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Sample records for habitat alteration promotes

  1. Macrophyte communities of European streams with altered physical habitat

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    O'Hare, M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Nijboer, R.C.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Ferreira, T.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of altering hydro-morphology on three macrophyte community types was investigated at 107 European stream sites. Sites were surveyed using standard macrophyte and habitat survey techniques (Mean Trophic Rank Methodology and River Habitat Survey respectively). Principal Components Analysis

  2. Does habitat variability really promote metabolic network modularity?

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    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that variability in natural habitats promotes modular organization is widely accepted for cellular networks. However, results of some data analyses and theoretical studies have begun to cast doubt on the impact of habitat variability on modularity in metabolic networks. Therefore, we re-evaluated this hypothesis using statistical data analysis and current metabolic information. We were unable to conclude that an increase in modularity was the result of habitat variability. Although horizontal gene transfer was also considered because it may contribute for survival in a variety of environments, closely related to habitat variability, and is known to be positively correlated with network modularity, such a positive correlation was not concluded in the latest version of metabolic networks. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the previously observed increase in network modularity due to habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer was probably due to a lack of available data on metabolic reactions. Instead, we determined that modularity in metabolic networks is dependent on species growth conditions. These results may not entirely discount the impact of habitat variability and horizontal gene transfer. Rather, they highlight the need for a more suitable definition of habitat variability and a more careful examination of relationships of the network modularity with horizontal gene transfer, habitats, and environments.

  3. Ocean acidification alters fish populations indirectly through habitat modification

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    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Connell, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean ecosystems are predicted to lose biodiversity and productivity from increasing ocean acidification. Although laboratory experiments reveal negative effects of acidification on the behaviour and performance of species, more comprehensive predictions have been hampered by a lack of in situ studies that incorporate the complexity of interactions between species and their environment. We studied CO2 vents from both Northern and Southern hemispheres, using such natural laboratories to investigate the effect of ocean acidification on plant-animal associations embedded within all their natural complexity. Although we substantiate simple direct effects of reduced predator-avoidance behaviour by fishes, as observed in laboratory experiments, we here show that this negative effect is naturally dampened when fish reside in shelter-rich habitats. Importantly, elevated CO2 drove strong increases in the abundance of some fish species through major habitat shifts, associated increases in resources such as habitat and prey availability, and reduced predator abundances. The indirect effects of acidification via resource and predator alterations may have far-reaching consequences for population abundances, and its study provides a framework for a more comprehensive understanding of increasing CO2 emissions as a driver of ecological change.

  4. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring.

  5. Defaunation and habitat disturbance interact synergistically to alter seedling recruitment.

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    Granados, Alys; Brodie, Jedediah F; Bernard, Henry; O'Brien, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Vertebrate granivores destroy plant seeds, but whether animal-induced seed mortality alters plant recruitment varies with habitat context, seed traits, and among granivore species. An incomplete understanding of seed predation makes it difficult to predict how widespread extirpations of vertebrate granivores in tropical forests might affect tree communities, especially in the face of habitat disturbance. Many tropical forests are simultaneously affected by animal loss as well as habitat disturbance, but the consequences of each for forest regeneration are often studied separately or additively, and usually on a single plant demographic stage. The combined impacts of these threats could affect plant recruitment in ways that are not apparent when studied in isolation. We used wire cages to exclude large (elephants), medium, (sambar deer, bearded pigs, muntjac deer), and small (porcupines, chevrotains) ground-dwelling mammalian granivores and herbivores in logged and unlogged forests in Malaysian Borneo. We assessed the interaction between habitat disturbance (selective logging) and experimental defaunation on seed survival, germination, and seedling establishment in five dominant dipterocarp tree species spanning a 21-fold gradient in seed size. Granivore-induced seed mortality was consistently higher in logged forest. Germination of unpredated seeds was reduced in logged forest and in the absence of small to large-bodied mammals. Experimental defaunation increased germination and reduced seed removal but had little effect on seed survival. Seedling recruitment however, was more likely where logging and animal loss occurred together. The interacting effects of logging and hunting could therefore, actually increase seedling establishment, suggesting that the loss of mammals in disturbed forest could have important consequences for forest regeneration and composition. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

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    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  7. Altered mangrove wetlands as habitat for estuarine nekton: are dredged channels and tidal creeks equivalent?

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    Krebs, Justin M.; Brame, Adam B.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2007-01-01

    Hasty decisions are often made regarding the restoration of "altered" habitats, when in fact the ecological value of these habitats may be comparable to natural ones. To assess the "value" of altered mangrove-lined habitats for nekton, we sampled for 1 yr within three Tampa Bay wetlands. Species composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of nekton assemblages in permanent subtidal portions of natural tidal creeks and wetlands altered by construction of mosquito-control ditches and stormwater-drainage ditches were quantified through seasonal seine sampling. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance and ordination of nekton community data suggested differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered habitat, though not consistently among the three wetlands. In many cases, mosquito ditches were more similar in assemblage structure to tidal creeks than to stormwater ditches. In general, mosquito ditches and stormwater ditches were the most dissimilar in terms of nekton community structure. These dissimilarities were likely due to differences in design between the two types of ditches. Mosquito ditches tend to fill in over time and are thus more ephemeral features in the landscape. In contrast, stormwater ditches are a more permanent altered habitat that remain open due to periodic flushing from heavy runoff. Results indicate that environmental conditions (e.g., salinity, current velocity, vegetative structure) may provide a more useful indication of potential habitat "value" for nekton than whether the habitat has been altered. The type of ditching is therefore more important than ditching per se when judging the habitat quality of these altered channels for fishes, shrimps and crabs. Planning should entail careful consideration of environmental conditions rather than simply restoring for restoration's sake.

  8. Habitat fragmentation and altered fire regime create trade-offs for an obligate seeding shrub.

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    Regan, Helen M; Crookston, John B; Swab, Rebecca; Franklin, Janet; Lawson, Dawn M

    2010-04-01

    Habitat loss is widely considered the greatest threat to biodiversity. However, habitat loss brings with it myriad other threats that exacerbate impacts to biodiversity. For instance, altered fire regime is associated with habitat loss and fragmentation with unknown consequences to biodiversity. Plant functional groups that rely on fire to complete their life cycle may be adversely affected by disruptions to the natural fire regime, particularly when coupled with population declines due to habitat loss. We used a spatially explicit stochastic population model linked with fire hazard functions to investigate the cumulative effects of habitat loss, fragmentation, and altered fire regime on the expected minimum abundance of a long-lived obligate-seeding shrub, Ceanothus greggii var. perplexans. This species is endemic to the California Floristic Province, a biodiversity hotspot, and is representative of a functional group of plants found in many fire-prone ecosystems. We tested the impact of a range of different fire frequencies under three different combinations of fuel accumulation and weather. The best average fire return interval for population abundance was consistently in the range of 30-50 years. However, observed average fire return intervals in highly fragmented areas can be approximately 20 years or less, and model results show this to be detrimental to C. greggii populations. Results also show that if fires are uncorrelated across habitat fragments then the impact of altered fire regime on populations is worse than the impact of habitat fragmentation because of spatial and temporal decoupling of fire events across the landscape. However, the negative impacts of altered fire regime are outweighed by habitat loss as fragmentation increases. Our results show that large unplanned fires, operating under an altered fire regime, are ultimately detrimental to perennial obligate-seeding shrubs in fragmented landscapes.

  9. Altered tumor cell glycosylation promotes metastasis

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    Irina eHäuselmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompasses aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors - lectins. In this review we will discuss current concepts how tumor cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoetic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis.

  10. Functional diversity in a fragmented landscape — Habitat alterations affect functional trait composition of frog assemblages in Madagascar

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    Jana C. Riemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat alterations cause biodiversity loss, which in turn negatively affects ecosystem functioning and services, and thus human well-being. To be able to consider ecosystem functioning in conservation actions, analyzing the effects of habitat alteration on functional diversity is essential. Some altered habitats can maintain a significant part of regional biodiversity, however, functional diversity information in altered habitats is so far mostly lacking. We compared functional richness and functional β-diversity based on resource-use traits of frogs between three land-use categories in a rainforest ecosystem in Madagascar. Land-use categories represent a habitat alteration gradient ranging from continuous forest over forest fragments to matrix habitats including different agricultures. Our study revealed distinct changes in resource-use trait composition and complex patterns in the relationship between species richness and functional richness. Thus, the functional structure of frog assemblages changed due to habitat alterations. However, altered habitats likely provide different, rather than fewer functions compared to intact forest. Streams in all land-use categories were the functionally richest habitats, and thus important for ecosystem functioning. Species richness was one, but not the only driver of functional richness in our system. Functional clustering, potentially due to environmental filters depending on resource availability, was caused by anthropogenic and natural drivers. Our study shows that, even in systems where fragmented landscapes still maintain high species diversity, functional diversity can be altered in human altered habitats, which may affect ecosystem processes like productivity, nutrient cycling, and energy flows.

  11. Promoter Methylation Precedes Chromosomal Alterations in Colorectal Cancer Development

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    Sarah Derks

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancers are characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations. This study aimed to explore the timing of promoter methylation and relationship with mutations and chromosomal alterations in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: In a series of 47 nonprogressed adenomas, 41 progressed adenomas (malignant polyps, 38 colorectal carcinomas and 18 paired normal tissues, we evaluated promoter methylation status of hMLH1, O6MGMT, APC, p14ARF, p16INK4A, RASSF1A, GATA-4, GATA-5, and CHFR using methylation-specific PCR. Mutation status of TP53, APC and KRAS were studied by p53 immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the APC and KRAS mutation cluster regions. Chromosomal alterations were evaluated by comparative genomic hybridization. Results: Our data demonstrate that nonprogressed adenomas, progressed adenomas and carcinomas show similar frequencies of promoter methylation for the majority of the genes. Normal tissues showed significantly lower frequencies of promoter methylation of APC, p16INK4A, GATA-4, and GATA-5 (P-values: 0.02, 0.02, 1.1×10−5 and 0.008 respectively. P53 immunopositivity and chromosomal abnormalities occur predominantly in carcinomas (P values: 1.1×10−5 and 4.1×10−10. Conclusions: Since promoter methylation was already present in nonprogressed adenomas without chromosomal alterations, we conclude that promoter methylation can be regarded as an early event preceding TP53 mutation and chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer development.

  12. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

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    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat

  13. Recovery of frog and lizard communities following primary habitat alteration in Mizoram, Northeast India

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    Rawat Gopal S

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community recovery following primary habitat alteration can provide tests for various hypotheses in ecology and conservation biology. Prominent among these are questions related to the manner and rate of community assembly after habitat perturbation. Here we use space-for-time substitution to analyse frog and lizard community assembly along two gradients of habitat recovery following slash and burn agriculture (jhum in Mizoram, Northeast India. One recovery gradient undergoes natural succession to mature tropical rainforest, while the other involves plantation of jhum fallows with teak Tectona grandis monoculture. Results Frog and lizard communities accumulated species steadily during natural succession, attaining characteristics similar to those from mature forest after 30 years of regeneration. Lizards showed higher turnover and lower augmentation of species relative to frogs. Niche based classification identified a number of guilds, some of which contained both frogs and lizards. Successional change in species richness was due to increase in the number of guilds as well as the number of species per guild. Phylogenetic structure increased with succession for some guilds. Communities along the teak plantation gradient on the other hand, did not show any sign of change with chronosere age. Factor analysis revealed sets of habitat variables that independently determined changes in community and guild composition during habitat recovery. Conclusions The timescale of frog and lizard community recovery was comparable with that reported by previous studies on different faunal groups in other tropical regions. Both communities converged on primary habitat attributes during natural vegetation succession, the recovery being driven by deterministic, nonlinear changes in habitat characteristics. On the other hand, very little faunal recovery was seen even in relatively old teak plantation. In general, tree monocultures are unlikely to

  14. Streamflow alteration and habitat ramifications for a threatened fish species in the Central United States

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    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Kenny; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In the Central United States, the Arkansas darter (Etheostoma cragini) is listed as a threatened fish species by the State of Kansas. Survival of the darter is threatened by loss of habitat caused by changing streamflow conditions, in particular flow depletion. Future management of darter populations and habitats requires an understanding of streamflow conditions and how those conditions may have changed over time in response to natural and anthropogenic factors. In Kansas, streamflow alteration was assessed at 9 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in 6 priority basins with no pronounced long-term trends in precipitation. The assessment was based on a comparison of observed (O) and predicted expected (E) reference conditions for 29 flow metrics. The O/E results indicated a likely or possible diminished flow condition in 2 basins; the primary cause of which is groundwater-level declines resulting from groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture. In these 2 basins, habitat characteristics adversely affected by flow depletion may include stream connectivity, pools, and water temperature. The other 4 basins were minimally affected, or unaffected, by flow depletion and therefore may provide the best opportunity for preservation of darter habitat. Through the O/E analysis, anthropogenic streamflow alteration was quantified and the results will enable better-informed decisions pertaining to the future management of darters in Kansas.

  15. Habitat variability does not generally promote metabolic network modularity in flies and mammals.

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    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of species habitat range is an important topic over a wide range of research fields. In higher organisms, habitat range evolution is generally associated with genetic events such as gene duplication. However, the specific factors that determine habitat variability remain unclear at higher levels of biological organization (e.g., biochemical networks). One widely accepted hypothesis developed from both theoretical and empirical analyses is that habitat variability promotes network modularity; however, this relationship has not yet been directly tested in higher organisms. Therefore, I investigated the relationship between habitat variability and metabolic network modularity using compound and enzymatic networks in flies and mammals. Contrary to expectation, there was no clear positive correlation between habitat variability and network modularity. As an exception, the network modularity increased with habitat variability in the enzymatic networks of flies. However, the observed association was likely an artifact, and the frequency of gene duplication appears to be the main factor contributing to network modularity. These findings raise the question of whether or not there is a general mechanism for habitat range expansion at a higher level (i.e., above the gene scale). This study suggests that the currently widely accepted hypothesis for habitat variability should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enteric Helminths Promote Salmonella Coinfection by Altering the Intestinal Metabolome.

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    Reynolds, Lisa A; Redpath, Stephen A; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Gill, Navkiran; Brown, Eric M; van der Heijden, Joris; Brosschot, Tara P; Han, Jun; Marshall, Natalie C; Woodward, Sarah E; Valdez, Yanet; Borchers, Christoph H; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-15

    Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional 3-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells. Instead, helminth infection altered the metabolic profile of the intestine, which directly enhanced bacterial expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes and increased intracellular invasion. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which a helminth-modified metabolome promotes susceptibility to bacterial coinfection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cumulative Effects of Coastal Habitat Alterations on Fishery Resources: toward Prediction at Regional Scales

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    Stephen J. Jordan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal habitat alterations such as the loss of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV and hardening of shorelines could have cumulative effects on valuable fishery resources. To investigate this effect, we developed a multiscale modeling framework for blue crab (Callinectes sapidus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Areal coverage of shoreline land cover and SAV for Mobile Bay, Alabama, were combined with information from small-scale biological studies and long-term, large-scale commercial fishery data to model the potential effects of marginal habitat losses on the blue crab fishery. We applied stochastic variation in annual recruitment to the fishery to estimate probabilities for sustainable harvests under scenarios of habitat loss. The simulations suggested that, accumulated over large areas, relatively small local losses of estuarine marsh edge and SAV habitats could have long-term negative effects on the sustainability of the fishery. Spatially extensive models are required to investigate the cumulative ecological effects of many local environmental changes. The requisite scaling adds uncertainty and reduces precision, but if model parameters are accurate at each scale, accurate predictions of long-term outcomes and probabilities are possible.

  18. Scale-dependent effects of habitat area on species interaction networks: invasive species alter relationships

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    Sugiura Shinji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant–pollinator networks in seven temperate forest sites at 20 spatial scales (radius 120–2020 m to clarify scale-associated relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Results The pooled data described interactions between 18 plant (including an exotic and 89 pollinator (including an exotic species. The total number of species and the number of interaction links between plant and pollinator species were negatively correlated with forest area, with the highest correlation coefficient at radii of 1520 and 1620 m, respectively. These results are not concordant with the pattern predicted by species–area relationships. However, when associations with exotic species were excluded, the total number of species and the number of interaction links were positively correlated with forest area (the highest correlation coefficient at a radius of 820 m. The network structure, i.e., connectance and nestedness, was also related to forest area (the highest correlation coefficients at radii of 720–820 m, when associations with exotics were excluded. In the study area, the exotic plant species Alliaria petiolata, which has invaded relatively small forest patches surrounded by agricultural fields, may have supported more native pollinator species than initially expected. Therefore, this invasive plant may have altered the original relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Conclusions Our results demonstrate scale-dependent effects of forest

  19. Scale-dependent effects of habitat area on species interaction networks: invasive species alter relationships.

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    Sugiura, Shinji; Taki, Hisatomo

    2012-07-20

    The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant-pollinator networks in seven temperate forest sites at 20 spatial scales (radius 120-2020 m) to clarify scale-associated relationships between forest area and plant-pollinator networks. The pooled data described interactions between 18 plant (including an exotic) and 89 pollinator (including an exotic) species. The total number of species and the number of interaction links between plant and pollinator species were negatively correlated with forest area, with the highest correlation coefficient at radii of 1520 and 1620 m, respectively. These results are not concordant with the pattern predicted by species-area relationships. However, when associations with exotic species were excluded, the total number of species and the number of interaction links were positively correlated with forest area (the highest correlation coefficient at a radius of 820 m). The network structure, i.e., connectance and nestedness, was also related to forest area (the highest correlation coefficients at radii of 720-820 m), when associations with exotics were excluded. In the study area, the exotic plant species Alliaria petiolata, which has invaded relatively small forest patches surrounded by agricultural fields, may have supported more native pollinator species than initially expected. Therefore, this invasive plant may have altered the original relationships between forest area and plant-pollinator networks. Our results demonstrate scale-dependent effects of forest area on the size and structure of plant-pollinator networks. We also suggest

  20. Indicators of streamflow alteration, habitat fragmentation, impervious cover, and water quality for Massachusetts stream basins

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    Weiskel, Peter K.; Brandt, Sara L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Ostiguy, Lance J.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2010-01-01

    Massachusetts streams and stream basins have been subjected to a wide variety of human alterations since colonial times. These alterations include water withdrawals, treated wastewater discharges, construction of onsite septic systems and dams, forest clearing, and urbanization—all of which have the potential to affect streamflow regimes, water quality, and habitat integrity for fish and other aquatic biota. Indicators were developed to characterize these types of potential alteration for subbasins and groundwater contributing areas in Massachusetts. The potential alteration of streamflow by the combined effects of withdrawals and discharges was assessed under two water-use scenarios. Water-use scenario 1 incorporated publicly reported groundwater withdrawals and discharges, direct withdrawals from and discharges to streams, and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. Surface-water-reservoir withdrawals were excluded from this scenario. Water-use scenario 2 incorporated all the types of withdrawal and discharge included in scenario 1 as well as withdrawals from surface-water reservoirs—all on a long-term, mean annual basis. All withdrawal and discharge data were previously reported to the State for the 2000–2004 period, except domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges, which were estimated for this study. The majority of the state’s subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have relatively minor (less than 10 percent) alteration of streamflow under water-use scenario 1 (seasonally varying water use; no surface-water-reservoir withdrawals). However, about 12 percent of subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have extensive alteration of streamflows (greater than 40 percent) in August; most of these basins were concentrated in the outer metropolitan Boston region. Potential surcharging of streamflow in August was most commonly indicated for main-stem river subbasins, although

  1. Lava Flow Alteration at Craters of the Moon, Idaho, as an Analog for Microbial Habitat on Mars

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    Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Elphic, R. C.; Sehlke, A.; Haberle, C. W.; Brady, A. L.; Payler, S.; Cockell, C. S.; Lim, D. S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve (COTM), Idaho is host to lava flows with comparable composition and texture to those observed on Mars. As part of the Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project, we investigated the relationship between alteration style and gradient scales in three young ( 2000 y.b.p.) lava flows at COTM. Alteration of volcanic substrate is known to improve microbial habitability. As such, our investigation seeks to identify and characterize microbial habitat analogs potentially representative of Noachian and Amazonian Mars. Alteration in these flows is dominantly the result of two processes; (1) syn-emplacement degassing and (2) sub-aerial interaction with eolian material and meteoric water. Syn-emplacement alteration products are dominated by hematite and goethite along with various clays and zeolites. These products are concentrated where heat persists during and following emplacement (e.g. proximal to eruptive and non-eruptive vents and in areas exhibiting significant textural transitions, possibly related to degassing concentrated along disrupted surfaces). The syn-eruptive alteration zones display mineralogical variation across cm-scales, and occur as patchy zones spanning multiple meters. Post-emplacement, ambient meteoric alteration is characterized by carbonates, zeolites and clays concentrated along fractures and within vesicles. Owing to their deposition along fractures, these alteration zones may be less than a millimeter thick, but span multiple meters. Our multidisciplinary team of geologists, microbiologists and organic geochemists seek to identify associations of alteration styles and microbial habitability.

  2. Habitat loss alters the architecture of plant--pollinator interaction networks.

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    Spiesman, Brian J; Inouye, Brian D

    2013-12-01

    Habitat loss can have a negative effect on the number, abundance, and composition of species in plant-pollinator communities. Although we have a general understanding of the negative consequences of habitat loss for biodiversity, much less is known about the resulting effects on the pattern of interactions in mutualistic networks. Ecological networks formed by mutualistic interactions often exhibit a highly nested architecture with low modularity, especially in comparison with antagonistic networks. These patterns of interaction are thought to confer stability on mutualistic communities. With the growing threat of environmental change, it is important to expand our understanding of the factors that affect biodiversity and the stability of the communities that provide critical ecosystem functions and services. We studied the effects of habitat loss on plant--pollinator network architecture and found that regional habitat loss contributes directly to species loss and indirectly to the reorganization of interspecific interactions in a local community. Networks became more highly connected and more modular with habitat loss. Species richness and abundance were the primary drivers of variation in network architecture, though species compositi n affected modularity. Theory suggests that an increase in modularity with habitat loss will threaten community stability, which may contribute to an extinction debt in communities already affected by habitat loss.

  3. Eocene habitat shift from saline to freshwater promoted Tethyan amphipod diversification

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    Hou, Zhonge; Sket, Boris; Fišer, Cene; Li, Shuqiang

    2011-01-01

    Current theory predicts that a shift to a new habitat would increase the rate of diversification, while as lineages evolve into multiple species, intensified competition would decrease the rate of diversification. We used Holarctic amphipods of the genus Gammarus to test this hypothesis. We sequenced four genes (5,088 bp) for 289 samples representing 115 Gammarus species. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Gammarus originated from the Tethyan region with a saline ancestry in the Paleocene, and later colonized the freshwater habitat in the Middle Eocene. Ancestral range reconstruction and diversification mode analysis combined with paleogeological and paleoclimatic evidence suggested that the habitat shift from saline to freshwater led to an increased diversification rate. The saline lineage of Gammarus dispersed to both sides of the Atlantic at 55 million years ago (Ma), because of the few barriers between the Tethys and the Atlantic, and diversified throughout its evolutionary history with a constant diversification rate [0.04 species per million years (sp/My)]. The freshwater Gammarus, however, underwent a rapid diversification phase (0.11 sp/My) until the Middle Miocene, and lineages successively diversified across Eurasia via vicariance process likely driven by changes of the Tethys and landmass. In particular, the freshwater Gammarus lacustris and Gammarus balcanicus lineages had a relatively high diversification shift, corresponding to the regression of the Paratethys Sea and the continentalization of Eurasian lands during the Miocene period. Subsequently (14 Ma), the diversification rate of the freshwater Gammarus decreased to 0.05 and again to 0.01 sp/My. The genus Gammarus provides an excellent aquatic case supporting the hypothesis that ecological opportunities promote diversification. PMID:21844362

  4. Reef fishes can recognize bleached habitat during settlement: sea anemone bleaching alters anemonefish host selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-05-25

    Understanding how bleaching impacts the settlement of symbiotic habitat specialists and whether there is flexibility in settlement choices with regard to habitat quality is essential given our changing climate. We used five anemonefishes (Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion latezonatus, Amphiprion ocellaris, Amphiprion percula and Premnas biaculeatus) and three host sea anemones (Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis crispa and Heteractis magnifica) in paired-choice flume experiments to determine whether habitat naive juveniles have the olfactory capabilities to distinguish between unbleached and bleached hosts, and how this may affect settlement decisions. All anemonefishes were able to distinguish between bleached and unbleached hosts, and responded only to chemical cues from species-specific host anemones irrespective of health status, indicating a lack of flexibility in host use. While bleached hosts were selected as habitat, this occurred only when unbleached options were unavailable, with the exception of A. latezonatus, which showed strong preferences for H. crispa regardless of health. This study highlights the potential deleterious indirect impacts of declining habitat quality during larval settlement in habitat specialists, which could be important in the field, given that bleaching events are becoming increasingly common. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Maintenance of agricultural drains alters physical habitat, but not macroinvertebrate assemblages exploited by fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Campbell, Belinda; Cottenie, Karl; Mandrak, Nicholas; McLaughlin, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The effects of drain maintenance on fish habitat and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages (fish prey) were investigated for eight agricultural drains in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Our investigation employed a replicated Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design where each maintained section of a drain was paired with an unmaintained section downstream and an unmaintained section on a nearby reference drain of similar size and position in the watershed. Seven variables characterizing physical habitat features important to fishes and three variables characterizing the taxonomic abundance, densities, and relative densities of benthic macroinvertebrates were measured before drain maintenance and 10-12 times over 2 years following maintenance. Pulse responses were detected for three habitat variables quantifying vegetative cover: percent vegetation on the bank, percent in-stream vegetation, and percent cover. All three variables returned to pre-maintenance levels within two years of maintenance. No consistent changes were observed in the remaining habitat features or in the richness and densities of benthic invertebrate assemblages following drain maintenance. Our findings suggest that key features of fish habitat, structural properties and food availability, are resistant to drain maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab

    2016-02-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Habitat restoration promotes pollinator persistence and colonization in intensively managed agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Ponisio, Lauren C; Cutler, Kerry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Widespread evidence of pollinator declines has led to policies supporting habitat restoration including in agricultural landscapes. Yet, little is yet known about the effectiveness of these restoration techniques for promoting stable populations and communities of pollinators, especially in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. Introducing floral resources, such as flowering hedgerows, to enhance intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes is known to increase the abundances of native insect pollinators in and around restored areas. Whether this is a result of local short-term concentration at flowers or indicative of true increases in the persistence and species richness of these communities remains unclear. It is also unknown whether this practice supports species of conservation concern (e.g., those with more specialized dietary requirements). Analyzing occupancies of native bees and syrphid flies from 330 surveys across 15 sites over eight years, we found that hedgerow restoration promotes rates of between-season persistence and colonization as compared with unrestored field edges. Enhanced persistence and colonization, in turn, led to the formation of more species-rich communities. We also find that hedgerows benefit floral resource specialists more than generalists, emphasizing the value of this restoration technique for conservation in agricultural landscapes.

  8. Geomorphic Framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration, Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Little, Rand

    2010-01-01

    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability. PDF version of a presentation on changes to aquatic

  9. Diurnal lighting patterns and habitat alter opsin expression and colour preferences in a killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ashley M; Stanis, Shannon; Fuller, Rebecca C

    2013-07-22

    Spatial variation in lighting environments frequently leads to population variation in colour patterns, colour preferences and visual systems. Yet lighting conditions also vary diurnally, and many aspects of visual systems and behaviour vary over this time scale. Here, we use the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) to compare how diurnal variation and habitat variation (clear versus tannin-stained water) affect opsin expression and the preference to peck at different-coloured objects. Opsin expression was generally lowest at midnight and dawn, and highest at midday and dusk, and this diurnal variation was many times greater than variation between habitats. Pecking preference was affected by both diurnal and habitat variation but did not correlate with opsin expression. Rather, pecking preference matched lighting conditions, with higher preferences for blue at noon and for red at dawn/dusk, when these wavelengths are comparatively scarce. Similarly, blue pecking preference was higher in tannin-stained water where blue wavelengths are reduced. In conclusion, L. goodei exhibits strong diurnal cycles of opsin expression, but these are not tightly correlated with light intensity or colour. Temporally variable pecking preferences probably result from lighting environment rather than from opsin production. These results may have implications for the colour pattern diversity observed in these fish.

  10. Compounded effects of climate change and habitat alteration shift patterns of butterfly diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forister, Matthew L; McCall, Andrew C; Sanders, Nathan J; Fordyce, James A; Thorne, James H; O'Brien, Joshua; Waetjen, David P; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2010-02-02

    Climate change and habitat destruction have been linked to global declines in vertebrate biodiversity, including mammals, amphibians, birds, and fishes. However, invertebrates make up the vast majority of global species richness, and the combined effects of climate change and land use on invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here we present 35 years of data on 159 species of butterflies from 10 sites along an elevational gradient spanning 0-2,775 m in a biodiversity hotspot, the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Northern California. Species richness has declined at half of the sites, with the most severe reductions at the lowest elevations, where habitat destruction is greatest. At higher elevations, we observed clear upward shifts in the elevational ranges of species, consistent with the influence of global warming. Taken together, these long-term data reveal the interacting negative effects of human-induced changes on both the climate and habitat available to butterfly species in California. Furthermore, the decline of ruderal, disturbance-associated species indicates that the traditional focus of conservation efforts on more specialized and less dispersive species should be broadened to include entire faunas when estimating and predicting the effects of pervasive stressors.

  11. Landscape alterations influence differential habitat use of nesting buteos and ravens within sagebrush ecosystem: implications for transmission line development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A goal in avian ecology is to understand factors that influence differences in nesting habitat and distribution among species, especially within changing landscapes. Over the past 2 decades, humans have altered sagebrush ecosystems as a result of expansion in energy production and transmission. Our primary study objective was to identify differences in the use of landscape characteristics and natural and anthropogenic features by nesting Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and 3 species of buteo (Swainson's Hawk [Buteo swainsoni], Red-tailed Hawk [B. jamaicensis], and Ferruginous Hawk [B. regalis]) within a sagebrush ecosystem in southeastern Idaho. During 2007–2009, we measured multiple environmental factors associated with 212 nest sites using data collected remotely and in the field. We then developed multinomial models to predict nesting probabilities by each species and predictive response curves based on model-averaged estimates. We found differences among species related to nesting substrate (natural vs. anthropogenic), agriculture, native grassland, and edge (interface of 2 cover types). Most important, ravens had a higher probability of nesting on anthropogenic features (0.80) than the other 3 species (Artemisia spp.), favoring increased numbers of nesting ravens and fewer nesting Ferruginous Hawks. Our results indicate that habitat alterations, fragmentation, and forthcoming disturbances anticipated with continued energy development in sagebrush steppe ecosystems can lead to predictable changes in raptor and raven communities.

  12. Fire alters patterns of genetic diversity among 3 lizard species in Florida Scrub habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aaron W; Ashton, Kyle G; Heath, Stacy; McCoy, Earl D; Mushinsky, Henry R

    2011-01-01

    The Florida Sand Skink (Plestiodon reynoldsi), the Florida Scrub Lizard (Sceloporus woodi), and the Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineata) occur in the threatened and fire-maintained Florida scrub habitat. Fire may have different consequences to local genetic diversity of these species because they each have different microhabitat preference. We collected tissue samples of each species from 3 sites with different time-since-fire: Florida Sand Skink n = 73, Florida Scrub Lizard n = 70, and Six-lined Racerunner n = 66. We compared the effect of fire on genetic diversity at microsatellite loci for each species. We screened 8 loci for the Florida Sand Skink, 6 loci for the Florida Scrub Lizard, and 6 loci for the Six-lined Racerunner. We also tested 2 potential driving mechanisms for the observed change in genetic diversity, a metapopulation source/sink model and a local demographic model. Genetic diversity varied with fire history, and significant genetic differentiation occurred among sites. The Florida Scrub Lizard had highest genetic variation at more recently burned sites, whereas the Florida Sand Skink and the Six-lined Racerunner had highest genetic variation at less recently burned sites. Habitat preferences of the Florida Sand Skink and the Florida Scrub Lizard may explain their discordant results, and the Six-lined Racerunner may have a more complicated genetic response to fire or is acted on at a different geographic scale than we have investigated. Our results indicate that these species may respond to fire in a more complicated manner than predicted by our metapopulation model or local demographic model. Our results show that the population-level responses in genetic diversity to fire are species-specific mandating conservation management of habitat diversity through a mosaic of burn frequencies.

  13. Indirect effects of biocontrol of an invasive riparian plant (Tamarix) alters habitat and reduces herpetofauna abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, H.L.; Merritt, D.M.; Glenn, E.P.; Nagler, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    The biological control agent (tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda spp.) is actively being used to defoliate exotic saltcedar or tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in riparian ecosystems in western USA. The Virgin River in Arizona and Nevada is a system where tamarisk leaf beetle populations are spreading. Saltcedar biocontrol, like other control methods, has the potential to affect non-target species. Because amphibians and reptiles respond to vegetation changes in habitat and forage in areas where beetles are active, herpetofauna are model taxa to investigate potential impacts of biocontrol defoliation. Our objectives related herpetofauna abundance to vegetation cover and indices (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI; enhanced vegetation index, EVI) and timing of biocontrol defoliation. We captured herpetofauna and ground-dwelling arthropods in trap arrays and measured vegetation using remotely sensed images and on-the-ground measurements at 16–21 sites 2 years before (2009–2010) and 2 years following (2011–2012) biocontrol defoliation. Following defoliation, riparian stands (including stands mixed with native and exotic trees and stands of monotypic exotic saltcedar) had significantly lower NDVI and EVI values and fewer captures of marked lizards. Total captures of herpetofauna (toads, lizards, and snakes) were related to higher vegetation cover and sites with a lower proportion of saltcedar. Our results suggest that effects of biocontrol defoliation are likely to be site-specific and depend upon the proportion of native riparian trees established prior to biocontrol introduction and defoliation. The mechanisms by which habitat structure, microclimate, and ultimately vertebrate species are affected by exotic plant biocontrol riparian areas should be a focus of natural-resource managers.

  14. Predation cues rather than resource availability promote cryptic behaviour in a habitat-forming sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyksma, Arie J P; Taylor, Richard B; Shears, Nick T

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that predators often influence the foraging behaviour of prey through the so-called "fear effect". However, it is also possible that predators could change prey behaviour indirectly by altering the prey's food supply through a trophic cascade. The predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade is widely assumed to be driven by the removal of sea urchins by predators, but changes in sea urchin behaviour in response to predators or increased food availability could also play an important role. We tested whether increased crevice occupancy by herbivorous sea urchins in the presence of abundant predatory fishes and lobsters is a response to the increased risk of predation, or an indirect response to higher kelp abundances. Inside two New Zealand marine reserves with abundant predators and kelp, individuals of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus were rarer and remained cryptic (i.e. found in crevices) to larger sizes than on adjacent fished coasts where predators and kelp are rare. In a mesocosm experiment, cryptic behaviour was induced by simulated predation (the addition of crushed conspecifics), but the addition of food in the form of drift kelp did not induce cryptic behaviour. These findings demonstrate that the 'fear' of predators is more important than food availability in promoting sea urchin cryptic behaviour and suggest that both density- and behaviourally mediated interactions are important in the predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade.

  15. Microhabitat ecology of semi-aquatic Varanus flavescens (Reptilia: Varanidae in altered habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur K. M. Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A potential microhabitat is very important for the survival and successful reproduction of any wildlife species. In this study we assessed the microhabitat characteristics of Varanus flavescens in the human altered ecosystems of Chalan beel area, Baraigram, Natore by flowing the Visual Encounter Survey method and by using several important material. A semi-aquatic microhabitat of canal and river was preferred by the species as compared to other identified microhabitats. The slow moving water of the river and canal was fresh and somewhat cloudy in character but stagnant water of the pond and beel (floodplain was semitransparent having lots of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The soil was mostly silty clay. As the study species is cold blooded, the environmental variables like soil, air and water temperatures inside and outside of the microhabitat play major roles for their activity patterns. In order to regulate their body temperature, during a hot sunny day they were more active within the shady area of the microhabitats but at dawn and dusk they were more seen in the sunny areas where temperature was relatively higher. In winter months, the monitor lizards were almost inactive. During that time of the year they live inside the burrow to avoid the extreme cold and foggy weather but during heavy sunshine they come outside of the hole for thermoregulation purpose for a certain time. We noticed that extensive agricultural practice and the excessive use of insecticides may be having a detrimental effect on the microhabitat features important to this semiaquatic lizard. Still the study species is more seen in the human altered ecosystems of Bangladesh. So, to ensure their existence in our close proximity there is an urgent need to create consciousness of the people regarding this beneficial non-venomous species and their respective microhabitat.

  16. Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape, Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M.E.; Sisson, T.W.; Brien, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Catastrophic collapses of steep volcano flanks threaten many populated regions, and understanding factors that promote collapse could save lives and property. Large collapses of hydrothermally altered parts of Mount Rainier have generated far-traveled debris flows; future flows would threaten densely populated parts of the Puget Sound region. We evaluate edifice collapse hazards at Mount Rainier using a new three-dimensional slope stability method incorporating detailed geologic mapping and subsurface geophysical imaging to determine distributions of strong (fresh) and weak (altered) rock. Quantitative three-dimensional slope stability calculations reveal that sizeable flank collapse (>0.1 km3) is promoted by voluminous, weak, hydrothermally altered rock situated high on steep slopes. These conditions exist only on Mount Rainier's upper west slope, consistent with the Holocene debris-flow history. Widespread alteration on lower flanks or concealed in regions of gentle slope high on the edifice does not greatly facilitate collapse. Our quantitative stability assessment method can also provide useful hazard predictions using reconnaissance geologic information and is a potentially rapid and inexpensive new tool for aiding volcano hazard assessments.

  17. Chronic alcohol ingestion in rats alters lung metabolism, promotes lipid accumulation, and impairs alveolar macrophage functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B; Kallen, Caleb B; Lang, Charles H; Summer, Ross

    2014-12-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  18. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world’s land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world’s total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa, Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  19. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S; Carvalho, Tiago P; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A; Maxime, Emmanuel L; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E

    2011-04-29

    The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200-500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  20. Transcriptome sequencing revealed significant alteration of cortical promoter usage and splicing in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qin Wu

    Full Text Available While hybridization based analysis of the cortical transcriptome has provided important insight into the neuropathology of schizophrenia, it represents a restricted view of disease-associated gene activity based on predetermined probes. By contrast, sequencing technology can provide un-biased analysis of transcription at nucleotide resolution. Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression.The data was generated from 76 bp reads of RNA-Seq, aligned to the reference genome and assembled into transcripts for quantification of exons, splice variants and alternative promoters in postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22 from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then subjected to further sequence and functional group analysis. The output, amounting to more than 38 Gb of sequence, revealed significant alteration of gene expression including many previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Gene ontology enrichment analysis followed by functional map construction identified three functional clusters highly relevant to schizophrenia including neurotransmission related functions, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and neural development. Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes showed differential splicing (FDR<0.05. Both types of transcriptional isoforms were exemplified by reads aligned to the neurodevelopmentally significant doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1 gene.This study provided the first deep and un-biased analysis of schizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity within the STG, and revealed variants with important implications for the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  1. Alteration of brain insulin and leptin signaling promotes energy homeostasis impairment and neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taouis Mohammed

    2011-09-01

    cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients is diminished. Taken together, these data clearly links deficiency of leptin and insulin signaling to both alterations of energy homeostasis control and predisposition to AD. Furthermore, environment changes leading to insulin and leptin-resistance may promote these defects, such as high fat diet.

  2. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores.

  3. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh W McGregor

    Full Text Available Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores.

  4. Habitat fragmentation alters the properties of a host-parasite network: rodents and their helminths in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Pilosof, Shai; Claude, Julien; Krasnov, Boris R; Cosson, Jean-François; Chaval, Yannick; Ribas, Alexis; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Blasdell, Kim; Herbreteau, Vincent; Dupuy, Stéphane; Tran, Annelise

    2015-09-01

    1. While the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on parasite prevalence or richness are well investigated, host-parasite networks are still understudied despite their importance in understanding the mechanisms of these major disturbances. Because fragmentation may negatively impact species occupancy, abundance and co-occurrence, we predict a link between spatiotemporal changes in habitat and the architecture of host-parasite networks. 2. For this, we used an extensive data set on 16 rodent species and 29 helminth species from seven localities of South-East Asia. We analysed the effects of rapid deforestation on connectance and modularity of helminth-parasite networks. We estimated both the degree of fragmentation and the rate of deforestation through the development of land uses and their changes through the last 20 to 30 years in order to take into account the dynamics of habitat fragmentation in our statistical analyses. 3. We found that rapid fragmentation does not affect helminth species richness per se but impacts host-parasite interactions as the rodent-helminth network becomes less connected and more modular. 4. Our results suggest that parasite sharing among host species may become more difficult to maintain with the increase of habitat disturbance. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  5. δ-Catenin promotes prostate cancer cell growth and progression by altering cell cycle and survival gene profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background δ-Catenin is a unique member of β-catenin/armadillo domain superfamily proteins and its primary expression is restricted to the brain. However, δ-catenin is upregulated in human prostatic adenocarcinomas, although the effects of δ-catenin overexpression in prostate cancer are unclear. We hypothesized that δ-catenin plays a direct role in prostate cancer progression by altering gene profiles of cell cycle regulation and cell survival. Results We employed gene transfection and small interfering RNA to demonstrate that increased δ-catenin expression promoted, whereas its knockdown suppressed prostate cancer cell viability. δ-Catenin promoted prostate cancer cell colony formation in soft agar as well as tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. Deletion of either the amino-terminal or carboxyl-terminal sequences outside the armadillo domains abolished the tumor promoting effects of δ-catenin. Quantitative RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays demonstrated gene alterations involved in cell cycle and survival regulation. δ-Catenin overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 and cdc34, increased phosphorylated histone-H3, and promoted the entry of mitosis. In addition, δ-catenin overexpression resulted in increased expression of cell survival genes Bcl-2 and survivin while reducing the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. Conclusion Taken together, our studies suggest that at least one consequence of an increased expression of δ-catenin in human prostate cancer is the alteration of cell cycle and survival gene profiles, thereby promoting tumor progression.

