, lower urinary tract symptom relief and quality of life improvement in patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axcrona, Karol; Aaltomaa, Sirpa; da Silva, Carlos Martins

    2012-01-01

    Study Type--Therapy (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly used as a primary treatment for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who are not eligible for radical treatment options. ADT is also used...... in patients with PCa as neo-adjuvant hormone therapy to reduce prostate volume and down-stage the disease before radiotherapy with curative intent. The present study showed that ADT with the gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GhRH) antagonist degarelix is non-inferior to combined treatment with the LHRH...... agonist goserelin and bicalutamide in terms of reducing prostate volume during the treatment period of 3 months. Degarelix treatment evokes, however, significantly better relief of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients having moderate and severe voiding problems....

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  4. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  5. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  6. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  7. Ground beetle habitat templets and riverbank integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Kris; Vanacker, Stijn; Jochems, Hans; De Blust, Geert; Dufrêne, M

    2006-01-01

    The habitat templet approach was used in a scale-sensitive bioindicator assessment for the ecological integrity of riverbanks and for specific responses to river management. Ground beetle habitat templets were derived from a catchment scale sampling, integrating the overall variety of bank types. This coarse-filter analysis was integrated in the reach scale fine-filtering approaches of community responses to habitat integrity and river management impacts. Higher species diversity was associat...

  8. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.; Stennfeld, Scott P.

    2001-04-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian enclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2000 included: (1) Implementing 2 new projects in the Grande Ronde drainage, and retrofitting one old

  10. Does Motion Assessment With 4-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Imaging for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Radiotherapy Improve Target Volume Coverage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT image acquisition for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study. Free-breathing CT and 4D-CT data sets were acquired at the same simulation session and with the same immobilization. Gross tumor volume (GTV for primary and/or nodal disease was contoured on FBCT (GTV_3D. The 3DCRT plans were obtained, and the patients were treated according to our institution’s standard protocol using FBCT imaging. Gross tumor volume was contoured on 4D-CT for primary and/or nodal disease on all 10 respiratory phases and merged to create internal gross tumor volume (IGTV_4D. Clinical target volume margin was 5 mm in both plans, whereas planning tumor volume (PTV expansion was 1 cm axially and 1.5 cm superior/inferior for FBCT-based plans to incorporate setup errors and an estimate of respiratory-mediated tumor motion vs 8 mm isotropic margin for setup error only in all 4D-CT plans. The 3DCRT plans generated from the FBCT scan were copied on the 4D-CT data set with the same beam parameters. GTV_3D, IGTV_4D, PTV, and dose volume histogram from both data sets were analyzed and compared. Dice coefficient evaluated PTV similarity between FBCT and 4D-CT data sets. Results: In total, 14 of the 15 patients were analyzed. One patient was excluded as there was no measurable GTV. Mean GTV_3D was 115.3 cm 3 and mean IGTV_4D was 152.5 cm 3 ( P = .001. Mean PTV_3D was 530.0 cm 3 and PTV_4D was 499.8 cm 3 ( P = .40. Both gross primary and nodal disease analyzed separately were larger

  11. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  12. Habitat stability, predation risk and 'memory syndromes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesman, S; Rendle, A; Dall, S R X

    2015-05-27

    Habitat stability and predation pressure are thought to be major drivers in the evolutionary maintenance of behavioural syndromes, with trait covariance only occurring within specific habitats. However, animals also exhibit behavioural plasticity, often through memory formation. Memory formation across traits may be linked, with covariance in memory traits (memory syndromes) selected under particular environmental conditions. This study tests whether the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, demonstrates consistency among memory traits ('memory syndrome') related to threat avoidance and foraging. We used eight populations originating from three different habitat types: i) laboratory populations (stable habitat, predator-free); ii) river populations (fairly stable habitat, fish predation); and iii) ditch populations (unstable habitat, invertebrate predation). At a population level, there was a negative relationship between memories related to threat avoidance and food selectivity, but no consistency within habitat type. At an individual level, covariance between memory traits was dependent on habitat. Laboratory populations showed no covariance among memory traits, whereas river populations showed a positive correlation between food memories, and ditch populations demonstrated a negative relationship between threat memory and food memories. Therefore, selection pressures among habitats appear to act independently on memory trait covariation at an individual level and the average response within a population.

  13. Floodplain farm fields provide novel rearing habitat for Chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob V E Katz

    Full Text Available When inundated by floodwaters, river floodplains provide critical habitat for many species of fish and wildlife, but many river valleys have been extensively leveed and floodplain wetlands drained for flood control and agriculture. In the Central Valley of California, USA, where less than 5% of floodplain wetland habitats remain, a critical conservation question is how can farmland occupying the historical floodplains be better managed to improve benefits for native fish and wildlife. In this study fields on the Sacramento River floodplain were intentionally flooded after the autumn rice harvest to determine if they could provide shallow-water rearing habitat for Sacramento River fall-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Approximately 10,000 juvenile fish (ca. 48 mm, 1.1 g were reared on two hectares for six weeks (Feb-March between the fall harvest and spring planting. A subsample of the fish were uniquely tagged to allow tracking of individual growth rates (average 0.76 mm/day which were among the highest recorded in fresh water in California. Zooplankton sampled from the water column of the fields were compared to fish stomach contents. The primary prey was zooplankton in the order Cladocera, commonly called water fleas. The compatibility, on the same farm fields, of summer crop production and native fish habitat during winter demonstrates that land management combining agriculture with conservation ecology may benefit recovery of native fish species, such as endangered Chinook salmon.

  14. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun Im

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  17. Habitat Ecology Visual Surveys of Demersal Fishes and Habitats off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1992, the Habitat Ecology team has been conducting fishery independent, visual surveys of demersal fishes and associated habitats in deep water (20 to 900...

  18. Aerial ULV control of Aedes aegypti with naled (Dibrom) inside simulated rural village and urban cryptic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Latham, Mark D; Connelly, Peter H; Rush, Mattie J E; Remmers, Jennifer L; Kerce, Jerry D; Silcox, Charles A

    2018-01-01

    We conducted aerial fixed wing ultra low volume (ULV) spray trials with naled to investigate penetration of exposed and simulated cryptic habitat within opened buildings, partially sealed buildings, and outdoor locations targeting sentinel adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in north central Florida. Mortality was observed in open and closed buildings and outdoors, even in mosquitoes placed in cryptic habitats. Observations on the impact of building type, mosquito exposure method such as placement in cryptic habitat, and spray nozzle size on mosquito mortality are described and analyzed.

  19. Does the IMRT technique allow improvement of treatment plans (e.g. lung sparing) for lung cancer patients with small lung volume: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosinska, K.; Kepka, L.; Gizynska, M.; Zawadzka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer any advantages in comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for patients with small lung volume (SLV). Methods: Treatment planning was performed for 10 NSCLC patients with the smallest lung volume (mean: 2241 cc) among 200 patients from our database. For each patient 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were prepared. The goal was to deliver 66 Gy/33 fractions, with dose constraints: mean lung dose (MLD) < 20 Gy, V20 < 35%; spinal cord - Dmax < 45 Gy. When the plan could not meet these criteria, total dose was reduced. The 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were compared. We investigated: prescribed dose, coverage and conformity indices, MLD, V5-V65 in the lung. Results: In 4 out of 10 plans, 3D-CRT did not allow 66 Gy to be delivered, because of predicted pulmonary toxicity. These 4 cases included 3 for which we did not reach 66 Gy with IMRT; still, for these 3 plans the total dose was increased by an average of 9 Gy with IMRT in comparison with 3D-CRT. Coverage indices were similar for both techniques. Conformity indices were better for IMRT plans. MLD was lower in five IMRT and two 3D-CRT plans if equal doses were delivered. The decrease in MLD was seen for cases with large PTV and high PTV/lung volume ratio. Lung V5 was lower for all 3D-CRT plans, 47% vs. 57% for IMRT; V15 and above were larger for 3D-CRT Conclusion: In the planning study, IMRT seems to be a promising technique for cases with SLV, especially when associated with large PT V. (authors)

  20. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Claes; Greger, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This is the postprint version of the article. The published version of the article can be located here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292711004914 Understanding As accumulation in plants is necessary in order to alleviate problems with As in the environment and to improve sustainable As phytotechnologies. To find suitable candidates for phytoremediation purposes and to investigate specific accumulation patterns due to growth habitat and plant groups, As accumulation...

  1. Improved models for the prediction of activity coefficients in nearly athermal mixtures: Part I. Empirical modifications of free-volume models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Coutsikos, Philipos; Tassios, Dimitrios

    1994-01-01

    Mixtures containing exclusively normal, branched and cyclic alkanes, as well as saturated hydrocarbon polymers (e.g. poly(ethylene) and poly(isobutylene)), are known to exhibit almost athermal behavior. Several new activity coefficient models containing both combinatorial and free-volume contribu......Mixtures containing exclusively normal, branched and cyclic alkanes, as well as saturated hydrocarbon polymers (e.g. poly(ethylene) and poly(isobutylene)), are known to exhibit almost athermal behavior. Several new activity coefficient models containing both combinatorial and free...

