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Sample records for h4 receptor antagonism

  1. Uncompetitive antagonism of AMPA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine F; Tikhonov, Denis B; Bølcho, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Philanthotoxins are uncompetitive antagonists of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors presumed to bind to the pore-forming region, but a detailed molecular mechanism for this interaction is missing. Here a small library of novel philanthotoxins was designed and synthesized using a solid-phase strategy. ...... polyamine toxins antagonize the AMPA receptor ion channel and provide the basis for rational development of uncompetitive antagonists of AMPA receptors....

  2. Molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the histamine H4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Rob; Chazot, Paul L; Shenton, Fiona C; Lim, Herman D; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-05-01

    The elucidation of the human genome has had a major impact on histamine receptor research. The identification of the human H4 receptor by several groups has been instrumental for a new appreciation of the role of histamine in the modulation of immune function. In this review, we summarize the historical developments and the molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the H4 receptor.

  3. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists: the new antihistamines?

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    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Thurmond, Robin L; Ling, Ping; Karlsson, Lars

    2004-11-01

    Antihistamines (histamine H1 receptor antagonists) are a mainstay treatment for atopic allergy, yet they are only partially effective in relieving the symptoms of the disease. They also have very limited value for the treatment of asthma, despite the well-characterized bronchoconstrictory effects of histamine. The recent discovery of a fourth histamine receptor (H4), and the realization that it is exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cell types that are most implicated in the development and symptomatology of allergy and asthma, suggests that pharmacological targeting of the H4 receptor, either alone or in combination with H1 receptor antagonists, may prove useful for treating both allergy and asthma. Here we review the known biology associated with the H4 receptor, as well the effects of a highly selective H1 receptor antagonist.

  4. Ophthalmic antihistamines and H1-H4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Laurie; Bielory, Leonard; Rudner, Shara

    2012-10-01

    Antihistamines exert pharmacologic effects by binding to four histamine receptors (H1-H4) at different affinities, producing variable effects depending on the receptor they predominantly bind to. This review's purpose is to determine the relative potency of antihistamines by comparing their binding affinities to these receptors. Studies on binding affinities of antihistamines to histamine receptors were reviewed and the dissociation constant for inhibitor binding (Ki) analyzed to determine the most and least potent antihistamine for each receptor. We retrieved the binding affinities for nineteen antihistamines. For H1 receptors, pyrilamine exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 0.8 nM), and thioperamide the lowest (Ki = 280, 000 nM). For H2 receptors, ranitidine exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 187 nM), and olopatadine the lowest (Ki = 100 ,000 nM). For the recently discovered H3 and H4 receptors, thioperamide exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 1.1 nM), and olopatadine exhibited the lowest (Ki = 79 ,400 nM), to H3. Data on binding affinities to the H4 receptor exist for: ketotifen, pheniramine, ranitidine, cimetidine and thioperamide. Of these, thioperamide exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 27 nM), whereas cimetidine and ranitidine exhibited the lowest affinity (Ki = >10, 000 nM) for H4 receptors. This review summarizes the relative potency of antihistamines based on their binding affinities to the four histamine receptors. Although data on binding affinities of antihistamines to the H4 receptor are sparse, it is apparent that further research on these histamine subtypes may open new venues for more direct treatment with a higher therapeutic efficacy on allergic disorders including those affecting the ocular surface.

  5. The Histamine H4 Receptor: From Orphan to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Thurmond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The histamine H4 receptor (H4R was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this receptor and determine if it represented a drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists to the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into

  6. Clinical Development of Histamine H4 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Robin L; Venable, Jennifer; Savall, Brad; La, David; Snook, Sandra; Dunford, Paul J; Edwards, James P

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) provided a new avenue for the exploration of the physiological role of histamine, as well as providing a new drug target for the development of novel antihistamines. The first step in this process was the identification of selective antagonists to help unravel the pharmacology of the H4R relative to other histamine receptors. The discovery of the selective H4R antagonist JNJ 7777120 was vital for showing a role for the H4R in inflammation and pruritus. While this compound has been very successful as a tool for understanding the function of the receptor, it has drawbacks, including a short in vivo half-life and hypoadrenocorticism toxicity in rats and dogs, that prevented advancing it into clinical studies. Further research let to the discovery of JNJ 39758979, which, similar to JNJ 7777120, was a potent and selective H4R antagonist and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic activity preclinically. JNJ 39758979 advanced into human clinical studies and showed efficacy in reducing experimental pruritus and in patients with atopic dermatitis. However, development of this compound was terminated due to the occurrence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. This was overcome by developing another H4R antagonist with a different chemical structure, toreforant, that does not appear to have this side effect. Toreforant has been tested in clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or psoriasis. In conclusions there have been many H4R antagonists reported in the literature, but only a few have been studied in humans underscoring the difficulty in finding ligands with all of the properties necessary for testing in the clinic. Nevertheless, the clinical data to date suggests that H4R antagonists can be beneficial in treating atopic dermatitis and pruritus.

  7. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2010-08-22

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological targeting of histamine H4 receptor in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestifilippo, J P; Fernández-Solari, J; Martinel Lamas, D J; Rios, C E; Mohn, C; Perazzo, J C; Rivera, E S; Elverdin, J C; Medina, V A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether histamine H4 receptor (H4 R) antagonists could prevent experimental periodontitis (EP)-induced histological, functional and inflammatory alterations in submandibular gland (SMG), periodontal bone and gingiva. Bilateral EP was induced for 2 weeks in anaesthetized male rats. The effect of systemic and local administration of H4 R antagonists (JNJ7777120, JNJ10191584) on histopathology and functionality of SMG, bone loss and gingival inflammation was evaluated. The subcutaneous administration of JNJ7777120 prevented periodontitis-induced SMG histological injury, reducing vacuolization and apoptosis and additionally reversed the increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in SMG while it partially reversed the methacholine-induced salivation reduction produced by periodontitis. JNJ7777120 attenuated bone loss and the increased PGE2 levels and inflammatory infiltration in gingival tissue of rats with periodontitis. Finally, local administration of JNJ7777120 and JNJ10191584 was also beneficial for improving periodontal parameters. H4 receptor antagonists are able to ameliorate periodontitis-induced injury on SMG, gingival tissue and bone structure, suggesting that pharmacological targeting of H4 R could be an attractive strategy to improve periodontal health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new...... insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been...... shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR...

  10. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Knudsen

    Full Text Available Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29. However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR antagonist, exhibited partial agonistic effects in the 1-10 nM range, showing altogether a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, the agonistic effects of S961 were seen only on mitogenic endpoints ((3H-thymidine incorporation, and not on metabolic endpoints ((14C-glucose incorporation in adipocytes and muscle cells. The agonistic effects of S961 were observed in 3 independent cell lines, with complete concordance between mitogenicity ((3H-thymidine incorporation and phosphorylation of the IR and Akt. Together with the B29-B'29 crosslinked dimer, S961 is a rare example of a mixed agonist/antagonist for the human IR. A plausible mechanistic explanation based on the bivalent crosslinking model of IR activation is proposed.

  11. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Paul J; Williams, Kacy N; Desai, Pragnya J; Karlsson, Lars; McQueen, Daniel; Thurmond, Robin L

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a potent mediator of itch in humans, yet histamine H(1) receptor antagonists have been shown to be of limited use in the treatment of certain chronic pruritic diseases. The histamine H(4) receptor is a recently described histamine receptor, expressed on hematopoietic cells, linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. The contribution of the novel histamine H(4) receptor to histaminergic and allergic pruritus was investigated. Histamine and a selective histamine H(4) receptor agonist caused scratching responses in mice, which were almost completely attenuated in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice or by pretreatment with the selective histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also potently inhibited with histamine H(4) receptor antagonist treatment or in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of histamine H(4) receptor antagonist was greater than those observed with histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. The histamine H(4) receptor-mediated pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. These results demonstrate that the histamine H(4) receptor is involved in pruritic responses in mice to a greater extent than the histamine H(1) receptor. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility for treating chronic pruritic diseases in humans where histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are not effective.

  12. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Matteo; Shachaf, Nir; Basile, Livia; Milardi, Danilo; Zeidan, Mouhammed; Raiyn, Jamal; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE) and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and increase the

  13. Does Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism Prevent Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Nephrotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Aas Mortensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin inhibitors have markedly reduced acute rejection rates in renal transplantation, thus significantly improved short-term outcome. The beneficial effects are, however, tampered by acute and chronic nephrotoxicity leading to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, which impairs long-term allograft survival. The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone induces fibrosis in numerous organs, including the kidney. Evidence from animal models suggests a beneficial effect of aldosterone antagonism in reducing calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. This review summarizes current evidence of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in animal models of calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity and the results from studies of mineralocorticoid antagonism in renal transplant patients.

  14. Histamine H4 receptors in normal conjunctiva and in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Di Stefano, A; Vicari, C; Motterle, L; Brun, P

    2011-10-01

    While it is known that histamine is the primary mediator of ocular allergy, the presence and distribution of histamine receptors are not well documented in the human eye. Our aim was to evaluate histamine receptor expression in normal and vernal keratoconjunctivitis conjunctiva. Mucosal biopsies were obtained from conjunctiva of healthy donors and from tarsal conjunctiva of vernal patients. Immunostaining and semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for H(1), H(2), H(3), and H(4) receptors were performed. Histamine receptor expression was also evaluated in conjunctival cell cultures exposed to histamine, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Immunostaining for H(1) and H(2) receptors was slightly positive in normal and over-expressed in vernal tissues. H(3) receptors were rarely present in normal and inflamed conjunctiva. In striking contrast to control tissues, H(4) receptors were highly expressed in all inflamed tissues, particularly by stromal inflammatory cells. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated an over-expression of H(1), H(2), and H(4) receptors in vernal vs control tissues. Notably, H(4) receptors were five times more expressed in vernal vs control tissues. In cell cultures, H(2) receptor expression was stimulated eight times the normal levels by interleukin-4 and three times by histamine, but the H(4) receptor was only slightly affected by stimulation with these mediators. Increased expression of H1, and particularly of H(2) and H(4) receptors in vernal keratoconjunctival tissues indicate their important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. H(4) receptors may be a target in the treatment of allergic inflammation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptor antagonism in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Human models of headache may contribute to understanding of prostaglandins' role in migraine pathogenesis. The current thesis investigated the migraine triggering effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in migraine patients without aura, the efficacy of a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20....... The infusion of PGE2 caused the immediate migraine-like attacks and vasodilatation of the middle cerebral artery in migraine patients without aura. The highly specific and potent EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20-1531, was not able to attenuate PGE2-induced headache and vasodilatation of both intra- and extra......-cerebral arteries. The intravenous infusion of PGF2α did not induce headache or statistically significant vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in healthy volunteers. Novel data on PGE2-provoked immediate migraine-like attacks suggest that PGE2 may be one of the important final products in the pathogenesis...

  16. CGRP-receptor antagonism in migraine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Petersen, Kenneth Ahrend

    2007-01-01

    nerves. The central role of CGRP in migraine and cluster headache pathophysiology has led to the search for small molecule CGRP antagonists, which would predictably have less cardiovascular side effects as compared to the triptans. The initial pharmacological profile of such a group of compounds has...... recently been disclosed. These compounds have high selectivity for human CGRP receptors and are reported to be efficacious in the relief of acute attacks of migraine....

  17. TRPV1 and PLC Participate in Histamine H4 Receptor-Induced Itch

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    Tunyu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H4 receptor has been confirmed to play a role in evoking peripheral pruritus. However, the ionic and intracellular signaling mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is still unknown. By using cell culture and calcium imaging, we studied the underlying mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the DRG neuron. Immepip dihydrobromide (immepip—a histamine H4 receptor special agonist under cutaneous injection—obviously induced itch behavior of mice. Immepip-induced scratching behavior could be blocked by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 and PLC pathway inhibitor U73122. Application of immepip (8.3–50 μM could also induce a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i of DRG neurons. We found that 77.8% of the immepip-sensitized DRG neurons respond to the TRPV1 selective agonist capsaicin. U73122 could inhibit immepip-induced Ca2+ responses. In addition, immepip-induced Ca2+i increase could be blocked by ruthenium red, capsazepine, and AMG9810; however it could not be blocked by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. These results indicate that TRPV1 but not TRPA1 is the important ion channel to induce the DRG neurons’ responses in the downstream signaling pathway of histamine H4 receptor and suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in the mechanism of histamine-induced itch response by H4 receptor activation.

  18. Human memory Th17 cells express a functional histamine H4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Susanne; Gschwandtner, Maria; Koether, Brigitta; Gutzmer, Ralf; Werfel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The histamine H4 receptor is functionally expressed on CD4(+) T cells and in particular on human CD4(+) Th2-polarized T cells. Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells) represent a newly defined major CD4(+) T-cell subset, having been identified in psoriatic plaques and in acute skin lesions of atopic dermatitis where histamine is also present in high concentrations. To elucidate the role of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) on these effector T cells, we polarized human memory T cells into Th17 cells. Further, we investigated H4R expression and assessed its function by real-time PCR, by a cytokine secretion assay of IL-17, and by electrophoretic mobility shift assay of activating protein-1 (AP-1). We show that Th17 cells polarized by IL-1β together with IL-23 express the H4R on mRNA and protein level. Additionally, we identified IL-17-positive cells in psoriatic skin lesions. The IL-17-positive lymphocytes were all positive also for functional H4R. Stimulation with histamine or a H4R agonist increased the production of IL-17 and induced activating protein-1 in Th17 cells. In inflammatory skin diseases with enhanced histamine release, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, histamine might foster the immunomodulatory potency of skin-infiltrating Th17 cells. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The future antihistamines: histamine H3 and H4 receptor ligands.

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    Yu, Fuqu; Bonaventure, Pascal; Thurmond, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    The field of histamine research has progressed far from a century ago when the first biological functions of histamine were identified. It is now known that histamine function is mediated by four histamine receptors, which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family. While antihistamines that target the first two receptors have enjoyed clinical and commercial success, efforts to find new antihistamines against the histamine H3 and H4 receptors are still in the early stages. Here we will review the therapeutic potential of targeting these new histamine receptors.

  20. Detailed structure-activity relationship of indolecarboxamides as H4 receptor ligands.

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    Engelhardt, Harald; de Esch, Iwan J P; Kuhn, Daniel; Smits, Rogier A; Zuiderveld, Obbe P; Dobler, Julia; Mayer, Moriz; Lips, Sebastian; Arnhof, Heribert; Scharn, Dirk; Haaksma, Eric E J; Leurs, Rob

    2012-08-01

    A series of 76 derivatives of the indolecarboxamide 1 were synthesized, which allows a detailed SAR investigation of this well known scaffold. The data enable the definition of a predictive QSAR model which identifies several compounds with an activity comparable to 1. A selection of these new H(4)R antagonists was synthesized and a comparison of predicted and measured values demonstrates the robustness of the model (47-55). In addition to the H(4)-receptor activity general CMC and DMPK properties were investigated. Some of the new analogs are not only excellently soluble, but display a significantly increased half-life in mouse liver microsomes as well. These properties qualify these compounds as a possible new standard for future in vivo studies (e.g 51, 52 and 55). Moreover, the current studies also provide valuable information on the potential receptor ligand interactions between the indolcarboxamides and the H(4)R protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular determinants for the high constitutive activity of the human histamine H4 receptor: functional studies on orthologues and mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wifling, D; Löffel, K; Nordemann, U; Strasser, A; Bernhardt, G; Dove, S; Seifert, R; Buschauer, A

    2015-02-01

    Some histamine H4 receptor ligands act as inverse agonists at the human H4 receptor (hH4 R), a receptor with exceptionally high constitutive activity, but as neutral antagonists or partial agonists at the constitutively inactive mouse H4 receptor (mH4 R) and rat H4 receptor (rH4 R). To study molecular determinants of constitutive activity, H4 receptor reciprocal mutants were constructed: single mutants: hH4 R-F169V, mH4 R-V171F, hH4 R-S179A, hH4 R-S179M; double mutants: hH4 R-F169V+S179A, hH4 R-F169V+S179M and mH4 R-V171F+M181S. Site-directed mutagenesis with pVL1392 plasmids containing hH4 or mH4 receptors were performed. Wild-type or mutant receptors were co-expressed with Gαi2 and Gβ1 γ2 in Sf9 cells. Membranes were studied in saturation and competition binding assays ([(3) H]-histamine), and in functional [(35) S]-GTPγS assays with inverse, partial and full agonists of the hH4 receptor. Constitutive activity decreased from the hH4 receptor via the hH4 R-F169V mutant to the hH4 R-F169V+S179A and hH4 R-F169V+S179M double mutants. F169 alone or in concert with S179 plays a major role in stabilizing a ligand-free active state of the hH4 receptor. Partial inverse hH4 receptor agonists like JNJ7777120 behaved as neutral antagonists or partial agonists at species orthologues with lower or no constitutive activity. Some partial and full hH4 receptor agonists showed decreased maximal effects and potencies at hH4 R-F169V and double mutants. However, the mutation of S179 in the hH4 receptor to M as in mH4 receptor or A as in rH4 receptor did not significantly reduce constitutive activity. F169 and S179 are key amino acids for the high constitutive activity of hH4 receptors and may also be of relevance for other constitutively active GPCRs. This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update published in volume 170 issue 1. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1/issuetoc.

  2. Tachykinin receptors antagonism for asthma: a systematic review

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    Couto Nuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B seem to account for asthma pathophysiology by mediating neurogenic inflammation and several aspects of lung mechanics. These neuropeptides act mainly by their receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3, respectively which may be targets for new asthma therapy. Methods This review systematically examines randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of tachykinins receptors antagonism on asthma. Symptoms, airway inflammation, lung function and airway inflammation were considered as outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialized Register of Asthma Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search is as current as June 2010. Quality rating of included studies followed the Cochrane Collaboration and GRADE Profiler approaches. However, data were not pooled together due to different measures among the studies. Results Our systematic review showed the potential of NK receptor antagonist to decrease airway responsiveness and to improve lung function. However, effects on airway inflammation and asthma symptoms were poorly or not described. Conclusion The limited available evidence suggests that tachykinin receptors antagonists may decrease airway responsiveness and improve lung function in patients with asthma. Further large randomized trials are still required.

  3. Intracellular allosteric antagonism of the CCR9 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Christine; Rappas, Mathieu; Kean, James; Doré, Andrew S; Errey, James C; Bennett, Kirstie; Deflorian, Francesca; Christopher, John A; Jazayeri, Ali; Mason, Jonathan S; Congreve, Miles; Cooke, Robert M; Marshall, Fiona H

    2016-12-15

    Chemokines and their G-protein-coupled receptors play a diverse role in immune defence by controlling the migration, activation and survival of immune cells. They are also involved in viral entry, tumour growth and metastasis and hence are important drug targets in a wide range of diseases. Despite very significant efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs, with over 50 small-molecule drugs directed at the family entering clinical development, only two compounds have reached the market: maraviroc (CCR5) for HIV infection and plerixafor (CXCR4) for stem-cell mobilization. The high failure rate may in part be due to limited understanding of the mechanism of action of chemokine antagonists and an inability to optimize compounds in the absence of structural information. CC chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9) activation by CCL25 plays a key role in leukocyte recruitment to the gut and represents a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. The selective CCR9 antagonist vercirnon progressed to phase 3 clinical trials in Crohn's disease but efficacy was limited, with the need for very high doses to block receptor activation. Here we report the crystal structure of the CCR9 receptor in complex with vercirnon at 2.8 Å resolution. Remarkably, vercirnon binds to the intracellular side of the receptor, exerting allosteric antagonism and preventing G-protein coupling. This binding site explains the need for relatively lipophilic ligands and describes another example of an allosteric site on G-protein-coupled receptors that can be targeted for drug design, not only at CCR9, but potentially extending to other chemokine receptors.

  4. Dual hypocretin receptor antagonism is more effective for sleep promotion than antagonism of either receptor alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    Full Text Available The hypocretin (orexin system is involved in sleep/wake regulation, and antagonists of both hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR1 and/or HCRTR2 are considered to be potential hypnotic medications. It is currently unclear whether blockade of either or both receptors is more effective for promoting sleep with minimal side effects. Accordingly, we compared the properties of selective HCRTR1 (SB-408124 and SB-334867 and HCRTR2 (EMPA antagonists with that of the dual HCRTR1/R2 antagonist almorexant in the rat. All 4 antagonists bound to their respective receptors with high affinity and selectivity in vitro. Since in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments revealed poor brain penetration for SB-408124, SB-334867 was selected for subsequent in vivo studies. When injected in the mid-active phase, SB-334867 produced small increases in rapid-eye-movement (REM and non-REM (NR sleep. EMPA produced a significant increase in NR only at the highest dose studied. In contrast, almorexant decreased NR latency and increased both NR and REM proportionally throughout the subsequent 6 h without rebound wakefulness. The increased NR was due to a greater number of NR bouts; NR bout duration was unchanged. At the highest dose tested (100 mg/kg, almorexant fragmented sleep architecture by increasing the number of waking and REM bouts. No evidence of cataplexy was observed. HCRTR1 occupancy by almorexant declined 4-6 h post-administration while HCRTR2 occupancy was still elevated after 12 h, revealing a complex relationship between occupancy of HCRT receptors and sleep promotion. We conclude that dual HCRTR1/R2 blockade is more effective in promoting sleep than blockade of either HCRTR alone. In contrast to GABA receptor agonists which induce sleep by generalized inhibition, HCRTR antagonists seem to facilitate sleep by reducing waking "drive".

  5. Dual hypocretin receptor antagonism is more effective for sleep promotion than antagonism of either receptor alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morairty, Stephen R; Revel, Florent G; Malherbe, Pari; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Valladao, Daniel; Wettstein, Joseph G; Kilduff, Thomas S; Borroni, Edilio

    2012-01-01

    The hypocretin (orexin) system is involved in sleep/wake regulation, and antagonists of both hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR1) and/or HCRTR2 are considered to be potential hypnotic medications. It is currently unclear whether blockade of either or both receptors is more effective for promoting sleep with minimal side effects. Accordingly, we compared the properties of selective HCRTR1 (SB-408124 and SB-334867) and HCRTR2 (EMPA) antagonists with that of the dual HCRTR1/R2 antagonist almorexant in the rat. All 4 antagonists bound to their respective receptors with high affinity and selectivity in vitro. Since in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments revealed poor brain penetration for SB-408124, SB-334867 was selected for subsequent in vivo studies. When injected in the mid-active phase, SB-334867 produced small increases in rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NR) sleep. EMPA produced a significant increase in NR only at the highest dose studied. In contrast, almorexant decreased NR latency and increased both NR and REM proportionally throughout the subsequent 6 h without rebound wakefulness. The increased NR was due to a greater number of NR bouts; NR bout duration was unchanged. At the highest dose tested (100 mg/kg), almorexant fragmented sleep architecture by increasing the number of waking and REM bouts. No evidence of cataplexy was observed. HCRTR1 occupancy by almorexant declined 4-6 h post-administration while HCRTR2 occupancy was still elevated after 12 h, revealing a complex relationship between occupancy of HCRT receptors and sleep promotion. We conclude that dual HCRTR1/R2 blockade is more effective in promoting sleep than blockade of either HCRTR alone. In contrast to GABA receptor agonists which induce sleep by generalized inhibition, HCRTR antagonists seem to facilitate sleep by reducing waking "drive".

  6. Aryl-1,3,5-triazine derivatives as histamine H4 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łażewska, Dorota; Więcek, Małgorzata; Ner, Joanna; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Kottke, Tim; Schwed, J Stephan; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kuder, Kamil; Latacz, Gniewomir; Grosicki, Marek; Sapa, Jacek; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Stark, Holger; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-08-18

    A series of novel 2-amino-4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine derivatives with different aryl substituents in the 6-position was designed, synthesized and evaluated for histamine H4 receptor (H4R) affinity in Sf9 cells expressing human H4R co-expressed with G-protein subunits. Triazine derivative 8 with a 6-(p-chlorophenyl) substituent showed the highest affinity with hH4R Ki value of 203 nM and was classified as an antagonist in cAMP accumulation assay. This compound, identified as a new lead structure, demonstrated also anti-inflammatory properties in preliminary studies in mice (carrageenan-induced edema test) and neither possessed significant antiproliferative activity, nor modulated CYP3A4 activity up to concentration of 25 μM. In order to discuss structure-activity relationships molecular modeling and docking studies were undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of Tie2 Receptor Antagonism in Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Hasenstein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are malignant endothelial cell tumors with few effective systemic treatments. Despite a unique endothelial origin, molecular candidates for targeted therapeutic intervention have been elusive. In this study, we explored the tunica internal endothelial cell kinase 2 (Tie2 receptor as a potential therapeutic target in angiosarcoma. Human angiosarcomas from diverse sites were shown to be universally immunoreactive for Tie2. Tie2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR antagonists inhibited SVR and MS1-VEGF angiosarcoma cell survival in vitro. In the high-grade SVR cell line, Tie2 and VEGF antagonists inhibited cell survival synergistically, whereas effects were largely additive in the low-grade MS1-VEGF cell line. Xenograft modeling using these cell lines closely recapitulated the human disease. In vivo, Tie2 and VEGFR inhibition resulted in significant angiosarcoma growth delay. The combination proved more effective than either agent alone. Tie2 inhibition seemed to elicit tumor growth delay through increased tumor cell apoptosis, whereas VEGFR inhibition reduced tumor growth by lowering tumor cell proliferation. These data identify Tie2 antagonism as a potential novel, targeted therapy for angiosarcomas and provide a foundation for further investigation of Tie2 inhibition, alone and in combinations, in the management of this disease.

  8. Monocyclic and Fused Azines and Azoles as Histamine H4 Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lażewska, Dorota; Domínguez-Álvarez, Enrique; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The histamine H4 receptor has stood out since its discovery and identification in 2000 as an important target in the search for potential new drugs for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases such as rhinitis, pruritus and asthma. Thus, in the last decade, both industry and academia have performed an intensive and productive search for new ligands of this newest subtype of histamine receptor. The most promising compounds found include monocyclic and fused azines, and azoles such as bispyrimidines, di- and triaminopyrimidines, quinazolines, imidazoles, indoles, benzimidazoles and benzazoles. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the current state of the art in the field of histamine H4 receptor research, focusing mainly on the last five years.

  9. Lamin B receptor recognizes specific modifications of histone H4 in heterochromatin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yasuhiro; Hizume, Kohji; Kimura, Hiroshi; Takeyasu, Kunio; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2012-12-14

    Inner nuclear membrane proteins provide a structural framework for chromatin, modulating transcription beneath the nuclear envelope. Lamin B receptor (LBR) is a classical inner nuclear membrane protein that associates with heterochromatin, and its mutations are known to cause Pelger-Huët anomaly in humans. However, the mechanisms by which LBR organizes heterochromatin remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that LBR represses transcription by binding to chromatin regions that are marked by specific histone modifications. The tudor domain (residues 1-62) of LBR primarily recognizes histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation and is essential for chromatin compaction, whereas the whole nucleoplasmic region (residues 1-211) is required for transcriptional repression. We propose a model in which the nucleoplasmic domain of LBR tethers epigenetically marked chromatin to the nuclear envelope and transcriptional repressors are loaded onto the chromatin through their interaction with LBR.

  10. A bioinformatics search for selective histamine h4 receptor antagonists through structure-based virtual screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Fenila; Thangam, Elden Berla; Suresh, Muthaiyan Xavier

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease is increasing dramatically in the developed world. Studies of allergic diseases have clearly demonstrated that histamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the early-phase allergic response. Histamine effects are mediated by H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors. The presence of the histamine H4 receptors on leukocytes and mast cells suggests that the new histamine receptor H4 plays an important role in the modulation of the immune system. Thus, histamine H4 receptor is an attractive target for anti-allergic therapy. In our present study, we have generated a histamine H4 receptor model using I-TASSER based on human B2-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor. Structurally similar compounds of the three known antagonists JNJ777120, thioperamide, and Vuf6002 were retrieved from PubChem, and database was prepared. Virtual screening of those databases was performed, and six compounds with high docking score were identified. Also the binding mode revealed that all the six compounds had interaction with Asp94 of the receptor. Our results serve as a starting point in the development of novel lead compounds in anti-allergic therapy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Intra-vermis H4 receptor agonist impairs performance in anxiety- and fear-mediated models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C E M; Serafim, K R; Gianlorenco, A C L; Mattioli, R

    2017-10-01

    The neural histaminergic system modulates cognitive performance in various animal models. However, little is known about the effects of the H4 histaminergic receptor in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of histaminergic H4 agonist VUF-8430 microinjection into the cerebellar vermis on the consolidation of emotional memory in mice subjected to the elevated plus maze (EPM) and inhibitory avoidance task (IAT). All experiments were performed on two consecutive days: exposure (T1 and D1) and 24h after, which we called re-exposure (T2 and D2). The animals received saline (SAL) or VUF (0.15 nmol; 0.49 nmol; 1.48 nmol/0.1μl) administered post-exposure. Experiment 1 was conducted in the EPM, and the animals were free to explore the maze for 5min. In T1, immediately after exposure, the pharmacological treatment was given; in T2, there was only re-exposure to the EPM. Experiment 2 involved the IAT, and the pharmacological treatment was provided post-D1; in D2, the animals were only re-exposed to the IAT. In Experiment 1, increased open arm exploration (% open arm entries and% open arms time) for 0.49 and 1.48nmol of VUF were recorded in T2 compared to T1. In Experiment 2, a significant decrease in consolidation latency was recorded for the group that received 1.48nmol of VUF compared to the SAL group in D2. These results indicate that a 1.48nmol VUF microinjection into the cerebellar vermis impaired performance in both models, even though one model was anxiety-mediated (EPM) and the other was fear-mediated (IAT). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetics, Receptor Binding, Replication, and Mammalian Transmission of H4 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Live Poultry Markets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Libin; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Guan, Yuntao; Suzuki, Yasuo; Li, Yanbing; Jiang, Yongping; Tian, Guobin; Liu, Liling

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT H4 avian influenza virus (AIV) is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in the world. However, whether H4 AIVs pose a threat to public health remains largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships, receptor binding properties, replication, and transmissibility in mammals of H4 AIVs isolated from live poultry markets in China between 2009 and 2012. Genomic sequence analysis of 36 representative H4 viruses revealed 32 different genotypes, indicating that these viruses are undergoing complex and frequent reassortment events. All 32 viruses tested could replicate in the respiratory organs of infected mice without prior adaptation. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that the H4 AIVs bound to α-2,6-linked glycans, although they retained the binding preference for α-2,3-linked glycans. When we tested the direct-contact transmission of 10 H4 viruses in guinea pigs, we found that three viruses did not transmit to any of the contact animals, one virus transmitted to one of three contact animals, and six viruses transmitted to all three contact animals. When we further tested the respiratory droplet transmissibility of four of the viruses that transmitted efficiently via direct contact, we found that three of them could transmit to one or two of the five exposed animals. Our study demonstrates that the current circulating H4 AIVs can infect, replicate in, and transmit to mammalian hosts, thereby posing a potential threat to human health. These findings emphasize the continual need for enhanced surveillance of H4 AIVs. IMPORTANCE Numerous surveillance studies have documented the wide distribution of H4 AIVs throughout the world, yet the biological properties of H4 viruses have not been well studied. In this study, we found that multiple genotypes of H4 viruses are cocirculating in the live poultry markets of China and that H4 viruses can replicate in mice, possess human-type receptor binding specificity, and transmit between

  13. (2-Arylethenyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-amines as a novel histamine H4 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Ziemba, Julia; Ner, Joanna; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Łażewska, Dorota; Więcek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Latacz, Gniewomir; Kuder, Kamil; Kottke, Tim; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Stark, Holger; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-10-20

    Within the constantly growing number of histamine H4 (H4R) receptor ligands there is a large group of azine derivatives. A series of novel compounds in the group of 4-methylpiperazine-1,3,5-triazine-2-amines were designed and obtained. Considered structures were modified at the triazine 6-position by introduction of variously substituted arylethenyl moieties. Their affinities to histamine H4 receptors were evaluated in radioligand binding assays with use of Sf9 cells, transiently expressing human H4R. Pharmacological studies results allowed to identify 4-[(E)-2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]-6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (Ki = 253 nM) as the most potent compound in the present series. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. NO EVIDENCE FOR A ROLE OF MUSCARINIC M(2) RECEPTORS IN FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM IN BOVINE TRACHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 The functional antagonism between methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was evaluated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. In addition, the putative contribution of muscarinic M(2) receptors mediating inhibition of beta-adrenoceptor-induced

  15. Functional antagonism of different angiotensin II type I receptor blockers in human arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, AA; Buikema, H; van Buiten, A; Lubeck, RH; Boonstra, PW; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH

    Objectives. To evaluate and compare the functional type and the degree of antagonism of the selective angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARB) losartan, EXP 3174 (the active metabolite of losartan), valsartan and candesartan in human internal mammary arteries. Methods. Human internal mammary

  16. Design and development of benzoxazole derivatives with toll-like receptor 9 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarnali; Mukherjee, Ayan; Paul, Barnali; Rahaman, Oindrila; Roy, Shounak; Maithri, Gundaram; Ramya, Bandaru; Pal, Sourav; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Talukdar, Arindam

    2017-07-07

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a major therapeutic target for numerous inflammatory disorders. Development of small molecule inhibitors for TLR9 remains largely empirical due to lack of structural understanding of potential TLR9 antagonism by small molecules and due to the unusual topology of the ligand binding surface of the receptor. To develop a structural model for rational design of small molecule TLR9 antagonists, an enhanced homology model of human TLR9 (hTLR9) was constructed. Binding mode analysis of a series of molecules having characteristic molecular geometry, flexibility and basicity was conducted based on crystal structure of the inhibitory DNA (iDNA) bound to horse and bovine TLR9. Interaction with specific amino acid residues in four leucine rich repeat (LRR) regions of TLR9 was identified to be critical for antagonism by small molecules. The biological validation of TLR9 antagonism and its correlation with probe-receptor interactions led to a reliable model that could be used for development of novel small molecules with potent TLR9 antagonism (IC 50 30-100 nM) with excellent selectivity against TLR7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of histamine H4 receptor ligands in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Laura; Pini, Alessandro; Rosa, Arianna Carolina; Lanzi, Cecilia; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Chazot, Paul Louis; Krief, Stéphane; Schreeb, Annemarie; Stark, Holger; Masini, Emanuela

    2016-09-01

    Fibrosis of lung tissue is a disease where a chronic inflammatory process determines a pathological remodelling of lung parenchyma. The animal model obtained by intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin in C57BL/6 mice is one of the most validated murine model. Bleomycin stimulates oxidative stress and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Histamine H4R have recently been implicated in inflammation and immune diseases. This study was focused to investigate the effects of H4R ligands in the modulation of inflammation and in the reduction of lung fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice treated with bleomycin. C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, JNJ7777120 (JNJ, selective H4R antagonist) or ST-1006 (partial H4R agonist), ST-994 (H4R neutral antagonist) and ST-1012 (inverse H4R agonist) at equimolar doses, released by micro-osmotic pumps for 21days. Airway resistance to inflation was assayed and lung samples were processed to measure malondialdehyde (TBARS); 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG); myeloperoxidase (MPO); COX-2 expression and activity as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Fibrosis and airway remodelling were evaluated throughout transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), percentage of positive Goblet cells, smooth muscle layer thickness determination. Our results indicated that JNJ, ST-994 and ST-1012 decreased inflammation and oxidative stress markers, i.e. the number of infiltrating leukocytes evaluated as lung tissue MPO, COX-2 expression and activity, TBARS and 8OHdG production. They also reduced the level of TGF-β, a pro-fibrotic cytokine, collagen deposition, thickness of smooth muscle layer, Goblet cells hyperplasia; resulting in a decrease of airway functional impairment. The results here reported clearly demonstrated that H4R ligands have a beneficial effect in a model of lung fibrosis in the mouse, thus indicating that H4R antagonists or inverse agonists could be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016

  18. Antagonism of the 5-HT6 receptor - Preclinical rationale for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Inge E M; Mørk, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Antagonism of the 5-HT6 receptor is a promising approach for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is compelling preclinical evidence for the procognitive potential of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists and several compounds are in clinical development, as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). This manuscript summarizes the scientific rationale for the use of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists as AD treatment, with some focus on the selective and high-affinity 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054). The 5-HT6 receptor is enriched in brain regions that mediate cognition, where expression predominates on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and subsets of GABAergic interneurons. It is proposed that 5-HT6 receptor antagonism modulates the balance between neuronal excitation (glutamate) and inhibition (GABA), which may have widespread implications for neurotransmission and neuronal activity. This is supported by preclinical studies showing that 5-HT6 receptor antagonists increase concentrations of multiple neurotransmitters, and strengthened by recent evidence that idalopirdine facilitates neuronal oscillations and contributes to the recruitment of several neuronal networks relevant in cognition. Some of these effects are observed with idalopirdine monotherapy, whereas others require concomitant treatment with an AChEI. Several hypotheses for the mechanism underlying the synergistic actions between 5-HT6 receptor antagonists and AChEIs are discussed. Collectively, the current evidence suggests that 5-HT6 receptor antagonism adds a unique, complementary mechanism of action to that of AChEIs. The facilitation of multiple neurotransmitters and neuronal activity in brain regions that mediate cognition, and the synergy with AChEIs, are proposed to mediate the procognitive effects of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists in AD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What Do Structures Tell Us About Chemokine Receptor Function and Antagonism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kufareva, Irina; Gustavsson, Martin; Zheng, Yi; Stephens, Bryan S.; Handel, Tracy M. (UCSD)

    2017-05-22

    Chemokines and their cell surface G protein–coupled receptors are critical for cell migration, not only in many fundamental biological processes but also in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Recent X-ray structures of two chemokines complexed with full-length receptors provided unprecedented insight into the atomic details of chemokine recognition and receptor activation, and computational modeling informed by new experiments leverages these insights to gain understanding of many more receptor:chemokine pairs. In parallel, chemokine receptor structures with small molecules reveal the complicated and diverse structural foundations of small molecule antagonism and allostery, highlight the inherent physicochemical challenges of receptor:chemokine interfaces, and suggest novel epitopes that can be exploited to overcome these challenges. The structures and models promote unique understanding of chemokine receptor biology, including the interpretation of two decades of experimental studies, and will undoubtedly assist future drug discovery endeavors.

  20. Competitive antagonism of AMPA receptors by ligands of different classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogner, Anders; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) constitute a family of ligand-gated ion channels that are essential for mediating fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This study presents a high-resolution X-ray structure of the competitive antagonist (S)-2-amino-3-[5-tert-butyl-3......-(phosphonomethoxy)-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ATPO) in complex with the ligand-binding core of the receptor. Comparison with the only previous structure of the ligand-binding core in complex with an antagonist, 6,7-dinitro-2,3-quinoxalinedione (DNQX) (Armstrong, N.; Gouaux, E. Neuron 2000, 28, 165-181), reveals...

  1. A2A Receptor Antagonism and Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Micaela; Blandini, Fabio; Simola, Nicola; Hauser, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Dyskinesia, a major complication of treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), involves two phases: induction, which is responsible for dyskinesia onset, and expression, which underlies its clinical manifestation. The unique cellular and regional distribution of adenosine A2A receptors in basal ganglia areas that are richly innervated by dopamine, and their antagonistic role towards dopamine receptor stimulation, have positioned A2A receptor antagonists as an attractive nondopaminergic target to improve the motor deficits that characterize PD. In this paper, we describe the biochemical characteristics of A2A receptors and the effects of adenosine A2A antagonists in rodent and primate models of PD on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, together with relevant biomarker studies. We also review clinical trials of A2A antagonists as adjuncts to L-DOPA in PD patients with motor fluctuations. These studies have generally demonstrated that the addition of an A2A antagonist to a stable L-DOPA regimen reduces OFF time and mildly increases dyskinesia. However, limited clinical data suggest that the addition of an A2A antagonist along with a reduction of L-DOPA might maintain anti-Parkinsonian benefit and reduce dyskinesia. Whether A2A antagonists might reduce the development of dyskinesia has not yet been tested clinically. PMID:22754707

  2. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  3. (-)-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol antagonizes the peripheral cannabinoid receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayewitch, M; Rhee, M H; Avidor-Reiss, T; Breuer, A; Mechoulam, R; Vogel, Z

    1996-04-26

    (-)-Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-Delta9-THC) is the major active psychotropic component of the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa. The membrane proteins that have been found to bind this material or its derivatives have been called the cannabinoid receptors. Two GTP-binding protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors have been cloned. CB1 or the neuronal cannabinoid receptor is found mostly in neuronal cells and tissues while CB2 or the peripheral cannabinoid receptor has been detected in spleen and in several cells of the immune system. It has previously been shown that activation of CB1 or CB2 receptors by cannabinoid agonists inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity. Utilizing Chinese hamster ovary cells and COS cells transfected with the cannabinoid receptors we report that (-)-Delta9-THC binds to both receptors with similar affinity. However, in contrast to its capacity to serve as an agonist for the CB1 receptor, (-)-Delta9-THC was only able to induce a very slight inhibition of adenylyl cyclase at the CB2 receptor. Morever, (-)-Delta9-THC antagonizes the agonist-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase mediated by CB2. Therefore, we conclude that (-)-Delta9-THC constitutes a weak antagonist for the CB2 receptor.