  6. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Vlastimil; Jůnek, Tomáš; Jůnková Vymyslická, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus) is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates-10 mammals (including Sus philippensis), 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus). The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62); the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40). Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats' activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats' temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga) was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary rainforest and a

  7. Temporal overlaps of feral cats with prey and competitors in primary and human-altered habitats on Bohol Island, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors. The survey took place in the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, and we examined the primary rainforest, its border with agricultural land, and rural areas in the vicinity of villages. Altogether, over 2,885 trap days we captured 30 species of vertebrates–10 mammals (including Sus philippensis, 19 birds and one reptile, Varanus cumingi. We trapped 81.8% of expected vertebrates. Based on the number of events, the most frequent native species was the barred rail (Gallirallus torquatus. The highest overlap in diel activity between cats and potential prey was recorded with rodents in rural areas (Δ = 0.62; the lowest was in the same habitat with ground-dwelling birds (Δ = 0.40. Cat activity was not recorded inside the rainforest; in other habitats their diel activity pattern differed. The cats’ activity declined in daylight in the proximity of humans, while it peaked at the transition zone between rainforest and fields. Both rodents and ground-dwelling birds exhibited a shift in activity levels between sites where cats were present or absent. Rodents tend to become active by day in cat-free habitats. No cats’ temporal response to co-occurrences of civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and Viverra tangalunga was found but cats in diel activity avoided domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris. Our first insight into the ecology of this invasive predator in the Philippines revealed an avoidance of homogeneous primary

  8. A geomorphic framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration of the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.; Barnas, C. R.; Konrad, C. P.; Little, R.

    2010-12-01

    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability.

  9. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

  10. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

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    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  11. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swe, Pearl M; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that

  12. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Altered promoter methylation of PDK4, IL1 B, IL6, and TNF after Roux-en Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Henriette; Nylen, Carolina; Laber, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    -α (TNF) is altered in blood after a very low calorie diet (VLCD) or RYGB. Methods Obese nondiabetic patients (n = 18, body mass index [BMI] 42.3± 4.9 kg/m2) underwent a 14-day VLCD followed by RYGB. Nonobese patients (n = 6, BMI 25.7± 2.1 kg/m2) undergoing elective cholecystectomy served as controls. DNA...... decreased promoter methylation of PPARGC1 A. Methylation of PPARGC1 A, TFAM, IL1 B, IL6, and TNF promoters was changed two days after RYGB. Similar changes were also seen on day one after cholecystectomy. Moreover, methylation increased in PDK4, IL1 B, IL6, and TNF promoters 12 months after RYGB. Conclusion...

  14. Host and habitat filtering in seedling root-associated fungal communities: taxonomic and functional diversity are altered in 'novel' soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Gorzelak, Monika A; Green, D Scott; Egger, Keith N; Massicotte, Hugues B

    2015-10-01

    Climatic and land use changes have significant consequences for the distribution of tree species, both through natural dispersal processes and following management prescriptions. Responses to these changes will be expressed most strongly in seedlings near current species range boundaries. In northern temperate forest ecosystems, where changes are already being observed, ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute significantly to successful tree establishment. We hypothesised that communities of fungal symbionts might therefore play a role in facilitating, or limiting, host seedling range expansion. To test this hypothesis, ectomycorrhizal communities of interior Douglas-fir and interior lodgepole pine seedlings were analysed in a common greenhouse environment following growth in five soils collected along an ecosystem gradient. Currently, Douglas-fir's natural distribution encompasses three of the five soils, whereas lodgepole pine's extends much further north. Host filtering was evident amongst the 29 fungal species encountered: 7 were shared, 9 exclusive to Douglas-fir and 13 exclusive to lodgepole pine. Seedlings of both host species formed symbioses with each soil fungal community, thus Douglas-fir did so even where those soils came from outside its current distribution. However, these latter communities displayed significant taxonomic and functional differences to those found within the host distribution, indicative of habitat filtering. In contrast, lodgepole pine fungal communities displayed high functional similarity across the soil gradient. Taxonomic and/or functional shifts in Douglas-fir fungal communities may prove ecologically significant during the predicted northward migration of this species; especially in combination with changes in climate and management operations, such as seed transfer across geographical regions for forestry purposes.

  15. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, R.; Larkin, O.J.; Hill, R.J.A.; Lopez-Vidriero, I.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Medina, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Results Here, we use an

  16. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, R.; Larkin, O.J.; Hill, R.J.A.; Lopez-Vidriero, I.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Medina, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Results: Here, we use an

  17. Small habitat size and isolation can promote species richness: second-order effects on biodiversity in shallow lakes and ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Geest, van G.J.; Zimmer, K.; Jeppesen, E.; Sondergaard, M.; Butler, M.G.; Hanson, M.A.; Declerck, S.; Meester, de L.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary ecological landscape planning is often based on the assumption that small isolated habitat patches sustain relatively few species. Here, we suggest that for shallow lakes and ponds, the opposite can be true for some groups of organisms. Fish communities tend to be poor or even absent in

  18. Alternative growth promoters alter broiler gut microbiome and enhance body weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have commonly been used to enhance growth in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGPs use in food production on acquisition of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens through inter-bacterial transfer of an...

  19. Ethnic-specific perceptions of altered control among American women: implications for health promotion programs after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Bobbie; Fowles, Eileen; Kim, Sunghun; Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O

    2011-01-01

    This study describes some ethnically diverse psychosocial and behavioral contexts that influence low-income postpartum women's ability to focus on their health. Content analysis was conducted on data from ethnically concordant focus groups of low-income American Anglo, African American, and Hispanic women 12 to 24 months postpartum. All women described altered sense of "perceived control" as the context contributing to their postpartum health status, but sources and management of this perception varied by ethnicity. Effective health promotion interventions may include self-image building activities, stress management strategies and interventions that include family members but should address unique ethnic-specific contexts of low-income mothers.

  20. Epithelial CaSR Deficiency Alters Intestinal Integrity and Promotes Proinflammatory Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Lightfoot, Yaíma L.; Yang, Tao; Zadeh, Mojgan; Tang, Lieqi; Sahay, Bikash; Wang, Gary P.; Owen, Jennifer L.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is equipped with sensing receptor mechanisms that interact with luminal microorganisms and nutrients to regulate barrier function and gut immune responses, thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Herein, we clarify the role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) using intestinal epithelium-specific Casr−/− mice. Epithelial CaSR deficiency diminished intestinal barrier function, altered microbiota composition, and skewed immune responses towards proi...

  1. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-E Peng

    Full Text Available Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1, is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182 from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032.Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05. The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003, while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014. Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans.

  2. Epithelial CaSR Deficiency Alters Intestinal Integrity and Promotes Proinflammatory Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sam X.; Lightfoot, Yaíma L.; Yang, Tao; Zadeh, Mojgan; Tang, Lieqi; Sahay, Bikash; Wang, Gary P.; Owen, Jennifer L.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is equipped with sensing receptor mechanisms that interact with luminal microorganisms and nutrients to regulate barrier function and gut immune responses, thereby maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Herein, we clarify the role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) using intestinal epithelium-specific Casr−/− mice. Epithelial CaSR deficiency diminished intestinal barrier function, altered microbiota composition, and skewed immune responses towards proinflammatory. Consequently, Casr−/− mice were significantly more prone to chemically induced intestinal inflammation resulting in colitis. Accordingly, CaSR represents a potential therapeutic target for autoinflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24842610

  3. Application of bacteria from non-cultivated plants to promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, I; White, J F

    2017-04-01

    Cotton seeds are frequently treated with acid to remove fibres and reduce seed-transmitted diseases. This process also eliminates beneficial bacteria on the seed surface. The goal of this research was to seek and apply beneficial bacteria to acid delinted cotton seeds to evaluate their growth-promoting and salt stress alleviating effects in seedlings. Bacteria were isolated from non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae. Seeds were collected from Portia tree (Thespesia populnea) and wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) from coastal and arid areas of Puerto Rico. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans were inoculated onto acid delinted cotton seeds. Bacteria increased cotton seed germination and length of emerging seedling radicles. Cotton seeds were inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens to evaluate growth and root architecture of non-stressed and salt stressed seedlings. Inoculating cotton seeds with B. amyloliquefaciens led to a greater percentage of seedlings with expanded cotyledons after 8 days, enhanced primary and lateral root growth, and altered root architecture. Similar results were obtained when okra seeds were inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens. The data supported the hypothesis that non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae growing in stressful environments possess bacteria that promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton and okra seedlings. This study demonstrated the effects of applying beneficial bacteria on acid delinted cotton seeds. Inoculating seeds with salt stress alleviating bacteria could improve the growth of crop seedlings that are vulnerable to soil salinization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  5. Analysis of the color alteration and radiopacity promoted by bismuth oxide in calcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Estrela, Carlos; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC) was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO), determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (pbismuth oxide was added showed radiopacity corresponding to the ISO recommendations (>3 mm equivalent of Al). The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC/30% BO group (p>0.05). In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC/50% BO group (pbismuth oxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.

  6. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Raul; Larkin, Oliver J; Hill, Richard J A; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; van Loon, Jack J W A; Medina, F Javier

    2013-06-27

    Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using "gene expression dynamics inspector" (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one.

  7. Alteration of the ileal microbiota of weanling piglets by the growth-promoting antibiotic chlortetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Vilain, Sébastien; Lindblom, Stacy; Lehnert, Kelly; Scofield, Clay; George, Sajan; Clay, Sharon; Kaushik, Radhey S; Rosa, Artur J M; Francis, David; Brözel, Volker S

    2009-09-01

    Antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) have been used to promote growth of pigs for decades, but concerns over increased antibiotic-resistant infections in humans have prompted the development of alternative strategies. Developing alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) could be informed by information on the mechanisms of growth promotion, notably, how AGPs affect the microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs from three sows were aseptically delivered by cesarean section. Six piglets were distributed to each of two foster mothers until weaning, when piglets were fed a diet with or without 50 mg/kg CTC for 2 weeks. The ileal bacterial microbiota was characterized by using a cultivation-independent approach based on DNA extraction, PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene pool. The ileal and mucosal communities of these growing pigs were dominated by Lactobacillus bacteria, various members of the family Clostridiaceae, and members of the poorly known genus Turicibacter. Overall, CTC treatment resulted in three shifts: a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, an increase in L. amylovorus, and a decrease in Turicibacter phylotypes. The composition of the microbiota varied considerably between individual pigs, as revealed by shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and similarity (SONS) analysis (theta(YC) values). While the observed variation between untreated pigs obscured the possible effect of CTC, integral-LIBSHUFF and SONS analyses of pooled libraries indicated a significant shift due to CTC in both the lumen and the mucosa, with some OTUs unique to either treated or control ileum. DOTUR analysis revealed little overlap between control and treated communities at the 3% difference level, indicating unique ileal communities in the presence of CTC.

  8. Chlamydia muridarum lung infection in infants alters hematopoietic cells to promote allergic airway disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Starkey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections in early-life are linked to the development of allergic airway inflammation and asthma. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We have previously shown that neonatal and infant, but not adult, chlamydial lung infections in mice permanently alter inflammatory phenotype and physiology to increase the severity of allergic airway disease by increasing lung interleukin (IL-13 expression, mucus hyper-secretion and airway hyper-responsiveness. This occurred through different mechanisms with infection at different ages. Neonatal infection suppressed inflammatory responses but enhanced systemic dendritic cell:T-cell IL-13 release and induced permanent alterations in lung structure (i.e., increased the size of alveoli. Infant infection enhanced inflammatory responses but had no effect on lung structure. Here we investigated the role of hematopoietic cells in these processes using bone marrow chimera studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neonatal (<24-hours-old, infant (3-weeks-old and adult (6-weeks-old mice were infected with C. muridarum. Nine weeks after infection bone marrow was collected and transferred into recipient age-matched irradiated naïve mice. Allergic airway disease was induced (8 weeks after adoptive transfer by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin. Reconstitution of irradiated naïve mice with bone marrow from mice infected as neonates resulted in the suppression of the hallmark features of allergic airway disease including mucus hyper-secretion and airway hyper-responsiveness, which was associated with decreased IL-13 levels in the lung. In stark contrast, reconstitution with bone marrow from mice infected as infants increased the severity of allergic airway disease by increasing T helper type-2 cell cytokine release (IL-5 and IL-13, mucus hyper-secretion, airway hyper-responsiveness and IL-13 levels in the lung. Reconstitution with bone marrow from

  9. Silver nanoparticles alter proteoglycan expression in the promotion of tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Karen H L; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Liu, Xuelai; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Shum, Ho Cheung; Lam, Yun Wah; Cheng, Shuk Han; Cheung, Kenneth M C; To, Michael K T

    2014-10-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method of using silver nanoparticles for Achilles tendon injury healing. In vitro results indicated a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation and collagen synthesis with silver nanoparticles. Biomechanical test on the 42-day post operation Achilles tendon sample exhibited a significant improvement in tensile modulus when compared to the untreated group. Histology suggested that silver nanoparticles promoted cell alignment and proteoglycan synthesis. The collagen deposition was also improved. An alleviation of tumor necrosis factor α, and an increase in fibromodulin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression were seen in silver nanoparticles group by immunohistochemistry. This study further corroborates the finding of our previous study that silver nanoparticles help to restore the functionality of injured connective tissues. We believe that the anti-inflammatory nature of silver nanoparticles has an important role in accelerating the healing process and reducing scarring, leading to better functional outcome. From the clinical editor: Tendon healing after surgeries remains a slow and tedious process, typically requiring several weeks of recovery time and gradual introduction of physical therapy. There are no currently utilized methods that could promote tendon healing. In this study, silver nanoparticles are reported to facilitate Achilles tendon repair in a model system, through increased proteoglycan and collagen synthesis, paving the way to potential clinical applications in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the color alteration and radiopacity promoted by bismuth oxide in calcium silicate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angelica Marciano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO, determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (p 3 mm equivalent of Al. The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC / 30% BO group (p > 0.05. In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC / 50% BO group (p < 0.05. The comparison between 24 hours and 7 days showed higher ΔE for the MTA group, with statistical differences for the CSC / 15% BO and CSC / 50% BO groups (p < 0.05. After 30 days, CSC showed statistically higher ΔE values than CSC / 30% BO and CSC / 50% BO (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.

  11. Alterations in nuclear structure promote lupus autoimmunity in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of autoantibodies that recognize components of the cell nucleus. The vast majority of lupus research has focused on either the contributions of immune cell dysfunction or the genetics of the disease. Because granulocytes isolated from human SLE patients had alterations in neutrophil nuclear morphology that resembled the Pelger–Huet anomaly, and had prominent mis-splicing of mRNA encoding the nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR, consistent with their Pelger–Huet-like nuclear morphology, we used a novel mouse model system to test the hypothesis that a disruption in the structure of the nucleus itself also contributes to the development of lupus autoimmunity. The lupus-prone mouse strain New Zealand White (NZW was crossed with c57Bl/6 mice harboring a heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation in Lbr (B6.Lbric/+, and the (NZW×B6.LbricF1 offspring were evaluated for induction of lupus autoimmunity. Only female (NZW×B6.LbricF1 mice developed lupus autoimmunity, which included splenomegaly, kidney damage and autoantibodies. Kidney damage was accompanied by immune complex deposition, and perivascular and tubule infiltration of mononuclear cells. The titers of anti-chromatin antibodies exceeded those of aged female MRL-Faslpr mice, and were predominantly of the IgG2 subclasses. The anti-nuclear antibody staining profile of female (NZW×B6.LbricF1 sera was complex, and consisted of an anti-nuclear membrane reactivity that colocalized with the A-type lamina, in combination with a homogeneous pattern that was related to the recognition of histones with covalent modifications that are associated with gene activation. An anti-neutrophil IgM recognizing calreticulin, but not myeloperoxidase (MPO or proteinase 3 (PR3, was also identified. Thus, alterations in nuclear structure contribute to lupus autoimmunity when expressed in the context of a lupus

  12. Alterations in nuclear structure promote lupus autoimmunity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Johnstone, Duncan B; Martin, Kayla A; Tempera, Italo; Kaplan, Mariana J; Denny, Michael F

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the development of autoantibodies that recognize components of the cell nucleus. The vast majority of lupus research has focused on either the contributions of immune cell dysfunction or the genetics of the disease. Because granulocytes isolated from human SLE patients had alterations in neutrophil nuclear morphology that resembled the Pelger-Huet anomaly, and had prominent mis-splicing of mRNA encoding the nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor (LBR), consistent with their Pelger-Huet-like nuclear morphology, we used a novel mouse model system to test the hypothesis that a disruption in the structure of the nucleus itself also contributes to the development of lupus autoimmunity. The lupus-prone mouse strain New Zealand White (NZW) was crossed with c57Bl/6 mice harboring a heterozygous autosomal dominant mutation in Lbr (B6.Lbr(ic/+)), and the (NZW×B6.Lbr(ic))F1 offspring were evaluated for induction of lupus autoimmunity. Only female (NZW×B6.Lbr(ic))F1 mice developed lupus autoimmunity, which included splenomegaly, kidney damage and autoantibodies. Kidney damage was accompanied by immune complex deposition, and perivascular and tubule infiltration of mononuclear cells. The titers of anti-chromatin antibodies exceeded those of aged female MRL-Fas(lpr) mice, and were predominantly of the IgG2 subclasses. The anti-nuclear antibody staining profile of female (NZW×B6.Lbr(ic))F1 sera was complex, and consisted of an anti-nuclear membrane reactivity that colocalized with the A-type lamina, in combination with a homogeneous pattern that was related to the recognition of histones with covalent modifications that are associated with gene activation. An anti-neutrophil IgM recognizing calreticulin, but not myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3), was also identified. Thus, alterations in nuclear structure contribute to lupus autoimmunity when expressed in the context of a lupus

  13. Supplementation with complex milk lipids during brain development promotes neuroplasticity without altering myelination or vascular density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamond B. Guillermo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementation with complex milk lipids (CML during postnatal brain development has been shown to improve spatial reference learning in rats. Objective: The current study examined histo-biological changes in the brain following CML supplementation and their relationship to the observed improvements in memory. Design: The study used the brain tissues from the rats (male Wistar, 80 days of age after supplementing with either CML or vehicle during postnatal day 10–80. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, myelin basic protein, isolectin B-4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed. The average area and the density of the staining and the numbers of astrocytes and capillaries were assessed and analysed. Results: Compared with control rats, CML supplementation increased the average area of synaptophysin staining and the number of GFAP astrocytes in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus (p<0.01, but not in the CA4 sub-region. The supplementation also led to an increase in dopamine output in the striatum that was related to nigral dopamine expression (p<0.05, but did not alter glutamate receptors, myelination or vascular density. Conclusion: CML supplementation may enhance neuroplasticity in the CA3 sub-regions of the hippocampus. The brain regions-specific increase of astrocyte may indicate a supporting role for GFAP in synaptic plasticity. CML supplementation did not associate with postnatal white matter development or vascular remodelling.

  14. Alteration in methylation pattern of GATA-4 promoter region in vitamin A-deficient offspring's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Zhao, Ling-Zi; Hong, Li; Shan, Chuan; Shi, Wen; Cai, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Epigenetics might explain correlations between lifestyle and risk of disease. Maternal diet has been shown to dynamically alter epigenetic regulation, including affecting DNA methylation status. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that GATA-4 gene methylation would lead to congenital heart defects in vitamin A-deficient offspring. Ten weaning female rats (VAN group) were fed with a diet which contents 4 IU vitamin A/g diet, while 20 rats (VAD group) were maintained on a diet without vitamin A. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the female rats were mated with normal male rats. The VAN group and a portion of VAD group rats were still given the same diet as before mating, while the rest of the rats from the VAD group (VADS group) were transferred to a diet with enough added vitamin A (10 IU/g diet) for the pregnancy cycle. The embryo hearts were dissected out at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) for observation of cardiac development, GATA-4 gene methylation status and the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Embryos from vitamin A-deficient group exhibited a high incidence of cardiac defects. High methylation was present in the CpG loci of GATA-4 gene with a low expression of GATA-4 mRNA from vitamin A-deficient group embryos. Moreover, up-regulation of DNMT1 and down-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b expression were found in this group embryo. These findings show that aberrant methylation is one of key mechanisms to heart defects in vitamin A-deficient offspring. DNMTs play a critical role in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro oxidation of fibrinogen promotes functional alterations and formation of advanced oxidation protein products, an inflammation mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; de Carvalho, José Antônio Mainardi; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; da Silva, José Edson Paz; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinogen (FB) is a soluble blood plasma protein and is a key molecule involved in coagulation. Oxidative modification of proteins, such as the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a heterogeneous family of protein compounds structurally modified and derived from oxidative stress, may be associated with the pathophysiology of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the formation of this mediator of inflammation occurs from FB and whether its generation is associated with structural changes. Results of the present study suggest that the oxidation of FB may provoke the formation of AOPP, which in turn, may promote functional alterations in FB, thus causing changes in its structural domains and increasing its procoagulant activity.

  16. Selective dicer suppression in the kidney alters GSK3β/β-catenin pathways promoting a glomerulocystic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iervolino

    Full Text Available Dicer is a crucial enzyme for the maturation of miRNAs. Mutations in the Dicer gene are highly associated with Pleuro Pulmonary Blastoma-Family Dysplasia Syndrome (PPB-FDS, OMIM 601200, recently proposed to be renamed Dicer syndrome. Aside from the pulmonary phenotype (blastoma, renal nephroma and thyroid goiter are frequently part of Dicer syndrome. To investigate the renal phenotype, conditional knockout (cKO mice for Dicer in Pax8 expressing cells were generated. Dicer cKO mice progressively develop a glomerulocystic phenotype coupled with urinary concentration impairment, proteinuria and severe renal failure. Higher cellular turnover of the parietal cells of Bowman's capsule precedes the development of the cysts and the primary cilium progressively disappears with cyst-enlargement. Upregulation of GSK3β precedes the development of the glomerulocystic phenotype. Downregulation of β-catenin in the renal cortex and its cytosolic removal in the cells lining the cysts may be associated with observed accumulation of GSK3β. Alterations of β-catenin regulating pathways could promote cystic degeneration as in other models. Thus, miRNAs are fundamental in preserving renal morphology and function. Alteration of the GSK3β/β-catenin pathway could be a crucial mechanism linking miRNA dysregulation and the development of a glomerulocystic disease.

  17. Bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol promote arrhythmia in the female heart via alteration of calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Yan

    Full Text Available There is wide-spread human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA, a ubiquitous estrogenic endocrine disruptor that has been implicated as having potentially harmful effects on human heart health. Higher urine BPA concentrations have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, neither the nature nor the mechanism(s of BPA action on the heart are understood.The rapid (<7 min effects of BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2 in the heart and ventricular myocytes from rodents were investigated in the present study. In isolated ventricular myocytes from young adult females, but not males, physiological concentrations of BPA or E2 (10⁻⁹ M rapidly induced arrhythmogenic triggered activities. The effects of BPA were particularly pronounced when combined with estradiol. Under conditions of catecholamine stimulation, E2 and BPA promoted ventricular arrhythmias in female, but not male, hearts. The cellular mechanism of the female-specific pro-arrhythmic effects of BPA and E2 were investigated. Exposure to E2 and/or BPA rapidly altered myocyte Ca²⁺ handling; in particular, estrogens markedly increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca²⁺ leak, and increased SR Ca²⁺ load. Ryanodine (10⁻⁷ M inhibition of SR Ca²⁺ leak suppressed estrogen-induced triggered activities. The rapid response of female myocytes to estrogens was abolished in an estrogen receptor (ER β knockout mouse model.Physiologically-relevant concentrations of BPA and E2 promote arrhythmias in a female-specific manner in rat hearts; the pro-arrhythmic actions of estrogens are mediated by ERβ-signaling through alterations of myocyte Ca²⁺ handling, particularly increases in SR Ca²⁺ leak. Our study provides the first experimental evidence suggesting that exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and the unique sensitivity of female hearts to estrogens may play a role in arrhythmogenesis in the female heart.

  18. Population Models for Stream Fish Response to Habitat and Hydrologic Alteration: the CVI Watershed Tool. EPA/600/R-04/190

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models that predict the responses of fish populations and communities to key habitat characteristics are necessary for CVIs watershed management goals, for determining where to restore and how, as well as evaluating the most probable outcome.

  19. Effect of introduced species and habitat alteration on the occurrence and distribution of euryhaline fishes in fresh- and brackish-water habitats on Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (South Caribbean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, H.; Vonk, R.; Aliabadian, M.; Debrot, A.O.; Nijman, V.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted an ichthyological survey during the dry season of 2006 on the semi-arid islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao to provide information on species composition, richness and distribution in natural and non-natural aquatic habitats. The dry season species assemblages (N = 9 species)

  20. A SNP in the HTT promoter alters NF-κB binding and is a bidirectional genetic modifier of Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bečanović, Kristina; Nørremølle, Anne; Neal, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    Cis-regulatory variants that alter gene expression can modify disease expressivity, but none have previously been identified in Huntington disease (HD). Here we provide in vivo evidence in HD patients that cis-regulatory variants in the HTT promoter are bidirectional modifiers of HD age of onset...

  1. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  2. Inhibition of cyclophilin D by cyclosporin A promotes retinal ganglion cell survival by preventing mitochondrial alteration in ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S Y; Shim, M S; Kim, K-Y; Weinreb, R N; Wheeler, L A; Ju, W-K

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) by interacting with cyclophilin D (CypD) and ameliorates neuronal cell death in the central nervous system against ischemic injury. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CypD/MPTP opening-mediated cell death in ischemic retinal injury induced by acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation remain unknown. We observed the first direct evidence that acute IOP elevation significantly upregulated CypD protein expression in ischemic retina at 12 h. However, CsA prevented the upregulation of CypD protein expression and promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival against ischemic injury. Moreover, CsA blocked apoptotic cell death by decreasing cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in ischemic retina. Of interest, although the expression level of Bcl-xL protein did not show a significant change in ischemic retina treated with vehicle or CsA at 12 h, ischemic damage induced the reduction of Bcl-xL immunoreactivity in RGCs. More importantly, CsA preserved Bcl-xL immunoreactivity in RGCs of ischemic retina. In parallel, acute IOP elevation significantly increased phosphorylated Bad (pBad) at Ser112 protein expression in ischemic retina at 12 h. However, CsA significantly preserved pBad protein expression in ischemic retina. Finally, acute IOP elevation significantly increased mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) protein expression in ischemic retina at 12 h. However, CsA significantly preserved Tfam protein expression in ischemic retina. Studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in ischemic retina showed that there were no statistically significant differences in mtDNA content among control and ischemic groups treated with vehicle or CsA. Therefore, these results provide evidence that the activation of CypD-mediated MPTP opening is associated with the apoptotic pathway and the mitochondrial alteration in RGC death of ischemic retinal injury. On the basis

  3. Large-scale downy brome treatments alter plant-soil relationships and promote perennial grasses in salt desert shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interrelationship between invasive annual grass abundance and soil resource availability varies spatially and temporally within ecosystems and may be altered by land treatments. We evaluated these relationships in two salt desert landscapes where the local abundance of Bromus tectorum L. (downy...

  4. Bee assemblage in habitats associated with Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Halinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1 flowering canola crop, (2 forest remnant, and (3 grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50% and in the flowering canola field (47%. Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii peroxiredoxin promotes altered macrophage function, caspase-1-dependent IL-1β secretion enhances parasite replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Edward S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM are a key feature Th2 immunity and have been associated with a variety of roles during helminth infection. The role this cell subset plays in protzoan infection remain relatively unexplored, herein we describe the effects of a redox enzyme (rTgPrx derived from Toxoplasma gondii on murine macrophage phenotype in vitro. RTgPrx has been previously associated with the maintainence of parasite oxidative balance. Here our experiments show that rTgPrx promotes AAM as indicated by high arginase-1 (arg-1, YM1 and FIZZ expression via both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Additionally rTgPrx treatment reduced caspase-1 activity and IL-1β secretion, while simultaneously increasing IL-10 release. Furthermore the in vitro replication of T. gondii (RH strain was enhanced when macrophages were treated with rTgPrx. This is in contrast with the previously described effects of a Plasmodium berghei ANKA 2-cys-peroxiredoxin that promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These results highlight the role of T. gondii derived redox enzymes as important immune modulators and potentially indicate a role for AAM in modulating immunopathology and promoting parasite replication during T. gondii infection.

  6. Ficolin-1-PTX3 complex formation promotes clearance of altered self-cells and modulates IL-8 production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Doni, Andrea; Romani, Luigina

    2013-01-01

    recognition molecule that interacts with PTX3. We hypothesized that heterocomplexes between ficolin-1 and PTX3 might mediate the signals necessary for sequestration of altered self-cells and A. fumigatus. We were able to show that ficolin-1 interacts with PTX3 via its fibrinogen-like domain. The interaction...... for enhancement of phagocytosis by human monocyte-derived macrophages and downregulation of IL-8 production during phagocytosis. On A. fumigatus, PTX3 exposed the C-terminal portion of the molecule, probably resulting in steric hindrance of ficolin-1 interaction with PTX3. These results demonstrate that ficolin-1...

  7. Restoration of the crystallization of altered delta-endotoxins Cry1Ac, by the promotion of their in vivo integration into the Bacillus thuringiensis native crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Mariam; Tounsi, Slim; Hamadou, Dorra Ben; Abdelkafi, Lobna; Schultz, Patrick; Jaoua, Samir

    2009-03-01

    Cry1Ac is one of the most-studied Bacillus thuringiensisdelta-endotoxins. Structurally, it is divided into two domains: the N-terminal half corresponding to the toxic component and the C-terminal half corresponding to the region responsible for the crystal formation. We engineered Cry1Ac delta-endotoxins modified in their N-terminal part and studied the effect of such modifications on crystallization and delta-endotoxin production. When expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain, Cry1Ac(*) and Cry1AcDelta, variants with four point mutations and a deletion, respectively, could not form crystals. However, when expressed in a crystalliferous strain, these altered proteins were shown to interact with the endogenous delta-endotoxins and cocrystallize with them, forming atypical crystals observed by electron microscopy. This cocrystallization of the altered delta-endotoxins with the endogenous ones led to a decrease in delta-endotoxin production (27%) by the corresponding recombinant B. thuringiensis strains. This ability of altered delta-endotoxins containing an intact C-terminal part to cocrystallize with native ones could be exploited to promote the crystallization of foreign proteins by fusing them with the C-terminal part of Cry1A delta-endotoxins.

  8. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    KAUST Repository

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami

    2016-07-07

    The actin-binding protein, gelsolin, is a well known regulator of cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanisms by which gelsolin promotes invasion are not well established. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to promote cancer cell invasion, we investigated on the hypothesis that gelsolin-induced changes in ROS levels may mediate the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells. Herein, we show that increased gelsolin enhances the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells, and this is mediated via gelsolin\\'s effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained elevation of intracellular O2 .-. Using microarray data of human colorectal cancer tissues from Gene Omnibus, we found that gelsolin gene expression positively correlates with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), an important matrix-degrading protease invovled in cancer invasion. Consistent with the in vivo evidence, we show that increased levels of O2 .- induced by gelsolin overexpression triggers the secretion of uPA. We further observed reduction in invasion and intracellular O2 .- levels in colon cancer cells, as a consequence of gelsolin knockdown using two different siRNAs. In these cells, concurrent repression of Cu/ ZnSOD restored intracellular O2 .- levels and rescued invasive capacity. Our study therefore identified gelsolin as a novel regulator of intracellular O2 .- in cancer cells via interacting with Cu/ZnSOD and inhibiting its enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings provide insight into a novel function of gelsolin in promoting tumor invasion by directly impacting the cellular redox milieu.

  9. Habitat Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the relationship between California red-legged frogs and their habitat in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened...

  10. A teleost androgen promotes development of primary ovarian follicles in coho salmon and rapidly alters the ovarian transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Christopher; Forsgren, Kristy; Goetz, Giles; Harding, Louisa; Swanson, Penny; Young, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the nonaromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli). Utilizing the same experimental approach, we then analyzed how 11-KT rapidly altered the ovarian transcriptome after 1 and 3 days of treatment. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that 69 (day 1) and 1,022 (day 3) contiguous sequences (contigs) were differentially expressed relative to controls. The differentially expressed contigs mapped to genes including those encoding proteins involved in gonadotropin, steroid hormone, and growth factor signaling, and in cell and ovarian development, including genes with putative androgen-response elements. Biological functions and canonical pathways identified as potentially altered by 11-KT include those involved in ovarian development, tissue differentiation and remodeling, and lipid metabolism. We conclude that androgens play a major role in stimulating primary ovarian follicle development and the transition into secondary growth. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genetic and hypoxic alterations of the microRNA-210-ISCU1/2 axis promote iron–sulfur deficiency and pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kevin; Lu, Yu; Annis, Sofia; Hale, Andrew E; Chau, B Nelson; Dahlman, James E; Hemann, Craig; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Vargas, Sara O; Rosas, Ivan; Perrella, Mark A; Osorio, Juan C; Haley, Kathleen J; Graham, Brian B; Kumar, Rahul; Saggar, Rajan; Saggar, Rajeev; Wallace, W Dean; Ross, David J; Khan, Omar F; Bader, Andrew; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Matar, Majed; Polach, Kevin; Johannessen, Nicolai M; Prosser, Haydn M; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Zweier, Jay L; Bindoff, Laurence A; Systrom, David; Waxman, Aaron B; Jin, Richard C; Chan, Stephen Y

    2015-01-01

    Iron–sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential for mitochondrial metabolism, but their regulation in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains enigmatic. We demonstrate that alterations of the miR-210-ISCU1/2 axis cause Fe-S deficiencies in vivo and promote PH. In pulmonary vascular cells and particularly endothelium, hypoxic induction of miR-210 and repression of the miR-210 targets ISCU1/2 down-regulated Fe-S levels. In mouse and human vascular and endothelial tissue affected by PH, miR-210 was elevated accompanied by decreased ISCU1/2 and Fe-S integrity. In mice, miR-210 repressed ISCU1/2 and promoted PH. Mice deficient in miR-210, via genetic/pharmacologic means or via an endothelial-specific manner, displayed increased ISCU1/2 and were resistant to Fe-S-dependent pathophenotypes and PH. Similar to hypoxia or miR-210 overexpression, ISCU1/2 knockdown also promoted PH. Finally, cardiopulmonary exercise testing of a woman with homozygous ISCU mutations revealed exercise-induced pulmonary vascular dysfunction. Thus, driven by acquired (hypoxia) or genetic causes, the miR-210-ISCU1/2 regulatory axis is a pathogenic lynchpin causing Fe-S deficiency and PH. These findings carry broad translational implications for defining the metabolic origins of PH and potentially other metabolic diseases sharing similar underpinnings. PMID:25825391

  12. Inducible CTCF insulator delays the IgH 3' regulatory region-mediated activation of germline promoters and alters class switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braikia, Fatima-Zohra; Oudinet, Chloé; Haddad, Dania; Oruc, Zeliha; Orlando, Domenico; Dauba, Audrey; Le Bert, Marc; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

    2017-06-06

    Class switch recombination (CSR) plays an important role in adaptive immune response by enabling mature B cells to switch from IgM expression to the expression of downstream isotypes. CSR is preceded by inducible germline (GL) transcription of the constant genes and is controlled by the 3' regulatory region (3'RR) in a stimulus-dependent manner. Why the 3'RR-mediated up-regulation of GL transcription is delayed to the mature B-cell stage is presently unknown. Here we show that mice devoid of an inducible CTCF binding element, located in the α constant gene, display a marked isotype-specific increase of GL transcription in developing and resting splenic B cells and altered CSR in activated B cells. Moreover, insertion of a GL promoter downstream of the CTCF insulator led to premature activation of the ectopic promoter. This study provides functional evidence that the 3'RR has a developmentally controlled potential to constitutively activate GL promoters but that this activity is delayed, at least in part, by the CTCF insulator, which borders a transcriptionally active domain established by the 3'RR in developing B cells.

  13. HDL promotes rapid atherosclerosis regression in mice and alters inflammatory properties of plaque monocyte-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Jonathan E; Rong, James X; Shamir, Raanan; Sanson, Marie; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Liu, Jianhua; Rayner, Katey; Moore, Kathryn; Garabedian, Michael; Fisher, Edward A

    2011-04-26

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) plasma levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease risk. Previous studies have shown in animals and humans that HDL promotes regression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that this was related to an ability to promote the loss of monocyte-derived cells (CD68(+), primarily macrophages and macrophage foam cells) from plaques. To test this hypothesis, we used an established model of atherosclerosis regression in which plaque-bearing aortic arches from apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice (low HDL-C, high non-HDL-C) were transplanted into recipient mice with differing levels of HDL-C and non-HDL-C: C57BL6 mice (normal HDL-C, low non-HDL-C), apoAI(-/-) mice (low HDL-C, low non-HDL-C), or apoE(-/-) mice transgenic for human apoAI (hAI/apoE(-/-); normal HDL-C, high non-HDL-C). Remarkably, despite persistent elevated non-HDL-C in hAI/apoE(-/-) recipients, plaque CD68(+) cell content decreased by >50% by 1 wk after transplantation, whereas there was little change in apoAI(-/-) recipient mice despite hypolipidemia. The decreased content of plaque CD68(+) cells after HDL-C normalization was associated with their emigration and induction of their chemokine receptor CCR7. Furthermore, in CD68(+) cells laser-captured from the plaques, normalization of HDL-C led to decreased expression of inflammatory factors and enrichment of markers of the M2 (tissue repair) macrophage state. Again, none of these beneficial changes were observed in the apoAI(-/-) recipients, suggesting a major requirement for reverse cholesterol transport for the beneficial effects of HDL. Overall, these results establish HDL as a regulator in vivo of the migratory and inflammatory properties of monocyte-derived cells in mouse atherosclerotic plaques, and highlight the phenotypic plasticity of these cells.

  14. Loss of the alpha7 integrin promotes extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and altered vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Jennifer V; Lange, Naomi; Singer, Cherie A; Elorza, Margaret; Scowen, Paul; Keef, Kathleen D; Gerthoffer, William T; Burkin, Dean J

    2007-09-28

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are underlying factors in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that altered expression of vascular integrins and extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to the vascular remodeling observed after arterial injury and during disease. We have recently shown that loss of the alpha7beta1 integrin results in VSMC hyperplasia. To investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenotype, we have examined changes in cell signaling pathways associated with VSMC proliferation. Several studies have demonstrated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is activated in response to vascular injury and disease. In this study, we show that loss of the alpha7 integrin in VSMCs results in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and translocation of the activated kinase to the nucleus. Forced expression of the alpha7 integrin or use of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 inhibitor U0126 in alpha7 integrin-deficient VSMCs suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and restored the differentiated phenotype to alpha7 integrin-null cells in a manner dependent on Ras signaling. Alpha7 integrin-null mice displayed profound vascular remodeling in response to injury with pronounced neointimal formation and reduced vascular compliance. These findings demonstrate that the alpha7beta1 integrin negatively regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and suggests an important role for this integrin as part of a signaling complex regulating VSMC phenotype switching.

  15. Rat hepatic stellate cells alter the gene expression profile and promote the growth, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Ming; Zhou, Le-Yuan; Liu, Bin-Bin; Jia, Qin-An; Dong, Yin-Ying; Xia, Yun-Hong; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their paracrine secretions, on hepatocellular cancer cell growth and gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Differentially expressed genes in McA-RH7777 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells following non-contact co-culture with activated stellate cells, were identified by a cDNA microarray. The effect of the co-injection of HCC cells and activated HSCs on tumor size in rats was also investigated. Non-contact co-culture altered the expression of 573 HCC genes by >2-fold of the control levels. Among the six selected genes, ELISA revealed increased protein levels of hepatic growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9). Incubation of HCC cells with medium conditioned by activated HSCs significantly increased the proliferation rate (Pexpression profile of HCC cells and affected their growth, migration and invasiveness. The results from the present study indicate that the interaction between the activated HSCs and HCC has an important role in the development of HCC.