  2. Particulate deposition in the human lung under lunar habitat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2013-03-01

    Lunar dust may be a toxic challenge to astronauts. While deposition in reduced gravity is less than in normal gravity (1 G), reduced gravitational sedimentation causes particles to penetrate deeper in the lung, potentially causing more harm. The likely design of the lunar habitat has a reduced pressure environment and low-density gas has been shown to reduce upper airway deposition and increase peripheral deposition. Breathing air and a reduced-density gas approximating the density of the proposed lunar habitat atmosphere, five healthy subjects inhaled 1 -microm diameter aerosol boluses at penetration volumes (V(p)) of 200 ml (central airways), 500 ml, and 1000 ml (lung periphery) in microgravity during parabolic flight, and in 1 G. Deposition in the lunar habitat was significantly less than for Earth conditions (and less than in 1 G with the low-density gas) with a relative decrease in deposition of -59.1 +/- 14.0% (-46.9 +/- 11.7%), -50.7 +/- 9.2% (-45.8 +/- 11.2%), and -46.0 +/- 8.3% (-45.3 +/- 11.1%) at V(p) = 200, 500, and 1000 ml, respectively. There was no significant effect of reduced density on deposition in 1 G. While minimally affected by gas density, deposition was significantly less in microgravity than in 1 G for both gases, with a larger portion of particles depositing in the lung periphery under lunar conditions than Earth conditions. Thus, gravity, and not gas properties, mainly affects deposition in the peripheral lung, suggesting that studies of aerosol transport in the lunar habitat need not be performed at the low density proposed for the atmosphere in that environment.

  3. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost

  4. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Boadu, Frederick

    2004-04-01

    Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that enhancing the habitat by augmenting water flow costs $109-1427 per acre-foot and that regional water development would be accelerated by the more extreme possibilities under the Habitat Conservation Plan. The findings also indicate that a water market would improve regional welfare and lower water development but worsen environmental attributes.

  5. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  6. A Tool for the Automated Design and Evaluation of Habitat Interior Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of space habitat design is to minimize mass and system size while providing adequate space for all necessary equipment and a functional layout that supports crew health and productivity. Unfortunately, development and evaluation of interior layouts is often ignored during conceptual design because of the subjectivity and long times required using current evaluation methods (e.g., human-in-the-loop mockup tests and in-depth CAD evaluations). Early, more objective assessment could prevent expensive design changes that may increase vehicle mass and compromise functionality. This paper describes a new interior design evaluation method to enable early, structured consideration of habitat interior layouts. This interior layout evaluation method features a comprehensive list of quantifiable habitat layout evaluation criteria, automatic methods to measure these criteria from a geometry model, and application of systems engineering tools and numerical methods to construct a multi-objective value function measuring the overall habitat layout performance. In addition to a detailed description of this method, a C++/OpenGL software tool which has been developed to implement this method is also discussed. This tool leverages geometry modeling coupled with collision detection techniques to identify favorable layouts subject to multiple constraints and objectives (e.g., minimize mass, maximize contiguous habitable volume, maximize task performance, and minimize crew safety risks). Finally, a few habitat layout evaluation examples are described to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and tool to influence habitat design.

  7. Habitus constitution in habitat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Romano Reschilian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the approach suggested by Pierre Bourdieu's sociology, this article demonstrates that the construction of the notion of habitus can reflect on the production of habitat in the form of precarious settlements, such as substandard housing or shantytowns. This study employs a multidimensional perspective, because precarious settlements are not rational and do not follow modern established or existing social and urbanistic rules and parameters. The review will extend beyond the scope suggested by historical materialism under the marxian view of urban sociology. To investigate this phenomenon, the author of this article studied a precarious settlement in the municipality of São José dos Campos, called Nova Tatetuba, which was removed in 2004 as part of a shantytown clearing program established by that city in 2000.

  8. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  9. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  10. Impacts of temperature on giant panda habitat in the north Minshan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Tianpei; Dai, Qiang; Li, Huixin; Gong, Minghao

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the impacts of meteorological factors on giant pandas is necessary for future conservation measures in response to global climate change. We integrated temperature data with three main habitat parameters (elevation, vegetation type, and bamboo species) to evaluate the influence of climate change on giant panda habitat in the northern Minshan Mountains using a habitat assessment model. Our study shows that temperature (relative importance = 25.1%) was the second most important variable influencing giant panda habitat excepting the elevation. There was a significant negative correlation between temperature and panda presence (ρ = -0.133, P pandas within the study area was 18-21°C, followed by 15-17°C and 22-24°C. The overall suitability of giant panda habitats will increase by 2.7%, however, it showed a opposite variation patterns between the eastern and northwestern region of the study area. Suitable and subsuitable habitats in the northwestern region of the study area, which is characterized by higher elevation and latitude, will increase by 18007.8 hm(2) (9.8% habitat suitability), while the eastern region will suffer a decrease of 9543.5 hm(2) (7.1% habitat suitability). Our results suggest that increasing areas of suitable giant panda habitat will support future giant panda expansion, and food shortage and insufficient living space will not arise as problems in the northwest Minshan Mountains, which means that giant pandas can adapt to climate change, and therefore may be resilient to climate change. Thus, for the safety and survival of giant pandas in the Baishuijiang Reserve, we propose strengthening the giant panda monitoring program in the west and improving the integrity of habitats to promote population dispersal with adjacent populations in the east.

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  13. Naturally acidified habitat selects for ocean acidification-tolerant mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jörn; Stapp, Laura S; Haynert, Kristin; Schade, Hanna; Danelli, Maria; Lannig, Gisela; Wegner, K Mathias; Melzner, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification severely affects bivalves, especially their larval stages. Consequently, the fate of this ecologically and economically important group depends on the capacity and rate of evolutionary adaptation to altered ocean carbonate chemistry. We document successful settlement of wild mussel larvae ( Mytilus edulis ) in a periodically CO 2 -enriched habitat. The larval fitness of the population originating from the CO 2 -enriched habitat was compared to the response of a population from a nonenriched habitat in a common garden experiment. The high CO 2 -adapted population showed higher fitness under elevated P co 2 (partial pressure of CO 2 ) than the non-adapted cohort, demonstrating, for the first time, an evolutionary response of a natural mussel population to ocean acidification. To assess the rate of adaptation, we performed a selection experiment over three generations. CO 2 tolerance differed substantially between the families within the F 1 generation, and survival was drastically decreased in the highest, yet realistic, P co 2 treatment. Selection of CO 2 -tolerant F 1 animals resulted in higher calcification performance of F 2 larvae during early shell formation but did not improve overall survival. Our results thus reveal significant short-term selective responses of traits directly affected by ocean acidification and long-term adaptation potential in a key bivalve species. Because immediate response to selection did not directly translate into increased fitness, multigenerational studies need to take into consideration the multivariate nature of selection acting in natural habitats. Combinations of short-term selection with long-term adaptation in populations from CO 2 -enriched versus nonenriched natural habitats represent promising approaches for estimating adaptive potential of organisms facing global change.

  14. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  16. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  17. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Jindong; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Viña, Andrés; Shortridge, Ashton; Li, Rengui; Liu, Dian; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types) at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking. PMID:27627805

  18. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  19. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  20. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and

  1. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hull

    Full Text Available Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking.

  2. Gluten-free diet increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt-Jørgensen, Martin; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Background Gluten-free (GF) diet alleviates type 1 diabetes in animal models and possibly in humans. We recently showed that fatty acid-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by enzymatically digested gluten (gliadin) stimulation in INS-1E insulinoma cells. We therefore hypothesized that GF diet...... would induce beta-cell rest and ameliorate type 2 diabetes. Methods C57BL/6JBomTac (B6) mice were fed a high-fat (HF), gluten-free high-fat (GF–HF), standard (STD) or gluten-free (GF) diet for 42 weeks. Results Short-term (6–24 weeks) GF–HF versus HF feeding impaired glucose tolerance and increased...... capacity controls pancreas volume. Thus, long-term GF diets may be beneficial for obese type 2 diabetes patients and trials should be performed....

  3. Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, G.D.; MacMillan, D.B.; Katopodis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  4. L-Reactor Habitat Mitigation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The L-Reactor Fish and Wildlife Resource Mitigation Study was conducted to quantify the effects on habitat of the L-Reactor restart and to identify the appropriate mitigation for these impacts. The completed project evaluated in this study includes construction of a 1000 acre reactor cooling reservoir formed by damming Steel Creek. Habitat impacts identified include a loss of approximately 3,700 average annual habitat units. This report presents a mitigation plan, Plan A, to offset these habitat losses. Plan A will offset losses for all species studied, except whitetailed deer. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department strongly recommends creation of a game management area to provide realistic mitigation for loss of deer habitats. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Impact of preoperative calculation of nephron volume loss on future of partial nephrectomy techniques; planning a strategic roadmap for improving functional preservation and securing oncological safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Koon H; Abdel Raheem, Ali; Park, Sung Y; Kim, Kwang H; Kim, Hyung J; Koo, Kyo C; Choi, Young D; Jung, Byung H; Lee, Sang K; Lee, Won K; Krishnan, Jayram; Shin, Tae Y; Cho, Jin-Seon