  4. Neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine-induced effects in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Jensen, Morten; Weikop, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Several studies suggest a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in addiction to drugs of abuse, including cocaine. However, the NPY receptors mediating addiction-related effects remain to be determined. Objectives To explore the potential role of Y5 NPY receptors in cocaine-induced behavioural...... effects. Methods The Y5 antagonist L-152,804 and Y5-knockout (Y5-KO) mice were tested in two models of cocaine addiction-related behaviour: acute self-administration and cocaine-induced hyperactivity. We also studied effects of Y5 receptor antagonism on cocaine-induced c-fos expression and extracellular...... effects, suggesting that Y5 receptors could be a potential therapeutic target in cocaine addiction....

  5. Arctigenin antagonizes mineralocorticoid receptor to inhibit the transcription of Na/K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Zhou, Meili; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors in cardiovascular disease and is the most common chronic disease. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have been successfully used in clinic for the treatment of hypertension. Our study aims to investigate whether Arctigenin can antagonize MR and inhibit the transcription of Na/K-ATPase. The yeast two-hybrid assay was used to screen natural products and Arctigenin was identified as an MR antagonist. The direct binding of Arctigenin to MR was determined using assays based on surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence quenching. Furthermore, results from mammalian one-hybrid and transcriptional activation experiments also confirmed that Arctigenin can potently antagonize MR in cells. We demonstrated that Arctigenin can decrease the level of Na/K-ATPase mRNA by antagonizing MR in HK-2 cells. Our findings show that Arctigenin can effectively decrease Na/K-ATPase transcription; thus highlight its potential as an anti-hypertensive drug lead compound. Our current findings demonstrate that Arctigenin is an antagonist of MR and effectively decreases the Na/K-ATPase 1 gene expression. Our work provides a hint for the drug discovery against cardiovascular disease.

  6. Structural Basis for Agonism and Antagonism for a Set of Chemically Related Progesterone Receptor Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Scott J.; Raaijmakers, Hans C. A.; Vu-Pham, Diep; Dechering, Koen; Lam, Tsang Wai; Brown, Angus R.; Hamilton, Niall M.; Nimz, Olaf; Bosch, Rolien; McGuire, Ross; Oubrie, Arthur; de Vlieg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The progesterone receptor is able to bind to a large number and variety of ligands that elicit a broad range of transcriptional responses ranging from full agonism to full antagonism and numerous mixed profiles inbetween. We describe here two new progesterone receptor ligand binding domain x-ray structures bound to compounds from a structurally related but functionally divergent series, which show different binding modes corresponding to their agonistic or antagonistic nature. In addition, we present a third progesterone receptor ligand binding domain dimer bound to an agonist in monomer A and an antagonist in monomer B, which display binding modes in agreement with the earlier observation that agonists and antagonists from this series adopt different binding modes. PMID:21849509

  7. Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eDugovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R and orexin-2 (OX2R receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion. When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-I provokes functional antagonism and internalization of beta1-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Shai; Yin, Dezhong; Shumay, Elena; Wang, Hsien-yu; Malbon, Craig C

    2007-06-01

    Hormones that activate receptor tyrosine kinases have been shown to regulate G protein-coupled receptors, and herein we investigate the ability of IGF-I to regulate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor. Treating Chinese hamster ovary cells in culture with IGF-I is shown to functionally antagonize the ability of expressed beta(1)-adrenergic receptors to accumulate intracellular cAMP in response to stimulation by the beta-adrenergic agonist Iso. The attenuation of beta(1)-adrenergic action was accompanied by internalization of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in response to IGF-I. Inhibiting either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt blocks the ability of IGF-I to antagonize and to internalize beta(1)-adrenergic receptors. Mutation of one potential Akt substrate site Ser412Ala, but not another Ser312Ala, of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor abolishes the ability of IGF-I to functionally antagonize and to sequester the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor. We also tested the ability of IGF-I to regulate beta(1)-adrenergic receptors and their signaling in adult canine cardiac myocytes. IGF-I attenuates the ability of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors to accumulate intracellular cAMP in response to Iso and promotes internalization of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in these cardiac myocytes.

  9. Estradiol and striatal dopamine receptor antagonism influence memory system bias in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Matthew G; Almey, Anne; Caissie, Meghen; LaChappelle, Ivonne; Radiotis, George; Brake, Wayne G

    2013-11-01

    Estradiol (E2) has been shown to influence learning and memory systems used by female rats to find a reward. Rats with high levels of E2 tend to use allocentric, or place, memory while rats with low levels of E2 use egocentric, or response, memory. It has been shown that systemic dopamine receptor antagonism interacts with E2 to affect which memory system is used. Here, dopamine antagonists were administered directly into either the dorsal striatum or nucleus accumbens to determine where in the brain this interaction takes place. Seventy-four young adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in a modified plus-maze. All rats were ovariectomized, received a subcutaneous low E2 implant, and were implanted with bilateral cannulae into either the dorsal striatum or the nucleus accumbens. Additionally, high E2 rats received daily injections of E2 in a sesame oil solution while low E2 rats received daily injections of vehicle. After reaching criterion levels of performance in a plus-maze task, rats were administered microinjections of either a dopamine D1 receptor (SCH 23390; 0.1 μg/ml and 0.01 μg/ml) or D2 receptor (raclopride; 2 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml) antagonist or a vehicle control (saline) in a counterbalanced manner. High E2 rats exhibited a trend towards a place memory bias while low E2 rats showed a response memory bias. Dorsal striatal administration of a D1, but not D2, dopamine receptor antagonist caused a switch in the memory system used by both high and low E rats. There was no significant effect of dopamine receptor antagonism in the nucleus accumbens group. Thus, E2 determined which memory system controlled behavior in a plus-maze task. Moreover, this effect was modulated by dopamine D1R antagonism in the dorsal but not ventral striatum suggesting that memory systems are, in part, mediated by E2 and dopamine in this region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impairments of exploration and memory after systemic or prelimbic D1-receptor antagonism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina; Schachtman, Todd R.; Mark, Louise T.

    2011-01-01

    to examine the effects on memory: cross-maze and object recognition task. Systemic administration reduced spatial exploration in cross-maze as well as in an open field test, and also reduced object exploration. Spatial (hippocampus-dependent) short-term memory was inhibited in the cross-maze and non......-spatial short-term object retention was also impaired. In contrast to these systemic effects, bilateral injections of SCH23390 into the prelimbic cortices altered neither spatial nor object exploration, but did inhibit short-term memory in both cross-maze and object recognition task. Therefore, the inhibiting......D1-receptor antagonism is known to impair rodent memory but also inhibits spontaneous exploration of stimuli to be remembered. Hypo-exploration could contribute to impaired memory by influencing event processing. In order to explore this effect, the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390...

  11. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Lempereur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L. which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box. In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif.

  12. Dopamine Receptor D1 Agonism and Antagonism Using a Field-Effect Transistor Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Joo; Yang, Heehong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Chul Soon; Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Park, Tai Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-06-27

    The field-effect transistor (FET) has been used in the development of diagnostic tools for several decades, leading to high-performance biosensors. Therefore, the FET platform can provide the foundation for the next generation of analytical methods. A major role of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is in the transfer of external signals into the cell and promoting human body functions; thus, their principle application is in the screening of new drugs. The research community uses efficient systems to screen potential GPCR drugs; nevertheless, the need to develop GPCR-conjugated analytical devices remains for next-generation new drug screening. In this study, we proposed an approach for studying receptor agonism and antagonism by combining the roles of FETs and GPCRs in a dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1)-conjugated FET system, which is a suitable substitute for conventional cell-based receptor assays. DRD1 was reconstituted and purified to mimic native binding pockets that have highly discriminative interactions with DRD1 agonists/antagonists. The real-time responses from the DRD1-nanohybrid FET were highly sensitive and selective for dopamine agonists/antagonists, and their maximal response levels were clearly different depending on their DRD1 affinities. Moreover, the equilibrium constants (K) were estimated by fitting the response levels. Each K value indicates the variation in the affinity between DRD1 and the agonists/antagonists; a greater K value corresponds to a stronger DRD1 affinity in agonism, whereas a lower K value in antagonism indicates a stronger dopamine-blocking effect.

  13. Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonism is associated with antidepressant-like effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Need, Anne B; Baez, Melvyn; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2006-10-01

    Antidepressant-like effects of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)5 receptor antagonists have been reported previously. We now provide definitive identification of mGlu5 receptors as a target for these effects through the combined use of selective antagonists and mice with targeted deletion of the mGlu5 protein. In these experiments, the mGlu5 receptor antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the more selective and metabolically stable analog 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]-pyridine (MTEP) decreased immobility in the mouse forced swim test, a test predictive of antidepressant efficacy in humans. mGlu5 receptor knockout mice had a phenotype in the forced swim test that was congruent with the effects of receptor blockade; mGlu5 receptor knockout mice were significantly less immobile than their wild-type counterparts. Consistent with mGlu5 receptor mediation of the antidepressant-like effects of MPEP, the effects of MPEP were not observed in mGlu5 receptor knockout mice, whereas comparable effects of the tricyclic antidepressant imiprimine remained active in the mutant mice. MPEP and imiprimine resulted in a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test. The drug interaction was not likely because of increased levels of drugs in the brain, suggesting a pharmacodynamic interaction of mGlu5 and monoaminergic systems in this effect. Thus, the present findings substantiate the hypothesis that mGlu5 receptor antagonism is associated with antidepressant-like effects. This mechanism may not only provide a novel approach to the therapeutic management of depressive disorders but also may be useful in the augmentation of effects of traditional antidepressant agents.

  14. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHuart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Currently, inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system (RAS remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors.

  15. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huart, Antoine; Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Neau, Eric; Delage, Christine; Calise, Denis; Ribes, David; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra) with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a) in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However, bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors. PMID:25698969

  16. Histamine H1 and H4 receptor expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic allergic conjunctival diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Shoji, Jun; Shiraki, Yukiko; Aso, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Satoru

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the histamine H1 and H4 receptors mRNA (H1R and H4R, respectively) expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic forms of allergic conjunctival diseases to determine whether they can serve as biomarkers for allergic inflammation in the conjunctiva. We examined 19 patients with vernal or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC/VKC group) and 15 healthy volunteers (control group). The AKC/VKC group was divided into active and stable stage subgroups. Specimens were obtained from the upper tarsal conjunctiva of each participant using a modified impression cytology method. H1R, H4R, and eotaxin-1, -2, and -3 mRNA (eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, respectively) expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), eotaxin-2, and histamine H4 receptor (H4R) were performed using conjunctival smears. The number of H4R-positive patients was higher in the active than the stable stage subgroup and control group, whereas no difference was observed for H1R. H1R levels were higher in the active than in the stable stage subgroup, while those of H4R were higher in the active stage subgroup than in the control group. H1R and H4R levels were correlated with eotaxin-2 level. In immunohistochemical analysis, H4R revealed their expression on eosinophils in conjunctival smears of patients with AKC/VKC. H4R is useful as biomarkers of allergic inflammation on ocular surfaces. Most notably, H4R expressed on eosinophils is useful as a biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation of the ocular surface. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac Metabolic Deregulation Induced by the Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Inhibitor Sunitinib is rescued by Endothelin Receptor Antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourdon, Joevin; Lager, Franck; Viel, Thomas; Balvay, Daniel; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Bennana, Evangeline; Renault, Gilles; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Dhaun, Neeraj; Tavitian, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    The growing field of cardio-oncology addresses the side effects of cancer treatment on the cardiovascular system. Here, we explored the cardiotoxicity of the antiangiogenic therapy, sunitinib, in the mouse heart from a diagnostic and therapeutic perspective. We showed that sunitinib induces an anaerobic switch of cellular metabolism within the myocardium which is associated with the development of myocardial fibrosis and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction as demonstrated by echocardiography. The capacity of positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose to detect the changes in cardiac metabolism caused by sunitinib was dependent on fasting status and duration of treatment. Pan proteomic analysis in the myocardium showed that sunitinib induced (i) an early metabolic switch with enhanced glycolysis and reduced oxidative phosphorylation, and (ii) a metabolic failure to use glucose as energy substrate, similar to the insulin resistance found in type 2 diabetes. Co-administration of the endothelin receptor antagonist, macitentan, to sunitinib-treated animals prevented both metabolic defects, restored glucose uptake and cardiac function, and prevented myocardial fibrosis. These results support the endothelin system in mediating the cardiotoxic effects of sunitinib and endothelin receptor antagonism as a potential therapeutic approach to prevent cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, metabolic and functional imaging can monitor the cardiotoxic effects and the benefits of endothelin antagonism in a theranostic approach. PMID:28824714

  18. Structural insight into antibody-mediated antagonism of the Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennen, Stephanie; Kodra, János T.; Soroka, Vladyslav; Krogh, Berit O.; Wu, Xiaoai; Kaastrup, Peter; Ørskov, Cathrine; Rønn, Sif G.; Schluckebier, Gerd; Barbateskovic, Silvia; Gandhi, Prafull S.; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and a well-established target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of GLP-1R is important for GLP-1 binding and the crystal structure of the GLP-1/ECD complex was reported previously. The first structure of a class B GPCR transmembrane (TM) domain was solved recently, but the full length receptor structure is still not well understood. Here we describe the molecular details of antibody-mediated antagonism of the GLP-1R using both in vitro pharmacology and x-ray crystallography. We showed that the antibody Fab fragment (Fab 3F52) blocked the GLP-1 binding site of the ECD directly and thereby acts as a competitive antagonist of native GLP-1. Interestingly, Fab 3F52 also blocked a short peptide agonist believed to engage primarily the transmembrane and extracellular loop region of GLP-1R, whereas functionality of an allosteric small-molecule agonist was not inhibited. This study has implications for the structural understanding of the GLP-1R and related class B GPCRs, which is important for the development of new and improved therapeutics targeting these receptors. PMID:27196125

  19. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L; Bourgo, Ryan J; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G; Raj, Ganesh V; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER(+) (estrogen receptor-positive)/PR(+) human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER(+)/PR(+) breast cancers should be explored.

  20. Competitive androgen receptor antagonism as a factor determining the predictability of cumulative antiandrogenic effects of widely used pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Many pesticides in current use have recently been revealed as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their combined effects is lacking. We investigated the combined effects and the competitive AR antagonism of pesticide mixtures. We used the MDA-kb2 assay to test a combination of eight AR antagonists that did not also possess AR agonist properties ("pure" antagonists; 8 mix: fludioxonil, fenhexamid, ortho-phenylphenol, imazalil, tebuconazole, dimethomorph, methiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl), a combination of five AR antagonists that also showed agonist activity (5 mix: cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, vinclozolin, chlorpropham, linuron), and all pesticides combined (13 mix). We used concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) to formulate additivity expectations, and Schild plot analyses to investigate competitive AR antagonism. A good agreement between the effects of the mixture of eight "pure" AR antagonists and the responses predicted by CA was observed. Schild plot analysis revealed that the 8 mix acted by competitive AR antagonism. However, the observed responses of the 5 mix and the 13 mix fell within the "prediction window" boundaries defined by the predicted regression curves of CA and IA. Schild plot analysis with these mixtures yielded anomalous responses incompatible with competitive receptor antagonism. A mixture of widely used pesticides can, in a predictable manner, produce combined AR antagonist effects that exceed the responses elicited by the most potent component alone. Inasmuch as large populations are regularly exposed to mixtures of antiandrogenic pesticides, our results underline the need for considering combination effects for these substances in regulatory practice.

  1. Histamine H4 receptor agonist-induced relief from painful peripheral neuropathy is mediated by inhibition of spinal neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Maria Domenica; Lucarini, Laura; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Masini, Emanuela; Galeotti, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is under-treated, with a detrimental effect on quality of life, partly because of low treatment efficacy, but also because pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To clarify the pathobiology of neuropathic pain, we studied the contribution of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in a model of peripheral neuropathy. We also assessed an innovative treatment for neuropathic pain by investigating the effects of histamine H4 receptor ligands in this model. A peripheral mononeuropathy was induced in mice, by spared nerve injury (SNI). Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated by spectrophotometry. The mechanical (von Frey test) and thermal (plantar test) nociceptive thresholds were evaluated. SNI mice showed increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α, decreased antioxidant enzyme Mn-containing SOD (MnSOD), increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, and of PARP, nuclear enzyme activated upon DNA damage. Intrathecal administration of VUF 8430 (H4 receptor agonist) reversed the mechanical and thermal allodynia and was associated with decreased expression of IL-1ß, TNF-α, 8-OHdG and PARP and with restoration of MnSOD activity in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve. These effects were prevented by JNJ 10191584 (H4 receptor antagonist). In the SNI mouse model of neuropathic pain, neuronal H4 receptor stimulation counteracts hyperalgesia and reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve. Targeting both oxidative stress and pro-neuroinflammatory pathways through H4 receptor-mediated mechanisms could have promising therapeutic potential for neuropathic pain management. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonism causes faster extinction and attenuates reinstatement in cocaine-induced place preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Wörtwein, Gitta; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , and reinstatement of cocaine-induced CPP was absent. The development of CPP for cocaine was similar between Y5-KO and WT mice. Taken together, the present data show that Y5 antagonism attenuates relapse to cocaine addiction-related behavior. Prevention of relapse is considered to be of pivotal importance......Several studies have suggested a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in addiction to drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recently, our group showed a role for the NPY Y5 receptor in the modulation of acute reinforcing effects of cocaine using self-administration and hyperlocomotion paradigms....... In the present study, we further explored potential anti-addiction-related effects of Y5 antagonism in another murine model of cocaine addiction-related behavior: conditioned place-preference (CPP). Using this model, it was tested whether blockade or deficiency of the NPY Y5 receptor could influence...

  3. Kinetics of human cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists: Structure-kinetics relationships (SKR) and implications for insurmountable antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lizi; de Vries, Henk; Yang, Xue; Lenselink, Eelke B; Kyrizaki, Athina; Barth, Francis; Louvel, Julien; Dreyer, Matthias K; van der Es, Daan; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2017-11-02

    While equilibrium binding affinities and in vitro functional antagonism of CB1 receptor antagonists have been studied in detail, little is known on the kinetics of their receptor interaction. In this study, we therefore conducted kinetic assays for nine 1-(4,5-diarylthiophene-2-carbonyl)-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxamide derivatives and included the CB1 antagonist rimonabant as a comparison. For this we newly developed a dual-point competition association assay with [3H]CP55940 as the radioligand. This assay yielded Kinetic Rate Index (KRI) values from which structure-kinetics relationships (SKR) of hCB1 receptor antagonists could be established. The fast dissociating antagonist 6 had a similar receptor residence time (RT) as rimonabant, i.e. 19 and 14 min, respectively, while the slowest dissociating antagonist (9) had a very long RT of 2222 min, i.e. pseudo-irreversible dissociation kinetics. In functional assays, 9 displayed insurmountable antagonism, while the effects of the shortest RT antagonist 6 and rimonabant were surmountable. Taken together, this study shows that hCB1 receptor antagonists can have very divergent RTs, which are not correlated to their equilibrium affinities. Furthermore, their RTs appear to define their mode of functional antagonism, i.e. surmountable vs. insurmountable. Finally, based on the recently resolved hCB1 receptor crystal structure, we propose that the differences in RT can be explained by a different binding mode of antagonist 9 from short RT antagonists that is able to displace unfavorable water molecules. Taken together, these findings are of importance for future design and evaluation of potent and safe hCB1 receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Luciferase reporter gene assay on human, murine and rat histamine H4 receptor orthologs: correlations and discrepancies between distal and proximal readouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Nordemann

    Full Text Available The investigation of the (pathophysiological role of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R and its validation as a possible drug target in translational animal models are compromised by distinct species-dependent discrepancies regarding potencies and receptor subtype selectivities of the pharmacological tools. Such differences were extremely pronounced in case of proximal readouts, e. g. [(32P]GTPase or [(35S]GTPγS binding assays. To improve the predictability of in vitro investigations, the aim of this study was to establish a reporter gene assay for human, murine and rat H4Rs, using bioluminescence as a more distal readout. For this purpose a cAMP responsive element (CRE controlled luciferase reporter gene assay was established in HEK293T cells, stably expressing the human (h, the mouse (m or the rat (r H4R. The potencies and efficacies of 23 selected ligands (agonists, inverse agonists and antagonists were determined and compared with the results obtained from proximal readouts. The potencies of the examined ligands at the human H4R were consistent with reported data from [(32P]GTPase or [(35S]GTPγS binding assays, despite a tendency toward increased intrinsic efficacies of partial agonists. The differences in potencies of individual agonists at the three H4R orthologs were generally less pronounced compared to more proximal readouts. In conclusion, the established reporter gene assay is highly sensitive and reliable. Regarding discrepancies compared to data from functional assays such as [(32P]GTPase and [(35S]GTPγS binding, the readout may reflect multifactorial causes downstream from G-protein activation, e.g. activation/amplification of or cross-talk between different signaling pathways.

  5. Agonism, Antagonism, and Inverse Agonism Bias at the Ghrelin Receptor Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Kadmi, Céline; Leyris, Jean-Philippe; Onfroy, Lauriane; Galés, Céline; Saulière, Aude; Gagne, Didier; Damian, Marjorie; Mary, Sophie; Maingot, Mathieu; Denoyelle, Séverine; Verdié, Pascal; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Banères, Jean-Louis; Marie, Jacky

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GHS-R1a mediates ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion, food intake, and reward-seeking behaviors. GHS-R1a signals through Gq, Gi/o, G13, and arrestin. Biasing GHS-R1a signaling with specific ligands may lead to the development of more selective drugs to treat obesity or addiction with minimal side effects. To delineate ligand selectivity at GHS-R1a signaling, we analyzed in detail the efficacy of a panel of synthetic ligands activating the different pathways associated with GHS-R1a in HEK293T cells. Besides β-arrestin2 recruitment and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, we monitored activation of a large panel of G protein subtypes using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay with G protein-activation biosensors. We first found that unlike full agonists, Gq partial agonists were unable to trigger β-arrestin2 recruitment and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Using G protein-activation biosensors, we then demonstrated that ghrelin promoted activation of Gq, Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, Goa, Gob, and G13 but not Gs and G12. Besides, we identified some GHS-R1a ligands that preferentially activated Gq and antagonized ghrelin-mediated Gi/Go activation. Finally, we unambiguously demonstrated that in addition to Gq, GHS-R1a also promoted constitutive activation of G13. Importantly, we identified some ligands that were selective inverse agonists toward Gq but not of G13. This demonstrates that bias at GHS-R1a signaling can occur not only with regard to agonism but also to inverse agonism. Our data, combined with other in vivo studies, may facilitate the design of drugs selectively targeting individual signaling pathways to treat only the therapeutically relevant function. PMID:26363071

  6. Agonism, Antagonism, and Inverse Agonism Bias at the Ghrelin Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Kadmi, Céline; Leyris, Jean-Philippe; Onfroy, Lauriane; Galés, Céline; Saulière, Aude; Gagne, Didier; Damian, Marjorie; Mary, Sophie; Maingot, Mathieu; Denoyelle, Séverine; Verdié, Pascal; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Banères, Jean-Louis; Marie, Jacky

    2015-11-06

    The G protein-coupled receptor GHS-R1a mediates ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion, food intake, and reward-seeking behaviors. GHS-R1a signals through Gq, Gi/o, G13, and arrestin. Biasing GHS-R1a signaling with specific ligands may lead to the development of more selective drugs to treat obesity or addiction with minimal side effects. To delineate ligand selectivity at GHS-R1a signaling, we analyzed in detail the efficacy of a panel of synthetic ligands activating the different pathways associated with GHS-R1a in HEK293T cells. Besides β-arrestin2 recruitment and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, we monitored activation of a large panel of G protein subtypes using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay with G protein-activation biosensors. We first found that unlike full agonists, Gq partial agonists were unable to trigger β-arrestin2 recruitment and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Using G protein-activation biosensors, we then demonstrated that ghrelin promoted activation of Gq, Gi1, Gi2, Gi3, Goa, Gob, and G13 but not Gs and G12. Besides, we identified some GHS-R1a ligands that preferentially activated Gq and antagonized ghrelin-mediated Gi/Go activation. Finally, we unambiguously demonstrated that in addition to Gq, GHS-R1a also promoted constitutive activation of G13. Importantly, we identified some ligands that were selective inverse agonists toward Gq but not of G13. This demonstrates that bias at GHS-R1a signaling can occur not only with regard to agonism but also to inverse agonism. Our data, combined with other in vivo studies, may facilitate the design of drugs selectively targeting individual signaling pathways to treat only the therapeutically relevant function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. PI3K-dependent antagonism in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanov, Kirill; Brunert, Daniela; Corey, Elizabeth; Ache, Barry W.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, in particular PI3Kinase (PI3K) signaling, has been implicated in mediating inhibitory odorant input to mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). To better understand this phenomenon we investigated PI3K-dependent inhibition between single odorant pairs. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the response of native rat ORNs to octanol by citral is PI3K-dependent; blocking PI3K activity with the β and γ isoform-specific inhibitors AS252424 and TGX221 eliminated or strongly reduced the inhibition. Interestingly, blocking PI3K also changed the apparent agonist strength of the otherwise non-competitive antagonist citral. The excitation evoked by citral after blocking PI3K, could be suppressed by the adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) blockers MDL12330A and SQ22536, indicating that citral could also activate ACIII, presumably through the canonical OR. The G protein Gβγ subunit blockers suramin, gallein and M119 suppressed citral’s inhibition of the response to octanol, indicating that the activation of PI3K by citral was G protein dependent, consistent with the idea that inhibition acts through the canonical OR. Lilial similarly antagonized the response to isoamyl acetate in other ORNs, indicating the effect generalizes to at least one other odorant pair. The ability of methyl-isoeugenol, limonene, α-pinene, isovaleric acid and isosafrole to inhibit the response of other ORNs to IBMX/forskolin in a PI3K-dependent manner argues the effect generalizes to yet other structurally dissimilar odorants. Our findings collectively raise the interesting possibility that the OR serves as a molecular logic gate when mammalian ORNs are activated by natural, complex mixtures containing both excitatory and inhibitory odorants. PMID:21209212

  8. Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) Receptor Deletion or Antagonism Attenuates Severe HSV-1 Meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Pedroso, Vinicius Sousa Pietra; de Miranda, Aline Silva; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Campos, Marco Antônio; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2016-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that may cause severe encephalitis. The exacerbated immune response against the virus contributes to the disease severity and death. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a mediator capable of inducing increase in vascular permeability, production of cytokines on endothelial cells and leukocytes. We aimed to investigate the activation of PAF receptor (PAFR) and its contribution to the severity of the inflammatory response in the brain following HSV-1 infection. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and PAFR deficient (PAFR-/-) mice were inoculated intracranially with 104 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1. Visualization of leukocyte recruitment was performed using intravital microscopy. Cells infiltration in the brain tissue were analyzed by flow cytometry. Brain was removed for chemokine assessment by ELISA and for histopathological analysis. The pharmacological inhibition by the PAFR antagonist UK-74,505 was also analyzed. In PAFR-/- mice, there was delayed lethality but no difference in viral load. Histopathological analysis of infected PAFR-/- mice showed that brain lesions were less severe when compared to their WT counterparts. Moreover, PAFR-/- mice showed less TCD4+, TCD8+ and macrophages in brain tissue. This reduction of the presence of leukocytes in parenchyma may be mechanistically explained by a decrease in leukocytes rolling and adhesion. PAFR-/- mice also presented a reduction of the chemokine CXCL9 in the brain. In addition, by antagonizing PAFR, survival of C57BL/6 infected mice increased. Altogether, our data suggest that PAFR plays a role in the pathogenesis of experimental HSV-1 meningoencephalitis, and its blockade prevents severe disease manifestation.

  9. Intrarenal ghrelin receptor antagonism prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brandon A; Howell, Nancy L; Gildea, John J; Padia, Shetal H

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight gain contributes up to 65% of the risk of primary hypertension, and the increase in blood pressure in response to high-fat diet (HFD) is preceded by significant increases in renal tubular sodium (Na(+)) reabsorption. In normal rats, intrarenal ghrelin infusion increases distal nephron-dependent Na(+) reabsorption via activation of the intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GHSR). This study focusses on the role of intrarenal GHSR-mediated Na(+) reabsorption in HFD-induced hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive rats received standard diet or HFD for 6 weeks. Rats underwent uninephrectomy and osmotic minipump implantation for chronic intrarenal delivery of vehicle (0.25 μL/h × 28 d), selective GHSR antagonist [D-Lys-3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (0.2μM/d), or GHSR inverse agonist [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P (SUB-P) (3.6μM/d). HFD rats with vehicle pumps had significantly increased renal GHSR expression compared with standard diet (0.092 ± 0.005 vs 0.065 ± 0.004 arbitrary units; P ghrelin levels were similar (16.3±6.2 vs 15.7±8.7 pg/g tissue). HFD rats with vehicle pumps became hypertensive after 2 weeks (P ghrelin-dependent, activity of the GHSR, and HFD-induced α-epithelial Na(+) channel up-regulation was abolished during GHSR antagonism, these data suggest that HFD increases the constitutive activity of renal GHSR to increase Na(+) reabsorption and induce hypertension in rats.

  10. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production in allergic asthma. Chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2, a high affinity receptor for prostaglandin D2, mediates trafficking of TH2-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to inflammatory sites, and has recently attracted interest as target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. The present study involving mice explores the specificity of CRTH2 antagonism of TM30089, which is structurally closely related to the dual TP/CRTH2 antagonist ramatroban, and compares the ability of ramatroban and TM30089 to inhibit asthma-like pathology. Methods Affinity for and antagonistic potency of TM30089 on many mouse receptors including thromboxane A2 receptor mTP, CRTH2 receptor, and selected anaphylatoxin and chemokines receptors were determined in recombinant expression systems in vitro. In vivo effects of TM30089 and ramatroban on tissue eosinophilia and mucus cell histopathology were examined in a mouse asthma model. Results TM30089, displayed high selectivity for and antagonistic potency on mouse CRTH2 but lacked affinity to TP and many other receptors including the related anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors, selected chemokine receptors and the cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 which are all recognized players in allergic diseases. Furthermore, TM30089 and ramatroban, the latter used as a reference herein, similarly inhibited asthma pathology in vivo by reducing peribronchial eosinophilia and mucus cell hyperplasia. Conclusion This is the first report to demonstrate anti-allergic efficacy in vivo of a highly selective small molecule CRTH2 antagonist. Our data suggest that CRTH2 antagonism alone is effective in mouse allergic airway inflammation even to the extent that this mechanism can explain the efficacy of ramatroban.

  11. Competitive Androgen Receptor Antagonism as a Factor Determining the Predictability of Cumulative Antiandrogenic Effects of Widely Used Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many pesticides in current use have recently been revealed as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their combined effects is lacking. Objective: We investigated the combined effects and the competitive AR antagonism of pesticide mixtures. Methods: We used the MDA-kb2 assay to test a combination of eight AR antagonists that did not also possess AR agonist properties (“pure” antagonists; 8 mix: fludioxonil, fenhexamid, ortho-phenylphenol, imazalil, tebuconazole, dimethomorph, methiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl), a combination of five AR antagonists that also showed agonist activity (5 mix: cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, vinclozolin, chlorpropham, linuron), and all pesticides combined (13 mix). We used concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) to formulate additivity expectations, and Schild plot analyses to investigate competitive AR antagonism. Results: A good agreement between the effects of the mixture of eight “pure” AR antagonists and the responses predicted by CA was observed. Schild plot analysis revealed that the 8 mix acted by competitive AR antagonism. However, the observed responses of the 5 mix and the 13 mix fell within the “prediction window” boundaries defined by the predicted regression curves of CA and IA. Schild plot analysis with these mixtures yielded anomalous responses incompatible with competitive receptor antagonism. Conclusions: A mixture of widely used pesticides can, in a predictable manner, produce combined AR antagonist effects that exceed the responses elicited by the most potent component alone. Inasmuch as large populations are regularly exposed to mixtures of antiandrogenic pesticides, our results underline the need for considering combination effects for these substances in regulatory practice. PMID:23008280

  12. Captodiamine, a putative antidepressant, enhances hypothalamic BDNF expression in vivo by synergistic 5-HT2c receptor antagonism and sigma-1 receptor agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Rebecca M; Regan, Ciaran M

    2013-10-01

    The putative antidepressant captodiamine is a 5-HT2c receptor antagonist and agonist at sigma-1 and D3 dopamine receptors, exerts an anti-immobility action in the forced swim paradigm, and enhances dopamine turnover in the frontal cortex. Captodiamine has also been found to ameliorate stress-induced anhedonia, reduce the associated elevations of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and restore the reductions in hypothalamic BDNF expression. Here we demonstrate chronic administration of captodiamine to have no significant effect on hypothalamic CRF expression through sigma-1 receptor agonism; however, both sigma-1 receptor agonism or 5-HT2c receptor antagonism were necessary to enhance BDNF expression. Regulation of BDNF expression by captodiamine was associated with increased phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB and mediated through sigma-1 receptor agonism but blocked by 5-HT2c receptor antagonism. The existence of two separate signalling pathways was confirmed by immunolocalisation of each receptor to distinct cell populations in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Increased BDNF induced by captodiamine was also associated with enhanced expression of synapsin, but not PSD-95, suggesting induction of long-term structural plasticity between hypothalamic synapses. These unique features of captodiamine may contribute to its ability to ameliorate stress-induced anhedonia as the hypothalamus plays a prominent role in regulating HPA axis activity.

  13. Blockade of orexin-1 receptors attenuates orexin-2 receptor antagonism-induced sleep promotion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E; Aluisio, Leah E; Fraser, Ian C; Jiang, Xiaohui; Sutton, Steven W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Yun, Sujin; Li, Xiaorong; Lord, Brian; Dvorak, Curt A; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2009-07-01

    Orexins are peptides produced by lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in the maintenance of wakefulness by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptor located in wake-active structures. Pharmacological blockade of both receptors by the dual OX1/2R antagonist (2R)-2-[(1S)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-{2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl]-N-methyl-2-phenylethanamide (almorexant) has been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans during their active period. However, the selective distribution of OX1R and OX2R in distinct neuronal circuits may result in a differential impact of these receptors in sleep-wake modulation. The respective role of OX1R and OX2R on sleep in correlation with monoamine release was evaluated in rats treated with selective antagonists alone or in combination. When administered in either phase of the light/dark cycle, the OX2R antagonist 1-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-3-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea (JNJ-10397049) decreased the latency for persistent sleep and increased nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep time. Almorexant produced less hypnotic activity, whereas the OX1R antagonist 1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea (SB-408124) had no effect. Microdialysis studies showed that either OX2R or OX1/2R antagonism decreased extracellular histamine concentration in the lateral hypothalamus, whereas both OX1R and OX1/2R antagonists increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, coadministration of the OX1R with the OX2R antagonist greatly attenuated the sleep-promoting effects of the OX2R antagonist. These results indicate that blockade of OX2R is sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, consistent with the hypothesis of a deactivation of the histaminergic system. In addition, it is suggested that simultaneous inhibition of OX1R attenuates the sleep-promoting effects mediated by selective OX2R blockade, possibly correlated

  14. The use of plasma aldosterone and urinary sodium to potassium ratio as translatable quantitative biomarkers of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudy, Rena J; Sahasrabudhe, Vaishali; Sweeney, Kevin; Tugnait, Meera; King-Ahmad, Amanda; Near, Kristen; Loria, Paula; Banker, Mary Ellen; Piotrowski, David W; Boustany-Kari, Carine M

    2011-10-21

    Accumulating evidence supports the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. These findings have generated renewed interest in novel MR antagonists with improved selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors and a potentially reduced risk of hyperkalemia. Characterization of novel MR antagonists warrants establishing translatable biomarkers of activity at the MR receptor. We assessed the translatability of urinary sodium to potassium ratio (Na+/K+) and plasma aldosterone as biomarkers of MR antagonism using eplerenone (Inspra®), a commercially available MR antagonist. Further we utilized these biomarkers to demonstrate antagonism of MR by PF-03882845, a novel compound. The effect of eplerenone and PF-03882845 on urinary Na+/K+ and plasma aldosterone were characterized in Sprague-Dawley rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Additionally, the effect of eplerenone on these biomarkers was determined in healthy volunteers. Drug exposure-response data were modeled to evaluate the translatability of these biomarkers from rats to humans. In Sprague-Dawley rats, eplerenone elicited a rapid effect on urinary Na+/K+ yielding an EC50 that was within 5-fold of the functional in vitro IC50. More importantly, the effect of eplerenone on urinary Na+/K+ in healthy volunteers yielded an EC50 that was within 2-fold of the EC50 generated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Similarly, the potency of PF-03882845 in elevating urinary Na+/K+ in Sprague-Dawley rats was within 3-fold of its in vitro functional potency. The effect of MR antagonism on urinary Na+/K+ was not sustained chronically; thus we studied the effect of the compounds on plasma aldosterone following chronic dosing in SHR. Modeling of drug exposure-response data for both eplerenone and PF-03882845 yielded EC50 values that were within 2-fold of that estimated from modeling of drug exposure with changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Importantly, similar

  15. The use of plasma aldosterone and urinary sodium to potassium ratio as translatable quantitative biomarkers of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudy Rena J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence supports the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. These findings have generated renewed interest in novel MR antagonists with improved selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors and a potentially reduced risk of hyperkalemia. Characterization of novel MR antagonists warrants establishing translatable biomarkers of activity at the MR receptor. We assessed the translatability of urinary sodium to potassium ratio (Na+/K+ and plasma aldosterone as biomarkers of MR antagonism using eplerenone (Inspra®, a commercially available MR antagonist. Further we utilized these biomarkers to demonstrate antagonism of MR by PF-03882845, a novel compound. Methods The effect of eplerenone and PF-03882845 on urinary Na+/K+ and plasma aldosterone were characterized in Sprague-Dawley rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Additionally, the effect of eplerenone on these biomarkers was determined in healthy volunteers. Drug exposure-response data were modeled to evaluate the translatability of these biomarkers from rats to humans. Results In Sprague-Dawley rats, eplerenone elicited a rapid effect on urinary Na+/K+ yielding an EC50 that was within 5-fold of the functional in vitro IC50. More importantly, the effect of eplerenone on urinary Na+/K+ in healthy volunteers yielded an EC50 that was within 2-fold of the EC50 generated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Similarly, the potency of PF-03882845 in elevating urinary Na+/K+ in Sprague-Dawley rats was within 3-fold of its in vitro functional potency. The effect of MR antagonism on urinary Na+/K+ was not sustained chronically; thus we studied the effect of the compounds on plasma aldosterone following chronic dosing in SHR. Modeling of drug exposure-response data for both eplerenone and PF-03882845 yielded EC50 values that were within 2-fold of that estimated from modeling of drug exposure with changes in urinary sodium

  16. Involvement of Angiopoietin-2 and Tie2 Receptor Phosphorylation in STEC-HUS Mediated by Escherichia coli O104:H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is characterized by Shiga toxin-induced vascular damage. As indicated by recent studies, dysregulation of the angiopoietin (Angpt/Tie2 ligand receptor system may be crucial for endothelial dysfunction in HUS. Early Angpt-2 levels quantified in 48 adult HUS patients were predictive for a complicated clinical course, in particular for need of hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation as well as occurrence of seizures. In vitro challenge of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with patients’ sera indicated an injurious mediator role of Angpt-2 opening future perspectives for mitigating endothelial activation in HUS.

  17. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/inte...

  18. Baseline characteristics in PRIORITY study: Proteomics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism for prevention of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, Nete

    into high-or low risk groups based on CKD273. Patients in the high risk group are assigned to spironolactone 25 mg once daily or placebo, whereas the low-risk group is followed on standard care. The trial continues until September 2018, following patients for up to 4.5 years. The primary endpoint......Background and aims The urinary proteomics based classifier CKD273 has been shown to retrospectively identify normoalbuminuric diabetic patients who progress to overt kidney disease. In the PRIORITY (Proteomic prediction and Renin angiotensin aldosterone system Inhibition prevention Of early...... diabetic nephRopathy In TYpe 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria) trial, the aim is to confirm that CKD273 can predict microalbuminuria prospectively, and to test whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism (MRA) delays progression to microalbuminuria. Here we report the association between CKD273...

  19. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  20. The rapid recovery of 5-HT cell firing induced by the antidepressant vortioxetine involves 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétry, Cécile; Pehrson, Alan L; Etiévant, Adeline; Ebert, Bjarke; Sánchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2013-06-01

    The therapeutic effect of current antidepressant drugs appears after several weeks of treatment and a significant number of patients do not respond to treatment. Here, we report the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist, 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, on rat 5-HT neurotransmission. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the dorsal raphe nucleus of anaesthetized rats, we assessed the acute and subchronic effects of vortioxetine and/or the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR57227 or the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist flesinoxan, on 5-HT neuronal firing activity. Using ex-vivo autoradiography, we correlated SERT occupancy and presumed 5-HT firing activity. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, was used as comparator. Importantly, the recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing was achieved after 1 d with vortioxetine and 14 d with fluoxetine. SR57227 delayed this recovery. In contrast, vortioxetine failed to alter the reducing action of 3 d treatment of flesinoxan. Acute dosing of vortioxetine inhibited neuronal firing activity more potently than fluoxetine. SR57227 prevented the suppressant effect of vortioxetine, but not of fluoxetine. In contrast, flesinoxan failed to modify the suppressant effect of vortioxetine acutely administered. Differently to fluoxetine, vortioxetine suppressed neuronal firing without saturating occupancy at the SERT. Vortioxetine produced a markedly faster recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing than fluoxetine. This is at least partly due to 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism of vortioxetine in association with its reduced SERT occupancy.