  16. Methamphetamine promotes habitual action and alters the density of striatal glutamate receptor and vesicular proteins in dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Teri M; Corbit, Laura H; Brown, Robert A; Balleine, Bernard W

    2017-07-14

    Goal-directed actions are controlled by the value of the consequences they produce and so increase when what they produce is valuable and decrease when it is not. With continued invariant practice, however, goal-directed actions can become habits, controlled not by their consequences but by antecedent, reward-related states and stimuli. Here, we show that pre-exposure to methamphetamine (METH) caused abnormally rapid development of habitual control. Furthermore, these drug-induced habits differed strikingly from conventional habits; we found that they were insensitive both to changes in reward value and to the effects of negative feedback. In addition to these behavioral changes, METH exposure produced bidirectional changes to synaptic proteins in the dorsal striatum. In the dorsomedial striatum, a structure critical for goal-directed action, METH exposure was associated with a reduction in glutamate receptor and glutamate vesicular proteins, whereas in the dorsolateral striatum, a region that has previously been implicated in habit learning, there was an increase in these proteins. Together, these results indicate that METH exposure promotes habitual control of action that appears to be the result of bidirectional changes in glutamatergic transmission in the circuits underlying goal-directed and habit-based learning. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Experimental lung injury promotes alterations in energy metabolism and respiratory mechanics in the lungs of rats: prevention by exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Maira J; da Cunha, Aline A; Scherer, Emilene B S; Machado, Fernanda Rossato; Loureiro, Samanta O; Jaenisch, Rodrigo B; Guma, Fátima; Lago, Pedro Dal; Wyse, Angela T S

    2014-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of lung injury on energy metabolism (succinate dehydrogenase, complex II, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATP levels), respiratory mechanics (dynamic and static compliance, elastance and respiratory system resistance) in the lungs of rats, as well as on phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The protective effect of physical exercise on the alterations caused by lung injury, including lung edema was also evaluated. Wistar rats were submitted to 2 months of physical exercise. After this period the lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide. Adult Wistar rats were submitted to 2 months of physical exercise and after this period the lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide in dose 100 μg/100 g body weight. The sham group received isotonic saline instillation. Twelve hours after the injury was performed the respiratory mechanical and after the rats were decapitated and samples were collected. The rats subjected to lung injury presented a decrease in activities of the enzymes of the electron transport chain and ATP levels in lung, as well as the formation of pulmonary edema. A decreased lung dynamic and static compliance, as well as an increase in respiratory system resistance, and a decrease in phospholipids content were observed. Physical exercise was able to totally prevent the decrease in succinate dehydrogenase and complex II activities and the formation of pulmonary edema. It also partially prevented the increase in respiratory system resistance, but did not prevent the decrease in dynamic and static compliance, as well as in phospholipids content. These findings suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may be one of the important contributors to lung damage and that physical exercise may be beneficial in this pathology, although it did not prevent all changes present in lung injury.

  18. Epstein - Barr virus transforming protein LMP-1 alters B cells gene expression by promoting accumulation of the oncoprotein ΔNp73α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Accardi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that oncogenic viruses develop redundant mechanisms to alter the functions of the tumor suppressor p53. Here we show that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, via the oncoprotein LMP-1, induces the expression of ΔNp73α, a strong antagonist of p53. This phenomenon is mediated by the LMP-1 dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1 which in turn favours the recruitment of p73 to ΔNp73α promoter. A specific chemical inhibitor of JNK-1 or silencing JNK-1 expression strongly down-regulated ΔNp73α mRNA levels in LMP-1-containing cells. Accordingly, LMP-1 mutants deficient to activate JNK-1 did not induce ΔNp73α accumulation. The recruitment of p73 to the ΔNp73α promoter correlated with the displacement of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 which is part of the transcriptional repressive polycomb 2 complex. Inhibition of ΔNp73α expression in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs led to the stimulation of apoptosis and up-regulation of a large number of cellular genes as determined by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq. In particular, the expression of genes encoding products known to play anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic functions, as well as genes known to be deregulated in different B cells malignancy, was altered by ΔNp73α down-regulation. Together, these findings reveal a novel EBV mechanism that appears to play an important role in the transformation of primary B cells.

  19. Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression

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    Prasad P. Devarshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q or red onion extract (ROE in a high fat diet (HFD ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function. Here, mice were fed a low fat (LF, high fat (HF, high fat plus quercetin (HF + Q, or high fat plus red onion extract (HF + RO diet for 9 wks and skeletal muscle Pgc-1α isoform expression and DNA methylation were determined. Quantification of various Pgc-1α isoforms, including isoforms Pgc-1α-a, Pgc-1α-b, Pgc-1α-c, Pgc-1α4, total NT-Pgc-1α, and FL-Pgc-1α, showed that only total NT-Pgc-1α expression was increased in LF, HF + Q, and HF + RO compared to HF. Furthermore, Q supplementation decreased Pgc-1α-a expression compared to LF and HF, and ROE decreased Pgc-1α-a expression compared to LF. FL-Pgc-1α was decreased in HF + Q and HF + RO compared to LF and HF. HF exhibited hypermethylation at the −260 nucleotide (nt in the Pgc-1α promoter. Q and ROE prevented HFD-induced hypermethylation. −260 nt methylation levels were associated with NT-Pgc-1α expression only. Pgc-1α isoform expression may be epigenetically regulated by Q and ROE through DNA methylation.

  20. Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarshi, Prasad P; Jones, Aarin D; Taylor, Erin M; Stefanska, Barbara; Henagan, Tara M

    2017-01-01

    Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function. Here, mice were fed a low fat (LF), high fat (HF), high fat plus quercetin (HF + Q), or high fat plus red onion extract (HF + RO) diet for 9 wks and skeletal muscle Pgc-1α isoform expression and DNA methylation were determined. Quantification of various Pgc-1α isoforms, including isoforms Pgc-1α-a, Pgc-1α-b, Pgc-1α-c, Pgc-1α4, total NT-Pgc-1α, and FL-Pgc-1α, showed that only total NT-Pgc-1α expression was increased in LF, HF + Q, and HF + RO compared to HF. Furthermore, Q supplementation decreased Pgc-1α-a expression compared to LF and HF, and ROE decreased Pgc-1α-a expression compared to LF. FL-Pgc-1α was decreased in HF + Q and HF + RO compared to LF and HF. HF exhibited hypermethylation at the -260 nucleotide (nt) in the Pgc-1α promoter. Q and ROE prevented HFD-induced hypermethylation. -260 nt methylation levels were associated with NT-Pgc-1α expression only. Pgc-1α isoform expression may be epigenetically regulated by Q and ROE through DNA methylation.

  1. Intra- and Extra-Cellular Events Related to Altered Glycosylation of MUC1 Promote Chronic Inflammation, Tumor Progression, Invasion, and Metastasis

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    Sandra Cascio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered glycosylation of mucin 1 (MUC1 on tumor cells compared to normal epithelial cells was previously identified as an important antigenic modification recognized by the immune system in the process of tumor immunosurveillance. This tumor form of MUC1 is considered a viable target for cancer immunotherapy. The importance of altered MUC1 glycosylation extends also to its role as a promoter of chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to malignant transformation and cancer progression. We review here what is known about the role of specific cancer-associated glycans on MUC1 in protein-protein interactions and intracellular signaling in cancer cells and in their adhesion to each other and the tumor stroma. The tumor form of MUC1 also creates a different landscape of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment by controlling the recruitment of inflammatory cells, establishing specific interactions with dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages, and facilitating tumor escape from the immune system. Through multiple types of short glycans simultaneously present in tumors, MUC1 acquires multiple oncogenic properties that control tumor development, progression, and metastasis at different steps of the process of carcinogenesis.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region alter the risk of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqing; Qu, Hongda; Chen, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hao; Li, Juan

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis (PsV&PsA). In contrast, the reported association of TNFα gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PsV&PsA has remained controversial. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to provide new evidence that SNPs in the TNFα gene promoter region alter not only the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) but also of PsV&PsA. Interrelated literature dated to October 2012 was acquired from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNFα promoter in the PsV and PsA and control subjects was obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the risk of PsV and/or PsA with TNFα promoter SNPs. A total of 26 papers of 2159 for PsV (2129 normal controls) and 2360 for PsA (2997 normal controls) were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotype and allele of TNFα -308A/G was protective in pooled groups of patients with PsV&PsA (OR = 0.682, 0.750; 95% CI, 0.596-0.779, 0.653-0.861). However, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C had an increased risk of PsV&PsA (OR = 2.493, 2.228, 1.536, 1.486, 95% CI, 1.777-3.498, 1.628-3.049, 1.336-1.767, 1.309-1.685). Moreover, the meta-analysis revealed a significant association between TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C polymorphism and PsA susceptibility (OR = 2.242, 2.052, 1.419, 1.465; 95% CI, 1.710-2.941, 1.614-2.610, 1.214-1.658, 1.277-1.681). In contrast, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -308A/G proved to be protective against PsV (OR = 0.574, 0.650, 95% CI, 0.478-0.690, 0.556-0.759), whereas TNFα -238A/G was found to have a risk association (OR = 2.636, 2.223, 95% CI, 1.523-4.561, 1.317-3.751). SNPs in the TNFα gene promoter region

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region alter the risk of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis (PsV&PsA. In contrast, the reported association of TNFα gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and PsV&PsA has remained controversial. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to provide new evidence that SNPs in the TNFα gene promoter region alter not only the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV or psoriatic arthritis (PsA but also of PsV&PsA. METHODS: Interrelated literature dated to October 2012 was acquired from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNFα promoter in the PsV and PsA and control subjects was obtained. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to calculate the risk of PsV and/or PsA with TNFα promoter SNPs. RESULTS: A total of 26 papers of 2159 for PsV (2129 normal controls and 2360 for PsA (2997 normal controls were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotype and allele of TNFα -308A/G was protective in pooled groups of patients with PsV&PsA (OR = 0.682, 0.750; 95% CI, 0.596-0.779, 0.653-0.861. However, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C had an increased risk of PsV&PsA (OR = 2.493, 2.228, 1.536, 1.486, 95% CI, 1.777-3.498, 1.628-3.049, 1.336-1.767, 1.309-1.685. Moreover, the meta-analysis revealed a significant association between TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C polymorphism and PsA susceptibility (OR = 2.242, 2.052, 1.419, 1.465; 95% CI, 1.710-2.941, 1.614-2.610, 1.214-1.658, 1.277-1.681. In contrast, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -308A/G proved to be protective against PsV (OR = 0.574, 0.650, 95% CI, 0.478-0.690, 0.556-0.759, whereas TNFα -238A/G was found to have a risk association (OR = 2.636, 2.223, 95% CI, 1.523-4.561, 1

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Promoter Region Alter the Risk of Psoriasis Vulgaris and Psoriatic Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqing; Qu, Hongda; Chen, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hao; Li, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been confirmed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis (PsV&PsA). In contrast, the reported association of TNFα gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PsV&PsA has remained controversial. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to provide new evidence that SNPs in the TNFα gene promoter region alter not only the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) but also of PsV&PsA. Methods Interrelated literature dated to October 2012 was acquired from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNFα promoter in the PsV and PsA and control subjects was obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the risk of PsV and/or PsA with TNFα promoter SNPs. Results A total of 26 papers of 2159 for PsV (2129 normal controls) and 2360 for PsA (2997 normal controls) were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotype and allele of TNFα -308A/G was protective in pooled groups of patients with PsV&PsA (OR = 0.682, 0.750; 95% CI, 0.596-0.779, 0.653-0.861). However, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C had an increased risk of PsV&PsA (OR = 2.493, 2.228, 1.536, 1.486, 95% CI, 1.777-3.498, 1.628-3.049, 1.336-1.767, 1.309-1.685). Moreover, the meta-analysis revealed a significant association between TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C polymorphism and PsA susceptibility (OR = 2.242, 2.052, 1.419, 1.465; 95% CI, 1.710-2.941, 1.614-2.610, 1.214-1.658, 1.277-1.681). In contrast, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -308A/G proved to be protective against PsV (OR = 0.574, 0.650, 95% CI, 0.478-0.690, 0.556-0.759), whereas TNFα -238A/G was found to have a risk association (OR = 2.636, 2.223, 95% CI, 1.523-4.561, 1

  5. Auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific promoter alters hormonal status of transgenic potato plants and their responses to exogenous phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Floková, Kristyna; Getman, Irina A; Lomin, Sergey N; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2017-03-01

    Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro. Adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or kinetin to culture medium affected differently tuberization of tms1-transformed and control plants, depending also on sucrose content in the medium. Exogenous phytohormones ceased to stimulate the tuber initiation in transformants at high (5-8%) sucrose concentration, while in control plants the stimulation was observed in all experimental settings. Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. No concerted changes in contents of abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic acids and gibberellins in tubers were detected. The data on hormonal status indicated that the enhanced productivity of tms1 transformants was due to auxin and not mediated by other phytohormones. In addition, exogenous cytokinin was shown to upregulate the expression of genes encoding orthologs of auxin receptors. Overall, the results showed that tms1 expression and local increase in IAA level in transformants affect both the balance of endogenous cytokinins and the dynamics of tuberization in response to exogenous hormones (auxin, cytokinin), the latter reaction depending also on the carbohydrate supply. We introduce a basic model for the hormonal network

  6. Characterisation of Beaver Habitat Parameters That Promote the Use of Culverts as Dam Construction Sites: Can We Limit the Damage to Forest Roads?

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    Geneviève Tremblay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of forest roads as foundations for dam construction by beavers is a recurrent problem in the management of forest road networks. In order to limit the damage to forest roads, our goal was to calculate the probability of beaver dam installation on culverts, according to surrounding habitat parameters, which could allow for improvement in the spatial design of new roads that minimise conflicts with beavers. Comparisons of culverts with (n = 77 and without (n = 51 dams in northwestern Quebec showed that catchment surface, cumulate length of all local streams within a 2-km radius, and road embankment height had a negative effect on the probability of dam construction on culverts, while flow level and culvert diameter ratio had a positive effect. Nevertheless, predicted probabilities of dam construction on culverts generally exceeded 50%, even on sites that were less favourable to beavers. We suggest that it would be more reasonable to take their probable subsequent presence into account at the earliest steps of road conception. Installing mitigation measures such as pre-dams during road construction would probably reduce the occurrence of conflicts with beavers and thus reduce the maintenance costs of forest roads.

  7. The Perfect Burrow, but for What? Identifying Local Habitat Conditions Promoting the Presence of the Host and Vector Species in the Kazakh Plague System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth; Addink, Elisabeth; Ageyev, Vladimir; Yeszhanov, Aidyn; Sapozhnikov, Valerij; Belayev, Alexander; Davydova, Tania; Eagle, Sally; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The wildlife plague system in the Pre-Balkhash desert of Kazakhstan has been a subject of study for many years. Much progress has been made in generating a method of predicting outbreaks of the disease (infection by the gram negative bacterium Yersinia pestis) but existing methods are not yet accurate enough to inform public health planning. The present study aimed to identify characteristics of individual mammalian host (Rhombomys opimus) burrows related to and potentially predictive of the presence of R.opimus and the dominant flea vectors (Xenopsylla spp.). Methods Over four seasons, burrow characteristics, their current occupancy status, and flea and tick burden of the occupants were recorded in the field. A second data set was generated of long term occupancy trends by recording the occupancy status of specific burrows over multiple occasions. Generalised linear mixed models were constructed to identify potential burrow properties predictive of either occupancy or flea burden. Results At the burrow level, it was identified that a burrow being occupied by Rhombomys, and remaining occupied, were both related to the characteristics of the sediment in which the burrow was constructed. The flea burden of Rhombomys in a burrow was found to be related to the tick burden. Further larger scale properties were also identified as being related to both Rhombomys and flea presence, including latitudinal position and the season. Conclusions Therefore, in advancing our current predictions of plague in Kazakhstan, we must consider the landscape at this local level to increase our accuracy in predicting the dynamics of gerbil and flea populations. Furthermore this demonstrates that in other zoonotic systems, it may be useful to consider the distribution and location of suitable habitat for both host and vector species at this fine scale to accurately predict future epizootics. PMID:26325073

  8. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  9. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Glen

    1990-06-01

    Populations of wild salmon and steelhead in the Middle Fork of the Salmon River are at historical lows. Until passage and flow problems associated with Columbia River dams are corrected to reduce mortalities of migrating smolts, continuance of habitat enhancements that decrease sediment loads, increase vegetative cover, remove passage barriers, and provide habitat diversity is imperative to maintain surviving populations of these specially adapted fish. In 1987-1988, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. Areas within the exclosure have been fertilized to promote tree and shrub root growth and meadow recovery. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive inventories were completed to identify habitat available to anadromous fish. Streambank stabilization work was limited to extremely unstable banks, minimizing radical alterations to an active stream channel. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Lawsonia intracellularis exploits β-catenin/Wnt and Notch signalling pathways during infection of intestinal crypt to alter cell homeostasis and promote cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang W Huan

    Full Text Available Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification. Therefore, in this report we used immunofluorescence (IF and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTqPCR to examine β-catenin/Wnt and Notch-1 signalling levels in uninfected and L. intracellularis infected pig ileums at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post challenge (dpc. We found that while the significant increase in Ki67+ nuclei in crypts at the peak of L. intracellularis infection suggested enhanced cell proliferation, the expression of c-MYC and ASCL2, promoters of cell growth and ISC proliferation respectively, was down-regulated. Peak infection also coincided with enhanced cytosolic and membrane-associated β-catenin staining and induction of AXIN2 and SOX9 transcripts, both encoding negative regulators of β-catenin/Wnt signalling and suggesting a potential alteration to β-catenin/Wnt signalling levels, with differential regulation of the expression of its target genes. We found that induction of HES1 and OLFM4 and the down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels was consistent with the increased Notch-1 signalling in crypts at the peak of infection. Interestingly, the significant down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels coincided with the depletion of MUC2 expression at 14 dpc, consistent with the role of ATOH1 in promoting goblet cell maturation. The lack of significant change to LGR5 transcript levels at the peak of infection suggested that the crypt hyperplasia was not due

  11. Lawsonia intracellularis exploits β-catenin/Wnt and Notch signalling pathways during infection of intestinal crypt to alter cell homeostasis and promote cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Yang W; Bengtsson, Rebecca J; MacIntyre, Neil; Guthrie, Jack; Finlayson, Heather; Smith, Sionagh H; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2017-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification. Therefore, in this report we used immunofluorescence (IF) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTqPCR) to examine β-catenin/Wnt and Notch-1 signalling levels in uninfected and L. intracellularis infected pig ileums at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post challenge (dpc). We found that while the significant increase in Ki67+ nuclei in crypts at the peak of L. intracellularis infection suggested enhanced cell proliferation, the expression of c-MYC and ASCL2, promoters of cell growth and ISC proliferation respectively, was down-regulated. Peak infection also coincided with enhanced cytosolic and membrane-associated β-catenin staining and induction of AXIN2 and SOX9 transcripts, both encoding negative regulators of β-catenin/Wnt signalling and suggesting a potential alteration to β-catenin/Wnt signalling levels, with differential regulation of the expression of its target genes. We found that induction of HES1 and OLFM4 and the down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels was consistent with the increased Notch-1 signalling in crypts at the peak of infection. Interestingly, the significant down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels coincided with the depletion of MUC2 expression at 14 dpc, consistent with the role of ATOH1 in promoting goblet cell maturation. The lack of significant change to LGR5 transcript levels at the peak of infection suggested that the crypt hyperplasia was not due to the expansion

  12. Community structure of age-0 fishes in paired mainstem and created shallow-water habitats in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Trevor A.; Long, James M.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic alterations to aquatic ecosystems have greatly reduced and homogenized riverine habitat, especially those used by larval and juvenile fishes. Creation of shallow-water habitats is used as a restoration technique in response to altered conditions in several studies globally, but only recently in the USA. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers sampled larval and juvenile fishes at six paired sites (mainstem and constructed chute shallow-water habitats) along a section of the Missouri River between Rulo, NE and St. Louis, MO, USA. From those samples, we enumerated and identified a total of 7622 fishes representing 12 families. Community responses of fishes to created shallow-water habitats were assessed by comparisons of species richness and diversity measures between paired sites and among sampling events. Shannon entropy measures were transformed, and gamma diversity (total diversity) was partitioned into two components, alpha (within community) and beta (between community) diversity using a multiplicative decomposition method. Mantel test results suggest site location, time of sampling event and habitat type were drivers of larval and juvenile community structure. Paired t-test results indicated little to no differences in beta diversity between habitat types; however, chute habitats had significantly higher alpha and gamma diversity as well as increased abundances of Asian carp larvae when compared with mainstem shallow-water habitat. Our results not only show the importance of created shallow-water habitat in promoting stream fish diversity but also highlight the role space and time may play in future restoration and management efforts. 

  13. Habitat use, but not gene flow, is influenced by human activities in two ecotypes of Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Cuadros, A; Hulva, P; Romportl, D; Santoro, S; Stříbná, T; Shohami, D; Evin, A; Tsoar, A; Benda, P; Horáček, I; Nathan, R

    2017-09-26

    Understanding the ecological, behavioural and evolutionary response of organisms to changing environments is of primary importance in a human-altered world. It is crucial to elucidate how human activities alter gene flow and what are the consequences for the genetic structure of a species. We studied two lineages of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) throughout the contact zone between mesic and arid Ecozones in the Middle East to evaluate the species' response to the growing proportion of human-altered habitats in the desert. We integrated population genetics, morphometrics and movement ecology to analyse population structure, morphological variation and habitat use from GPS- or radio-tagged individuals from both desert and Mediterranean areas. We classified the spatial distribution and environmental stratification by describing physical-geographical conditions and land cover. We analysed this information to estimate patch occupancy and used an isolation-by-resistance approach to model gene flow patterns. Our results suggest that lineages from desert and Mediterranean habitats, despite their admixture, are isolated by environment and by adaptation supporting their classification as ecotypes. We found a positive effect of human-altered habitats on patch occupancy and habitat use of fruit bats by increasing the availability of roosting and foraging areas. While this commensalism promotes the distribution of fruit bats throughout the Middle East, gene flow between colonies has not been altered by human activities. This discrepancy between habitat use and gene flow patterns may, therefore, be explained by the breeding system of the species and modifications of natal dispersal patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 17β-Estradiol regulates histone alterations associated with memory consolidation and increases Bdnf promoter acetylation in middle-aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L; Gould, Thomas J; Frick, Karyn M

    2014-09-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance object recognition memory consolidation requires histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus. However, the extent to which histone acetylation is regulated by E2 in middle-aged females is unknown. The mnemonic benefits of E2 in aging females appear to be greatest in middle age, and so pinpointing the molecular mechanisms through which E2 enhances memory at this age could lead to the development of safer and more effective treatments for maintaining memory function without the side effects of current therapies. Here, we show that dorsal hippocampal infusion of E2 rapidly enhanced object recognition and spatial memory, and increased histone H3 acetylation in the dorsal hippocampus, while also significantly reducing levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC2 and HDAC3) proteins. E2 specifically increased histone H3 acetylation at Bdnf promoters pII and pIV in the dorsal hippocampus of both young and middle-aged mice, despite age-related decreases in pI and pIV acetylation. Furthermore, levels of mature BDNF and pro-BDNF proteins in the dorsal hippocampus were increased by E2 in middle-aged females. Together, these data suggest that the middle-aged female dorsal hippocampus remains epigenetically responsive to E2, and that E2 may enhance memory in middle-aged females via epigenetic regulation of Bdnf. © 2014 Fortress et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Analysis of a herpetofaunal community from an altered marshy area in Sicily; with special remarks on habitat use (niche breadth and overlap), relative abundance of lizards and snakes, and the correlation between predator abundance and tail loss in lizards

    OpenAIRE

    L. Luiselli; F. M. Angelici; Di Vittorio, M.; Spinnato, A.; Politano, E.

    2005-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in a highly degraded barren environment in Sicily in order to investigate herpetofaunal community composition and structure, habitat use (niche breadth and overlap) and relative abundance of a snake predator and two species of lizard prey. The site was chosen because it has a simple community structure and thus there is potentially less ecological complexity to cloud any patterns observed. We found an unexpectedly high overlap in habitat use between the two closel...

  16. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan

    2016-06-01

    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Microevolutionary Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Plant-Animal Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco E. Fontúrbel; Maureen M. Murúa

    2014-01-01

    Plant-animal interactions are a key component for biodiversity maintenance, but they are currently threatened by human activities. Habitat fragmentation might alter ecological interactions due to demographic changes, spatial discontinuities, and edge effects. Also, there are less evident effects of habitat fragmentation that potentially alter selective forces and compromise the fitness of the interacting species. Changes in the mutualistic and antagonistic interactions in fragmented habitats ...

  18. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning

  19. Analysis of a herpetofaunal community from an altered marshy area in Sicily; with special remarks on habitat use (niche breadth and overlap), relative abundance of lizards and snakes, and the correlation between predator abundance and tail loss in lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiselli, L.; Angelici, F.M.; Di Vittorio, M.; Spinnato, A.; Politano, E.

    2005-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in a highly degraded barren environment in Sicily in order to investigate herpetofaunal community composition and structure, habitat use (niche breadth and overlap) and relative abundance of a snake predator and two species of lizard prey. The site was chosen because it

  20. Does habitat complexity influence fish recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHEMINÉE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.

  1. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Hornseth

    Full Text Available Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30% than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat

  2. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, Megan L; Walpole, Aaron A; Walton, Lyle R; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration.

  3. Myocardial deletion of transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 results in altered myocyte action potential and mild conduction system expansion but does not alter conduction system function or promote spontaneous arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E Hartman; Liu, Yonggang; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Chien, Wei-Ming; Chad S. Weldy; Fishman, Glenn I.; Laflamme, Michael A.; Chin, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    CHF1/Hey2 is a Notch-responsive basic helix–loop-helix transcription factor involved in cardiac development. Common variants in Hey2 are associated with Brugada syndrome. We hypothesized that absence of CHF1/Hey2 would result in abnormal cellular electrical activity, altered cardiac conduction system (CCS) development, and increased arrhythmogenesis. We isolated neonatal CHF/Hey2-knockout (KO) cardiac myocytes and measured action potentials and ion channel subunit gene expression. We also cro...

  4. HDAC inhibitors TSA and sodium butyrate enhanced the human IL-5 expression by altering histone acetylation status at its promoter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songyan; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Cao; Li, Lin; Han, Liping; Huang, Baiqu

    2007-02-15

    The expression of IL-5 correlated tightly with the maturation and differentiation of eosinophils, and is considered as a cytokine responsible for allergic inflammation. We report here that inhibition of HDAC activity by Trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBu), the two specific HDAC inhibitors, resulted in the elevation of both endogenous and exogenous activity of IL-5 promoter. We demonstrated that both the mRNA expression and protein production of IL-5 were stimulated by TSA and NaBu treatments. ChIP assays showed that treatments of TSA and NaBu caused hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 on IL-5 promoter in Jurkat cells, which consequently promoted the exogenous luciferase activity driven by this promoter. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the binding sites for transcription factors NFAT, GATA3 and YY1 on IL-5 promoter were critical for the effects of TSA and NaBu, suggesting that the transcriptional activation of IL-5 gene by these inhibitors was achieved by affecting HDAC function on IL-5 promoter via transcription factors. These data will contribute to elucidating the unique mechanism of IL-5 transcriptional control and to the therapy of allergic disorders related to IL-5.

  5. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  6. Coastal Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate critical habitat, areas of habitat essential to the species' conservation, for ESA...

  7. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  8. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basseres, Eugene; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Pfirrmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria...

  9. Human FasL gene is a target of β-catenin/T-cell factor pathway and complex FasL haplotypes alter promoter functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Wu

    Full Text Available FasL expression on human immune cells and cancer cells plays important roles in immune homeostasis and in cancer development. Our previous study suggests that polymorphisms in the FasL promoter can significantly affect the gene expression in human cells. In addition to the functional FasL SNP -844C>T (rs763110, three other SNPs (SNP -756A>G or rs2021837, SNP -478A>T or rs41309790, and SNP -205 C>G or rs74124371 exist in the proximal FasL promoter. In the current study, we established three major FasL hyplotypes in humans. Interestingly, a transcription motif search revealed that the FasL promoter possessed two consensus T-cell factor (TCF/LEF1 binding elements (TBEs, which is either polymorphic (SNP -205C>G or close to the functional SNP -844C>T. Subsequently, we demonstrate that both FasL TBEs formed complexes with the TCF-4 and β-catenin transcription factors in vitro and in vivo. Co-transfection of LEF-1 and β-catenin transcription factors significantly increased FasL promoter activities, suggesting that FasL is a target gene of the β-catenin/T-cell factor pathway. More importantly, we found that the rare allele (-205G of the polymorphic FasL TBE (SNP -205C>G failed to bind the TCF-4 transcription factor and that SNP -205 C>G significantly affected the promoter activity. Furthermore, promoter reporter assays revealed that FasL SNP haplotypes influenced promoter activities in human colon cancer cells and in human T cells. Finally, β-catenin knockdown significantly decreased the FasL expression in human SW480 colon cancer cells. Collectively, our data suggest that β-catenin may be involved in FasL gene regulation and that FasL expression is influenced by FasL SNP haplotypes, which may have significant implications in immune response and tumorigenesis.

  10. Alteration of Nrp1 signaling at different stages of olfactory neuron maturation promotes glomerular shifts along distinct axes in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assens, Alexis; Dal Col, Julien A; Njoku, Anthony; Dietschi, Quentin; Kan, Chenda; Feinstein, Paul; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2016-10-15

    Building the topographic map in the mammalian olfactory bulb is explained by a model based on two axes along which sensory neurons are guided: one dorsoventral and one anteroposterior. This latter axis relies on specific expression levels of Nrp1. To evaluate the role of this receptor in this process, we used an in vivo genetic approach to decrease or suppress Nrp1 in specific neuronal populations and at different time points during axonal targeting. We observed, in neurons that express the M71 or M72 odorant receptors, that Nrp1 inactivation leads to two distinct wiring alterations, depending on the time at which Nrp1 expression is altered: first, a surprising dorsal shift of the M71 and M72 glomeruli, which often fuse with their contralateral counterparts, and second the formation of anteriorized glomeruli. The two phenotypes are partly recapitulated in mice lacking the Nrp1 ligand Sema3A and in mice whose sensory neurons express an Nrp1 mutant unable to bind Sema3A. Using a mosaic conditional approach, we show that M71 axonal fibers can bypass the Nrp1 signals that define their target area, since they are hijacked and coalesce with Nrp1-deficient M71-expressing axons that target elsewhere. Together, these findings show drastically different axonal targeting outcomes dependent on the timing at which Nrp1/Sema3A signaling is altered. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Quantifying suitable habitat of the threatened western prairie fringed orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige M. Wolken; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Stephen E. Williams

    2001-01-01

    Land managers need accurate and quick techniques to identify suitable habitat of species of interest. For species protected by federal or state laws, identification of suitable habitat is critical for developing a conservation strategy that includes reestablishing populations and altering management to address this need. In this research, we quantified vegetative and...

  12. Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Underwood, Antony J; Coleman, Ross A

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms.

  13. Altered DNA methylation patterns of the H19 differentially methylated region and the DAZL gene promoter are associated with defective human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation disturbance is associated with defective human sperm. However, oligozoospermia (OZ and asthenozoospermia (AZ usually present together, and the relationship between the single-phenotype defects in human sperm and DNA methylation is poorly understood. In this study, 20 infertile OZ patients and 20 infertile AZ patients were compared with 20 fertile normozoospermic men. Bisulfate-specific PCR was used to analyze DNA methylation of the H19-DMR and the DAZL promoter in these subjects. A similar DNA methylation pattern of the H19-DMR was detected in AZ and NZ(control, with only complete methylation and mild hypomethylation(0.05. However, the methylation pattern of severe hypomethylation (>50% unmethylated CpGs and complete unmethylation was only detected in 5 OZ patients, and the occurrence of these two methylation patterns was 8.54±10.86% and 9±6.06%, respectively. Loss of DNA methylation of the H19-DMR in the OZ patients was found to mainly occur in CTCF-binding site 6, with occurrence of 18.15±14.71%, which was much higher than that in patients with NZ (0.84±2.05% and AZ (0.58±1.77% (P20% methylated clones in the DAZL promoter only in infertile patients, there was no significant difference between the AZ and OZ patients in the proportion of moderately-to-severely hypermethylated clones (p>0.05. In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analyses, using LINE1 transposon as the indicator, showed that dysregulation of DNA methylation is specifically associated with the H19-DMR and DAZL promoter. Therefore, abnormal DNA methylation status of H19-DMR, especially at the CTCF-binding site 6, is closely associated with OZ. Abnormal DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter might represent an epigenetic marker of male infertility.

  14. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an important behavioural process widely studied for its population-level effects. Models of habitat selection are, however, often fit without a mechanistic consideration. Here, we investigated whether patterns in habitat selection result from instinct or learning for a population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Alberta, Canada. We found that habitat selection and relatedness were positively correlated in female bears during the fall season, with a trend in the spring, but not during any season for males. This suggests that habitat selection is a learned behaviour because males do not participate in parental care: a genetically predetermined behaviour (instinct would have resulted in habitat selection and relatedness correlations for both sexes. Geographic distance and home range overlap among animals did not alter correlations indicating that dispersal and spatial autocorrelation had little effect on the observed trends. These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments.

  15. The airspace is habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A preconception concerning habitat persists and has gone unrecognized since use of the term first entered the lexicon of ecological and evolutionary biology many decades ago. Specifically, land and water are considered habitats, while the airspace is not. This might at first seem a reasonable, if unintended, demarcation, since years of education and personal experience as well as limits to perception predispose a traditional view of habitat. Nevertheless, the airspace satisfies the definition and functional role of a habitat, and its recognition as habitat may have implications for policy where expanding anthropogenic development of airspace could impact the conservation of species and subject parts of the airspace to formalized legal protection.

  16. The CF-modifying gene EHF promotes p.Phe508del-CFTR residual function by altering protein glycosylation and trafficking in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Frauke; van Barneveld, Andrea; Hedtfeld, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Becker, Tim; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-05-01

    The three-base-pair deletion c.1521_1523delCTT (p.Phe508del, F508del) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the most frequent disease-causing lesion in cystic fibrosis (CF). The CFTR gene encodes a chloride and bicarbonate channel at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Altered ion transport of CFTR-expressing epithelia can be used to differentiate manifestations of the so-called CF basic defect. Recently, an 11p13 region has been described as a CF modifier by the North American CF Genetic Modifier Study Consortium. Selecting the epithelial-specific transcription factor EHF (ets homologous factor) as the likely candidate gene on 11p13, we have genotyped two intragenic microsatellites in EHF to replicate the 11p13 finding in the patient cohort of the European CF Twin and Sibling Study. We could observe an association of rare EHF haplotypes among homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, which exhibit a CF-untypical manifestation of the CF basic defect such as CFTR-mediated residual chloride secretion and low response to amiloride. We have reviewed transcriptome data obtained from intestinal epithelial samples of homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, which were stratified for their EHF genetic background. Transcripts that were upregulated among homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, who carry two rare EHF alleles, were enriched for genes that alter protein glycosylation and trafficking, both mechanisms being pivotal for the effective targeting of fully functional p.Phe508del-CFTR to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. We conclude that EHF modifies the CF phenotype by altering capabilities of the epithelial cell to correctly process the folding and trafficking of mutant p.Phe508del-CFTR.

  17. Teaching animal habitat selection using wildlife tracking equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Jessica; Gillespie, Caitlyn R.; Corral, Lucia; Oden, Amy; Fricke, Kent A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hands-on outdoor activity coupled with classroom discussion to teach students about wildlife habitat selection, the process by which animals choose where to live. By selecting locations or habitats with many benefits (e.g., food, shelter, mates) and few costs (e.g., predators), animals improve their ability to survive and reproduce. Biologists track animal movement using radio telemetry technology to study habitat selection so they can better provide species with habitats that promote population growth. We present a curriculum in which students locate “animals” (transmitters) using radio telemetry equipment and apply math skills (use of fractions and percentages) to assess their “animal's” habitat selection by comparing the availability of habitat types with the proportion of “animals” they find in each habitat type.

  18. Hibernal habitat selection by Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in a northern New England montane landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Poikilothermic species, such as amphibians, endure harsh winter conditions via freeze-tolerance or freeze-avoidance strategies. Freeze-tolerance requires a suite of complex, physiological mechanisms (e.g., cryoprotectant synthesis); however, behavioral strategies (e.g., hibernal habitat selection) may be used to regulate hibernaculum temperatures and promote overwintering survival. We investigated the hibernal ecology of the freeze-tolerant Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) in north-central Maine. Our objectives were to characterize the species hibernaculum microclimate (temperature, relative humidity), evaluate hibernal habitat selection, and describe the spatial arrangement of breeding, post-breeding, and hibernal habitats. We monitored 15 frogs during two winters (2011/12: N = 10; 2012/13: N = 5), measured hibernal habitat features at micro (2 m) and macro (10 m) spatial scales, and recorded microclimate hourly in three strata (hibernaculum, leaf litter, ambient air). We compared these data to that of 57 random locations with logistic regression models, Akaike Information Criterion, and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Hibernaculum microclimate was significantly different and less variable than leaf litter, ambient air, and random location microclimate. Model averaging indicated that canopy cover (−), leaf litter depth (+), and number of logs and stumps (+; microhabitat only) were important predictors of Wood Frog hibernal habitat. These habitat features likely act to insulate hibernating frogs from extreme and variable air temperatures. For example, decreased canopy cover facilitates increased snowpack depth and earlier snowpack accumulation and melt. Altered winter temperature and precipitation patterns attributable to climate change may reduce snowpack insulation, facilitate greater temperature variation in the underlying hibernacula, and potentially compromise Wood Frog winter survival.

  19. Promotion of Autoimmune Diabetes by Cereal Diet in the Presence or Absence of Microbes Associated With Gut Immune Activation, Regulatory Imbalance, and Altered Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Lefebvre, David E.; Crookshank, Jennifer A.; Sonier, Brigitte; Eberhard, Chandra; Mojibian, Majid; Kennedy, Christopher R.; Brooks, Stephen P.J.; Kalmokoff, Martin L.; Maglio, Mariantonia; Troncone, Riccardo; Poussier, Philippe; Scott, Fraser W.

    2013-01-01

    We are exposed to millions of microbial and dietary antigens via the gastrointestinal tract, which likely play a key role in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We differentiated the effects of these two major environmental factors on gut immunity and T1D. Diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats were housed in specific pathogen-free (SPF) or germ-free (GF) conditions and weaned onto diabetes-promoting cereal diets or a protective low-antigen hydrolyzed casein (HC) diet, and T1D incidence was monitored. Fecal microbiota 16S rRNA genes, immune cell distribution, and gene expression in the jejunum were analyzed. T1D was highest in cereal-SPF (65%) and cereal-GF rats (53%) but inhibited and delayed in HC-fed counterparts. Nearly all HC-GF rats remained diabetes-free, whereas HC-fed SPF rats were less protected (7 vs. 29%). Bacterial communities differed in SPF rats fed cereal compared with HC. Cereal-SPF rats displayed increased gut CD3+ and CD8α+ lymphocytes, ratio of Ifng to Il4 mRNA, and Lck expression, indicating T-cell activation. The ratio of CD3+ T cells expressing the Treg marker Foxp3+ was highest in HC-GF and lowest in cereal-SPF rats. Resident CD163+ M2 macrophages were increased in HC-protected rats. The cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (Camp) gene was upregulated in the jejunum of HC diet–protected rats, and CAMP+ cells colocalized with CD163. A cereal diet was a stronger promoter of T1D than gut microbes in association with impaired gut immune homeostasis. PMID:23349499

  20. Proteomics provides insights into biological pathways altered by plant growth promoting bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhiza in sorghum grown in marginal soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawi, Faten; Datta, Rupali; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2017-02-01

    Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both. Proteins upregulated only in B group include asparagine synthetase which showed negative correlation with biomass and uptake of elements. Phosphoribosyl amino imidazole succinocarboxamide protein with more than 50-fold change in My and My+B groups correlated positively with Ca, Cu, S and sucrose levels in roots. The B group showed the highest number of upregulated proteins among the three groups with negative correlation with sorghum biomass and element uptake. KEGG pathway analysis identified carbon fixation as the unique pathway associated with common upregulated proteins while biosynthesis of amino acids and fatty acid degradation were associated with common downregulated proteins. Protein-protein interaction analysis using STRING identified a major network with thirteen downregulated proteins. These findings suggest that plant-growth-promoting-bacteria alone or in combination with mycorrhiza enhanced radical scavenging system and increased levels of specific proteins thereby shifting the metabolism towards synthesis of carbohydrates resulting in sorghum biomass increase and uptake of nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a landscape disturbance on the habitat use and behavior of the black racer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. F. Howey; Matthew B. Dickinson; Willem M. Roosenburg

    2016-01-01

    The effects of disturbance, including prescribed fire, vary among species and their ability to adjust to the altered environment. Our objective was to link fire-caused habitat changes with shifts in habitat use and behavioral changes in the Southern Black Racer (Coluber constrictor priapus). We compared habitat availability between burned (...