    2017-11-01

    To assess the correlation of the resected and ischaemic volume (RAIV), which is a preoperatively calculated volume of nephron loss, with the amount of postoperative renal function (PRF) decline after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) in a multi-institutional dataset. We identified 348 patients from March 2005 to December 2013 at six institutions. Data on all cases of laparoscopic (n = 85) and robot-assisted PN (n = 263) performed were retrospectively gathered. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify the associations between various time points of PRF and the RAIV, as a continuous variable. The mean (sd) RAIV was 24.2 (29.2) cm 3 . The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the eGFRs at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN were 91.0 and 76.8, 80.2 and 87.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. In multivariable linear regression analysis, the amount of decline in PRF at follow-up was significantly correlated with the RAIV (β 0.261, 0.165, 0.260 at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN, respectively). This study has the limitation of its retrospective nature. Preoperatively calculated RAIV significantly correlates with the amount of decline in PRF during long-term follow-up. The RAIV could lead our research to the level of prediction of the amount of PRF decline after PN and thus would be appropriate for assessing the technical advantages of emerging techniques. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Degradation of natural habitats by roads: Comparing land-take and noise effect zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Hossein; Moradi, Hossein; Soffianian, Alireza; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul; Senn, Josef; Geneletti, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Roads may act as barriers, negatively influencing the movement of animals, thereby causing disruption in landscapes. Roads cause habitat loss and fragmentation not only through their physical occupation, but also through traffic noise. The aim of this study is to provide a method to quantify the habitat degradation including habitat loss and fragmentation due to road traffic noise and to compare it with those of road land-take. Two types of fragmentation effects are determined: structural fragmentation (based on road land-take only), and functional fragmentation (noise effect zone fragmentation, buffer using a threshold of 40 dB). Noise propagation for roads with a traffic volume of more than 1000 vehicles per day was simulated by Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) model. Habitat loss and fragmentation through land-take and noise effect zone were calculated and compared in Zagros Mountains in western Iran. The study area is characterized by three main habitat types (oak forest, scattered woodland and temperate grassland) which host endangered and protected wildlife species. Due to topographic conditions, land cover type, and the traffic volume in the region, the noise effect zone ranged from 50 to 2000 m which covers 18.3% (i.e. 516,929.95 ha) of the total study area. The results showed that the habitat loss due to noise effect zone is dramatically higher than that due to road land-take only (35% versus 1.04% of the total area). Temperate grasslands lost the highest proportion of the original area by both land-take and noise effect zone, but most area was lost in scattered woodland as compared to the other two habitat types. The results showed that considering the noise effect zone for habitat fragmentation resulted in an increase of 25.8% of the area affected (316,810 ha) as compared to using the land-take only (555,874 ha vs. 239,064 ha, respectively). The results revealed that the degree of habitat fragmentation is increasing by considering the noise

  7. An evaluation of the use of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for grizzly bear habitat analysis. [Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, J. R.; Craighead, J. J.; Sumner, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Improved classification and mapping of grizzly habitat will permit better estimates of population density and distribution, and allow accurate evaluation of the potential effects of changes in land use, hunting regulation, and management policies on existing populations. Methods of identifying favorable habitat from ERTS-1 multispectral scanner imagery were investigated and described. This technique could reduce the time and effort required to classify large wilderness areas in the Western United States.

  8. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore c...

  9. Volumetry based biomarker speed of growth: Quantifying the change of total tumor volume in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging over time improves risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennmann, Markus; Kintzelé, Laurent; Piraud, Marie; Menze, Bjoern H; Hielscher, Thomas; Hofmanninger, Johannes; Wagner, Barbara; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens; Langs, Georg; Weber, Marc-André

    2018-05-18

    The purpose of this study was to improve risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma patients, introducing new 3D-volumetry based imaging biomarkers derived from whole-body MRI. Two-hundred twenty whole-body MRIs from 63 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma were retrospectively analyzed and all focal lesions >5mm were manually segmented for volume quantification. The imaging biomarkers total tumor volume, speed of growth (development of the total tumor volume over time), number of focal lesions, development of the number of focal lesions over time and the recent imaging biomarker '>1 focal lesion' of the International Myeloma Working Group were compared, taking 2-year progression rate, sensitivity and false positive rate into account. Speed of growth, using a cutoff of 114mm 3 /month, was able to isolate a high-risk group with a 2-year progression rate of 82.5%. Additionally, it showed by far the highest sensitivity in this study and in comparison to other biomarkers in the literature, detecting 63.2% of patients who progress within 2 years. Furthermore, its false positive rate (8.7%) was much lower compared to the recent imaging biomarker '>1 focal lesion' of the International Myeloma Working Group. Therefore, speed of growth is the preferable imaging biomarker for risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma patients.

  10. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The primary focus of this environmental analysis is on improvements to the Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SRWTP) facilities and disposal to the Geysers for injection. This analysis will be incorporated with an earlier EIR which evaluated system improvements to the SRWTP and twelve disposal alternatives. In July 1993, the Lake County Sanitation District Board of Directors (LACOSAN) selected the Geysers Effluent Pipeline as the preferred alternative to be analyzed in this EIR/EIS. This environmental analysis will primarily focus on improvements to the SRWTP facilities and a 24 inch pipeline designed to carry up to 5,400 gallons per minute of secondarily treated wastewater. The wastewater will be transported from the Lake County Sanitation District's Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, Middletown Wastewater Treatment Plant with additional make-up water from Clear Lake to the Southeast portion of the Geysers Geothermal Field in Lake and Sonoma Counties, California

  11. TINGKAT KESESUAIAN SUAKA MARGASATWA CIKEPUH SEBAGAI HABITAT KEDUA BADAK JAWA (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribai .

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus is one of the rarest species in the world so categorized as critically endangered by IUCN. Survival of the rhino in Ujung Kulon National Park is threatened by a variety of factors that could cause these extinct animals, such as: invasion langkap, competition with the bulls, and inbreeding. The strategy should be promoted in maintaining and developing population that is making a second habitat. The purpose of this research is to know the suitability level of Cikepuh Wildlife Reserves (CWR as javan rhino’s second habitat. The method used is the field observations. Results showed that the CWR have high suitability as javan rhino’s second habitat with an area of 6886.4 ha (84.72% CWR. Cikepuh Wildlife Reserves components that have a high potential as second habitat are on aspects altitude, air temperature, humidity, water availability, and soil pH. Strategies that can be done in improving the suitability of the CWR as second habitat includ: create pools ofthe rhino, planting food plants that have a high palatability and reduce human pressure through strict enforcement, public education, standardized regular patrols, rehabilitation and enrichment of degraded area, livestock expenses , and review the MoU regarding the use of the area as a military Cikepuh SM. Keywords: Cikepuh Wildlife Reserve, habitat suitability, javan rhino, second habitat

  12. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program 1985 Ship Production Symposium Volume 2 Paper No. 22: Expanded Planning Yard Concept and Configuration Accounting or Improving Navy Ship Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... Requirements for ship acquisition programs have been refined to reflect these improvements. We have learned that there is a need for clearly assigned responsibility in engineering, that configuration identification must be an integral part of engineering, and that logistics support must be an integral part of engineering.

  14. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  15. An Expert-Based Assessment Model for Evaluating Habitat Suitability of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ruoh Juang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds are important habitats for amphibians, birds, and other wildlife. In Taiwan, artificial ponds were originally created on farmlands for irrigation purposes and the needs of the domestic water supply. Although pond creation is a typical farming practice, it also provides habitats for pond-breeding amphibians. Thus, it is essential to understand the current status of habitats and their vulnerability regarding urgent conservation needs for target species. Günther’s frog (Hylarana guentheri, a pond-breeding amphibian, has a high sensitivity towards surrounding environmental changes, and can be used as an indicator species to assess habitat suitability. The purpose of this study is to establish a systematic framework to assess the habitat suitability of pond-breeding amphibians by using Günther’s frog as a pilot-study species. First, we collected frog survey data from Chiayi, Taiwan, from winter 2013 to spring 2015, and investigated the present status of the environmental conditions around the ponds. Next, expert questionnaires and the fuzzy Delphi method were applied to establish the hierarchical evaluation criteria regarding the habitat suitability assessment. Four indicators: the aquatic environments of farm ponds; the terrestrial environments around ponds; landscape connectivity; and the conservation perceptions of the residents, were determined as first-layer factors in the assessment criteria, while ten other indicators were defined as second-layer factors. Based on the established assessment criteria, we performed in situ habitat suitability evaluations on 69 selected sites and surveyed the perceptions of the residents using questionnaires. Results revealed that 19% of locations were rich in frog species with a high habitat suitability. However, 67% of locations showed signs of habitat degradation, which may imply a higher need in practicing habitat improvement or restoration. The Kappa value was 0.6061, which indicated a high

  16. A Program Manager’s Guide for Program Improvement in Ongoing Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Programs. The RAND Toolkit, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    as CAPT John Golden, COL (Ret) Charles Engel, Col Christopher Robinson, and CPT Dayami Liebenguth, for their support of our work. We also appreciate...Based Qualitative Research. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2008. Kish L. Survey Sampling. Oxford, England: Wiley, 1965. Langley GL, Moen RD, Nolan ...KM, Nolan TW, Norman CL, Provost LP. The Improvement Guide: A Practical Approach to Enhancing Organizational Performance, 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA

  17. Propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration influence the establishment and growth of an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua eYou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules may affect the establishment, growth and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments or low (one fragment propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat, with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions.