  1. Antagonism of recombinant and native GluK3-containing kainate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrais, David; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Jane, David E; Mulle, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    A number of kainate receptor antagonists have shown selectivity for receptors containing the GluK1 subunit. Here, we analyze the effects of these GluK1 antagonists on currents mediated by recombinant homomeric GluK3 and heteromeric GluK2/3 receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells and activated by fast application of glutamate. We show that, amongst these compounds, UBP302, UBP310 and UBP316 effectively block recombinant homomeric GluK3 receptors. However, these antagonists are ineffective in blocking homomeric GluK2 or heteromeric GluK2/3 receptors. In addition, these antagonists do not affect presynaptic kainate receptors at mouse hippocampal mossy fibre synapses, which are thought to be composed of GluK2 and GluK3 subunits. Moreover, the AMPA receptor-selective non-competitive antagonist GYKI 53655 blocks, at high concentrations, GluK3-containing receptors and decreases short-term plasticity at mossy fibre synapses. These results expand the range of targets of kainate receptor antagonists and provide pharmacological tools to study the elusive mechanisms of neurotransmitter control by presynaptic kainate receptors.

  2. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Svendgaard, Niels-Aage; Edvinsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    was injected intracisternally 30 minutes and 24 hours after the induction of SAH. Two days after SAH induction, the basilar arteries were harvested, and contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-I, an ETA- and ETB-receptor agonist) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (a 5-hydroxytryptamine- I1 [5-HT1]-receptor agonist......) were investigated using sensitive myographs. To determine whether NKIR inhibition had an influence on local CBF after post-SAH, a quantitative autoradiographic technique was used. After SAH, the vascular receptor phenotype was changed in cerebral arteries through upregulation of contractile ET, and 5......-HT1B receptors, while regional and total CBF were markedly reduced. Treatment with the selective NK1R inhibitor L-822429 prevented both the receptor upregulation and the reduction in regional and global CBF. CONCLUSIONS: The data reveal the coregulation of vascular receptor changes and blood flow...

  3. The muscarinic receptor antagonist propiverine exhibits α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism in human prostate and porcine trigonum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuest, Melinda; Witte, Lambertus P.; Michel-Reher, Martina B.; Propping, Stefan; Braeter, Manfred; Strugala, Gerhard J.; Wirth, Manfred P.; Michel, Martin C.; Ravens, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Combination therapy of male lower urinary tract symptoms with α(1)-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor antagonists attracts increasing interest. Propiverine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist possessing additional properties, i.e., block of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Here, we have investigated

  4. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  5. A new perspective on muscarinic receptor antagonism in obstructive airways diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Herman; Oenema, Tjitske A.; Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    Acetylcholine has traditionally only been regarded as a neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, causing bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD by muscarinic receptor activation on airway smooth muscle and mucus-producing cells. Recent studies in experimental

  6. Effects of dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonism on human planning and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, M; Müller, U; Linssen, A; Clark, L; Robbins, T W; Eisenegger, C

    2017-04-25

    Psychopharmacological studies in humans suggest important roles for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in human executive functions, such as cognitive planning and spatial working memory (SWM). However, studies that investigate an impairment of such functions using the selective DA D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride have yielded inconsistent results, perhaps because relatively low doses were used. We believe we report for the first time, the effects of a higher (800 mg p.o.) single dose of sulpiride as well as of genetic variation in the DA receptor D2 gene (DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism), on planning and working memory. With 78 healthy male volunteers, we apply a between-groups, placebo-controlled design. We measure outcomes in the difficult versions of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery One-Touch Stockings of Cambridge and the self-ordered SWM task. Volunteers in the sulpiride group showed significant impairments in planning accuracy and, for the more difficult problems, in SWM. Sulpiride administration speeded response latencies in the planning task on the most difficult problems. Volunteers with at least one copy of the minor allele (A1+) of the DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism showed better SWM capacity, regardless of whether they received sulpiride or placebo. There were no effects on blood pressure, heart rate or subjective sedation. In sum, a higher single dose of sulpiride impairs SWM and executive planning functions, in a manner independent of the DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism.

  7. Endomorphin analogues with mixed μ-opioid (MOP) receptor agonism/δ-opioid (DOP) receptor antagonism and lacking β-arrestin2 recruitment activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Song, Bowen; Cai, Yunxin; Ma, Yu; Lam, Ai-Leen; Magiera, Julia; Sekar, Sunder; Wyse, Bruce D; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Smith, Maree T; Li, Tingyou

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of endomorphin (Dmt-Pro-Xaa-Xaa-NH2) modified at position 4 or at positions 4 and 3, and tripeptides (Dmt-Pro-Xaa-NH2) modified at position 3, with various phenylalanine analogues (Xaa=Trp, 1-Nal, 2-Nal, Tmp, Dmp, Dmt) were synthesized and their effects on in vitro opioid activity were investigated. Most of the peptides exhibited high μ-opioid (MOP) receptor binding affinity (KiMOP=0.13-0.81nM), modest MOP-selectivity (Kiδ-opioid (DOP)/KiMOP=3.5-316), and potent functional MOP agonism (GPI, IC50=0.274-249nM) without DOP and κ-opioid (KOP) receptor agonism. Among them, compounds 7 (Dmt-Pro-Tmp-Tmp-NH2) and 9 (Dmt-Pro-1-Nal-NH2) were opioids with potent mixed MOP receptor agonism/DOP receptor antagonism and devoid of β-arrestin2 recruitment activity. They may offer a unique template for the discovery of potent analgesics that produce less respiratory depression, less gastrointestinal dysfunction and that have a lower propensity to induce tolerance and dependence compared with morphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of a modified [3H]4-DAMP radioligand binding assay with increased selectivity for muscarinic M3 receptor shows that cortical CHRM3 levels are not altered in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Won Je; Gibbons, Andrew S; Dean, Brian

    2013-12-02

    [(3)H]4-DAMP is a radioligand that has been used to quantify levels of the muscarinic receptor CHRM3 protein in situ. However, in addition to high affinity binding to CHRM3, [(3)H]4-DAMP binds with low affinity to CHRM1 confounding the potential to discriminate between changes in these two muscarinic receptors. We have developed a [(3)H]4-DAMP binding assay, optimised for measuring CHRM3 protein levels in the cortex, with minimal selectivity towards CHRM1. The selectivity of our assay towards CHRM3 was confirmed using recombinant receptor-expressing, cell lysate preparations. [(3)H]4-DAMP binding levels were similar between wildtype and CHRM1 knockout mice, confirming that the amount of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding to CHRM1 was negligible. We used this assay to measure CHRM3 protein levels in the frontal pole, obtained post-mortem from subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 15), major depressive disorder (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 20) and showed that [(3)H]4-DAMP binding was not altered in either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. Western blotting confirmed that CHRM3 protein levels were unchanged in these subjects. © 2013.

  9. Serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonism and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism ameliorate the subchronic phencyclidine-induced deficit in executive functioning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Massey, Bill W; Michael, Eric; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2016-02-01

    Reversal learning (RL), a type of executive function, dependent on prefrontal cortical function, is impaired in rodents by subchronic (sc) treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), a widely studied model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). The principal objective of this study was to determine the ability of serotonin (5-HT)1A partial agonism and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism to improve RL in scPCP-treated mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were trained on an operant RL (ORL) task, then received PCP, 10 mg/kg, or saline, bid, for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period. scPCP significantly diminished the percent correct responding, increased total incorrect trials, and total incorrect responses, in the reversal phase performance of the ORL task. Pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT1A partial agonist, tandospirone, or the selective 5-HT7 antagonist, SB269970, but not the 5-HT7 agonist, AS 19, reversed the scPCP-induced deficit in RL. Pre-treatment with atypical antipsychotic drug lurasidone, which is a 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT7 antagonist, as well as a 5-HT2A and dopamine (D)2 antagonist, also reversed RL deficit in the scPCP-treated mice. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635, blocked the ability of lurasidone to reverse the scPCP-induced RL deficit. These results indicate that 5-HT7 antagonism and 5-HT1A partial agonism contribute to restoration of RL in scPCP-treated mice. It is suggested that these two mechanisms are effective in restoring RL by decreasing excessive GABAergic inhibition of cortical pyramidal neurons following withdrawal of scPCP treatment.

  10. AT1 Receptor Antagonism Improves Structural, Functional and Biomechanical Properties in Resistance Arteries in a Rodent Chronic Kidney Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, K J; Ameer, O Z; Phillips, J K

    2018-02-07

    The renin-angiotensin system, in particular Angiotensin II (AngII), plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of chronic AT1 receptor antagonism were investigated in a genetic hypertensive rat model of CKD, the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat. Mixed-sex LPK and Lewis control rats (total n=31) were split between treated (valsartan 60mg/kg/day p.o. from 4-18 weeks) and vehicle groups. Animals were assessed for systolic blood pressure and urine biochemistry, and after euthanasia, blood collected for urea and creatinine analysis, confirming the hypertensive and renal phenotype. Mesenteric resistance vasculature was assessed using pressure myography and histology. Valsartan treatment improved LPK rats vascular structure, increasing internal and external diameter values and reducing wall thickness (untreated vs. treated LPK: 53.19±3.29 vs. 33.93±2.17m) and wall-lumen ratios (untreated vs. treated LPK: 0.52±0.09 vs. 0.16±0.01 (all P<0.0001). Endothelium dysfunction, as measured by maximal response to acetylcholine (Rmax) was normalized with treatment (untreated vs. treated LPK: 69.56±4.34 vs. 103.05±4.13, P<0.05), increasing the relative contributions of nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization to vasorelaxation while down-regulating the prostanoid contribution. Biomechanical properties also improved with treatment, as indicated by an increase in compliance, decrease in intrinsic stiffness, and alterations in the artery wall composition, which included decreases in collagen density and collagen/elastin ratio. Our results highlight the importance of AngII as a driver of resistance vessel structural, functional and biomechanical dysfunction and provide insight as to how AT1 receptor blockade exerts therapeutic efficacy in CKD.

  11. Orexin Receptor Antagonism Improves Sleep and Reduces Seizures in Kcna1-null Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundtree, Harrison M; Simeone, Timothy A; Johnson, Chaz; Matthews, Stephanie A; Samson, Kaeli K; Simeone, Kristina A

    2016-02-01

    Comorbid sleep disorders occur in approximately one-third of people with epilepsy. Seizures and sleep disorders have an interdependent relationship where the occurrence of one can exacerbate the other. Orexin, a wake-promoting neuropeptide, is associated with sleep disorder symptoms. Here, we tested the hypothesis that orexin dysregulation plays a role in the comorbid sleep disorder symptoms in the Kcna1-null mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Rest-activity was assessed using infrared beam actigraphy. Sleep architecture and seizures were assessed using continuous video-electroencephalography-electromyography recordings in Kcna1-null mice treated with vehicle or the dual orexin receptor antagonist, almorexant (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Orexin levels in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical region (LH/P) and hypothalamic pathology were assessed with immunohistochemistry and oxygen polarography. Kcna1-null mice have increased latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset, sleep fragmentation, and number of wake epochs. The numbers of REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep epochs are significantly reduced in Kcna1-null mice. Severe seizures propagate to the wake-promoting LH/P where injury is apparent (indicated by astrogliosis, blood-brain barrier permeability, and impaired mitochondrial function). The number of orexin-positive neurons is increased in the LH/P compared to wild-type LH/P. Treatment with a dual orexin receptor antagonist significantly increases the number and duration of NREM sleep epochs and reduces the latency to REM sleep onset. Further, almorexant treatment reduces the incidence of severe seizures and overall seizure burden. Interestingly, we report a significant positive correlation between latency to REM onset and seizure burden in Kcna1-null mice. Dual orexin receptor antagonists may be an effective sleeping aid in epilepsy, and warrants further study on their somnogenic and ant-seizure effects in other epilepsy models. © 2016 Associated

  12. Endothelin-A Receptor Antagonism after Renal Angioplasty Enhances Renal Recovery in Renovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Nathan; Stewart, Nicholas J.; Surles, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty/stenting (PTRAS) is frequently used to treat renal artery stenosis and renovascular disease (RVD); however, renal function is restored in less than one half of the cases. This study was designed to test a novel intervention that could refine PTRAS and enhance renal recovery in RVD. Renal function was quantified in pigs after 6 weeks of chronic RVD (induced by unilateral renal artery stenosis), established renal damage, and hypertension. Pigs with RVD then underwent PTRAS and were randomized into three groups: placebo (RVD+PTRAS), chronic endothelin-A receptor (ET-A) blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A), and chronic dual ET-A/B blockade (RVD+PTRAS+ET-A/B) for 4 weeks. Renal function was again evaluated after treatments, and then, ex vivo studies were performed on the stented kidney. PTRAS resolved renal stenosis, attenuated hypertension, and improved renal function but did not resolve renal microvascular rarefaction, remodeling, or renal fibrosis. ET-A blocker therapy after PTRAS significantly improved hypertension, microvascular rarefaction, and renal injury and led to greater recovery of renal function. Conversely, combined ET-A/B blockade therapy blunted the therapeutic effects of PTRAS alone or PTRAS followed by ET-A blockade. These data suggest that ET-A receptor blockade therapy could serve as a coadjuvant intervention to enhance the outcomes of PTRAS in RVD. These results also suggest that ET-B receptors are important for renal function in RVD and may contribute to recovery after PTRAS. Using clinically available compounds and techniques, our results could contribute to both refinement and design of new therapeutic strategies in chronic RVD. PMID:25377076

  13. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  14. Intrabody-mediated diverting of HP1β to the cytoplasm induces co-aggregation of H3-H4 histones and lamin-B receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Alessio; Filesi, Ilaria; Singh, Prim B; Biocca, Silvia

    2015-10-15

    Diverting a protein from its intracellular location is a unique property of intrabodies. To interfere with the intracellular traffic of heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) in living cells, we have generated a cytoplasmic targeted anti-HP1β intrabody, specifically directed against the C-terminal portion of the molecule. HP1β is a conserved component of mouse and human constitutive heterochromatin involved in diverse nuclear functions including gene silencing, DNA repair and nuclear membrane assembly. We found that the anti-HP1β intrabody sequesters HP1β into cytoplasmic aggregates, inhibiting its traffic to the nucleus. Lamin B receptor (LBR) and a subset of core histones (H3/H4) are also specifically co-sequestered in the cytoplasm of anti-HP1β intrabody-expressing cells. Methylated histone H3 at K9 (Me9H3), a marker of constitutive heterochromatin, is not affected by the anti-HP1β intrabody expression. Hyper-acetylating conditions completely dislodge H3 from HP1β:LBR containing aggregates. The expression of anti-HP1β scFv fragments induces apoptosis, associated with an alteration of nuclear morphology. Both these phenotypes are specifically rescued either by overexpression of recombinant full length HP1β or by HP1β mutant containing the chromoshadow domain, but not by recombinant LBR protein. The HP1β-chromodomain mutant, on the other hand, does not rescue the phenotypes, but does compete with LBR for binding to HP1β. These findings provide new insights into the mode of action of cytoplasmic-targeted intrabodies and the interaction between HP1β and its binding partners involved in peripheral heterochromatin organisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IL-1 receptor antagonism and muscle gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, L. A.; Larsen, C. M.; Vaag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported that systemic blockade of IL-1 beta in patients with type 2 diabetes with anakinra (a recombinant human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist, IL-1Ra), lowered glycated hemoglobin improved beta-cell function and reduced circulating levels of IL-6 and CRP (7......). To investigate the effects of IL-1Ra in insulin-sensitive tissue, gene expression levels in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients treated with IL-1Ra were analysed. Methods. Gene expression profiles in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from five obese patients (BMI>27) were determined before and after 13......RT-PCR, were significantly altered when comparing the number of transcripts before and after treatment for each individual. Conclusion. Treatment with IL-1Ra did not significantly affect gene expression levels in skeletal muscle in this limited and selected sample of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Larger...

  16. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Velíšek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic-clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic-clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the number of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic-clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABAA receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists are more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. PMID:23022509

  17. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. (Ohio State University, Columbus (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.

  18. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine increases the level of endogenous dopamine (DA in the striatum by blocking the DA transporter. Endogenous DA modulates glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons and this modulation influences motor activity. Since D2 DA and A2A-adenosine receptors (A2A-Rs have antagonistic effects on striatal neurons, drugs targeting adenosine receptors such as caffeine-like compounds, could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. In this study, we analyzed the electrophysiological effects of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists in striatal slices and the motor effects produced by this pharmacological modulation in rodents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Concomitant administration of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in striatal spiny neurons while these drugs failed to produce this effect when given in isolation. This inhibitory effect was dependent on the activation of D2-like receptors and the release of endocannabinoids since it was prevented by L-sulpiride and reduced by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Combined application of cocaine and A2A-R antagonists also reduced the firing frequency of striatal cholinergic interneurons suggesting that changes in cholinergic tone might contribute to this synaptic modulation. Finally, A2A-Rs antagonists, in the presence of a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, enhanced locomotion and, in line with the electrophysiological experiments, this enhanced activity required activation of D2-like and CB1 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine.

  19. Antagonism of toll-like receptor 2 attenuates the formation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is an inflammatory vascular disorder with high mortality. Accumulating evidence shows that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 plays a critical role in the regulation of wound-repairing process after tissue injury. We wondered if TLR2 signaling contributed to the pathogenesis of AAA and that targeting TLR2 would attenuate AAA development and progression. In this study, enhanced expression of TLR2 and its ligands were observed in human AAA tissue. Neutralization of TLR2 protected against AAA development and caused established AAA to regress in mouse models of AAA. In addition, TLR2-deficient mice also failed to develop AAA. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of blocking TLR2 were accompanied by a significant resolution of inflammation and vascular remodeling, as indicated by the decreased expression or activity of MMP-2/9, α-SMA, inflammatory cytokines, and transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1 and STAT1/3 in AAA tissue. Mechanistically, blocking TLR2 decreased the expression and interaction of TLR2 and several endogenous ligands, which diminished chronic inflammation and vascular remodeling in the vascular tissue of AAA. Our studies indicate that the interactions between TLR2 and its endogenous ligands contribute to the pathogenesis of AAA and that targeting TLR2 offers great potential toward the development of therapeutic agents against AAA.

  20. Dual orexin receptor antagonism by almorexant does not potentiate impairing effects of alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthias; Hay, Justin L; Hoever, Petra; de Kam, Marieke L; te Beek, Erik T; van Gerven, Joop M A; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2013-02-01

    The orexin system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the sleep/wake state. Almorexant is a selective, orally available dual orexin receptor antagonist. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions between almorexant (200 mg p.o.) and alcohol (0.6 g/L i.v. ethanol clamp for 5 h) using various cognitive and psychomotor performance tests in healthy subjects (n=20; 10 males and 10 females) in a 4-way crossover study. No effect of almorexant on ethanol PK was observed. The effects of ethanol on the PK of almorexant were limited, its exposure (AUC) increased by 21%; the median difference in tmax was 1.2 h; t1/2 and Cmax of almorexant were unchanged. Almorexant showed decreases in adaptive tracking performance, saccadic peak velocity, and subjective alertness as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) of Bond and Lader, but had no or small effects on smooth pursuit eye movements, body sway, VAS for alcohol intoxication, and a memory test. Almorexant administered together with ethanol showed additive effects for adaptive tracking performance, saccadic peak velocity, subjective alertness and, possibly, calmness, but not on body sway, smooth pursuit, VAS for alcohol intoxication, or memory testing. To conclude, administration of almorexant together with ethanol was associated with additive effects for some of the measured cognitive and psychomotor performance tests. No indications of synergistic effects of almorexant and ethanol for any measured variable were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonism and antagonism within the amygdaloid central nucleus suppresses pain affect: differential contribution of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuz, Catherine A; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Borszcz, George S

    2014-12-01

    The amygdala contributes to the generation of pain affect, and the amygdaloid central nucleus (CeA) receives nociceptive input that is mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission. The present study compared the contribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonism and antagonism in the CeA to generation of the affective response of rats to an acute noxious stimulus. Vocalizations that occur following a brief tail shock (vocalization afterdischarges) are a validated rodent model of pain affect and were preferentially suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, by bilateral injection into the CeA of NMDA (.1, .25, .5, or 1 μg/side) or the NMDA receptor antagonist d-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 1, 2, or 4 μg/side). Vocalizations that occur during tail shock were suppressed to a lesser degree, whereas spinal motor reflexes (tail flick and hind limb movements) were unaffected by injection of NMDA or AP5 into the CeA. Injection of NMDA, but not AP5, into the CeA increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and unilateral injection of the μ-opiate receptor antagonist H-d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP; .25 μg) into ventrolateral periaqueductal gray prevented the antinociception generated by injection of NMDA into the CeA. These findings demonstrate that although NMDA receptor agonism and antagonism in the CeA produce similar suppression of pain behaviors, they do so via different neurobiologic mechanisms. The amygdala contributes to production of the emotional dimension of pain. NMDA receptor agonism and antagonism within the CeA suppressed rats' emotional response to acute painful stimulation. Understanding the neurobiology underlying emotional responses to pain will provide insights into new treatments for pain and its associated affective disorders. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 17β-Estradiol Dysregulates Innate Immune Responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Respiratory Infection and Is Modulated by Estrogen Receptor Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shadaan; Xie, ShangKui; Bose, Moumita; Shaul, Philip W; Terada, Lance S; Brody, Steven L; Thomas, Philip J; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Kim, Sung Hoon; Greenberg, David E; Jain, Raksha

    2017-10-01

    Females have a more severe clinical course than males in terms of several inflammatory lung conditions. Notably, females with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer worse outcomes, particularly in the setting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Sex hormones have been implicated in experimental and clinical studies; however, immune mechanisms responsible for this sex-based disparity are unknown and the specific sex hormone target for therapeutic manipulation has not been identified. The objective of this study was to assess mechanisms behind the impact of female sex hormones on host immune responses to P. aeruginosa We used wild-type and CF mice, which we hormone manipulated, inoculated with P. aeruginosa, and then examined for outcomes and inflammatory responses. Neutrophils isolated from mice and human subjects were tested for responses to P. aeruginosa We found that female mice inoculated with P. aeruginosa died earlier and showed slower bacterial clearance than males (P aeruginosa challenge earlier than progesterone- or vehicle-supplemented mice (P = 0.0003). 17β-Estradiol-treated ovariectomized female mice demonstrated increased lung levels of inflammatory cytokines, and when rendered neutropenic the mortality difference was abrogated. Neutrophils treated with 17β-estradiol demonstrated an enhanced oxidative burst but decreased P. aeruginosa killing and earlier cell necrosis. The estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 improved survival in female mice infected with P. aeruginosa and restored neutrophil function. We concluded that ER antagonism rescues estrogen-mediated neutrophil dysfunction and improves survival in response to P. aeruginosa ER-mediated processes may explain the sex-based mortality gap in CF and other inflammatory lung illnesses, and the ER blockade represents a rational therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-10-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80-90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine's acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine's acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Pharmacological Characterization of 5-Substituted 1-[(2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-ylmethyl]piperazines: Novel Antagonists for the Histamine H3 and H4 Receptors with Anti-inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Corrêa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The histamine receptors (HRs are traditional G protein-coupled receptors of extensive therapeutic interest. Recently, H3R and H4R subtypes have been targeted in drug discovery projects for inflammation, asthma, pain, cancer, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s diseases, which includes searches for dual acting H3R/H4R ligands. In the present work, nine 1-[(2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-ylmethyl]piperazine (LINS01 series molecules were synthesized and evaluated as H3R and H4R ligands. Our data show that the N-allyl-substituted compound LINS01004 bears the highest affinity for H3R (pKi 6.40, while the chlorinated compound LINS01007 has moderate affinity for H4R (pKi 6.06. In addition, BRET assays to assess the functional activity of Gi1 coupling indicate that all compounds have no intrinsic activity and act as antagonists of these receptors. Drug-likeness assessment indicated these molecules are promising leads for further improvements. In vivo evaluation of compounds LINS01005 and LINS01007 in a mouse model of asthma showed a better anti-inflammatory activity of LINS01007 (3 g/kg than the previously tested compound LINS01005. This is the first report with functional data of these compounds in HRs, and our results also show the potential of their applications as anti-inflammatory.

  5. From medicinal plant extracts to defined chemical compounds targeting the histamine H4 receptor: Curcuma longa in the treatment of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Annika; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Adawi, Azmi; Schwed, Johannes S; Stark, Holger; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the activity of seven medicinal, anti-inflammatory plants at the hH4R with focus on defined chemical compounds from Curcuma longa. Activities were analyzed with membrane preparations from Sf9 cells, transiently expressing the hH4R, Gαi2 and Gβ1γ2 subunits. From the methanolic extract of C. longa curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bis(4-hydroxy-cinnamoyl)methane (3) were isolated, purified with HPLC (elution-time 10.20, 9.66, 9.20 min, respectively) and together with six additional extracts, were characterized via radioligand binding studies at the hH4R. Compounds from C. longa were the most potent ligands at the hH4R. They exhibited estimated K i values of 4.26-6.26 µM (1.57-2.31 µg/mL) (1); 6.66--8.97 µM (2.26-3.04 µg/mL) (2) and 10.24-14.57 µM (3.16-4.49 µg/mL) (3) (95% CI). The estimated K i value of the crude extract of curcuma was 0.50-0.81 µg/mL. Fractionated curcumin and the crude extract surpassed the effect of pure curcumin with a K i value of 5.54 µM or 2.04 µg/mL [95% CI (4.47-6.86 µM), (1.65-2.53 µg/mL)]. Within this study, defined compounds of C. longa were recognized as potential ligands and reasonable lead structures at the hH4R. The mode of anti-inflammatory action of curcumin was further elucidated and the role of extracts in traditional phytomedicine was strengthened.

  6. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L.; Shen, Maurice Y. F.; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues 404Glu and 405Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.—Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

  7. Differential interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on pancreatic beta and alpha cells. Studies in rodent and human islets and in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zumsteg, U; Reimers, J I; Pociot, F

    1993-01-01

    The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and -beta have been implicated as effector molecules in the immune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on insulin and glucagon release of rat...... thymocytes with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 10- and 100-fold molar excess, respectively. Complete inhibition was obtained with a 100-1,000-fold molar excess. However, at a 100-fold molar excess the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not antagonise the potentiating effect of interleukin-1 beta on rat...... islet insulin accumulation during 3 and 6 h of exposure or of interleukin-1 beta-induced inhibition of insulin release after 24 h. In contrast, interleukin-1 beta-stimulated islet glucagon release was completely antagonised by a 100-fold molar excess of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. A 10,000-fold...

  8. Acyl-CoA esters antagonize the effects of ligands on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha conformation, DNA binding, and interaction with Co-factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Dam, I; Jorgensen, C

    2001-01-01

    palmitoyl-CoA analog, antagonizes the effects of agonists on PPARalpha conformation and function in vitro. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, S-hexadecyl-CoA prevented agonist-induced binding of the PPARalpha-retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer to the acyl-CoA oxidase peroxisome proliferator...... to the buffering effect of high affinity acyl-CoA-binding proteins, especially the acyl-CoA-binding protein. By using PPARalpha expressed in Sf21 cells for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that S-hexadecyl-CoA was able to increase the mobility of the PPARalpha-containing heterodimer even...

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of ( sup 3 H)-4-fluoro-1-(1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine, a potential tool for autoradiographic study of the phencyclidine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, B.R. de; Mattson, M.V. (National Insts. of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro binding of high specific activity tritium labelled 4-fluoro-1-(1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine (({sup 3}H)FOH-PCP), a potential probe for autoradiographic study of the phencyclidine (PCP) receptor is described. ({sup 3}H)FOH-PCP will allow evaluation of ({sup 18}F)FOH-PCP as a PET scanning ligand for PCP receptors. (author).

  10. Ulipristal Acetate Antagonizes the Inhibitory Effect of Progesterone on Ciliary Beat Frequency and Upregulates Steroid Receptor Expression Levels in Human Fallopian Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangjing; Zhao, Weihong; Yan, Mingxing; Zhu, Qian; Qin, Guojuan; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a new selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulator used for emergency contraception. However, our understanding of its mechanisms of action on oviductal cilia is limited. The present study focused on the in vitro effects of UPA (0.1, 1, and 10 μmol/L) on the cilia and steroid receptors of human fallopian tubes. The ciliary beat frequency (CBF), the ultrastructure of cilia, and the levels of steroid receptors were measured. The effects of UPA on the progesterone-induced CBF reduction were also studied. Our results show that UPA dose dependently antagonizes the progesterone-induced CBF decrease, but it does not affect the CBF or the ultrastructure of the cilia. The UPA also upregulates the expression levels of the estrogen receptor α and the PR in the fallopian tubes. The results enable us to better understand the mechanisms by which UPA works as an emergency contraceptive and provides a scientific basis for its clinical application. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of association between dopaminergic antagonism and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a positron emission tomography dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Pollock, Bruce G; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Rajji, Tarek K; Mar, Wanna; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-10-01

    Several pre-clinical studies suggest that antipsychotic medications cause secondary negative symptoms. However, direct evidence for a relationship among antipsychotic medications, their direct effects on neurotransmitter systems, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remains controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antipsychotic-related dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-one clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in this prospective dose reduction positron emission tomography (PET) study. Clinical assessments and [11C]-raclopride PET scans were performed before and after participants underwent gradual dose reduction of their antipsychotic medication by up to 40 % from the baseline dose. No significant relationship was found between antipsychotic-related dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy and negative symptom severity at baseline or follow-up. Similar null findings were found for subdomains of negative symptoms (amotivation and diminished expression). Occupancy was significantly lower following dose reduction; however, negative symptom severity did not change significantly, though a trend toward reduction was noted. Examination of change scores between these two variables revealed no systematic relationship. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal results failed to find a significant dose-dependent relationship between severity of negative symptoms and antipsychotic-related dopaminergic antagonism in schizophrenia. These findings argue against the notion that antipsychotics necessarily cause secondary negative symptoms. Our results are also in contrast with the behavioral effects of dopaminergic antagonism routinely reported in pre-clinical investigations, suggesting that the role of this variable in the context of chronic treatment and schizophrenia needs to be re-examined.

  13. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine antagonizes proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1)-mediated inositol phosphate production and cAMP accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Chihiro; Tomura, Hideaki; Tobo, Masayuki; Wang, Ju-Qiang; Damirin, Alatangaole; Kon, Junko; Komachi, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Kinji; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2005-10-01

    Ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1), previously proposed as a receptor for sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), has recently been identified as a proton-sensing or extracellular pH-responsive G-protein-coupled receptor stimulating inositol phosphate production, reflecting the activation of phospholipase C. In the present study, we found that acidic pH stimulated cAMP accumulation, reflecting the activation of adenylyl cyclase, in addition to inositol phosphate production in OGR1-expressing cells. The cAMP response was hardly affected by the inhibition of phospholipase C. SPC inhibited the acidification-induced actions in a pH-dependent manner, while no OGR1-dependent agonistic action of SPC was observed. Thus, the dose-response curves of the proton-induced actions were shifted to the right in the presence of SPC regardless of stereoisoform. The antagonistic property was also observed for psychosine and glucosylsphingosine. In conclusion, OGR1 stimulation may lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase in addition to phospholipase C in response to extracellular acidification but not to SPC. However, SPC and related lysolipids antagonize the proton-induced and OGR1-mediated actions.

  14. A novel translational assay of response inhibition and impulsivity: effects of prefrontal cortex lesions, drugs used in ADHD, and serotonin 2C receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humby, Trevor; Eddy, Jessica B; Good, Mark A; Reichelt, Amy C; Wilkinson, Lawrence S

    2013-10-01

    Animal models are making an increasing contribution to our understanding of the psychology and brain mechanisms underlying behavioral inhibition and impulsivity. The aim here was to develop, for the first time, a mouse analog of the stop-signal reaction time task with high translational validity in order to be able to exploit this species in genetic and molecular investigations of impulsive behaviors. Cohorts of mice were trained to nose-poke to presentations of visual stimuli. Control of responding was manipulated by altering the onset of an auditory 'stop-signal' during the go response. The anticipated systematic changes in action cancellation were observed as stopping was made more difficult by placing the stop-signal closer to the execution of the action. Excitotoxic lesions of medial prefrontal cortex resulted in impaired stopping, while the clinically effective drugs methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhanced stopping abilities. The specific 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084 also led to enhanced response control in this task. We conclude that stop-signal reaction time task performance can be successfully modeled in mice and is sensitive to prefrontal cortex dysfunction and drug treatments in a qualitatively similar manner to humans and previous rat models. Additionally, using this model we show novel and highly discrete effects of 5-HT2C receptor antagonism that suggest manipulation of 5-HT2C receptor function may be of use in correcting maladaptive impulsive behaviors and provide further evidence for dissociable contributions of serotonergic transmission to response control.

  15. The Viral KSHV Chemokine vMIP-II Inhibits the Migration of Naive and Activated Human NK Cells by Antagonizing Two Distinct Chemokine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Rachel; Kaynan, Noa S.; Glasner, Ariella; Vitenshtein, Alon; Tsukerman, Pinchas; Bauman, Yoav; Ophir, Yael; Elias, Shlomo; Bar-On, Yotam; Gur, Chamutal; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells able to rapidly kill virus-infected and tumor cells. Two NK cell populations are found in the blood; the majority (90%) expresses the CD16 receptor and also express the CD56 protein in intermediate levels (CD56Dim CD16Pos) while the remaining 10% are CD16 negative and express CD56 in high levels (CD56Bright CD16Neg). NK cells also reside in some tissues and traffic to various infected organs through the usage of different chemokines and chemokine receptors. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human virus that has developed numerous sophisticated and versatile strategies to escape the attack of immune cells such as NK cells. Here, we investigate whether the KSHV derived cytokine (vIL-6) and chemokines (vMIP-I, vMIP-II, vMIP-III) affect NK cell activity. Using transwell migration assays, KSHV infected cells, as well as fusion and recombinant proteins, we show that out of the four cytokine/chemokines encoded by KSHV, vMIP-II is the only one that binds to the majority of NK cells, affecting their migration. We demonstrate that vMIP-II binds to two different receptors, CX3CR1 and CCR5, expressed by naïve CD56Dim CD16Pos NK cells and activated NK cells, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the binding of vMIP-II to CX3CR1 and CCR5 blocks the binding of the natural ligands of these receptors, Fractalkine (Fck) and RANTES, respectively. Finally, we show that vMIP-II inhibits the migration of naïve and activated NK cells towards Fck and RANTES. Thus, we present here a novel mechanism in which KSHV uses a unique protein that antagonizes the activity of two distinct chemokine receptors to inhibit the migration of naïve and activated NK cells. PMID:23966863

  16. Pharmacological mechanisms of 5-HT₃ and tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonism to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S

    2012-06-05

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing consequences of cytotoxic chemotherapies. Nausea and vomiting can be acute (0-24h) or delayed (24-72 h) after chemotherapy administration. The introduction of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists in the 90s was a major advance in the prevention of acute emesis. These receptor antagonists exhibited similar control on acute emesis but had no effect on delayed emesis. These findings led to the hypothesis that serotonin plays a central role in the mechanism of acute emesis but a lesser role in the pathogenesis of delayed emesis. In contrast, delayed emesis has been largely associated with the activation of neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptors by substance P. However, in 2003, a new 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was introduced into the market; unlike first generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, palonosetron was found to be effective in preventing both acute and delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Recent mechanistic studies have shown that palonosetron, in contrast to first generation receptor antagonists, exhibits allosteric binding to the 5-HT(3) receptor, positive cooperativity, persistent inhibition of receptor function after the drug is removed and triggers 5-HT(3) receptor internalization. Further, in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that palonosetron can inhibit substance P-mediated responses, presumably through its unique interactions with the 5-HT(3) receptor. It appears that the crossroads of acute and delayed emeses include interactions among the 5-HT(3) and NK(1) receptor neurotransmitter pathways and that inhibitions of these interactions lend the possibility of improved treatment that encompasses both acute and delayed emeses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uller, Lena; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Alenmyr, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    in recombinant expression systems in vitro. In vivo effects of TM30089 and ramatroban on tissue eosinophilia and mucus cell histopathology were examined in a mouse asthma model. RESULTS: TM30089, displayed high selectivity for and antagonistic potency on mouse CRTH2 but lacked affinity to TP and many other...... receptors including the related anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors, selected chemokine receptors and the cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 which are all recognized players in allergic diseases. Furthermore, TM30089 and ramatroban, the latter used as a reference herein, similarly inhibited asthma pathology...

  18. Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonism and antagonism on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by phencyclidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Nurith; Markou, Athina

    2010-08-10

    Dysregulation of glutamate neurotransmission may play a role in cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Manipulation of glutamate signaling using drugs acting at metabotropic glutamate receptors has been suggested as a novel approach to treating schizophrenia-related cognitive dysfunction. We examined how the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist LY379268 and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 antagonist LY341495 altered phencyclidine-induced disruptions in performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. This test assesses multiple cognitive modalities characteristically impaired in schizophrenia that are disrupted by phencyclidine administration. Acute LY379268 alone did not affect 5-choice serial reaction time task performance, except for nonspecific response suppression at high doses. Acute LY379268 administration exacerbated phencyclidine-induced disruption of attentional performance in this task, while acute LY341495 did not alter 5-choice serial reaction time task performance during phencyclidine exposure. Chronic LY341495 impaired attentional performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task by itself, but attenuated phencyclidine-induced excessive timeout responding. The mixed effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonism and antagonism on cognitive performance under baseline conditions and after disruption with phencyclidine demonstrate that different aspects of cognition may respond differently to a given pharmacological manipulation, indicating that potential antipsychotic or pro-cognitive medications need to be tested for their effects on a range of cognitive modalities. Our findings also suggest that additional mechanisms, besides cortical glutamatergic transmission, may be involved in certain cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rainbow trout estrogen receptor (ER) competitive bindng and vitellogenin induction agonism/antagonism data for 94 chemicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is from screening 94 diverse chemicals for estrogen receptor (ER) activation in a competitive rainbow trout ER binding assay and a trout liver slice...

  20. Antiallodynic effect through spinal endothelin-B receptor antagonism in rat models of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, In Ji; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a very complicated chronic pain disorder that has been classified into two types (I and II). Endothelin (ET) receptors are involved in pain conditions at the spinal level. We investigated the role of spinal ET receptors in CRPS. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats as a model for CRPS-I by placing a tourniquet (O-ring) at the ankle joint for 3h, and removing it to allow reperfusion. Ligation of L5 and L6 spinal nerves to induce neuropathic pain was performed as a model for CRPS-II. After O-ring application and spinal nerve ligation, the paw withdrawal threshold was significantly decreased at injured sites. Intrathecal administration of the selective ET-B receptor antagonist BQ 788 dose-dependently increased the withdrawal threshold in both CRPS-I and CRPS-II. In contrast, ET-A receptor antagonist BQ 123 did not affect the withdrawal threshold in either CRPS type. The ET-1 levels of plasma and spinal cord increased in both CRPS types. Intrathecal BQ 788 decreased the spinal ET-1 level. These results suggest that ET-1 is involved in the development of mechanical allodynia in CRPS. Furthermore, the ET-B receptor appears to be involved in spinal cord-related CRPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antagonism of serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C receptors: mutual improvement of sleep, cognition and mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, H-P; Wehrle, R

    2009-05-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and 5-HT receptors are involved in sleep and in waking functions such as cognition and mood. Animal and human studies support a particular role for the 5-HT(2A) receptor in sleep, which has led to renewed interest in this receptor subtype as a target for the development of novel pharmacological agents to treat insomnia. Focusing primarily on findings in healthy human volunteers, a review of the available data suggests that antagonistic interaction with 5-HT(2A) receptors (and possibly also 5-HT(2C) receptors) prolongs the duration of slow wave sleep and enhances low-frequency (sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), a widely accepted marker of sleep intensity. Despite certain differences, the changes in sleep and the sleep EEG appear to be remarkably similar to those of physiologically more intense sleep after sleep deprivation. It is currently unclear whether these changes in sleep are associated with improved vigilance, cognition and mood during wakefulness. While drug-induced interaction with sleep must be interpreted cautiously, too few studies are available to provide a clear answer to this question. Moreover, functional relationships between sleep and waking functions may differ between healthy controls and patients with sleep disorders. A multimodal approach investigating subjective and objective aspects of sleep and wakefulness provides a promising research avenue for shedding light on the complex relationships among 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor-mediated effects on sleep, the sleep EEG, cognition and mood in health and various diseases associated with disturbed sleep and waking functions.

  2. Metabolite Profiling and a Transcriptional Activation Assay Provide Direct Evidence of Androgen Receptor Antagonism by Bisphenol A in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread environmental contamination by bisphenol A (BPA) has created the need to fully define its potential toxic mechanisms of action (MOA) to properly assess human health and ecological risks from exposure. Although long recognized as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, some ...

  3. The peptidomimetic Lau-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 antagonizes formyl peptide receptor 2 expressed in mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The formyl peptide receptor (FPR) gene family has a complex evolutionary history and comprises eight murine members but only three human representatives. To enable translation of results obtained in mouse models of human diseases, more comprehensive knowledge of the pharmacological similarities...