  2. Increased interleukin-10 and interferon-γ levels in Plasmodium vivax malaria suggest a reciprocal regulation which is not altered by IL-10 gene promoter polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Tiago S; Costa, Sheyla P T; Oliveira, Maria D; Ventura, Ana M; Souza, José M; Gomes, Tassia F; Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Póvoa, Marinete M; Silva, João S; Cunha, Maristela G

    2011-09-14

    In human malaria, the naturally-acquired immune response can result in either the elimination of the parasite or a persistent response mediated by cytokines that leads to immunopathology. The cytokines are responsible for all the symptoms, pathological alterations and the outcome of the infection depends on the reciprocal regulation of the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. IL-10 and IFN-gamma are able to mediate this process and their production can be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on gene of these cytokines. In this study, the relationship between cytokine IL-10/IFN-gamma levels, parasitaemia, and their gene polymorphisms was examined and the participation of pro-inflammatory and regulatory balance during a natural immune response in Plasmodium vivax-infected individuals was observed. The serum levels of the cytokines IL-4, IL-12, IFN-gamma and IL-10 from 132 patients were evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The polymorphism at position +874 of the IFN-gamma gene was identified by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) method, and the polymorphism at position -1082 of the IL-10 gene was analysed by PCR-RFLP (PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). The levels of a pro- (IFN-gamma) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were significantly higher in P. vivax-infected individuals as compared to healthy controls. The IFN-gamma levels in primoinfected patients were significantly higher than in patients who had suffered only one and more than one previous episode. The mutant alleles of both IFN-gamma and IL-10 genes were more frequent than the wild allele. In the case of the IFNG+874 polymorphism (IFN-gamma) the frequencies of the mutant (A) and wild (T) alleles were 70.13% and 29.87%, respectively. Similar frequencies were recorded in IL-10-1082, with the mutant (A) allele returning a frequency of 70.78%, and the wild (G) allele a frequency of 29.22%. The frequencies of the alleles associated

  3. Trends on Habitat Management

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Giuşcă

    2008-01-01

    According to traditional image, human habitat constitution is the result of natural inter-relations, the fundamental premise of the existence of natural resources, the climate, and the access to more developed proximities for commercial trading. Human habitat represents a complex system, with environmental values, having live and natural components that are inter-related. The dwelling is the fundamental component of the habitat and by relationship with the other components determines the leve...

  4. Trends on Habitat Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Giuşcă

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional image, human habitat constitution is the result of natural inter-relations, the fundamental premise of the existence of natural resources, the climate, and the access to more developed proximities for commercial trading. Human habitat represents a complex system, with environmental values, having live and natural components that are inter-related. The dwelling is the fundamental component of the habitat and by relationship with the other components determines the level of habitation.

  5. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  6. A mutation in the catalytic subunit of yeast telomerase alters primer-template alignment while promoting processivity and protein-DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairley, Robin C B; Guillaume, Gina; Vega, Leticia R; Friedman, Katherine L

    2011-12-15

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is required for maintenance of linear chromosome ends (telomeres). In yeast, the Est2 protein reverse transcribes a short template region of the TLC1 RNA using the chromosome terminus to prime replication. Yeast telomeres contain heterogeneous G(1-3)T sequences that arise from incomplete reverse transcription of the TLC1 template and alignment of the DNA primer at multiple sites within the template region. We have previously described mutations in the essential N-terminal TEN domain of Est2p that alter telomere sequences. Here, we demonstrate that one of these mutants, glutamic acid 76 to lysine (est2-LT(E76K)), restricts possible alignments between the DNA primer and the TLC1 template. In addition, this mutant exhibits increased processivity in vivo. Within the context of the telomerase enzyme, the Est2p TEN domain is thought to contribute to enzyme processivity by mediating an anchor-site interaction with the DNA primer. We show that binding of the purified TEN domain (residues 1-161) to telomeric DNA is enhanced by the E76K mutation. These results support the idea that the anchor-site interaction contributes to telomerase processivity and suggest a role for the anchor site of yeast telomerase in mediating primer-template alignment within the active site.

  7. GM-CSF Promotes Chronic Disability in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Altering the Composition of Central Nervous System-Infiltrating Cells, but Is Dispensable for Disease Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Patrick C; Stoolman, Joshua S; Huber, Amanda K; Segal, Benjamin M

    2017-12-29

    GM-CSF has been portrayed as a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, ostensibly, in multiple sclerosis. C57BL/6 mice deficient in GM-CSF are resistant to EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 The mechanism of action of GM-CSF in EAE is poorly understood. In this study, we show that GM-CSF augments the accumulation of MOG35-55-specific T cells in the skin draining lymph nodes of primed mice, but it is not required for the development of encephalitogenic T cells. Abrogation of GM-CSF receptor signaling in adoptive transfer recipients of MOG35-55-specific T cells did not alter the incidence of EAE or the trajectory of its initial clinical course, but it limited the extent of chronic CNS tissue damage and neurologic disability. The attenuated clinical course was associated with a relative dearth of MOG35-55-specific T cells, myeloid dendritic cells, and neutrophils, as well as an abundance of B cells, within CNS infiltrates. Our data indicate that GM-CSF drives chronic tissue damage and disability in EAE via pleiotropic pathways, but it is dispensable during early lesion formation and the onset of neurologic deficits. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Stratification of habitats for identifying habitat selection by Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Habitat selection patterns of Merriam’s Turkeys were compared in hierarchical analyses of three levels of habitat stratification. Habitat descriptions in first-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation. Habitat descriptions in second-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation and overstory canopy cover. Habitat descriptions in third-...

  9. Secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promote recovery after rat spinal cord injury by altering macrophage polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kohki; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kano, Fumiya; Kondo, Megumi; Noda, Mariko; Hashimoto, Noboru; Imagama, Shiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Suzumura, Akio; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-02-11

    Engrafted mesenchymal stem cells from human deciduous dental pulp (SHEDs) support recovery from neural insults via paracrine mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we show that the conditioned serum-free medium (CM) from SHEDs, administered intrathecally into rat injured spinal cord during the acute postinjury period, caused remarkable functional recovery. The ability of SHED-CM to induce recovery was associated with an immunoregulatory activity that induced anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages. Secretome analysis of the SHED-CM revealed a previously unrecognized set of inducers for anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9). Depleting MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 from the SHED-CM prominently reduced its ability to induce M2-like macrophages and to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The combination of MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 synergistically promoted the M2-like differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro, and this effect was abolished by a selective antagonist for CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) or by the genetic knock-out of CCR2. Furthermore, MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 administration into the injured spinal cord induced M2-like macrophages and led to a marked recovery of hindlimb locomotor function after SCI. The inhibition of this M2 induction through the inactivation of CCR2 function abolished the therapeutic effects of both SHED-CM and MCP-1/ED-Siglec-9. Macrophages activated by MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 extended neurite and suppressed apoptosis of primary cerebellar granule neurons against the neurotoxic effects of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Our data suggest that the unique combination of MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 repairs the SCI through anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage induction. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352452-13$15.00/0.

  10. Classic Ras Proteins Promote Proliferation and Survival Via Distinct Phosphoproteome Alterations in Neurofibromin-Null Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, Nicole M.; Prechtl, Amanda M.; Longo, Jody Fromm; Barnes, Stephen; Wilson, Landon S.; Byer, Stephanie J.; Brosius, Stephanie N.; Carroll, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromin, the tumor suppressor encoded by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, potentially suppresses the activation of H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras. However, it is not known whether these classic Ras proteins are hyperactivated in NF1-null nerve sheath tumors, how they contribute to tumorigenesis and what signaling pathways mediate their effects. Here we show that H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras are coexpressed with their activators, (guanine nucleotide exchange factors), in neurofibromin-null malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells and that all 3 Ras proteins are activated. Dominant negative (DN) H-Ras, a pan-inhibitor of the classic Ras family, inhibited MPNST proliferation and survival, but not migration. However, NF1-null MPNST cells were variably dependent on individual Ras proteins. In some lines, ablation of H-Ras, N-Ras and/or K-Ras inhibited mitogenesis. In others, ablation of a single Ras protein had no effect on proliferation; in these lines, ablation of a single Ras protein resulted in compensatory increases in the activation and/or expression of other Ras proteins. Using mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics, we identified 7 signaling networks affecting morphology, proliferation and survival that are regulated by DN H-Ras. Thus, neurofibromin loss activates multiple classic Ras proteins that promote proliferation and survival by regulating several distinct signaling cascades. PMID:25946318

  11. Bone marrow transplantation alters lung antigen-presenting cells to promote TH17 response and the development of pneumonitis and fibrosis following gammaherpesvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Loomis-King, H; Gurczynski, S J; Wilke, C A; Konopka, K E; Ptaschinski, C; Coomes, S M; Iwakura, Y; van Dyk, L F; Lukacs, N W; Moore, B B

    2016-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) efficacy is limited by numerous pulmonary complications. We developed a model of syngeneic bone marrow transplantion (BMT) followed by infection with murine gamma herpesvirus-68 that results in pneumonitis and fibrosis and mimics human "noninfectious" HSCT complications. BMT mice experience increased early lytic replication, but establish viral latency by 21 days post infection. CD4 T cells in BMT mice are skewed toward interleukin (IL)-17A rather than interferon (IFN)-γ production. Transplantation of bone marrow from Il-17a(-/-) donors or treatment with anti-IL-17A neutralization antibodies at late stages attenuates pneumonitis and fibrosis in infected BMT mice, suggesting that hematopoietic-derived IL-17A is essential for development of pathology. IL-17A directly influences activation and extracellular matrix production by lung mesenchymal cells. Lung CD11c+ cells of BMT mice secrete more transforming growth factor beta-β1, and pro-TH17 mRNAs for IL-23 and IL-6, and less TH1-promoting cytokine mRNA for IFN-γ but slightly more IL-12 mRNA in response to viral infection. Adoptive transfer of non-BMT lung CD11c-enriched cells restores robust TH1 response and suppresses aberrant TH17 response in BMT mice to improve lung pathology. Our data suggest that "noninfectious" HSCT lung complications may reflect preceding viral infections and demonstrate that IL-17A neutralization may offer therapeutic advantage even after disease onset.

  12. Alteration of the proteostasis network of plant cells promotes the post-endoplasmic reticulum trafficking of recombinant mutant (L444P) human β-glucocerebrosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajani, Gholamreza; Kermode, Allison R

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease characterized by a deficiency in the activity of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45). One of the most prevalent disease-causing mutations in humans is a L444P missense mutation in the GCase protein, which results in its disrupted folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and impaired post-ER trafficking. To determine whether the post-ER trafficking of this severely malfolded protein can be restored, we expressed the mutant L444P GCase as a recombinant protein in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2 [BY2]) cells, in which the GCase variant was equipped with a plant signal peptide to allow for secretion upon rescued trafficking out of the ER. The recombinant L444P mutant GCase was retained in the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Kifunensine and Eeyarestatin I, both inhibitors of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), and the proteostasis regulators, celastrol and MG-132, increased the steady-state levels of the mutant protein inside the plant cells and further promoted the post-ER trafficking of L444P GCase, as indicated by endoglycosidase-H sensitivity- and secretion- analyses. Transcript profiling of genes encoding ER-molecular chaperones, ER stress responsive proteins, and cytoplasmic heat shock response proteins, revealed insignificant or only very modest changes in response to the ERAD inhibitors and proteostasis regulators. An exception was the marked response to celastrol which reduced the steady-state levels of cytoplasmic HSP90 transcripts and protein. As Hsp90 participates in the targeting of misfolded proteins to the proteasome pathway, its down-modulation in response to celastrol may partly account for the mechanism of improved homeostasis of L444P GCase mediated by this triterpene.

  13. Information to support to monitoring and habitat restoration on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and

  14. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ...

  15. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  16. Wildlife habitat considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fire, insects, disease, harvesting, and precommercial thinning all create mosaics on Northern Rocky Mountain landscapes. These mosaics are important for faunal habitat. Consequently, changes such as created openings or an increase in heavily stocked areas affect the water, cover, and food of forest habitats. The “no action” alternative in ecosystem management of low...

  17. Natural human apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN alter HDL structure and functionality and promote atherosclerosis development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiniakou, Ioanna; Kanaki, Zoi; Georgopoulos, Spiros; Chroni, Angeliki; Van Eck, Miranda; Fotakis, Panagiotis; Zannis, Vassilis I; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are associated with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and pathological conditions such as premature atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In this study we functionally characterized two natural human apoA-I mutations, L141RPisa and L159RFIN, in vivo. We generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type (WT) or the two mutant forms of human apoA-I on a mouse apoA-I(-/-) background and analyzed for abnormalities in their lipid and lipoprotein profiles. HDL structure and functionality, as well as atherosclerosis development following a 14-week high-fat diet were assessed in these mice. The expression of either apoA-I mutant was associated with markedly reduced serum apoA-I (<10% of WT apoA-I), total and HDL-cholesterol levels (∼20% and ∼7% of WT apoA-I, respectively) and the formation of few small size HDL particles with preβ2 and α3, α4 electrophoretic mobility. HDL particles containing either of the two apoA-I mutants exhibited attenuated anti-oxidative properties as indicated by their inability to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and by decreased activities of paraoxonase-1 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. However, the apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN-containing HDL particles demonstrated increased capacity to promote ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Expression of apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN mutations in mice was associated with increased diet-induced atherosclerosis compared to either WT apoA-I transgenic or apoA-I(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that natural apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN affect the biogenesis and the functionality of HDL in vivo and predispose to diet-induced atherosclerosis in the absence of any other genetic defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of habitat modification on coastal fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C K-C; Pratchett, M S; Shao, K-T; Kan, K-P; Chan, B K K

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic modification of coastal habitats on fish assemblages in Taiwan, comparing the abundance, species richness and taxonomic composition of fishes on natural v. artificial habitats. While there was no significant variation in the abundance or richness of fishes between natural and artificial habitats, the species composition of fishes in artificial habitats was significantly different from that of natural habitats. Natural reefs were characterized by greater abundance of Stethojulis spp. (Labridae), Abudefduf spp. (Pomacentridae) and Thalassoma spp. (Labridae), whereas anthropogenic habitats were dominated by Parupeneus indicus (Mullidae), Pempheris oualensis (Pempheridae) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti (Pempheridae). In general, it appears that specialist reef-associated species are being replaced with fishes that are much more generalist in their habitat-use. The loss of natural coastal habitats may threaten some species that cannot live in anthropogenically altered habitats, though the overall abundance and diversity of coastal fishes was not significantly different between natural and artificial habitats in Taiwan. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  20. Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate 'critical habitat' for any species it lists under the ESA. This dataset combines both...

  1. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  2. Majuro_Benthic_Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed...

  3. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  4. Habitat Mapping Camera (HABCAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset entails imagery collected using the HabCam towed underwater vehicle and annotated data on objects or habitats in the images and notes on image...

  5. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Johnson's Seagrass as designated by Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 66, Wednesday, April 5, 2000, Rules and Regulations.

  6. Designated Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Critical habitats include those areas documented as currently supporting self-sustaining populations of any threatened or endangered species of wildlife as well as...

  7. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  8. Smalltooth Sawfish Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinatat) as designated by 74 FR 45353, September 2, 2009, Rules and Regulations.

  9. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  10. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; DeStefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat to sustain bird and other wildlife populations. The primary goal of this study was to integrate wildlife suitability indices to an existing national urban forest assessment tool, i-Tree. We quantified available habitat characteristics of urban forests for ten northeastern U.S. cities, and summarized bird habitat relationships from the literature in terms of variables that were represented in the i-Tree datasets. With these data, we generated habitat suitability equations for nine bird species representing a range of life history traits and conservation status that predicts the habitat suitability based on i-Tree data. We applied these equations to the urban forest datasets to calculate the overall habitat suitability for each city and the habitat suitability for different types of land-use (e.g., residential, commercial, parkland) for each bird species. The proposed habitat models will help guide wildlife managers, urban planners, and landscape designers who require specific information such as desirable habitat conditions within an urban management project to help improve the suitability of urban forests for birds.

  11. Landscape habitat suitability index software

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Dijak; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Michael A. Larson; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2007-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are traditionally used to evaluate habitat quality for wildlife at a local scale. Rarely have such models incorporated spatial relationships of habitat components. We introduce Landscape HSImodels, a new Microsoft Windowst (Microsoft, Redmond, WA)-based program that incorporates local habitat as well as landscape-scale attributes...

  12. Habitat degradation disrupts neophobia in juvenile coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P; Allan, Bridie J M; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2017-02-01

    Habitat degradation not only disrupts habitat-forming species, but alters the sensory landscape within which most species must balance behavioural activities against predation risk. Rapidly developing a cautious behavioural phenotype, a condition known as neophobia, is advantageous when entering a novel risky habitat. Many aquatic organisms rely on damage-released conspecific cues (i.e. alarm cues) as an indicator of impending danger and use them to assess general risk and develop neophobia. This study tested whether settlement-stage damselfish associated with degraded coral reef habitats were able to use alarm cues as an indicator of risk and, in turn, develop a neophobic response at the end of their larval phase. Our results indicate that fish in live coral habitats that were exposed to alarm cues developed neophobia, and, in situ, were found to be more cautious, more closely associated with their coral shelters and survived four-times better than non-neophobic control fish. In contrast, fish that settled onto degraded coral habitats did not exhibit neophobia and consequently suffered much greater mortality on the reef, regardless of their history of exposure to alarm cues. Our results show that habitat degradation alters the efficacy of alarm cues with phenotypic and survival consequences for newly settled recruits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Microevolutionary Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Plant-Animal Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco E. Fontúrbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-animal interactions are a key component for biodiversity maintenance, but they are currently threatened by human activities. Habitat fragmentation might alter ecological interactions due to demographic changes, spatial discontinuities, and edge effects. Also, there are less evident effects of habitat fragmentation that potentially alter selective forces and compromise the fitness of the interacting species. Changes in the mutualistic and antagonistic interactions in fragmented habitats could significantly influence the plant reproductive output and the fauna assemblage associated with. Fragmented habitats may trigger contemporary evolution processes and open new evolutionary opportunities. Interacting parties with a diffuse and asymmetric relationship are less susceptible to local extinction but more prone to evolve towards new interactions or autonomy. However, highly specialized mutualisms are likely to disappear. On the other hand, ecological interactions may mutually modulate their response in fragmented habitats, especially when antagonistic interactions disrupt mutualistic ones. Ecoevolutionary issues of habitat fragmentation have been little explored, but the empiric evidence available suggests that the complex modification of ecological interactions in fragmented habitats might lead to nonanalogous communities on the long term.

  14. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  15. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Samelius

    Full Text Available Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1 before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2 in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection. Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  16. Quantitative analysis of woodpecker habitat using high-resolution airborne LiDAR estimates of forest structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Garabedian; Robert J. McGaughey; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Bernard R. Parresol; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology has the potential to radically alter the way researchers and managers collect data on wildlife–habitat relationships. To date, the technology has fostered several novel approaches to characterizing avian habitat, but has been limited by the lack of detailed LiDAR-habitat attributes relevant to species across a continuum of...

  17. Catchment land-use effects on littoral macroinvertebrates in response to local habitat structure and trophic state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGoff, Elaine; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    within substrate habitat effects, and were masked by local habitat heterogeneity. This indicates that, at least in the Swedish situation, greater care needs to be taken in stratifying the substrate sampled in order to see this nutrient pressure-macroinvertebrate response relationship......Lake habitat alteration is a major stressor for lakes worldwide, and physical habitat alteration is likely the biggest threat to aquatic ecosystems, exceeding all other anthropogenic pressures. This study sought to elucidate which group of variables was the most important for describing Swedish...... indicators of trophic pressure in all cases or habitats, they may be useful indicators for other anthropogenic pressures (e.g. hydromorphology) on lake shores....

  18. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  19. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  20. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  1. Earth is a Marine Habitat. Habitat Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This brochure is intended to educate the public about the need to conserve and preserve the earth's environment (man's habitat). It contains an introduction to the ocean world and threats to coastal habitat. Photos and narrative revolve around the theme "Earth is a Marine Habitat." Sections include: "The Web of…

  2. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  3. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  4. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  5. Sound solutions for habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Christina D. Vojta

    2015-01-01

    For agencies and organizations to effectively manage wildlife, knowledge about the status and trend of wildlife habitat is critical. Traditional wildlife monitoring, however, has focused on populations rather than habitat, because ultimately population status drives long-term species viability. Still, habitat loss has contributed to the decline of nearly all at-risk...

  6. Habitat Use Database - Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Habitat Use Database (HUD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Habitat Use Database (HUD) was specifically designed to address the need for habitat-use analyses in support of groundfish EFH, HAPCs, and fishing and nonfishing...

  7. Habitat selection is unaltered after severe insect infestation: Concerns for forest-dependent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2009-01-01

    Severe disturbance may alter or eliminate important habitat structure that helps preserve food caches of foodhoarding species. Recent recolonization of an insect-damaged forest by the endangered Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) provided an opportunity to examine habitat selection for midden (cache) sites following...

  8. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995-96, triggering widespread flooding, mass erosion, and, possibly altering salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin.

  9. Using occupancy and population models to assess habitat conservation opportunities for an isolated carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Spencer; Heather Rustigian-Romsos; James Strittholt; Robert Scheller; William Zielinski; Richard Truex

    2011-01-01

    An isolated population of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, is threatened by small size and habitat alteration from wildfires, fuels management, and other factors. We assessed the population’s status and conservation options for its habitat using a spatially explicit population model coupled with a...

  10. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward [Technical Editor] Thomas

    1979-01-01

    The Nation's forests are one of the last remaining natural habitats forterrestrial wildlife. Much of this vast forest resource has changed dramatically in the last 200 years and can no longer be considered wild. It is now managed for multiple use benefits, including timber production. Timber harvesting and roadbuilding now alter wildlife habitat more than any...

  11. Habitat selection by marine larvae in changing chemical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchini, D; Dixson, D L; Lecellier, G; Roux, N; Frédérich, B; Besson, M; Tanaka, Y; Banaigs, B; Nakamura, Y

    2017-01-15

    The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make behavioural decisions with chemical information being important for habitat selection at settlement. We explored the sensory world of crustaceans and fishes focusing on the impact anthropogenic alterations (ocean acidification, red soil, pesticide) have on conspecific chemical signals used by larvae for habitat selection. Crustacean (Stenopus hispidus) and fish (Chromis viridis) larvae recognized their conspecifics via chemical signals under control conditions. In the presence of acidified water, red soil or pesticide, the ability of larvae to chemically recognize conspecific cues was altered. Our study highlights that recruitment potential on coral reefs may decrease due to anthropogenic stressors. If so, populations of fishes and crustaceans will continue their rapid decline; larval recruitment will not replace and sustain the adult populations on degraded reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Habitat fragmentation, climate change, and inbreeding in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimu, Roosa; Vergeer, Philippine; Angeloni, Francesco; Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation and climate change are recognized as major threats to biodiversity. The major challenge for present day plant populations is how to adapt and cope with altered abiotic and biotic environments caused by climate change, when at the same time adaptive and evolutionary potential is decreased as habitat fragmentation reduces genetic variation and increases inbreeding. Although the ecological and evolutionary effects of fragmentation and climate change have been investigated separately, their combined effects remained largely unexplored. In this review, we will discuss the individual and joint effects of habitat fragmentation and climate change on plants and how the abilities and ways in which plants can respond and cope with climate change may be compromised due to habitat fragmentation.

  13. Habitats of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  14. Habitat monitoring needs for Arapaho NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the refuge's ideas on what level of monitoring is needed for each habitat objective. Habitat objectives include riparian habitat, wetland habitat,...

  15. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Keith H. Nislow; David J. Nowak; Stephen DeStefano; David I. King; D. Todd. Jones-Farrand

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat...

  16. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  17. Measuring acoustic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies.

  18. The influence of habitat on the evolution of plants: a case study across Saxifragales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Mort, Mark E; Soltis, Douglas E

    2016-12-01

    Organismal evolution tends to be closely associated with ecological conditions. However, the extent to which this association constrains adaptation or diversification into new habitats remains unclear. We studied habitat evolution in the hyper-diverse angiosperm clade Saxifragales. We used species-level phylogenies for approx. 950 species to analyse the evolution of habitat shifts as well as their influence on plant diversification. We combined habitat characterization based on floristic assignments and state-of-the art phylogenetic comparative methods to estimate within- and across-habitat diversification patterns. Our analyses showed that Saxifragales diversified into multiple habitats from a forest-inhabiting ancestor and that this diversification is governed by relatively rare habitat shifts. Lineages are likely to stay within inferred ancestral ecological conditions. Adaptation to some habitat types (e.g. aquatic, desert) may be canalizing events that lineages do not escape. Although associations between increased diversification rates and shifts in habitat preferences are occasionally observed, extreme macroevolutionary rates are closely associated with specific habitats. Lineages occurring in shrubland, and especially tundra and rock cliffs, exhibit comparatively high diversification, whereas forest, grassland, desert and aquatic habitats are associated with low diversification. The likelihood of occupation of new habitats appears to be asymmetric. Shifts to aquatic and desert habitats may be canalizing events. Other habitats, such as tundra, might act as evolutionary sources, while forests provide the only habitat seemingly colonized easily by lineages originating elsewhere. However, habitat shifts are very rare, and any major environmental alteration is expected to have dramatic evolutionary consequences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Telemetry-Determined Habitat Use Informs Multi-Species Habitat Management in an Urban Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Andrew M.; Midwood, Jonathon D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Lapointe, Nicolas W. R.; Portiss, Rick; Sciscione, Thomas; Wells, Mathew G.; Doka, Susan E.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread human development has led to impairment of freshwater coastal wetlands and embayments, which provide critical and unique habitat for many freshwater fish species. This is particularly evident in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where such habitats have been severely altered over the last century as a result of industrial activities, urbanization, dredging and infilling. In Toronto Harbour, extensive restoration efforts have been directed towards improving the amount and quality of aquatic habitat, especially for fishes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this restoration work, use of the restored area by both target species and the fish community as a whole must be assessed. Individuals from four species (Common Carp, Largemouth Bass, Northern Pike and Yellow Perch) were tagged and tracked continuously for 1 year using an acoustic telemetry array in Toronto Harbour area of Lake Ontario. Daily site fidelity was estimated using a mixed-effects logistic regression model. Daily site fidelity was influenced by habitat restoration and its interactions with species and body size, as well as season and its interactions with species and body size. Daily site fidelity was higher in restored sites compared to non-restored sites for Yellow Perch and Northern Pike, but lower for Largemouth Bass and Common Carp. For all species, daily site fidelity estimates were highest during the summer and lowest during autumn. The approach used here has merit for evaluating restoration success and informing future habitat management activities. Creating diverse habitats that serve multiple functions and species are more desirable than single-function-oriented or single-species-oriented designs.

  20. Habitat Heterogeneity Variably Influences Habitat Selection by Wild Herbivores in a Semi-Arid Tropical Savanna Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K Muposhi

    Full Text Available An understanding of the habitat selection patterns by wild herbivores is critical for adaptive management, particularly towards ecosystem management and wildlife conservation in semi arid savanna ecosystems. We tested the following predictions: (i surface water availability, habitat quality and human presence have a strong influence on the spatial distribution of wild herbivores in the dry season, (ii habitat suitability for large herbivores would be higher compared to medium-sized herbivores in the dry season, and (iii spatial extent of suitable habitats for wild herbivores will be different between years, i.e., 2006 and 2010, in Matetsi Safari Area, Zimbabwe. MaxEnt modeling was done to determine the habitat suitability of large herbivores and medium-sized herbivores. MaxEnt modeling of habitat suitability for large herbivores using the environmental variables was successful for the selected species in 2006 and 2010, except for elephant (Loxodonta africana for the year 2010. Overall, large herbivores probability of occurrence was mostly influenced by distance from rivers. Distance from roads influenced much of the variability in the probability of occurrence of medium-sized herbivores. The overall predicted area for large and medium-sized herbivores was not different. Large herbivores may not necessarily utilize larger habitat patches over medium-sized herbivores due to the habitat homogenizing effect of water provisioning. Effect of surface water availability, proximity to riverine ecosystems and roads on habitat suitability of large and medium-sized herbivores in the dry season was highly variable thus could change from one year to another. We recommend adaptive management initiatives aimed at ensuring dynamic water supply in protected areas through temporal closure and or opening of water points to promote heterogeneity of wildlife habitats.

  1. Modelling riverine habitat for robust redhorse: assessment for reintroduction of an imperilled species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J. M.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Heise, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical component of a species reintroduction is assessment of contemporary habitat suitability. The robust redhorse, Moxostoma robustum (Cope), is an imperilled catostomid that occupies a restricted range in the south-eastern USA. A remnant population persists downstream of Blewett Falls Dam, the terminal dam in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina. Reintroduction upstream of Blewett Falls Dam may promote long-term survival of this population. Tillery Dam is the next hydroelectric facility upstream, which includes a 30 rkm lotic reach. Habitat suitability indices developed in the Pee Dee River were applied to model suitable habitat for proposed minimum flows downstream of Tillery Dam. Modelling results indicate that the Tillery reach provides suitable robust redhorse habitat, with spawning habitat more abundant than non-spawning habitat. Sensitivity analyses suggested that suitable water depth and substrate were limiting physical habitat variables. These results can inform decisions on flow regulation and guide planning for reintroduction of the robust redhorse and other species.

  2. Testing the Role of Habitat Isolation among Ecologically Divergent Gall Wasp Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Egan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat isolation occurs when habitat preferences lower the probability of mating between individuals associated with differing habitats. While a potential barrier to gene flow during ecological speciation, the effect of habitat isolation on reproductive isolation has rarely been directly tested. Herein, we first estimated habitat preference for each of six populations of the gall wasp Belonocnema treatae inhabiting either Quercus virginiana or Q. geminata. We then estimated the importance of habitat isolation in generating reproductive isolation between B. treatae populations that were host specific to either Q. virginiana or Q. geminata by measuring mate preference in the presence and absence of the respective host plants. All populations exhibited host preference for their native plant, and assortative mating increased significantly in the presence of the respective host plants. This host-plant-mediated assortative mating demonstrates that habitat isolation likely plays an important role in promoting reproductive isolation among populations of this host-specific gall former.

  3. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  4. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  5. Vacant habitats in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    The search for life on other planets usually makes the assumption that where there is a habitat, it will contain life. On the present-day Earth, uninhabited habitats (or vacant habitats) are rare, but might occur, for example, in subsurface oils or impact craters that have been thermally sterilized in the past. Beyond Earth, vacant habitats might similarly exist on inhabited planets or on uninhabited planets, for example on a habitable planet where life never originated. The hypothesis that vacant habitats are abundant in the Universe is testable by studying other planets. In this review, I discuss how the study of vacant habitats might ultimately inform an understanding of how life has influenced geochemical conditions on Earth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Habitat loss and gain: Influence on habitat attractiveness for estuarine fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Franco, Anita; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2017-10-01

    Habitat structure and complexity influence the structuring and functioning of fish communities. Habitat changes are one of the main pressures affecting estuarine systems worldwide, yet the degree and rate of change and its impact on fish communities is still poorly understood. In order to quantify historical modifications in habitat structure, an ecohydrological classification system using physiotopes, i.e. units with homogenous abiotic characteristics, was developed for the lower Lima estuary (NW Portugal). Field data, aerial imagery, historical maps and interpolation methods were used to map input variables, including bathymetry, substratum (hard/soft), sediment composition, hydrodynamics (current velocity) and vegetation coverage. Physiotopes were then mapped for the years of 1933 and 2013 and the areas lost and gained over the 80 years were quantified. The implications of changes for the benthic and demersal fish communities using the lower estuary were estimated using the attractiveness to those communities of each physiotope, while considering the main estuarine habitat functions for fish, namely spawning, nursery, feeding and refuge areas and migratory routes. The lower estuary was highly affected due to urbanisation and development and, following a port/harbour expansion, its boundary moved seaward causing an increase in total area. Modifications led to the loss of most of its sandy and saltmarsh intertidal physiotopes, which were replaced by deeper subtidal physiotopes. The most attractive physiotopes for fish (defined as the way in which they supported the fish ecological features) decreased in area while less attractive ones increased, producing an overall lower attractiveness of the studied area in 2013 compared to 1933. The implications of habitat alterations for the fish using the estuary include potential changes in the nursery carrying capacity and the functioning of the fish community. The study also highlighted the poor knowledge of the impacts of

  7. Partial gravity habitat study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

  8. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently a...... accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat)....

  9. Using dynamic population simulations to extend resource selection analyses and prioritize habitats for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Julie; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Schumaker, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing habitats for conservation is a challenging task, particularly for species with fluctuating populations and seasonally dynamic habitat needs. Although the use of resource selection models to identify and prioritize habitat for conservation is increasingly common, their ability to characterize important long-term habitats for dynamic populations are variable. To examine how habitats might be prioritized differently if resource selection was directly and dynamically linked with population fluctuations and movement limitations among seasonal habitats, we constructed a spatially explicit individual-based model for a dramatically fluctuating population requiring temporally varying resources. Using greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming as a case study, we used resource selection function maps to guide seasonal movement and habitat selection, but emergent population dynamics and simulated movement limitations modified long-term habitat occupancy. We compared priority habitats in RSF maps to long-term simulated habitat use. We examined the circumstances under which the explicit consideration of movement limitations, in combination with population fluctuations and trends, are likely to alter predictions of important habitats. In doing so, we assessed the future occupancy of protected areas under alternative population and habitat conditions. Habitat prioritizations based on resource selection models alone predicted high use in isolated parcels of habitat and in areas with low connectivity among seasonal habitats. In contrast, results based on more biologically-informed simulations emphasized central and connected areas near high-density populations, sometimes predicted to be low selection value. Dynamic models of habitat use can provide additional biological realism that can extend, and in some cases, contradict habitat use predictions generated from short-term or static resource selection analyses. The explicit inclusion of population

  10. Our cosmic habitat

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Our universe seems strangely 'biophilic,' or hospitable to life. Is this providence or coincidence? According to Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: 'What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.' This highly engaging book centres on the fascinating consequences of the answer being 'yes'. Rees explores the notion that our universe is just part of a vast 'multiverse,' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be local by laws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

  11. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  12. Habitat Fragmentation and Native Bees: a Premature Verdict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cane

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies directly address the consequences of habitat fragmentation for communities of pollinating insects, particularly for the key pollinator group, bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes. Bees typically live in habitats where nesting substrates and bloom are patchily distributed and spatially dissociated. Bee studies have all defined habitat fragments as remnant patches of floral hosts or forests, overlooking the nesting needs of bees. Several authors conclude that habitat fragmentation is broadly deleterious, but their own data show that some native species proliferate in sampled fragments. Other studies report greater densities and comparable diversities of native bees at flowers in some fragment size classes relative to undisrupted habitats, but find dramatic shifts in species composition. Insightful studies of habitat fragmentation and bees will consider fragmentation, alteration, and loss of nesting habitats, not just patches of forage plants, as well as the permeability of the surrounding matrix to interpatch movement. Inasmuch as the floral associations and nesting habits of bees are often attributes of species or subgenera, ecological interpretations hinge on authoritative identifications. Study designs must accommodate statistical problems associated with bee community samples, especially non-normal data and frequent zero values. The spatial scale of fragmentation must be appreciated: bees of medium body size can regularly fly 1-2 km from nest site to forage patch. Overall, evidence for prolonged persistence of substantial diversity and abundances of native bee communities in habitat fragments of modest size promises practical solutions for maintaining bee populations. Provided that reserve selection, design, and management can address the foraging and nesting needs of bees, networks of even small reserves may hold hope for sustaining considerable pollinator diversity and the ecological services pollinators provide.

  13. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  14. Food technology in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  15. Wildfire may increase habitat quality for spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River subbasin, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Hessburg, Paul F.; McNyset, Kris M.; Benda, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest salmonids are adapted to natural disturbance regimes that create dynamic habitat patterns over space and through time. However, human land use, particularly long-term fire suppression, has altered the intensity and frequency of wildfire in forested upland and riparian areas. To examine the potential impacts of wildfire on aquatic systems, we developed stream-reach-scale models of freshwater habitat for three life stages (adult, egg/fry, and juvenile) of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wenatchee River subbasin, Washington. We used variables representing pre- and post-fire habitat conditions and employed novel techniques to capture changes in in-stream fine sediment, wood, and water temperature. Watershed-scale comparisons of high-quality habitat for each life stage of spring Chinook salmon habitat suggested that there are smaller quantities of high-quality juvenile overwinter habitat as compared to habitat for other life stages. We found that wildfire has the potential to increase quality of adult and overwintering juvenile habitat through increased delivery of wood, while decreasing the quality of egg and fry habitat due to the introduction of fine sediments. Model results showed the largest effect of fire on habitat quality associated with the juvenile life stage, resulting in increases in high-quality habitat in all watersheds. Due to the limited availability of pre-fire high-quality juvenile habitat, and increased habitat quality for this life stage post-fire, occurrence of characteristic wildfires would likely create a positive effect on spring Chinook salmon habitat in the Wenatchee River subbasin. We also compared pre- and post-fire model results of freshwater habitat for each life stage, and for the geometric mean of habitat quality across all life stages, using current compared to the historic distribution of spring Chinook salmon. We found that spring Chinook salmon are currently distributed in stream channels in

  16. The disentangled bank: how loss of habitat fragments and disassembles ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrew; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Lindo, Zoë

    2011-03-01

    Habitat transformation is one of the leading causes of changes in biodiversity and the breakdown of ecosystem function and services. The impacts of habitat transformation on biodiversity are complex and can be difficult to test and demonstrate. Network approaches to biodiversity science have provided a powerful set of tools and models that are beginning to present new insight into the structural and functional effects of habitat transformation on complex ecological systems. We propose a framework for studying the ways in which habitat loss and fragmentation jointly affect biodiversity by altering both habitat and ecological interaction networks. That is, the explicit study of "networks of networks" is required to understand the impacts of habitat change on biodiversity. We conduct a broad review of network methods and results, with the aim of revealing the common approaches used by landscape ecology and community ecology. We find that while a lot is known about the consequences of habitat transformation for habitat network topology and for the structure and function of simple antagonistic and mutualistic interaction networks, few studies have evaluated the consequences for large interaction networks with complex and spatially explicit architectures. Moreover, almost no studies have been focused on the continuous feedback between the spatial structure and dynamics of the habitat network and the structure and dynamics of the interaction networks inhabiting the habitat network. We conclude that theory and experiments that tackle the ecology of networks of networks are needed to provide a deeper understanding of biodiversity change in fragmented landscapes.

  17. Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarniello, Lana M; Boyce, Mark S; Seip, Dale R; Heard, Douglas C

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to show how ecologists' interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is altered by the scale of observation and also how management questions would be best addressed using predetermined scales of analysis. Using resource selection functions (RSF) we examined how variation in the spatial extent of availability affected our interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears inhabiting mountain and plateau landscapes. We estimated separate models for females and males using three spatial extents: within the study area, within the home range, and within predetermined movement buffers. We employed two methods for evaluating the effects of scale on our RSF designs. First, we chose a priori six candidate models, estimated at each scale, and ranked them using Akaike Information Criteria. Using this method, results changed among scales for males but not for females. For female bears, models that included the full suite of covariates predicted habitat use best at each scale. For male bears that resided in the mountains, models based on forest successional stages ranked highest at the study-wide and home range extents, whereas models containing covariates based on terrain features ranked highest at the buffer extent. For male bears on the plateau, each scale estimated a different highest-ranked model. Second, we examined differences among model coefficients across the three scales for one candidate model. We found that both the magnitude and direction of coefficients were dependent upon the scale examined; results varied between landscapes, scales, and sexes. Greenness, reflecting lush green vegetation, was a strong predictor of the presence of female bears in both landscapes and males that resided in the mountains. Male bears on the plateau were the only animals to select areas that exposed them to a high risk of mortality by humans. Our results show that grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. Further, the

  18. Promoting habitat complexity in second-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annette Bristol; Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    The following management tools can help meet multiple values—environmental, economic, and aesthetic—when used collectively and according to a well-devised plan.Cavity Tree CreationCoarse Woody Debris AugmentationUnderplantingConservation of Biological legaciesVariable-Density ThinningExtended...

  19. Enhancing and restoring habitat for the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 y for the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii, a federally threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave Desert and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival) a variety of shrubs on disturbed desert soils. Additionally, salvaging and reapplying topsoil using effective techniques is among the more ecologically beneficial ways to initiate plant recovery after severe disturbance. Through differences in biochemical composition and digestibility, some plant species provide better-quality forage than others. Desert tortoises selectively forage on particular annual and herbaceous perennial species (e.g., legumes), and forage selection shifts during the year as different plants grow or mature. Nonnative grasses provide low-quality forage and contribute fuel to spreading wildfires, which damage or kill shrubs that tortoises use for cover. Maintaining a diverse “menu” of native annual forbs and decreasing nonnative grasses are priorities for restoring most desert tortoise habitats. Reducing herbivory by nonnative animals, carefully timing herbicide applications, and strategically augmenting annual forage plants via seeding show promise for improving tortoise forage quality. Roads, another disturbance, negatively affect habitat in numerous ways (e.g., compacting soil, altering hydrology). Techniques such as recontouring road berms to reestablish drainage patterns, vertical mulching (“planting” dead plant material

  20. Breeding Habitat Selection of Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Zheng, Guang-Mei; Ruan, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Ke-Yin; Xi, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) is a threatened pheasant species endemic to China. The habitat use of territorial male birds was surveyed by the help of live decoys in a core area of Dongzhai National Nature Reserve. The breeding habitat selection of this pheasant was examined at two scales (115 m and 250 m scale, i.e. 4.15 hm(2 ) and 19.63 hm(2 ), respectively), including the characteristics at distance scale. Investigation was based on line transect, RS and GIS in Dongzhai National Natural Reserve from 2001 to 2003. Moreover, a range of habitat variables were compared between used and control points at each scale, and stepwise logistic regression was applied to select the key scale and the key habitat factors in relation to breeding habitat selection of this bird. Our results stated that the territorial males at Baiyun occurred mostly in mixed forests, followed by fir forests, pine forests, shrubs, and broadleaf forests. The area of conifer forests was the key factor influencing habitat selection of this bird in breeding period at the scales of 115 m and 250 m, and the proximity of farmland was important for habitat selection in breeding seasons. Furthermore, Reeves's Pheasants attached great importance to the scale of 115 m. When considering a range of habitat variables at all scales within a multivariate regression, the leading factors having effect on habitat selection in the breeding period were areas of conifer forests at 115 m scale and the distance to farmland. In addition, these above results suggested that strengthening the management of suitable habitat, and optimizing the habitat configuration are important in promoting conservation of this bird. However, it also highlighted the importance of initiating future researches on the conifer forests and their impact on the population of Reeves's Pheasants, which would be beneficial to promote the habitat conservation of this pheasant more effectively.