  18. Keeping Pace with Climate Change: Habitat Protection in the Face of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, R. L.; Burnett, K.; Giannico, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estuaries provide critical habitat for many economically and culturally important species. In the Pacific Northwest, intertidal and subtidal areas provide critical habitat for production of native and commercial oysters (Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, respectively) that in turn provide refuge and rearing habitat for Dungeness Crab, Metacarcinus magister. Environments ranging from subtidal through freshwater zones provide nursery areas for juvenile salmonids at different development stages in their life history. Most Oregon estuaries have been significantly altered by humans over the past century, reducing the quantity and diversity of available habitats. Management agencies have responded with projects to restore and enhance estuarine habitats. Unfortunately, future climate change and sea-level rise could render many current restoration projects ineffective over time. Planning for habitat restoration that keeps pace with climate change will be critical to the sustainable production of seafood and maintenance of ecosystem function. However, land managers and citizens lack the spatially-explicit data needed to incorporate the potential effects of climate change and sea-level rise into planning for habitat improvement projects in estuarine areas. To meet this need, we developed simple models using LiDAR to characterize the geomorphologies of multiple Oregon estuaries. We were able to map the margin of current mean high tide, and contour intervals associated with different potential increases in mean high tide. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting changes in estuary shape. For each estuary, we assessed changes in the amount and complexity of edge habitats. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance

  19. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B. (Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID (USA)

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  20. Reviews and syntheses: Hidden forests, the role of vegetated coastal habitats in the ocean carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats, including seagrass and macroalgal beds, mangrove forests and salt marshes, form highly productive ecosystems, but their contribution to the global carbon budget remains overlooked, and these forests remain hidden in representations of the global carbon budget. Despite being confined to a narrow belt around the shoreline of the world's oceans, where they cover less than 7 million km2, vegetated coastal habitats support about 1 to 10 % of the global marine net primary production and generate a large organic carbon surplus of about 40 % of their net primary production (NPP), which is either buried in sediments within these habitats or exported away. Large, 10-fold uncertainties in the area covered by vegetated coastal habitats, along with variability about carbon flux estimates, result in a 10-fold bracket around the estimates of their contribution to organic carbon sequestration in sediments and the deep sea from 73 to 866 Tg C yr-1, representing between 3 % and 1/3 of oceanic CO2 uptake. Up to 1/2 of this carbon sequestration occurs in sink reservoirs (sediments or the deep sea) beyond these habitats. The organic carbon exported that does not reach depositional sites subsidizes the metabolism of heterotrophic organisms. In addition to a significant contribution to organic carbon production and sequestration, vegetated coastal habitats contribute as much to carbonate accumulation as coral reefs do. While globally relevant, the magnitude of global carbon fluxes supported by salt-marsh, mangrove, seagrass and macroalgal habitats is declining due to rapid habitat loss, contributing to loss of CO2 sequestration, storage capacity and carbon subsidies. Incorporating the carbon fluxes' vegetated coastal habitats' support into depictions of the carbon budget of the global ocean and its perturbations will improve current representations of the carbon budget of the global ocean.

  1. Spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions among hydrology and geomorphology create shifting mosaics of aquatic habitat patches in large river floodplains (e.g., main and side channels, floodplain lakes, and shallow backwater areas) and the connectivity among these habitat patches underpins high levels of biotic diversity and productivity. However, the diversity and connectivity among the habitats of most floodplain rivers have been negatively impacted by hydrologic and structural modifications that support commercial navigation and control flooding. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the rate of increase in patch richness (# of types) with increasing scale reflects anthropogenic modifications to habitat diversity and connectivity in a large floodplain river, the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). To do this, we calculated the number of aquatic habitat patch types within neighborhoods surrounding each of the ≈19 million 5-m aquatic pixels of the UMR for multiple neighborhood sizes (1–100 ha). For all of the 87 river-reach focal areas we examined, changes in habitat richness (R) with increasing neighborhood length (L, # pixels) were characterized by a fractal-like power function R = Lz (R2 > 0.92 (P z) measures the rate of increase in habitat richness with neighborhood size and is related to a fractal dimension. Variation in z reflected fundamental changes to spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in this river system. With only a few exceptions, z exceeded the river-wide average of 0.18 in focal areas where side channels, contiguous floodplain lakes, and contiguous shallow-water areas exceeded 5%, 5%, and 10% of the floodplain respectively. In contrast, z was always less than 0.18 for focal areas where impounded water exceeded 40% of floodplain area. Our results suggest that rehabilitation efforts that target areas with <5% of the floodplain in side channels, <5% in floodplain lakes, and/or <10% in shallow-water areas could improve habitat diversity across multiple scales in the UMR.

  2. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  3. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1993-04-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower 1/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River (downstream of the Meacham Creek confluence upstream to the Reservation East Boundary). In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach consistent with other basin efforts and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. Maintenance of existing habitat improvement projects was included under this comprehensive approach. Maintenance of existing gravel traps, instream and bank stabilization structures was required within project areas during the reporting period due to spring flooding damage and high bedload movement. Maintenance activities were completed between river mile (RM) 0.0 and RM 0.25 Boston Canyon Creek, between RM 0.0 and RM 4 Meacham Creek and between RM 78.5 and RM 79 Umatilla River. Habitat enhancement areas were seeded with native grass, legume, shrub and wildflower mixes and planted with willow cuttings to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. Water quality monitoring continued for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Survey of cross sections and

  4. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  5. Effects of natural-channel-design restoration on habitat quality in Catskill Mountain streams, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Mulvihill, Christiane; Vian, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Stream restoration has received much attention in recent years, yet there has been little effort to evaluate its impacts on physical habitat, stability, and biota. A popular but controversial stream restoration approach is natural channel design (NCD), which cannot be adequately evaluated without a long-term, independent assessment of its effects on stream habitat. Six reaches of five Catskill Mountain streams in southeastern New York were restored during 2000–2003 following NCD techniques to decrease bed and bank degradation, decrease sediment loads, and improve water quality. Habitat surveys were conducted during summer low flows from 2001 to 2007. The effects of the NCD projects on stream condition were assessed via a before–after–control–impact study design to quantify the net changes in stream and bank habitat variables relative to those in unaltered control reaches. Analysis of variance tests of three different measures of bank stability show that on average stream stability increased at treatment sites for 2–5 years after restoration. Mean channel depth, thalweg depth, and the pool–riffle ratio generally increased, whereas mean channel width, percent streambank coverage by trees, and shade decreased. Habitat suitability indices for local salmonid species increased at four of six reaches after restoration. The changes in channel dimensions rendered them generally more characteristic of stabler stream forms in the given valley settings. Although these studies were done relatively soon after project completion, our findings demonstrate that habitat conditions can be improved in degraded Catskill Mountain streams through NCD restoration.

  6. Improvement of fish habitat in a Norwegian river channelization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Brabrand, A.; Saltveit, S.J.; Heggenes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for reducing adverse effects of river and lake regulation are being developed and tested within the framework of the Norwegian Biotope Adjustment Programme. The programme is illustrated by studies of a river flowing through the wetland area, Lesjaleirene, which has been drained and channelized to provide additional agricultural land. The channelized river has a homogeneous sand substrate. Experimental placement of rocks and stones increased brown trout densities, especially in areas in contact with the river banks. The new areas of rocks and stones provide cover for fish as well as a greater variation in depth and flow conditions. (Author)

  7. Habitat improvement for wildlife in North-Central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha Martin-Rivera; Fernando Ibarra-Flores; Fred S. Guthery; William P. Kublesky; Gustavo Camou-Luders; Jesus Fimbres-Preciado; Donald Johnson-Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Native vegetation of semiarid grasslands and desert ecosystems that comprise the Arbosufrutescent Desert scrub vegetation in north-central Sonora has been degraded by overgrazing, drought, farming, woodcutting, and a host of other activities over the past century. Several studies were conducted at "Rancho Grande" and at "Rancho El Carrizo," Sonora...

  8. Adaptive forest management to improve habitats for cerulean warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel

    2006-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea, Aves: Parulidae) is a Neotropical migratory bird with a declining population. These birds are a focal species of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Thus, the birds properly may be considered to be a conservation...

  9. Manor gardens: Harbors of local natural habitats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, M.; Demková, K.; Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 205, JAN 2017 (2017), s. 16-22 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : park * human impact * habitat network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016

  10. habitat are of special scientific, educative and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Over 50% of all sightings were achieved in the matured forest. Keywords: ... hotspots, eco- tourism potential for game viewing, ... conservation is the increasing rate of habitat loss or ... to relatively undisturbed natural areas for educational,.

  11. Expandable Habitat Outfit Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Topic H3.01 captures the need for robust, multipurpose deployable structures with high packing efficiencies for next generation orbital habitats. Multiple launch and...

  12. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  13. Habitat Mapping Cruise (HB0805, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  14. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  15. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  16. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  17. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  18. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  19. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  20. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  1. Movements and habitat utilization of nembwe, Serranochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distance migrations onto the floodplains. It is concluded that although staying within relatively small home ranges, nembwe appears as a species with a variable and flexible habitat utilization. Keywords: fish, radio-tagging, telemetry, home range ...

  2. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  3. Modeling Heat-Transfer in Animal Habitats in the Shuttle Orbiter Middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eodice, Michael T.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of an Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) in the microgravity environment. The AEM is a spaceflight habitat that provides life support for up to six rodents in the Space Shuttle Middeck. Currently, temperatures within the AEM are recorded in real time using a solid state data recorder; however, the data are only available for analysis post-flight. This temperature information is useful for characterizing the thermal environment of the AEM for researchers, but is unavailable during flight operations. Because animal health in microgravity is directly linked to the thermal environment, the ability to predict internal AEM temperatures is extremely useful to life science researchers. NASA flight crews typically carry hand-held temperature measurement devices which allow them to provide ground researchers with near real time readings of AEM inlet temperature; however, higher priority operations limit the frequency at which these measurements can be made and subsequently downlinked. The mathematical model developed allows users to predict internal cage volume temperatures based on knowledge of the ambient air temperature entering the AEM air intake ports. Additionally, an average convective heat transfer coefficient for the AEM has been determined to provide engineers with the requisite information to facilitate future design improvements and product upgrades. The model has been validated using empirical data from a series of three Space Shuttle missions.