  4. Polyuria due to vasopressin V2 receptor antagonism is not associated with increased ureter diameter in ADPKD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Messchendorp, A. Lianne; Bae, Kyong T.; Higashihara, Eiji; Kappert, Peter; Torres, Vicente; Meijer, Esther; Leliveld, Anna M.

    Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce the rates of growth in total kidney volume (TKV) and renal function loss in ADPKD patients, but also leads to polyuria because of its aquaretic effect. Prolonged polyuria can result in ureter dilatation with consequently renal

  5. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Reverts the Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Sleep Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261 in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans and Evans blue. In addition, we evaluated by western blot the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, adherens junction protein (E-cadherin, A2A adenosine receptor, adenosine-synthesizing enzyme (CD73, and neuroinflammatory markers (Iba-1 and GFAP in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal nuclei and cerebellar vermis. Sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to FITC-dextrans and Evans blue, and the effect was reverted by the administration of SCH58261 in almost all brain regions, excluding the cerebellum. Sleep restriction increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor only in the hippocampus and basal nuclei without changing the expression of CD73 in all brain regions. Sleep restriction reduced the expression of tight junction proteins in all brain regions, except in the cerebellum; and SCH58261 restored the levels of tight junction proteins in the cortex, hippocampus and basal nuclei. Finally, sleep restriction induced GFAP and Iba-1 overexpression that was attenuated with the administration of SCH58261. These data suggest that the action of adenosine on its A2A receptor may have a crucial role in blood-brain barrier dysfunction during sleep loss probably by direct modulation of brain endothelial cell permeability or through a mechanism that involves gliosis with subsequent

  6. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Reverts the Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Sleep Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Gómez-González, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue. In addition, we evaluated by western blot the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1), adherens junction protein (E-cadherin), A2A adenosine receptor, adenosine-synthesizing enzyme (CD73), and neuroinflammatory markers (Iba-1 and GFAP) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal nuclei and cerebellar vermis. Sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to FITC-dextrans and Evans blue, and the effect was reverted by the administration of SCH58261 in almost all brain regions, excluding the cerebellum. Sleep restriction increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor only in the hippocampus and basal nuclei without changing the expression of CD73 in all brain regions. Sleep restriction reduced the expression of tight junction proteins in all brain regions, except in the cerebellum; and SCH58261 restored the levels of tight junction proteins in the cortex, hippocampus and basal nuclei. Finally, sleep restriction induced GFAP and Iba-1 overexpression that was attenuated with the administration of SCH58261. These data suggest that the action of adenosine on its A2A receptor may have a crucial role in blood-brain barrier dysfunction during sleep loss probably by direct modulation of brain endothelial cell permeability or through a mechanism that involves gliosis with subsequent inflammation and

  7. The Target Residence Time of Antihistamines Determines Their Antagonism of the G Protein-Coupled Histamine H1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Reggie; Witt, Gesa; Vaas, Lea A I; Josimovic, Ivana; Gribbon, Philip; Vischer, Henry F; Gul, Sheraz; Leurs, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacodynamics of drug-candidates is often optimized by metrics that describe target binding (Kd or Ki value) or target modulation (IC50). However, these metrics are determined at equilibrium conditions, and consequently information regarding the onset and offset of target engagement and modulation is lost. Drug-target residence time is a measure for the lifetime of the drug-target complex, which has recently been receiving considerable interest, as target residence time is shown to have prognostic value for the in vivo efficacy of several drugs. In this study, we have investigated the relation between the increased residence time of antihistamines at the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and the duration of effective target-inhibition by these antagonists. Hela cells, endogenously expressing low levels of the H1R, were incubated with a series of antihistamines and dissociation was initiated by washing away the unbound antihistamines. Using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye and a label free, dynamic mass redistribution based assay, functional recovery of the H1R responsiveness was measured by stimulating the cells with histamine over time, and the recovery was quantified as the receptor recovery time. Using these assays, we determined that the receptor recovery time for a set of antihistamines differed more than 40-fold and was highly correlated to their H1R residence times, as determined with competitive radioligand binding experiments to the H1R in a cell homogenate. Thus, the receptor recovery time is proposed as a cell-based and physiologically relevant metric for the lead optimization of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists, like the H1R antagonists. Both, label-free or real-time, classical signaling assays allow an efficient and physiologically relevant determination of kinetic properties of drug molecules.

  8. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Reverts the Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Sleep Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue. In addition, we evaluated by western blot the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1), adherens junction protein (E-cadherin), A2A adenosine receptor, adenosine-synthesizing enzyme (CD73), and neuroinflammatory markers (Iba-1 and GFAP) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal nuclei and cerebellar vermis. Sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to FITC-dextrans and Evans blue, and the effect was reverted by the administration of SCH58261 in almost all brain regions, excluding the cerebellum. Sleep restriction increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor only in the hippocampus and basal nuclei without changing the expression of CD73 in all brain regions. Sleep restriction reduced the expression of tight junction proteins in all brain regions, except in the cerebellum; and SCH58261 restored the levels of tight junction proteins in the cortex, hippocampus and basal nuclei. Finally, sleep restriction induced GFAP and Iba-1 overexpression that was attenuated with the administration of SCH58261. These data suggest that the action of adenosine on its A2A receptor may have a crucial role in blood-brain barrier dysfunction during sleep loss probably by direct modulation of brain endothelial cell permeability or through a mechanism that involves gliosis with subsequent inflammation and

  9. Antagonism of the Met5-enkephalin-opioid growth factor receptor-signaling axis promotes MSC to differentiate into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nikhil A; DeBoyace, Sean D; Margulies, Bryan S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic opioid therapy is associated with bone loss. This led us to hypothesize that the opioid antagonists, that include naloxone, would stimulate bone formation by regulating MSC differentiation. The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFR) is a non-canonical opioid receptor that binds naloxone with high affinity whereas the native opioid growth factor, met5-enkephalin (met5), binds both the OGFR and the canonical delta opioid receptor (OPRD). Naloxone and an shRNA OGFR lentivirus were employed to disrupt the OGFR-signaling axis in cultured MSC. In parallel, naloxone was administered to bone marrow using a mouse unicortical defect model. OPRD, OGFR, and the met5-ligand were highly expressed in MSC and osteoblasts. A pulse-dose of naloxone increased mineral formation in MSC cultures in contrast to MSC treated with continuous naloxone or OGFR deficient MSC. Importantly, SMAD1 and SMAD8/9 expression increased after a pulse dose of naloxone whereas SMAD1, SMAD7, and ID1 were increased in the OGFR deficient MSC. Inhibited OGFR signaling decreased proliferation and increased p21 expression. The addition of naloxone to the unicortical defect resulted in increased bone formation within the defect. Our data suggest that novel mechanism through which signaling through the OGFR regulates osteogenesis via negative regulation of SMAD1 and p21. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1195-1205, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intravenous peptide YY3-36 and Y2 receptor antagonism in the rat: effects on feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, V; Kimura, N; Stark, J A; Luckman, S M

    2005-07-01

    Systemic injection of peptide YY3-36 reduces food intake in rodents and humans, although some groups have reported a lack of response. PYY3-36 is thought to act via the Y2 receptor to presynaptically inhibit the release of neuropeptide Y and GABA from hypothalamic arcuate neurones. Due to the controversy surrounding its action in rodents, we tested the peptide intravenously on feeding behaviour in rats and attempted to block its actions with the Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246. PYY3-36 significantly decreased food intake during the first hour in male Sprague-Dawley rats fasted overnight and then re-fed. BIIE0246 had no effect alone on re-feeding, but completely blocked the action of PYY3-36. In a second experiment of similar design, the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS) was studied. Normal rats eat, drink, explore and groom before entering rest. PYY3-36 significantly reduced food eaten maintaining the normal BSS, although shifting it to the left as expected for a natural satiety factor. The latency to rest occurred earlier for animals given PYY3-36 alone and PYY3-36 tended to increase the total time in rest compared with controls. These behavioural effects of PYY3-36 were blocked by BIIE0246, and BIIE0246 alone did not have an effect on the BSS. These results support the role of PYY3-36 as a natural satiety factor acting through Y2 receptors.

  11. Beta-adrenergic receptor 1 selective antagonism inhibits norepinephrine-mediated TNF-alpha downregulation in experimental liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zapater

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial translocation is a frequent event in cirrhosis leading to an increased inflammatory response. Splanchnic adrenergic system hyperactivation has been related with increased bacterial translocation. We aim at evaluating the interacting mechanism between hepatic norepinephrine and inflammation during liver damage in the presence of bacterial-DNA. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Forty-six mice were included in a 16-week protocol of CCl(4-induced cirrhosis. Laparotomies were performed at weeks 6, 10, 13 and 16. A second set of forty mice injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl(4 was treated with saline, 6-hydroxidopamine, Nebivolol or Butoxamine. After 5 days, mice received E. coli-DNA intraperitoneally. Laparotomies were performed 24 hours later. Liver bacterial-DNA, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and beta-adrenergic receptor levels were measured. RESULTS: Bacterial-DNA translocation was more frequent in CCl(4-treated animals compared with controls, and increased as fibrosis progressed. Liver norepinephrine and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in mice with vs without bacterial-DNA (319.7 ± 120.6 vs 120.7 ± 68.6 pg/g for norepinephrine, 38.4 ± 6.1 vs 29.7 ± 4.2 pg/g for TNF-alpha, 41.8 ± 7.4 vs 28.7 ± 4.3 pg/g for IL-6. Only beta-adrenergic receptor-1 was significantly increased in treated vs control animals (34.6 ± 7.3 vs 12.5 ± 5.3, p=0.01 and correlated with TNF-alpha, IL-6 and norepinephrine hepatic levels in animals with bacterial-DNA. In the second set of mice, cytokine levels were increased in 6-hydroxidopamine and Nebivolol (beta-adrenergic receptor-1 antagonist treated mice compared with saline. Butoxamine (beta-adrenergic receptor-2 antagonist didn't inhibit liver norepinephrine modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-adrenergic receptor-1 mediates liver norepinephrine modulation of the pro-inflammatory response in CCl(4-treated mice with bacterial-DNA.

  12. Orexin type 1 receptor antagonism in rat locus coeruleus prevents the analgesic effect of intra-LC met-enkephalin microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, S; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Long-term administration of opiates leads to development of tolerance to analgesic effects. This in turn compromise clinical use of these drugs for pain management. Although extensive studies have been conducted, the involved cellular mechanisms are still poorly understood. The nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), which is a dense homogenous cluster of noradrenergic neurons in brainstem, has been reported to be involved in mediating opiate effects including analgesia and tolerance. LC neurons express a high density of opioid receptors. On the other hand, orexinergic neurons send widespread projections to the LC region. Among the two types of orexin receptors (OX1R and OX2R), OX1R is highly expressed in LC neurons. It has been shown that orexin-A is involved in modulation of nociceptive behavior. Also, previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of OX1R in the development of morphine induced analgesia and tolerance. In the present study, the involvement of OX1R in development of met-enkephalin (ME) analgesic tolerance was investigated in LC nucleus. The tail flick test was used to evaluate the analgesic effect of intra-LC microinjection of ME in male Wistar rats (250-300g). Analgesic responses were reported as the percentage of maximum possible effect (% of MPE). Also, SB-334867 was used as a selective OX1R antagonist. Results indicate that intra-LC microinjection of ME (5μg/100nL) results in development of analgesic tolerance in 3days. Also, OX1R antagonism in LC nucleus significantly prevents the analgesic effect of intra-LC met-enkephalin microinjection. It appears that the analgesic effect of ME in LC neurons is mediated by orexinergic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism contributes to blonanserin-induced cortical dopamine and acetylcholine efflux and cognitive improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-11-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), which, unlike most atypical APDs, has a slightly higher affinity for dopamine (DA) D2 than serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors, and is an antagonist at both, as well as at D3 receptors. The effects of atypical APDs to enhance rodent cortical, hippocampal, limbic, and dorsal striatal (dSTR) DA and acetylcholine (ACh) release, contribute to their ability to improve novel object recognition (NOR) in rodents treated with sub-chronic (sc) phencyclidine (PCP) and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Here we determined the ability of blonanserin, the D3 antagonist NGB 2904, and the typical APD, haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, to enhance neurotransmitter efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dSTR of mice, and to ameliorate the scPCP-induced deficit in NOR in rats. Blonanserin, 10mg/kg, i.p., increased DA, norepinephrine (NE), and ACh efflux in mPFC and dSTR. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, increased DA and ACh, but not NE, efflux in mPFC, and DA, but not ACh, efflux in dSTR. Haloperidol increased DA and NE efflux in dSTR only. The selective D3 agonist PD 128907 partially blocked the blonanserin-induced cortical ACh, DA, NE and striatal DA efflux. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, like blonanserin, 1mg/kg, and the combination of sub-effective doses of NGB 2904 and blonanserin (both 0.3mg/kg), ameliorated the scPCP-induced NOR deficit in rats. These results suggest that D3 receptor blockade may contribute to the ability of blonanserin to increase cortical DA and ACh efflux, as well as to restore NOR and improve CIAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; McDermott, Adrian B.; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decre...

  15. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J; Fuchs, Serge Y; McDermott, Adrian B; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2015-12-16

    Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Here, we

  16. Sesamin: A Naturally Occurring Lignan Inhibits CYP3A4 by Antagonizing the Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ping Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistent expression and regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs are common causes of adverse drug effects in some drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (TI. An important cytochrome, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, is predominantly regulated by a nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR. Sesamin, a major lignan constituent in sesame seeds and oil, exhibits a variety of biological functions; however, the effect of sesamin on the modulation of CYP3A4 is not well understood. In this study, the effects of sesamin on the PXR-CYP3A4 pathway were characterized, as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects. Sesamin potently attenuated CYP3A4 induction in a dose-dependent manner by blocking the activation of PXR. The PXR inducer-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 was further evidenced by the ability of sesamin to attenuate the effects of several PXR ligands in the CYP3A4 reporter assay. Further mechanistic studies showed that sesamin inhibited PXR by interrupting the interacting with coregulators. These results may lead to the development of new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of inducer-drug interaction. Sesamin was established as a novel inhibitor of PXR and may be useful for modulating DMEs expression and drug efficacies. Modification of CYP3A4 expression and activity by consumption of sesamin may have important implications for drug safety.

  17. PAR4 (Protease-Activated Receptor 4) Antagonism With BMS-986120 Inhibits Human Ex Vivo Thrombus Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J; Ismat, Fraz A; Wang, Zhaoqing; Cerra, Michael; Narayan, Hafid; Raftis, Jennifer; Gray, Timothy J; Connell, Shea; Garonzik, Samira; Ma, Xuewen; Yang, Jing; Newby, David E

    2018-02-01

    BMS-986120 is a novel first-in-class oral PAR4 (protease-activated receptor 4) antagonist with potent and selective antiplatelet effects. We sought to determine for the first time, the effect of BMS-986120 on human ex vivo thrombus formation. Forty healthy volunteers completed a phase 1 parallel-group PROBE trial (Prospective Randomized Open-Label Blinded End Point). Ex vivo platelet activation, platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation were measured at 0, 2, and 24 hours after (1) oral BMS-986120 (60 mg) or (2) oral aspirin (600 mg) followed at 18 hours with oral aspirin (600 mg) and oral clopidogrel (600 mg). BMS-986120 demonstrated highly selective and reversible inhibition of PAR4 agonist peptide (100 μM)-stimulated P-selectin expression, platelet-monocyte aggregates, and platelet aggregation (PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02439190. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Synergistic effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism in rodent models of somatic and visceral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Tyler, Karl; Pietra, Claudio; Bee, Lucy A; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Synergistic activity has been observed between serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-mediated responses. This study investigated the efficacy of a 5-HT3 antagonist, palonosetron, and a NK1 antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination in rodent models of somatic and visceral colonic hypersensitivity. In a rat model of experimental neuropathic pain, somatic hypersensitivity was quantified by the number of ipsilateral paw withdrawals to a von Frey filament (6g). Electrophysiologic responses were recorded in the dorsal horn neurons after mechanical or thermal stimuli. Acute colonic hypersensitivity was induced experimentally in rats by infusing dilute acetic acid (0.6%) directly into the colon. Colonic sensitivity was assessed by a visceromotor behavioral response quantified as the number of abdominal contractions in response to graded isobaric pressures (0-60 mm Hg) of colorectal distension. Palonosetron or netupitant was administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. When dosed alone, both significantly reduced somatic sensitivity, decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation, and caused significant (P netupitant at doses that were ineffective alone significantly reduced both somatic and visceral sensitivity and decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation. In summary, the combination of palonosetron with a NK1 receptor antagonist showed synergistic analgesic activity in rodent models of somatic and visceral hypersensitivity, and may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach to treat pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  19. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABA{sub A} receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakarjian, Michael P., E-mail: michael_shakarjian@nymc.edu [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Health Sciences and Practice, Institute of Public Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595 (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Velíšková, Jana, E-mail: jana_veliskova@nymc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Department of Neurology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Stanton, Patric K., E-mail: patric_stanton@nymc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Department of Neurology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Velíšek, Libor, E-mail: libor_velisek@nymc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Department of Neurology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic–clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic–clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the number of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic–clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABA{sub A} receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists is more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. -- Highlights: ► TMDT produces convulsions and lethality at low doses in mice. ► Diazepam pre- or post-treatments inhibit TMDT-induced convulsions and death

  20. Effects of Chronic Social Defeat Stress on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Are Mitigated by Kappa-Opioid Receptor Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Audrey M; Ridener, Elysia; Bourbonais, Clinton A; Kim, Woori; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Carroll, F Ivy; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cohen, Bruce M; Carlezon, William A

    2017-08-09

    Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10 day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). EEG, EMG, body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5 day recovery period. CSDS affected numerous endpoints, including paradoxical sleep (PS) and slow-wave sleep (SWS), as well as the circadian rhythmicity of body temperature and locomotor activity. The magnitude of the effects increased with repeated stress, and some changes (PS bouts, SWS time, body temperature, locomotor activity) persisted after the CSDS regimen had ended. CSDS also altered mRNA levels of the circadian rhythm-related gene mPer2 within brain areas that regulate motivation and emotion. Administration of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist JDTic (30 mg/kg, i.p.) before CSDS reduced stress effects on both sleep and circadian rhythms, or hastened their recovery, and attenuated changes in mPer2 Our findings show that CSDS produces persistent disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythmicity, mimicking attributes of stress-related conditions as they appear in humans. The ability of KOR antagonists to mitigate these disruptions is consistent with previously reported antistress effects. Studying homologous endpoints across species may facilitate the development of improved treatments for psychiatric illness.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. We show that chronic social defeat stress in mice produces progressive alterations in sleep and circadian rhythms that resemble features of depression as it appears in

  1. Anti-analgesic effect of the mu/delta opioid receptor heteromer revealed by ligand-biased antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Milan-Lobo

    Full Text Available Delta (DOR and mu opioid receptors (MOR can complex as heteromers, conferring functional properties in agonist binding, signaling and trafficking that can differ markedly from their homomeric counterparts. Because of these differences, DOR/MOR heteromers may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of pain. However, there are currently no ligands selective for DOR/MOR heteromers, and, consequently, their role in nociception remains unknown. In this study, we used a pharmacological opioid cocktail that selectively activates and stabilizes the DOR/MOR heteromer at the cell surface by blocking its endocytosis to assess its role in antinociception. We found that mice treated chronically with this drug cocktail showed a significant right shift in the ED50 for opioid-mediated analgesia, while mice treated with a drug that promotes degradation of the heteromer did not. Furthermore, promoting degradation of the DOR/MOR heteromer after the right shift in the ED50 had occurred, or blocking signal transduction from the stabilized DOR/MOR heteromer, shifted the ED50 for analgesia back to the left. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-analgesic role for the DOR/MOR heteromer in pain. In conclusion, antagonists selective for DOR/MOR heteromer could provide an avenue for alleviating reduced analgesic response during chronic pain treatment.

  2. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

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    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.; (USMC); (UTSMC)

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  3. Polyuria due to vasopressin V2 receptor antagonism is not associated with increased ureter diameter in ADPKD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Messchendorp, A. Lianne; Bae, Kyong T.; Higashihara, Eiji; Kappert, Peter; Torres, Vicente; Meijer, Esther; Leliveld, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce the rates of growth in total kidney volume (TKV) and renal function loss in ADPKD patients, but also leads to polyuria because of its aquaretic effect. Prolonged polyuria can result in ureter dilatation with consequently renal function loss. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of tolvaptan-induced polyuria on ureter diameter in ADPKD patients. Methods 70 ADPKD patients were included (51 were randomized to tolvaptan and 19 to placebo). At baseline and after 3 years of treatment renal function was measured (mGFR) and MRI was performed to measure TKV and ureter diameter at the levels of renal pelvis and fifth lumbar vertebral body (L5). Results In these patients [65.7 % male, age 41 ± 9 years, mGFR 74 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2 and TKV 1.92 (1.27–2.67) L], no differences were found between tolvaptan and placebo-treated patients in 24-h urine volume at baseline (2.5 vs. 2.5 L, p = 0.8), nor in ureter diameter at renal pelvis and L5 (4.0 vs. 4.2 mm, p = 0.4 and 3.0 vs. 3.1 mm, p = 0.3). After 3 years of treatment 24-h urine volume was higher in tolvaptan-treated patients when compared to placebo (4.7 vs. 2.3 L, p ureter diameter between both groups (renal pelvis: 4.2 vs. 4.4 mm, p = 0.4 and L5: 3.1 vs. 3.3 mm, p = 0.4). Conclusions Tolvaptan-induced polyuria did not lead to an increase in ureter diameter, suggesting that tolvaptan is a safe therapy from a urological point of view. PMID:27339446

  4. Insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors and isoxazoline insecticides: toxicological profiles relative to the binding sites of [³H]fluralaner, [³H]-4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate, and [³H]avermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunqing; Casida, John E

    2014-02-05

    Isoxazoline insecticides, such as fluralaner (formerly A1443), are noncompetitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA-R) antagonists with selective toxicity for insects versus mammals. The isoxazoline target in house fly ( Musca domestica ) brain has subnanomolar affinity for [³H]fluralaner and a unique pattern of sensitivity to isoxazolines and avermectin B(1a) (AVE) but not to fipronil and α-endosulfan. Inhibitor specificity profiles for 15 isoxazolines examined with Musca GABA-R and [³H]fluralaner, [³H]-4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate ([³H]EBOB), and [³H]AVE binding follow the same structure-activity trends although without high correlation. The 3 most potent of the 15 isoxazolines tested in Musca [³H]fluralaner, [³H]EBOB, and [³H]AVE binding assays and in honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain [³H]fluralaner assays are generally those most toxic to Musca and four agricultural pests. Fluralaner does not inhibit [³H]EBOB binding to the human GABA-R recombinant β₃ homopentamer, which is highly sensitive to all of the commercial GABAergic insecticides. The unique isoxazoline binding site may resurrect the GABA-R as a major insecticide target.

  5. Neurokinin 3 Receptor Antagonism Reveals Roles for Neurokinin B in the Regulation of Gonadotropin Secretion and Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupskaite, Karolina; George, Jyothis T; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Millar, Robert P; Anderson, Richard A

    2017-04-05

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin are obligate for normal gonadotropin secretion, and links between GnRH pulsatility and vasomotor symptoms have been proposed. Using a selective NKB receptor (NK3R) antagonist, the role of NKB in the hypergonadotropic state in menopausal women was explored. Eleven postmenopausal women were administered the NK3R antagonist MLE4901, 40 mg twice daily orally for 7 days. 10-min blood sampling for 8 h was performed before and on the last day of NK3R antagonist treatment for LH pulsatility analysis with kisspeptin-10 (0.3 µg/kg iv bolus) administered at 6 h on both days. Hot flash frequency and severity were self-reported for 7 days before and during NK3R antagonist administration. LH fell from 29.3 ± 4.1 to 24.4 ± 3.8 IU/l (p women with hot flashes, (1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.1 pulses/h, p women also reported a reduction in hot flash frequency (3.4 ± 1.2 to 1.0 ± 0.6 hot flashes/day, p = 0.008) whist taking NK3R antagonist. Kisspeptin-10 did not affect LH secretion with or without NK3R antagonist. The administration of a NK3R antagonist indicates a role for NKB in the regulation of LH/GnRH in postmenopausal women whereas the lack of response to kisspeptin may reflect the hypoestrogenic state. These data support a link between LH/GnRH pulsatility and vasomotor symptoms and NK3R antagonism as a potential therapeutic approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Felipe V; Issy, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Frederico R; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2014-10-31

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, induces antipsychotic-like effects. However, the antipsychotic properties of repeated CBD treatment have been poorly investigated. Behavioral changes induced by repeated treatment with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been proposed as an animal model of schizophrenia-like signs. In the present study, we evaluated if repeated treatment with CBD would attenuate the behavioral and molecular modifications induced by chronic administration of one of these antagonists, MK-801. Male C57BL/6J mice received daily i.p. injections of MK-801 (0.1, 0.5, or 1mg/kg) for 14, 21, or 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, animals were submitted to the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. After that, we investigated if repeated treatment with CBD (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) would attenuate the PPI impairment induced by chronic treatment with MK-801 (1mg/kg; 28 days). CBD treatment began on the 6th day after the start of MK-801 administration and continued until the end of the treatment. Immediately after the PPI, the mice brains were removed and processed to evaluate the molecular changes. We measured changes in FosB/ΔFosB and parvalbumin (PV) expression, a marker of neuronal activity and a calcium-binding protein expressed in a subclass of GABAergic interneurons, respectively. Changes in mRNA expression of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene (GRN1) were also evaluated. CBD effects were compared to those induced by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. MK-801 administration at the dose of 1mg/kg for 28 days impaired PPI responses. Chronic treatment with CBD (30 and 60mg/kg) attenuated PPI impairment. MK-801 treatment increased FosB/ΔFosB expression and decreased PV expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. A decreased mRNA level of GRN1 in the hippocampus was also observed. All the molecular changes were attenuated by CBD. CBD by

  7. Cannabidiol Attenuates Sensorimotor Gating Disruption and Molecular Changes Induced by Chronic Antagonism of NMDA receptors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issy, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Frederico R.; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Del Bel, Elaine A.; Guimarães, Francisco S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, induces antipsychotic-like effects. However, the antipsychotic properties of repeated CBD treatment have been poorly investigated. Behavioral changes induced by repeated treatment with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been proposed as an animal model of schizophrenia-like signs. In the present study, we evaluated if repeated treatment with CBD would attenuate the behavioral and molecular modifications induced by chronic administration of one of these antagonists, MK-801. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice received daily i.p. injections of MK-801 (0.1, 0.5, or 1mg/kg) for 14, 21, or 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, animals were submitted to the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. After that, we investigated if repeated treatment with CBD (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) would attenuate the PPI impairment induced by chronic treatment with MK-801 (1mg/kg; 28 days). CBD treatment began on the 6th day after the start of MK-801 administration and continued until the end of the treatment. Immediately after the PPI, the mice brains were removed and processed to evaluate the molecular changes. We measured changes in FosB/ΔFosB and parvalbumin (PV) expression, a marker of neuronal activity and a calcium-binding protein expressed in a subclass of GABAergic interneurons, respectively. Changes in mRNA expression of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene (GRN1) were also evaluated. CBD effects were compared to those induced by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Results: MK-801 administration at the dose of 1mg/kg for 28 days impaired PPI responses. Chronic treatment with CBD (30 and 60mg/kg) attenuated PPI impairment. MK-801 treatment increased FosB/ΔFosB expression and decreased PV expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. A decreased mRNA level of GRN1 in the hippocampus was also observed. All the molecular changes were

  8. Differential down-regulation of aquaporin-2 in rat kidney zones by peripheral nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonism and vasopressin type-2 receptor antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen S; Windfeld, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that aquaresis induced by the peripherally acting nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist ZP120 is associated with a decreased protein level of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in whole-kidney homogenates. We now examined the effects of Ac-RYYRWKKKKKKK-NH(2) (ZP120) (1 nmol/kg/min i.v. for...

  9. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissociable effects of 5-HT2C receptor antagonism and genetic inactivation on perseverance and learned non-reward in an egocentric spatial reversal task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R O Nilsson

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility can be assessed in reversal learning tests, which are sensitive to modulation of 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR function. Successful performance in these tests depends on at least two dissociable cognitive mechanisms which may separately dissipate associations of previous positive and negative valence. The first is opposed by perseverance and the second by learned non-reward. The current experiments explored the effect of reducing function of the 5-HT2CR on the cognitive mechanisms underlying egocentric reversal learning in the mouse. Experiment 1 used the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 (0.5 mg/kg in a between-groups serial design and Experiment 2 used 5-HT2CR KO mice in a repeated measures design. Animals initially learned to discriminate between two egocentric turning directions, only one of which was food rewarded (denoted CS+, CS-, in a T- or Y-maze configuration. This was followed by three conditions; (1 Full reversal, where contingencies reversed; (2 Perseverance, where the previous CS+ became CS- and the previous CS- was replaced by a novel CS+; (3 Learned non-reward, where the previous CS- became CS+ and the previous CS+ was replaced by a novel CS-. SB242084 reduced perseverance, observed as a decrease in trials and incorrect responses to criterion, but increased learned non-reward, observed as an increase in trials to criterion. In contrast, 5-HT2CR KO mice showed increased perseverance. 5-HT2CR KO mice also showed retarded egocentric discrimination learning. Neither manipulation of 5-HT2CR function affected performance in the full reversal test. These results are unlikely to be accounted for by increased novelty attraction, as SB242084 failed to affect performance in an unrewarded novelty task. In conclusion, acute 5-HT2CR antagonism and constitutive loss of the 5-HT2CR have opposing effects on perseverance in egocentric reversal learning in mice. It is likely that this difference reflects the broader impact of 5HT2CR loss

  11. Dissociable effects of 5-HT2C receptor antagonism and genetic inactivation on perseverance and learned non-reward in an egocentric spatial reversal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Simon R O; Somerville, Elizabeth M; Clifton, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility can be assessed in reversal learning tests, which are sensitive to modulation of 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) function. Successful performance in these tests depends on at least two dissociable cognitive mechanisms which may separately dissipate associations of previous positive and negative valence. The first is opposed by perseverance and the second by learned non-reward. The current experiments explored the effect of reducing function of the 5-HT2CR on the cognitive mechanisms underlying egocentric reversal learning in the mouse. Experiment 1 used the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 (0.5 mg/kg) in a between-groups serial design and Experiment 2 used 5-HT2CR KO mice in a repeated measures design. Animals initially learned to discriminate between two egocentric turning directions, only one of which was food rewarded (denoted CS+, CS-), in a T- or Y-maze configuration. This was followed by three conditions; (1) Full reversal, where contingencies reversed; (2) Perseverance, where the previous CS+ became CS- and the previous CS- was replaced by a novel CS+; (3) Learned non-reward, where the previous CS- became CS+ and the previous CS+ was replaced by a novel CS-. SB242084 reduced perseverance, observed as a decrease in trials and incorrect responses to criterion, but increased learned non-reward, observed as an increase in trials to criterion. In contrast, 5-HT2CR KO mice showed increased perseverance. 5-HT2CR KO mice also showed retarded egocentric discrimination learning. Neither manipulation of 5-HT2CR function affected performance in the full reversal test. These results are unlikely to be accounted for by increased novelty attraction, as SB242084 failed to affect performance in an unrewarded novelty task. In conclusion, acute 5-HT2CR antagonism and constitutive loss of the 5-HT2CR have opposing effects on perseverance in egocentric reversal learning in mice. It is likely that this difference reflects the broader impact of 5HT2CR loss on the

  12. Extract of Kuding tea prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice via liver X receptor (LXR β antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Fan

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea, a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets.For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow, high-fat diet (HF, and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay.In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXRβ transactivity and mRNA expression of LXRβ target genes.We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXRβ transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs.

  13. Genetic characterization of avian influenza subtype H4N6 and H4N9 from live bird market, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A one year active surveillance program for influenza A viruses among avian species in a live-bird market (LBM in Bangkok, Thailand was conducted in 2009. Out of 970 samples collected, influenza A virus subtypes H4N6 (n = 2 and H4N9 (n = 1 were isolated from healthy Muscovy ducks. All three viruses were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza A viruses. Genetic analysis showed that H4N6 and H4N9 viruses display low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. The HA cleavage site and receptor binding sites were conserved and resembled to LPAI viruses. This study is the first to report isolation of H4N6 and H4N9 viruses from birds in LBM in Thailand and shows the genetic diversity of the viruses circulating in the LBM. In addition, co-infection of H4N6 and H4N9 in the same Muscovy duck was observed.

  14. 32 CFR 286h.4 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 286h.4 Section 286h.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM RELEASE OF ACQUISITION-RELATED INFORMATION § 286h.4 Responsibilities. (a) The Under...

  15. Does H4SO5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Fernando; Vargas-Caamal, Alba; Pan, Sudip; Cabellos, José Luis; Mora-Fonz, Miguel J; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Restrepo, Albeiro; Merino, Gabriel

    2017-07-14

    The possible existence of H4SO5 in aqueous sulfuric acid is analyzed in detail. For bare H4SO5, the computed free energy barrier for the exergonic transformation of H4SO5 into the H2SO4H2O complex is only 3.8 kcal mol-1. The presence of water or sulfuric acid catalyzes the dehydration to such an extent that it becomes almost a barrierless process. In the gas phase, dehydration of H4SO5 is an autocatalytic reaction as the water molecule produced by the decomposition of one H4SO5 molecule induces further dissociation. Thus, in solution, the surrounding water molecules make the para-sulfuric acid a very vulnerable species to exist. The simulated Raman spectra also corroborate the absence of H4SO5 in solution.

  16. A Suppressive Antagonism Evidences Progesterone and Estrogen Receptor Pathway Interaction with Concomitant Regulation of Hand2, Bmp2 and ERK during Early Decidualization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Mestre-Citrinovitz

    Full Text Available Progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor participate in growth and differentiation of the different rat decidual regions. Steroid hormone receptor antagonists were used to study steroid regulation of decidualization. Here we describe a suppressive interaction between progesterone receptor (onapristone and estrogen receptor (ICI182780 antagonists and their relation to a rescue phenomenon with concomitant regulation of Hand2, Bmp2 and p-ERK1/2 during the early decidualization steps. Phenotypes of decidua development produced by antagonist treatments were characterized by morphology, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and expression of signaling molecules. We found that suppression of progesterone receptor activity by onapristone treatment resulted in resorption of the implantation sites with concomitant decrease in progesterone and estrogen receptors, PCNA, KI67 antigen, DESMIN, CCND3, CX43, Prl8a2, and signaling players such as transcription factor Hand2, Bmp2 mRNAs and p-ERK1/2. Moreover, FGF-2 and Vegfa increased as a consequence of onapristone treatment. Implantation sites from antagonist of estrogen receptor treated rats developed all decidual regions, but showed an anomalous blood vessel formation at the mesometrial part of the decidua. The deleterious effect of onapristone was partially counteracted by the impairment of estrogen receptor activity with rescue of expression levels of hormone steroid receptors, proliferation and differentiation markers, and the induction of a probably compensatory increase in signaling molecules Hand2, Bmp2 and ERK1/2 activation compared to oil treated controls. This novel drug interaction during decidualization could be applied to pathological endometrial cell proliferation processes to improve therapies using steroid hormone receptor targets.

  17. Reference: OCTAMERMOTIFTAH3H4 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OCTAMERMOTIFTAH3H4 Nakayama T, Sakamoto A, Yang P, Minami M, Fujimoto Y, Ito T, Iwa...buchi M Highly conserved hexamer, octamer and nonamer motifs are positive cis-regulatory elements of the whe

  18. Antagonizing amyloid-β/calcium-sensing receptor signaling in human astrocytes and neurons: a key to halt Alzheimer′s disease progression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Dal Prà

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes′ roles in late-onset Alzheimer′s disease (LOAD promotion are important, since they survive soluble or fibrillar amyloid-β peptides (Aβs neurotoxic effects, undergo alterations of intracellular and intercellular Ca 2+ signaling and gliotransmitters release via the Aβ/α7-nAChR (α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling, and overproduce/oversecrete newly synthesized Aβ42 oligomers, NO, and VEGF-A via the Aβ/CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor signaling. Recently, it was suggested that the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor nitromemantine would block the synapse-destroying effects of Aβ/α7-nAChR signaling. Yet, this and the progressive extracellular accrual and spreading of Aβ42 oligomers would be stopped well upstream by NPS 2143, an allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic.

  19. Effects of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonism and antagonism on SKF81297-induced dyskinesia and haloperidol-induced dystonia in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda P; Werge, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs may cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as dyskinesia and dystonia. These effects are believed to involve dysfunctional striatal dopamine transmission. Patients with schizophrenia show increased prevalence of cannabis abuse and this has been linked to severity of EPS....... Endocannabinoids modulate striatal dopamine activity via type 1 cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors, and studies in rats and humans suggest beneficial effects of CB(1) ligands on EPS. The present study explored the effects of CB(1) receptor ligands on oral dyskinesia induced by the dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF...... for oral dyskinesia or dystonia. SKF-induced oral dyskinesia was dose-dependently reduced by CP55,940, with no effect of SR141716A. Haloperidol-induced dystonia was not affected by either CP55,940 or SR141716A....

  20. The role of 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism in amphetamine-induced inhibition of A10 dopamine neurons in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olijslagers, J.E.; Perlstein, B.; Werkman, T.R.; Mc.Creary, A.C.; Siarey, R.; Kruse, C.G.; Wadman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The role of the 5-HT(2A) receptor in modulating amphetamine-induced inhibition of dopamine neuronal firing in A9 and A10 was investigated in rat midbrain slices. The antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and clozapine more potently reversed the amphetamine-induced inhibition in A10 neurons compared to A9

  1. Angiotensin receptor antagonism and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition improve diastolic dysfunction and Ca2+-ATPase expression in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in hypertensive cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flesch, M; Schiffer, F; Zolk, O; Pinto, Y; Stasch, JP; Knorr, A; Ettelbruck, S; Bohm, M

    Background Hypertensive cardiomyopathy is a major risk factor for the development of chronic heart failure, Objective To investigate whether treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or with an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT(1)-RA) is sufficient to prevent the

  2. Angiotensin receptor antagonism and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition improve diastolic dysfunction and Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in hypertensive cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flesch, M.; Schiffer, F.; Zolk, O.; Pinto, Y.; Stasch, J. P.; Knorr, A.; Ettelbrück, S.; Böhm, M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertensive cardiomyopathy is a major risk factor for the development of chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or with an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1-RA) is sufficient to prevent the

  3. Angiotensin II, hypertension and angiotensin II receptor antagonism: Roles in the behavioural and brain pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.; Roelofs, M.; Lugt, R. Van Der; Heerschap, A.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated angiotensin II causes hypertension and contributes to Alzheimer's disease by affecting cerebral blood flow. Angiotensin II receptor blockers may provide candidates to reduce (vascular) risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We studied effects of two months of angiotensin II-induced

  4. Tumor Regression and Delayed Onset Toxicity Following B7-H4 CAR T Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jenessa B; Lanitis, Evripidis; Dangaj, Denarda; Buza, Elizabeth; Poussin, Mathilde; Stashwick, Caitlin; Scholler, Nathalie; Powell, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    B7-H4 protein is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Here, we engineered T cells with novel B7-H4-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognized both human and murine B7-H4 to test the hypothesis that B7-H4 CAR T cell therapy can be applied safely in preclinical models. B7-H4 CAR T cells specifically secreted IFN-γ and lysed B7-H4(+) targets. In vivo, B7-H4 CAR T cells displayed antitumor reactivity against B7-H4(+) human ovarian tumor xenografts. Unexpectedly, B7-H4 CAR T cell treatment reproducibly showed delayed, lethal toxicity 6–8 weeks after therapy. Comprehensive assessment of murine B7-H4 protein distribution uncovered expression in ductal and mucosal epithelial cells in normal tissues. Postmortem analysis revealed the presence of widespread histologic lesions that correlated with B7-H4(+) expression, and were inconsistent with graft versus host disease. Lastly, expression patterns of B7-H4 protein in normal human tissue were comparable to distribution in mice, advancing our understanding of B7-H4. We conclude that B7-H4 CAR therapy mediates control of cancer outgrowth. However, long-term engraftment of B7-H4 CAR T cells mediates lethal, off-tumor toxicity that is likely due to wide expression of B7-H4 in healthy mouse organs. This model system provides a unique opportunity for preclinical evaluation of safety approaches that limit CAR-mediated toxicity after tumor destruction in vivo. PMID:27439899

  5. Design and synthesis of 6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline analogs as multi-targeted ligands for α1- and AII-receptors antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, M R; Naik, P P; Gandhi, H P; Chauhan, B S; Giridhar, R

    2013-07-01

    Multiple-targeted ligands can have certain advantages for the management of hypertension which has multiple controls. Molecules with dual bioactivities are available in literature for treating metabolic disorders like diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. After scrutinizing the SAR of prazosin-type α1-blockers and AII-antagonists it was planned to develop dual α1- and AII-antagonists. Five series of quinazoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as dual α1- and AII-antagonists on rat aortic strips for the blockade of known α1- and AII-agonist mediated contractions. Many compounds showed balanced activity on both the receptors but compound (22) was found to be the most active derivative having higher antagonistic activity on both the receptors. In the in vivo experiments the chosen compound (22) was slightly less active than prazosin but was found to be equipotent to losartan. These findings shed a new light on the structural requirements for both α1- as well as AII-receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reference: HEXMOTIFTAH3H4 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HEXMOTIFTAH3H4 Tabata T, Takase H, Takayama S, Mikami K, Nakatsuka A, Kawata T, Nak...ayama T, Iwabuchi M A protein that binds to a cis-acting element of wheat histone genes has a leucine zipper motif Science 245: 965-967 (1989) PubMed: 2772648 ...