  1. Application of habitat thresholds in conservation: Considerations, limitations, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yntze van der Hoek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat thresholds are often interpreted as the minimum required area of habitat, and subsequently promoted as conservation targets in natural resource policies and planning. Unfortunately, several recent reviews and messages of caution on the application of habitat thresholds in conservation have largely fallen on deaf ears, leading to a dangerous oversimplification and generalization of the concept. We highlight the prevalence of oversimplification/over-generalization of results from habitat threshold studies in policy documentation, the consequences of such over-generalization, and directions for habitat threshold studies that have conservation applications without risking overgeneralization. We argue that in order to steer away from misapplication of habitat thresholds in conservation, we should not focus on generalized nominal habitat values (i.e., amounts or percentages of habitat, but on the use of habitat threshold modeling for comparative exercises of area-sensitivity or the identification of environmental dangers. In addition, we should remain focused on understanding the processes and mechanisms underlying species responses to habitat change. Finally, studies could that focus on deriving nominal value threshold amounts should do so only if the thresholds are detailed, species-specific, and translated to conservation targets particular to the study area only.

  2. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds122

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Coastal California Steelhead ESUs (evolutionarily...

  3. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for benthic marine habitats and plants in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this...

  5. Southeast Alaska ESI: HABITATS (Habitat and Plant Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seagrass habitats in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of seagrass...

  6. Habitat structure mediates biodiversity effects on ecosystem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, J. A.; Bulling, M. T.; Solan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations in a model marine benthic system to investigate the effects of species composition, resource heterogeneity and patch connectivity on ecosystem properties at both the patch (bioturbation intensity) and multi-patch (nutrient concentration) scale. We show that allowing fauna to move and preferentially select patches alters local species composition and density distributions, which has negative effects on ecosystem processes (bioturbation intensity) at the patch scale, but overall positive effects on ecosystem functioning (nutrient concentration) at the multi-patch scale. Our findings provide important evidence that community dynamics alter in response to localized resource heterogeneity and that these small-scale variations in habitat structure influence species contributions to ecosystem properties at larger scales. We conclude that habitat complexity forms an important buffer against disturbance and that contemporary estimates of the level of biodiversity required for maintaining future multi-functional systems may need to be revised. PMID:21227969

  7. Habitat structure mediates biodiversity effects on ecosystem properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, J A; Bulling, M T; Solan, M

    2011-08-22

    Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations in a model marine benthic system to investigate the effects of species composition, resource heterogeneity and patch connectivity on ecosystem properties at both the patch (bioturbation intensity) and multi-patch (nutrient concentration) scale. We show that allowing fauna to move and preferentially select patches alters local species composition and density distributions, which has negative effects on ecosystem processes (bioturbation intensity) at the patch scale, but overall positive effects on ecosystem functioning (nutrient concentration) at the multi-patch scale. Our findings provide important evidence that community dynamics alter in response to localized resource heterogeneity and that these small-scale variations in habitat structure influence species contributions to ecosystem properties at larger scales. We conclude that habitat complexity forms an important buffer against disturbance and that contemporary estimates of the level of biodiversity required for maintaining future multi-functional systems may need to be revised.

  8. Remote sensing of vegetation 3-D structure for biodiversity and habitat: Review and implications for lidar and radar spaceborne missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Bergen; S.J. Goetz; R.O. Dubayah; G.M. Henebry; C.T. Hunsaker; M.L. Imhoff; R.F. Nelson; G.G. Parker; V.C. Radeloff

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity and habitat face increasing pressures due to human and natural influences that alter vegetation structure. Because of the inherent difficulty of measuring forested vegetation three-dimensional (3-D) structure on the ground, this important component of biodiversity and habitat has been, until recently, largely restricted to local measurements, or at larger...

  9. A study on the carrying capacity of the available habitat for the Rhinopithecus bieti population at Mt. Laojun in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yu, Shixiao; Ren, Baoping; Li, Ming; Wu, Ruidong; Long, Yongcheng

    2009-06-01

    strong tradition of hunting. Quite a few individual monkeys are still trapped accidentally due to the high density of traps. These problems are hard to mitigate because it is difficult to enforce laws due to the extremely rugged terrain. The results show that there is a great ecological capacity of the area for the monkey's survival and a great potential for an expansion of the monkey population at the site. Based on the current population and its geographical range, it can be estimated that the suitable habitat area defined by this study can support more monkeys, about many times the current population. Thus, at least in the Mt. Laojun Area, poaching pressure is the main factor to be responsible for the low density of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys instead of habitat alteration. Based on these results, some suggestions relating to conservation can be made: Focus conservation efforts on the current distribution area of the monkeys and create a 20 km buffer zone; design a long-term plan for the suitable habitat outside the buffer zone to set up a wildlife corridor in the long run; establish an association for the local hunters exploiting, their knowledge on the animals to promote monkey conservation and stop poaching. Also, the map derived from the study helps managers to allocate conservation resources more efficiently and enhances the overall outcomes of conservation measures.

  10. The fate of threatened coastal dune habitats in Italy under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2013-01-01

    Coastal dunes worldwide harbor threatened habitats characterized by high diversity in terms of plant communities. In Italy, recent assessments have highlighted the insufficient state of conservation of these habitats as defined by the EU Habitats Directive. The effects of predicted climate change could have dramatic consequences for coastal environments in the near future. An assessment of the efficacy of protection measures under climate change is thus a priority. Here, we have developed environmental envelope models for the most widespread dune habitats in Italy, following two complementary approaches: an "indirect" plant-species-based one and a simple "direct" one. We analyzed how habitats distribution will be altered under the effects of two climate change scenarios and evaluated if the current Italian network of protected areas will be effective in the future after distribution shifts. While modeling dune habitats with the "direct" approach was unsatisfactory, "indirect" models had a good predictive performance, highlighting the importance of using species' responses to climate change for modeling these habitats. The results showed that habitats closer to the sea may even increase their geographical distribution in the near future. The transition dune habitat is projected to remain stable, although mobile and fixed dune habitats are projected to lose most of their actual geographical distribution, the latter being more sensitive to climate change effects. Gap analysis highlighted that the habitats' distribution is currently adequately covered by protected areas, achieving the conservation target. However, according to predictions, protection level for mobile and fixed dune habitats is predicted to drop drastically under the climate change scenarios which we examined. Our results provide useful insights for setting management priorities and better addressing conservation efforts to preserve these threatened habitats in future.

  11. The fate of threatened coastal dune habitats in Italy under climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Prisco

    Full Text Available Coastal dunes worldwide harbor threatened habitats characterized by high diversity in terms of plant communities. In Italy, recent assessments have highlighted the insufficient state of conservation of these habitats as defined by the EU Habitats Directive. The effects of predicted climate change could have dramatic consequences for coastal environments in the near future. An assessment of the efficacy of protection measures under climate change is thus a priority. Here, we have developed environmental envelope models for the most widespread dune habitats in Italy, following two complementary approaches: an "indirect" plant-species-based one and a simple "direct" one. We analyzed how habitats distribution will be altered under the effects of two climate change scenarios and evaluated if the current Italian network of protected areas will be effective in the future after distribution shifts. While modeling dune habitats with the "direct" approach was unsatisfactory, "indirect" models had a good predictive performance, highlighting the importance of using species' responses to climate change for modeling these habitats. The results showed that habitats closer to the sea may even increase their geographical distribution in the near future. The transition dune habitat is projected to remain stable, although mobile and fixed dune habitats are projected to lose most of their actual geographical distribution, the latter being more sensitive to climate change effects. Gap analysis highlighted that the habitats' distribution is currently adequately covered by protected areas, achieving the conservation target. However, according to predictions, protection level for mobile and fixed dune habitats is predicted to drop drastically under the climate change scenarios which we examined. Our results provide useful insights for setting management priorities and better addressing conservation efforts to preserve these threatened habitats in future.

  12. Habitats and Species Covered by the EEC Habitats Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, S.; Søgaard, B.; Ejrnæs, R.

    Under the Habitats Directive (The Council of the European Communities: Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora), Denmark has designated a total of 194 habitats to be included in a European network of Special Areas of Conservat......Under the Habitats Directive (The Council of the European Communities: Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora), Denmark has designated a total of 194 habitats to be included in a European network of Special Areas...... priority species houting (fish) and hermit (beetle), 4 mammals, 1 reptile, 5 amphibians, 2 dragonflies, and 8 vascular plants. Unfavourable conservation status: 17 species including 2 amphibians, 2 fish, 2 butterflies, 1 dragonfly, 2 beetles, 1 bivalve, 5 vascular plants, and 2 moss-es. Unknown...... conservation status: 13 species including 4 mammals, 1 reptile, 4 fish, 3 snails, and 1 mussel. Disappeared: 13 species including 1 reptile, 2 fish, 3 butterflies, 2 dragonflies, 2 beetles, and 3 mosses. The assessment is based on the preliminary classification of conservation status into these five categories...

  13. Habitat-specific foraging of prothonotary warblers: Deducing habitat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.

  14. Habitat degradation affects the summer activity of polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jasmine V.; Rode, Karyn D.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Douglas, David C.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, George M.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Olson, Jay; Robbins, Charles T.; Jansen, Heiko T

    2017-01-01

    Understanding behavioral responses of species to environmental change is critical to forecasting population-level effects. Although climate change is significantly impacting species’ distributions, few studies have examined associated changes in behavior. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations have varied in their near-term responses to sea ice decline. We examined behavioral responses of two adjacent subpopulations to changes in habitat availability during the annual sea ice minimum using activity data. Location and activity sensor data collected from 1989 to 2014 for 202 adult female polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SB) and Chukchi Sea (CS) subpopulations were used to compare activity in three habitat types varying in prey availability: (1) land; (2) ice over shallow, biologically productive waters; and (3) ice over deeper, less productive waters. Bears varied activity across and within habitats with the highest activity at 50–75% sea ice concentration over shallow waters. On land, SB bears exhibited variable but relatively high activity associated with the use of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale carcasses, whereas CS bears exhibited low activity consistent with minimal feeding. Both subpopulations had fewer observations in their preferred shallow-water sea ice habitats in recent years, corresponding with declines in availability of this substrate. The substantially higher use of marginal habitats by SB bears is an additional mechanism potentially explaining why this subpopulation has experienced negative effects of sea ice loss compared to the still-productive CS subpopulation. Variability in activity among, and within, habitats suggests that bears alter their behavior in response to habitat conditions, presumably in an attempt to balance prey availability with energy costs.

  15. Habitat degradation affects the summer activity of polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jasmine V; Rode, Karyn D; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F; Douglas, David C; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C; Durner, George M; Pagano, Anthony M; Olson, Jay; Robbins, Charles T; Jansen, Heiko T

    2017-05-01

    Understanding behavioral responses of species to environmental change is critical to forecasting population-level effects. Although climate change is significantly impacting species' distributions, few studies have examined associated changes in behavior. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations have varied in their near-term responses to sea ice decline. We examined behavioral responses of two adjacent subpopulations to changes in habitat availability during the annual sea ice minimum using activity data. Location and activity sensor data collected from 1989 to 2014 for 202 adult female polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SB) and Chukchi Sea (CS) subpopulations were used to compare activity in three habitat types varying in prey availability: (1) land; (2) ice over shallow, biologically productive waters; and (3) ice over deeper, less productive waters. Bears varied activity across and within habitats with the highest activity at 50-75% sea ice concentration over shallow waters. On land, SB bears exhibited variable but relatively high activity associated with the use of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale carcasses, whereas CS bears exhibited low activity consistent with minimal feeding. Both subpopulations had fewer observations in their preferred shallow-water sea ice habitats in recent years, corresponding with declines in availability of this substrate. The substantially higher use of marginal habitats by SB bears is an additional mechanism potentially explaining why this subpopulation has experienced negative effects of sea ice loss compared to the still-productive CS subpopulation. Variability in activity among, and within, habitats suggests that bears alter their behavior in response to habitat conditions, presumably in an attempt to balance prey availability with energy costs.

  16. Deep Space Habitat Concept Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Paul S.; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    This project will develop, integrate, test, and evaluate Habitation Systems that will be utilized as technology testbeds and will advance NASA's understanding of alternative deep space mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts. Rapid prototyping and existing hardware will be utilized to develop full-scale habitat demonstrators. FY 2014 focused on the development of a large volume Space Launch System (SLS) class habitat (Skylab Gen 2) based on the SLS hydrogen tank components. Similar to the original Skylab, a tank section of the SLS rocket can be outfitted with a deep space habitat configuration and launched as a payload on an SLS rocket. This concept can be used to support extended stay at the Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit to support the Asteroid Retrieval Mission and provide a habitat suitable for human missions to Mars.

  17. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  19. Shrub-Scrub Habitat Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conversion of the current shrub-scrub habitats west of Sandpiper Road and north of the Back BayNational Wildlife Refuge, into recreational facilities for a new hotel...

  20. Autonomous Systems: Habitat Automation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We define a habitat fairly broadly to include any enclosed space that is intended to house people for an extended period of time away from the Earth....

  1. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  2. Leatherback Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for leatherback turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 17711, March 23, 1979, Rules and Regulations....

  3. Hawksbill Sea Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for hawksbill turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations....

  4. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Biodiversity in urban habitat patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, P G; Sadler, J P; Hill, M O; Pullin, A; Rushton, S; Austin, K; Small, E; Wood, B; Wadsworth, R; Sanderson, R; Thompson, K

    2006-05-01

    We examined the biodiversity of urban habitats in Birmingham (England) using a combination of field surveys of plants and carabid beetles, genetic studies of four species of butterflies, modelling the anthropochorous nature of the floral communities and spatially explicit modelling of selected mammal species. The aim of the project was to: (i) understand the ecological characteristics of the biota of cities model, (ii) examine the effects of habitat fragment size and connectivity upon the ecological diversity and individual species distributions, (iii) predict biodiversity in cities, and (iv) analyse the extent to which the flora and fauna utilise the 'urban greenways' both as wildlife corridors and as habitats in their own right. The results suggest that cities provide habitats for rich and diverse range of plants and animals, which occur sometimes in unlikely recombinant communities. The studies on carabids and butterflies illustrated the relative importance of habitat quality on individual sites as opposed to site location within the conurbation. This suggests that dispersal for most of our urban species is not a limiting factor in population persistence, although elements of the woodland carabid fauna did appear to have some geographical structuring. Theoretical models suggested that dormice and water voles may depend on linear habitats for dispersal. The models also indicated that other groups, such as small and medium sized mammals, may use corridors, although field-based research did not provide any evidence to suggest that plants or invertebrates use urban greenways for dispersal. This finding indicates the importance of identifying a target species or group of species for urban greenways intended as dispersal routeways rather than as habitat in their own right. Their importance for most groups is rather that greenways provide a chain of different habitats permeating the urban environment. We suggest that planners can have a positive impact on urban

  6. Ghost of habitat past: historic habitat affects the contemporary distribution of giant garter snakes in a modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Historic habitat conditions can affect contemporary communities and populations, but most studies of historic habitat are based on the reduction in habitat extent or connectivity. Little is known about the effects of historic habitat on contemporary species distributions when historic habitat has been nearly completely removed, but species persist in a highly altered landscape. More than 93% of the historic wetlands in the Central Valley of California, USA, have been drained and converted to agricultural and other uses, but agricultural wetlands, such as rice and its supporting infrastructure of canals, allow some species to persist. Little is known about the distribution of giant garter snakes Thamnophis gigas, a rare aquatic snake species inhabiting this predominantly agricultural landscape, or the variables that affect where this species occurs. We used occupancy modeling to examine the distribution of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale in the Sacramento Valley (northern portion of the Central Valley) of California, with an emphasis on the relative strength of historic and contemporary variables (landscape-scale habitat, local microhabitat, vegetation composition and relative prey counts) for predicting giant garter snake occurrence. Proximity to historic marsh best explained variation in the probability of occurrence of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale, with greater probability of occurrence near historic marsh. We suspect that the importance of distance to historic marsh represents dispersal limitations of giant garter snakes. These results suggest that preserving and restoring areas near historic marsh, and minimizing activities that reduce the extent of marsh or marsh-like (e.g. rice agriculture, canal) habitats near historic marsh may be advantageous to giant garter snakes.

  7. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for

  8. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; Rode, Karyn D.; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey ...

  9. Oil patch fitting in with wildlife habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, N.

    2003-06-01

    Changes in grizzly bear and caribou populations associated with roads, seismic lines, and pipelines are of great concern to the oil, gas and forestry industries since the presence of structures are providing easier access to wildlife habitats for predatory wolves and humans. This article provides details of this concern and describes efforts, such as the Caribou Range Recovery Project, towards mitigating the impact of the industry and hastening the reclamation of the woodland caribou habitat disturbed by humans. This project, funded by a consortium of government, industry and the University of Alberta, is a three-year project which focuses on the revegetation of disturbed areas in the highly-impacted caribou ranges of northern and west-central Alberta, the development of a preliminary set of guidelines for reclamation of industrial developments in caribou ranges, development of a long-term monitoring strategy for assessing the success of these reclamation efforts, and on promoting First Nations involvement through consultation and participation. Previous projects focused on Little Smoky, Redrock, Red Earth, and Stony Mountain areas. Details are also provided of the Foot Hills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research project, a five-year, $3 million study deigned to ensure healthy grizzly bear populations in west-central Alberta by better integrating their needs into land management decisions.

  10. Food-web models predict species abundances in response to habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Gotelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only autecological responses to habitat volume, or models including both food-web structure and habitat volume. These results provide the first experimental confirmation that trophic structure can determine species abundances in the face of habitat loss.

  11. RISK HABITAT OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY (Danaus plexippus BY CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Islas-Báez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change is altering the ecosystem functioning, so it is important to conduct studies that contribute to the knowledge of species distribution under climate change scenarios, to locate areas vulnerable to the phenomenon. Potential changes were estimated area under climate change scenarios, obtained by downscaling and Regional Assembly Model (RAM for the winter habitat of the Monarch Butterfly (MM in the nucleus zone of the Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch Butterfly area. According to the study, the overwintering habitat of the MM disappears in the A2 and B2 scenarios downscaling 2030. With the RAM, reducing the area of habitat MM 2030 is estimated at 37.59 % and in 2050 will be 49.13 %. Therefore, the downscaling model indicates that MM habitat disappears, and the RAM shows that there will be significant losses of habitat MM.

  12. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BOLONI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  13. A NEW HABITAT CLASSIFICATION AND MANUAL FOR STANDARDIZED HABITAT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KUN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the documentation of natural heritage with scientific methods but for conservation practice – like mapping of actual vegetation – becomes more and more important. For this purpose mapping guides containing only the names and descriptions of vegetation types are not sufficient. Instead, new, mapping-oriented vegetation classification systems and handbooks are needed. There are different standardised systems fitted to the characteristics of a region already published and used successfully for surveying large territories. However, detailed documentation of the aims and steps of their elaboration is still missing. Here we present a habitat-classification method developed specifically for mapping and the steps of its development. Habitat categories and descriptions reflect site conditions, physiognomy and species composition as well. However, for species composition much lower role was given deliberately than in the phytosociological systems. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types in the field is highly supported by a definition, list of subtypes and list of ‘types not belonging to this habitat category’. Our system is two-dimensional: the first dimension is habitat type, the other is naturalness based habitat quality. The development of the system was conducted in two steps, over 200 mappers already tested it over 7000 field days in different projects.

  14. Structural habitat predicts functional dispersal habitat of a large carnivore: how leopards change spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattebert, Julien; Robinson, Hugh S; Balme, Guy; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke

    2015-10-01

    Natal dispersal promotes inter-population linkage, and is key to spatial distribution of populations. Degradation of suitable landscape structures beyond the specific threshold of an individual's ability to disperse can therefore lead to disruption of functional landscape connectivity and impact metapopulation function. Because it ignores behavioral responses of individuals, structural connectivity is easier to assess than functional connectivity and is often used as a surrogate for landscape connectivity modeling. However using structural resource selection models as surrogate for modeling functional connectivity through dispersal could be erroneous. We tested how well a second-order resource selection function (RSF) models (structural connectivity), based on GPS telemetry data from resident adult leopard (Panthera pardus L.), could predict subadult habitat use during dispersal (functional connectivity). We created eight non-exclusive subsets of the subadult data based on differing definitions of dispersal to assess the predictive ability of our adult-based RSF model extrapolated over a broader landscape. Dispersing leopards used habitats in accordance with adult selection patterns, regardless of the definition of dispersal considered. We demonstrate that, for a wide-ranging apex carnivore, functional connectivity through natal dispersal corresponds to structural connectivity as modeled by a second-order RSF. Mapping of the adult-based habitat classes provides direct visualization of the potential linkages between populations, without the need to model paths between a priori starting and destination points. The use of such landscape scale RSFs may provide insight into predicting suitable dispersal habitat peninsulas in human-dominated landscapes where mitigation of human-wildlife conflict should be focused. We recommend the use of second-order RSFs for landscape conservation planning and propose a similar approach to the conservation of other wide-ranging large

  15. Habitat-associations of turban snails on intertidal and subtidal rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F

    2013-01-01

    Patchiness of habitat has important influences on distributions and abundances of organisms. Given the increasing threat of loss and alteration of habitats due to pressures associated with humans, there is a need for ecologists to understand species' requirements for habitat and to predict changes to taxa under various future environmental conditions. This study tested hypotheses about the generality of patterns described for one species of marine intertidal turban snail for a different, yet closely-related species in subtidal habitats along the coast of New South Wales, Australia. These two closely-related species live in similar habitats, yet under quite different conditions, which provided an opportunity to investigate how similar types of habitats influence patterns of distribution, abundance and size-structure in intertidal versus subtidal environments. For each species, there were similar associations between biogenically structured habitat and densities. The intertidal species, Turbo undulates, were more abundant, with greater proportions of small individuals in habitats formed by the canopy-forming alga, Hormosira banksii, the solitary ascidian, Pyura stolonifera or the turfing red alga, Corallina officinalis compared to simple habitat (bare rock). Similarly, more Turbo torquatus were found in biogenically structured subtidal habitat, i.e. canopy-forming algae, Ecklonia radiata, mixed algal communities ('fringe'), or turfing red algae (Corallina officinalis and Amphiroa aniceps) than where habitat is simple (barrens). Small T. torquatus were more abundant in areas of turf and 'fringe', while large snails were more abundant in areas of kelp and barrens. These patterns were found at each location sampled (i.e. eight intertidal and two subtidal rocky reefs) and at all times of sampling, across each environment. This study highlighted the consistent influence of biogenically structured habitats on the distribution, abundance and size-structure of intertidal and

  16. The integration of climate change, spatial dynamics, and habitat fragmentation: A conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Heath, Sacha K

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies have looked at how climate change alters the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on both single and multiple species; some raise concern that biodiversity loss and its effects will be exacerbated. The published literature on spatial dynamics (such as dispersal and metapopulation dynamics), habitat fragmentation and climate change requires synthesis and a conceptual framework to simplify thinking. We propose a framework that integrates how climate change affects spatial population dynamics and the effects of habitat fragmentation in terms of: (i) habitat quality, quantity and distribution; (ii) habitat connectivity; and (iii) the dynamics of habitat itself. We use the framework to categorize existing autecological studies and investigate how each is affected by anthropogenic climate change. It is clear that a changing climate produces changes in the geographic distribution of climatic conditions, and the amount and quality of habitat. The most thorough published studies show how such changes impact metapopulation persistence, source-sink dynamics, changes in species' geographic range and community composition. Climate-related changes in movement behavior and quantity, quality and distribution of habitat have also produced empirical changes in habitat connectivity for some species. An underexplored area is how habitat dynamics that are driven by climatic processes will affect species that live in dynamic habitats. We end our discussion by suggesting ways to improve current attempts to integrate climate change, spatial population dynamics and habitat fragmentation effects, and suggest distinct areas of study that might provide opportunities for more fully integrative work. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Innovation Habitat: Sustainable possibilities for the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia de Bem Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is moving in the core of a reality in which sustainability needs to be thought out and inserted through practices carried out in different dimensions of society, such as organizations, public and private institutions. This paper aims to identify the contribution of innovation habitats (IH for sustainability in society. The methodology used was systematic review of scientific literature in one online database. As a result, it was identified: 47 scientific papers publicated since 2000, but more frequently in the last year, 2014, with 10 publications, without providing a reference author in the area. There was also a high number of papers about management and social sciences. It was noticed a short number of publications, empirical and theoretical, about practices to promote sustainable actions in the society, so this indicates the need of research on this kind of practices, with innovation environment as the driver.

  18. Epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by the lncRNA CCAT1, acting via BMI1, promotes an altered cell cycle transition in the malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by cigarette smoke extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Xu, Hui; Luo, Fei; Liu, Xinlu; Lu, Xiaolin; Yang, Qianlei; Xue, Junchao; Chen, Chao; Shi, Le; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to lung cancer are largely unknown. A long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA), CCAT1, regarded as cancer-associated, has been investigated extensively. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. In the present investigation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) caused an altered cell cycle and increased CCAT1 levels and decreased miR-218 levels in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Depletion of CCAT1 attenuated the CSE-induced decreases of miR-218 levels, suggesting that miR-218 is negatively regulated by CCAT1 in HBE cells exposed to CSE. The CSE-induced increases of BMI1 levels and blocked by CCAT1 siRNA were attenuated by an miR-218 inhibitor. Moreover, in CSE-transformed HBE cells, the CSE-induced cell cycle changes and elevated neoplastic capacity were reversed by CCAT1 siRNA or BMI1 siRNA. This epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by CCAT1 induces an altered cell cycle transition through BMI1 and provides a new mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies...... is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....

  20. Determining habitat quality for species that demonstrate dynamic habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Frederick, Peter C; Noonburg, Erik G; Gawlik, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Determining habitat quality for wildlife populations requires relating a species' habitat to its survival and reproduction. Within a season, species occurrence and density can be disconnected from measures of habitat quality when resources are highly seasonal, unpredictable over time, and patchy. Here we establish an explicit link among dynamic selection of changing resources, spatio-temporal species distributions, and fitness for predictive abundance and occurrence models that are used for short-term water management and long-term restoration planning. We used the wading bird distribution and evaluation models (WADEM) that estimate (1) daily changes in selection across resource gradients, (2) landscape abundance of flocks and individuals, (3) conspecific foraging aggregation, and (4) resource unit occurrence (at fixed 400 m cells) to quantify habitat quality and its consequences on reproduction for wetland indicator species. We linked maximum annual numbers of nests detected across the study area and nesting success of Great Egrets (Ardea alba), White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) over a 20-year period to estimated daily dynamics of food resources produced by WADEM over a 7490 km2 area. For all species, increases in predicted species abundance in March and high abundance in April were strongly linked to breeding responses. Great Egret nesting effort and success were higher when birds also showed greater conspecific foraging aggregation. Synthesis and applications: This study provides the first empirical evidence that dynamic habitat selection processes and distributions of wading birds over environmental gradients are linked with reproductive measures over periods of decades. Further, predictor variables at a variety of temporal (daily-multiannual) resolutions and spatial (400 m to regional) scales effectively explained variation in ecological processes that change habitat quality. The process used here allows managers to develop

  1. Home-range Size and Habitat Used by the Northern Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S.F.; Menzel, M.A.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Miller, K.V.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    We examined home range size and habitat use of nine female northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) within an intensively managed forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. Using the 95% adaptive kernel method, we calculated a mean home range of 65 ha. Northern myotis used recent diameter-limit harvests and road corridors more than expected based on availability of these habitats. Intact forest stands and more open deferment harvested stands were used less than expected based on the availability of these habitats, although intact forest stands still constituted the overall majority of habitat used. Partial timber harvests that leave a relatively closed canopy appear to promote or improve northern myotis foraging habitat in heavily forested landscapes. However, the long-term ecological impacts on bats and other biota from this silviculturally unacceptable practice are unclear.

  2. A Point Mutation in the N-Terminal Amphipathic Helix α0 in NS3 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Assembly by Altering Core Localization to the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Facilitating Virus Budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; He, Ying; Boson, Bertrand; Wang, Xuesong; Cosset, François-Loïc; Zhong, Jin

    2017-03-15

    The assembly of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a complicated process in which many viral and cellular factors are involved, has not been thoroughly deciphered. NS3 is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal amphipathic α helix (designated helix α0), which is crucial for the membrane association and stability of NS3 protein, followed by a serine protease domain and a C-terminal helicase/NTPase domain. NS3 participates in HCV assembly likely through its C-terminal helicase domain, in which all reported adaptive mutations enhancing virion assembly reside. In this study, we determined that the N-terminal helix α0 of NS3 may contribute to HCV assembly. We identified a single mutation from methionine to threonine at amino acid position 21 (M21T) in helix α0, which significantly promoted viral production while having no apparent effect on the membrane association and protease activity of NS3. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the M21T mutation did not affect HCV genome replication but rather promoted virion assembly. Further study revealed a shift in the subcellular localization of core protein from lipid droplets (LD) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Finally, we showed that the M21T mutation increased the colocalization of core proteins and viral envelope proteins, leading to a more efficient envelopment of viral nucleocapsids. Collectively, the results of our study revealed a new function of NS3 helix α0 and aid understanding of the role of NS3 in HCV virion morphogenesis.IMPORTANCE HCV NS3 protein possesses the protease activity in its N-terminal domain and the helicase activity in its C-terminal domain. The role of NS3 in virus assembly has been mainly attributed to its helicase domain, because all adaptive mutations enhancing progeny virus production are found to be within this domain. Our study identified, for the first time to our knowledge, an adaptive mutation within the N-terminal helix α0 domain of NS3 that significantly enhanced virus

  3. Habitats: staging life and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of habitat. It is a bounded chunk of space/time that isdesigned to accommodate a delimited set of activities. It accommodates the activities by in-cludingphysical artefacts that can be used in the activities and signs that offer activity-relevantinformation. The hab......The paper presents the concept of habitat. It is a bounded chunk of space/time that isdesigned to accommodate a delimited set of activities. It accommodates the activities by in-cludingphysical artefacts that can be used in the activities and signs that offer activity......-relevantinformation. The habitat concept was originally proposed as a help to understandmobile context-sensitive technology, but turns out to have much broader applications. Thepresent version of the approach uses activity theory and semiotics as the basic theoretical un-derpinnings.The paper offers a notation for specifying...

  4. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  6. Loss and modification of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.; Wilkinson, John W.; Heatwole, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  7. Geomorphology and Sustainable Subsistence Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Kruger, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Climatic, tectonic, and human-related impacts are changing the distribution of shoreline habitats and associated species used as food resources. There is a need to summarize current and future shoreline geomorphic - biotic relationships and better understand potential impacts to native customary and traditional gathering patterns. By strategically integrating Native knowledge and observations, we create an inclusive vulnerability assessment strategy resulting in a win-win opportunity for resource users and research scientists alike. We merged the NOAA ShoreZone database with results from over sixty student intern discussions in six southeast Alaska Native communities. Changes in shore width and unit length were derived using near shore bathymetry depths and available isostatic rebound, tectonic movement, and rates of sea level rise. Physical attributes including slope, substrate, and exposure were associated with presence and abundance of specific species. Student interns, selected by Tribes and Tribal associations, conducted resource-based discussions with community members to summarize species use, characteristics of species habitat, transportation used to access collection areas, and potential threats to habitats. Geomorphic trends and community observations were summarized to assess potential threats within a spatial context. Given current measured rates of uplift and sea level rise, 2.4 to 0 m of uplift along with 0.20 m of sea level rise is expected in the next 100 years. Coastlines of southeast Alaska will be subject to both drowning (primarily to the south) and emergence (primarily to the north). We predict decreases in estuary and sediment-dominated shoreline length and an increase in rocky habitats. These geomorphic changes, combined with resident's concerns, highlight six major interrelated coastal vulnerabilities including: (1) reduction of clam and clam habitat quantity and quality, (2) reduction in chiton quality and quantity, (3) harmful expansion of

  8. Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, S.T.; Connelly, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of the original habitat of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) currently exists. Some has been perma-nently lost to farms and urban areas, but the remaining varies in condition from high quality to no longer adequate. Restoration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) grassland ecosystems may be pos-sible for resilient lands. However, Greater Sage-Grouse require a wide variety of habitats over large areas to complete their life cycle. Effective restoration will require a regional approach for prioritizing and identifying appropriate options across the landscape. A landscape triage method is recommended for prioritizing lands for restora-tion. Spatial models can indicate where to protect and connect intact quality habitat with other simi-lar habitat via restoration. The ecological site con-cept of land classification is recommended for characterizing potential habitat across the region along with their accompanying state and transi-tion models of plant community dynamics. These models assist in identifying if passive, manage-ment-based or active, vegetation manipulation?based restoration might accomplish the goals of improved Greater Sage-Grouse habitat. A series of guidelines help formulate questions that manag-ers might consider when developing restoration plans: (1) site prioritization through a landscape triage; (2) soil verification and the implications of soil features on plant establishment success; (3) a comparison of the existing plant community to the potential for the site using ecological site descriptions; (4) a determination of the current successional status of the site using state and transition models to aid in predicting if passive or active restoration is necessary; and (5) implemen-tation of post-treatment monitoring to evaluate restoration effectiveness and post-treatment man-agement implications to restoration success.

  9. Accounting for ecosystem alteration doubles estimates of conservation risk in the conterminous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Swaty

    Full Text Available Previous national and global conservation assessments have relied on habitat conversion data to quantify conservation risk. However, in addition to habitat conversion to crop production or urban uses, ecosystem alteration (e.g., from logging, conversion to plantations, biological invasion, or fire suppression is a large source of conservation risk. We add data quantifying ecosystem alteration on unconverted lands to arrive at a more accurate depiction of conservation risk for the conterminous United States. We quantify ecosystem alteration using a recent national assessment based on remote sensing of current vegetation compared with modeled reference natural vegetation conditions. Highly altered (but not converted ecosystems comprise 23% of the conterminous United States, such that the number of critically endangered ecoregions in the United States is 156% higher than when calculated using habitat conversion data alone. Increased attention to natural resource management will be essential to address widespread ecosystem alteration and reduce conservation risk.

  10. Habitat classification modelling with incomplete data: Pushing the habitat envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoebe L. Zarnetske; Thomas C. Edwards; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2007-01-01

    Habitat classification models (HCMs) are invaluable tools for species conservation, land-use planning, reserve design, and metapopulation assessments, particularly at broad spatial scales. However, species occurrence data are often lacking and typically limited to presence points at broad scales. This lack of absence data precludes the use of many statistical...

  11. HabitatSpace: Multidimensional Characterization of Pelagic Essential Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Date: 1796 1 a: the place or environment where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows b: the typical place of residence of a person or...3 Marxan - http://www.uq.edu.au/marxan/, HabitatDigitizer - http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/ biogeography /digitizer/, EcoPath

  12. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  13. Herbivory among habitats on the Neotropical tree Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl. in a seasonally deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify herbivory patterns from two insect guilds associated with Cnidoscolus quercifolius in a tropical deciduous forest in northeastern Brazil. We sampled four different habitats: (1 forest edge, (2 mesic (near to the perennial water source, (3 forest interior and (4 rupestrian fields. Habitat edge had lower leaf damage than rupestrian, mesic and forest interior habitats. Nevertheless, abundance of galls at the edge habitat was higher than at mesic, forest interior and/or rupestrian habitats. There was no difference in gall mortality by natural enemies among the four habitats sampled, demonstrating the absence of any influence of top-down controls related to abundance of galls. Trophic relationships were not related to the patterns of distribution among habitats of two insect herbivorous guilds associated with C. quercifolius. Our results demonstrated that environmental heterogeneity of dry forests can significantly alter important ecological interactions and experimental studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms responsible for differences in herbivory among habitats.

  14. Identifying keystone habitats with a mosaic approach can improve biodiversity conservation in disturbed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2017-07-28

    Conserving native biodiversity in the face of human- and climate-related impacts is a challenging and globally important ecological problem that requires an understanding of spatially connected, organismal-habitat relationships. Globally, a suite of disturbances (e.g., agriculture, urbanization, climate change) degrades habitats and threatens biodiversity. A mosaic approach (in which connected, interacting collections of juxtaposed habitat patches are examined) provides a scientific foundation for addressing many disturbance-related, ecologically based conservation problems. For example, if specific habitat types disproportionately increase biodiversity, these keystones should be incorporated into research and management plans. Our sampling of fish biodiversity and aquatic habitat along ten 3-km sites within the Upper Neosho River subdrainage, KS, from June-August 2013 yielded three generalizable ecological insights. First, specific types of mesohabitat patches (i.e., pool, riffle, run, and glide) were physically distinct and created unique mosaics of mesohabitats that varied across sites. Second, species richness was higher in riffle mesohabitats when mesohabitat size reflected field availability. Furthermore, habitat mosaics that included more riffles had greater habitat diversity and more fish species. Thus, riffles (scientific understanding of organismal-habitat relationships, maintain natural biodiversity, advance spatial ecology, and facilitate effective conservation of native biodiversity in human-altered ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical habitat and water quality correlates of crayfish distributions in a mined watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Loughman, Zachary J.

    2014-01-01

    In mined watersheds, water quality alters aquatic faunas, but few studies have focused on associations between stream habitat and crayfish distributions. We examined associations of water quality and physical habitat quality on presence/absence of six crayfish species in the upper Kanawha River drainage of southern West Virginia, USA, a region with a long history of surface and mountaintop removal mining of coal. Data supported an association of physical habitat quality with the presence of four species (Cambarus carinirostris, Cambarus robustus, Cambarus cf. sciotensis, and Orconectes sanbornii). Cambarus bartonii cavatus and the non-native Orconectes virilis were associated with lower quality physical habitat than that of the other four species. Relative to other species, C. b. cavatus was associated with the lowest conductivity values, whereas O. virilis was associated with the highest conductivity values. Secondary and tertiary burrowers were generally associated with relatively high-quality physical habitat. However, C. b. cavatus, a crayfish known to burrow extensively in headwater streams, was associated with the lowest quality physical habitat. Physical habitat quality was generally supported over stream conductivity as a variable influencing crayfish distributions. Our data demonstrate the importance of stream habitat quality when assessing crayfish assemblages within mined watersheds.

  16. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  17. The problems in the formation of the habitat of fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat as a combination of political, economic, social and environmental conditions of human activity plays an important role in raising productivity and efficiency of the national economy. On the basis of actual data the essence of problems of formation and management of the fishery complex habitat has been revealed. The authors consider the working conditions of the crews of fishing vessels as an important component of habitat, the influence of climatic conditions and inadequate social infrastructure on turnover of out-migration from the northern regions, the low level of training that generally has a negative impact on results of the fishing industry activity. The state government fishery development programme does not contain measures to shape habitats: improving the quality of life of fishermen and their families, promoting social and environmental infrastructure. On the basis of researches some practical recommendations allowing solve the problems in formation and development of the fishery habitat have been proposed. There are the following recommendations: improving the working conditions of the crews of fishing vessels, economically advantageous working conditions for shipowners, efforts to combat poaching, training of highly qualified personnel, the development of programme of staff motivation and its interest in the work on the internal market, the development of social programmes for the protection of seafarers and their families. For successful implementation of all measures to increase the competitiveness of fisheries of Russia on the international market it is necessary to improve the quality and effectiveness of the system of fisheries complex management, including its socio-ecological-economic habitat

  18. Degraded Environments Alter Prey Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P

    2013-01-01

    Elevated water temperatures, a decrease in ocean pH, and an increasing prevalence of severe storms have lead to bleaching and death of the hard corals that underpin coral reef ecosystems. As coral cover declines, fish diversity and abundance declines. How degradation of coral reefs affects behavior of reef inhabitants is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that risk assessment behaviors of prey are severely affected by coral degradation. Juvenile damselfish were exposed to visual and olfactory indicators of predation risk in healthy live, thermally bleached, and dead coral in a series of laboratory and field experiments. While fish still responded to visual cues in all habitats, they did not respond to olfactory indicators of risk in dead coral habitats, likely as a result of alteration or degradation of chemical cues. These cues are critical for learning and avoiding predators, and a failure to respond can have dramatic repercussions for survival and recruitment. PMID:23403754

  19. Epigenetic alterations in hematopoietic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young Rock; Schatoff, Emma; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2012-10-01

    Gene discovery efforts in patients with hematopoietic malignancies have brought to the forefront a series of mutations in genes thought to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. These mutations occur in genes known, or suspected, to play a role in modifying cytosine nucleotides on DNA and/or altering the state of histone modifications. Genes such as ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, MLL1, and TET2 all have been shown to be mutated and/or translocated in patients with myeloid malignancies. Intriguingly, many of the alterations affecting DNA cytosine modifications in myeloid malignancies (mutations in DNMT3A, IDH1/2, and TET2) have also been found in patients with T-cell lymphomas, and EZH2 mutations appear to be critical in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development as well. In addition, the discovery of frequent mutations in CREBBP, EP300, EZH2, and MLL2 in B-cell lymphomas suggests that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in lymphomagenesis. The purpose of this review is to present functional evidence of how alterations in these epigenetic modifiers promote hematopoietic transformation. The conclusions drawn from these data are valuable in understanding biological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

  20. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R

    2017-02-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream

  1. Human impacts on bear habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    : Human effects on bear habitat use are mediated through food biomass changes, bear tolerance of humans and their impacts, and human tolerance of bears. Large-scale changes in bear food biomass have been caused by conversion of wildlands and waterways to intensive human use, and by the introduction of exotic pathogens. Bears consume virtually all human foods that have been established in former wildlands, but bear use has been limited by access. Air pollution has also affected bear food biomass on a small scale and is likely to have major future impacts on bear habitat through climatic warming. Major changes in disturbance cycles and landscape mosaics wrought by humans have further altered temporal and spatial pulses of bear food production. These changes have brought short-term benefits in places, but have also added long-term stresses to most bear populations. Although bears tend to avoid humans, they will also use exotic and native foods in close proximity to humans. Subadult males and adult females are more often impelled to forage closer to humans because of their energetic predicament and because more secure sites are often preempted by adult males. Although male bears are typically responsible for most livestock predation, adult females and subadult males are more likely to be habituated to humans because they tend to forage closer to humans. Elimination of human-habituated bears predictably reduces effective carrying capacity and is more likely to be a factor in preserving bear populations where humans are present in moderate-to-high densities. If humans desire to preserve viable bear populations, they will either have to accept increased risk of injury associated with preserving habituated animals, or continue to crop habituated bears while at the same time preserving large tracts of wildlands free from significant human intrusion.