  4. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  5. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 2 of 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level. This report contains appendices A and B. Appendix A contains notices of preparation/notices of intent and EIR/EIS scoping comments. Appendix B contains GeothermEx, Inc., analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Effects and Induced Seismicity

  6. Models of Marine Fish Biodiversity: Assessing Predictors from Three Habitat Classification Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Mellin, Camille; Caley, M Julian; Radford, Ben T; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Prioritising biodiversity conservation requires knowledge of where biodiversity occurs. Such knowledge, however, is often lacking. New technologies for collecting biological and physical data coupled with advances in modelling techniques could help address these gaps and facilitate improved management outcomes. Here we examined the utility of environmental data, obtained using different methods, for developing models of both uni- and multivariate biodiversity metrics. We tested which biodiversity metrics could be predicted best and evaluated the performance of predictor variables generated from three types of habitat data: acoustic multibeam sonar imagery, predicted habitat classification, and direct observer habitat classification. We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model metrics of fish species richness, abundance and biomass, and multivariate regression trees (MRT) to model biomass and abundance of fish functional groups. We compared model performance using different sets of predictors and estimated the relative influence of individual predictors. Models of total species richness and total abundance performed best; those developed for endemic species performed worst. Abundance models performed substantially better than corresponding biomass models. In general, BRT and MRTs developed using predicted habitat classifications performed less well than those using multibeam data. The most influential individual predictor was the abiotic categorical variable from direct observer habitat classification and models that incorporated predictors from direct observer habitat classification consistently outperformed those that did not. Our results show that while remotely sensed data can offer considerable utility for predictive modelling, the addition of direct observer habitat classification data can substantially improve model performance. Thus it appears that there are aspects of marine habitats that are important for modelling metrics of fish biodiversity that are

  7. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  8. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat conditions are one of the most important factors determining distribution and productivity of least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the upper Missouri River system (Ziewitz and others, 1992; Kruse and others, 2002). Habitat conditions are known to change within and among seasons in response to variation in river flows, weather conditions, and management actions targeted at providing for the needs of terns and plovers. Although these principles are generally agreed upon, there is little empirical information available on the quantity and quality of tern and plover habitats in this system, particularly with reference to the major life history events that must be supported (egg laying, incubation, and brood rearing). Habitat requirements for these events are composed of two major categories: nesting and foraging habitat. In the case of piping plovers, these two requirements must occur on the same area because plover chicks are constrained to foraging near nesting sites prior to fledging (Knetter and others, 2002; Haffner, 2005). In contrast, least terns chicks are fed by the adults, allowing food procurement for broods to occur outside the immediate nesting area; however, food resources must be close enough to nesting locations to minimize foraging time. The complexity and dynamics of the upper Missouri River system introduce considerable uncertainty into how best to manage tern and plover habitats, and how best to evaluate the effectiveness of this management. An extensive program of habitat monitoring will be needed to address this complexity and support the management of least terns and piping plovers under the Missouri River Recovery Program. These needs are being addressed, in part, through a program of habitat creation and management targeted at improving quality and quantity of habitats for terns and plovers. Given the momentum of these projects and their associated costs, it is imperative that the capacity be

  9. Mosquito larval habitat mapping using remote sensing and GIS: Implications of coalbed methane development and West Nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, L.; Miller, S.N.; Schmidtmann, E.T. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2006-09-15

    Potential larval habitats of the mosquito Culex tarsalis (Coquillett), implicated as a primary vector of West Nile virus in Wyoming, were identified using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The study area is in the Powder River Basin of north central Wyoming, an area that has been undergoing a significant increase in coalbed methane gas extractions since the late 1990s. Large volumes of water are discharged, impounded, and released during the extraction of methane gas, creating aquatic habitats that have the potential to support immature mosquito development. Landsat TM and ETM + data were initially classified into spectrally distinct water and vegetation classes, which were in turn used to identify suitable larval habitat sites. This initial habitat classification was refined using knowledge-based GIS techniques requiring spatial data layers for topography, streams, and soils to reduce the potential for overestimation of habitat. Accuracy assessment was carried out using field data and high-resolution aerial photography commensurate with one of the Landsat images. The classifier can identify likely habitat for ponds larger than 0.8 ha (2 acres) with generally satisfactory results (72.1%) with a lower detection limit of approximate to 0.4 ha (1 acre). Results show a 75% increase in potential larval habitats from 1999 to 2004 in the study area, primarily because of the large increase in small coalbed methane water discharge ponds. These results may facilitate mosquito abatement programs in the Powder River Basin with the potential for application throughout the state and region.

  10. Small Habitat Commonality Reduces Cost for Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Lepsch, Roger; Martin, John; Howard, Robert; Rucker, Michelle; Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Howe, Scott; Mary, Natalie; Nerren, Philip (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Most view the Apollo Program as expensive. It was. But, a human mission to Mars will be orders of magnitude more difficult and costly. Recently, NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) mapped out a step-wise approach for exploring Mars and the Mars-moon system. It is early in the planning process but because approximately 80% of the total life cycle cost is committed during preliminary design, there is an effort to emphasize cost reduction methods up front. Amongst the options, commonality across small habitat elements shows promise for consolidating the high bow-wave costs of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) while still accommodating each end-item's functionality. In addition to DDT&E, there are other cost and operations benefits to commonality such as reduced logistics, simplified infrastructure integration and with inter-operability, improved safety and simplified training. These benefits are not without a cost. Some habitats are sub-optimized giving up unique attributes for the benefit of the overall architecture and because the first item sets the course for those to follow, rapidly developing technology may be excluded. The small habitats within the EMC include the pressurized crew cabins for the ascent vehicle,

  11. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  12. Assessing habitat selection when availability changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, S.; Garner, G.; ,

    1996-01-01

    We present a method of comparing data on habitat use and availability that allows availability to differ among observations. This method is applicable when habitats change over time and when animals are unable to move throughout a predetermined study area between observations. We used maximum-likelihood techniques to derive an index that estimates the probability that each habitat type would be used if all were equally available. We also demonstrate how these indices can be used to compare relative use of available habitats, assign them ranks, and assess statistical differences between pairs of indices. The set of these indices for all habitats can be compared between groups of animals that represent different seasons, sex or age classes, or experimental treatments. This method allows quantitative comparisons among types and is not affected by arbitrary decisions about which habitats to include in the study. We provide an example by comparing the availability of four categories of sea ice concentration to their use by adult female polar bears, whose movements were monitored by satellite radio tracking in the Bering and Chukchi Seas during 1990. Use of ice categories by bears was nonrandom, and the pattern of use differed between spring and late summer seasons.

  13. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. A single launch lunar habitat derived from an NSTS external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles B.; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Hypes, Warren D.; Nealy, John E.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1990-01-01

    A concept for using a spent External Tank from the National Space Transportation System (Shuttle) to derive a Lunar habitat is described. The concept is that the External Tank is carried into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) where the oxygen tank-intertank subassembly is separated from the hydrogen tank, berthed to Space Station Freedom and the subassembly outfitted as a 12-person Lunar habitat using extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA). A single launch of the NSTS Orbiter can place the External Tank in LEO, provide orbiter astronauts for disassembly of the External Tank, and transport the required subsystem hardware for outfitting the Lunar habitat. An estimate of the astronauts' EVA and IVA is provided. The liquid oxygen tank-intertank modifications utilize existing structures and openings for human access without compromising the structural integrity of the tank. The modification includes installation of living quarters, instrumentation, and an air lock. Feasibility studies of the following additional systems include micrometeoroid and radiation protection, thermal-control, environmental-control and life-support, and propulsion. The converted Lunar habitat is designed for unmanned transport and autonomous soft landing on the Lunar surface without need for site preparation. Lunar regolith is used to fill the micrometeoroid shield volume for radiation protection using a conveyor. The Lunar habitat concept is considered to be feasible by the year 2000 with the concurrent development of a space transfer vehicle and a Lunar lander for crew changeover and resupply.

  15. Remotely sensed indicators of habitat heterogeneity and biological diversity: A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc; Sisk, Thomas; Milne, Anthony; Morgan, Garth; Orr, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between habitat area, spatial dynamics of the landscape, and species diversity is an important theme in population and conservation biology. Of particular interest is how populations of various species are affected by increasing habitat edges due to fragmentation. Over the last decade, assumptions regarding the effects of habitat edges on biodiversity have fluctuated wildly, from the belief that they have a positive effect to the belief that they have a clearly negative effect. This change in viewpoint has been brought about by an increasing recognition of the importance of geographic scale and a reinterpretation of natural history observations. In this preliminary report from an ongoing project, we explore the use of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to further our understanding of how species diversity and population density are affected by habitat heterogeneity and landscape composition. A primary feature of this study is the investigation of SAR for making more rigorous investigations of habitat structure by exploiting the interaction between radar backscatter and vegetation structure and biomass. A major emphasis will be on the use of SAR data to define relative structural types based on measures of structural consolidation using the vegetation surface area to volume ratio (SA/V). Past research has shown that SAR may be sensitive to this form of structural expression which may affect biodiversity.

  16. A model to predict evaporation rates in habitats used by container-dwelling mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Healy, Sean P; Hamilton, George C

    2011-05-01

    Container-dwelling mosquitoes use a wide variety of container habitats. The bottle cap is often cited as the smallest container habitat used by container species. When containers are small, the habitat conditions can greatly affect evaporation rates that in turn can affect the species dynamics within the container. An evaporation rate model was adapted to predict evaporation rates in mosquito container habitats. In both the laboratory and field, our model was able to predict actual evaporation rates. Examples of how the model may be applied are provided by examining the likelihood of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Culex pipiens pipiens (L.) completing their development within small-volume containers under typical environmental conditions and a range of temperatures. Our model suggests that under minimal direct sunlight exposure, both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus could develop within a bottle cap before complete evaporation. Our model shows that under the environmental conditions when a plastic field container was sampled, neither Ae. albopictus or Cx. p. pipiens could complete development in that particular container before the water evaporated. Although rainfall could replenish the habitat, the effects of evaporation would increase larval density, which could in turn further decrease developmental rates.