  7. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  8. The CytR repressor antagonizes cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein activation of the deoCp2 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Martinussen, J; Møllegaard, N E

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the Escherichia coli deoCp2 promoter by the CytR repressor and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) complexed to cAMP. Promoter regions controlled by these two proteins characteristically contain tandem cAMP-CRP binding sites. Here we show that (i) Cyt......AMP-CRP complex; (iii) introduction of point mutations in either CRP target resulted in loss of CytR regulation; and (iv) regulation by CytR of deletion mutants lacking CRP-2 could be specifically reestablished by increasing the intracellular concentration of CytR. These findings indicate that both CRP targets...

  9. Argon blocks the expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine through antagonism at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and mu-opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H N; Dhilly, M; Degoulet, M; Poisnel, G; Meckler, C; Vallée, N; Blatteau, J-É; Risso, J-J; Lemaire, M; Debruyne, D; Abraini, J H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the noble gas argon on the expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine and amphetamine-induced changes in dopamine release and mu-opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. We found (1) argon blocked the increase in carrier-mediated dopamine release induced by amphetamine in brain slices, but, in contrast, potentiated the decrease in KCl-evoked dopamine release induced by amphetamine, thereby suggesting that argon inhibited the vesicular monoamine transporter-2; (2) argon blocked the expression of locomotor and mu-opioid neurotransmission sensitization induced by repeated amphetamine administration in a short-term model of sensitization in rats; (3) argon decreased the maximal number of binding sites and increased the dissociation constant of mu-receptors in membrane preparations, thereby indicating that argon is a mu-receptor antagonist; (4) argon blocked the expression of locomotor sensitization and context-dependent locomotor activity induced by repeated administration of amphetamine in a long-term model of sensitization. Taken together, these data indicate that argon could be of potential interest for treating drug addiction and dependence. PMID:26151922

  10. Pulling habits out of rats: adenosine 2A receptor antagonism in dorsomedial striatum rescues meth-amphetamine-induced deficits in goal-directed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Teri M; Supit, Alva S A; Corbit, Laura H; Killcross, Simon; Balleine, Bernard W

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context. This reduction in c-Fos was localized to non-enkephalin-expressing neurons in the DMS, likely dopamine D1-expressing direct pathway neurons, suggesting a relative change in control by the D1-direct versus D2-indirect pathways originating in the DMS may have been induced by METH-context exposure. To test this suggestion, we infused the adenosine 2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 into the DMS prior to test to reduce activity in D2 neurons relative to D1 neurons in the hope of reducing the inhibitory output from this region of the striatum. We found that this treatment fully restored sensitivity to negative feedback in a test conducted in the METH-paired context. These results suggest that drug exposure alters decision-making by downregulation of the circuitry mediating goal-directed action, an effect that can be ameliorated by acute A2A receptor inhibition in this circuit. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Angiotensin II, hypertension and angiotensin II receptor antagonism: Roles in the behavioural and brain pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Roelofs, Monica; van der Lugt, Robert; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Claassen, Jurgen Ahr

    2017-07-01

    Elevated angiotensin II causes hypertension and contributes to Alzheimer's disease by affecting cerebral blood flow. Angiotensin II receptor blockers may provide candidates to reduce (vascular) risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We studied effects of two months of angiotensin II-induced hypertension on systolic blood pressure, and treatment with the angiotensin II receptor blockers, eprosartan mesylate, after one month of induced hypertension in wild-type C57bl/6j and AβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 (AβPP/PS1/Alzheimer's disease) mice. AβPP/PS1 showed higher systolic blood pressure than wild-type. Subsequent eprosartan mesylate treatment restored this elevated systolic blood pressure in all mice. Functional connectivity was decreased in angiotensin II-infused Alzheimer's disease and wild-type mice, and only 12 months of Alzheimer's disease mice showed impaired cerebral blood flow. Only angiotensin II-infused Alzheimer's disease mice exhibited decreased spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Altogether, angiotensin II-induced hypertension not only exacerbated Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes such as impairment of cerebral blood flow, functional connectivity, and cognition only in Alzheimer's disease model mice, but it also induced decreased functional connectivity in wild-type mice. However, we could not detect hypertension-induced overexpression of Aβ nor increased neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest a link between midlife hypertension, decreased cerebral hemodynamics and connectivity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Eprosartan mesylate treatment restored and beneficially affected cerebral blood flow and connectivity. This model could be used to investigate prevention/treatment strategies in early Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Labetalol facilitates GABAergic transmission to rat periaqueductal gray neurons via antagonizing beta1-adrenergic receptors--a possible mechanism underlying labetalol-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Atlas, Glen; Delphin, Ellise; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2008-03-10

    Labetalol, a combined alpha1, beta1, and beta2 adrenoceptor-blocking drug, has been shown to have analgesic properties in vivo. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we examined its effects on GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and spontaneous firings of rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons, either mechanically dissociated, or in acute brain slices. These PAG neurons mediate opioid-mediated analgesia and pain transmission and are under tonic control of GABAergic interneurons. An increase in GABAergic transmission to these neurons yields an inhibitory hyperpolarized state and may interrupt pain signal transmission. Using patch clamp techniques, we found that labetalol reversibly increases the frequency of sIPSCs without changing their mean amplitude. This indicates that labetalol enhances GABAergic synaptic transmission by a presynaptic mechanism. Metoprolol, a specific beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist, also reversibly enhanced sIPSC frequency. In the presence of metoprolol, labetalol-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was significantly attenuated or even abolished. These results suggest that labetalol shares the same pathway as metoprolol in enhancing GABAergic transmission via an inhibition of presynaptic beta1-adrenoceptors. We further showed that labetalol reversibly reduced the firing rate of PAG neurons. This reduction was significantly attenuated in the presence of bicuculline, a selective antagonist of GABAA receptors. These data indicate that labetalol-induced inhibition of PAG cell firing is attributable to its potentiation of GABAergic transmission. Based on these data, we postulate that labetalol-induced analgesia is at least in part ascribed to its antagonistic effects on presynaptic beta1-adrenoceptors.

  13. Labetalol facilitates GABAergic transmission to rat periaqueductal gray neurons via antagonizing β1- adrenergic receptors - a possible mechanism underlying labetalol- induced analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Atlas, Glen; Delphin, Ellise; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2008-01-01

    Labetalol, a combined α1, β1, and β2 adrenoceptor-blocking drug, has been shown to have analgesic properties in vivo. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we examined its effects on GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and spontaneous firings of rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons, either mechanically dissociated, or in acute brain slices. These PAG neurons mediate opioid-mediated analgesia and pain transmission and are under tonic control of GABAergic interneurons. An increase in GABAergic transmission to these neurons yields an inhibitory hyperpolarized state and may interrupt pain signal transmission. Using patch clamp techniques, we found that labetalol reversibly increases the frequency of sIPSCs without changing their mean amplitude. This indicates that labetalol enhances GABAergic synaptic transmission by a presynaptic mechanism. Metoprolol, a specific β1-adrenoceptor antagonist, also reversibly enhanced sIPSC frequency. In the presence of metoprolol, labetalol-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was significantly attenuated or even abolished. These results suggest that labetalol shares the same pathway as metoprolol in enhancing GABAergic transmission via an inhibition of presynaptic β1-adrenoceptors. We further showed that labetalol reversibly reduced the firing rate of PAG neurons. This reduction was significantly attenuated in the presence of bicuculline, a selective antagonist of GABAA receptors. These data indicate that labetalol-induced inhibition of PAG cell firing is attributable to its potentiation of GABAergic transmission. Based on these data, we postulate that labetalol-induced analgesia is at least in part ascribed to its antagonistic effects on presynaptic β1- adrenoceptors. PMID:18262504

  14. Neurokinin-1-receptor antagonism decreases anxiety and emotional arousal circuit response to noxious visceral distension in women with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillisch, K; Labus, J; Nam, B; Bueller, J; Smith, S; Suyenobu, B; Siffert, J; McKelvy, J; Naliboff, B; Mayer, E

    2012-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterised by chronic abdominal pain and frequent comorbid anxiety. The substance P ⁄ neurokinin-1 receptor system is implicated in the regulation of both pain and anxiety, suggesting a potential therapeutic target in IBS. To determine whether inhibition of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) will change pain ratings and brain responses to experimental visceral pain and anxiety symptoms in women with IBS or not. Rome II positive IBS women were recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of NK1R antagonist AV608. Treatment periods were 3 weeks with a 2-week washout period. Functional MRI during a visceral distension paradigm was performed before first treatment and after treatment blocks. SPM8 was used to compare brain activity during painful and nonpainful visceral stimuli in regions associated with emotional arousal and interoception. Negative affect, anxiety symptoms and pain ratings were assessed. Eleven subjects completed the study and eight subjects provided fMRI data. AV608, compared with placebo, was associated with reduced anxiety, negative affect, and pain ratings. During AV608 treatment, the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate gyrus showed decreased activity during visceral distension. AV608 was also associated with decreases in activity in brain regions associated with interoception (posterior insula, anterior mid-cingulate gyrus). Chronic treatment with AV608 in IBS is associated with improved mood and pain ratings and activity of emotional arousal related brain regions. This suggests that further exploration of NK1R antagonists is warranted in visceral pain disorders, particularly in patients with comorbid anxiety symptoms.

  15. Histone H4 Lysine 20 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine; Schotta, Gunnar; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential to ensure normal organismal development and to prevent diseases such as cancer. Nuclear DNA is packaged into chromatin, and thus genome maintenance can be influenced by distinct chromatin environments. In particular, post-translational modifications o...... instability, demonstrating the important functions of H4K20 methylation in genome maintenance. In this review, we explain molecular mechanisms underlying these defects and discuss novel ideas for furthering our understanding of genome maintenance in higher eukaryotes....

  16. From pyrrolidinyl-benzodioxane to pyrrolidinyl-pyridodioxanes, or from unselective antagonism to selective partial agonism at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolchi, Cristiano; Bavo, Francesco; Gotti, Cecilia; Fumagalli, Laura; Fasoli, Francesca; Binda, Matteo; Mucchietto, Vanessa; Sciaccaluga, Miriam; Plutino, Simona; Fucile, Sergio; Pallavicini, Marco

    2017-01-05

    Each of the four aromatic -CH= of (S,R)-2-pyrrolidinyl-1,4-benzodioxane [(S,R)-6] and of its epimer at the dioxane stereocenter (S,S)-6, previously reported as α4β2 nAChR ligands, was replaced with nitrogen. The resulting four diastereoisomeric pairs of pyrrolidinyl-pyridodioxanes were studied for the nicotinic affinity and activity at α4β2, α3β4 and α7 nAChR subtypes and compared to their common carbaisostere. It turned out that such isosteric substitutions are highly detrimental, but with the important exception of the S,R stereoisomer of the pyrrolidinyl-pyridodioxane with the pyridine nitrogen adjacent to the dioxane and seven atoms distant from the pyrrolidine nitrogen. Indeed, this stereo/regioisomer not only maintained the α4β2 affinity of [(S,R)-6], but also greatly improved in selectivity over the α3β4 and α7 subtypes and, most importantly, exhibited a highly selective α4β2 partial agonism. The finding that [(S,R)-6] is, instead, an unselective α4β2 antagonist indicates that the benzodioxane substructure confers affinity for the α4β2 nAChR binding site, but activation of this receptor subtype needs benzodioxane functionalization under strict steric requirements, such as the previously reported 7-OH substitution or the present isosteric modification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The brominated flame retardants TBP-AE and TBP-DBPE antagonize the chicken androgen receptor and act as potential endocrine disrupters in chicken LMH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnake, Solomon; Pradhan, Ajay; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-12-01

    Increased exposure of birds to endocrine disrupting compounds has resulted in developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. We have recently identified the flame retardants, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), 2-3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and the TBP-DBPE metabolite 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-BAE) as antagonists to both the human androgen receptor (AR) and the zebrafish AR. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether these compounds also interact with the chicken AR. In silico modeling studies showed that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE were able to dock into to the chicken AR ligand-binding pocket. In vitro transfection assays revealed that all three brominated compounds acted as chicken AR antagonists, inhibiting testosterone induced AR activation. In addition, qRT-PCR studies confirmed that they act as AR antagonists and demonstrated that they also alter gene expression patterns of apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, drug metabolizing and amino acid transporter genes. These studies, using chicken LMH cells, suggest that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE are potential endocrine disrupters in chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism induces browning of white adipose tissue through impairment of autophagy and prevents adipocyte dysfunction in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, Andrea; Cinti, Francesca; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Morgan, James; Cranston, Greg A; Antelmi, Antonella; Carpinelli, Giulia; Canese, Rossella; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Malorni, Walter; Matarrese, Paola; Marconi, Matteo; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Cinti, Saverio; Young, Morag J; Caprio, Massimiliano

    2014-08-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) controls adipocyte function, but its role in the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into thermogenic fat has not been elucidated. We investigated responses to the MR antagonists spironolactone (spiro; 20 mg/kg/d) and drospirenone (DRSP; 6 mg/kg/d) in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 90 d. DRSP and spiro curbed HF diet-induced impairment in glucose tolerance, and prevented body weight gain and white fat expansion. Notably, either MR antagonist induced up-regulation of brown adipocyte-specific transcripts and markedly increased protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in visceral and inguinal fat depots when compared with the HF diet group. Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed acquisition of brown fat features in WAT. Interestingly, MR antagonists markedly reduced the autophagic rate both in murine preadipocytes in vitro (10(-5) M) and in WAT depots in vivo, with a concomitant increase in UCP1 protein expression. Moreover, the autophagy repressor bafilomycin A1 (10(-8) M) mimicked the effect of MR antagonists, increasing UCP1 protein expression in primary preadipocytes. Hence, we showed that adipocyte MR regulates brown remodeling of WAT through a modulation of autophagy. These results provide a rationale for the use of MR antagonists to prevent the adverse metabolic consequences of adipocyte dysfunction. © FASEB.

  19. Differential rescue of spatial memory deficits in aged rats by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel and ryanodine receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, S C; D'Angelo, H M; Royer, S E; Kaercher, R M; Adzovic, L; Wenk, G L

    2014-11-07

    Age-associated memory impairments may result as a consequence of neuroinflammatory induction of intracellular calcium (Ca(+2)) dysregulation. Altered L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-VDCC) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) activity may underlie age-associated learning and memory impairments. Various neuroinflammatory markers are associated with increased activity of both L-VDCCs and RyRs, and increased neuroinflammation is associated with normal aging. In vitro, pharmacological blockade of L-VDCCs and RyRs has been shown to be anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of L-VDCCs or RyRs with the drugs nimodipine and dantrolene, respectively, could improve spatial memory and reduce age-associated increases in microglia activation. Dantrolene and nimodipine differentially attenuated age-associated spatial memory deficits but were not anti-inflammatory in vivo. Furthermore, RyR gene expression was inversely correlated with spatial memory, highlighting the central role of Ca(+2) dysregulation in age-associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of the uncertainties in extrapolating from in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonism to key events in in vivo screening assays and adverse reproductive outcomes in F1 male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are multiple molecular initiating events (MIEs) that can disrupt male sexual differentiation including AR antagonism and inhibition of synthesis, and metabolism of fetal testosterone. Disruption of this event by pesticides like vinclozolin that act as AR antagonists and ph...

  1. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A antagonism suppresses both alcohol consumption and the alcohol deprivation effect in rats following long-term voluntary alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Suchankova

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heterogeneous disorder where several signalling systems play important roles. Recent studies implicate that the gut-brain hormone ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is a potential mediator of alcohol related behaviours. Ghrelin increases whereas a ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A antagonist decreases alcohol consumption as well as operant self-administration of alcohol in rodents that have consumed alcohol for twelve weeks. In the present study we aimed at investigating the effect of acute and repeated treatment with the GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959 on alcohol intake in a group of rats following voluntarily alcohol consumption for two, five and eight months. After approximately ten months of voluntary alcohol consumption the expression of the GHS-R1A gene (Ghsr as well as the degree of methylation of a CpG island found in Ghsr was examined in reward related brain areas. In a separate group of rats, we examined the effect of the JMV2959 on alcohol relapse using the alcohol deprivation paradigm. Acute JMV2959 treatment was found to decrease alcohol intake and the effect was more pronounced after five, compared to two months of alcohol exposure. In addition, repeated JMV2959 treatment decreased alcohol intake without inducing tolerance or rebound increase in alcohol intake after the treatment. The GHS-R1A antagonist prevented the alcohol deprivation effect in rats. There was a significant down-regulation of the Ghsr expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA in high- compared to low-alcohol consuming rats after approximately ten months of voluntary alcohol consumption. Further analysis revealed a negative correlation between Ghsr expression in the VTA and alcohol intake. No differences in methylation degree were found between high- compared to low-alcohol consuming rats. These findings support previous studies showing that the ghrelin signalling system may constitute a potential target for development of novel treatment strategies

  2. Behavioral alterations in rat offspring following maternal immune activation and ELR-CXC chemokine receptor antagonism during pregnancy: implications for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballendine, Stephanie A; Greba, Quentin; Dawicki, Wojciech; Zhang, Xiaobei; Gordon, John R; Howland, John G

    2015-03-03

    Research suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Current theories suggest that inflammatory mediators including cytokines and chemokines may underlie the increased risk of these disorders in humans. For example, elevated maternal interleukin-8 (IL-8) during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Given this association, the present experiments examined ELR-CXC chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, rodent homologues of human IL-8, and activation of their receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) in an established rodent model of MIA. Pregnant Long Evans rats were treated with the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C; 4 mg/kg, i.v.) on gestational day 15. Protein analysis using multiplex assays and ELISA showed that polyI:C significantly increased maternal serum concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and CXCL1 3h after administration. Subsequent experiments tested the role of elevated maternal CXCL1 on behavior of the offspring by administering a CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist (G31P; 500 μg/kg, i.p.; 1h before, 48 and 96 h after polyI:C treatment). The male offspring of dams treated with polyI:C demonstrated subtle impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI), impaired associative and crossmodal recognition memory, and altered behavioral flexibility in an operant test battery. While G31P did not completely reverse the behavioral impairments caused by polyI:C, it enhanced PPI during adolescence and strategy set-shifting and reversal learning during young adulthood. These results suggest that while polyI:C treatment significantly increases maternal CXCL1, elevations of this chemokine are not solely responsible for the effects of polyI:C on the behavior of the offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonism Abolished the Anti-seizure Effects of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kovács

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs. Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day applied sub-chronically (for 7 days by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij rats. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs significantly and similarly decreased after both KE and KSMCT treatment between 3rd and 7th days of gavage. Moreover, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB levels were significantly increased alike after KE and KSMCT gavage, compared to control levels. The SWD number and βHB levels returned to the baseline levels on the first day without ketone supplementation. To determine whether A1Rs can modify ketone supplement-evoked changes in absence epileptic activity, we applied a non-pro-epileptic dose of a specific A1R antagonist DPCPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (intraperitoneal/i.p. 0.2 mg/kg in combination with KSMCT (2.5 g/kg/day, gavage. As expected, DPCPX abolished the KSMCT-evoked decrease in SWD number. Thus, we concluded that application of exogenous ketone supplements may decrease absence epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats. Moreover, our results suggest that among others the adenosinergic system, likely via A1Rs, may modulate the exogenous ketone supplements-evoked anti-seizure effects.

  4. Endothelin A receptor antagonism enhances inhibitory effects of anti-ganglioside GD2 monoclonal antibody on invasiveness and viability of human osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Endothelin-1 (ET-1/endothelin A receptor (ETAR signaling is important for osteosarcoma (OS progression. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs targeting ganglioside GD2 reportedly inhibit tumor cell viability independent of the immune system. A recent study suggests that ganglioside GD2 may play an important role in OS progression. In the present study, we for the first time explored the effects of anti-GD2 mAb alone or in combination with ETAR antagonist on OS cell invasiveness and viability. Human OS cell lines Saos-2, MG-63 and SJSA-1 were treated with control IgG (PK136 mAb, 50 µg/mL, anti-GD2 14G2a mAb (50 µg/mL, selective ETAR antagonist BQ123 (5 µM, or 14G2a (50 µg/mL+BQ123 (5 µM. Cells with knockdown of ETAR (ETAR-shRNA with or without 14G2a mAb treatment were also tested. Cells treated with selective phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor BKM120 (50 µM were used as a positive control. Our results showed that BQ123, ETAR-shRNA and 14G2a mAb individually decreased cell invasion and viability, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression and activity, PI3k activity, and phosphorylation at serine 473 (ser473 of Akt in OS cells. 14G2a mAb in combination with BQ123 or ETAR-shRNA showed significantly stronger inhibitory effects compared with each individual treatment. In all three cell lines tested, 14G2a mAb in combination with BQ123 showed the strongest inhibitory effects. In conclusion, we provide the first in vitro evidence that anti-ganglioside GD2 14G2a mAb effectively inhibits cell invasiveness, MMP-2 expression and activity, and cell viability in human OS cells. ETAR antagonist BQ123 significantly enhances the inhibitory effects of 14G2a mAb, likely mainly through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. This study adds novel insights into OS treatment, which will serve as a solid basis for future in vivo studies on the effects of combined treatment of OS with anti-ganglioside GD2 mAbs and ETAR antagonists.

  5. Specificity of antibodies raised against triacetylated histone H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, S; Isabey, A; Couppez, M; Plaue, S; Sommermeyer, G; Van Regenmortel, M H

    1987-07-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were obtained by immunizing animals with triacetylated histone H4 from cuttle-fish. The fine specificity of these antibodies was studied using various populations of acetylated H4, (H3H4)2 tetramers and histone octamers as well as with acetylated and nonacetylated peptides of H4. None of these mAbs were found to recognize triacetylated H4. Only five of them bound to diacetylated, monoacetylated and nonacetylated H4. One antibody was specific for H4 associated in the form of histone octamers and did not bind to any nonacetylated or acetylated form of H4 monomers. Eight of the antibodies were specific for residues situated in the region 9-23 of H4. None of the mAbs was completely specific for acetylated forms of H4. In contrast, antisera raised in rabbits against triacetylated H4 reacted strongly with tri and diacetylated H4, weakly with monoacetylated H4 and barely or not at all with nonacetylated H4.

  6. Darboux integrability of trapezoidal H 4 and H 4 families of lattice equations I: first integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Yamilov, R. I.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we prove that the trapezoidal H4 and the H6 families of quad-equations are Darboux integrable by constructing their first integrals. This result explains why the rate of growth of the degrees of the iterates of these equations is linear (Gubbiotti et al 2016 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 23 507-43), which according to the algebraic entropy conjecture implies linearizability. We conclude by showing how first integrals can be used to obtain general solutions.

  7. Trace amines inhibit insect odorant receptor function through antagonism of the co-receptor subunit [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/35u

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisi Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many insect behaviors are driven by olfaction, making insect olfactory receptors (ORs appealing targets for insect control.  Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, with each receptor thought to be composed of a representative from a large, variable family of odorant binding subunits and a highly conserved co-receptor subunit (Orco, assembled in an unknown stoichiometry.  Synthetic Orco directed agonists and antagonists have recently been identified.  Several Orco antagonists have been shown to act via an allosteric mechanism to inhibit OR activation by odorants.  The high degree of conservation of Orco across insect species results in Orco antagonists having broad activity at ORs from a variety of insect species and suggests that the binding site for Orco ligands may serve as a modulatory site for compounds endogenous to insects or may be a target of exogenous compounds, such as those produced by plants.  To test this idea, we screened a series of biogenic and trace amines, identifying several as Orco antagonists.  Of particular interest were tryptamine, a plant-produced amine, and tyramine, an amine endogenous to the insect nervous system.  Tryptamine was found to be a potent antagonist of Orco, able to block Orco activation by an Orco agonist and to allosterically inhibit activation of ORs by odorants.  Tyramine had effects similar to those of tryptamine, but was less potent.  Importantly, both tryptamine and tyramine displayed broad activity, inhibiting odorant activation of ORs of species from three different insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, as well as odorant activation of six diverse ORs from a single species (the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.  Our results suggest that endogenous and exogenous natural compounds serve as Orco ligands modulating insect olfaction and that Orco can be an important target for the development of novel insect repellants.

  8. Probes for narcotic receptor mediated phenomena 22. Pt.1: Synthesis and characterization of optically pure [{sup 3}H](+)-4-[({alpha}R)-{alpha}-((2S,5R)-4-propyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-pi perazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide, [{sup 3}H]SNC 121, a novel high affinity and selective ligand for delta opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, S.N.; Bertha, C.M.; Rice, K.C. [National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Medicinal Chemistry Lab., Bethesda, MD (United States); Gutkind, J.S. [National Inst. of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (United States); Heng Xu; Partilla, J.S.; Rothman, R.B. [National Inst. on Drug Abuse, Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The synthesis of unlabelled and labelled SNC 121, a selective nonpeptide ligand for the delta opioid receptor is reported. [{sup 3}H]SNC 121 of specific activity of 26.8 Ci/mmol, was synthesized by catalytic tritiation of the optically pure precursor SNC 80. (author).

  9. What is pharmacological 'affinity'? Relevance to biased agonism and antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry

    2014-09-01

    The differences between affinity measurements made in binding studies and those relevant to receptor function are described. There are theoretical and practical reasons for not utilizing binding data and, in terms of the quantification of signaling bias, it is unnecessary to do so. Finally, the allosteric control of ligand affinity through receptor-signaling protein interaction is discussed within the context of biased antagonism. In this regard, it is shown that both the bias and relative efficacy of a ligand are essential data for fully predicting biased effects in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. H4-alkanes: A new class of hydrogen storage material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David; Welchman, Evan; Thonhauser, Timo

    The methane-based material (H2)4CH4, also called H4M for short, is in essence a methane molecule with 4 physisorbed H2 molecules. While H4M has exceptionally high hydrogen storage densities when it forms a molecular solid, unfortunately, this solid is only stable at impractically high pressures and/or low temperatures. To overcome this limitation, we show through simulations that longer alkanes (methane is the shortest alkane) also form stable structures that still physisorb 4 H2 molecules per carbon atom; we call those structures H4-alkanes. We further show via molecular dynamics simulations that the stability field of molecular solids formed from H4-alkanes increases remarkably with chain length compared to H4M, just as it does for regular alkanes. From our simulations of H4-alkanes with lengths 1, 4, 10, and 20, we see that e.g. for the 20-chain the stability field is doubled at higher pressures. While even longer chains show only insignificant improvements, we discuss various other options to stabilize H4-alkanes more. Our proof-of-principle results lay the groundwork to show that H4-alkanes can become viable hydrogen storage materials. This work was supported in full by NSF Grant No. DMR-1145968.

  11. Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR. Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLR. Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses.

  12. Antagonism of the antibacterial action of some penicillins by other penicillins and cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, J F; Sabath, L D; Ruch, P A

    1975-03-01

    There are many examples of two penicillins acting synergistically, usually by one competitively inhibiting beta-lactamase, thus protecting the other from inactivation. There are few reports on penicillins antagonizing each other. Eight strains of three genera (Proteus, Escherichia, Pseudomonas) isolated at Boston City Hospital or Institut Pasteur, Paris, showed antagonism of carbenicillin or ampicillin by cephaloridine, cloxacillin, or 6-aminopenicillanic acid. Broth dilution tests showed that with seven of the eight strains the minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) of the more active antibiotic was increased by 800-6,400% by low concentrations (often one-tenth the MIC) of the antagonist, whereas higher concentrations of "antagonist" were not as antagonistic, This suggested that two or more receptor sites of action for penicillins were present; the antagonist thus blocks the antibacterial action at the more sensitive site but acts additively with the antagonized antibiotic at the less sensitive site. The possibility that the mechanism of antagonism was induction of inactivating enzymes (beta-lactamase, penicillin acylase) was studied in two strains(one Escherichia coli and one Proteus rettgeri), and two antagonists were studied in detail. With E. coli cephaloridine was a poorer inducer of beta-lactamase than were the antagonized antibiotic and 6-aminopenicillanic acid. From these organisms, the good inducers of a beta-lactamase that acted on benzylpenicillin did not induce enzymes that inactivated carbenicillin. Thus, the mechanism of antagonism was not due to beta-lactamase induction.

  13. H4 abrupt event and late Neanderthal presence in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Ramstein, Gilles; Kageyama, Masa; Vanhaeren, Marian; Krinner, Gerhard; Sánchez-Goñi, María-Fernanda; d'Errico, Francesco

    2007-06-01

    Heinrich event 4 (H4) is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean and the adjacent continents as a cooling event 39,000 yr before present (BP). To quantify the impact of this event with respect to climate and vegetation over the Iberian Peninsula, we perform numerical experiments using a high-resolution general circulation model forced by sea surface temperatures before and during H4. Our model simulates an expansion of aridity over the peninsula during H4, a desertification of the south, and a replacement of arboreal by herbaceous plants in the north, all of which are in agreement with contemporaneous pollen sequences from marine cores located off the Iberian Peninsula. Our simulations demonstrate that the H4 marine event imprinted drastic changes over Southern Iberia, which would not have favoured its occupation by Anatomically Modern Humans, therefore providing a plausible explanation for the delayed extinction of Neanderthals in this region inferred from the archaeological record.

  14. Synthesis and in vitro opioid receptor functional antagonism of methyl-substituted analogues of (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide (JDTic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Juan Pablo; Cai, Tingwei Bill; Mascarella, S Wayne; Thomas, James B; Navarro, Hernán A; Carroll, F Ivy

    2009-12-10

    In previous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide (JDTic, 3) was identified as the first potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist from the trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine class of opioid antagonists. In the present study, we report the synthesis of analogues 8a-p of 3 and present their in vitro opioid receptor functional antagonism using a [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay. Compounds 8a-p are analogues of 3 containing one, two, or three methyl groups connected to the JDTic structure at five different positions. All the analogues with one and two added methyl groups with the exception of 8k had subnanomolar K(e) values at the kappa receptor. The three most potent analogues were the monomethylated (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S,2S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidine-1-yl]methyl}-2-methylbutyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (8a) and (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl]methyl}-(2-methylpropyl)]-3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (8e) with K(e) values of 0.03 nM at the kappa receptor and (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-[(1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide (8d) with K(e) = 0.037 nM at the kappa receptor. All three compounds were selective for the kappa receptor relative to the micro and delta receptors. Overall, the results from this study highlight those areas that are tolerant to substitution on 3.

  15. High pressure oxidation of C2H4/NO mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez-López, J.; Alzueta, M.U.; Rasmussen, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and kinetic modeling study of the interaction between C2H4 and NO has been performed under flow reactor conditions in the intermediate temperature range (600–900K), high pressure (60bar), and for stoichiometries ranging from reducing to oxidizing conditions. The main reaction...... pathways of the C2H4/O2/NOx conversion, the capacity of C2H4 to remove NO, and the influence of the presence of NOx on the C2H4 oxidation are analyzed. Compared to the C2H4/O2 system, the presence of NOx shifts the onset of reaction 75–150K to lower temperatures. The mechanism of sensitization involves...... is removed. This removal is partly explained by the reaction C2H3+NO→HCN+CH2O. However, a second removal mechanism is active in the 700–850K range, which is not captured by the chemical kinetic model. With the present thermochemistry and kinetics, neither formation of nitro-hydrocarbons (CH3NO2, C2H3NO2, C2H...

  16. Neuraxial Opioid-Induced Itch and Its Pharmacological Antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Given its profound analgesic nature, neuraxial opioids are frequently used for pain management. Unfortunately, the high incident rate of itch/pruritus after spinal administration of opioid analgesics reported in postoperative and obstetric patients greatly diminishes patient satisfaction and thus the value of the analgesics. Many endeavors to solve the mystery behind neuraxial opioid-induced itch had not been successful, as the pharmacological antagonism other than the blockade of mu opioid receptors remains elusive. Nevertheless, as the characteristics of all opioid receptor subtypes have become more understood, more studies have shed light on the potential effective treatments. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying neuraxial opioid-induced itch and compares pharmacological evidence in nonhuman primates with clinical findings across diverse drugs. Both nonhuman primate and human studies corroborate that mixed mu/kappa opioid partial agonists seem to be the most effective drugs in ameliorating neuraxial opioid-induced itch while retaining neuraxial opioid-induced analgesia. PMID:25861787

  17. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of a novel 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist radioligand [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]2-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)dione in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dileep Kumar, J.S.; Parsey, Ramin V. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Division of Brain Imaging, Department of Neuroscience, New York (United States); Prabhakaran, Jaya; Majo, Vattoly J.; Milak, Matthew S.; Hsiung, Shu-Chi; Tamir, Hadassah [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); Simpson, Norman R. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Heertum, Ronald L. Van [New York State Psychiatric Institute, Division of Brain Imaging, Department of Neuroscience, New York (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Mann, J. John [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Division of Brain Imaging, Department of Neuroscience, New York (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Serotonin{sub 1A} (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptors exist in high- and low-affinity states, and agonist ligands bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the receptor and provide a measure of functional 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors. Although the antagonist tracers are established PET ligands in clinical studies, a successful 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist radiotracer in living brain has not been reported. [{sup 11}C]MPT, our first-generation agonist radiotracer, shows in vivo specificity in baboons; however, its utility is limited owing to slow washout and immeasurable plasma free fraction. Hence we performed structure-activity relationship studies of MPT to optimize a radiotracer that will permit valid quantification of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor binding. We now report the synthesis and evaluation of [{sup 11}C]MMP as an agonist PET tracer for 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in baboons. In vitro binding assays were performed in bovine hippocampal membranes and membranes of CHO cells expressing 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors. [{sup 11}C] labeling of MMP was performed by reacting desmethyl-MMP with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}OTf. In vivo studies were performed in baboons, and blocking studies were conducted by pretreatment with 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor ligands WAY-100635 and ({+-})-8-OH-DPAT. MMP is a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist (K{sub i} 0.15 nM). Radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]MMP was achieved in 30 {+-} 5% (n = 15) yield at EOS with a specific activity of 2,600 {+-} 500 Ci/mmol (n = 12). PET studies in baboons demonstrated specific binding of [{sup 11}C]MMP to 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor-enriched brain regions, as confirmed by blockade with WAY-100635 and ({+-})-8-OH-DPAT. We identified [{sup 11}C]MMP as an optimal agonist PET tracer that shows quantifiable, specific binding in vivo to 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in baboons. (orig.)

  18. Effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and MK 801 on the EEGq in the prefrontal cortex of conscious rats; antagonism by clozapine, and antagonists of AMPA-, α1- and 5-HT2A-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebban, Claude; Tesolin-Decros, Brigitte; Ciprian-Ollivier, Jorge; Perret, Laurent; Spedding, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of the propsychotic agent phencyclidine (PCP), were studied in conscious rats using power spectra (0 – 30 Hz), from the prefrontal cortex or sensorimotor cortex. PCP (0.1 – 3 mg kg−1 s.c.) caused a marked dose-dependent increase in EEG power in the frontal cortex at 1 – 3 Hz with decreases in power at higher frequencies (9 – 30 Hz). At high doses (3 mg kg−1 s.c.) the entire spectrum shifted to more positive values, indicating an increase in cortical synchronization. MK 801 (0.05 – 0.1 mg kg−1 i.p.) caused similar effects but with lesser changes in power. In contrast, the non-competitive AMPA antagonists GYKI 52466 and GYKI 53655 increased EEG power over the whole power spectrum (1 – 10 mg kg−1 i.p.) The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (0.2 mg kg−1 s.c.) synchronized the EEG (peak 8 Hz). The 5-HT2A-antagonist, M100907, specifically increased EEG power at 2 – 3 Hz at low doses (10 and 50 μg kg÷1 s.c.), whereas at higher doses (0.1 mg kg−1 s.c.) the profile resembled that of clozapine. Clozapine (0.2 mg kg−1 s.c.), GYKI 53655 (5 mg kg−1 i.p.), prazosin (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg−1 i.p.), and M100907 (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg−1 s.c.) antagonized the decrease in power between 5 and 30 Hz caused by PCP (1 mg kg−1 s.c.), but not the increase in power at 1 – 3 Hz in prefrontal cortex. PMID:11786481

  19. Probing the acetylation code of histone H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Diana; Schümann, Michael; Gelato, Kathy; Fischle, Wolfgang; Schwarzer, Dirk; Krause, Eberhard

    2013-10-01

    Histone modifications play crucial roles in genome regulation with lysine acetylation being implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report a proteome-wide investigation of the acetylation-dependent protein-protein interactions of the N-terminal tail of histone H4. Quantitative peptide-based affinity MS experiments using the SILAC approach determined the interactomes of H4 tails monoacetylated at the four known acetylation sites K5, K8, K12, and K16, bis-acetylated at K5/K12, triple-acetylated at K8/12/16 and fully tetra-acetylated. A set of 29 proteins was found enriched on the fully acetylated H4 tail while specific binders of the mono and bis-acetylated tails were barely detectable. These observations are in good agreement with earlier reports indicating that the H4 acetylation state establishes its regulatory effects in a cumulative manner rather than via site-specific recruitment of regulatory proteins. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members of peer review groups and their terms of service shall be governed by chapter 9 of the DHHS General...

  1. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professio......Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed...... of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis did not influence the course of disease probably reflecting the lack of Tregs in this model of chronic colitis. In conclusion, we show that treatment with B7-H4-Ig in vivo changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases...

  2. In silico study of naphtha [1, 2-d] thiazol-2-amine with adenosine A 2A receptor and its role in antagonism of haloperidol-induced motor impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Prakash, Amresh; Barodia, Sandeep Kumar; Kumari, Rita; Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Kumar, J B Senthil

    2009-10-09

    Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in the substantia nigra leads to Parkinson's disease (PD). Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) have been anticipated as novel therapeutic target for PD. A(2A)Rs potentiate locomotor behavior and are predominantly expressed in striatum. Naphtha [1, 2-d] thiazol-2-amine (NATA), a tricyclic thiazole have been studied as new anti-Parkinsonian compound. AutoDock analysis and pharmacophore study of NATA with known A(2A)R antagonists explicit its efficacy as a possible adenosine receptor antagonist. In vivo pharmacology of NATA showed reduction of haloperidol (HAL)-induced motor impairments in Swiss albino male mice. Relatively elevated levels of dopamine in NATA pre-treated mice are suggestive of its possible role as neuromodulator in PD.

  3. Antagonism by 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetraline and other serotonin agonists of muscarinic M1-type receptors coupled to inositol phospholipid breakdown in human IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.J. (Astra Research Centre AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden) Karolinska Institutet (Sweden)); Ahlgren, P.C. (Karolinska Institutet (Sweden)); O' Neill, C. (Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells were found to contain ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate specific binding sites inhibited by pirenzepine in a manner suggesting the presence of both M1-type and M2-type muscarinic receptor recognition sites. Neither cell had detectable ({sup 3}H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites. Carbachol stimulated the rate of inositol phospholipid breakdown in IMR-32 and SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells with an EC{sub 50} value of about 50 {mu}M in both cases. Pirenzepine inhibited the carbachol stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown in both cells with Hill slopes of unity and IC{sub 50} values of 15 nM (IMR-32) and 12 nM (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT competitively inhibited carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown with pA{sub 2} values of 5.78 (IMR-32) and 5.61 (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT agonists 5-MeODMT and buspirone at micromolar concentrations inhibited carbachol-stimulated breakdown in IMR-32 cells. The inhibition by 8-OH-DPAT and 5-MeODMT was not affected by preincubation with (-)alprenolol. 5-HT was without effect on either basal or carbachol-stimulated breakdown. It is concluded that IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells express muscarinic M1-type but not serotoninergic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. 8-OH-DPAT acts as a weak antagonist at these muscarinic receptors.

  4. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red.

  5. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red.

  6. The imidazobenzodiazepine Ro 15-4513 antagonizes methoxyflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, E J; Skolnick, P

    1988-01-01

    Parenteral administration of the imidazobenzodiazepine Ro 15-4513 (a high affinity ligand of the benzodiazepine receptor with partial inverse agonist qualities) produced a dose dependent reduction in sleep time of mice exposed to the inhalation anesthetic, methoxyflurane. The reductions in methoxyflurane sleep time ranged from approximately 20% at 4 mg/kg to approximately 38% at 32 mg/kg of Ro 15-4513. Co-administration of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788 (16 mg/kg) or the inverse agonists DMCM (5-20 mg/kg) and FG 7142 (22.5 mg/kg) blocks this effect which suggests that the reductions in methoxyflurane sleep time produced by Ro 15-4513 are mediated via occupation of benzodiazepine receptors. Moreover, neither DMCM (5-20 mg/kg) nor FG 7142 (22.5 mg/kg) reduced methoxyflurane sleep time which suggests this effect of Ro 15-4513 cannot be attributed solely to its partial inverse agonist properties. These observations support recent findings that inhalation anesthetics may produce their depressant effects via perturbation of the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor chloride channel complex, and suggest that Ro 15-4513 may serve as a prototype of agents capable of antagonizing the depressant effects of inhalation anesthetics such as methoxyflurane.