  2. Activity-dependent alterations in the sensitivity to BDNF-TrkB signaling may promote excessive dendritic arborization and spinogenesis in fragile X syndrome in order to compensate for compromised postsynaptic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Cho, Kyoung Joo

    2014-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited human mental retardation, results from the loss of function of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). To date, most researchers have thought that FXS neural pathologies are primarily caused by extreme dendritic branching and spine formation. With this rationale, several researchers attempted to prune dendritic branches and reduce the number of spines in FXS animal models. We propose that increased dendritic arborization and spinogenesis in FXS are developed rather as secondary compensatory responses to counteract the compromised postsynaptic activity during uncontrollable metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD). When postsynaptic and electrical activities become dampened in FXS, dendritic trees can increase their sensitivity to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by using the molecular sensor called eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and taking advantage of the tight coupling of mGluR and BDNF-TrkB signaling pathways. Then, this activity-dependent elevation of the BDNF signaling can strategically alter dendritic morphologies to foster branching and develop spine structures in order to improve the postsynaptic response in FXS. Our model suggests a new therapeutic rationale for FXS: correcting the postsynaptic and electrical activity first, and then repairing structural abnormalities of dendrites. Then, it may be possible to successfully fix the dendritic morphologies without affecting the survival of neurons. Our theory may also be generalized to explain aberrant dendritic structures observed in other neurobehavioral diseases, such as tuberous sclerosis, Rett syndrome, schizophrenia, and channelopathies, which accompany high postsynaptic and electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coral reef habitat response to climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Freeman

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are threatened by both climate change and direct anthropogenic stress. Climate change will alter the physico-chemical environment that reefs currently occupy, leaving only limited regions that are conducive to reef habitation. Identifying these regions early may aid conservation efforts and inform decisions to transplant particular coral species or groups. Here a species distribution model (Maxent is used to describe habitat suitable for coral reef growth. Two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP8.5 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Earth System Model were used with Maxent to determine environmental suitability for corals (order Scleractinia. Environmental input variables best at representing the limits of suitable reef growth regions were isolated using a principal component analysis. Climate-driven changes in suitable habitat depend strongly on the unique region of reefs used to train Maxent. Increased global habitat loss was predicted in both climate projections through the 21(st century. A maximum habitat loss of 43% by 2100 was predicted in RCP4.5 and 82% in RCP8.5. When the model is trained solely with environmental data from the Caribbean/Atlantic, 83% of global habitat was lost by 2100 for RCP4.5 and 88% was lost for RCP8.5. Similarly, global runs trained only with Pacific Ocean reefs estimated that 60% of suitable habitat would be lost by 2100 in RCP4.5 and 90% in RCP8.5. When Maxent was trained solely with Indian Ocean reefs, suitable habitat worldwide increased by 38% in RCP4.5 by 2100 and 28% in RCP8.5 by 2050. Global habitat loss by 2100 was just 10% for RCP8.5. This projection suggests that shallow tropical sites in the Indian Ocean basin experience conditions today that are most similar to future projections of worldwide conditions. Indian Ocean reefs may thus be ideal candidate regions from which to select the best strands of coral for potential re-seeding efforts.

  4. Pollinator diversity and reproductive success of Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz (Orchidaceae) in anthropogenic and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewicz, Agnieszka; Jaskuła, Radomir; Rewicz, Tomasz; Tończyk, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    success of E. helleborine in the populations from anthropogenic habitats than in the populations from natural habitats may result from a higher number of visits by pollinators and their greater species diversity, but also from the larger size of plants growing in such habitats. Moreover, our data clearly show that E. helleborine is an opportunistic species with respect to pollinators, with a wide spectrum of pollinating insects. Summarising, E. helleborine is a rare example of orchid species whose current range is not declining. Its ability to make use of anthropogenically altered habitats has allowed its significant spatial range expansion, and even successful colonisation of North America.

  5. Pollinator diversity and reproductive success of Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz (Orchidaceae in anthropogenic and natural habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rewicz

    2017-04-01

    . Discussion We suggest that higher reproductive success of E. helleborine in the populations from anthropogenic habitats than in the populations from natural habitats may result from a higher number of visits by pollinators and their greater species diversity, but also from the larger size of plants growing in such habitats. Moreover, our data clearly show that E. helleborine is an opportunistic species with respect to pollinators, with a wide spectrum of pollinating insects. Summarising, E. helleborine is a rare example of orchid species whose current range is not declining. Its ability to make use of anthropogenically altered habitats has allowed its significant spatial range expansion, and even successful colonisation of North America.

  6. A mutation in the promoter of the chicken β,β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 gene alters xanthophyll metabolism through a selective effect on its mRNA abundance in the breast muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlali, M; Graulet, B; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Chabault, M; Godet, E; Leroux, S; Praud, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Berri, C

    2012-12-01

    A polymorphism in the promoter of the β,β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) gene recently was identified in an experimental cross between 2 chicken lines divergently selected on growth rate and found to be associated with variations in the yellow color of the breast meat. In this study, the effects of the polymorphism on several aspects of carotenoid metabolism were evaluated in chickens sharing the same genetic background except for their genotype at the BCMO1 locus. We confirmed that BCMO1 mRNA abundance varied (P 0.05) by the polymorphism in the duodenum, liver, or sartorius muscle. The breast meat of GG chickens was more (P 0.05) in the other tissues tested. The GG were also characterized by reduced (P content of fat-soluble vitamins A and E. As lutein and zeaxanthin are usually not considered as substrates of the BCMO1 enzyme, the impact of BCMO1 polymorphism on the activity of other genes involved in carotenoid transport (SCARB1 and CD36 encoding the scavenger receptor class B type I and the cluster determinant 36, respectively) and metabolism (BCDO2 encoding β,β-carotene 9',10'-dioxygenase 2) was evaluated. The BCMO1 polymorphism did not affect mRNA abundance of BCDO2, SCARB1, or CD36, regardless of tissue considered. Taken together, these results indicated that a genetic variant of BCMO1 specifically changes lutein and zeaxanthin content in the chicken plasma and breast muscle without impairing vitamin A and E metabolism.

  7. Lower Hatchie Forest Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Forest Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  8. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  9. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge habitat map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...

  10. Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  11. Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic habitats of the Florida Keys were mapped from a series of 450 aerial photographs. Ecologists outlined the boundaries of specific habitat types by...

  12. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  13. Chinook Critical Habitat, Coast - NOAA [ds124

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Coastal Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU -...

  14. Mandalay National Wildlife Refuges Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mandalay NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at the Refuge, to...

  15. Habitat Appraisal by Vermont Electric Power Company

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines in habitat availability have been associated with population declines in bird species breeding in early successional forest and shrubland habitats....

  16. White Lake AOC Habitat Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Muskegon Conservation District and the White Lake Public Advisory Council in 2012 completed the White Lake AOC Shoreline Habitat Restoration Project to address the loss of shoreline and nearshore habitat.

  17. Beaked Whale Habitat Characterization and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Jessica A; Mitchell, Glenn H; Farak, Amy M; Keane, Ellen P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize known beaked whale habitat and create a predictive beaked whale habitat model of the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of the United States using available...

  18. Response of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae to larval habitat age in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of vector populations. Previous observations have suggested that, larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.l occur more often in small temporary habitats while other studies showed that long-lasting stable habitats are more productive than unstable habitats. In addition, the physical and biological conditions and stability of larval habitats can change rapidly in natural conditions. Therefore, we examined the effect of larval habitat age on productivity, larval survival and oviposition preference of Anopheles gambiae. Methods We sampled the three different habitat ages (10, 20 and 30 days on a daily basis for a period of six months to determine mosquito larval abundance. In addition, we tested the effect of age of water (habitat age on the oviposition choice preference of An. gambiae, larval development time and survivorship, and wing lengths of emerging adults. Additionally, chlorophyll a and abundance of mosquito larval predators in these habitats were monitored. Results Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae were significantly more abundant (P=0.0002 in habitats that were cleared every 10 days compared to the other habitats. In particular, there were 1.7 times more larvae in this habitat age compared to the ones that were cleared every 30 days. There were significantly (PAn. gambiae in the different habitat ages was statistically insignificant (P>0.05. Conclusion The current study confirmed that age of the habitat significantly influences the productivity of malaria vectors in western Kenya highlands. Given that malaria vectors were found in all habitats with varying ages of water, simple environmental methods of maintaining the drainage ditches in the valley bottoms can help reduce larval abundance of malaria vectors. Such inexpensive methods of controlling mosquito breeding could be promoted to supplement other vector control methods, especially in areas where scarce resources

  19. Increased pollinator habitat enhances cacao fruit set and predator conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Samantha J; Northfield, Tobin D

    2017-04-01

    The unique benefits of wild pollinators to the productivity of agricultural crops have become increasingly recognized in recent decades. However, declines in populations of wild pollinator species, largely driven by the conversion of natural habitat to agricultural land and broad-spectrum pesticide use often lead reductions in the provision of pollination services and crop production. With growing evidence that targeted pollinator conservation improves crop yield and/or quality, particularly for pollination specialist crops, efforts are increasing to substitute agriculturally intensive practices with those that alleviate some of the negative impacts of agriculture on pollinators and the pollination services they provide, in part through the provision of suitable pollinator habitat. Further, similarities between the responses of some pollinators and predators to habitat management suggest that efforts to conserve pollinators may also encourage predator densities. We evaluated the effects of one habitat management practice, the addition of cacao fruit husks to a monoculture cacao farm, on the provision of pollination services and the densities of two groups of entomophagous predators. We also evaluated the impacts of cacao fruit husk addition on pollen limitation, by crossing this habitat manipulation with pollen supplementation treatments. The addition of cacao fruit husks increased the number of fruits per tree and along with hand pollination treatments, increased final yields indicating a promotion of the pollination ecosystem service provided by the specialist pollinators, midges. We also found that cacao fruit husk addition increased the densities of two predator groups, spiders and skinks. Further, the conservation of these predators did not inhibit pollination through pollinator capture or deterrence. The findings show that, with moderate habitat management, both pollinator and predator conservation can be compatible goals within a highly specialized plant

  20. New home, new life: The effect of shifts in the habitat choice of salamander larvae on population performance and their effect on pond invertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Timm

    2017-01-01

    Changes of habitats are amongst the main drivers of evolutionary processes. Corresponding shifts in the behaviour and life history traits of species might in turn also alter ecosystem attributes. The reproduction of Western European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), in small pond habitats instead of first order streams, is one example of a recent local adaptation. Since fire salamander larvae are important top-predators in these fish free habitats, their presence likely changes variou...

  1. Chapter 6. Landscape Analysis for Habitat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal; Kevin S. McKelvey; Christina D. Vojta; Claudia M. Regan

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this chapter is to describe standardized methods for measur¬ing and monitoring attributes of landscape pattern in support of habitat monitoring. This chapter describes the process of monitoring categorical landscape maps in which either selected habitat attributes or different classes of habitat quality are represented as different patch types...

  2. A technical guide for monitoring wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M. Rowland; C.D. Vojta

    2013-01-01

    Information about status and trend of wildlife habitat is important for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to accomplish its mission and meet its legal requirements. As the steward of 193 million acres (ac) of Federal land, the Forest Service needs to evaluate the status of wildlife habitat and how it compares with desired conditions. Habitat monitoring...

  3. Highly dynamic biological seabed alterations revealed by side scan sonar tracking of Lanice conchilega beds offshore the island of Sylt (German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, C.; Feldens, P.; Schwarzer, K.

    2017-06-01

    Hydroacoustic surveys are common tools for habitat investigation and monitoring that aid in the realisation of the aims of the EU Marine Directives. However, the creation of habitat maps is difficult, especially when benthic organisms densely populate the seafloor. This study assesses the sensitivity of entropy and homogeneity image texture parameters derived from backscatter strength data to benthic habitats dominated by the tubeworm Lanice conchilega. Side scan sonar backscatter surveys were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the German Bight (southern North Sea) at two sites approx. 20 km offshore of the island of Sylt. Abiotic and biotic seabed facies, such as sorted bedforms, areas of fine to medium sand and L. conchilega beds with different tube densities, were identified and characterised based on manual expert analysis and image texture analysis. Ground truthing was performed by grab sampling and underwater video observations. Compared to the manual expert analysis, the k- means classification of image textures proves to be a semi-automated method to investigate small-scale differences in a biologically altered seabed from backscatter data. The texture parameters entropy and homogeneity appear linearly interrelated with tube density, the former positively and the latter negatively. Reinvestigation of one site after 1 year showed an extensive change in the distribution of the L. conchilega-altered seabed. Such marked annual fluctuations in L. conchilega tube cover demonstrate the need for dense time series and high spatial coverage to meaningfully monitor ecological patterns on the seafloor with acoustic backscatter methods in the study region and similar settings worldwide, particularly because the sand mason plays a pivotal role in promoting biodiversity. In this context, image texture analysis provides a cost-effective and reproducible method to track biologically altered seabeds from side scan sonar backscatter signatures.

  4. Naturally acidified habitat selects for ocean acidification-tolerant mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jörn; Stapp, Laura S; Haynert, Kristin; Schade, Hanna; Danelli, Maria; Lannig, Gisela; Wegner, K Mathias; Melzner, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification severely affects bivalves, especially their larval stages. Consequently, the fate of this ecologically and economically important group depends on the capacity and rate of evolutionary adaptation to altered ocean carbonate chemistry. We document successful settlement of wild mussel larvae ( Mytilus edulis ) in a periodically CO 2 -enriched habitat. The larval fitness of the population originating from the CO 2 -enriched habitat was compared to the response of a population from a nonenriched habitat in a common garden experiment. The high CO 2 -adapted population showed higher fitness under elevated P co 2 (partial pressure of CO 2 ) than the non-adapted cohort, demonstrating, for the first time, an evolutionary response of a natural mussel population to ocean acidification. To assess the rate of adaptation, we performed a selection experiment over three generations. CO 2 tolerance differed substantially between the families within the F 1 generation, and survival was drastically decreased in the highest, yet realistic, P co 2 treatment. Selection of CO 2 -tolerant F 1 animals resulted in higher calcification performance of F 2 larvae during early shell formation but did not improve overall survival. Our results thus reveal significant short-term selective responses of traits directly affected by ocean acidification and long-term adaptation potential in a key bivalve species. Because immediate response to selection did not directly translate into increased fitness, multigenerational studies need to take into consideration the multivariate nature of selection acting in natural habitats. Combinations of short-term selection with long-term adaptation in populations from CO 2 -enriched versus nonenriched natural habitats represent promising approaches for estimating adaptive potential of organisms facing global change.

  5. Climate change expands the spatial extent and duration of preferred thermal habitat for lake Superior fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Cline

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter species distributions and habitat suitability across the globe. Understanding these shifting distributions is critical for adaptive resource management. The role of temperature in fish habitat and energetics is well established and can be used to evaluate climate change effects on habitat distributions and food web interactions. Lake Superior water temperatures are rising rapidly in response to climate change and this is likely influencing species distributions and interactions. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that captures temperature changes in Lake Superior over the last 3 decades to investigate shifts in habitat size and duration of preferred temperatures for four different fishes. We evaluated habitat changes in two native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush ecotypes, siscowet and lean lake trout, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and walleye (Sander vitreus. Between 1979 and 2006, days with available preferred thermal habitat increased at a mean rate of 6, 7, and 5 days per decade for lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye, respectively. Siscowet lake trout lost 3 days per decade. Consequently, preferred habitat spatial extents increased at a rate of 579, 495 and 419 km(2 per year for the lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye while siscowet lost 161 km(2 per year during the modeled period. Habitat increases could lead to increased growth and production for three of the four fishes. Consequently, greater habitat overlap may intensify interguild competition and food web interactions. Loss of cold-water habitat for siscowet, having the coldest thermal preference, could forecast potential changes from continued warming. Additionally, continued warming may render more suitable conditions for some invasive species.

  6. Climate change expands the spatial extent and duration of preferred thermal habitat for lake Superior fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Timothy J; Bennington, Val; Kitchell, James F

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter species distributions and habitat suitability across the globe. Understanding these shifting distributions is critical for adaptive resource management. The role of temperature in fish habitat and energetics is well established and can be used to evaluate climate change effects on habitat distributions and food web interactions. Lake Superior water temperatures are rising rapidly in response to climate change and this is likely influencing species distributions and interactions. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that captures temperature changes in Lake Superior over the last 3 decades to investigate shifts in habitat size and duration of preferred temperatures for four different fishes. We evaluated habitat changes in two native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) ecotypes, siscowet and lean lake trout, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and walleye (Sander vitreus). Between 1979 and 2006, days with available preferred thermal habitat increased at a mean rate of 6, 7, and 5 days per decade for lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye, respectively. Siscowet lake trout lost 3 days per decade. Consequently, preferred habitat spatial extents increased at a rate of 579, 495 and 419 km(2) per year for the lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye while siscowet lost 161 km(2) per year during the modeled period. Habitat increases could lead to increased growth and production for three of the four fishes. Consequently, greater habitat overlap may intensify interguild competition and food web interactions. Loss of cold-water habitat for siscowet, having the coldest thermal preference, could forecast potential changes from continued warming. Additionally, continued warming may render more suitable conditions for some invasive species.

  7. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Shorebird Use of Coastal Wetland and Barrier Island Habitat in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Withers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf Coast contains some of the most important shorebird habitats in North America. This area encompasses a diverse mixture of estuarine and barrier island habitats with varying amounts of freshwater swamps and marshes, bottomland hardwood forests, and coastal prairie that has been largely altered for rice and crawfish production, temporary ponds, and river floodplain habitat. For the purposes of this review, discussion is confined to general patterns of shorebird abundance, distribution, and macro- and microhabitat use in natural coastal, estuarine, and barrier island habitats on the Gulf of Mexico Coast. The following geographic regions are considered: Northwestern Gulf (Rio Grande to Louisiana-Mississippi border, Northeastern Gulf (Mississippi to Florida Keys, and Mexico (Rio Grande to Cabo Catoche [Yucatan Strait].

  9. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Acosta, Alicia; Stanisci, Angela

    2013-07-01

    Alien species can represent a threat to several ecosystems because they can alter species relationships and ecosystem function. In Italy, Acacia saligna is a major invader and it forms dense stands in coastal environments. We analyze the impact of A. saligna in Italian Mediterranean dune systems. We randomly sampled coastal dune vegetation and investigated its floristic composition with ordination techniques. We compared species richness in invaded and non-invaded plots with rarefaction curves and analyzed the frequency of focal and ruderal species. A. saligna invaded Mediterranean scrub (habitats 2250* and 2260) and coastal Pinus dune wood (habitat 2270*) and it is particularly prevalent in sunny areas of habitat 2270*. We observed an increase in ruderal species and a decrease in focal species in the invaded plots of habitat 2270*. We suggest that more open and disturbed areas are more prone to A. saligna invasion. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-culture coevolution promotes rapid divergence of killer whale ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Andrew D; Vijay, Nagarjun; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Baird, Robin W; Durban, John W; Fumagalli, Matteo; Gibbs, Richard A; Hanson, M Bradley; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Martin, Michael D; Robertson, Kelly M; Sousa, Vitor C; Vieira, Filipe G; Vinař, Tomáš; Wade, Paul; Worley, Kim C; Excoffier, Laurent; Morin, Phillip A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2016-05-31

    Analysing population genomic data from killer whale ecotypes, which we estimate have globally radiated within less than 250,000 years, we show that genetic structuring including the segregation of potentially functional alleles is associated with socially inherited ecological niche. Reconstruction of ancestral demographic history revealed bottlenecks during founder events, likely promoting ecological divergence and genetic drift resulting in a wide range of genome-wide differentiation between pairs of allopatric and sympatric ecotypes. Functional enrichment analyses provided evidence for regional genomic divergence associated with habitat, dietary preferences and post-zygotic reproductive isolation. Our findings are consistent with expansion of small founder groups into novel niches by an initial plastic behavioural response, perpetuated by social learning imposing an altered natural selection regime. The study constitutes an important step towards an understanding of the complex interaction between demographic history, culture, ecological adaptation and evolution at the genomic level.

  11. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Sloat; Gordon H. Reeves; Kelly R. Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural...

  13. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic

  14. Partitioning of habitat effects casts light on the decline of the fen orchid, Liparis loeselii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Minter, Martine Olesen

    2015-01-01

    Liparis loeselii is a rare and declining orchid species restricted to rich fens in the northern hemisphere. Suggested reasons for the decline are habitat destruction, eutrophication, altered hydrology and scrub encroachment after termination of traditional management such as grazing and hay making...

  15. Effects of forest fragmentation and habitat degradation on West African leaf-litter frogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Veith, M.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat degradation alters the dynamics and composition of anuran assemblages in tropical forests. The effects of forest fragmentation on the composition of anuran assemblages are so far poorly known. We studied the joint influence of forest fragmentation and degradation on leaf-litter frogs. We

  16. 75 FR 78429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Preble's Meadow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... activity upstream of critical habitat, may result in increased runoff, sedimentation, or channel alteration... increased sedimentation of these streams. Trapping efforts targeting PMJM have not been conducted in these...) in Larimer County. Our Response: The Milton Seaman Reservoir at the downstream extent of Unit 1 is a...

  17. Ecosystem consequences of plant genetic divergence with colonization of new habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam O. Mueller; Lauren C. Breza; Mark A. Genung; Christian P. Giardina; Nathan E. Stone; Lindsay C. Sidak-Loftis; Joseph D. Busch; David M. Wagner; Joseph K. Bailey; Jennifer A. Schweitzer

    2017-01-01

    When plants colonize new habitats altered by natural or anthropogenic disturbances, those individuals may encounter biotic and abiotic conditions novel to the species, which can cause plant functional trait divergence. Over time, site-driven adaptation can give rise to population-level genetic variation, with consequences for plant community dynamics and...

  18. Universal human habitat. Basic principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov Vyacheslav Konstantinovich; Starikov Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2012-01-01

    Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities were adopted in 1993 by the United Nations. They have been valid since then. The number of disabled and elderly people is ever growing due to injuries, accidents, environmental problems, deterioration of health, population aging and demographic disorders. The term "universal habitat" reads as "universal design" worldwide. The concept of "universal design" was developed by Ronald Mace, American arc...

  19. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  20. Freshwater Wetland Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Implications for Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Pierre, J. P.; Labay, B. J.; Ryberg, W. A.; Hibbits, T. J.; Prestridge, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have caused widespread wetland loss and fragmentation. This trend has important implications for aquatic biota conservation, including the semi-aquatic Western Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia miaria). This species inhabits seasonally inundated, ephemeral water bodies and adjacent uplands in the southeastern U.S. However, wetland conversion to agriculture and urbanization is thought to cause the species' decline, particularly in Texas, which includes the westernmost part of its range. Because the species moves only a few kilometers between wetlands, it particularly sensitive to habitat loss and fragmentation. Thus, as part of the only state-funded species research program, this study provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) with scientific data to determine if the species warrants protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We use a species distribution model to map potentially suitable habitat for most of East Texas. We evaluate landscape-scale anthropogenic activities in this region which may be contributing to the species' decline. We identify areas of urbanization, agricultural expansion, forestry, and resulting wetland loss. We find that between 2001 and 2011 approximately 80 km2 of wetlands were lost in potentially suitable habitat, including the urbanizing Houston area. We use spatial geostatistics to quantify wetland habitat fragmentation. We also introduce the Habitat Alteration Index (HAI), which calculates total landscape alteration and mean probability of occurrence to identify high-quality habitat most at risk of recent anthropogenic alteration. Population surveys by biologists are targeting these areas and future management actions may focus on mitigating anthropogenic activities there. While this study focuses on D. r. miaria, this approach can evaluate wetland habitat of other aquatic organisms.

  1. Coastal Environmental Impacts Brought About by Alterations to Freshwater Flow in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar; Browder

    1998-07-01

    / Freshwater inflow is one of the most influential landscape processes affecting community structure and function in lagoons, estuaries, and deltas of the world; nevertheless there are few reviews of coastal impacts associated with altered freshwater inputs. A conceptual model of the possible influences of freshwater inflows on biogeochemical and trophic interactions was used to structure this review, evaluate dominant effects, and discuss tools for coastal management. Studies in the Gulf of Mexico were used to exemplify problems commonly encountered by coastal zone managers and scientists around the world. Landscape alteration, impacting the timing and volume of freshwater inflow, was found to be the most common stress on estuarine systems. Poorly planned upstream landscape alterations can impact wetland and open-water salinity patterns, nutrients, sediment fertility, bottom topography, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of xenobiotics. These, in turn, influence productivity, structure, and behavior of coastal plant and animal populations. Common biogeochemical impacts include excessive stratification, eutrophication, sediment deprivation, hypoxia, and contamination. Common biological impacts include reduction in livable habitats, promotion of "exotic" species, and decreased diversity. New multiobjective statistical models and dynamic landscape simulations, used to conduct policy-relevant experiments and integrate a wide variety of coastal data for freshwater inflow management, assume that optimum estuarine productivity and diversity is found somewhere between the stress associated with altered freshwater flow and the subsidy associated with natural flow. These models attempt to maximize the area of spatial overlap where favorable dynamic substrates, such as salinity, coincide with favorable fixed substrates, such as bottom topography. Based upon this principle of spatial overlap, a statistical performance model demonstrates how population vitality measurements

  2. The importance of fluvial hydraulics to fish-habitat restoration in low-gradient alluvial streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeni, Charles F.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    1. A major cause of degradation and loss of stream fish is alteration of physical habitat within and adjacent to the channel. We describe a potentially efficient approach to fish restoration based upon the relationship between fluvial hydraulics, geomorphology, and those habitats important to fish.2. The aquatic habitat in a low-gradient, alluvial stream in the Ozark Plateaus physiographical province was classified according to location in the channel, patterns of water flow, and structures that control flow. The resulting habitat types were ranked in terms of their temporal stability and ability to be manipulated.3. Delineation and quantification of discrete physical spaces in a stream, termed hydraulic habitat units, are shown to be useful in stream restoration programmes if the ecological importance of each habitat unit is known, and if habitats are defined by fluvial dynamics so that restoration is aided by natural forces.4. Examples, using different taxa, are given to illustrate management options.

  3. Threshold effects of habitat fragmentation on fish diversity at landscapes scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Lauren A; Keller, Danielle A; Burns, Taylor R; Pool, Alexia S; Fodrie, F Joel

    2016-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation involves habitat loss concomitant with changes in spatial configuration, confounding mechanistic drivers of biodiversity change associated with habitat disturbance. Studies attempting to isolate the effects of altered habitat configuration on associated communities have reported variable results. This variability may be explained in part by the fragmentation threshold hypothesis, which predicts that the effects of habitat configuration may only manifest at low levels of remnant habitat area. To separate the effects of habitat area and configuration on biodiversity, we surveyed fish communities in seagrass landscapes spanning a range of total seagrass area (2-74% cover within 16 000-m 2 landscapes) and spatial configurations (1-75 discrete patches). We also measured variation in fine-scale seagrass variables, which are known to affect faunal community composition and may covary with landscape-scale features. We found that species richness decreased and the community structure shifted with increasing patch number within the landscape, but only when seagrass area was low (fragmentation threshold hypothesis and we suggest that poor matrix quality and low dispersal ability for sensitive taxa in our system may explain why our results support the hypothesis, while previous empirical work has largely failed to match predictions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages and disadvanta......The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water......-friendly and have flexible data needs. They can easily be implemented in new regions using expert information or different types of local data. Furthermore, they are easily presentable to stakeholders and have the potential to be applied over large spatial scales. Integral care must be taken in the use...

  5. Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, J. Hardin

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 Coastal Master Plan utilized Habitat Suitability Indices (HSIs) to evaluate potential project effects on wildlife species. Even though HSIs quantify habitat condition, which may not directly correlate to species abundance, they remain a practical and tractable way to assess changes in habitat quality from various restoration actions. As part of the legislatively mandated five year update to the 2012 plan, the wildlife habitat suitability indices were updated and revised using literature and existing field data where available. The outcome of these efforts resulted in improved, or in some cases entirely new suitability indices. This report describes the development of the habitat suitability indices for the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

  6. Maladaptive habitat selection of a migratory passerine bird in a human-modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-altered environments, organisms may preferentially settle in poor-quality habitats where fitness returns are lower relative to available higher-quality habitats. Such ecological trapping is due to a mismatch between the cues used during habitat selection and the habitat quality. Maladaptive settlement decisions may occur when organisms are time-constrained and have to rapidly evaluate habitat quality based on incomplete knowledge of the resources and conditions that will be available later in the season. During a three-year study, we examined settlement decision-making in the long-distance migratory, open-habitat bird, the Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio, as a response to recent land-use changes. In Northwest Europe, the shrikes typically breed in open areas under a management regime of extensive farming. In recent decades, Spruce forests have been increasingly managed with large-size cutblocks in even-aged plantations, thereby producing early-successional vegetation areas that are also colonised by the species. Farmland and open areas in forests create mosaics of two different types of habitats that are now occupied by the shrikes. We examined redundant measures of habitat preference (order of settlement after migration and distribution of dominant individuals and several reproductive performance parameters in both habitat types to investigate whether habitat preference is in line with habitat quality. Territorial males exhibited a clear preference for the recently created open areas in forests with higher-quality males settling in this habitat type earlier. Reproductive performance was, however, higher in farmland, with higher nest success, offspring quantity, and quality compared to open areas in forests. The results showed strong among-year consistency and we can therefore exclude a transient situation. This study demonstrates a case of maladaptive habitat selection in a farmland bird expanding its breeding range to human

  7. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth's ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Brudvig, Lars A; Clobert, Jean; Davies, Kendi F; Gonzalez, Andrew; Holt, Robert D; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Sexton, Joseph O; Austin, Mike P; Collins, Cathy D; Cook, William M; Damschen, Ellen I; Ewers, Robert M; Foster, Bryan L; Jenkins, Clinton N; King, Andrew J; Laurance, William F; Levey, Douglas J; Margules, Chris R; Melbourne, Brett A; Nicholls, A O; Orrock, John L; Song, Dan-Xia; Townshend, John R

    2015-03-01

    We conducted an analysis of global forest cover to reveal that 70% of remaining forest is within 1 km of the forest's edge, subject to the degrading effects of fragmentation. A synthesis of fragmentation experiments spanning multiple biomes and scales, five continents, and 35 years demonstrates that habitat fragmentation reduces biodiversity by 13 to 75% and impairs key ecosystem functions by decreasing biomass and altering nutrient cycles. Effects are greatest in the smallest and most isolated fragments, and they magnify with the passage of time. These findings indicate an urgent need for conservation and restoration measures to improve landscape connectivity, which will reduce extinction rates and help maintain ecosystem services.

  8. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.; Stennfeld, Scott P.

    2001-04-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian enclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2000 included: (1) Implementing 2 new projects in the Grande Ronde drainage, and retrofitting one old

  9. REVIEW: Can habitat selection predict abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S; Johnson, Chris J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Nielsen, Scott E; Solberg, Erling J; van Moorter, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Habitats have substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of animals. Animals' selective movement yields their habitat use. Animals generally are more abundant in habitats that are selected most strongly. Models of habitat selection can be used to distribute animals on the landscape or their distribution can be modelled based on data of habitat use, occupancy, intensity of use or counts of animals. When the population is at carrying capacity or in an ideal-free distribution, habitat selection and related metrics of habitat use can be used to estimate abundance. If the population is not at equilibrium, models have the flexibility to incorporate density into models of habitat selection; but abundance might be influenced by factors influencing fitness that are not directly related to habitat thereby compromising the use of habitat-based models for predicting population size. Scale and domain of the sampling frame, both in time and space, are crucial considerations limiting application of these models. Ultimately, identifying reliable models for predicting abundance from habitat data requires an understanding of the mechanisms underlying population regulation and limitation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  10. Comparing wildlife habitat and biodiversity across green roof type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffman, R.R. [Oklahoma Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2007-07-01

    Green roofs represent restorative practices within human dominated ecosystems. They create habitat, increase local biodiversity, and restore ecosystem function. Cities are now promoting this technology as a part of mitigation for the loss of local habitat, making the green roof necessary in sustainable development. While most green roofs create some form of habitat for local and migratory fauna, some systems are designed to provide specific habitat for species of concern. Despite this, little is actually known about the wildlife communities inhabiting green roofs. Only a few studies have provided broad taxa descriptions across a range of green roof habitats, and none have attempted to measure the biodiversity across green roof class. Therefore, this study examined two different vegetated roof systems representative of North America. They were constructed under alternative priorities such as energy, stormwater and aesthetics. The wildlife community appears to be a result of the green roof's physical composition. Wildlife community composition and biodiversity is expected be different yet comparable between the two general types of green roofs, known as extensive and intensive. This study recorded the community composition found in the two classes of ecoroofs and assessed biodiversity and similarity at the community and group taxa levels of insects, spiders and birds. Renyi family of diversity indices were used to compare the communities. They were further described through indices and ratios such as Shannon's, Simpson's, Sorenson and Morsita's. In general, community biodiversity was found to be slightly higher in the intensive green roof than the extensive green roof. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Impacts of temperature on giant panda habitat in the north Minshan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Tianpei; Dai, Qiang; Li, Huixin; Gong, Minghao

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the impacts of meteorological factors on giant pandas is necessary for future conservation measures in response to global climate change. We integrated temperature data with three main habitat parameters (elevation, vegetation type, and bamboo species) to evaluate the influence of climate change on giant panda habitat in the northern Minshan Mountains using a habitat assessment model. Our study shows that temperature (relative importance = 25.1%) was the second most important variable influencing giant panda habitat excepting the elevation. There was a significant negative correlation between temperature and panda presence (ρ = -0.133, P pandas within the study area was 18-21°C, followed by 15-17°C and 22-24°C. The overall suitability of giant panda habitats will increase by 2.7%, however, it showed a opposite variation patterns between the eastern and northwestern region of the study area. Suitable and subsuitable habitats in the northwestern region of the study area, which is characterized by higher elevation and latitude, will increase by 18007.8 hm(2) (9.8% habitat suitability), while the eastern region will suffer a decrease of 9543.5 hm(2) (7.1% habitat suitability). Our results suggest that increasing areas of suitable giant panda habitat will support future giant panda expansion, and food shortage and insufficient living space will not arise as problems in the northwest Minshan Mountains, which means that giant pandas can adapt to climate change, and therefore may be resilient to climate change. Thus, for the safety and survival of giant pandas in the Baishuijiang Reserve, we propose strengthening the giant panda monitoring program in the west and improving the integrity of habitats to promote population dispersal with adjacent populations in the east.

  12. Habitat fragmentation has some impacts on aspects of ecosystem functioning in a sub-tropical seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, Jennifer L; Layman, Craig A; Fourqurean, James W

    2017-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation impacts ecosystem functioning in many ways, including reducing the availability of suitable habitat for animals and altering resource dynamics. Fragmentation in seagrass ecosystems caused by propeller scarring is a major source of habitat loss, but little is known about how scars impact ecosystem functioning. Propeller scars were simulated in seagrass beds of Abaco, Bahamas, to explore potential impacts. To determine if plant-herbivore interactions were altered by fragmentation, amphipod grazers were excluded from half the experimental plots, and epiphyte biomass and community composition were compared between grazer control and exclusion plots. We found a shift from light limitation to phosphorus limitation at seagrass patch edges. Fragmentation did not impact top-down control on epiphyte biomass or community composition, despite reduced amphipod density in fragmented habitats. Seagrass and amphipod responses to propeller scarring suggest that severely scarred seagrass beds could be subject to changes in internal nutrient stores and amphipod distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass.2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river’s water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales.3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22% of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23

  14. Removing shore protection structures to facilitate migration of landforms and habitats on the bayside of a barrier spit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2013-10-01

    Coastal landforms and habitats require space to reform in response to storm damage to increase the likelihood of long-term sustainability. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for removing shore protection structures to allow natural shoreline processes to prevail as part of a strategy to adapt to sea level rise associated with climate change. The location of the study was Sandy Hook Spit, New Jersey, a site managed by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A field investigation was conducted to identify the structures that impede migration of landforms and habitats, the function of each structure in protecting resources, and the opportunities to facilitate landform migration by removing the structures or allowing them to deteriorate. Nineteen shore-parallel walls are present along the ocean and bay shore of a 10 km long portion of the spit. Most of the shore protection structures were built when the spit was formerly used by the US Army, and many bulkheads on the bay shore have deteriorated. Sediment will become available to the longshore transport system where protection structures are removed, contributing to spit growth at the ends of drift cells, possibly mimicking the spits that were more conspicuous on the bay shore prior to human alterations. Observations indicate that new habitat can be created by loss and re-creation in a different location by longshore extension, not just by landward migration. Allowing shore protection structures to deteriorate will leave human infrastructure in the landscape. Removing these structures is more costly but can result in a more rapid reversion to a natural system. The time horizon is critical in determining the social, political and economic feasibility of removing structures and the expectations for geomorphic and habitat change. The feasibility of protecting threatened buildings and roads will decrease in the future as sea level rises and the existing protection structures degrade or fall below new

  15. TINGKAT KESESUAIAN SUAKA MARGASATWA CIKEPUH SEBAGAI HABITAT KEDUA BADAK JAWA (Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribai .

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus is one of the rarest species in the world so categorized as critically endangered by IUCN. Survival of the rhino in Ujung Kulon National Park is threatened by a variety of factors that could cause these extinct animals, such as: invasion langkap, competition with the bulls, and inbreeding. The strategy should be promoted in maintaining and developing population that is making a second habitat. The purpose of this research is to know the suitability level of Cikepuh Wildlife Reserves (CWR as javan rhino’s second habitat. The method used is the field observations. Results showed that the CWR have high suitability as javan rhino’s second habitat with an area of 6886.4 ha (84.72% CWR. Cikepuh Wildlife Reserves components that have a high potential as second habitat are on aspects altitude, air temperature, humidity, water availability, and soil pH. Strategies that can be done in improving the suitability of the CWR as second habitat includ: create pools ofthe rhino, planting food plants that have a high palatability and reduce human pressure through strict enforcement, public education, standardized regular patrols, rehabilitation and enrichment of degraded area, livestock expenses , and review the MoU regarding the use of the area as a military Cikepuh SM. Keywords: Cikepuh Wildlife Reserve, habitat suitability, javan rhino, second habitat

  16. Health promotion is peace promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J D

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of the arms race on health, in the absence of nuclear war. High levels of military expenditure are inextricably linked to unemployment, poverty, starvation and ill health. Alternatives to the escalation of military expenditure are possible; health promotion can be involved in wider public health initiatives towards economic and industrial conversion to peaceful, socially useful production. The interests of the health and scientific communities have traditionally transcended narrow chauvinism and nationalism. World Health Organization activities such as work towards primary health care and the Expanded Programme on Immunization actively involve international co-operation, demystify potential enemies and promote health and peace.

  17. Birds and butterflies respond to soil-induced habitat heterogeneity in experimental plantings of tallgrass prairie species managed as agroenergy feedstocks in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The positive association between habitat heterogeneity and species diversity has been well-documented for many taxa at various spatial and temporal scales, and the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity in agricultural landscapes has been promoted as a key strategy in efforts to conserve biodiversity....

  18. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A., with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF) in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles...