  17. Using EUNIS habitat classification for benthic mapping in European seas: present concerns and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Ibon; Connor, David W; Borja, Angel; Aish, Annabelle; Amorim, Patricia; Bajjouk, Touria; Chambers, Caroline; Coggan, Roger; Dirberg, Guillaume; Ellwood, Helen; Evans, Douglas; Goodin, Kathleen L; Grehan, Anthony; Haldin, Jannica; Howell, Kerry; Jenkins, Chris; Michez, Noëmie; Mo, Giulia; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål; Pearce, Bryony; Populus, Jacques; Salomidi, Maria; Sánchez, Francisco; Serrano, Alberto; Shumchenia, Emily; Tempera, Fernando; Vasquez, Mickaël

    2012-12-01

    The EUNIS (European Union Nature Information System) habitat classification system aims to provide a common European reference set of habitat types within a hierarchical classification, and to cover all terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats of Europe. The classification facilitates reporting of habitat data in a comparable manner, for use in nature conservation (e.g. inventories, monitoring and assessments), habitat mapping and environmental management. For the marine environment the importance of a univocal habitat classification system is confirmed by the fact that many European initiatives, aimed at marine mapping, assessment and reporting, are increasingly using EUNIS habitat categories and respective codes. For this reason substantial efforts have been made to include information on marine benthic habitats from different regions, aiming to provide a comprehensive geographical coverage of European seas. However, there still remain many concerns on its applicability as only a small fraction of Europe's seas are fully mapped and increasing knowledge and application raise further issues to be resolved. This paper presents an overview of the main discussion and conclusions of a workshop, organised by the MeshAtlantic project, focusing upon the experience in using the EUNIS habitats classification across different countries and seas, together with case studies. The aims of the meeting were to: (i) bring together scientists with experience in the use of the EUNIS marine classification and representatives from the European Environment Agency (EEA); (ii) agree on enhancements to EUNIS that ensure an improved representation of the European marine habitats; and (iii) establish practices that make marine habitat maps produced by scientists more consistent with the needs of managers and decision-makers. During the workshop challenges for the future development of EUNIS were identified, which have been classified into five categories: (1) structure and hierarchy; (2

  18. Predicting habitat suitability for rare plants at local spatial scales using a species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol-Prokurat, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    If species distribution models (SDMs) can rank habitat suitability at a local scale, they may be a valuable conservation planning tool for rare, patchily distributed species. This study assessed the ability of Maxent, an SDM reported to be appropriate for modeling rare species, to rank habitat suitability at a local scale for four edaphic endemic rare plants of gabbroic soils in El Dorado County, California, and examined the effects of grain size, spatial extent, and fine-grain environmental predictors on local-scale model accuracy. Models were developed using species occurrence data mapped on public lands and were evaluated using an independent data set of presence and absence locations on surrounding lands, mimicking a typical conservation-planning scenario that prioritizes potential habitat on unsurveyed lands surrounding known occurrences. Maxent produced models that were successful at discriminating between suitable and unsuitable habitat at the local scale for all four species, and predicted habitat suitability values were proportional to likelihood of occurrence or population abundance for three of four species. Unfortunately, models with the best discrimination (i.e., AUC) were not always the most useful for ranking habitat suitability. The use of independent test data showed metrics that were valuable for evaluating which variables and model choices (e.g., grain, extent) to use in guiding habitat prioritization for conservation of these species. A goodness-of-fit test was used to determine whether habitat suitability values ranked habitat suitability on a continuous scale. If they did not, a minimum acceptable error predicted area criterion was used to determine the threshold for classifying habitat as suitable or unsuitable. I found a trade-off between model extent and the use of fine-grain environmental variables: goodness of fit was improved at larger extents, and fine-grain environmental variables improved local-scale accuracy, but fine-grain variables

  19. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan

    2016-06-01

    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat

  1. Development of a Regional Habitat Classification Scheme for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development, image processing techniques and field survey methods are outlined. Habitat classification, and regional-scale comparisons of relative habitat composition are described. The study demonstrates the use of remote sensing data to construct digital habitat maps for the comparison of regional habitat coverage, ...

  2. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: water transportation and storage of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Sedell; W.S. Duval

    1985-01-01

    Environmental effects of water transportation of logs in western North America include the historical driving of logs in rivers and streams, and the current dumping, sorting, transportation, and storage of logs in rivers and estuaries in British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. The historical discussion focuses on habitat losses and volumes of...

  3. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    periodic and quasi-periodic systems for the manipulation of light in the IR regime. The general thesis of this document is that aperiodic three-dimensional structures provide additional degrees of freedom that can be utilized to improve on the performance of periodic volume devices. The results we will discuss suggest that, under certain circumstances, a departure from the Bragg paradigm provides enhanced volume diffraction properties.

  4. A novel method for reproducibly measuring the effects of interventions to improve emotional climate, indices of team skills and communication, and threat to patient outcome in a high-volume thoracic surgery center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurok, Michael; Lipsitz, Stuart; Satwicz, Paul; Kelly, Andrea; Frankel, Allan

    2010-05-01

    To create and test a reproducible method for measuring emotional climate, surgical team skills, and threats to patient outcome by conducting an observational study to assess the impact of a surgical team skills and communication improvement intervention on these measurements. Observational study. Operating rooms in a high-volume thoracic surgery center from September 5, 2007, through June 30, 2008. Thoracic surgery operating room teams. Two 90-minute team skills training sessions focused on findings from a standardized safety culture survey administered to all participants and highlighting positive and problematic aspects of team skills, communication, and leadership. The sessions created an interactive forum to educate team members on the importance of communication and to role-play optimal interactive and communication strategies. Calculated indices of emotional climate, team skills, and threat to patient outcome. The calculated communication and team skills score improved from the preintervention to postintervention periods, but the improvement extinguished during the 3 months after the intervention (P skills and communication and decrease a calculated score of threats to patient outcome. However, the effect is only durable for threats to patient outcome.

  5. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Anatomy-based reconstruction of FDG-PET images with implicit partial volume correction improves detection of hypometabolic regions in patients with epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia diagnosed on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, Karolien; Baete, Kristof; Nuyts, Johan; Laere, Koen van; Van Paesschen, Wim; Dupont, Patrick; Palmini, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Detection of hypometabolic areas on interictal FDG-PET images for assessing the epileptogenic zone is hampered by partial volume effects. We evaluated the performance of an anatomy-based maximum a-posteriori (A-MAP) reconstruction algorithm which combined noise suppression with correction for the partial volume effect in the detection of hypometabolic areas in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). FDG-PET images from 14 patients with refractory partial epilepsy were reconstructed using A-MAP and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. In all patients, presurgical evaluation showed that FCD represented the epileptic lesion. Correspondence between the FCD location and regional metabolism on a predefined atlas was evaluated. An asymmetry index of FCD to normal cortex was calculated. Hypometabolism at the FCD location was detected in 9/14 patients (64%) using ML and in 10/14 patients (71%) using A-MAP reconstruction. Hypometabolic areas outside the FCD location were detected in 12/14 patients (86%) using ML and in 11/14 patients (79%) using A-MAP reconstruction. The asymmetry index was higher using A-MAP reconstruction (0.61, ML 0.49, p=0.03). The A-MAP reconstruction algorithm improved visual detection of epileptic FCD on brain FDG-PET images compared to ML reconstruction, due to higher contrast and better delineation of the lesion. This improvement failed to reach significance in our small sample. Hypometabolism outside the lesion is often present, consistent with the observation that the functional deficit zone tends to be larger than the epileptogenic zone. (orig.)

  7. Anatomy-based reconstruction of FDG-PET images with implicit partial volume correction improves detection of hypometabolic regions in patients with epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia diagnosed on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, Karolien; Baete, Kristof; Nuyts, Johan; Laere, Koen van [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); Van Paesschen, Wim [University Hospital Leuven, Neurology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Dupont, Patrick [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Leuven, Laboratory of Cognitive Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Palmini, Andre [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre Epilepsy Surgery Program, Hospital Sao Lucas, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Detection of hypometabolic areas on interictal FDG-PET images for assessing the epileptogenic zone is hampered by partial volume effects. We evaluated the performance of an anatomy-based maximum a-posteriori (A-MAP) reconstruction algorithm which combined noise suppression with correction for the partial volume effect in the detection of hypometabolic areas in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). FDG-PET images from 14 patients with refractory partial epilepsy were reconstructed using A-MAP and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. In all patients, presurgical evaluation showed that FCD represented the epileptic lesion. Correspondence between the FCD location and regional metabolism on a predefined atlas was evaluated. An asymmetry index of FCD to normal cortex was calculated. Hypometabolism at the FCD location was detected in 9/14 patients (64%) using ML and in 10/14 patients (71%) using A-MAP reconstruction. Hypometabolic areas outside the FCD location were detected in 12/14 patients (86%) using ML and in 11/14 patients (79%) using A-MAP reconstruction. The asymmetry index was higher using A-MAP reconstruction (0.61, ML 0.49, p=0.03). The A-MAP reconstruction algorithm improved visual detection of epileptic FCD on brain FDG-PET images compared to ML reconstruction, due to higher contrast and better delineation of the lesion. This improvement failed to reach significance in our small sample. Hypometabolism outside the lesion is often present, consistent with the observation that the functional deficit zone tends to be larger than the epileptogenic zone. (orig.)