  7. N (α)-Methylated phenylhistamines exhibit affinity to the hH(4)R-a pharmacological and molecular modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Elz, Sigurd; Seifert, Roland; Straber, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Histamine H(1)-receptor agonists and antagonists exhibit affinity to the human histamine H(4)-receptor (hH(4)R). However, the pharmacological profiles between hH(1)R and hH(4)R exhibit similarities and differences. Since suprahistaprodifen and trifluoromethylphenylhistamine show significant affinity to hH(4)R, the aim of this study was to analyse a large number of new phenylhistamines, histaprodifens and phenoprodifens at hH(4)R to extend the pharmacological profile of these compound classes at hH(4)R. The hH(4)R-RGS19 fusion protein was co-expressed with G(αi2) and G(β1γ2) in Sf9 insect cells, and [(3)H]histamine competition binding as well as GTPase assays were performed. Based on adequate crystal structures, homology models of hH(4)R were generated. Molecular modelling studies, including molecular dynamics and prediction of Gibbs energy of ligand binding, were performed in order to explain the pharmacological data at hH(4)R on molecular level. The exchange of the phenyl moiety of phenylhistamines into the diphenylpropyl moiety of histaprodifens acts, in contrast to hH(1)R, as partial agonism-inverse agonism switch at hH(4)R. Based on our studies, some phenylhistamine derivatives with significantly higher affinity at hH(4)R than at hH(1)R were identified. The molecular dynamic simulations revealed two different conformations for the highly conserved Trp(6.48), suggested to be involved in receptor activation. Furthermore, the predicted Gibbs energy of ligand binding for six selected phenylhistamines was in very good agreement with the experimentally determined affinities. We identified phenylhistamine derivatives with higher affinity at hH(4)R than at hH(1)R. Besides, we have identified partial agonism-inverse agonism switch between phenylhistamines and histaprodifens at hH(4)R. These results are very important to understand selectivity between hH(1)R and hH(4)R and to design new potent H(1)R and/or H(4)R receptor ligands.

  8. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Sri Hastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition.

  9. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  10. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  11. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red. The inset on the right-hand side shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The inset on top shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 muons originate from the same primary vertex.

  12. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  13. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  14. Antagonism of cysteinyl leukot-riene receptor 1 (cysLT1R) by montelukast regulates differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells under overloaded mechanical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinsong; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Chengshuo; Guo, Weixiong; Yang, Shukai; Feng, Bailin; Chu, Jiaqi

    2017-10-11

    Long-term exposure to overloaded mechanical environment induces bone fatigue damage symptoms and osteoblast damages. Montelukast is a selective cysteinyl leukot-riene receptor 1 (cysLT1R) antagonist, which has been used for the treatment of bronchial asthma in clinics. In the current study, we have identified a novel pharmacological role of montelukast by finding that it has protective properties against overload damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Firstly, our results show that CysLT1R is expressed in MC3T3-E1 cells. Mechanical tensile strain of 5000-7000 με resulted in a significant upregulation of CysLT1R in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in an intensity dependent manner. Secondly, MTT assay indicates that loading with 5000 με mechanical strain inhibited cell proliferation, which was suppressed by montelukast treatment. Furthermore, montelukast promotes cell differentiation by increasing the expression of ALP and RUNX2. Alizarin Red S staining assay showed that montelukast abolished the inhibitory effects of overload mechanics on osteoblast mineralization. Mechanistically, the effect of montelukast on osteoblastic differentiation acted by activating the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway. The obtained results suggested that montelukast promotes proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts exposed to overload mechanics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Small molecule antagonism of oxysterol-induced Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Madsen, Christian M; Arfelt, Kristine N

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) was recently identified as the first oxysterol-activated 7TM receptor. EBI2 is essential for B cell trafficking within lymphoid tissues and thus the humoral immune response in general. Here we characterize the antagonism of the non-peptide molecule GSK...

  16. The effects of conformational constraints and steric bulk in the amino acid moiety of philanthotoxins on AMPAR antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene; Olsen, Christian A; Mellor, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    , establishing general protocols for philanthotoxin solution- and solid-phase synthesis (39-90% and 42-54% overall yields, respectively). The analogues were tested for their ability to antagonize kainate-induced currents of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoyl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPAR) expressed...

  17. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  18. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display (side view) of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. Electron clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  19. Identification of the antiarrhythmic drugs amiodarone and lorcainide as potent H3 histamine receptor inverse agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Tredici, Andria L; Ma, Jian-Nong; Piu, Fabrice; Burstein, Ethan S

    2014-01-01

    Use of molecular pharmacology to reprofile older drugs discovered before the advent of recombinant technologies is a fruitful method to elucidate mechanisms of drug action, expand understanding of structure-activity relationships between drugs and receptors, and in some cases, repurpose approved drugs. The H3 histamine receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) primarily expressed in the central nervous system where among many things it modulates cognitive processes, nociception, feeding and drinking behavior, and sleep/wakefulness. In binding assays and functional screens of the H3 histamine receptor, the antiarrhythmic drugs lorcainide and amiodarone were identified as potent, selective antagonists/inverse agonists of human and rat H3 histamine receptors, with relatively little or no activity at over 20 other monoamine GPCRs, including H1, H2, and H4 receptors. Potent antagonism of H3 receptors was unique to amiodarone and lorcainide of 20 antiarrhythmic drugs tested, representing six pharmacological classes. These results expand the pharmacophore of H3 histamine receptor antagonist/inverse agonists and may explain, in part, the effects of lorcainide on sleep in humans.

  20. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  1. Geometric Calibration of the H-4RG Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, Steven Howard; Shaklan, S.; Dorland, B.; Dudik, R.

    2012-05-01

    A Hawaii-4RG detector was developed for the Joint Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (JMAPS). JMAPS was to have been an all-sky astrometric survey designed to observe stars in the range mI = 0-14, with the capability to observe QSOs as faint as mI = 16. Stars with mI = 0-12 and quasars out to 16 mag were to be observed with single measurement precision guide windows (GWs)” that read out 15 x 15 pixel squares on the focal plane at far higher rates than the other pixels, thereby forestalling saturation. The increase in dynamic range is as large as 1000, equal to the ratio of the readout time in the full frame versus that of the GWs. The space mission has been cancelled. However, laboratory tests of the geometrical and projected astrometric accuracy of the camera were started and continue. The H-4RG is a 4K x 4K CMOS device with 10-micron pitch developed by Teledyne Imaging Systems, Inc. under contract to the Navy. We report preliminary data that show features in the apparent pixel locations in the full frame, and an investigation of the effects of the GWs on pixel locations. Copyright JPL.

  2. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF DIFFERENTIAL AMINO ACIDS OF HUMAN, MURINE, CANINE AND EQUINE TLR4/MD-2 RECEPTOR COMPLEXES CONFERRING ENDOTOXIC ACTIVATION BY LIPID A, ANTAGONISM BY ERITORAN AND SPECIES-DEPENDENT ACTIVITIES OF LIPID IVA IN THE MAMMALIAN LPS SENSOR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A literature review concerning the unexpected species differences of the vertebrate innate immune response to lipid IVA was published in CSBJ prior to the present computational study to address the unpaired activity-sequence correlation of prototypic E. coli -type lipid A and its precursor lipid IVA regarding human, murine, equine and canine species. To this end, their sequences and structures of hitherto known Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2 complexes were aligned and their differential side chain patterns studied. If required due to the lack of the corresponding X-ray crystallographic data, three-dimensional models of TLR4/MD-2/ligand complexes were generated using mono and dimeric crystal structures as templates and in silico docking of the prototypic ligands lipid A, lipid IVA and Eritoran. All differential amino acids were mapped to pinpoint species dependency on an atomic scale, i.e. the possible concert of mechanistically relevant side chains. In its most abstract and general form the three-dimensional (3D- models devise a triangular interface or “wedge” where molecular interactions between TLR4, MD-2 and ligand itself take place. This study identifies two areas in the wedge related to either agonism or antagonism reflecting why ligands like lipid IVA can possess a species dependent dual activity. Lipid IVA represents an imperfect (underacylated and backbone-flipped, low affinity ligand of mammalian TLR4/MD-2 complexes. Its specific but weak antagonistic activity in the human system is in particular due to the loss of phosphate attraction in the wedge-shaped region conferred by nonhomologous residue changes when compared to crystal and modeled structures of the corresponding murine and equine TLR4/MD-2 complexes. The counter-TLR4/MD-2 unit was also taken into account since agonist-mediated dimerization in a defined m-shaped complex composed of two TLR4/MD-2/agonist subunits triggers intracellular

  4. Antagonism of nerve growth factor-TrkA signaling and the relief of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantyh, Patrick W; Koltzenburg, Martin; Mendell, Lorne M; Tive, Leslie; Shelton, David L

    2011-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However, in the adult NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization after tissue injury. The authors outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. The authors also document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events and how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue after significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF.

  5. DNA Mismatch Repair Interacts with CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent Histone (H3-H4)2 Tetramer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriges Blanko, Elena; Kadyrova, Lyudmila Y; Kadyrov, Farid A

    2016-04-22

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is required for the maintenance of genome stability and protection of humans from several types of cancer. Human MMR occurs in the chromatin environment, but little is known about the interactions between MMR and the chromatin environment. Previous research has suggested that MMR coincides with replication-coupled assembly of the newly synthesized DNA into nucleosomes. The first step in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is CAF-1-dependent histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer deposition, a process that involves ASF1A-H3-H4 complex. In this work we used reconstituted human systems to investigate interactions between MMR and CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer deposition. We have found that MutSα inhibits CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent packaging of a DNA mismatch into a tetrasome. This finding supports the idea that MMR occurs before the DNA mismatch is packaged into the tetrasome. Our experiments have also revealed that CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent deposition of the histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers does not interfere with MMR reactions. In addition, we have established that unnecessary degradation of the discontinuous strand that takes place in both DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ)- and DNA polymerase ϵ (Pol ϵ)-dependent MMR reactions is suppressed by CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent deposition of the histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers. These data suggest that CAF-1- and ASF1A-H3-H4-dependent deposition of the histone (H3-H4)2 tetramers is compatible with MMR and protects the discontinuous daughter strand from unnecessary degradation by MMR machinery. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Mepyramine-JNJ7777120-hybrid compounds show high affinity to hH(1)R, but low affinity to hH(4)R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eva; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Elz, Sigurd; Strasser, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    In literature, a synergism between histamine H(1) and H(4) receptor is discussed. Furthermore, it was shown, that the combined application of mepyramine, a H(1) antagonist and JNJ7777120, a H(4) receptor ligand leads to a synergistic effect in the acute murine asthma model. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop new hybrid ligands, containing one H(1) and one H(4) pharmacophor, connected by an appropriate spacer, in order to address both, H(1)R and H(4)R. Within this study, we synthesized nine hybrid compounds, which were pharmacologically characterized at hH(1)R and hH(4)R. The new compounds revealed (high) affinity to hH(1)R, but showed only low affinity to hH(4)R. Additionally, we performed molecular dynamic studies for some selected compounds at hH(1)R, in order to obtain information about the binding mode of these compounds on molecular level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetics of the Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Polycrystalline Germanium-Silicon Alloys from SiH4 and GeH4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, J.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Verweij, J.F.; Verweij, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    A Langmuir-Hinshelwood growth-rate equation is presented for the germanium-silicon (GeSi) alloy deposition fromGeH4 and SiH4 assuming dissociative chemisorption on a heterogeneous GeSi surface. Model parameters for the depositionkinetics have been extracted from measurements. The fit for the

  8. File list: His.ALL.20.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.20.H4tetraac.AllCell ce10 Histone H4tetraac All cell types SRX059244,SRX059...245,SRX747305,SRX747306 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.ALL.20.H4tetraac.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Lar.20.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.H4tetraac.AllCell ce10 Histone H4tetraac Larvae SRX059244,SRX059245,SRX7...47305,SRX747306 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Lar.20.H4tetraac.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Lar.05.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.ALL.50.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.ALL.10.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: His.ALL.05.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Lar.10.H4tetraac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.10.H4tetraac.AllCell ce10 Histone H4tetraac Larvae SRX059244,SRX059245,SRX7...47305,SRX747306 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Lar.10.H4tetraac.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Results of hydrologic tests and water-chemistry analyses, wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C, at the proposed waste isolation pilot plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jerry W.; Davis, Paul; Dennehy, K.F.; Goetz, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Data were collected during hydrologic testing at wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C in the southern part of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico. The three water-bearing zones tested, the Magenta and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation and the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact, yield water to wells at rates less than 0.9 gallon per minute. Throughout the testing, water-pressure response in the tested zone was monitored by a pressure transducer system. Shut-in and slug tests were conducted to acquire the data from which the following values were derived. Calculated transmissivities for the Magenta, Culebra and the Rustler-Salado contact at wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C were 0.06, 0.9, and 0.0006 foot squared per day respectively. Water samples from the Magenta and Culebra had dissolved-solids concentrations of 22,300 and 18,100 milligrams per liter, respectively. The major chemical constituents of ground-water samples from these two zones were sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Water samples from the Rustler-Salado contact had a dissolved-solids concentration of 322,000 milligrams per liter and magnesium, sodium, and chloride were the major constituents. Radium-226, a naturally occurring radioactive element, was present in samples from all three zones. (USGS)

  17. CCR1 antagonism attenuates T cell trafficking to omentum and liver in obesity-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Melissa J; Galvin, Karen C; Kavanagh, Maria E; Mongan, Ann Marie; Doyle, Suzanne L; Gilmartin, Niamh; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Reynolds, John V; Lysaght, Joanne

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a global health problem presenting serious risk of disease fuelled by chronic inflammation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and cancer. Visceral fat, in particular the omentum and liver of obese individuals are sites of excessive inflammation. We propose that chemokine-mediated trafficking of pro-inflammatory cells to the omentum and liver contributes to local and subsequent systemic inflammation. Oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (OAC) is an exemplar model of obesity and inflammation driven cancer. We have demonstrated that T cells actively migrate to the secreted factors from the omentum and liver of OAC patients and that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells bearing the chemokine receptor CCR5 are significantly more prevalent in these tissues compared to matched blood. The CCR5 ligand and inflammatory chemokine MIP-1α is also secreted at significantly higher concentrations in the omentum and liver of our OAC patient cohort compared to matched serum. Furthermore, we report that MIP-1α receptor antagonism can significantly reduce T cell migration to the secreted factors from OAC omentum and liver. These novel data suggest that chemokine receptor antagonism may have therapeutic potential to reduce inflammatory T cell infiltration to the omentum and liver and in doing so, may ameliorate pathological inflammation in obesity and obesity-associated cancer.

  18. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  19. H4 Tails Potentially Produce the Diversity in the Orientation of Two Nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Kono, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-05

    Histone tails play an important role in internucleosomal interaction and chromatin compaction. To understand how the H4 tails are involved in the internucleosomal interaction, an adaptively biased molecular dynamics simulation of 63 models of two stacked nucleosomes, each with the H4 tails in different locations, was carried out. This simulation generated a variety of orientations of the separated nucleosomes depending on the formation of the H4 tail bridge between the H4 tails and the DNA of the neighboring nucleosomes. For the models that showed distinctive orientations of the two nucleosomes, the free energies of the separation of the nucleosomes were further investigated using umbrella sampling simulations. The attractive force between the nucleosomes was estimated from the free energies; the force when two H4 tail bridges formed varied from 36 to 63 pN, depending on the formation of the H4 tail-bridge and the interfacial interaction, whereas the force reduced to 15-18 pN after either one of the H4 tail bridges had broken, regardless of the conformation of the H4 tail. Additional simulations of the nucleosomes show that when the H4 tail was truncated, the force between the nucleosomes became repulsive (from-3 to -7 pN). We concluded that the H4 tails potentially produce the diversity in the orientation of the two nucleosomes, which would contribute to the polymorphism of the chromatin structure. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of Escherichia coli O104:H4 and role of aerobactin during colonization of a mouse model of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Alfredo G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major outbreak of bloody diarrhea associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred early in 2011, to which an unusual number of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases were linked. Due to limited information regarding pathogenesis and/or virulence properties of this particular serotype, we investigated the contribution of the aerobactin iron transport system during in vitro and in vivo conditions. Results A bioluminescent reporter construct was used to perform real-time monitoring of E. coli O104:H4 in a mouse model of infection. We verified that our reporter strain maintained characteristics and growth kinetics that were similar to those of the wild-type E. coli strain. We found that the intestinal cecum of ICR (CD-1 mice was colonized by O104:H4, with bacteria persisting for up to 7 days after intragastric inoculation. MALDI-TOF analysis of heat-extracted proteins was performed to identify putative surface-exposed virulence determinants. A protein with a high similarity to the aerobactin iron receptor was identified and further demonstrated to be up-regulated in E. coli O104:H4 when grown on MacConkey agar or during iron-depleted conditions. Because the aerobactin iron acquisition system is a key virulence factor in Enterobacteriaceae, an isogenic aerobactin receptor (iutA mutant was created and its intestinal fitness assessed in the murine model. We demonstrated that the aerobactin mutant was out-competed by the wild-type E. coli O104:H4 during in vivo competition experiments, and the mutant was unable to persist in the cecum. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that bioluminescent imaging is a useful tool to monitor E. coli O104:H4 colonization properties, and the murine model can become a rapid way to evaluate bacterial factors associated with fitness and/or colonization during E. coli O104:H4 infections.

  1. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of Escherichia coli O104:H4 and role of aerobactin during colonization of a mouse model of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A major outbreak of bloody diarrhea associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred early in 2011, to which an unusual number of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases were linked. Due to limited information regarding pathogenesis and/or virulence properties of this particular serotype, we investigated the contribution of the aerobactin iron transport system during in vitro and in vivo conditions. Results A bioluminescent reporter construct was used to perform real-time monitoring of E. coli O104:H4 in a mouse model of infection. We verified that our reporter strain maintained characteristics and growth kinetics that were similar to those of the wild-type E. coli strain. We found that the intestinal cecum of ICR (CD-1) mice was colonized by O104:H4, with bacteria persisting for up to 7 days after intragastric inoculation. MALDI-TOF analysis of heat-extracted proteins was performed to identify putative surface-exposed virulence determinants. A protein with a high similarity to the aerobactin iron receptor was identified and further demonstrated to be up-regulated in E. coli O104:H4 when grown on MacConkey agar or during iron-depleted conditions. Because the aerobactin iron acquisition system is a key virulence factor in Enterobacteriaceae, an isogenic aerobactin receptor (iutA) mutant was created and its intestinal fitness assessed in the murine model. We demonstrated that the aerobactin mutant was out-competed by the wild-type E. coli O104:H4 during in vivo competition experiments, and the mutant was unable to persist in the cecum. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that bioluminescent imaging is a useful tool to monitor E. coli O104:H4 colonization properties, and the murine model can become a rapid way to evaluate bacterial factors associated with fitness and/or colonization during E. coli O104:H4 infections. PMID:22716772

  2. Differences between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II-AT(1) antagonism on angiotensin-mediated responses in human internal mammary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, AA; Oosterga, M; Buikema, H; Mariani, M; Grandjean, JG; van Glist, WH

    The cur-rent study aimed to demonstrate differences between angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and Ang II-AT(1) receptor antagonism on full concentration-contraction responses to Ang I. Contraction responses to increasing concentrations of Ang I (1 nM-1 muM) were evaluated in organ

  3. O2CC6H4C6H4CO2(SnPh32∙4H2O AND HO2CC6H4C6H4CO2SnBu2Cl: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When the diphenic acid HO2CC6H4C6H4CO2H is allowed to react with SnBu2Cl2 or SnPh3OH, HO2CC6H4C6H4CO2. SnBu2Cl (A and O2CC6H4C6H4CO2(SnPh32∙4H2O(B were obtained and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The structures are an infinite chain or an oligomer, the diphenic anion being a monodentate or a monochelating ligand. The environment around the tin centers is trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  4. Calculation of thermodynamic, electronic, and optical properties of monoclinic Mg2NiH4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W.R.; Richardson, T.J.; Rubin, M.D.; Wang, L-W.

    2001-10-01

    Ab initio total-energy density functional theory is used to investigate the low temperature (LT) monoclinic form of Mg2NiH4. The calculated minimum energy geometry of LT Mg2NiH4 is close to that determined from neutron diffraction data, and the NiH4 complex is close to a regular tetrahedron. The enthalpies of the phase change to high temperature (HT) pseudo-cubic Mg2NiH4 and of hydrogen absorption by Mg2Ni are calculated and compared with experimental values. LT Mg2NiH4 is found to be a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.4 eV. The optical dielectric function of LT Mg2NiH4 differs somewhat from that of the HT phase. A calculated thin film transmittance spectrum is consistent with an experimental spectrum.

  5. Insulin Antagonizes Thrombin-Induced Microvessel Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Xue Lian; Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Sustained increase in microvessel permeability results in cell and tissue damage. To date, it has not been possible to safely and specifically block increased microvessel permeability in vivo. We showed that insulin stimulates angiogenesis and that the new microvessels are associated with more αSMA-producing cells, suggesting greater stability. In this study, we show that local injection of insulin under the skin of mice significantly inhibits thrombin-induced microvessel permeability and that insulin improves the barrier function of primary human endothelial cells under conditions that mimic endothelium in vivo. These findings indicate that insulin antagonizes thrombin-induced microvessel permeability. At the cell and molecular levels, we show that insulin interferes with thrombin-induced VE-cadherin signaling by decreasing the ability of thrombin to induce VE-cadherin translocation to the cytoskeleton/nuclear compartment, leading to microvessel leakage. Simultaneously, the rapid activation of Src by insulin followed by the activation of Rac1, a small GTPase involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, leads to the maintenance of endothelial barrier, short-circuiting the slower thrombin-induced Src-RhoA signaling that leads to endothelial permeability. This novel mechanism by which insulin inhibits thrombin-induced permeability provides support for the use of insulin treatment in pathological conditions that involve blood-barrier dysfunction, especially as resuscitation treatment methods for extensive burns, sepsis, and other severe pathological conditions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. B7-H4 expression indicates poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Ma, Si-Rui; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Checkpoint blockade therapy utilizing monoclonal antibodies to reactivate T cells and recover their antitumor activity makes an epoch in cancer immunotherapy. The role of B7-H4, a novel negative immune checkpoint, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has still not been elucidated. In this study, tissue samples from human OSCC, which contains 165 primary OSCC, 48 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 normal oral mucosa specimens, and Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model were stained with B7-H4 antibody to analyze the correlations between B7-H4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival of patients with high B7-H4 expression and patients with low B7-H4 expression. We found B7-H4 is highly expressed in human OSCC tissue, and the B7-H4 expression level was associated with the clinicopathological parameters containing pathological grade and lymph node status. Moreover, we confirmed that B7-H4 was overexpressed in Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model. Our data also indicated that patients with high B7-H4 expression had poor overall survival compared with those with low B7-H4 expression. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that B7-H4 was positively associated with PD-L1, CD11b, CD33, PI3Kα p110, and p-S6 (S235/236). Taken together, these findings suggest B7-H4 is a potential target in the treatment of OSCC.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of H4K5 acetylation associated with fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Sehwan; Rehrauer, Hubert; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2013-08-08

    Histone acetylation has been implicated in learning and memory in the brain, however, its function at the level of the genome and at individual genetic loci remains poorly investigated. This study examines a key acetylation mark, histone H4 lysine 5 acetylation (H4K5ac), genome-wide and its role in activity-dependent gene transcription in the adult mouse hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning. Using ChIP-Seq, we identified 23,235 genes in which H4K5ac correlates with absolute gene expression in the hippocampus. However, in the absence of transcription factor binding sites 150 bp upstream of the transcription start site, genes were associated with higher H4K5ac and expression levels. We further establish H4K5ac as a ubiquitous modification across the genome. Approximately one-third of all genes have above average H4K5ac, of which ~15% are specific to memory formation and ~65% are co-acetylated for H4K12. Although H4K5ac is prevalent across the genome, enrichment of H4K5ac at specific regions in the promoter and coding region are associated with different levels of gene expression. Additionally, unbiased peak calling for genes differentially acetylated for H4K5ac identified 114 unique genes specific to fear memory, over half of which have not previously been associated with memory processes. Our data provide novel insights into potential mechanisms of gene priming and bookmarking by histone acetylation following hippocampal memory activation. Specifically, we propose that hyperacetylation of H4K5 may prime genes for rapid expression following activity. More broadly, this study strengthens the importance of histone posttranslational modifications for the differential regulation of transcriptional programs in cognitive processes.

  8. ETV Report:Siemens Model H-4XE-HO Open Channel UV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Siemens Barrier Sunligt H-4XE-HO UV System was completed at the UV Validation and Research Center of New York (UV Center), located in Johnstown, NY. The H-4XE System utilizes 16 high-output, low-pressure lamps oriented horizontally and parallel to the...

  9. Comprehensive Characterization of Escherichia coil O104 : H4 Isolated from Patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; de Boer, Richard F.; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; Rossen, John W. A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a Shiga toxin producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coil (EAEC Stx2a+) 0104:H4 strain caused a serious outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and hemolyticuremic syndrome (HUS) in Germany. In 2013, E. col O104:H4 isolates were obtained from a patient with HUS and her friend showing only

  10. Compaction of LiBH4-LiAlH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plerdsranoy, Praphatsorn; Javadian, Payam; Jensen, Nicholai Daugaard

    2017-01-01

    To enhance volumetric hydrogen capacity for on-board fuel cells, compaction of LiAlH4-LiBH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) is for the first time proposed. Loose powders of milled and nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 samples are compacted under 976 MPa to obtain the pellet samples...... content liberated from milled LiAlH4-LiBH4 pellet is 65% of theoretical capacity in the temperature range of 80–475 °C, while that of nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 pellet is up to 80% at lower temperature of 100–400 °C. Besides, nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 pellet shows significant reduction of activation energy...

  11. [Clinical significance of determination of serum B7-H4 in patients with malignant hematologic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Mei; Hu, Guo-Yan; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Shu-Hua; Lv, Jing; Wang, Hong-Mei; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2010-09-01

    To study the clinical significance of determination of serum B7-H4 in patients with malignant hematologic diseases. Serum B7-H4 levels were determined in 65 patients with leucemia, 34 patients with lymphoma, 12 patients with multiple myeloma as well as in 50 healthy controls. The serum B7-H4 levels in patients with lymphoma [(38.81+/-10.34) kappag/L] were significantly higher than healthy controls [(31.62+/-9.850) kappag/L] (Pleucemia, patients with multiple myeloma and healthy controls. These results suggest that the B7-H4 may correlated with lymphoma, but uncorrelated with leucemia and multiple myeloma. Measurement of serum B7-H4 level provide useful information for distinctive diagnosis of different kinds of malignant hematologic diseases.

  12. Characterization of joining sites of a viral histone H4 on host insect chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    Full Text Available A viral histone H4 (CpBV-H4 is encoded in a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV. It plays a crucial role in parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, by altering host gene expression in an epigenetic mode by its N-terminal tail after joining host nucleosomes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between parasitized and nonparasitized P. xylostella by RNA-Seq indicated that 1,858 genes were altered at more than two folds in expression levels at late parasitic stage, including 877 up-regulated genes and 981 down-regulated genes. Among parasitic factors altering host gene expression, CpBV-H4 alone explained 16.3% of these expressional changes. To characterize the joining sites of CpBV-H4 on host chromosomes, ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing was applied to chromatins extracted from parasitized larvae. It identified specific 538 ChIP targets. Joining sites were rich (60.2% in AT sequence. Almost 40% of ChIP targets included short nucleotide repeat sequences presumably recognizable by transcriptional factors and chromatin remodeling factors. To further validate these CpBV-H4 targets, CpBV-H4 was transiently expressed in nonparasitized host at late larval stage and subjected to ChIP-Seq. Two kinds of ChIP-Seqs shared 51 core joining sites. Common targets were close (within 1 kb to genes regulated at expression levels by CpBV-H4. However, other host genes not close to CpBV-H4 joining sites were also regulated by CpBV-H4. These results indicate that CpBV-H4 joins specific chromatin regions of P. xylostella and controls about one sixth of the total host genes that were regulated by C. plutellae parasitism in an epigenetic mode.

  13. Dynamic distribution of histone H4 arginine 3 methylation marks in the developing murine cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Chittka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications regulate key transitions in cell fate during development of the central nervous system (CNS. During cortical development the initial population of proliferative neuroepithelial precursor cells give rise to neurons and then glia in a strict temporal order. Neurogenesis and gliogenesis are accompanied by a switch from symmetric to asymmetric divisions of the neural precursor cells generating another precursor and a differentiated progeny. To investigate whether specific post-translational histone modifications define specific stages of neural precursor differentiation during cortical development I focussed on the appearance of two different types of histone arginine methylation, the dimethyl symmetric H4R3 (H4R3me2s and dimethyl asymmetric H4R3 (H4R3me2a in the developing mouse cortex.An immunohistochemical study of the developing cortex at different developmental stages was performed to detect the distribution of H4R3me2s and H4R3me2a modifications. I analysed the distribution of these modifications in: 1 undifferentiated neural precursors, 2 post-mitotic neurons and 3 developing oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs using lineage-specific and histone modification-specific antibodies to co-label the cells. I found that the proliferative neuroepithelium during the stage of mainly symmetric expansive divisions is characterised by the prevalence of H4R3me2s modification and almost no detectable H4R3me2a modification. However, at a later stage, when the cortical layers with post-mitotic neurons have begun forming, both H4R3me2a and H4R3me2s modifications are detected in the post-mitotic neurons and in the developing OLPs.I propose that the H4R3me2s modification forms part of the "histone code" of undifferentiated neural precursors. The later appearance of the H4R3me2a modifications specifies the onset of neurogenesis and gliogenesis and the commitment of the NSCs to differentiate. Thus, the sequential appearance of the two

  14. Functional characterization by heterologous expression of a novel cloned tachykinin peptide receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, L F; Haskell, C A; Hanley, M R

    1996-01-01

    An orphan receptor resembling the neurokinin 3 tachykinin receptor (NK3), initially claimed to be an atypical opioid receptor, is shown herein to respond potently to the physiological NK3 receptor ligand, neurokinin B. This 'NK4' receptor did not give functional responses in Xenopus oocytes to opioid agonists. However, NK4 receptor activation was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of dynorphin. The NK4 receptor is therefore a tachykinin receptor which is functionally antagonized by an endo...

  15. In vitro Activity and Function of B7-H4-Ig Fusion Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne B; Kosicki, Michael; Svendsen, Signe Goul

    2013-01-01

    was assayed for its effects in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) systems. Soluble B7- H4-Ig had no significant effect in the MLC, but with a tendency to promote allogeneic response. Immobilized, but not soluble B7-H4-Ig inhibited plastic bound anti-CD3 mediated activation of T cells. This inhibition......B7-H4 has been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation, cytokine production and cell cycle in vitro. B7-H4 deficient mice develop exacerbated disease in the mouse models of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). On the other hand, B7-H4......-Ig fusion protein has been documented to assuage the symptoms in mouse models of RA, T1D, and multiple sclerosis in vivo. In the present study, B7-H4-Ig bound to the majority of human peripheral blood monocytes and NK cells, but not to either normal or activated T cells. B7-H4-Ig fusion protein...

  16. Naltrexone antagonizes the analgesic and immunosuppressive effects of morphine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D J; Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1994-05-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between morphine-induced analgesia and immunosuppression after acute administration. In male CD1 mice, morphine (10.0-100.0 mg/kg s.c.) produced a U-shaped immunosuppressive dose-effect curve on splenic natural killer (NK) activity. Morphine also induced dose-related analgesia, as measured by an increase in tail-flick latency during thermal application; these analgesic effects were antagonized by naltrexone (1.0-10.0 mg/kg). In addition, morphine-induced suppression of splenic NK activity was antagonized in a dose-dependent manner and, at one dose of naltrexone (10.0 mg/kg), splenic NK activity was augmented. To investigate further the relationship between naltrexone antagonism of morphine-induced analgesia and immunomodulation, single doses of morphine (10.0-100.0 mg/kg) were administered to mice pretreated with naltrexone (0.01-10.0 mg/kg) or saline. A dose of 10.0 mg/kg of morphine produced 35% of the maximal possible effect in the analgesia study and no immunosuppression, whereas a dose of 32.0 mg/kg produced a maximal analgesic effect and significant suppression of NK activity. Naltrexone blocked morphine-induced analgesia and immunosuppression in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the combination of 1.0 mg/kg of naltrexone and 32.0 mg/kg of morphine elevated splenic NK activity. A large dose of morphine (100.0 mg/kg) elicited full analgesia and had no effect on splenic NK activity in saline- or naltrexone-pretreated mice. Collectively, these results support the view that, in mice, morphine-induced analgesia and immunosuppression are mediated through a common opioid receptor type.

  17. Destabilized LiBH4-NaAlH4 Mixtures Doped with Titanium Based Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qing; Yu, Xuebin; Feidenhans'l, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the hydrogen storage properties of the mixed complex hydride LiBH4-NaAlH4 system, both undoped and doped with a TiCl3 additive. The mixed system is found to initiate a transformation to LiBH4-NaAlH4 after ball-milling, and the doped system is found to have a significant lower hydro......Na2AlH6 is found in NaAlH4 rich mixtures at higher temperature, and this phase is found to reversibly discharge and recharge hydrogen at 80 bar and 180 degrees C....

  18. The cryptomonad histone H4-encoding gene: structure and chromosomal localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S B; Rensing, S A; Maier, U G

    1994-12-15

    Cryptomonads are unicellular flagellates whose plastids are surrounded by four membranes. A periplastidal compartment, containing eukaryote-type ribosomes, starch grains and a so-called nucleomorph, is located between the inner and outer membrane pairs. The nucleomorph has been shown to be the vestigial nucleus of a eukaryotic endosymbiont. In order to obtain more information about the chromatin structure of the nucleomorph and the host nuclear chromosomes, we studied the distribution of the histone, H4. H4 was not detectable in the nucleomorph by immunolocalization, thus supporting earlier findings by Gibbs [In: Wiesner et al. (Eds.), Experimental Phycology 1, 1990, pp. 145-157]. Likewise, no H4 DNA was demonstrable in the nucleomorph by Southern hybridization. Sequence analysis, and Southern and Northern blot data of a cryptomonad gene, H4, indicate an intermediate position for these genes between animals and plants.

  19. Polysorbates prevent biofilm formation and pathogenesis of Escherichia coli O104:H4

    OpenAIRE

    Sloup, Rudolph E.; Cieza, Roberto J.; Needle, David B.; Abramovitch, Robert B.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli biotype O104:H4 recently caused the deadliest E. coli outbreak ever reported. Based on prior results, it was hypothesized that compounds inhibiting biofilm formation by O104:H4 would reduce its pathogenesis. The nonionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80) and polysorbate 20 (PS20) were found to reduce biofilms by ≥ 90% at submicromolar concentrations and elicited nearly complete dispersal of preformed biofilms. PS80 did not significantly impact in vivo colonization in a mouse ...

  20. Changes in histone H4 acetylation during in vivo versus in vitro maturation of equine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Federica; Lodde, Valentina; Goudet, Ghylène; Duchamp, Guy; Deleuze, Stefan; Douet, Cécile; Tessaro, Irene; Luciano, Alberto M

    2012-05-01

    Epigenetic modifications are established during gametogenesis and preimplantation embryonic development. Any disturbance of the normal natural environment during these critical phases could cause alterations of the epigenetic signature. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of chromatin organization and gene expression. The present study was aimed to determine whether the proper establishment of post-translational histone H4 acetylation at lysine 8 (AcH4K8), 12 (AcH4K12) and 16 (AcH4K16) of equine oocytes is adversely affected during in vitro maturation (IVM) when compared with in vivo matured oocytes collected from naturally cycling mares not undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation. The acetylation patterns were investigated by means of indirect immunofluorescence staining with specific antibodies directed against the acetylated lysine residues. Our results indicate that the acetylation state of H4 is dependent on the chromatin configuration in immature germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and it changes in a residue-specific manner along with the increase of chromatin condensation. In particular, the levels of AcH4K8 and AcH4K12 increased significantly, while AcH4K16 decreased significantly from the fibrillar to the condensed state of chromatin configuration within the GV. Moreover, during meiosis, K8 and K12 were substantially deacetylated without any differences between in vivo and in vitro conditions, while K16 displayed a strong acetylation in oocytes matured in vivo, and in contrast, it was markedly deacetylated following IVM. Although the functional meaning of residue-specific acetylation during oocyte differentiation and meiotic resumption needs further investigation, our results support the hypothesis that IVM conditions can adversely affect oocyte ability to regulate the epigenetic reprogramming, critical for successful meiosis and subsequent embryonic development.

  1. B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma , and compared to commercial antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Abcam, and Abbiotec. Although all commercial...staining and is overexpressed in both lobular and ductal cancer of the breast, although more prominent staining is noted in ductal carcinoma (Fig...Membranous, apical staining of B7-H4 in normal breast tissue (100x magnification). (F) Overexpression of B7-H4 in breast lobular carcinoma (100x

  2. Cotinine antagonizes the behavioral effects of nicotine exposure in the planarian Girardia tigrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Daniel J; Tenaglia, Matthew; Baker, Debra L; Deats, Sean; Montgomery, Erica; Pagán, Oné R

    2016-10-06

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs abused by humans. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that nicotine decreases motility and induces seizure-like behavior in planarians (pSLM, which are vigorous writhing and bending of the body) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nicotine also induces withdrawal-like behaviors in these worms. Cotinine is the major nicotine metabolite in humans, although it is not the final product of nicotine metabolism. Cotinine is mostly inactive in vertebrate nervous systems and is currently being explored as a molecule which possess most of nicotine's beneficial effects and few of its undesirable ones. It is not known whether cotinine is a product of nicotine metabolism in planarians. We found that cotinine by itself does not seem to elicit any behavioral effects in planarians up to a concentration of 1mM. We also show that cotinine antagonizes the aforementioned nicotine-induced motility decrease and also decreases the expression of nicotine-induced pSLMs in a concentration-dependent manner. Also cotinine prevents the manifestation of some of the withdrawal-like behaviors induced by nicotine in our experimental organism. Thus, we obtained evidence supporting that cotinine antagonizes nicotine in this planarian species. Possible explanations include competitive binding of both compounds at overlapping binding sites, at different nicotinic receptor subtypes, or maybe allosteric interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of histone H4 biotinylation in the structure of nucleosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Filenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of histones play important roles in regulating nucleosome structure and gene transcription. It has been shown that biotinylation of histone H4 at lysine-12 in histone H4 (K12Bio-H4 is associated with repression of a number of genes. We hypothesized that biotinylation modifies the physical structure of nucleosomes, and that biotin-induced conformational changes contribute to gene silencing associated with histone biotinylation.To test this hypothesis we used atomic force microscopy to directly analyze structures of nucleosomes formed with biotin-modified and non-modified H4. The analysis of the AFM images revealed a 13% increase in the length of DNA wrapped around the histone core in nucleosomes with biotinylated H4. This statistically significant (p<0.001 difference between native and biotinylated nucleosomes corresponds to adding approximately 20 bp to the classical 147 bp length of nucleosomal DNA.The increase in nucleosomal DNA length is predicted to stabilize the association of DNA with histones and therefore to prevent nucleosomes from unwrapping. This provides a mechanistic explanation for the gene silencing associated with K12Bio-H4. The proposed single-molecule AFM approach will be instrumental for studying the effects of various epigenetic modifications of nucleosomes, in addition to biotinylation.

  4. Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejc, Katjuša; Bian, Qian; Uzawa, Satoru; Wheeler, Bayly S; Anderson, Erika C; King, David S; Kranzusch, Philip J; Preston, Christine G; Meyer, Barbara J

    2017-09-21

    Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. C2H4 adsorption on Cu(210), revisited: bonding nature and coverage effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Shuichi; Arguelles, Elvis; Agerico Diño, Wilson; Okada, Michio; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-08-24

    With the aid of density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations, we investigate the adsorption of C2H4 on Cu(210). We found two C2H4 adsorption sites, viz., the top of the step-edge atom (S) and the long bridge between two step-edge atoms (SS) of Cu(210). The step-edge atoms on Cu(210) block the otherwise active terrace sites found on copper surfaces with longer step sizes. This results in the preference for π-bonded over di-σ-bonded C2H4. We also found two stable C2H4 adsorption orientations on the S- and SS-sites, viz., with the C2H4 C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond parallel (fit) and perpendicular (cross) to [001]. Furthermore, we found that the three peaks observed in previous temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiment [Surf. Sci., 2011, 605, 934-940] could be attributed to C2H4 in the S-fit or S-cross, S-fit and S-cross-fit (S-cross and S-fit configurations that both exist in the same unit cell) configurations on Cu(210).