  19. The use of fynbos fragments by birds: Stepping-stone habitats and resource refugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory N. Sandberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fynbos habitats are threatened by fragmentation through land use and anthropogenic changes in fire regimes, leading to a loss of suitable habitat for birds. We investigated the response of fynbos-typical avifauna to fragmentation and postfire vegetation age in order to better understand the consequences of these processes for bird communities. Vegetation composition and bird inventory data were collected along wandering transects in three South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos habitat configurations: fragmented patches (associated with anthropogenically driven habitat loss < 150 years ago, naturally isolated fynbos islands (formed through climate-driven forest expansion in the Holocene and extensive areas of relatively pristine habitat known as ‘mainland’. The latter configurations served as references against which to investigate bird and vegetation responses to more recent habitat fragmentation. Linear regressions were used to compare the relationships of a number of bird and plant species to areas between each habitat configuration. Bird attribute frequency data were compared between habitat configurations using chi-square tests. Birds and plants showed significant species–area relationships in natural island and mainland sites, but no such relationship occurred in artificial fragments for birds, where the surrounding anthropogenic land uses are likely to have contributed generalist or colonist species. Avifaunal migratory groups were not affected by isolation distances of > 10 km in this study and their frequencies were the same across the three habitat configurations. Certain feeding guilds did, however, respond to postfire vegetation age, with nectarivore species twice as likely to occur in oldgrowth mainland fynbos. Fragmentation can alter fire disturbance regimes, which in turn alter the availability of resources in a habitat, so the impacts of fragmentation on birds are probably indirect through changes in the vegetation component

  20. Introduction to the international workshop on the science and management for habitat conservation and restoration strategies (HabCARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, J.R.M. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada). Great Lakes Lab. for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; Wooley, C. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Great Lakes Fishery Lab.

    1996-11-01

    This international workshop documented human impact on the Great Lakes basin and the severity of environmental disturbances, including alteration of habitat through urban development and eutrophication. Forty research papers, case history papers and perspectives, were included in this volume. Linkages between physical habitat and ecosystem performance, the role of habitat conservation and repair, and the fundamental questions of how the environment affects animal activity were discussed at some length. Much emphasis was placed on the importance of successful management of environmental programs and the need to coordinate efforts made by both natural and social scientists.

  1. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  2. Drawdown Effects on Lake and Reservoir Physical Habitat - a National Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural complexity at the land-water interface of lakes promotes interchange of water, nutrients and energy; and provides diverse habitat for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Shoreline zones are hot-spots for both biological diversity and human activity. Lake level fluctuat...

  3. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...

  4. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  5. Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephantus J Muturi

    Full Text Available Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats.

  6. Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Orindi, Benedict O; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats.

  7. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  8. Long Noncoding RNA Ceruloplasmin Promotes Cancer Growth by Altering Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesha Rupaimoole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs significantly influence the development and regulation of genome expression in cells. Here, we demonstrate the role of lncRNA ceruloplasmin (NRCP in cancer metabolism and elucidate functional effects leading to increased tumor progression. NRCP was highly upregulated in ovarian tumors, and knockdown of NRCP resulted in significantly increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased glycolysis compared with control cancer cells. In an orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, siNRCP delivered via a liposomal carrier significantly reduced tumor growth compared with control treatment. We identified NRCP as an intermediate binding partner between STAT1 and RNA polymerase II, leading to increased expression of downstream target genes such as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Collectively, we report a previously unrecognized role of the lncRNA NRCP in modulating cancer metabolism. As demonstrated, DOPC nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA-mediated silencing of this lncRNA in vivo provides therapeutic avenue toward modulating lncRNAs in cancer.

  9. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie K. Fischer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization; and (c to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  10. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  11. Expandable/Foldable Structures for Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Folded Structures Company (FSC) has developed an innovative design approach for multi-laminate, primary and secondary structures for planetary habitats that...

  12. Acidic Depositions: Effects on Wildlife and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of 'acid rain' is not new; it was recognized in the mid-1800s in industrialized Europe. In the 1960s a synthesis of information about acidification began in Europe, along with predictions of ecological effects. In the U.S. studies of acidification began in the 1920s. By the late 1970s research efforts in the U.S. and Canada were better coordinated and in 1980 a 10-year research program was undertaken through the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Plan (NAPAP) to determine the causes and consequences of acidic depositions. Much of the bedrock in the northeastern U.S. and Canada contains total alkalinity of 20 kg/ha/yr of wet sulphate depositions and are vulnerable to acidifying processes. Acidic depositions contribute directly to acidifying processes of soil and soil water. Soils must have sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity or acidity of soil will increase. Natural soil-forming processes that lead to acidification can be accelerated by acidic depositions. Long-term effects of acidification are predicted, which will reduce soil productivity mainly through reduced availability of nutrients and mobilization of toxic metals. Severe effects may lead to major alteration of soil chemistry, soil biota, and even loss of vegetation. Several species of earthworms and several other taxa of soil-inhabiting invertebrates, which are important food of many vertebrate wildlife species, are affected by low pH in soil. Loss of canopy in declining sugar maples results in loss of insects fed on by certain neotropical migrant bird species. No definitive studies categorically link atmospheric acidic depositions with direct or indirect effects on wild mammals. Researchers have concentrated on vegetative and aquatic effects. Circumstantial evidence suggests that effects are probable for certain species of aquatic-dependent mammals (water shrew, mink, and otter) and that these species are at risk from the loss of foods or contamination of these foods by metals

  13. Habitat Ecology Visual Surveys of Demersal Fishes and Habitats off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1992, the Habitat Ecology team has been conducting fishery independent, visual surveys of demersal fishes and associated habitats in deep water (20 to 900...

  14. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun IM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  15. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Rode, Karyn D; St Martin, Michelle

    2016-08-17

    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Responses of insect herbivores and herbivory to habitat fragmentation: a hierarchical meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, María Rosa; Tscharntke, Teja; Aguilar, Ramiro; Batáry, Péter

    2017-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats can lead to alterations of plant-animal interactions and ecosystems functioning. Insect herbivory, an important antagonistic interaction is expected to be influenced by habitat fragmentation through direct negative effects on herbivore community richness and indirect positive effects due to losses of natural enemies. Plant community changes with habitat fragmentation added to the indirect effects but with little predictable impact. Here, we evaluated habitat fragmentation effects on both herbivory and herbivore diversity, using novel hierarchical meta-analyses. Across 89 studies, we found a negative effect of habitat fragmentation on abundance and species richness of herbivores, but only a non-significant trend on herbivory. Reduced area and increased isolation of remaining fragments yielded the strongest effect on abundance and species richness, while specialist herbivores were the most vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. These fragmentation effects were more pronounced in studies with large spatial extent. The strong reduction in herbivore diversity, but not herbivory, indicates how important common generalist species can be in maintaining herbivory as a major ecosystem process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Survival in patchy landscapes: the interplay between dispersal, habitat loss and fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Bernardo B S; Wosniack, Marina E; Santos, Marcos C; Raposo, Ernesto P; Viswanathan, Gandhimohan M; da Luz, Marcos G E; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-07-07

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important factors determining animal population dynamics and spatial distribution. Such landscape changes can lead to the deleterious impact of a significant drop in the number of species, caused by critically reduced survival rates for organisms. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the threeway interplay between habitat loss, fragmentation and survival rates, we propose here a spatially explicit multi-scaled movement model of individuals that search for habitat. By considering basic ecological processes, such as predation, starvation (outside the habitat area), and competition, together with dispersal movement as a link among habitat areas, we show that a higher survival rate is achieved in instances with a lower number of patches of larger areas. Our results demonstrate how movement may counterbalance the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation in altered landscapes. In particular, they have important implications for conservation planning and ecosystem management, including the design of specific features of conservation areas in order to enhance landscape connectivity and population viability.

  19. Prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidians from three distinct cerrado habitats in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara O Belo

    Full Text Available Habitat alteration can disrupt host-parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50-80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

  20. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R.; Kus, Barbara E.; Preston, Kristine; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence.

  1. Shorebird use of coastal wetland and barrier island habitat in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Kim

    2002-02-27

    The Gulf Coast contains some of the most important shorebird habitats in North America. This area encompasses a diverse mixture of estuarine and barrier island habitats with varying amounts of freshwater swamps and marshes, bottomland hardwood forests, and coastal prairie that has been largely altered for rice and crawfish production, temporary ponds, and river floodplain habitat. For the purposes of this review, discussion is confined to general patterns of shorebird abundance, distribution, and macro- and microhabitat use in natural coastal, estuarine, and barrier island habitats on the Gulf of Mexico Coast. The following geographic regions are considered: Northwestern Gulf (Rio Grande to Louisiana-Mississippi border), Northeastern Gulf (Mississippi to Florida Keys), and Mexico (Rio Grande to Cabo Catoche [Yucatan Strait]). Wintering and migrating shorebirds are most abundant along the Gulf Coast in Texas and Tamaulipas, particularly the Laguna Madre ecosystem. Other important areas are the Southwest Coast region of Florida and the area between Laguna Terminos and Puerto Progresso in Mexico. In general, relative abundances of shorebirds increase from north to south, and decrease south of the Tropic of Cancer (23 degrees 27' N). Based on bimonthly maximum counts within 5 latitudinal bands, the region between 25-30 degrees N is used most heavily by wintering and spring migrating birds. Non-vegetated coastal wetland habitats associated with bays, inlets and lagoons, particularly tidal flats, and sandy beaches are the habitats that appear to be favored by wintering and migrating shorebirds. In general, these habitats tend to occur as habitat complexes that allow for movement between them in relation to tidal flooding of bay-shore habitats. This relationship is particularly important to Piping Plover and may be important to others. Although vegetated habitats are used by some species, they do not appear to attract large numbers of birds. This habitat is most

  2. Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K

    2006-02-01

    Habitat loss has pervasive and disruptive impacts on biodiversity in habitat remnants. The magnitude of the ecological impacts of habitat loss can be exacerbated by the spatial arrangement -- or fragmentation -- of remaining habitat. Fragmentation per se is a landscape-level phenomenon in which species that survive in habitat remnants are confronted with a modified environment of reduced area, increased isolation and novel ecological boundaries. The implications of this for individual organisms are many and varied, because species with differing life history strategies are differentially affected by habitat fragmentation. Here, we review the extensive literature on species responses to habitat fragmentation, and detail the numerous ways in which confounding factors have either masked the detection, or prevented the manifestation, of predicted fragmentation effects. Large numbers of empirical studies continue to document changes in species richness with decreasing habitat area, with positive, negative and no relationships regularly reported. The debate surrounding such widely contrasting results is beginning to be resolved by findings that the expected positive species-area relationship can be masked by matrix-derived spatial subsidies of resources to fragment-dwelling species and by the invasion of matrix-dwelling species into habitat edges. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of how species interactions are altered at habitat edges as a result of these changes. Interestingly, changes in biotic and abiotic parameters at edges also make ecological processes more variable than in habitat interiors. Individuals are more likely to encounter habitat edges in fragments with convoluted shapes, leading to increased turnover and variability in population size than in fragments that are compact in shape. Habitat isolation in both space and time disrupts species distribution patterns, with consequent effects on metapopulation dynamics and the

  3. Trophic disruption: a meta-analysis of how habitat fragmentation affects resource consumption in terrestrial arthropod systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Holly M; Fagan, William F

    2014-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a complex process that affects ecological systems in diverse ways, altering everything from population persistence to ecosystem function. Despite widespread recognition that habitat fragmentation can influence food web interactions, consensus on the factors underlying variation in the impacts of fragmentation across systems remains elusive. In this study, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effects of habitat fragmentation and spatial habitat structure on resource consumption in terrestrial arthropod food webs. Across 419 studies, we found a negative overall effect of fragmentation on resource consumption. Variation in effect size was extensive but predictable. Specifically, resource consumption was reduced on small, isolated habitat fragments, higher at patch edges, and neutral with respect to landscape-scale spatial variables. In general, resource consumption increased in fragmented settings for habitat generalist consumers but decreased for specialist consumers. Our study demonstrates widespread disruption of trophic interactions in fragmented habitats and describes variation among studies that is largely predictable based on the ecological traits of the interacting species. We highlight future prospects for understanding how changes in spatial habitat structure may influence trophic modules and food webs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile) as back-seat drivers of localized ant decline in urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Adam; Bennett, Gary W; Buczkowski, Grzegorz A

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species and habitat disturbance threaten biodiversity worldwide by modifying ecosystem performance and displacing native organisms. Similar homogenization impacts manifest locally when urbanization forces native species to relocate or reinvade perpetually altered habitat. This study investigated correlations between ant richness and abundance in response to urbanization and the nearby presence of invasive ant species, odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile), within its native region. Surveying localized ant composition within natural, semi-natural, and urban habitat supported efforts to determine whether T. sessile appear to be primary (drivers) threats as instigators or secondary (passengers) threats as inheritors of indigenous ant decline. Sampling 180 sites, evenly split between all habitats with and without T. sessile present, yielded 45 total species. Although urbanization and T. sessile presence factors were significantly linked to ant decline, their interaction correlated to the greatest reduction of total ant richness (74%) and abundance (81%). Total richness appeared to decrease from 27 species to 18 when natural habitat is urbanized and from 18 species to 7 with T. sessile present in urban plots. Odorous house ant presence minimally influenced ant communities within natural and semi-natural habitat, highlighting the importance of habitat alteration and T. sessile presence interactions. Results suggest urbanization releases T. sessile from unknown constraints by decreasing ant richness and competition. Within urban environment, T. sessile are pre-adapted to quickly exploit new resources and grow to supercolony strength wherein T. sessile drive adjacent biodiversity loss. Odorous house ants act as passengers and drivers of ecological change throughout different phases of urban 'invasion'. This progression through surviving habitat alteration, exploiting new resources, thriving, and further reducing interspecific competition supports a "back

  5. Odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile as back-seat drivers of localized ant decline in urban habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salyer

    Full Text Available Invasive species and habitat disturbance threaten biodiversity worldwide by modifying ecosystem performance and displacing native organisms. Similar homogenization impacts manifest locally when urbanization forces native species to relocate or reinvade perpetually altered habitat. This study investigated correlations between ant richness and abundance in response to urbanization and the nearby presence of invasive ant species, odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile, within its native region. Surveying localized ant composition within natural, semi-natural, and urban habitat supported efforts to determine whether T. sessile appear to be primary (drivers threats as instigators or secondary (passengers threats as inheritors of indigenous ant decline. Sampling 180 sites, evenly split between all habitats with and without T. sessile present, yielded 45 total species. Although urbanization and T. sessile presence factors were significantly linked to ant decline, their interaction correlated to the greatest reduction of total ant richness (74% and abundance (81%. Total richness appeared to decrease from 27 species to 18 when natural habitat is urbanized and from 18 species to 7 with T. sessile present in urban plots. Odorous house ant presence minimally influenced ant communities within natural and semi-natural habitat, highlighting the importance of habitat alteration and T. sessile presence interactions. Results suggest urbanization releases T. sessile from unknown constraints by decreasing ant richness and competition. Within urban environment, T. sessile are pre-adapted to quickly exploit new resources and grow to supercolony strength wherein T. sessile drive adjacent biodiversity loss. Odorous house ants act as passengers and drivers of ecological change throughout different phases of urban 'invasion'. This progression through surviving habitat alteration, exploiting new resources, thriving, and further reducing interspecific competition supports a

  6. Coastal habitat and biological community response to dam removal on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Stevens, Andrew; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Duda, Jeff; Beirne, Matthew M.; Paradis, Rebecca; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; McCoy, Randall; Cubley, Erin S.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat diversity and heterogeneity play a fundamental role in structuring ecological communities. Dam emplacement and removal can fundamentally alter habitat characteristics, which in turn can affect associated biological communities. Beginning in the early 1900s, the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams in Washington, USA, withheld an estimated 30 million tonnes of sediment from river, coastal, and nearshore habitats. During the staged removal of these dams—the largest dam removal project in history—over 14 million tonnes of sediment were released from the former reservoirs. Our interdisciplinary study in coastal habitats—the first of its kind—shows how the physical changes to the river delta and estuary habitats during dam removal were linked to responses in biological communities. Sediment released during dam removal resulted in over a meter of sedimentation in the estuary and over 400 m of expansion of the river mouth delta landform. These changes increased the amount of supratidal and intertidal habitat, but also reduced the influx of seawater into the pre-removal estuary complex. The effects of these geomorphic and hydrologic changes cascaded to biological systems, reducing the abundance of macroinvertebrates and fish in the estuary and shifting community composition from brackish to freshwater-dominated species. Vegetation did not significantly change on the delta, but pioneer vegetation increased during dam removal, coinciding with the addition of newly available habitat. Understanding how coastal habitats respond to large-scale human stressors—and in some cases the removal of those stressors—is increasingly important as human uses and restoration activities increase in these habitats.

  7. Using forest inventory data to assess fisher resting habitat suitability in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, William J; Truex, Richard L; Dunk, Jeffrey R; Gaman, Tom

    2006-06-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a forest-dwelling carnivore whose current distribution and association with late-seral forest conditions make it vulnerable to stand-altering human activities or natural disturbances. Fishers select a variety of structures for daily resting bouts. These habitat elements, together with foraging and reproductive (denning) habitat, constitute the habitat requirements of fishers. We develop a model capable of predicting the suitability of fisher resting habitat using standard forest vegetation inventory data. The inventory data were derived from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), a nationwide probability-based sample used to estimate forest characteristics. We developed the model by comparing vegetation and topographic data at 75 randomly selected fisher resting structures in the southern Sierra Nevada with 232 forest inventory plots. We collected vegetation data at fisher resting locations using the FIA vegetation sampling protocol and centering the 1-ha FIA plot on the resting structure. To distinguish used and available inventory plots, we used nonparametric logistic regression to evaluate a set of a priori biological models. The top model represented a dominant portion of the Akaike weights (0.87), explained 31.5% of the deviance, and included the following variables: average canopy closure, basal area of trees forest inventory data allows the assessment and monitoring of change in fisher resting habitat suitability over large regions with no additional sampling effort. Although models were constrained to include only variables available from the list of those measured using the FIA protocol, we did not find this to be a shortcoming. The model makes it possible to compare average resting habitat suitability values before and after forest management treatments, among administrative units, across regions and over time. Considering hundreds of plot estimates as a sample of habitat conditions over large spatial scales can bring a broad

  8. Habitat mosaics and path analysis can improve biological conservation of aquatic biodiversity in ecosystems with low-head dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2017-11-14

    Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species richness

  9. Ethical issues in public health promotion | Gardner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health promotion is a key element of public health practice. Among strategies aiming to deal with public health problems, health promotion purports to help people achieve better health. Health promotion can significantly alter people's lifestyles, and three main ethical issues relate to it: (i) what are the ultimate goals for ...

  10. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  11. Habitat Use and Selection by Giant Pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hull

    Full Text Available Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons. Results reveal several new insights, including use of a broader range of habitat characteristics than previously understood for the species, particularly steep slopes and non-forest areas. We also used compositional analysis to analyze habitat selection (use with respect to availability of habitat types at two selection levels. Pandas selected against low terrain position and against the highest clumped forest at the at-home range level, but no significant factors were identified at the within-home range level. Our results have implications for modeling and managing the habitat of this endangered species by illustrating how individual pandas relate to habitat and make choices that differ from assumptions made in broad scale models. Our study also highlights the value of using a spatial autoregressive RUF approach on animal species for which a complete picture of individual-level habitat use and selection across space is otherwise lacking.

  12. Forest wildlife habitat statistics for Maine - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas S. Frieswyk; Arthur Ritter

    1986-01-01

    A statistical report on the first forest wildlife habitat survey of Maine (1982). Eighty-five tables show estimates of forest area and several attributes of forest land wildlife habitat. Data are presented at two levels: state and geographic sampling unit.

  13. Habitat preference of Roan Antelope (Hippotragus equinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Musila et al., 2001). A major problem facing wildlife conservation is increasing rate of habitat loss due to human activities through the destruction of their natural ..... water and feeding in Riparian habitat during dry season. It was also observed that Roan frequently visited salt licks close to Roan gate and Oli river complex.

  14. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... 1Laboratory of Plant Molecular Epigenetics, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun. 130024 ... epigenetic variation studies can be included in habitat fragmentation analysis and its implications in inducing ... together with the environment habitat selection pressure.

  15. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  16. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and

  17. California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat use patterns in a burned landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyes, Stephanie; Roberts, Susan L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis) and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls. We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, showed selection for particular fire severity patch types within their home ranges. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types. Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging.

  18. Varying rotation lengths in northern production forests: Implications for habitats provided by retention and production trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Sonesson, Johan; Nilsson, Urban; Lämås, Tomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity. Shorter rotation lengths reduced the contribution made by production trees (trees grown for industrial use) to the availability of key habitat features, while concurrently increasing the contribution from retention trees. The contribution of production trees to habitat features was larger for high productivity sites, than for low productivity sites. We conclude that shortened rotation lengths result in losses of the availability of habitat features that are key for biodiversity conservation and that increased retention practices may only partially compensate for this. Ensuring that conservation efforts better reflect the inherent variation in stand rotation lengths would help improve the maintenance of key forest habitats in production forests.

  19. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and

  20. When species' ranges meet: assessing differences in habitat selection between sympatric large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauset, Geir Rune; Mattisson, Jenny; Andrén, Henrik; Chapron, Guillaume; Persson, Jens

    2013-07-01

    Differentiation in habitat selection among sympatric species may depend on niche partitioning, species interactions, selection mechanisms and scales considered. In a mountainous area in Sweden, we explored hierarchical habitat selection in Global Positioning System-collared individuals of two sympatric large carnivore species; an obligate predator, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a generalist predator and scavenger, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Although the species' fundamental niches differ widely, their ranges overlap in this area where they share a prey base and main cause of mortality. Both lynx and wolverines selected for steep and rugged terrain in mountainous birch forest and in heaths independent of scale and available habitats. However, the selection of lynx for their preferred habitats was stronger when they were forming home ranges and they selected the same habitats within their home ranges independent of home range composition. Wolverines displayed a greater variability when selecting home ranges and habitat selection also varied with home range composition. Both species selected for habitats that promote survival through limited encounters with humans, but which also are rich in prey, and selection for these habitats was accordingly stronger in winter when human activity was high and prey density was low. We suggest that the observed differences between the species result primarily from different foraging strategies, but may also depend on differences in ranging and resting behaviour, home range size, and relative density of each species. Our results support the prediction that sympatric carnivores with otherwise diverging niches can select for the same resources when sharing main sources of food and mortality.

  1. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  2. Patterns of houses and habitat loss from 1937 to 1999 in northern Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, Charlotte E; Radeloff, Volker C; Hawbaker, Todd J; Hammer, Roger B; Stewart, Susan I; Clayton, Murray K

    2007-10-01

    Rural America is witnessing widespread housing development, which is to the detriment of the environment. It has been suggested to cluster houses so that their disturbance zones overlap and thus cause less habitat loss than is the case for dispersed development. Clustering houses makes intuitive sense, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial pattern of houses in real landscapes, assessed changes in their patterns over time, and quantified the resulting habitat loss. We addressed three basic questions: (1) What are the spatial patterns of houses and how do they change over time; (2) How much habitat is lost due to houses, and how is this affected by spatial pattern of houses; and (3) What type of habitat is most affected by housing development. We mapped 27 419 houses from aerial photos for five time periods in 17 townships in northern Wisconsin and calculated the terrestrial land area remaining after buffering each house using 100- and 500-m disturbance zones. The number of houses increased by 353% between 1937 and 1999. Ripley's K test showed that houses were significantly clustered at all time periods and at all scales. Due to the clustering, the rate at which habitat was lost (176% and 55% for 100- and 500-m buffers, respectively) was substantially lower than housing growth rates, and most land area was undisturbed (95% and 61% for 100-m and 500-m buffers, respectively). Houses were strongly clustered within 100 m of lakes. Habitat loss was lowest in wetlands but reached up to 60% in deciduous forests. Our results are encouraging in that clustered development is common in northern Wisconsin, and habitat loss is thus limited. However, the concentration of development along lakeshores causes concern, because these may be critical habitats for many species. Conservation goals can only be met if policies promote clustered development and simultaneously steer development away from sensitive ecosystems.

  3. Effects of climate-induced habitat changes on a key zooplankton species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Klas O.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; St. John, Michael

    2015-01-01

    the effect of climate-induced habitat changes on the copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes, a key species in the Baltic Sea. The VPR allowed the observation of reproducing copepod females, identified by attached egg sacs, usually lost during traditional net sampling. We compared the small-scale distribution of our......Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems have become increasingly apparent during the past decades. In consequence, it is necessary to study how these alterations can affect the habitat and population dynamics of key organisms. Here we used a video plankton recorder (VPR) to investigate...... target species during non-inflow and inflow periods. Our study showed a large increase in the availability of suitable habitat after the inflow event due to improved oxygen and salinity conditions. Furthermore, increased copepod abundance and a deeper and wider vertical distribution was apparent...

  4. Kulm Wetland Management District annual habitat work plan 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual habitat management plan outlines working habitat objectives for wetland habitats based on refuge purposes, professional judgment and experience for Kulm...

  5. NEKTON-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST (USA) ESTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekton−habitat associations were determined in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, United States, using a stratified-by-habitat, random, estuary-wide sampling design. Three habitats (intertidal eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], and ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californie...

  6. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri River – channelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  7. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  8. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  9. The adaptive value of habitat preferences from a multi-scale spatial perspective: insights from marsh-nesting avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Brambilla, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    consistent effect with the habitat selection model (and hence evidence for adaptiveness) only for the former. Our work suggests caution when interpreting adaptiveness of habitat preferences at a single spatial scale because such an approach may under- or over-estimate the importance of habitat factors. As an example, we found evidence only for a weak effect of water depth at territory scale on little crake nest survival; however, according to the multi-scale analysis, such effect turned out to be important and appeared highly adaptive. Therefore, multi-scale approaches to the study of adaptive explanations for habitat selection mechanisms should be promoted.

  10. When perception reflects reality: Non-native grass invasion alters small mammal risk landscapes and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradnini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Modification of habitat structure due to invasive plants can alter the risk landscape for wildlife by, for example, changing the quality or availability of refuge habitat. Whether perceived risk corresponds with actual fitness outcomes, however, remains an important open question. We simultaneously measured how habitat changes due to a common invasive grass (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum) affected the perceived risk, habitat selection, and apparent survival of a small mammal, enabling us to assess how well perceived risk influenced important behaviors and reflected actual risk. We measured perceived risk by nocturnal rodents using a giving-up density foraging experiment with paired shrub (safe) and open (risky) foraging trays in cheatgrass and native habitats. We also evaluated microhabitat selection across a cheatgrass gradient as an additional assay of perceived risk and behavioral responses for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) at two spatial scales of habitat availability. Finally, we used mark-recapture analysis to quantify deer mouse apparent survival across a cheatgrass gradient while accounting for detection probability and other habitat features. In the foraging experiment, shrubs were more important as protective cover in cheatgrass-dominated habitats, suggesting that cheatgrass increased perceived predation risk. Additionally, deer mice avoided cheatgrass and selected shrubs, and marginally avoided native grass, at two spatial scales. Deer mouse apparent survival varied with a cheatgrass–shrub interaction, corresponding with our foraging experiment results, and providing a rare example of a native plant mediating the effects of an invasive plant on wildlife. By synthesizing the results of three individual lines of evidence (foraging behavior, habitat selection, and apparent survival), we provide a rare example of linkage between behavioral responses of animals indicative of perceived predation risk and actual fitness outcomes. Moreover, our results

  11. Using a data-constrained model of home range establishment to predict abundance in spatially heterogeneous habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Vanderwel

    Full Text Available Mechanistic modelling approaches that explicitly translate from individual-scale resource selection to the distribution and abundance of a larger population may be better suited to predicting responses to spatially heterogeneous habitat alteration than commonly-used regression models. We developed an individual-based model of home range establishment that, given a mapped distribution of local habitat values, estimates species abundance by simulating the number and position of viable home ranges that can be maintained across a spatially heterogeneous area. We estimated parameters for this model from data on red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi abundances in 31 boreal forest sites in Ontario, Canada. The home range model had considerably more support from these data than both non-spatial regression models based on the same original habitat variables and a mean-abundance null model. It had nearly equivalent support to a non-spatial regression model that, like the home range model, scaled an aggregate measure of habitat value from local associations with habitat resources. The home range and habitat-value regression models gave similar predictions for vole abundance under simulations of light- and moderate-intensity partial forest harvesting, but the home range model predicted lower abundances than the regression model under high-intensity disturbance. Empirical regression-based approaches for predicting species abundance may overlook processes that affect habitat use by individuals, and often extrapolate poorly to novel habitat conditions. Mechanistic home range models that can be parameterized against abundance data from different habitats permit appropriate scaling from individual- to population-level habitat relationships, and can potentially provide better insights into responses to disturbance.

  12. Changing land use and its impact on the habitat suitability for wintering Anseriformes in China's Poyang Lake region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuguang; Li, Hengpeng; Xu, Xibao; Yang, Guishan; Liu, Guihua; Li, Xinyan; Chen, Dongqiang

    2016-07-01

    As an internationally important wetland for migratory waterbirds, China's Poyang Lake region has experienced substantial changes in land use during the past two decades owing to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Recent dam constructions on the Yangtze River and its tributaries for agriculture and hydroelectric power exert strong effects on the hydrological regimes of this lake. However, few studies have investigated how the land-use changes through time affect the habitat suitability for wintering Anseriformes-the largest community in this region. Thus, it is necessary to timely monitor changes in the habitat quality and understand the potential factors that alter it. In this study, three periods (1995, 2005 and 2014) of typical environmental indicators that have direct impacts on foraging and resting for the Anserformes, including proximity to water (density of lakes, rivers and ponds), human disturbances (density of residences and various road networks), preferred land cover types and food availability (NDVI), are integrated to develop a habitat suitability index model for habitat mapping. The results indicate that long-term lake shrinkage in low-water periods led to greatly expanded wetlands in these years, which provided more suitable habitat for migratory waterfowl. The amount of highly suitable habitat in 2014 was nearly twice as much as in 1995. Recent survey data from 1997 to 2013 also revealed an increase in the population size, and confirmed the improvement of habitat suitability in the Poyang Lake region. Spatial analysis revealed that land use changes contributed most to the improved habitat coverage between 1995 and 2014. However, the relative significances of these transformations for highly suitable and moderately suitable habitats are strikingly different. Increases in wetland and paddy field area are the main reasons for explaining these improvements, respectively. The framework model proposed in this study will help governments to

  13. Habitat selection of juvenile sole (Solea solea L.): Consequences for shoreface nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Marjolein H. M.; Blom, Ewout; Chen, Chun; Bolle, Loes J.; Baptist, Martin J.

    2017-04-01

    The shallow coastal zone is an essential nursery habitat for juvenile flatfish species such as sole (Solea solea L.). The increased frequency of shoreface nourishments along the coast is likely to affect this nursery function by altering important habitat conditions, including sediment grain size. Sediment preference of juvenile sole (41-91 mm) was studied in a circular preference chamber in order to understand the relationship between grain size and sole distribution. The preference tests were carried out at 11 °C and 20 °C to reflect seasonal influences. The juveniles showed a significant preference for finer sediments. This preference was not length dependent (within the length range tested) nor affected by either temperatures. Juvenile sole have a small home range and are not expected to move in response to unfavourable conditions. As a result, habitat alterations may have consequences for juvenile survival and subsequently for recruitment to adult populations. It is therefore important to carefully consider nourishment grain size characteristics to safeguard suitable nursery habitats for juvenile sole.

  14. Community structure of under-ice fauna in relation to winter sea-ice habitat properties from the Weddell Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Carmen; Schaafsma, F.L.; Franeker, van J.A.; Lange, Benjamin; Brandt, A.; Flores, H.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change-related alterations of Antarctic sea-ice habitats will significantly impact the interaction of ice-associated organisms with the environment, with repercussions on ecosystem functioning. The nature of this interaction is poorly understood, particularly during the critical period of

  15. Habitat of birds in ponderosa pine and aspen/birch forest in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd R. Mills; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake

    2000-01-01

    Birds with both eastern and western distributions occur in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. This forest is mostly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and is managed for timber. Logging alters forest characteristics and the bird community. We studied habitat relations of breeding songbirds at the stand- and site-level scales in ponderosa pine and...

  16. Occurrence of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 in two Mediterranean coastal habitats: Temporary visitor or permanent resident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto; Marini, Gabriele; Pinna, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    Coastal habitats worldwide are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) that can alter community and ecosystem processes. Invasions are of particular concern for the Mediterranean Sea, and IAS-related descriptors of good ecological status have been recently proposed in European reference regulations.

  17. Contrasting metabolic patterns among seagrass and sand-bottom habitats: relative roles of plankton and benthic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities can alter the ecological function of estuaries, affecting the ecosystem metabolic balance, which in turn dictates the magnitude and mode of organic matter accumulation. Because human perturbations can cause a loss of seagrass habitat, seagrasses can be a sensitiv...

  18. A three-dimensional model for analyzing the effects of salmon redds on hyporheic exchange and egg pocket habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele Tonina; John M. Buffington

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional fluid dynamics model is developed to capture the spatial complexity of the effects of salmon redds on channel hydraulics, hyporheic exchange, and egg pocket habitat. We use the model to partition the relative influences of redd topography versus altered hydraulic conductivity (winnowing of fines during spawning) on egg pocket conditions for a...

  19. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  20. Genetic alterations in Glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); P.J. French (Pim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have

  1. Relative importance of habitat and landscape scales on butterfly communities of urbanizing areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lizee, M. H.; Bonardo, R.; Mauffrey, J. F.; Bertaudiere-Montes, V.; Tatoni, Thierry; Deschamps-Cottin, M

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural decline and urbanization entail rapid alterations of the patterns of organization of rural landscapes in Europe. The spread of the urban footprint to the adjacent countryside contributes to the development of new anthropogenic ecosystems in formerly rural hinterlands. In this study, butterflies are considered as biological indicators of these rapid environmental changes. Our purpose is to better understand changes in biodiversity related to the evolution of available habitats in ...

  2. Potential impacts of climate change on habitat suitability for the Queensland fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Sabira; Baumgartner, John B.; Dominiak, Bernard C.; Royer, Jane E.; Beaumont, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is a major factor driving shifts in the distributions of pests and invasive species. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Qfly), is the most economically damaging insect pest of Australia’s horticultural industry, and its management is a key priority for plant protection and biosecurity. Identifying the extent to which climate change may alter the distribution of suitable habitat for Qfly is important for the development and continuation of effect...

  3. Mars extant-life campaign using an approach based on Earth-analog habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovic, Lawrence A.; Wilson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Robotic Outpost group at JPL has identified sixteen potential momentous discoveries that if found on Mars would alter planning for the future Mars exploration program. This paper details one possible approach to the discovery of and response to the 'momentous discovery'' of extant life on Mars. The approach detailed in this paper, the Mars Extant-Life (MEL) campaign, is a comprehensive and flexible program to find living organisms on Mars by studying Earth-analog habitats of extremophile communities.

  4. The Search for Sustainable Subsurface Habitats on Mars, and the Sampling of Impact Ejecta

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lindgren; Magnus Ivarsson

    2010-01-01

    On Earth, the deep subsurface biosphere of both the oceanic and the continental crust is well known for surviving harsh conditions and environments characterized by high temperatures, high pressures, extreme pHs, and the absence of sunlight. The microorganisms of the terrestrial deep biosphere have an excellent capacity for adapting to changing geochemistry, as the alteration of the crust proceeds and the conditions of their habitats slowly change. Despite an almost complete isolation from su...

  5. Behavioral response of the coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum) to habitat fragment size and isolation in an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovich, Milan J.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a significant threat to biodiversity worldwide. Habitat loss and the isolation of habitat fragments disrupt biological communities, accelerate the extinction of populations, and often lead to the alteration of behavioral patterns typical of individuals in large, contiguous natural areas. We used radio-telemetry to study the space-use behavior of the Coachwhip, a larger-bodied, wide-ranging snake species threatened by habitat fragmentation, in fragmented and contiguous areas of coastal southern California. We tracked 24 individuals at three sites over two years. Movement patterns of Coachwhips changed in habitat fragments. As area available to the snakes was reduced, individuals faced increased crowding, had smaller home-range sizes, tolerated greater home-range overlap, and showed more concentrated movement activity and convoluted movement pathways. The behavioral response shown by Coachwhips suggests, on a regional level, area-effects alone cannot explain observed extinctions on habitat fragments but, instead, suggests changes in habitat configuration are more likely to explain the decline of this species. Ultimately, if "edge-exposure" is a common cause of decline, then isolated fragments, appropriately buffered to reduce emigration and edge effects, may support viable populations of fragmentation-sensitive species.

  6. Consequences of extensive habitat fragmentation in landscape-level patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the Mediterranean esparto grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Joaquín; Aguirre, María P; Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation has altered the distribution and population sizes in many organisms worldwide. For this reason, understanding the demographic and genetic consequences of this process is necessary to predict the fate of populations and establish management practices aimed to ensure their viability. In this study, we analyse whether the spatial configuration of remnant semi-natural habitat patches within a chronically fragmented landscape has shaped the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the habitat-specialist esparto grasshopper (Ramburiella hispanica). In particular, we predict that agricultural lands constitute barriers to gene flow and hypothesize that fragmentation has restricted interpopulation dispersal and reduced local levels of genetic diversity. Our results confirmed the expectation that isolation and habitat fragmentation have reduced the genetic diversity of local populations. Landscape genetic analyses based on circuit theory showed that agricultural land offers ∽1000 times more resistance to gene flow than semi-natural habitats, indicating that patterns of dispersal are constrained by the spatial configuration of remnant patches of suitable habitat. Overall, this study shows that semi-natural habitat patches act as corridors for interpopulation gene flow and should be preserved due to the disproportionately large ecological function that they provide considering their insignificant area within these human-modified landscapes.

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  8. Life history comparison of two terrestrial isopods in relation to habitat specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Aline Ferreira; Caubet, Yves; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2009-03-01

    For many animal species, there is a relationship between life history strategies, as predicted by the r- K-selection theory, degree of habitat specialization and response to habitat alteration and loss. Here we compare two sympatric woodlice species with contrasting patterns of habitat use and geographical distribution. We predict that Atlantoscia floridana (Philosciidae), considered a habitat generalist, would exhibit the r-selected traits, whereas Balloniscus glaber (Balloniscidae), considered a habitat specialist, should have the K-selected traits. We analyzed several life history traits as well as life and fecundity tables using 715 and 842 females of A. floridana and B. glaber, respectively, from populations living in syntopy in southern Brazil. As predicted, most evaluated traits allow A. floridana to be considered an r-strategist and B. glaber a K-strategist: A. floridana showed a shorter lifetime, faster development, earlier reproduction, a smaller parental investment, higher net reproductive rate ( R0), a higher growth rate ( r) and a shorter generation time ( T) in comparison to B. glaber. A. floridana seems to be a successful colonizer with a high reproductive output. These characteristics explain its local abundance, commonness and wide geographical distribution. On the contrary, B. glaber has a restricted geographical distribution that is mainly associated with Atlantic forest fragments, a biome threatened by deforestation and replacement by monocultures. Its narrow distribution combined with the K-selected traits may confer to this species an increased extinction risk.

  9. Habitat complexity and sex-dependent predation of mosquito larvae in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2012-01-01

    Studies in aquatic systems have shown that habitat complexity may provide refuge or reduce the number of encounters prey have with actively searching predators. For ambush predators, habitat complexity may enhance or have no effect on predation rates because it conceals predators, reduces prey detection by predators, or visually impairs both predators and prey. We investigated the effects of habitat complexity and predation by the ambush predators Toxorhynchites rutilus and Corethrella appendiculata on their mosquito prey Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus triseriatus in container analogs of treeholes. As in other ambush predator-prey systems, habitat complexity did not alter the effects of T. rutilus or C. appendiculata whose presence decreased prey survivorship, shortened development time, and increased adult size compared to treatments where predators were absent. Faster growth and larger size were due to predator-mediated release from competition among surviving prey. Male and female prey survivorship were similar in the absence of predators, however when predators were present, survivorship of both prey species was skewed in favor of males. We conclude that habitat complexity is relatively unimportant in shaping predator-prey interactions in this treehole community, where predation risk differs between prey sexes. PMID:16041612

  10. Feedbacks between community assembly and habitat selection shape variation in local colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J.M.; Vonesh, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Non-consumptive effects of predators are increasingly recognized as important drivers of community assembly and structure. Specifically, habitat selection responses to top predators during colonization and oviposition can lead to large differences in aquatic community structure, composition and diversity. 2. These differences among communities due to predators may develop as communities assemble, potentially altering the relative quality of predator vs. predator-free habitats through time. If so, community assembly would be expected to modify the subsequent behavioural responses of colonists to habitats containing top predators. Here, we test this hypothesis by manipulating community assembly and the presence of fish in experimental ponds and measuring their independent and combined effects on patterns of colonization by insects and amphibians. 3. Assembly modified habitat selection of dytscid beetles and hylid frogs by decreasing or even reversing avoidance of pools containing blue-spotted sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus). However, not all habitat selection responses to fish depended on assembly history. Hydrophilid beetles and mosquitoes avoided fish while chironomids were attracted to fish pools, regardless of assembly history. 4. Our results show that community assembly causes taxa-dependent feedbacks that can modify avoidance of habitats containing a top predator. Thus, non-consumptive effects of a top predator on community structure change as communities assemble and effects of competitors and other predators combine with the direct effects of top predators to shape colonization. 5. This work reinforces the importance of habitat selection for community assembly in aquatic systems, while illustrating the range of factors that may influence colonization rates and resulting community structure. Directly manipulating communities both during colonization and post-colonization is critical for elucidating how sequential processes interact to shape communities.