  8. Influence of habitat degradation on fish replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M. I.; Moore, J. A. Y.; Munday, P. L.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of fish settlement patterns found that ten times as many fish settled to healthy coral than sub-lethally bleached coral. Species diversity of settling fishes was least on bleached coral and greatest on dead coral, with healthy coral having intermediate levels of diversity. Laboratory experiments using light-trap caught juveniles showed that different damselfish species chose among healthy, bleached and dead coral habitats using different combinations of visual and olfactory cues. The live coral specialist, Pomacentrus moluccensis, preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral, using mostly visual cues to inform their habitat choice. The habitat generalist, Pomacentrus amboinensis, also preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral but selected these habitats using both visual and olfactory cues. Trials with another habitat generalist, Dischistodus sp., suggested that vision played a significant role. A 20 days field experiment that manipulated densities of P. moluccensis on healthy and bleached coral heads found an influence of fish density on juvenile weight and growth, but no significant influence of habitat quality. These results suggests that coral bleaching will affect settlement patterns and species distributions by influencing the visual and olfactory cues that reef fish larvae use to make settlement choices. Furthermore, increased fish density within the remaining healthy coral habitats could play an important role in influencing population dynamics.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  10. Different in the dark: The effect of habitat characteristics on community composition and beta diversity in bromeliad microfauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Busse

    Full Text Available The mechanisms which structure communities have been the focus of a large body of research. Here, we address the question if habitat characteristics describing habitat quality may drive changes in community composition and beta diversity of bromeliad-inhabiting microfauna. In our system, changes in canopy cover along an environmental gradient may affect resource availability, disturbance in form of daily water temperature fluctuations and predation, and thus may lead to changes in community structure of bromeliad microfauna through differences in habitat quality along this gradient. Indeed, we observed distinct changes in microfauna community composition along the environmental gradient explained by changes in the extent of daily water temperature fluctuations. We found beta diversity to be higher under low habitat quality (low canopy cover than under high habitat quality (high canopy cover, which could potentially be explained by a higher relative importance of stochastic processes under low habitat quality. We also partitioned beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components and we found a nested pattern of beta diversity along the environmental gradient, with communities from the lower-quality habitat being nested subsets of communities from the higher-quality habitat. However, this pattern resulted from an increase in microfauna alpha diversity with an increase in habitat quality. By providing insights into microfauna-environment relationships our results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of community dynamics in small freshwater bodies. Here, we highlight the importance of habitat characteristics representing habitat quality in structuring communities, and suggest that this information may help to improve conservation practices of small freshwater ecosystems.

  11. Different in the dark: The effect of habitat characteristics on community composition and beta diversity in bromeliad microfauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiqueira, Pablo A. P.; Neutzling, Alexandre S.; Wolf, Anna M.; Romero, Gustavo Q.; Petermann, Jana S.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms which structure communities have been the focus of a large body of research. Here, we address the question if habitat characteristics describing habitat quality may drive changes in community composition and beta diversity of bromeliad-inhabiting microfauna. In our system, changes in canopy cover along an environmental gradient may affect resource availability, disturbance in form of daily water temperature fluctuations and predation, and thus may lead to changes in community structure of bromeliad microfauna through differences in habitat quality along this gradient. Indeed, we observed distinct changes in microfauna community composition along the environmental gradient explained by changes in the extent of daily water temperature fluctuations. We found beta diversity to be higher under low habitat quality (low canopy cover) than under high habitat quality (high canopy cover), which could potentially be explained by a higher relative importance of stochastic processes under low habitat quality. We also partitioned beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components and we found a nested pattern of beta diversity along the environmental gradient, with communities from the lower-quality habitat being nested subsets of communities from the higher-quality habitat. However, this pattern resulted from an increase in microfauna alpha diversity with an increase in habitat quality. By providing insights into microfauna-environment relationships our results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of community dynamics in small freshwater bodies. Here, we highlight the importance of habitat characteristics representing habitat quality in structuring communities, and suggest that this information may help to improve conservation practices of small freshwater ecosystems. PMID:29401522

  12. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  13. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Langevelde, van, F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat connectivity affects processes at population and individual level. In this thesis, I report on a study of effects of habitat fragmentation and opportunities to mitigate these effects by planning ecological n...

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-winged blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  16. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Three-dimensional habitat structure and landscape genetics: a step forward in estimating functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, P; Holderegger, R; Bollmann, K; Gugerli, F; Zellweger, F

    2017-02-01

    Estimating connectivity among fragmented habitat patches is crucial for evaluating the functionality of ecological networks. However, current estimates of landscape resistance to animal movement and dispersal lack landscape-level data on local habitat structure. Here, we used a landscape genetics approach to show that high-fidelity habitat structure maps derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data critically improve functional connectivity estimates compared to conventional land cover data. We related pairwise genetic distances of 128 Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) genotypes to least-cost path distances at multiple scales derived from land cover data. Resulting β values of linear mixed effects models ranged from 0.372 to 0.495, while those derived from LiDAR ranged from 0.558 to 0.758. The identification and conservation of functional ecological networks suffering from habitat fragmentation and homogenization will thus benefit from the growing availability of detailed and contiguous data on three-dimensional habitat structure and associated habitat quality. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. A Synopsis of Global Mapping of Freshwater Habitats and Biodiversity: Implications for Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A. [ORNL; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL; DeRolph, Christopher R. [ORNL; Pracheil, Brenda M. [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    Accurately mapping freshwater habitats and biodiversity at high-resolutions across the globe is essential for assessing the vulnerability and threats to freshwater organisms and prioritizing conservation efforts. Since the 2000s, extensive efforts have been devoted to mapping global freshwater habitats (rivers, lakes, and wetlands), the spatial representation of which has changed dramatically over time with new geospatial data products and improved remote sensing technologies. Some of these mapping efforts, however, are still coarse representations of actual conditions. Likewise, the resolution and scope of global freshwater biodiversity compilation efforts have also increased, but are yet to mirror the spatial resolution and fidelity of mapped freshwater environments. In our synopsis, we find that efforts to map freshwater habitats have been conducted independently of those for freshwater biodiversity; subsequently, there is little congruence in the spatial representation and resolution of the two efforts. We suggest that global species distribution models are needed to fill this information gap; however, limiting data on habitat characteristics at scales that complement freshwater habitats has prohibited global high-resolution biogeography efforts. Emerging research trends, such as mapping habitat alteration in freshwater ecosystems and trait biogeography, show great promise in mechanistically linking global anthropogenic stressors to freshwater biodiversity decline and extinction risk.

  19. Modeling the effects of integrating larval habitat source reduction and insecticide treated nets for malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Yakob

    Full Text Available Integrated vector management for malaria control has received a lot of recent interest. Attacking multiple points in the transmission cycle is hoped to act synergistically and improve upon current single-tool interventions based on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In the present study, we theoretically examined the application of larval habitat source reduction with ITNs in reducing malaria transmission. We selected this type of environmental management to complement ITNs because of a potential secondary mode of action that both control strategies share. In addition to increasing vector mortality, ITNs reduce the rate at which female mosquitoes locate human hosts for blood feeding, thereby extending their gonotrophic cycle. Similarly, while reducing adult vector emergence and abundance, source reduction of larval habitats may prolong the cycle duration by extending delays in locating oviposition sites. We found, however, that source reduction of larval habitats only operates through this secondary mode of action when habitat density is below a critical threshold. Hence, we illustrate how this strategy becomes increasingly effective when larval habitats are limited. We also demonstrate that habitat source reduction is better suited to human populations of higher density and in the presence of insecticide resistance or when the insecticidal properties of ITNs are depleted.

  20. Varying rotation lengths in northern production forests: Implications for habitats provided by retention and production trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Sonesson, Johan; Nilsson, Urban; Lämås, Tomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity. Shorter rotation lengths reduced the contribution made by production trees (trees grown for industrial use) to the availability of key habitat features, while concurrently increasing the contribution from retention trees. The contribution of production trees to habitat features was larger for high productivity sites, than for low productivity sites. We conclude that shortened rotation lengths result in losses of the availability of habitat features that are key for biodiversity conservation and that increased retention practices may only partially compensate for this. Ensuring that conservation efforts better reflect the inherent variation in stand rotation lengths would help improve the maintenance of key forest habitats in production forests.

  1. POPULASI DAN HABITAT Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. DI CAGAR ALAM MANDOR, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysarah .

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. is a species which adapted on the nutrient-poor areas in Mandor nature reserve.  Its could be increasing the quality of Mandor nature reserve as protected area. This research aims to study the population and habitat of N. ampullaria in the Mandor nature reserve. This study was conducted at two habitats, heath forest and peat swamp forest. Observations were made on, population abundance and habitat factors of  N. ampullaria. The results showed that the highest population density of N. ampullaria was in heath forest. Their are growth in groups. Vegetation analysis showed that constituent species habitat of N. ampullaria consist of 69 species from 39 familly. Result of identification to insects showed Formicidae is dominant family that trapped in pitcher of N. ampullaria. Temperature and humidity in N. ampullaria’s habitat has been switable for requirements growth of pitcher plant. Rainfall during the study was normally. Ratio of sand and soil on both affected the improvement of individual N. ampullaria in Mandor nature reserve. Keywords: habitat, Mandor nature reserve, Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, population

  2. Habitat connectivity as a metric for aquatic microhabitat quality: Application to Chinook salmon spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Carnie; Daniele Tonina; Jim McKean; Daniel Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Quality of fish habitat at the scale of a single fish, at the metre resolution, which we defined here as microhabitat, has been primarily evaluated on short reaches, and their results have been extended through long river segments with methods that do not account for connectivity, a measure of the spatial distribution of habitat patches. However, recent...