  6. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-02

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  7. Furosemide interactions with brain GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, Esa R; Lüddens, Hartmut

    1997-01-01

    The loop diuretic furosemide is known to antagonize the function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct interaction of furosemide with the GABAA receptors by autoradiography and ligand binding studies with native rat and human receptors and with recombinant receptors composed of rat subunits.Autoradiography with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) as a ligand indicated that furosemide (0.1–1 mM) reversed the 5 μM GABA-induced inhibition of binding only in the cerebellar granule cell layer of rat brain sections. In all other regions studied, notably also in the hippocampal and thalamic areas, furosemide failed to antagonize GABA. Furosemide 1 mM decreased [35S]-TBPS binding only in a limited number of brain regions, but facilitation of the GABA-inhibition of the binding was much more widespread.In well-washed rat cerebellar, but not cerebrocortical, membranes, furosemide enhanced the [35S]-TBPS binding over basal level in the absence of added GABA. The GABAA antagonist, SR 95531, and the convulsant, Ro 5-4864, blocked this furosemide-induced increase. Both interactions with the furosemide enhancement are likely to be allosteric, since furosemide affected the binding of [3H]-SR 95531 and [3H]-Ro 5-4864 identically in the cerebellar and cerebrocortical membranes. Maximal GABA-antagonism induced by furosemide in cerebellar membranes was further increased by SR 95531 but not by Ro 5-4864, indicating additive antagonism only for SR 95531. In human cerebellar receptors, only GABA antagonism by furosemide, but not the enhancement without added GABA, was observed.In recombinant GABAA receptors, furosemide antagonism of GABA-inhibition of [35S]-TBPS binding depended only on the presence of α6 and β2/3 subunits, irrespective of the presence or absence of γ2 or δ subunits.In α6β3γ2 receptors, clozapine reversed the enhancement of [35S]-TBPS binding by furosemide in the absence

  8. Influence of histone tails and H4 tail acetylations on nucleosome-nucleosome interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Chenning; Yang, Ye; Fan, Yanping; Yang, Renliang; Liu, Chuan-Fa; Korolev, Nikolay; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2011-12-16

    Nucleosome-nucleosome interaction plays a fundamental role in chromatin folding and self-association. The cation-induced condensation of nucleosome core particles (NCPs) displays properties similar to those of chromatin fibers, with important contributions from the N-terminal histone tails. We study the self-association induced by addition of cations [Mg(2+), Ca(2+), cobalt(III)hexammine(3+), spermidine(3+) and spermine(4)(+)] for NCPs reconstituted with wild-type unmodified histones and with globular tailless histones and for NCPs with the H4 histone tail having lysine (K) acetylations or lysine-to-glutamine mutations at positions K5, K8, K12 and K16. In addition, the histone construct with the single H4K16 acetylation was investigated. Acetylated histones were prepared by a semisynthetic native chemical ligation method. The aggregation behavior of NCPs shows a general cation-dependent behavior similar to that of the self-association of nucleosome arrays. Unlike nucleosome array self-association, NCP aggregation is sensitive to position and nature of the H4 tail modification. The tetra-acetylation in the H4 tail significantly weakens the nucleosome-nucleosome interaction, while the H4 K→Q tetra-mutation displays a more modest effect. The single H4K16 acetylation also weakens the self-association of NCPs, which reflects the specific role of H4K16 in the nucleosome-nucleosome stacking. Tailless NCPs can aggregate in the presence of oligocations, which indicates that attraction also occurs by tail-independent nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and DNA-DNA attraction in the presence of cations. The experimental data were compared with the results of coarse-grained computer modeling for NCP solutions with explicit presence of mobile ions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum. ... Trichoderma virens. Among these isolates, D-3-1 (T. longibrachiatum) showed the strongest inhibition of the growth of Fusarium sambucinum. Key words: Trichoderma, potato, dry rot, biological control, Fusarium sambucinum.

  10. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Liang Cui

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.

  11. Analysis of Determinants in Filovirus Glycoproteins Required for Tetherin Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Gnirß

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The host cell protein tetherin can restrict the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts tetherin by removing it from the site of viral budding, the plasma membrane, and this process depends on specific interactions between the transmembrane domains of Vpu and tetherin. In contrast, the glycoproteins (GPs of two filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg virus, antagonize tetherin without reducing surface expression, and the domains in GP required for tetherin counteraction are unknown. Here, we show that filovirus GPs depend on the presence of their authentic transmembrane domains for virus-cell fusion and tetherin antagonism. However, conserved residues within the transmembrane domain were dispensable for membrane fusion and tetherin counteraction. Moreover, the insertion of the transmembrane domain into a heterologous viral GP, Lassa virus GPC, was not sufficient to confer tetherin antagonism to the recipient. Finally, mutation of conserved residues within the fusion peptide of Ebola virus GP inhibited virus-cell fusion but did not ablate tetherin counteraction, indicating that the fusion peptide and the ability of GP to drive host cell entry are not required for tetherin counteraction. These results suggest that the transmembrane domains of filoviral GPs contribute to tetherin antagonism but are not the sole determinants.

  12. Exploitative and hierarchical antagonism in a cooperative bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Social organisms that cooperate with some members of their own species, such as close relatives, may fail to cooperate with other genotypes of the same species. Such noncooperation may take the form of outright antagonism or social exploitation. Myxococcus xanthus is a highly social prokaryote that cooperatively develops into spore-bearing, multicellular fruiting bodies in response to starvation. Here we have characterized the nature of social interactions among nine developmentally proficient strains of M. xanthus isolated from spatially distant locations. Strains were competed against one another in all possible pairwise combinations during starvation-induced development. In most pairings, at least one competitor exhibited strong antagonism toward its partner and a majority of mixes showed bidirectional antagonism that decreased total spore production, even to the point of driving whole populations to extinction. Differential response to mixing was the primary determinant of competitive superiority rather than the sporulation efficiencies of unmixed populations. In some competitive pairings, the dominant partner sporulated more efficiently in mixed populations than in clonal isolation. This finding represents a novel form of exploitation in bacteria carried out by socially competent genotypes and is the first documentation of social exploitation among natural bacterial isolates. Patterns of antagonistic superiority among these strains form a highly linear dominance hierarchy. At least some competition pairs construct chimeric, rather than segregated, fruiting bodies. The cooperative prokaryote M. xanthus has diverged into a large number of distinct social types that cooperate with clone-mates but exhibit intense antagonism toward distinct social types of the same species. Most lengthy migration events in nature may thus result in strong antagonism between migratory and resident populations, and this antagonism may have large effects on local

  13. Numb/Numbl-Opo antagonism controls retinal epithelium morphogenesis by regulating integrin endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Delfino-Machín, Mariana; Nicolás-Pérez, María; Gavilán, María P; Gago-Rodrigues, Inês; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Lillo, Concepción; Ríos, Rosa M; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Martínez-Morales, Juan R

    2012-10-16

    Polarized trafficking of adhesion receptors plays a pivotal role in controlling cellular behavior during morphogenesis. Particularly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis of integrins has long been acknowledged as essential for cell migration. However, little is known about the contribution of integrin trafficking to epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Here we show how the transmembrane protein Opo, previously described for its essential role during optic cup folding, plays a fundamental role in this process. Through interaction with the PTB domain of the clathrin adaptors Numb and Numbl via an integrin-like NPxF motif, Opo antagonizes Numb/Numbl function and acts as a negative regulator of integrin endocytosis in vivo. Accordingly, numb/numbl gain-of-function experiments in teleost embryos mimic the retinal malformations observed in opo mutants. We propose that developmental regulator Opo enables polarized integrin localization by modulating Numb/Numbl, thus directing the basal constriction that shapes the vertebrate retina epithelium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cis and trans internucleosomal interactions of H3 and H4 tails in tetranucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Nathan P; Yuan, Chongli

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin structure and the transcriptional state of a gene can be modulated by modifications made on H3 and H4 tails of histones. Elucidating the internucleosomal interactions of these tails is vital to understanding epigenetic regulation. Differentiation between cis (intra-nucleosomal) and trans (inter-nucleosomal) interactions is often difficult with conventional techniques since H3 and H4 tails are flexible. The distinction, however, is important because these interactions model short- and long-range chromatin interactions respectively and have different bearings in biological processes. Combining FCS and PCH analysis, we can decouple the contribution of histone tails to cis and trans effects. A Mg(2+) gradient was employed to facilitate compaction and oligomerization of tetranucleosomes with H3 and/or H4 tail truncations. H3 tails were found to play a multifunctional role and exhibit the ability to partake in both attractive cis and trans interactions simultaneously. H4 tails partake in attractive cis and repulsive trans interactions at low [Mg(2+)]. These interactions are diminished at higher [Mg(2+)]. Simultaneous H3 and H4 tail truncation inhibited array oligomerization but maintained local array compaction at relatively high [Mg(2+)]. The established experimental approach can be extended to study the detailed molecular interactions mediated by epigenetic modification of flexible histone tails. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low dosage of histone H4 leads to growth defects and morphological changes in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia F Zacchi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin function depends on adequate histone stoichiometry. Alterations in histone dosage affect transcription and chromosome segregation, leading to growth defects and aneuploidies. In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, aneuploidy formation is associated with antifungal resistance and pathogenesis. Histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling proteins are also required for pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanisms that generate aneuploidies or about the epigenetic mechanisms that shape the response of C. albicans to the host environment. Here, we determined the impact of histone H4 deficit in the growth and colony morphology of C. albicans. We found that C. albicans requires at least two of the four alleles that code for histone H4 (HHF1 and HHF22 to grow normally. Strains with only one histone H4 allele show a severe growth defect and unstable colony morphology, and produce faster-growing, morphologically stable suppressors. Segmental or whole chromosomal trisomies that increased wild-type histone H4 copy number were the preferred mechanism of suppression. This is the first study of a core nucleosomal histone in C. albicans, and constitutes the prelude to future, more detailed research on the function of histone H4 in this important fungal pathogen.

  16. Systematic screen reveals new functional dynamics of histones H3 and H4 during gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govin, Jérôme; Dorsey, Jean; Gaucher, Jonathan; Rousseaux, Sophie; Khochbin, Saadi; Berger, Shelley L

    2010-08-15

    Profound epigenetic differences exist between genomes derived from male and female gametes; however, the nature of these changes remains largely unknown. We undertook a systematic investigation of chromatin reorganization during gametogenesis, using the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to examine sporulation, which has strong similarities with higher eukaryotic spermatogenesis. We established a mutational screen of histones H3 and H4 to uncover substitutions that reduce sporulation efficiency. We discovered two patches of residues-one on H3 and a second on H4-that are crucial for sporulation but not critical for mitotic growth, and likely comprise interactive nucleosomal surfaces. Furthermore, we identified novel histone post-translational modifications that mark the chromatin reorganization process during sporulation. First, phosphorylation of H3T11 appears to be a key modification during meiosis, and requires the meiotic-specific kinase Mek1. Second, H4 undergoes amino tail acetylation at Lys 5, Lys 8, and Lys 12, and these are synergistically important for post-meiotic chromatin compaction, occurring subsequent to the post-meiotic transient peak in phosphorylation at H4S1, and crucial for recruitment of Bdf1, a bromodomain protein, to chromatin in mature spores. Strikingly, the presence and temporal succession of the new H3 and H4 modifications are detected during mouse spermatogenesis, indicating that they are conserved through evolution. Thus, our results show that investigation of gametogenesis in yeast provides novel insights into chromatin dynamics, which are potentially relevant to epigenetic modulation of the mammalian process.

  17. Hydrogen Desorption Properties of Bulk and Nanoconfined LiBH4-NaAlH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Javadian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 into a mesoporous carbon aerogel scaffold with a pore size, BET surface area and total pore volume of Dmax = 30 nm, SBET = 689 m2/g and Vtot = 1.21 mL/g, respectively is investigated. Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 facilitates a reduction in the temperature of the hydrogen release by 132 °C, compared to that of bulk 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 and the onset of hydrogen release is below 100 °C. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity is also significantly improved for the nanoconfined sample, maintaining 83% of the initial hydrogen content after three cycles compared to 47% for that of the bulk sample. During nanoconfinement, LiBH4 and NaAlH4 reacts to form LiAlH4 and NaBH4 and the final dehydrogenation products, obtained at 481 °C are LiH, LiAl, AlB2 and Al. After rehydrogenation of the nanoconfined sample at T = 400 °C and p(H2 = 126 bar, amorphous NaBH4 is recovered along with unreacted LiH, AlB2 and Al and suggests that NaBH4 is the main compound that can reversibly release and uptake hydrogen.

  18. RAB-7 antagonizes LET-23 EGFR signaling during vulva development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Skorobogata

    Full Text Available The Rab7 GTPase regulates late endosome trafficking of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR to the lysosome for degradation. However, less is known about how Rab7 activity, functioning late in the endocytic pathway, affects EGFR signaling. Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans vulva cell fate induction, a paradigm for genetic analysis of EGFR/Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK signaling, to assess the genetic requirements for rab-7. Using a rab-7 deletion mutant, we demonstrate that rab-7 antagonizes LET-23 EGFR signaling to a similar extent, but in a distinct manner, as previously described negative regulators such as sli-1 c-Cbl. Epistasis analysis places rab-7 upstream of or in parallel to lin-3 EGF and let-23 EGFR. However, expression of gfp::rab-7 in the Vulva Presursor Cells (VPCs is sufficient to rescue the rab-7(- VPC induction phenotypes indicating that RAB-7 functions in the signal receiving cell. We show that components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT-0, and -I, complexes, hgrs-1 Hrs, and vps-28, also antagonize signaling, suggesting that LET-23 EGFR likely transits through Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs en route to the lysosome. Consistent with RAB-7 regulating LET-23 EGFR trafficking, rab-7 mutants have increased number of LET-23::GFP-positive endosomes. Our data imply that Rab7, by mediating EGFR trafficking and degradation, plays an important role in downregulation of EGFR signaling. Failure to downregulate EGFR signaling contributes to oncogenesis, and thus Rab7 could possess tumor suppressor activity in humans.

  19. Antagonism by supidimide of haloperidol-induced augmentation of (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, H.H.; Hess, V.; Flohe, L.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were treated for two weeks with haloperidol alone or with additional test drugs and the D/sub 2/ receptor density in the striatum was investigated after a drug-free period of five days. The D/sub 2/ receptor system as analysed by (/sup 3/H)-spinerone binding was best characterized by a model with two binding sites of different affinity. Chronic haloperidol treatment substantially augmented the total binding capacity 2-(2-Oxo-3-piperidyl)-1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-1,1-dioxide (supidimide), a functional synergist of neuroleptics in acute experiments, surprisingly antagonized the haloperidol-induced receptor augmentation, whereas other CNS depressants (diazepam and phenobarbital) were ineffective.

  20. Src phosphorylation of Alix/AIP1 modulates its interaction with binding partners and antagonizes its activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Dikic, Ivan; Bögler, Oliver

    2005-02-04

    Alix/AIP1 is an adaptor protein involved in regulating the function of receptor and cytoskeleton-associated tyrosine kinases. Here, we investigated its interaction with and regulation by Src. Tyr319 of Alix bound the isolated Src homology-2 (SH2) domain and was necessary for interaction with intact Src. A proline-rich region in the C terminus of Alix bound the Src SH3 domain, but this interaction was dependent on the release of the Src SH2 domain from its Src internal ligand either by interaction with Alix Tyr319 or by mutation of Src Tyr527. Src phosphorylated Alix at a C-terminal region rich in tyrosines, an activity that was stimulated by the presence of the Alix binding partner SETA/CIN85. Phosphorylation of Alix by Src caused it to translocate from the membrane and cytoskeleton to the cytoplasm and reduced its interaction with binding partners SETA/CIN85, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Pyk2. As a consequence of this, Src antagonized the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase internalization and cell adhesion by Alix. We propose a model whereby Src antagonizes the effects of Alix by phosphorylation of its C terminus, leading to the disruption of interactions with target proteins.

  1. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured...... a gene ontology-based inflammatory index, and an inverse relationship was observed between measured inflammation and stimulated C-peptide response in IL-1Ra- and canakinumab-treated patients. Cytokine neutralization studies showed that IL-1α and IL-1β additively contribute to the T1D inflammatory state...

  2. Polysorbates prevent biofilm formation and pathogenesis of Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloup, Rudolph E; Cieza, Roberto J; Needle, David B; Abramovitch, Robert B; Torres, Alfredo G; Waters, Christopher M

    2016-10-01

    Escherichia coli biotype O104:H4 recently caused the deadliest E. coli outbreak ever reported. Based on prior results, it was hypothesized that compounds inhibiting biofilm formation by O104:H4 would reduce its pathogenesis. The nonionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80) and polysorbate 20 (PS20) were found to reduce biofilms by ≥ 90% at submicromolar concentrations and elicited nearly complete dispersal of preformed biofilms. PS80 did not significantly impact in vivo colonization in a mouse infection model; however, mice treated with PS80 exhibited almost no intestinal inflammation or tissue damage while untreated mice exhibited robust pathology. As PS20 and PS80 are classified as 'Generally Recognized as Safe' (GRAS) compounds by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these compounds have clinical potential to treat future O104:H4 outbreaks.

  3. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  4. RPA binds histone H3-H4 and functions in DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaofeng; Xu, Zhiyun; Leng, He; Zheng, Pu; Yang, Jiayi; Chen, Kaifu; Feng, Jianxun; Li, Qing

    2017-01-27

    DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is essential to maintain genome integrity and retain epigenetic information. Multiple involved histone chaperones have been identified, but how nucleosome assembly is coupled to DNA replication remains elusive. Here we show that replication protein A (RPA), an essential replisome component that binds single-stranded DNA, has a role in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly. RPA directly binds free H3-H4. Assays using a synthetic sequence that mimics freshly unwound single-stranded DNA at replication fork showed that RPA promotes DNA-(H3-H4) complex formation immediately adjacent to double-stranded DNA. Further, an RPA mutant defective in H3-H4 binding exhibited attenuated nucleosome assembly on nascent chromatin. Thus, we propose that RPA functions as a platform for targeting histone deposition to replication fork, through which RPA couples nucleosome assembly with ongoing DNA replication. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Recognition Elements in the Histone H3 and H4 Tails for Seven Different Importins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Michael; Cağatay, Tolga; Chook, Yuh Min

    2016-09-30

    N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 are known to bind several different Importins to import the histones into the cell nucleus. However, it is not known what binding elements in the histone tails are recognized by the individual Importins. Biochemical studies of H3 and H4 tails binding to seven Importins, Impβ, Kapβ2, Imp4, Imp5, Imp7, Imp9, and Impα, show the H3 tail binding more tightly than the H4 tail. The H3 tail binds Kapβ2 and Imp5 with KD values of 77 and 57 nm, respectively, and binds the other five Importins more weakly. Mutagenic analysis shows H3 tail residues 11-27 to be the sole binding segment for Impβ, Kapβ2, and Imp4. However, Imp5, Imp7, Imp9, and Impα bind two separate elements in the H3 tail: the segment at residues 11-27 and an isoleucine-lysine nuclear localization signal (IK-NLS) motif at residues 35-40. The H4 tail also uses either one or two basic segments to bind the same set of Importins with a similar trend of relative affinities as the H3 tail, albeit at least 10-fold weaker. Of the many lysine residues in the H3 and H4 tails, only acetylation of the H3 Lys14 substantially decreased binding to several Importins. Lastly, we show that, in addition to the N-terminal tails, the histone fold domains of H3 and H4 and/or the histone chaperone Asf1b are important for Importin-histone recognition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Recognition Elements in the Histone H3 and H4 Tails for Seven Different Importins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Michael; Cağatay, Tolga; Chook, Yuh Min

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 are known to bind several different Importins to import the histones into the cell nucleus. However, it is not known what binding elements in the histone tails are recognized by the individual Importins. Biochemical studies of H3 and H4 tails binding to seven Importins, Impβ, Kapβ2, Imp4, Imp5, Imp7, Imp9, and Impα, show the H3 tail binding more tightly than the H4 tail. The H3 tail binds Kapβ2 and Imp5 with KD values of 77 and 57 nm, respectively, and binds the other five Importins more weakly. Mutagenic analysis shows H3 tail residues 11–27 to be the sole binding segment for Impβ, Kapβ2, and Imp4. However, Imp5, Imp7, Imp9, and Impα bind two separate elements in the H3 tail: the segment at residues 11–27 and an isoleucine-lysine nuclear localization signal (IK-NLS) motif at residues 35–40. The H4 tail also uses either one or two basic segments to bind the same set of Importins with a similar trend of relative affinities as the H3 tail, albeit at least 10-fold weaker. Of the many lysine residues in the H3 and H4 tails, only acetylation of the H3 Lys14 substantially decreased binding to several Importins. Lastly, we show that, in addition to the N-terminal tails, the histone fold domains of H3 and H4 and/or the histone chaperone Asf1b are important for Importin-histone recognition. PMID:27528606

  7. Relationship between lunasin's sequence and its inhibitory activity of histones H3 and H4 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; de Lumen, Ben O

    2011-07-01

    Dysfunction of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs) involved in histones acetylation has been associated with cancer. Inhibitors of these enzymes are becoming potential targets for new therapies. This study reports by Western-Blot analysis, that peptide lunasin is mainly an in vitro inhibitor of histone H4 acetylation by P300/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF), with IC₅₀ values dependent on the lysine position sensitive to be acetylated (0.83 μM (H4-Lys 8), 1.27 μM (H4-Lys 12) and 0.40 μM (H4-Lys 5, 8, 12, 16)). Lunasin is also capable of inhibiting H3 acetylation (IC₅₀ of 5.91 μM (H3-Lys 9) and 7.81 μM (H3-Lys 9, 14)). Studies on structure-activity relationship establish that lunasin's sequence are essential for inhibiting H4 acetylation whereas poly-D sequence is the main active sequence responsible for H3 acetylation inhibition. Lunasin also inhibits H3 and H4 acetylation and cell proliferation (IC₅₀ of 181 μM) in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, this peptide decreases expression of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases-4 and -6, implicated in cell cycle pathways. Results from this study demonstrates lunasin's role as modulator of histone acetylation and protein expression that might contribute on its chemopreventive properties against breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. (SC3H4N2–O–N2C3H4S) dianion chelated in [Pd{κ3 –S, O, S–(SC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the presence of tri- ethylamine involved activation of N–H bonds and formed an unusual oxo-bridged dianion, (SC3H4N2–O–. N2C3H4S)2− coordinated to PdII in Pd{κ3–S, O, S–(SC3H4N2–O–N2C3H4S)}(PPh3)]·CH3CN 1, which has.

  9. Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Numerous "antihistamines" as well as various psychotropic medications with antihistamine properties are widely utilized to treat insomnia. Over-the-counter sleep aids usually contain an antihistamine and various antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistamine properties have sedative-hypnotic actions. Although widely used for the treatment of insomnia, many agents that block the histamine H1 receptor are also widely considered to have therapeutic limitations, including the development of next-day carryover sedation, as well as problems with chronic use, such as the development of tolerance to sedative-hypnotic actions and weight gain. Although these clinical actions are classically attributed to blockade of the H1 receptor, recent findings with H1 selective agents and H1 selective dosing of older agents are challenging these notions and suggest that some of the clinical limitations of current H1-blocking agents at their currently utilized doses could be attributable to other properties of these drugs, especially to their simultaneous actions on muscarinic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors. Selective H1 antagonism is emerging as a novel approach to the treatment of insomnia, without tolerance, weight gain, or the need for the restrictive prescription scheduling required of other hypnotics.

  10. The preparation and characterisation of [Co(py) 4 C 7 H 4 SO 3 )NCI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A 1:1 complex of [Co(py)4Cl2]CI with sodium saccharide 1 has been synthesized and characterized as trans-[Co(py)4C7H4S03NCI]CI.H2O by a combination of UV-Vis spectroscopy, 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis.

  11. A combinatorial H4 tail library for exploring the histone code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Adam L; Craciun, Gheorghe; Denu, John M

    2008-08-05

    Histone modifications modulate chromatin structure and function. A posttranslational modification-randomized, combinatorial library based on the first 21 residues of histone H4 was designed for systematic examination of proteins that interpret a histone code. The 800-member library represented all permutations of most known modifications within the N-terminal tail of histone H4. To determine its utility in a protein binding assay, the on-bead library was screened with an antibody directed against phosphoserine 1 of H4. Among the hits, 59 of 60 sequences were phosphorylated at S1, while 30 of 30 of those selected from the nonhits were unphosphorylated. A 512-member version of the library was then used to determine the binding specificity of the double tudor domain of hJMJD2A, a histone demethylase involved in transcriptional repression. Global linear least-squares fitting of modifications from the identified peptides (40 hits and 34 nonhits) indicated that methylation of K20 was the primary determinant for binding, but that phosphorylation and acetylation of neighboring sites attenuated the interaction. To validate the on-bead screen, isothermal titration calorimetry was performed with 13 H4 peptides. Dissociation constants ranged from 1 mM to 1 microM and corroborated the screening results. The general approach should be useful for probing the specificity of any histone-binding protein.

  12. Interview with Kortney Ryan Ziegler of the Trans*H4CK Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    TSQ New Media editor Tobias Raun interviews Kortney Ryan Ziegler, the organizer of the Trans*H4CK hackathon, which took place in Oakland, California, in September 2013. The hackathon brought forty transgender, gender nonconforming, cisgender, and queer people together to create digital tools and ...

  13. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Delmelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH4 doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH4, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl3-doped NaAlH4 by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH4 to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al2O3, which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti2O3. The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr….

  14. Nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding fructosebisphosphatase and phosphoribulokinase from Xanthobacter flavus H4-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; Enequist, H.G.; Terpstra, Peter; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding fructosebisphosphatase and phosphoribulokinase present on a 2.5 kb SalI fragment from Xanthobacter flavus H4-14 were sequenced. Two large open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, preceded by plausible ribosome-binding sites. The ORFs were transcribed in the same direction and

  15. Histone H4 deacetylation plays a critical role in early gene silencing during neuronal apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silencing of normal gene expression occurs early in the apoptosis of neurons, well before the cell is committed to the death pathway, and has been extensively characterized in injured retinal ganglion cells. The causative mechanism of this widespread change in gene expression is unknown. We investigated whether an epigenetic change in active chromatin, specifically histone H4 deacetylation, was an underlying mechanism of gene silencing in apoptotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs following an acute injury to the optic nerve. Results Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 translocates to the nuclei of dying cells shortly after lesion of the optic nerve and is associated with an increase in nuclear HDAC activity and widespread histone deacetylation. H4 in promoters of representative genes was rapidly and indiscriminately deacetylated, regardless of the gene examined. As apoptosis progressed, H4 of silenced genes remained deacetylated, while H4 of newly activated genes regained, or even increased, its acetylated state. Inhibition of retinal HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA was able to both preserve the expression of a representative RGC-specific gene and attenuate cell loss in response to optic nerve damage. Conclusions These data indicate that histone deacetylation plays a central role in transcriptional dysregulation in dying RGCs. The data also suggests that HDAC3, in particular, may feature heavily in apoptotic gene silencing.

  16. Interface effects in NaAlH4-carbon nanocomposites for hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jinbao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029633; Ngene, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314121684; Herrich, Monika; Xia, Wei; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Muhler, Martin; De Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; De Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2014-01-01

    For practical solid-state hydrogen storage, reversibility under mild conditions is crucial. Complex metal hydrides such as NaAlH4 and LiBH4 have attractive hydrogen contents. However, hydrogen release and especially uptake after desorption are sluggish and require high temperatures and pressures.

  17. Deacetylation of H4-K16Ac and heterochromatin assembly in senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contrepois Kévin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular senescence is a stress response of mammalian cells leading to a durable arrest of cell proliferation that has been implicated in tumor suppression, wound healing, and aging. The proliferative arrest is mediated by transcriptional repression of genes essential for cell division by the retinoblastoma protein family. This repression is accompanied by varying degrees of heterochromatin assembly, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms involved. Results We found that both deacetylation of H4-K16Ac and expression of HMGA1/2 can contribute to DNA compaction during senescence. SIRT2, an NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase, contributes to H4-K16Ac deacetylation and DNA compaction in human fibroblast cell lines that assemble striking senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHFs. Decreased H4-K16Ac was observed in both replicative and oncogene-induced senescence of these cells. In contrast, this mechanism was inoperative in a fibroblast cell line that did not assemble extensive heterochromatin during senescence. Treatment of senescent cells with trichostatin A, a class I/II histone deacetylase inhibitor, also induced rapid and reversible decondensation of SAHFs. Inhibition of DNA compaction did not significantly affect the stability of the senescent state. Conclusions Variable DNA compaction observed during senescence is explained in part by cell-type specific regulation of H4 deacetylation and HMGA1/2 expression. Deacetylation of H4-K16Ac during senescence may explain reported decreases in this mark during mammalian aging and in cancer cells.

  18. Convergent evolution of escape from hepaciviral antagonism in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik R Patel

    Full Text Available The ability to mount an interferon response on sensing viral infection is a critical component of mammalian innate immunity. Several viruses directly antagonize viral sensing pathways to block activation of the host immune response. Here, we show that recurrent viral antagonism has shaped the evolution of the host protein MAVS--a crucial component of the viral-sensing pathway in primates. From sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of MAVS from 21 simian primates, we found that MAVS has evolved under strong positive selection. We focused on how this positive selection has shaped MAVS' susceptibility to Hepatitis C virus (HCV. We functionally tested MAVS proteins from diverse primate species for their ability to resist antagonism by HCV, which uses its protease NS3/4A to cleave human MAVS. We found that MAVS from multiple primates are resistant to inhibition by the HCV protease. This resistance maps to single changes within the protease cleavage site in MAVS, which protect MAVS from getting cleaved by the HCV protease. Remarkably, most of these changes have been independently acquired at a single residue 506 that evolved under positive selection. We show that "escape" mutations lower affinity of the NS3 protease for MAVS and allow it to better restrict HCV replication. We further show that NS3 proteases from all other primate hepaciviruses, including the highly divergent GBV-A and GBV-C viruses, are functionally similar to HCV. We conclude that convergent evolution at residue 506 in multiple primates has resulted in escape from antagonism by hepaciviruses. Our study provides a model whereby insights into the ancient history of viral infections in primates can be gained using extant host and virus genes. Our analyses also provide a means by which primates might clear infections by extant hepaciviruses like HCV.

  19. Interaction, synergy and antagonism in prospective epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana, Juan J.; Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera. Temuco, Chile. Centro de Capacitación Investigación y Gestión en Salud para la Medicina Basada en Evidencias (CIGES), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera. Temuco, Chile. Magister en Salud Pública.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University. Quebec, Canada. PhD en Epidemiología.; Pino, Paulina; Escuela de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile. Santiago de Chile, Chile. doctor en Salud Pública.

    2014-01-01

    In public health there is a growing appreciation for the advantage of the additive scale to better understand the impacts of factors involved in a health event. It is necessary to always remember that the concept of statistical interaction is scale dependent. In the causal relationship between a response and the presence of two or more factors, the concepts interaction, synergy and antagonism are the key ideas. The aim of this note is to show an application of the concepts interaction, sy...

  20. CXCR4 Antagonism Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yin Chu

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is an increasingly recognized complication of diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis is an important causative mechanism of HF associated with diabetes. Recent data indicate that inflammation may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis. We sought to determine the mechanism by which cardiac fibrosis develops and to specifically investigate the role of the CXCR4 axis in this process. Animals with type I diabetes (streptozotocin treated mice or type II diabetes (Israeli Sand-rats and controls were randomized to treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist, candesartan or vehicle control. Additional groups of mice also underwent bone marrow transplantation (GFP+ donor marrow to investigate the potential role of bone marrow derived cell mobilization in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Both type I and II models of diabetes were accompanied by the development of significant cardiac fibrosis. CXCR4 antagonism markedly reduced cardiac fibrosis in both models of diabetes, similar in magnitude to that seen with candesartan. In contrast to candesartan, the anti-fibrotic actions of CXCR4 antagonism occurred in a blood pressure independent manner. Whilst the induction of diabetes did not increase the overall myocardial burden of GFP+ cells, it was accompanied by an increase in GFP+ cells expressing the fibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and this was attenuated by CXCR4 antagonism. CXCR4 antagonism was also accompanied by increased levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Taken together the current data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduces diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis, providing a potentially important therapeutic approach.

  1. Convergent evolution of escape from hepaciviral antagonism in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Horner, Stacy M; Gale, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mount an interferon response on sensing viral infection is a critical component of mammalian innate immunity. Several viruses directly antagonize viral sensing pathways to block activation of the host immune response. Here, we show that recurrent viral antagonism has shaped the evolution of the host protein MAVS--a crucial component of the viral-sensing pathway in primates. From sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of MAVS from 21 simian primates, we found that MAVS has evolved under strong positive selection. We focused on how this positive selection has shaped MAVS' susceptibility to Hepatitis C virus (HCV). We functionally tested MAVS proteins from diverse primate species for their ability to resist antagonism by HCV, which uses its protease NS3/4A to cleave human MAVS. We found that MAVS from multiple primates are resistant to inhibition by the HCV protease. This resistance maps to single changes within the protease cleavage site in MAVS, which protect MAVS from getting cleaved by the HCV protease. Remarkably, most of these changes have been independently acquired at a single residue 506 that evolved under positive selection. We show that "escape" mutations lower affinity of the NS3 protease for MAVS and allow it to better restrict HCV replication. We further show that NS3 proteases from all other primate hepaciviruses, including the highly divergent GBV-A and GBV-C viruses, are functionally similar to HCV. We conclude that convergent evolution at residue 506 in multiple primates has resulted in escape from antagonism by hepaciviruses. Our study provides a model whereby insights into the ancient history of viral infections in primates can be gained using extant host and virus genes. Our analyses also provide a means by which primates might clear infections by extant hepaciviruses like HCV.

  2. Long-term NMDAR antagonism correlates reduced astrocytic glutamate uptake with anxiety-like phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Zimmer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of glutamate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction has been extensively studied in schizophrenia; however, less is known about its role in anxiety disorders. Recently, it was demonstrated that astrocytic GLT-1 blockade leads to an anxiety-like phenotype. Although astrocytes are capable of modulating NMDAR activity through glutamate uptake transporters, the relationship between astrocytic glutamate uptake and the development of an anxiety phenotype remains poorly explored. Here, we aimed to investigative whether long-term antagonism of NMDAR impacts anxiety-related behaviors and astrocytic glutamate uptake. Memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, was administered daily for 24 days to healthy adult CF-1 mice by oral gavage at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg. The mice were submitted to a sequential battery of behavioral tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze tests. We then evaluated glutamate uptake activity and the immunocontents of glutamate transporters in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that long-term administration of memantine induces anxiety-like behavior in mice in the light-dark box and elevated plus-maze paradigms. Additionally, the administration of memantine decreased glutamate uptake activity in both the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus without altering the immunocontent of either GLT-1 or GLAST. Remarkably, the memantine-induced reduction in glutamate uptake was correlated with enhancement of an anxiety-like phenotype. In conclusion, long-term NMDAR antagonism with memantine induces anxiety-like behavior that is associated with reduced glutamate uptake activity but that is not dependent on GLT-1 or GLAST protein expression. Our study suggests that NMDAR and glutamate uptake hypofunction may contribute to the development of conditions that fall within the category of anxiety disorders.

  3. Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP Antagonizes the Effects of Gefitinib on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP, an aberrant prothrombin produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, is known as a marker for HCC. Recent studies indicated that high levels of DCP are associated with the malignant potential of HCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of DCP with gefitinib treatment failure in HCC and whether DCP counteracts gefitinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HCC. Methods: The experiments were performed in HCC cell lines HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. The effects of gefitinib on HCC in the presence or absence of DCP were evaluated by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expressions of molecules related to the apoptotic caspase-dependent pathway and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway. Results: Gefitinib inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. The effects of gefitinib on HCC cells were antagonized by DCP. In the presence of DCP, HCC cells were resistant to the gefitinib-induced inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis. DCP prevented the activation of the apoptotic caspase-dependent pathway induced by gefitinib. These antagonistic effects of DCP also arose from its ability to up-regulate EGFR, c-Met and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in HCC cells. Conclusion: DCP antagonized gefitinib-induced HCC cell growth inhibition by counteracting apoptosis and up-regulating the EGFR pathway. High levels of DCP might thus lead to low response rates or possibly no response to gefitinib in patients with HCC.

  4. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  5. Genomic epidemiology of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Europe, 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, Yonatan H; Lipsitch, Marc; Feldgarden, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which molecular epidemiology reveals information about the sources and transmission patterns of an outbreak depends on the resolution of the technology used and the samples studied. Isolates of Escherichia coli O104:H4 from the outbreak centered in Germany in May-July 2011, and the ...... that purged diversity in the German isolates, variation in mutation rates in the two E. coli outbreak populations, or uneven distribution of diversity in the seed populations that led to each outbreak....

  6. Monitoring the effect of belinostat in solid tumors by H4 acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, L.; Petersen, K.D.; Persson, M.

    2008-01-01

    after treatment with HDAC inhibitors, and could thus be used as a marker for monitoring cellular response to HDAC inhibitor treatment. Here we describe the utility of a newly described monoclonal antibody against acetylated H4 for immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded fine needle biopsies from nude...... acetylation in fine needle biopsies using the T25 antibody may prove useful in monitoring HDAC inhibitor efficacy in clinical trials involving humans with solid tumors Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  7. Spread of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ST117 O78:H4 in Nordic broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and h...... diseased broilers and breeders. The data indicate that the closely related ST117 O78:H4 strains have been transferred vertically through the broiler breeding pyramid into distantly located farms across the Nordic countries....

  8. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfría, J P; Hinkle, K H; Cernicharo, J; Richter, M J; Agúndez, M; Wallace, L

    2017-02-01

    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene (C2H4) towards the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Eighty ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 µm vibrational mode ν7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ -14 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20R⋆. The hot lines are centered at -10 km s(-1) indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20R⋆. 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveal that the C2H4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5 - 20R⋆ is 6.9 × 10(-8) in average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10(-7). Beyond 20R⋆, it is 8.2 × 10(-8). The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 10(15) cm(-2). C2H4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the C2H4 molecules at 20R⋆ could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not influence significantly the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains.

  9. First isolation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 from a diarrhea case in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonari, Claudia C; Deza, Natalia; Flores, Mario; Gasparini, Alejandra; Manfredi, Eduardo; Rivas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first isolation of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) O104:H4 strain associated with an acute diarrhea case in Argentina. Two multiplex PCRs (mPCR) were performed as screening of genes mPCR1 (eae, lt, and st) and mPCR2 (IpaH, aggR, stx1 and stx2). A mPCR to detect the rfbO104, fliCH4 and terD genes, and PCR assays for the detection of pCVD432 plasmid, aaiC and lpfO113 genes were included. Biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility assays as well as serotyping were performed. The identified E. coli strain was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested and harbored the aggR, aaiC, pCVD432 plasmid, lpfO113, rfbO104, fliCH4 and terD genes. Although serotype EAEC O104:H4 rarely spreads and sporadic cases have been reported, global concern increased after the large-scale outbreak in Europe in 2011. The finding of EAEC O104:H4 reinforces the need for improved methodologies for the detection of all E. coli pathotypes. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Commissioning and Operation of the H4IRRAD Mixed-Field Test Area

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Mekki, J; La Torre, F; Lebbos, E; Mala, P; Manessi, G; Nordt, A; Pozzi, F; Roeed, K; Severino, C; Silari, M; Thornton, A

    2011-01-01

    This note reports on the commissioning and operation period of the H4IRRAD Test Area in which well characterised mixed-fields are provided for LHC equipment users. In benchmark simulations the mixed-field components were estimated and measured with the H4IRRAD beam and radiation monitoring systems. The radiation monitors, the “RadMons” and beam-loss monitors (BLMs) are the same detector types used for monitoring radiation fluences in the underground areas of the LHC. In the first two irradiation periods various equipment was exposed to irradiation produced by a secondary proton beam of 280 GeV impacting on the H4IRRAD copper target. Measurements compared to simulations are presented that quantify the high energy hadron, thermal neutron and Si 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences at the given test locations. A crucial part was to calibrate the beam monitoring systems to measure the number of protons, p.o.t., which is outlined using different techniques. In addition, cross-checks of p.o.t. measurements are pre...

  11. Response of CPO-27-Ni towards CO, N2 and C2H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sachin; Bonino, Francesca; Vitillo, Jenny G; Groppo, Elena; Lamberti, Carlo; Dietzel, Pascal D C; Zecchina, Adriano; Bordiga, Silvia

    2009-11-14

    Coordinatively unsaturated Ni(2+) atoms in CPO-27-Ni form linear adducts with molecular nitrogen. The framework responds to the adsorption-modifying vibrational properties and local structure around adsorbing sites. The present paper deals with a fundamental infrared (IR) study of the interaction of gases on a microporous adsorbent metallorganic framework CPO-27-Ni containing, after solvent removal, coordinatively unsaturated Ni(2+) atoms [Dietzel et al., Chem. Commun. 2006, 959]. CO, N(2) and C(2)H(4) have been chosen. Notwithstanding the relative medium (CO and C(2)H(4)) and weak (N(2)) adsorption enthalpies and the low equilibrium pressures adopted (100-10(-3) mbar) the CPO-27-Ni framework responds promptly and reversibly to the adsorption process, modifying significantly both vibrational properties and local structure around Ni(2+) adsorbing sites as determined by a parallel EXAFS investigation locating the N(2) molecule 2.27 +/- 0.03 A apart from Ni(2+). For both N(2) and C(2)H(4), IR spectra have been discussed and carefully compared with literature data. Isosteric heat of adsorption of the Ni(2+)...N(2) complex formation has been evaluated from temperature dependent IR study to be -DeltaH(ads) = 17 kJ mol(-1).