  11. Quantifying and predicting fuels and the effects of reduction treatments along successional and invasion gradients in sagebrush habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Pilliod, David; Arkle, Robert; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush shrubland ecosystems in the Great Basin are prime examples of how altered successional trajectories can create dynamic fuel conditions and, thus, increase uncertainty about fire risk and behavior. Although fire is a natural disturbance in sagebrush, post-fire environments are highly susceptible to conversion to an invasive grass-fire regime (often referred to as a “grass-fire cycle”). After fire, native shrub-steppe plants are often slow to regenerate, whereas nonnative annuals, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae), can establish quickly and outcompete native species. Once fire-prone annuals become established, fire occurrences increase, further promoting dominance of nonnative species. The invasive grass-fire regime also alters nutrient and hydrologic cycles, pushing ecosystems beyond ecological thresholds toward steady-state, fire-prone, nonnative communities. These changes affect millions of hectares in the Great Basin and increase fire risk, decrease habitat quality and biodiversity, accelerate soil erosion, and degrade rangeland resources for livestock production. In many sagebrush landscapes, constantly changing plant communities and fuel conditions hinder attempts by land managers to predict and control fire behavior, restore native communities, and provide ecosystem services (e.g., forage production for livestock). We investigated successional and nonnative plant invasion states and associated fuel loads in degraded sagebrush habitat in a focal study area, the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (hereafter the NCA), in the Snake River Plain Ecoregion of southern Idaho. We expanded our inference by comparing our findings to similar data collected throughout seven major land resource areas (MLRAs) across the Great Basin (JFSP Project “Fire Rehabilitation Effectiveness: A Chronosequence Approach for the Great Basin” [09-S-02-1]). 4 We used a combination of field

  12. Coralligenous habitat: patterns of vertical distribution of macroalgal assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates patterns of distribution of macroalgal coralligenous assemblages in relation to depth and evaluates the role of different environmental conditions on these patterns. Two depths (30 and 40 m were investigated off small islands and off continental coasts in order to select two different environmental conditions. Results showed differences between depths in the structure of assemblages around islands, while along the continental coasts these patterns were not evident. Moreover, differences between assemblages related to different environmental conditions were more evident in the shallower zone of distribution of the coralligenous habitat. This correlative study did not allow us to identify any cause-effect relationship, but patterns we detected agree with those of other studies, suggesting that alterations in the environmental conditions may be the cause of the decrease in differences among assemblages developing at different depths and may lead to a higher spatial homogenization and an impoverishment of the whole subtidal system.

  13. Wildlife Habitat Models for Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project developed habitat capability models for representative wildlife species. It was part of a project led by the University of Massachusetts Amherst to...

  14. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  15. Exploring Habitat Selection by Wildlife with adehabitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Calenge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the environmental features affecting habitat selection by animals is important for designing wildlife management and conservation policies. The package adehabitat for the R software is designed to provide a computing environment for the analysis and modelling of such relationships. This paper focuses on the preliminary steps of data exploration and analysis, performed prior to a more formal modelling of habitat selection. In this context, I illustrate the use of a factorial analysis, the K-select analysis. This method is a factorial decomposition of marginality, one measure of habitat selection. This method was chosen to present the package because it illustrates clearly many of its features (home range estimation, spatial analyses, graphical possibilities, etc.. I strongly stress the powerful capabilities of factorial methods for data analysis, using as an example the analysis of habitat selection by the wild boar (Sus scrofa L. in a Mediterranean environment.

  16. Final Critical Habitat for the Noel's Amphipod

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Noel's amphipod occur. The geographic extent includes Chaves County, New Mexico.

  17. Final Critical Habitat (Charadrius melodus) 20090519

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of FINAL critical habitat for Charadrius melodus (piping plover (wintering population)) based on descriptions provided in...

  18. Mining, habitats lead space architecture work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Nixon

    2013-01-01

      Nixon narrates how space mining habitats lead space architecture work. NASA's current focus on an asteroid rendezvous mission as human space exploration's next big goal has begun to stimulate ideas from the space community at large...

  19. Seabirds in marine habitats of southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers seabirds in marine habitats of southeast Alaska. The methods, study areas (ocean, shelf break, continental shelf, and inland passage waters) and...

  20. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  1. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  2. Kulm Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this habitat management plan (HMP) is to provide a strategic plan for consistently and effectively protecting, acquiring, enhancing, restoring, and...

  3. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  4. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's Veritex(TM) materials. These...

  5. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  6. Ecosystem services Linking People to Coastal Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the growing desire to incorporate ecosystem goods and services (EGS) considerations into coastal planning efforts, it is imperative that stakeholders understand how coastal habitats affect the availability and delivery of those EGS. Nonetheless, methods requiring long-term ...

  7. Habitat--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  8. Habitat--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  9. Habitat--Offshore of Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  10. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  11. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  12. Habitat Mapping Cruise (HB0805, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  13. Habitat Testbed (HaT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Goals of the DSH Testbed include:Function as a habitat systems integrator and technology pull across many domainsDevelop and integrate software-based models of...

  14. Concept Plan for Waterfowl Habitat Protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay Area is one of 34 Waterfowl Habitat Areas of Major Concern (#27) in Canada and the United States identified in the North American Waterfowl...

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Koster's Springsnail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Koster's springsnail occur. The geographic extent includes Chaves County, New Mexico.

  16. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  17. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  18. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  19. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  20. Riparian Habitats - Sierra Nevada Foothill [ds304

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are habitat polygons within a 200-m radius around point locations where wildlife surveys were conducted along 19 randomly selected watercourses in the...

  1. Expandable/Foldable Structures for Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Folded Structures Company (FSC) proposes the development of an innovative design approach for multi-laminate, primary and secondary structures for planetary habitats...

  2. Habitat--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  3. Habitat--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  4. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  5. Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat management for Dahomey National Wildife Refuge for the next 10-15 years is outlined and disucsses goals and objectives from the N. MS Refuge Complex CCP and...

  6. Habitat biodiversity as a determinant of fish community structure on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Vanessa; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Brooks, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    Increased habitat diversity is often predicted to promote the diversity of animal communities because a greater variety of habitats increases the opportunities for species to specialize on different resources and coexist. Although positive correlations between the diversities of habitat and associated animals are often observed, the underlying mechanisms are only now starting to emerge, and none have been tested specifically in the marine environment. Scleractinian corals constitute the primary habitat-forming organisms on coral reefs and, as such, play an important role in structuring associated reef fish communities. Using the same field experimental design in two geographic localities differing in regional fish species composition, we tested the effects of coral species richness and composition on the diversity, abundance, and structure of the local fish community. Richness of coral species overall had a positive effect on fish species richness but had no effect on total fish abundance or evenness. At both localities, certain individual coral species supported similar levels of fish diversity and abundance as the high coral richness treatments, suggesting that particular coral species are disproportionately important in promoting high local fish diversity. Furthermore, in both localities, different microhabitats (coral species) supported very different fish communities, indicating that most reef fish species distinguish habitat at the level of coral species. Fish communities colonizing treatments of higher coral species richness represented a combination of those inhabiting the constituent coral species. These findings suggest that mechanisms underlying habitat-animal interaction in the terrestrial environment also apply to marine systems and highlight the importance of coral diversity to local fish diversity. The loss of particular key coral species is likely to have a disproportionate impact on the biodiversity of associated fish communities.

  7. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  8. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  9. Optimal Economic Landscapes with Habitat Fragmentation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, David J.; Wu, JunJie

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is widely considered a primary threat to biodiversity. This paper develops a theoretical model of land use to analyze the optimal conservation of landscapes when land quality is spatially heterogeneous and wildlife habitat is fragmented and socially valuable. When agriculture is the primary cause of fragmentation, we show that reforestation efforts should be targeted to the most fragmented landscapes with an aggregate share of forest equal to a threshold, defined by the ...

  10. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  11. Lunar Habitat Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanScoucie, M. P.; Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.; Dozier, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration surface missions to the Moon and Mars will require bases to accommodate habitats for the astronauts. Transporting the materials and equipment required to build the necessary habitats is costly and difficult. The materials chosen for the habitat walls play a direct role in protection against each of the mentioned hazards. Choosing the best materials, their configuration, and the amount required is extremely difficult due to the immense size of the design region. Clearly, an optimization method is warranted for habitat wall design. Standard optimization techniques are not suitable for problems with such large search spaces; therefore, a habitat wall design tool utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs) has been developed. GAs use a "survival of the fittest" philosophy where the most fit individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce. This habitat design optimization tool is a multiobjective formulation of up-mass, heat loss, structural analysis, meteoroid impact protection, and radiation protection. This Technical Publication presents the research and development of this tool as well as a technique for finding the optimal GA search parameters.

  12. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Beyond the border: effects of an expanding algal habitat on the fauna of neighbouring habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Brendan S; Gribben, Paul E; Poore, Alistair G B

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of novel habitat-forming organisms on associated fauna have been difficult to predict, and may affect the fauna of neighbouring habitats due to changes in the spatial configuration of habitat patches of differing quality. Here, we test whether the localised expansion of a native habitat-forming macroalga, Caulerpa filiformis, on subtidal reefs can affect the abundance of fauna associated with a neighbouring macroalgal habitat. C. filiformis was a functionally distinct habitat for fauna, and the total abundance of epifauna associated with the resident alga, Sargassum linearifolium, was reduced at some sites when in close proximity to or surrounded by C. filiformis. Experimental manipulation of habitat configuration demonstrated that the low abundance of gastropods on S. linearifolium when surrounded by C. filiformis was likely explained by C. filiformis acting as a physical dispersal barrier for mobile fauna. Changes to the spatial configuration of novel and resident habitats can thus affect the abundance of fauna in addition to the direct replacement of habitats by species undergoing range expansions or increasing in abundance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  16. Nearest-neighbor interactions, habitat fragmentation, and the persistence of host-pathogen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Sun, Zhiying; Lau, John W; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-09-01

    Spatial interactions are known to promote stability and persistence in enemy-victim interactions if instability and extinction occur in well-mixed settings. We investigate the effect of spatial interactions in the opposite case, where populations can persist in well-mixed systems. A stochastic agent-based model of host-pathogen dynamics is considered that describes nearest-neighbor interactions in an undivided habitat. Contrary to previous notions, we find that in this setting, spatial interactions in fact promote extinction. The reason is that, in contrast to the mass-action system, the outcome of the nearest-neighbor model is governed by dynamics in small "local neighborhoods." This is an abstraction that describes interactions in a minimal grid consisting of an individual plus its nearest neighbors. The small size of this characteristic scale accounts for the higher extinction probabilities. Hence, nearest-neighbor interactions in a continuous habitat lead to outcomes reminiscent of a fragmented habitat, which is underlined further with a metapopulation model that explicitly assumes habitat fragmentation. Beyond host-pathogen dynamics, axiomatic modeling shows that our results hold for generic enemy-victim interactions under specified assumptions. These results are used to interpret a set of published experiments that provide a first step toward model testing and are discussed in the context of the literature.

  17. Local habitat and landscape influence predation of bird nests on afforested Mediterranean cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Oliver, J. S.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Carrascal, L. M.

    2014-07-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agrarian Policy have contributed to spread tree plantations on former cropland. Nevertheless these afforestations may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated predation of artificial bird nests at young tree plantations and at the open farmland habitat adjacent to the tree plantations in central Spain. Predation rates were very high at both tree plantations (95.6%) and open farmland habitat (94.2%) after two and three week exposure. Plantation edge/area ratio and development of the tree canopy decreased predation rates and plantation area and magpie (Pica pica) abundance increased predation rates within tree plantations, which were also affected by land use types around plantations. The area of nearby tree plantations (positive effect), distance to the tree plantation edge (negative effect), and habitat type (mainly attributable to the location of nests in vineyards) explained predation rates at open farmland habitat. We conclude that predation rates on artificial nests were particularly high and rapid at or nearby large plantations, with high numbers of magpies and low tree development, and located in homogenous landscapes dominated by herbaceous crops and pastures with no remnants of semi-natural woody vegetation. Landscape planning should not favour tree plantations as the ones studied here in Mediterranean agricultural areas that are highly valuable for ground-nesting bird species.

  18. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  19. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Relative impacts of the fragmentation and spatial structure of habitats on freshwater fish distributions: application on French watersheds (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, C.; Belliard, J.; Talès, E.; Gorges, G.; Clément, F.

    2009-12-01

    Most of the rivers of the Ile de France region, intimately linked with the megalopolis of Paris, are severely altered and freshwater fishes are exposed to habitat alteration, reduced connectivity and pollution. Several species thus present fragmented distributions and decreasing densities. In this context, the European Water Framework Directive (2000) has goals of hydrosystems rehabilitation and no further damage. In particular, the preservation and restoration of ecological connectivity of river networks is a key element for fish populations. These goals require the identification of natural and anthropological factors which influence the spatial distribution of species. We have proposed a riverscape approach, based on landscape ecology concepts, combined with a set of spatial analysis methods to assess the multiscale relationships between the spatial pattern of fish habitats and processes depending on fish movements. In particular, we used this approach to test the relative roles of spatial arrangement of fish habitats and the presence of physical barriers in explaining fish spatial distributions in a small rural watershed (106 km2). We performed a spatially continuous analysis of fish-habitat relationships. Fish habitats and physical barriers were mapped along the river network (33 km) with a GPS and imported into a GIS. In parallel, a longitudinal electrofishing survey of the distribution and abundance of fishes was made using a point abundance sampling scheme. Longitudinal arrangement of fish habitats were evaluated using spatial analysis methods: patch/distance metrics and moving window analysis. Explanatory models were developed to test the relative contribution of local environmental variables and spatial context in explaining fish presence. We have recorded about 100 physical barriers, on average one every 330 meters; most artificial barriers were road pipe culverts, falls associated with ponds and sluice gates. Contrasted fish communities and densities

  1. Pairing success of Kirtland's warblers in marginal vs. suitable habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Jack P. Hayes

    1987-01-01

    We compared pairing success of male Kirtland's Warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) in different habitats to test the hypothesis that a lower proportion of males in marginal habitat are mated. Fewer than 60% of the males in marginal habitat were paired, but 95% of the males in suitable habitat were paired. We estimated the overall pairing success of...

  2. NEKTON-HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat-based ecological risk assessments rely, in part, on estimates of the ecological value of the habitats at risk. To estimate estuarine habitat values with respect to the nekton (small fish, crabs and other invertebrates), we determined nekton-habitat associations in four i...

  3. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat

  4. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone: a perspective for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Faaborg; Margaret Brittingham; Therese Donovan; John Blake

    1993-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation occurs when a large, fairly continuous tract of vegetation is converted to other vegetation types such that only scattered fragments of the original type remain. Problems associated with habitat fragmentation include overall habitat loss, increase in edge habitat and edge effects (particularly higher parasitism and nest predation rates), and...

  5. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans responses to bacteria from its natural habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowedder, Holli; Braendle, Christian; Félix, Marie-Anne; Ruvkun, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Most Caenorhabditis elegans studies have used laboratory Escherichia coli as diet and microbial environment. Here we characterize bacteria of C. elegans' natural habitats of rotting fruits and vegetation to provide greater context for its physiological responses. By the use of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based sequencing, we identified a large variety of bacteria in C. elegans habitats, with phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria being most abundant. From laboratory assays using isolated natural bacteria, C. elegans is able to forage on most bacteria (robust growth on ∼80% of >550 isolates), although ∼20% also impaired growth and arrested and/or stressed animals. Bacterial community composition can predict wild C. elegans population states in both rotting apples and reconstructed microbiomes: alpha-Proteobacteria-rich communities promote proliferation, whereas Bacteroidetes or pathogens correlate with nonproliferating dauers. Combinatorial mixtures of detrimental and beneficial bacteria indicate that bacterial influence is not simply nutritional. Together, these studies provide a foundation for interrogating how bacteria naturally influence C. elegans physiology. PMID:27317746

  7. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. .... Health promotion:defined byO'Donnel as 'the science and art ..... Trinity Hospice and Palliative Care Services.

  8. Assessing functional equivalency of nekton habitat in enhanced habitats: Comparison of terraced and unterraced marsh ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Gossman, B.; Nyman, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A primary goal of many coastal restoration programs is to increase nekton habitat in terms of both quantity and quality. Using shallow water ponds rehabilitated with a technique called marsh terracing, we examined the quality of nekton habitat created, using and comparing several metrics including nekton density and diversity, functional group composition, and weight-length relationships as indirect measures of habitat quality. We examined three paired terraced and unterraced marsh ponds in southwest Louisiana. Nekton, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and soil and water quality variables were sampled bimonthly from April 2004 through April 2005 at four subtidal habitat types: terraced nearshore, terraced open water, unterraced nearshore, and unterraced open water. Results indicate that terraced ponds had increased the habitat value of degrading unterraced ponds over open water areas for estuarine nekton; nekton density and richness were similar between terraced and unterraced nearshore habitat types, but greater at all nearshore as compared to open water sites. Analysis of the distribution of nekton functional groups and weight:length ratios indicates the terraced and unterraced pond habitats were not functioning similarly: distribution of nekton functional groups differed significantly between habitat types with greater percentages of benthic-oriented species at unterraced open water habitats and higher percentage of open water species in terraced ponds as compared to unterraced ponds, and two of the six numerically dominant fish species had greater weight-length relationships in unterraced ponds as compared to terraced ponds. This lack of functional equivalency may be attributed to environmental differences between terraced and unterraced ponds such as water depth or SAV biomass, or the relatively young age of the terraces studied, which may not have allowed for the development of some critical habitat variables, such as soil organic matter that was found to

  9. Synergistic effects of habitat preference and gregarious behaviour on habitat use in coral reef cardinalfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, N. M.; Jones, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Spatial distributions of coral reef fish species are potentially determined by habitat preferences and behavioural interactions. However, the relative importance of these factors and whether or not behavioural interactions reinforce or disrupt habitat associations are poorly understood. This paper explores the degree to which habitat and social preferences explain the association that three common coral reef cardinalfish species ( Zoramia leptacanthus, Archamia zosterophora and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus; family Apogonidae) have with coral substrata at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. At diurnal resting sites, species were strongly associated with branching corals, with 80-90% of each species inhabiting one branching coral species, Porites cylindrica. Species were also highly gregarious, forming large con-specific and hetero-specific aggregations in coral heads, potentially reinforcing habitat associations. Three-way choice experiments were conducted to test fishes habitat preferences for living coral over dead substrata, for particular coral species, and the influence of gregarious behaviour on these habitat choices. The strength of habitat preferences differed among species, with Z. leptacanthus preferring live coral and P. cylindrica, A. zosterophora preferring P. cylindrica, whether live or dead and C. quinquelineatus exhibiting no preferences. All species were attracted to conspecifics, and for C. quinquelineatus and A. zosterophora, conspecific attraction resulted in stronger preferences for live corals. Gregarious behaviour also increased C. quinquelineatus associations with P. cylindrica. The relative strength of social attraction versus habitat preferences was investigated by comparing fish habitat preferences in the presence and/or absence of conspecifics. The presence of conspecifics on non-preferred rubble habitat reduced each species association with live coral. This study’s results indicate that in the field, habitat preferences and

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  11. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  12. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Laura; De Cáceres, Miquel; Bota, Gerard; Giralt, David; Casas, Fabián; Arroyo, Beatriz; Mougeot, François; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Moncunill, Judit; Butler, Simon J; Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site), and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species) than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  13. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  14. Ecologically scaled responses of forest-dwelling vertebrates to habitat fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ascensão, Fernando Jorge Portela Martins, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia da Conservação), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Road habitat fragmentation has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity conservation. Roads induce a ‘barrier effect’ by representing a physical obstacle or promoting animal-vehicle collisions, disrupting daily and seasonal movements and consequently leading to the depletion and genetic subdivision of animal populations. However, road verges may also provide resources for...

  15. Habitat connectivity as a metric for aquatic microhabitat quality: Application to Chinook salmon spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Carnie; Daniele Tonina; Jim McKean; Daniel Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Quality of fish habitat at the scale of a single fish, at the metre resolution, which we defined here as microhabitat, has been primarily evaluated on short reaches, and their results have been extended through long river segments with methods that do not account for connectivity, a measure of the spatial distribution of habitat patches. However, recent...

  16. Managing harvest and habitat as integrated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik; Runge, Michael C.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Austin, Jane E.; Boomer, G. S.; Clark, R. G.; Devers, P.; Eadie, J. M.; Lonsdorf, E. V.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, several important initiatives in the North American waterfowl management community called for an integrated approach to habitat and harvest management. The essence of the call for integration is that harvest and habitat management affect the same resources, yet exist as separate endeavours with very different regulatory contexts. A common modelling framework could help these management streams to better understand their mutual effects. Particularly, how does successful habitat management increase harvest potential? Also, how do regional habitat programmes and large-scale harvest strategies affect continental population sizes (a metric used to express habitat goals)? In the ensuing five years, several projects took on different aspects of these challenges. While all of these projects are still on-going, and are not yet sufficiently developed to produce guidance for management decisions, they have been influential in expanding the dialogue and producing some important emerging lessons. The first lesson has been that one of the more difficult aspects of integration is not the integration across decision contexts, but the integration across spatial and temporal scales. Habitat management occurs at local and regional scales. Harvest management decisions are made at a continental scale. How do these actions, taken at different scales, combine to influence waterfowl population dynamics at all scales? The second lesson has been that consideration of the interface of habitat and harvest management can generate important insights into the objectives underlying the decision context. Often the objectives are very complex and trade-off against one another. The third lesson follows from the second – if an understanding of the fundamental objectives is paramount, there is no escaping the need for a better understanding of human dimensions, specifically the desires of hunters and nonhunters and the role they play in conservation. In the end, the compelling question is

  17. Freshwater mussels in an urban watershed: Impacts of anthropogenic inputs and habitat alterations on populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Patricia L; McInnis, Rodney; Salerno, Joseph; de Solla, Shane R; Servos, Mark R; Leonard, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    The substantial increase in urbanization worldwide has resulted in higher emissions of wastewater to riverine systems near urban centers, which often impairs aquatic populations and communities. This study examined the effect of urbanization on freshwater mussel populations, including Species at Risk in two rivers receiving wastewater. The influence of anthropogenic activities was assessed in a watershed in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, one that historically supported one of the most diverse mussel faunas in Canada. In the Grand River (ON), four sites along a 60km reach spanning from an upstream reference site to an urban-impacted downstream area were examined. In the Speed River, mussel populations at six sites along a 10km reach, selected to bracket specific anthropogenic inputs and structures were assessed. A semi-quantitative visual search method revealed that catch per unit effort in the Grand River declined by >60% from the upstream reference site to the area downstream of an urban center. The size (length) frequency distribution of the most abundant species, Lasmigona costata, was significantly (p≤0.008) different upstream of the majority of urban inputs (45-130mm) compared to downstream of the cities (85-115mm). In the Speed River, impoundments and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) reduced both the diversity and catch per effort. Most striking were 84 and 95% changes in the number of mussels found on either side of two impoundments, and a 98% drop in mussels immediately downstream of a WWTP outfall. These population level effects of decreased abundance and underrepresentation of smaller mussels downstream of the urban area correspond to previously documented impacts at the biochemical and whole organism level of biological organization in wild mussels at this location. Our results demonstrate that poor water quality and physical barriers in urban environments continue to impair susceptible populations and communities of aquatic animals. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of habitat alterations and predispersal seed predation on the reproductive success of Great Basin forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Sexual reproductive success in wild plant populations is dependent upon the ability to bank seed for when environmental conditions favor seedling recruitment. Seed production in many plant populations requires the pollination services of local bee populations. A loss in bee diversity as a result of exotic plant invasion or revegetation practices which do not adequately...

  19. Species' traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P; Chalfoun, Anna D

    2017-07-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species' responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species' traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species' responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species' traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species' habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid habitat change

  20. Species’ traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species’ responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species’ traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species’ responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species’ traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species’ habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid

  1. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. Eder Acquisition 2007 Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Eder acquisition in July 2007 to determine how many protection habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. Baseline HEP surveys generated 3,857.64 habitat units or 1.16 HUs per acre. HEP surveys also served to document general habitat conditions. Survey results indicated that the herbaceous plant community lacked forbs species, which may be due to both livestock grazing and the late timing of the surveys. Moreover, the herbaceous plant community lacked structure based on lower than expected visual obstruction readings (VOR); likely a direct result of livestock impacts. In addition, introduced herbaceous vegetation including cultivated pasture grasses, e.g. crested wheatgrass and/or invader species such as cheatgrass and mustard, were present on most areas surveyed. The shrub element within the shrubsteppe cover type was generally a mosaic of moderate to dense shrubby areas interspersed with open grassland communities while the 'steppe' component was almost entirely devoid of shrubs. Riparian shrub and forest areas were somewhat stressed by livestock. Moreover, shrub and tree communities along the lower reaches of Nine Mile Creek suffered from lack of water due to the previous landowners 'piping' water out of the stream channel.

  3. Ethic's pedagogy: from responsibility to alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, since the so-called 'linguistic turn' and the rise of the notion of discursive formations, has tended to combine the teleological and the deontological. That means that, if ethics is to be useful in understanding relationships and other social issues, or in building the common good, it ought to take a procedural position. We believe that the teaching of ethics should be based on the notions of responsibility and alterity. These two concepts are helpful in promoting mutual understanding and other-directedness.

  4. Habitat selection by postbreeding female diving ducks: Influence of habitat attributes and conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat selection studies of postbreeding waterfowl have rarely focused on within-wetland attributes such as water depth, escape cover, and food availability. Flightless waterfowl must balance habitat selection between avoiding predation risks and feeding. Reproductively successful female ducks face the greatest challenges because they begin the definitive prebasic molt at or near the end of brood rearing, when their body condition is at a low point. We assessed the relative importance of habitat attributes and group effects in habitat selection by postbreeding female lesser scaup Aythya affinis on a 2332-ha montane wetland complex during the peak flightless period (August) over seven years. Hypothesis-based habitat attributes included percent open water, open water:emergent edge density, water depth, percent flooded bare substrate, fetch (distance wind can travel unobstructed), group size, and several interactions representing functional responses to interannual variation in water levels. Surveys of uniquely marked females were conducted within randomly ordered survey blocks. We fitted two-part generalized linear mixed-effects models to counts of marked females within survey blocks, which allowed us to relate habitat attributes to relative probability of occurrence and, given the presence of a marked female, abundance of marked individuals. Postbreeding female scaup selected areas with water depths > 40 cm, large open areas, and intermediate edge densities but showed no relation to flooded bare substrate, suggesting their habitat preferences were more influenced by avoiding predation risks and disturbances than in meeting foraging needs. Grouping behavior by postbreeding scaup suggests habitat selection is influenced in part by behavioral components and/or social information, conferring energetic and survival benefits (predation and disturbance risks) but potentially also contributing to competition for food resources. This study demonstrates the importance of

  5. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities; Willamette River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    Habitat based assessments were conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, to determine losses or gains to wildlife and/or wildlife habitat resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the facilities. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project sites were mapped based on aerial photographs. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected areas and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the projects. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each project for each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the projects. The Willamette projects extensively altered or affected 33,407 acres of land and river in the McKenzie, Middle Fork Willamette, and Santiam river drainages. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 5184 acres of old-growth conifer forest, and 2850 acres of riparian hardwood and shrub cover types. Impacts resulting from the Willamette projects included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, furbearers, spotted owls, pileated woodpeckers, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagles and ospreys were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected areas to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Willamette projects. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the lives of the projects. Cumulative or system-wide impacts of the Willamette projects were not quantitatively assessed.

  6. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  7. Effects of hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Louisiana black bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Murrow, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) is comprised of 3 subpopulations, each being small, geographically isolated, and vulnerable to extinction. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts in 2005, potentially altering habitat occupied by this federally threatened subspecies. We used data collected on radio-telemetered bears from 1993 to 1995 and pre-hurricane landscape data to develop a habitat model based on the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic. We then applied that model to post-hurricane landscape data where the telemetry data were collected (i.e., occupied study area) and where bear range expansion might occur (i.e., unoccupied study area) to quantify habitat loss or gain. The D2 model indicated that quality bear habitat was associated with areas of high mast-producing forest density, low water body density, and moderate forest patchiness. Cross-validation and testing on an independent data set in central Louisiana indicated that prediction and transferability of the model were good. Suitable bear habitat decreased from 348 to 345 km2 (0.9%) within the occupied study area and decreased from 34,383 to 33,891 km2 (1.4%) in the unoccupied study area following the hurricanes. Our analysis indicated that bear habitat was not significantly degraded by the hurricanes, although changes that could have occurred on a microhabitat level would be more difficult to detect at the resolution we used. We suggest that managers continue to monitor the possible long-term effects of these hurricanes (e.g., vegetation changes from flooding, introduction of toxic chemicals, or water quality changes).

  8. Habitat fragmentation effects on biodiversity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Katiane S.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.

    2010-09-01

    We study the effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity patterns by means of a simple spatial model which considers selective geographic colonization, diffusion and mutation. In our model, regions of the lattice are characterized by the amount of resources available to populations of species which are going to colonize that regions. We simulate the fragmentation of the habitat by assuming that a proportion p of the sites is not available for colonization, that is, there is no resource availability in those sites. We analyse the patterns of the species-area relationship and the abundance distribution considering two sample methods, in order to simulate the cases in which the habitats are distributed in islands and continents. We have observed that the pattern of the species-area curve is changed when different sample methods are considered. We have also verified that the abundance distribution is bimodal when small mutation probabilities are considered.

  9. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  10. Quantifying and interpreting nestedness in habitat islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The concept of nestedness is important in determining the relative contribution to overall system diversity of different habitat patches within a fragmented system. Much of the previous work on nestedness has focused on islands within oceans (islands sensu stricto). The largest analysis...... with fragment area, suggesting that structured extinctions may be important in determining the composition of certain habitat island communities. We found that the degree of nestedness in an archipelago is an important consideration for systematic conservation planning. Main conclusions: Significant nestedness...... is considerably less common in habitat islands than previously reported. Strategic guidance for conservation planning should proceed on a case by case basis, and previous conservation recommendations based on the assumption of significant nestedness in most fragmented landscapes may need to be re-evaluated....

  11. Nekton density patterns and hurricane recovery in submerged aquatic vegetation, and along non-vegetated natural and created edge habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Gordon, John

    2012-02-01

    We compared nekton habitat value of submerged aquatic vegetation, flooded non-vegetated natural and man-made edge habitats in mesohaline interior marsh areas in southwest Louisiana using a 1-m 2 throw trap and 3-mm bag seine. When present, SAV habitats supported close to 4 times greater densities and higher species richness of nekton as compared to either natural or man-made edge habitats, which supported similar densities to one another. Three species of concern (bayou killifish, diamond killifish, chain pipefish) were targeted in the analysis, and two of the three were collected almost entirely in SAV habitat. During the course of the study, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav passed directly over the study sites in September 2008. Subsequent analyses indicated significant reductions in resident nekton density 1-mo post hurricanes, and only limited recovery 13-mo post-hurricane. Possible alteration of environmental characteristics such as scouring of SAV habitat, deposition of sediment over SAV, edge erosion and marsh loss, and extended high salinities may explain these lasting impacts.

  12. The evolutionary consequences of habitat fragmentation: Body morphology and coloration differentiation among brook trout populations of varying size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastavniouk, Carol; Weir, Laura K; Fraser, Dylan J

    2017-09-01

    A reduction in population size due to habitat fragmentation can alter the relative roles of different evolutionary mechanisms in phenotypic trait differentiation. While deterministic (selection) and stochastic (genetic drift) mechanisms are expected to affect trait evolution, genetic drift may be more important than selection in small populations. We examined relationships between mature adult traits and ecological (abiotic and biotic) variables among 14 populations of brook trout. These naturally fragmented populations have shared ancestry but currently exhibit considerable variability in habitat characteristics and population size (49 habitat variation or operational sex ratio than to population size, suggesting that selection may overcome genetic drift at small population size. Phenotype-environment associations were also stronger in females than males, suggesting that natural selection due to abiotic conditions may act more strongly on females than males. Our results suggest that natural and sexual-selective pressures on phenotypic traits change during the process of habitat fragmentation, and that these changes are largely contingent upon existing habitat conditions within isolated fragments. Our study provides an improved understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of habitat fragmentation and lends insight into the ability of some small populations to respond to selection and environmental change.

  13. Habitat planning, maintenance and management working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GOM), called {open_quotes}America`s Sea,{close_quotes} is actually a small ocean basin covering over 1.5 million square kilometers. Because of the multiple uses, diversity, and size of the Gulf`s resources, management is shared by a number of governmental agencies including the Minerals Management Service, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, National Marine Fisheries Service, the US Coast Guard, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the five Gulf states fisheries agencies. All of these entities share a common goal of achieving optimum sustainable yield to maximize geological, biological, social, and economic benefits from these resources. These entities also share a common theme that the successful management of the northern GOM requires maintenance and enhancement of both the quantity and quality of habitats. A closer look at the GOM shows the sediment to be clearly dominated by vast sand and mud plains. These soft bottom habitats are preferred by many groundfish and shrimp species and, thus, have given rise to large commercial fisheries on these stocks. Hard bottom and reef habitats, on the other hand, are limited to approximately 1.6% of the total area of the Gulf, so that, while there are high demands by commercial and recreational fishermen for reef associated species, the availability of habitat for these stocks is limited. The thousands of oil and gas structures placed in the Gulf have added significant amounts of new hard substrate. The rigs-to-reefs concept was a common sense idea with support from environmental user groups and the petroleum industry for preserving a limited but valuable habitat type. As long as maximizing long-term benefits from the Gulf s resources for the greatest number of users remains the goal, then programs such as Rigs-to-Reefs will remain an important tool for fisheries and habitat managers in the Gulf.

  14. Metapopulation perspective to institutional fit: maintenance of dynamic habitat networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Fabritius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Species living in metapopulations depend on connected habitat networks for their survival. If habitat networks experience fast temporal dynamics, species conservation requires preventing habitat discontinuities that could lead to metapopulation extinctions. However, few institutional solutions exist for the maintenance of spatiotemporally dynamic habitat networks outside of protected areas. To explore this often neglected problem, we studied the institutional fit of false heath fritillary (Melitaea diamina conservation in Finland from the perspective of conservation institutions' ability to manage early successional habitat availability for this endangered species. We identified four institutional arrangements that enable effective conservation management of dynamic habitat networks: (1 acknowledgment of habitat dynamics, (2 monitoring of and responding to changes in the habitat network, (3 management of resources for fluctuating resource needs, and (4 scaling of activities through flexible collaborations. These arrangements provide the institutional flexibility needed for responding to temporal changes in habitat availability.

  15. Habitat connectivity and ecosystem productivity: implications from a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The import of resources (food, nutrients) sustains biological production and food webs in resource-limited habitats. Resource export from donor habitats subsidizes production in recipient habitats, but the ecosystem-scale consequences of resource translocation are generally unknown. Here, I use a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton model to show how dispersive connectivity between a shallow autotrophic habitat and a deep heterotrophic pelagic habitat can amplify overall system production in metazoan food webs. This result derives from the finite capacity of suspension feeders to capture and assimilate food particles: excess primary production in closed autotrophic habitats cannot be assimilated by consumers; however, if excess phytoplankton production is exported to food-limited heterotrophic habitats, it can be assimilated by zooplankton to support additional secondary production. Transport of regenerated nutrients from heterotrophic to autotrophic habitats sustains higher system primary production. These simulation results imply that the ecosystem-scale efficiency of nutrient transformation into metazoan biomass can be constrained by the rate of resource exchange across habitats and that it is optimized when the transport rate matches the growth rate of primary producers. Slower transport (i.e., reduced connectivity) leads to nutrient limitation of primary production in autotrophic habitats and food limitation of secondary production in heterotrophic habitats. Habitat fragmentation can therefore impose energetic constraints on the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The outcomes of ecosystem restoration through habitat creation will be determined by both functions provided by newly created aquatic habitats and the rates of hydraulic connectivity between them.

  16. Specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Coker, Darren J; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2012-09-01

    While it is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Habitat specialists are expected to be more vulnerable to habitat loss because habitat availability exerts a greater limitation on population size, but it is also possible that specialist species may escape effects of disturbance if they use habitats that are generally resilient to disturbance. This study quantified specificity in use of different coral species by six coral-dwelling damselfishes (Chromis viridis, C. atripectoralis, Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and P. amboinensis) and related habitat specialization to proportional declines in their abundance following habitat degradation caused by outbreaks of the coral eating starfish, Acanthaster planci. The coral species preferred by most coral-dwelling damselfishes (e.g., Pocillopora damicornis) were frequently consumed by coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, such that highly specialized damselfishes were disproportionately affected by coral depletion, despite using a narrower range of different coral species. Vulnerability of damselfishes to this disturbance was strongly correlated with both their reliance on corals and their degree of habitat specialization. Ongoing disturbances to coral reef ecosystems are expected, therefore, to lead to fundamental shifts in the community structure of fish communities where generalists are favored over highly specialist species.

  17. Quantitative recommendations for amphibian terrestrial habitat conservation derived from habitat selection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermaur, Lukas; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-10-01

    Conservation scientists have noted that conservation managers rarely use scientific information when making decisions. One of the reasons why managers rarely use scientific information may be that conservation scientists rarely provide their knowledge in a way that can directly be used by conservation practitioners. Here we show how quantitative recommendations for conservation can be derived. Previous research on terrestrial habitat selection behavior of toads (Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis) showed that wood deposits are a key resource in the terrestrial habitat. We used habitat-dependence analysis to estimate the amount of this key resource, wood deposits, that individual toads require. Based on these estimates we then quantify the requirements for wood deposits for a population. Additionally, we quantified the area that a population requires. Although wood deposits vary strongly in size, we found little evidence for size preferences: only one species preferred smallest sizes of wood deposits. We report all the estimates in a way that can be directly used by conservation managers. Habitat-dependence analysis is a simple and useful tool to quantify habitat requirements. Provisioning of wood deposits may improve the quality of terrestrial habitat for amphibians. Thereby, managers may increase the carrying capacity of terrestrial habitats and support elevated population densities.

  18. Effects of spatial habitat heterogeneity on habitat selection and annual fecundity for a migratory forest songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, K.L.; Donovan, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how spatial habitat patterns influence abundance and dynamics of animal populations is a primary goal in landscape ecology. We used an information-theoretic approach to investigate the association between habitat patterns at multiple spatial scales and demographic patterns for black-throated blue warblers (Dendroica caerulescens) at 20 study sites in west-central Vermont, USA from 2002 to 2005. Sites were characterized by: (1) territory-scale shrub density, (2) patch-scale shrub density occurring within 25 ha of territories, and (3) landscape-scale habitat patterns occurring within 5 km radius extents of territories. We considered multiple population parameters including abundance, age ratios, and annual fecundity. Territory-scale shrub density was most important for determining abundance and age ratios, but landscape-scale habitat structure strongly influenced reproductive output. Sites with higher territory-scale shrub density had higher abundance, and were more likely to be occupied by older, more experienced individuals compared to sites with lower shrub density. However, annual fecundity was higher on sites located in contiguously forested landscapes where shrub density was lower than the fragmented sites. Further, effects of habitat pattern at one spatial scale depended on habitat conditions at different scales. For example, abundance increased with increasing territory-scale shrub density, but this effect was much stronger in fragmented landscapes than in contiguously forested landscapes. These results suggest that habitat pattern at different spatial scales affect demographic parameters in different ways, and that effects of habitat patterns at one spatial scale depends on habitat conditions at other scales. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  19. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is known about the history of Atlantic gray whales or their relationship to the extant Pacific population, the extirpation of the Atlantic population during historical times has been attributed to whaling. We used a combination of ancient and modern DNA, radiocarbon dating and predictive habitat modelling to better understand the distribution of gray whales during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal that dispersal between the Pacific and Atlantic was climate dependent and occurred both during the Pleistocene prior to the last glacial period and the early Holocene immediately following the opening of the Bering Strait. Genetic diversity in the Atlantic declined over an extended interval that predates the period of intensive commercial whaling, indicating this decline may have been precipitated by Holocene climate or other ecological causes. These first genetic data for Atlantic gray whales, particularly when combined with predictive habitat models for the year 2100, suggest that two recent sightings of gray whales in the Atlantic may represent the beginning of the expansion of this species' habitat beyond its currently realized range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hydrodynamic ecohydraulic habitat assessment aimed at conserving and restoring fluvial hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Diez Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial conservation and restoration measures’ efficiency was evaluated in terms of ecological state enhancement, comparing future scenarios with historical or altered conditions. Ecohydraulics provides valuable scientific tools for the environmental diagnosis of lotic ecosystems, evaluating the combined effect of flow regime and channel structure on habitat quality for aquatic biota. This paper adopts an analytic-synthetic approach to the interdisciplinary challen-ge of fluvial ecohydraulics for computational fluid dynamics (CFD within the framework of ecosystem water mana-gement. The procedure for multidimensional (2D/3D evaluation of the physical aquatic habitat is described as well as its predictive ability and main applications. The 2D depth-averaged scheme is highlighted whose velocity simula-tion error (being normally lower than 10% overcomes classic one-dimensional (1D simplifications. The basic as-pects of biological habitat modelling, abiotic variables and biological preference are summarised. Combining eco-logical criteria with hydrodynamic flow patterns is illustrated for producing discrete habitat fields which were then spatially and temporarily integrated in ecohydraulic analysis.