  3. Modified forest rotation lengths: Long-term effects on landscape-scale habitat availability for specialized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2018-03-15

    We evaluated the long-term implications from modifying rotation lengths in production forests for four forest-reliant species with different habitat requirements. By combining simulations of forest development with habitat models, and accounting both for stand and landscape scale influences, we projected habitat availability over 150 years in a large Swedish landscape, using rotation lengths which are longer (+22% and +50%) and shorter (-22%) compared to current practices. In terms of mean habitat availability through time, species requiring older forest were affected positively by extended rotations, and negatively by shortened rotations. For example, the mean habitat area for the treecreeper Certhia familiaris (a bird preferring forest with larger trees) increased by 31% when rotations were increased by 22%, at a 5% cost to net present value (NPV) and a 7% decrease in harvested volume. Extending rotation lengths by 50% provided more habitat for this species compared to a 22% extension, but at a much higher marginal cost. In contrast, the beetle Hadreule elongatula, which is dependent on sun-exposed dead wood, benefited from shortened rather than prolonged rotations. Due to an uneven distribution of stand-ages within the landscape, the relative amounts of habitat provided by different rotation length scenarios for a given species were not always consistent through time during the simulation period. If implemented as a conservation measure, prolonging rotations will require long-term strategic planning to avoid future bottlenecks in habitat availability, and will need to be accompanied by complementary measures accounting for the diversity of habitats necessary for the conservation of forest biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthropogenic Habitats Facilitate Dispersal of an Early Successional Obligate: Implications for Restoration of an Endangered Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina E Amaral

    Full Text Available Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation disrupt the connectivity of natural landscapes, with major consequences for biodiversity. Species that require patchily distributed habitats, such as those that specialize on early successional ecosystems, must disperse through a landscape matrix with unsuitable habitat types. We evaluated landscape effects on dispersal of an early successional obligate, the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis. Using a landscape genetics approach, we identified barriers and facilitators of gene flow and connectivity corridors for a population of cottontails in the northeastern United States. We modeled dispersal in relation to landscape structure and composition and tested hypotheses about the influence of habitat fragmentation on gene flow. Anthropogenic and natural shrubland habitats facilitated gene flow, while the remainder of the matrix, particularly development and forest, impeded gene flow. The relative influence of matrix habitats differed between study areas in relation to a fragmentation gradient. Barrier features had higher explanatory power in the more fragmented site, while facilitating features were important in the less fragmented site. Landscape models that included a simultaneous barrier and facilitating effect of roads had higher explanatory power than models that considered either effect separately, supporting the hypothesis that roads act as both barriers and facilitators at all spatial scales. The inclusion of LiDAR-identified shrubland habitat improved the fit of our facilitator models. Corridor analyses using circuit and least cost path approaches revealed the importance of anthropogenic, linear features for restoring connectivity between the study areas. In fragmented landscapes, human-modified habitats may enhance functional connectivity by providing suitable dispersal conduits for early successional specialists.

  5. Wave exposure as a predictor of benthic habitat distribution on high energy temperate reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eRattray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The new found ability to measure physical attributes of the marine environment at high resolution across broad spatial scales has driven the rapid evolution of benthic habitat mapping as a field in its own right. Improvement of the resolution and ecological validity of seafloor habitat distribution models has, for the most part, paralleled developments in new generations of acoustic survey tools such as multibeam echosounders. While sonar methods have been well demonstrated to provide useful proxies of the relatively static geophysical patterns that reflect distribution of benthic species and assemblages, the spatially and temporally variable influence of hydrodynamic energy on habitat distribution have been less well studied. Here we investigate the role of wave exposure on patterns of distribution of near-shore benthic habitats. A high resolution spectral wave model was developed for a 624 km2 site along Cape Otway, a major coastal feature of western Victoria, Australia. Comparison of habitat classifications implemented using the Random Forests algorithm established that significantly more accurate estimations of habitat distribution were obtained by including a fine-scale numerical wave model, extended to the seabed using linear wave theory, than by using depth and seafloor morphology information alone. Variable importance measures and map interpretation indicated that the spatial variation in wave induced bottom orbital velocity was most influential in discriminating habitat the classes containing canopy forming kelp Ecklonia radiata, a foundation kelp species that affects biodiversity and ecological functioning on shallow reefs across temperate Australasia. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic models reflecting key environmental drivers on wave exposed coastlines are important in accurately defining distributions of benthic habitats.

  6. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  7. Exploring the Application of Optical Remote Sensing as a Method to Estimate the Depth of Backwater Nursery Habitats of the Colorado Pikeminnow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Low-velocity channel-margin habitats serve as important nursery habitats for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. These habitats, known as backwaters, are associated with emergent sand bars, and are shaped and reformed annually by peak flows. A recent synthesis of information on backwater characteristics and the factors that influence inter-annual variability in those backwaters (Grippo et al. 2015) evaluated detailed survey information collected annually since 2003 on a relatively small sample of backwaters, as well as reach-wide evaluations of backwater surface area from aerial and satellite imagery. An approach is needed to bridge the gap between these detailed surveys, which estimate surface area, volume, and depth, and the reach-wide assessment of surface area to enable an assessment of the amount of habitat that meets the minimum depth requirements for suitable habitat.

  8. Managing harvest and habitat as integrated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik; Runge, Michael C.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Austin, Jane E.; Boomer, G. S.; Clark, R. G.; Devers, P.; Eadie, J. M.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common modelling framework could help these management streams to better understand their mutual effects. Particularly, how does successful habitat management increase harvest potential? Also, how do regional habitat programmes and large-scale harvest strategies affect continental population sizes (a metric used to express habitat goals)? In the ensuing five years, several projects took on different aspects of these challenges. While all of these projects are still on-going, and are not yet sufficiently developed to produce guidance for management decisions, they have been influential in expanding the dialogue and producing some important emerging lessons. The first lesson has been that one of the more difficult aspects of integration is not the integration across decision contexts, but the integration across spatial and temporal scales. Habitat management occurs at local and regional scales. Harvest management decisions are made at a continental scale. How do these actions, taken at different scales, combine to influence waterfowl population dynamics at all scales? The second lesson has been that consideration of the interface of habitat and harvest management can generate important insights into the objectives underlying the decision context. Often the objectives are very complex and trade-off against one another. The third lesson follows from the second – if an understanding of the fundamental objectives is paramount, there is no escaping the need for a better understanding of human dimensions, specifically the desires of hunters and nonhunters and the role they play in conservation. In the end, the compelling question is

  9. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  10. Eder Acquisition 2007 Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Eder acquisition in July 2007 to determine how many protection habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. Baseline HEP surveys generated 3,857.64 habitat units or 1.16 HUs per acre. HEP surveys also served to document general habitat conditions. Survey results indicated that the herbaceous plant community lacked forbs species, which may be due to both livestock grazing and the late timing of the surveys. Moreover, the herbaceous plant community lacked structure based on lower than expected visual obstruction readings (VOR); likely a direct result of livestock impacts. In addition, introduced herbaceous vegetation including cultivated pasture grasses, e.g. crested wheatgrass and/or invader species such as cheatgrass and mustard, were present on most areas surveyed. The shrub element within the shrubsteppe cover type was generally a mosaic of moderate to dense shrubby areas interspersed with open grassland communities while the 'steppe' component was almost entirely devoid of shrubs. Riparian shrub and forest areas were somewhat stressed by livestock. Moreover, shrub and tree communities along the lower reaches of Nine Mile Creek suffered from lack of water due to the previous landowners 'piping' water out of the stream channel.

  11. Habitat specialization through germination cueing: a comparative study of herbs from forests and open habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen Pieter; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat). Seed germination response to temperature, light and stratification was tested for 17 congeneric pairs, each consisting of one forest species and one open-habitat species. A factorial design was used with temperature levels and diurnal temperature variation (10 °C constant, 15-5 °C fluctuating, 20 °C constant, 25-15 °C fluctuating), and two light levels (light and darkness) and a cold stratification treatment. The congeneric species pair design took phylogenetic dependence into account. Species from open habitats germinated better at high temperatures, whereas forest species performed equally well at low and high temperatures. Forest species tended to germinate only after a period of cold stratification that could break dormancy, while species from open habitats generally germinated without cold stratification. The empirically derived germination strategies correspond quite well with establishment opportunities for forest and open-habitat plant species in nature. Annual changes in temperature and light regime in temperate forest delimit windows of opportunity for germination and establishment. Germination strategies of forest plants are adaptations to utilize such narrow windows in time. Conversely, lack of fit between germination ecology and environment may explain why species of open habitats generally fail to establish in forests. Germination strategy should be considered an important mechanism for habitat specialization in temperate herbs to forest habitats. The findings strongly suggest that

  12. Identifying Farm Pond Habitat Suitability for the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus: A Conservation-Perspective Approach

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    Chun-Hsien Lai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a habitat-suitability assessment model for Gallinula chloropus, or the Common Moorhen, to be applied to the selection of the most suitable farm pond for habitat conservation in Chiayi County, Taiwan. First, the fuzzy Delphi method was employed to evaluate habitat selection factors and calculate the weights of these factors. The results showed that the eight crucial factors, by importance, in descending order, were (1 area ratio of farmlands within 200 m of the farm pond; (2 pond area; (3 pond perimeter; (4 aquatic plant coverage of the pond surface; (5 drought period; (6 coverage of high and low shrubs around the pond bank; (7 bank type; and (8 water-surface-to-bank distance. Subsequently, field evaluations of 75 farm ponds in Chiayi County were performed. The results indicated that 15 farm ponds had highly-suitable habitats and were inhabited by unusually high numbers of Common Moorhens; these habitats were most in need of conservation. A total of two farm ponds were found to require habitat-environment improvements, and Common Moorhens with typical reproductive capacity could be appropriately introduced into 22 farm ponds to restore the ecosystem of the species. Additionally, the habitat suitability and number of Common Moorhens in 36 farm ponds were lower than average; these ponds could be used