  12. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena

    2001-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  13. Structure-based nuclear import mechanism of histones H3 and H4 mediated by Kap123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sojin [Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan, United States; Yoon, Jungmin [Structural Biology Laboratory of Epigenetics, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate school of Nanoscience and Technology (World Class University), KI for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea; Kim, Hanseong [Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan, United States; Song, Ji-Joon [Structural Biology Laboratory of Epigenetics, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate school of Nanoscience and Technology (World Class University), KI for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea; Cho, Uhn-soo [Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan, United States

    2017-10-16

    Kap123, a major karyopherin protein of budding yeast, recognizes the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of cytoplasmic histones H3 and H4 and translocates them into the nucleus during DNA replication. Mechanistic questions include H3- and H4-NLS redundancy toward Kap123 and the role of the conserved diacetylation of cytoplasmic H4 (K5ac and K12ac) in Kap123-mediated histone nuclear translocation. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length Kluyveromyces lactis Kap123 alone and in complex with H3- and H4-NLSs. Structures reveal the unique feature of Kap123 that possesses two discrete lysine-binding pockets for NLS recognition. Structural comparison illustrates that H3- and H4-NLSs share at least one of two lysine-binding pockets, suggesting that H3- and H4-NLSs are mutually exclusive. Additionally, acetylation of key lysine residues at NLS, particularly H4-NLS diacetylation, weakens the interaction with Kap123. These data support that cytoplasmic histone H4 diacetylation weakens the Kap123-H4-NLS interaction thereby facilitating histone Kap123-H3-dependent H3:H4/Asf1 complex nuclear translocation.

  14. Pancreatic Transdifferentiation and Glucose-Regulated Production of Human Insulin in the H4IIE Rat Liver Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhai Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limitations of current treatment regimes, gene therapy is a promising strategy being explored to correct blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. In the current study, we used a retroviral vector to deliver either the human insulin gene alone, the rat NeuroD1 gene alone, or the human insulin gene and rat NeuroD1 genes together, to the rat liver cell line, H4IIE, to determine if storage of insulin and pancreatic transdifferentiation occurred. Stable clones were selected and expanded into cell lines: H4IIEins (insulin gene alone, H4IIE/ND (NeuroD1 gene alone, and H4IIEins/ND (insulin and NeuroD1 genes. The H4IIEins cells did not store insulin; however, H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells stored 65.5 ± 5.6 and 1475.4 ± 171.8 pmol/insulin/5 × 106 cells, respectively. Additionally, several β cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones were expressed in both H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cells. Electron microscopy revealed insulin storage vesicles in the H4IIE/ND and H4IIEins/ND cell lines. Regulated secretion of insulin to glucose (0–20 mmol/L was seen in the H4IIEins/ND cell line. The H4IIEins/ND cells were transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, resulting in normalization of blood glucose. This data shows that the expression of NeuroD1 and insulin in liver cells may be a useful strategy for inducing islet neogenesis and reversing diabetes.

  15. Human invariant natural killer T cells acquire transient innate responsiveness via histone H4 acetylation induced by weak TCR stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Bishop, Kathleen A; Hegde, Subramanya; Rodenkirch, Lance A; Pike, J Wesley; Gumperz, Jenny E

    2012-05-07

    Invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) are innate T lymphocytes that are thought to play an important role in producing an early burst of IFN-γ that promotes successful tumor immunosurveillance and antimicrobial immunity. The cellular activation processes underlying innate IFN-γ production remain poorly understood. We show here that weak T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation that does not directly activate iNKT cell IFN-γ messenger RNA transcription nevertheless induces histone H4 acetylation at specific regions near the IFNG gene locus. This renders the iNKT cells able to produce IFN-γ in an innate manner (i.e., not requiring concurrent TCR stimulation) upon exposure to IL-12 and IL-18. The iNKT cells retain the capacity for innate activation for hours to days after the initial weak TCR stimulation, although their innate responsiveness gradually declines as a function of histone deacetylation. These results explain how iNKT cells are able to mediate rapid innate IFN-γ secretion in a manner that does not require them to undergo permanent T(H1) differentiation. Moreover, our results also indicate that iNKT cell motility is maintained during activation by IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, iNKT cells activated through this pathway can continue to migrate and may thus disseminate the IFN-γ that they produce, which may amplify its impact.

  16. Building a new research framework for social evolution: intralocus caste antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Tanya M; Holman, Luke; Morrow, Edward H; Field, Jeremy

    2018-01-16

    The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values. A likely consequence of this 'intralocus caste antagonism' should be the maintenance of genetic variation for fitness and maladaptation within castes (termed 'caste load'), analogous to the result of intralocus sexual antagonism. The aim of this review is to create a research framework for understanding caste antagonism, drawing in part upon conceptual similarities with sexual antagonism. By reviewing both the social insect and sexual antagonism literature, we highlight the current empirical evidence for caste antagonism, discuss social systems of interest, how antagonism might be resolved, and challenges for future research. We also introduce the idea that sexual and caste antagonism could interact, creating a three-way antagonism over gene expression. This includes unpacking the implications of haplodiploidy for the outcome of this complex interaction. © 2018 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. First-Principles Electronic Structure Calculations of N2H4 Adsorbed on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Tian, W. Q.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2008-03-01

    Recent experiments conducted by Desai et al. [1] reveal that single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks exposed to N2H4 vapor at various pressures exhibit considerable drop in resistance with respect to the pristine sample. Experimental findings reveal: (i) n-type behavior for the adsorption of N2H4/SWCNT, and (ii) the binding of N2H4 on SWCNT as chemisorption. In the present work, we have performed first-principles electronic structure calculations [2] for the N2H4 adsorbed on the (14, 0) SWCNT, where several orientations for the N2H4 molecule were considered. Calculations for the combined system were performed using 3 unit cells with the DFT/GGA and ultra soft pseudo-potentials. Our calculations reveal: (i) the binding of N2H4 on SWCNT as physisorption, and (ii) the electronic structure of SWCNT to be practically unaltered by the adsorption of N2H4, suggesting that there will not be a dramatic drop in resistance for N2H4/SWCNT. This is in disagreement with the experimental findings. To further understand the experimental observations, we will discuss mechanisms that may alter the binding nature of N2H4 on SWCNT. [1] S. Desai, G. Sumanasekera, et al. (APS, March 2008). [2] G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11169 (1996).

  18. Building an Experimental Setup to Characterize an H4RG-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Mickie; Hodapp, K.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Goebel, Sean B.; Jacobson, Shane M.

    2018-01-01

    The Teledyne Imaging Sensors H4RG-15 infrared detector is designed for the next era of extremely large telescopes. Characterization of individual H4RG-15 detectors are critical for future astronomical use. ULBcam, a former UH88 IR camera and remnant test dewar for H2RG characterization, was previously modified for H4RG-15 characterization. During the summer, this system was further upgraded with a baffle tube to a blackbody illumination source to allow controlled field illumination. This baffle tube, designed in OpenSCAD, was constructed in the IfA machine shop. Specific placements of the 50-micron aperture and scatter restrictive baffling was designed in Zemax. Four separate data sets were acquired to look into detector persistence, dark current, read noise, and charge gain. With the illumination source set at 450 K, ten ramps of 90/90 read frames were taken to pass saturation values. These tests were repeated at 500K to show results at over saturated conditions. Five ramps of 136/136 read frames were taken with a blank shutter applied. The persistence results showed expected results with signals settling from the third ramp. Dark current results showed higher than Teledyne stated values at 0.06 electrons/second, a factor of 6 higher than expected, which exposes systematic ULBcam dark testing capabilities. The read noise resulted with an expected value of 0.014 electrons. The charge gain showed 0.02 electrons/ADU where the expected value is 2 electrons/ADU. Data analysis using reference frame subtraction will be done for future work.

  19. Furosemide interactions with brain GABAA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Korpi, Esa R; Lüddens, Hartmut

    1997-01-01

    The loop diuretic furosemide is known to antagonize the function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct interaction of furosemide with the GABAA receptors by autoradiography and ligand binding studies with native rat and human receptors and with recombinant receptors composed of rat subunits.Autoradiography with [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]-TBPS) as a ligand indicated that furosemide (0.1–1 mM) reversed the 5...

  20. Thermodynamics and kinetics of NaAlH4 nanocluster decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Raghunandan K; Maharrey, Sean; Stavila, Vitalie; Highley, Aaron; Alam, Todd; Majzoub, Eric; Allendorf, Mark

    2012-06-14

    Reactive nanoparticles are of great interest for applications ranging from catalysis to energy storage. However, efforts to relate cluster size to thermodynamic stability and chemical reactivity are hampered by broad pore size distributions and poorly characterized chemical environments in many microporous templates. Metal hydrides are an important example of this problem. Theoretical calculations suggest that reducing their critical dimension to the nanoscale can in some cases considerably destabilize these materials and there is clear experimental evidence for accelerated kinetics, making hydrogen storage applications more attractive in some cases. However, quantitative measurements establishing the influence of size on thermodynamics are lacking, primarily because carbon aerogels often used as supports provide inadequate control over size and pore chemistry. Here, we employ the nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) Cu-BTC (also known as HKUST-1) as a template to synthesize and confine the complex hydride NaAlH(4). The well-defined crystalline structure and monodisperse pore dimensions of this MOF allow detailed, quantitative probing of the thermodynamics and kinetics of H(2) desorption from 1-nm NaAlH(4) clusters (NaAlH(4)@Cu-BTC) without the ambiguity associated with amorphous templates. Hydrogen evolution rates were measured as a function of time and temperature using the Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry method, in which sample mass changes are correlated with a complete analysis of evolved gases. NaAlH(4)@Cu-BTC undergoes a single-step dehydrogenation reaction in which the Na(3)AlH(6) intermediate formed during decomposition of the bulk hydride is not observed. Comparison of the thermodynamically controlled quasi-equilibrium reaction pathways in the bulk and nanoscale materials shows that the nanoclusters are slightly stabilized by confinement, having an H(2) desorption enthalpy that is 7 kJ (mol H(2))(-1) higher than the

  1. Literatuuronderzoek voertuigkering H4-niveau : een literatuurstudie naar voertuigkeringen beproefd op H4-niveau volgens prEN 1317-1 en prEN 1317-2. In opdracht van Bouwdienst Rijkswaterstaat, Apeldoorn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, W.H.M. van de

    1997-01-01

    Not many full-scale tests at the H4 level have yet been carried out according to the first and second standards of the prEN 1317. For this reason, only a few H4 tests are mentioned in the literature. Full-scale tests conducted with heavy vehicles are also mentioned in the literature. These tests

  2. Alcohol, TLR4-TGF-β Antagonism, and Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Mishra, Lopa; Machida, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and obesity are two known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that also synergistically promote HBV/HCV-related carcinogenesis. TLR4, the PAMP for endotoxin participates in inflammatory processes such as M1 activation of hepatic macrophages in alcoholic liver disease. However its role in liver carcinogenesis via ectopic expression and activation, has only recently been revealed in alcohol/HCV-associated HCC models. Alcohol feeding to mice expressing the HCV Ns5a in a hepatocyte specific manner, aggravates liver inflammation via activation of overexpressed TLR4 in the parenchymal cells. Long-term alcohol feeding produces liver tumors in these transgenic mice in a manner dependent on TLR4. From these mice, CD133+/CD49f+ tumor initiating stem cell-like cells (TICs) have been isolated. These TICs exhibit self-renewal and tumorigenic activities driven by TLR4-dependent upregulation of the stem cell factor NANOG. Defective TGF-β tumor suppressor pathway is identified in the TICs and mediated by NANOG target genes Igf2bp3 and Yap1. This TGF-β pathway antagonism is responsible in part for TIC’s tumorigenic activity and chemoresistance. Conversely, mice with attenuated TGF-β pathway due to haploinsufficiency of β2-Spectrin, spontaneously develop liver tumors and alcohol-feeding increases tumor incidence in a TLR4 dependent manner. This reciprocal antagonism between TLR4 and TGF-β pathways may serve as a novel therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26201318

  3. Fstl1 Antagonizes BMP Signaling and Regulates Ureter Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianfeng; Yu, Mingyan; Zhang, Fangxiong; Sha, Haibo; Gao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway plays important roles in urinary tract development although the detailed regulation of its activity in this process remains unclear. Here we report that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), encoding a secreted extracellular glycoprotein, is expressed in developing ureter and antagonizes BMP signaling activity. Mouse embryos carrying disrupted Fstl1 gene displayed prominent hydroureter arising from proximal segment and ureterovesical junction defects. These defects were associated with significant reduction in ureteric epithelial cell proliferation at E15.5 and E16.5 as well as absence of subepithelial ureteral mesenchymal cells in the urinary tract at E16.5 and E18.5. At the molecular level, increased BMP signaling was found in Fstl1 deficient ureters, indicated by elevated pSmad1/5/8 activity. In vitro study also indicated that Fstl1 can directly bind to ALK6 which is specifically expressed in ureteric epithelial cells in developing ureter. Furthermore, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, which is crucial for differentiation of ureteral subepithelial cell proliferation, was also impaired in Fstl1-/- ureter. Altogether, our data suggest that Fstl1 is essential in maintaining normal ureter development by antagonizing BMP signaling. PMID:22485132

  4. Aberrant expression of B7‑H4 may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lingling; Dong, Lijie; Yu, Guohua; Fan, Wanfeng; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Peiyuan; Hu, Xuemei; Zhao, Mingdong

    2016-12-01

    In order to determine the effect of B7‑H4 on the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the expression levels of B7‑H4 were evaluated using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry in HL‑7702 and Huh7 cells. B7‑H4 protein expression levels were analyzed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry in HCC tissues collected from patients and from a mouse tumor model. Soluble B7‑H4 (sB7‑H4), interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ), and interleukin‑4 (IL‑4) in blood serum were assessed using ELISA in patients with HCC and mice injected with tumor cells. B7‑H4 was expressed in HCC cell lines, mouse tumor tissues and HCC patient tissues. However, B7‑H4 was not detected in HL‑7702 cells or normal human liver tissues. The expression level of B7‑H4 was positively correlated with tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis, and differentiation degree in patients with HCC. sB7‑H4 levels in blood serum samples collected from patients with HCC and tumorigenic mice were higher compared with healthy controls. Expression levels of IFN‑γ were reduced, and IL‑4 levels were increased in blood serum samples of patients with HCC and tumorigenic mice compared with healthy controls. sB7‑H4 expression levels were negatively correlated with IFN‑γ levels, and with the ratio of IFN‑γ to IL‑4. Additionally, sB7‑H4 was positively correlated with IL‑4 levels in mouse tumor tissues, serum samples obtained from tumorigenic mice and human HCC patients. Notably, the levels of sB7‑H4 and IL‑4 were positively correlated and IFN‑γ was negatively correlated with the TNM stage of patients with HCC. In addition, sB7‑H4 and IL‑4 expression levels increased and levels of IFN‑γ and the ratio of IFN‑γ/IL‑4 decreased as a function of time post tumor implantation in the mouse model. The present study determined that aberrant expression of B7‑H4 contributed to HCC development. B7‑H4 may be a

  5. Preclinical pharmacology of bilastine, a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustin; Orjales, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the receptor selectivity and antihistaminic activity of bilastine, a new selective antihistamine receptor antagonist. In vitro experiments were conducted using a receptor binding screening panel and guinea-pig and rat tissues. Antihistaminic activity was determined using H1 receptor binding studies and in vitro H1 antagonism studies conducted in guinea-pig tissues and human cell lines. Receptor selectivity was established using a receptor binding screening panel and a receptor antagonism screening conducted in guinea-pig, rat and rabbit tissues. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators was determined through the Schultz-Dale reaction in sensitised guinea-pig ileum. Bilastine binds to histamine H1-receptors as indicated by its displacement of [3H]-pyrilamine from H1-receptors expressed in guinea-pig cerebellum and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The studies conducted on guinea-pig smooth muscle demonstrated the capability of bilastine to antagonise H1-receptors. Bilastine is selective for histamine H1-receptors as shown in receptor-binding screening conducted to determine the binding capacity of bilastine to 30 different receptors. The specificity of its H1-receptor antagonistic activity was also demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments conducted on guinea-pig and rat tissues. The results of these studies confirmed the lack of significant antagonism against serotonin, bradykinin, leukotriene D4, calcium, muscarinic M3-receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta2-adrenoceptors, and H2- and H3-receptors. The results of the in vitro Schultz-Dale reaction demonstrated that bilastine also has anti-inflammatory activity. These preclinical studies provide evidence that bilastine has H1- antihistamine activity, with high specificity for H1-receptors, and poor or no affinity for other receptors. Bilastine has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. Microbial community analysis of pH 4 thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoben; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the majority of thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is from 1 to 3 and 6 to 10; relatively few springs (~5%) have a pH range of 4-5. We used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to investigate microbial communities sampled from four pH 4 thermal springs collected from four regions of YNP that differed in their fluid temperature and geochemistry. Our results revealed that the composition of bacterial communities varied among the sites, despite sharing similar pH values. The taxonomic composition and metabolic functional potential of the site with the lowest temperature (55 °C), a thermal spring from the Seven Mile Hole (SMH) area, were further investigated using shotgun metagenome sequencing. The taxonomic classification, based on 372 Mbp of unassembled metagenomic reads, indicated that this community included a high proportion of Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Functional comparison with other YNP thermal spring metagenomes indicated that the SMH metagenome was enriched in genes related to energy production and conversion, transcription, and carbohydrate transport. Analysis of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism revealed assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, whereas the majority of genes involved in sulfur metabolism were related to the reduction of sulfate to adenylylsulfate, sulfite, and H2S. Given that pH 4 thermal springs are relatively less common in YNP and thermal areas worldwide, they may harbor novel microbiota and the communities that inhabit them deserve further investigation.

  7. Performance measurement of the upgraded Microcab-H4 with academic drive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Rais

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The original Microcab-H4, a hybrid fuel cell car, was tested with Academic drive cycle. After several years, the car was upgraded and tested with the ECE 15 drive cycle. The result showed the car has higher energy efficiency. However, the result could not be compared to the original car due to different drive cycle test. This research was done to measure the performance and energy efficiency of the Upgraded Microcab-H4 with Academic drive cycle. The measure of car energy efficiency was done through four tests: Run on battery, run on battery and Ballard fuel cell, and run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cell. The energy efficiency was calculated based on the hydrogen consumption after 5 cycles. The lowest energy efficiency was run on battery and Ballard fuel cell with (1.01 km/MJ. The highest energy efficiency was run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cells (1.10 km/MJ, which is higher than previous tests.

  8. Novel alginate lyases from marine bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain H-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawabe, T; Ohtsuka, M; Ezura, Y

    1997-10-28

    A bacterium Alteromonas sp. strain H-4 isolated from Laminaria fronds produced extra- and intra-cellular alginate lyases and utilized alginate as its sole carbon source. An extracellular alginate lyase was purified from the culture supernatant of the strain and its substrate specificity was characterized. The estimated molecular mass of the enzyme was 32 kDa and the isoelectric point was 4.7. Both polyM and polyG block degrading activities were observed using the substrate-containing gel overlay technique after isoelectric focusing of the enzyme. By analyzing the reaction products from the polyM block, polyG block, MG random block and intact alginate, three major peaks containing unsaturated tri-uronide through octa-uronide were detected for each substrate. The results indicate that the enzyme of Alteromonas sp. H-4 can degrade both polyM and polyG blocks with a K(m) in mg/mL 20-times higher for the polyM block.

  9. Antagonism trait facets and comprehensive psychosocial disability: Comparing information across self, informant, and interviewer reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Nuzum, Hallie; Clark, Lee Anna

    2017-10-01

    It is widely known that personality traits collectively discussed as the Dark Triad are antagonistic and associated with poor interpersonal relationships, but few studies have examined how specific facets of antagonism are associated with psychosocial adjustment or how antagonism relates to psychosocial adjustment other than interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine how 6 antagonism facets-manipulativeness, grandiosity, attention-seeking, hostility, callousness, and deceitfulness-relate to comprehensive psychosocial functional domains (i.e., well-being, interpersonal relationships, basic daily functioning) using information about both antagonism and functioning from 3 sources-self, informant, and interviewer. Data were from 318 primary participants and informants. We present 3 main findings: (1) When psychosocial functioning and antagonism traits were both rated by informants, all psychosocial disability domains were consistently positively associated with antagonism traits. (2) We next created a single psychosocial-disability factor score via principal factors analysis of all raters' psychosocial-functioning scores. When all 3 raters' reports of domain-level antagonism were used as independent variables in a simultaneous regression analysis to predict this overall functioning score, informant-reported antagonism most strongly predicted psychosocial functioning, followed by interviewer-rated antagonism. (3) We then created 6 facet scores by summing the 3 raters' scores on each. When we used these scores to predict psychosocial functioning, hostility was the main trait significantly predicting psychosocial functioning. The study provides further insight into associations of psychosocial disability with antagonism facets from different raters' perspectives. The findings thus further our understanding of psychosocial outcomes associated with antagonism, the core of the dark traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Flavivirus Antagonism of Type I Interferon Signaling Reveals Prolidase as a Regulator of IFNAR1 Surface Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubick, Kirk J; Robertson, Shelly J; McNally, Kristin L; Freedman, Brett A; Rasmussen, Angela L; Taylor, R Travis; Walts, Avram D; Tsuruda, Seitaro; Sakai, Mizuki; Ishizuka, Mariko; Boer, Elena F; Foster, Erin C; Chiramel, Abhilash I; Addison, Conrad B; Green, Richard; Kastner, Daniel L; Katze, Michael G; Holland, Steven M; Forlino, Antonella; Freeman, Alexandra F; Boehm, Manfred; Yoshii, Kentaro; Best, Sonja M

    2015-07-08

    Type I interferon (IFN-α/β or IFN-I) signals through two receptor subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, to orchestrate sterile and infectious immunity. Cellular pathways that regulate IFNAR1 are often targeted by viruses to suppress the antiviral effects of IFN-I. Here we report that encephalitic flaviviruses, including tick-borne encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, antagonize IFN-I signaling by inhibiting IFNAR1 surface expression. Loss of IFNAR1 was associated with binding of the viral IFN-I antagonist, NS5, to prolidase (PEPD), a cellular dipeptidase implicated in primary immune deficiencies in humans. Prolidase was required for IFNAR1 maturation and accumulation, activation of IFNβ-stimulated gene induction, and IFN-I-dependent viral control. Human fibroblasts derived from patients with genetic prolidase deficiency exhibited decreased IFNAR1 surface expression and reduced IFNβ-stimulated signaling. Thus, by understanding flavivirus IFN-I antagonism, prolidase is revealed as a central regulator of IFN-I responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin Antagonism Improves Platelet Inhibition in Clopidogrel Low-Responders after Coronary Stent Placement: An In Vitro Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerschmied, Daniel; Ahrens, Ingo; Mauler, Maximilian; Brandt, Christoph; Weidner, Stefanie; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increased residual platelet reactivity remains a burden for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who received a coronary stent and do not respond sufficiently to treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. We hypothesized that serotonin antagonism reduces high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Whole blood impedance aggregometry was performed with arachidonic acid (AA, 0.5 mM) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 6.5 µM) in addition to different concentrations of serotonin (1–100 µM) in whole blood from 42 CAD patients after coronary stent placement and 10 healthy subjects. Serotonin increased aggregation dose-dependently in CAD patients who responded to clopidogrel treatment: After activation with ADP, aggregation increased from 33.7±1.3% to 40.9±2.0% in the presence of 50 µM serotonin (pclopidogrel low-responders (from 59.9±3.1% to 37.4±3.5, pclopidogrel responders. These results were confirmed with light transmission aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma in a subset of patients. Serotonin hence increased residual platelet reactivity in patients who respond to clopidogrel after coronary stent placement. In clopidogrel low-responders, serotonin receptor antagonism improved platelet inhibition, almost reaching responder levels. This may justify further investigation of triple antiplatelet therapy with anti-serotonergic agents. PMID:22384279

  12. Acetylated H4 histone and genomic DNA methylation patterns during bud set and bud burst in Castanea sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Ma Estrella; Hasbún, Rodrigo; Valera, Ma José; Meijón, Mónica; Valledor, Luis; Rodríguez, Jose L; Toorop, Peter E; Cañal, Ma Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between genomic DNA cytosine methylation, histone H4 acetylation and bud dormancy in Castanea sativa are described. Acetylated H4 histone and genomic DNA methylation patterns showed opposite abundance patterns during bud set and bud burst. Increased and decreased methylation levels in the apical buds coincided with bud set and bud burst, respectively. Intermediate axillary buds were characterized by constant levels of DNA methylation during burst of apical buds and reduced fluctuation in DNA methylation throughout the year, which coincided with the absence of macro-morphological changes. Furthermore, acetylated histone H4 (AcH4) levels from apical buds were higher during bud burst than during bud set, as was demonstrated by immunodetection. Results were validated with three additional C. sativa provenances. Thus, global DNA methylation and AcH4 levels showed opposite patterns and coincided with changes in bud dormancy in C. sativa.

  13. Chromosomal organization of the human V[sub H]4 gene family: Location of individual gene segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maarel, S. van der; Alexander, C.M.; Bull, A. (Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Dijk, K.W. van; Sasso, E.H.; Milner, E.C.B. (Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the organization and evolution of V[sub H] gene segments, the authors characterized the elements belonging to the V[sub H]4 gene family from the germline of a single subject. One hundred sixty V[sub H]4-carrying [lambda]-phage clones were isolated from a genomic library. A combination of hybridization and sequence analysis yielded 13 distinct V[sub H]4 clones. Six of these elements had one or more nucleotide substitutions that distinguished them from previously identified V[sub H]4 genes, whereas seven elements were identical to previously described V[sub H]4 genes. In four of the six new sequences, nucleotide substitutions resulted in amino acid replacements. One pseudogene was identified. On the basis of sequence-specific hybridization using oligonucleotide probes corresponding to these sequences, each of the elements could be assigned to a specific band in a Bg/II digest. Since the V[sub H]4-carrying Bg/II bands have been mapped in genomic DNA, it was also possible to assign chromosomal locations to the specific V[sub H]4 elements. The results indicate that the majority of V[sub H]4 elements are located in a region of approximately 500 kb, extending from approximately 500 to 1,000 kb 5[prime] of the J[sub H] locus on chromosome 14. The distribution of shared structural motifs among the V[sub H]4 elements indicates that the V[sub H]4 gene family has evolved through repeated duplication and gene conversion events. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Rapid Detection and Isolation of Escherichia coli O104:H4 from Milk Using Monoclonal Antibody-coated Magnetic Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Mirella; Di Febo, Tiziana; Zilli, Katiuscia; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Armillotta, Gisella; Manna, Laura; Minelli, Fabio; Tittarelli, Manuela; Caprioli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli O104:H4 were produced by fusion of Sp2/O-Ag-14 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice, immunized with heat-inactivated and sonicated E. coli O104:H4 bacterial cells. Four MAbs specific for the E. coli O104:H4 LPS (1E6G6, 1F4C9, 3G6G7, and 4G10D2) were characterized and evaluated for the use in a method for the detection of E. coli O104:H4 in milk samples that involves antibody conjugation to magnetic microbeads to reduce time and increase the efficiency of isolation. MAb 1E6G6 was selected and coupled to microbeads, then used for immuno-magnetic separation (IMS); the efficiency of the IMS method for E. coli O104:H4 isolation from milk was evaluated and compared to that of the EU RL VTEC conventional culture-based isolation procedure. Milk suspensions also containing other pathogenic bacteria that could potentially be found in milk (Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) were also tested to evaluate the specificity of MAb-coated beads. Beads coated with MAb 1E6G6 showed a good ability to capture the E. coli O104:H4, even in milk samples contaminated with other bacteria, with a higher number of E. coli O104:H4 CFU reisolated in comparison with the official method (121 and 41 CFU, respectively, at 103 E. coli O104:H4 initial load; 19 and 6 CFU, respectively, at 102 E. coli O104:H4 initial load; 1 and 0 CFU, respectively, at 101 E. coli O104:H4 initial load). The specificity was 100%. PMID:27379071

  15. Confined NaAlH4 nanoparticles inside CeO2 hollow nanotubes towards enhanced hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qili; Xia, Guanglin; Yu, Xuebin

    2017-10-05

    NaAlH4 has been widely regarded as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its favorable thermodynamics and high energy density. The high activation energy barrier and high dehydrogenation temperature, however, significantly hinder its practical application. In this paper, CeO2 hollow nanotubes (HNTs) prepared by a simple electrospinning technique are adopted as functional scaffolds to support NaAlH4 nanoparticles (NPs) towards advanced hydrogen storage performance. The nanoconfined NaAlH4 inside CeO2 HNTs, synthesized via the infiltration of molten NaAlH4 into the CeO2 HNTs under high hydrogen pressure, exhibited significantly improved dehydrogenation properties compared with both bulk and ball-milled CeO2 HNTs-catalyzed NaAlH4. The onset dehydrogenation temperature of the NaAlH4@CeO2 composite was reduced to below 100 °C, with only one main dehydrogenation peak appearing at 130 °C, which is 120 °C and 50 °C lower than for its bulk counterpart and for the ball-milled CeO2 HNTs-catalyzed NaAlH4, respectively. Moreover, ∼5.09 wt% hydrogen could be released within 30 min at 180 °C, while only 1.6 wt% hydrogen was desorbed from the ball-milled NaAlH4 under the same conditions. This significant improvement is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects contributed by the CeO2 HNTs, which could act as not only a structural scaffold to fabricate and confine the NaAlH4 NPs, but also as an effective catalyst to enhance the hydrogen storage performance of NaAlH4.

  16. Hexa-, hepta- and nonaprenylhydroquinones isolated from marine sponges Sarcotragus muscarum and Ircinia fasciculata inhibit NF-kappaB signalling in H4IIE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätjen, Wim; Putz, Annika; Chovolou, Yvonni; Kampkötter, Andreas; Totzke, Frank; Kubbutat, Michael H G; Proksch, Peter; Konuklugil, Belma

    2009-07-01

    Marine organisms have proven to be a rich source of potent pharmacologically active compounds. Three polyprenyl-1,4-hydroquinone derivates (hexaprenyl-1,4-hydroquinone, heptaprenyl-1,4-hydroquinone and nonaprenyl-1,4-hydroquinone) were isolated from the Zoobenthos-inhabiting sponges Sarcotragus muscarum and Ircinia fasciculata from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (phylum: Porifera; class: Demospongiae). Hexa-, hepta- and nonaprenylhydroquinone were identified by (1)H-NMR, H,H-COSY, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, FAB-MS and UV spectroscopy. The effects of the compounds on cell viability was determined using the MTT assay; anti-oxidative potential was measured using the Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity assay. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activity was detected by secreted alkaline phosphatase assay. Activity against an array of protein kinases was determined in 96-well FlashPlates. All compounds had prominent antioxidative activity, comparable to that of the synthetic vitamin E derivate Trolox. Hexaprenylhydroquinone showed the greatest cytotoxicity in H4IIE hepatoma cells (EC50 2.5 muM). All three compounds inhibited NF-kappaB signalling in this cell line, with heptaprenylhydroquinone being the most active. Screening of 23 kinases involved in signal transduction pathways (cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis) showed that hexaprenylhydroquinone and heptaprenylhydroquinone inhibited the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (IC50 1.6 and 1.4 mug/ml, respectively), and heptaprenylhydroquinone also inhibited the activity of other kinases (Src tyrosine kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor). The prenylated hydroquinones isolated from the marine sponges S. muscarum and I. fasciculata showed cytotoxic and antioxidative activities and inhibited NF-kappaB signalling in H4IIE hepatoma cells and protein kinases. These findings may result in the generation of new lead

  17. Agouti antagonism of melanocortin binding and action in the B16F10 murine melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, S G; Harris, C O; Ittoop, O R; Nichols, J S; Parks, D J; Truesdale, A T; Wilkison, W O

    1995-08-22

    Several dominant mutations at the murine agouti locus result in the expression of a number of phenotypic changes, including a predominantly yellow coat color, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. The mutants exhibit ectopic overexpression of normal agouti protein, suggesting that agouti regulates coat coloration by direct antagonism of the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor. We have tested this hypothesis by examining agouti inhibition of both melanocortin-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and the binding of a radioactive melanocortin analog in the murine B16F10 melanoma cell line. Inhibition of melanocortin-induced cyclic nucleotide accumulation did not require preincubation of the cells with agouti and was independent of the agonist used. Furthermore, inhibition of both agonist binding to and activation of melanocortin receptor could be described by a simple competitive model with similar inhibition constants of 1.9 and 0.9 nM, respectively. The mutually exclusive binding of agouti and melanocortin was verified by cross-linking experiments using a radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog. Competitive inhibition of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone binding can account for the effects of agouti on coat coloration and suggests the possibility that the other phenotypic changes observed on agouti overexpression may be due to direct action of agouti at a novel melanocortin receptor(s).

  18. Motor neuron dysfunction in a mouse model of ALS: gender-dependent effect of P2X7 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetto, Chiara; Frattaroli, Daniela; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela

    2013-09-06

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative progressive currently untreatable disease, characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration; the incidence and prevalence of ALS are greater in men than in women. Although some important mechanisms that might contribute to the death of motor neurons have been identified, the mechanisms underlying disease pathophysiology are still uncertain. In particular, the mechanisms underlying the role of gender in ALS and whether treatments should take into account sexual dimorphism remain only partially understood. Recently, the P2X7 receptor for ATP was reported to display neurotoxic potential in motor neuron disorders, and antagonism of the receptor has been suggested to be helpful in these disorders. Studying transgenic mice with superoxide dismutase 1 gene mutations, widely used as model for ALS, may provide a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and of toxicity towards motor neurons, also possibly helping to understand whether treatments for ALS should take into account sexual dimorphism. The aim of the work was (1) investigating on gender-dependence of disease progression in the standard model for ALS - the transgenic mouse bearing superoxide dismutase 1 gene mutations - and (2) assessing if a P2X7 receptor antagonist treatment should take into account sexual dimorphism. We evaluated if gender affect the disease course, the motor performance, the weight loss and the lifespan in mice overexpressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1. We measured motor impairment, motor strength and coordination by rotarod and grip strength testing. Further, we assessed if a treatment with the P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G - a dye that can cross the blood-brain barrier, has low toxicity, and has exhibited therapeutic effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases - impact on the disease progression, in male and female ALS mice. We found that (1) the onset and the disease progression, and the survival

  19. Spread of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ST117 O78:H4 in Nordic broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli...... was reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity among E. coli isolates collected on poultry farms with colibacillosis issues, using whole genome sequencing. Hundred and fourteen bacterial isolates from both broilers and broiler breeders were whole genome sequenced. The majority...... with colibacillosis in multiple Nordic countries. They clustered together with a human ST117 isolate and all carried virulence genes that previously have been associated with human uropathogenic E. coli. The investigation revealed a lineage of ST117 O78:H4 isolates collected in different Nordic countries from...

  20. Crossover between liquidlike and gaslike behavior in C H4 at 400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Hakeem, M. A.; Parisiades, P.; Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Foster, D.; Eden, D.; Bull, D. J.; Marshall, A. R. L.; Adawi, A. M.; Howie, R.; Sapelkin, A.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Proctor, J. E.

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental evidence for a crossover between a liquidlike state and a gaslike state in fluid methane (C H4 ). This crossover is observed in all of our experiments, up to a temperature of 397 K, 2.1 times the critical temperature of methane. The crossover has been characterized with both Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction in a number of separate experiments, and confirmed to be reversible. We associate this crossover with the Frenkel line—a recently hypothesized crossover in dynamic properties of fluids extending to arbitrarily high pressure and temperature, dividing the phase diagram into separate regions where the fluid possesses liquidlike and gaslike properties. On the liquidlike side the Raman-active vibration increases in frequency linearly as pressure is increased, as expected due to the repulsive interaction between adjacent molecules. On the gaslike side this competes with the attractive van der Waals potential leading the vibration frequency to decrease as pressure is increased.

  1. Muon-flux measurements for SHiP at H4

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, E

    2017-01-01

    A major concern for the design of the SHiP experiment is the lack of a precise knowledge of the muon flux. This is a proposal to measure the expected muon flux in the SHiP experiment by installing a replica of the SHiP target in a 400 GeV/c proton beam at H4. We intend building a spectrometer using the drift tube prototypes that were constructed for OPERA. A muon tagger will be built using RPCs, which will also serve as a module-0 for SHiP. We propose to do this measurement in early 2018. Accumulating $\\sim 10^{11}$ 400 GeV/c POT will enable us to make a more realistic design of the muon shield. With some modifications, this setup can also be used to measure the charm cross section (including the cascade production). We intend to test this setup after the measurement of the muon flux.

  2. Life-finding detector development at NASA GSFC using a custom H4RG test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory; Rauscher, Bernard; Kutyrev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Chemical species associated with life, called biosignatures, should be visible in exoplanet atmospheres with larger space telescopes. These signals will be faint and require very low noise (~e-) detectors to robustly measure. At NASA Goddard we are developing a single detector H4RG test bed to characterize and identify potential technology developments needed for the next generation's large space telescopes. The vacuum and cryogenic test bed will include near infrared light sources from integrating spheres using a motorized shutter. The detector control and readout will be handled by a Leach controller. Detector cables have been manufactured and test planning has begun. Planned tests include testing minimum read noise capabilities, persistence mitigation strategies using long wavelength light, and measuring intrapixel variation which might affect science goals of future missions. In addition to providing a means to identify areas of improvement in detector technology, we hope to use this test bed to probe some fundamental physics of these infrared arrays.

  3. Spatial Positioning of RET and H4 Following Radiation Exposure Leads to Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri E. Nikiforov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-known risk factor for a number of human cancers, including leukemia, thyroid cancer, soft tissue sarcomas, and many others. Although it has been known for a long time that radiation exposure to the cell results in extensive DNA damage, including double strand DNA breaks, the exact mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis remain unknown. Recently, a large increase in incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident [1]. A high prevalence of chromosomal rearrangements involving the RET gene was found among these radiation-induced thyroid tumors [2,3]. As a result of such rearrangement, a portion of the RET gene is fused with another gene, typically with the H4 or ELE1. However, since the DNA targets of ionizing radiation are randomly distributed throughout the cell nucleus, the reason for predilection for the RET rearrangements in thyroid cells was unclear.

  4. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpers Charles N

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5. The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1 preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2 stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2–3 ‰ heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3 reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures.

  5. Innate immune activation of NFκB and its antagonism by poxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Gareth; Bowie, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    In recent years there has been an acceleration of discovery in the field of innate anti-viral immunity to the point that many of the key events in early virus sensing and the discrete anti-viral responses they trigger have been elucidated in detail. In particular, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viruses at the plasma membrane, in endosomes, and within the cytosol have been characterized. Upon stimulation by viruses, most of these PRRs trigger signal transduction pathways culminating in NFκB activation. NFκB contributes both to type I interferon induction, and to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from infected cells. Our understanding of host anti-viral innate immunity has been greatly aided by an appreciation of the ways in which poxviruses have evolved strategies to inhibit both innate sensing and effector responses. A recurring feature of poxviral immunomodulation is the apparent necessity for poxviruses to evolve multiple, non-redundant inhibitors of NFκB activation which often appear to act on the same innate signalling pathway. The reason for such apparent over-targeting of one transcription factor is not clear. Here we describe the current understanding of how host cells sense poxvirus infection to trigger signalling pathways leading to NFκB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine induction, and the ways in which poxviruses have evolved to concisely antagonize these systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. TRPV1 Antagonism by Capsazepine Modulates Innate Immune Response in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of people suffer from severe malaria every year. The innate immune response plays a determinant role in host’s defence to malaria. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 modulates macrophage-mediated responses in sepsis, but its role in other pathogenic diseases has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in malaria. C57BL/6 mice received 105 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. Noninfected mice were used as controls. Capsazepine or vehicle was given intraperitoneally for 6 days. Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. Capsazepine decreased circulating but not spleen F4/80+Ly6G+ cell numbers as well as activation of both F4/80+and F4/80+Ly6G+ cells in infected animals. In addition, capsazepine increased circulating but not spleen GR1+ and natural killer (NK population, without interfering with natural killer T (NKT cell numbers and blood NK and NKT activation. However, capsazepine diminished CD69 expression in spleen NKT but not NK cells. Infection increased lipid peroxidation and the release of TNFα and IFNγ, although capsazepine-treated group exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation and TNFα. Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria.

  7. Evidence of pomegranate methanolic extract in antagonizing the endogenous SERM, 27-hydroxycholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vini, Ravindran; Juberiya, Azeez M; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2016-02-01

    The direct relationship between obesity and breast cancer has been elucidated recently with the identification of a cholesterol derivative 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), an endogenous SERM that can act through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated mechanisms. Our recent research shed light on the possible SERM-like property of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) by using human breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) and also by in vivo models (ovariectomized Swiss albino mice). Our findings demonstrated that PME binds to ER and downregulates the Estrogen response elements (ERE)-mediated transcription in breast cancer cells without being agonistic in the uterine endometrium and has cardioprotective effects comparable to that of 17-β-estradiol. This preliminary work indicates the ability of PME to antagonize the activity of 27HC. We hypothesize that PME can compete with 27HC for ERα and reduce 27HC-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Relevant estrogen-regulated genes such as pS2, PR and ERα were checked to evaluate the ability of PME to abrogate 27HC-induced genes. This study is significant, being the first report describing that bioactive components of the methanolic extract of pericarp of PME, a proven SERM could plausibly compete for 27HC. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Antagonism of miR-33 in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Katey J; Sheedy, Frederick J; Esau, Christine C; Hussain, Farah N; Temel, Ryan E; Parathath, Saj; van Gils, Janine M; Rayner, Alistair J; Chang, Aaron N; Suarez, Yajaira; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J

    2011-07-01

    Plasma HDL levels have a protective role in atherosclerosis, yet clinical therapies to raise HDL levels have remained elusive. Recent advances in the understanding of lipid metabolism have revealed that miR-33, an intronic microRNA located within the SREBF2 gene, suppresses expression of the cholesterol transporter ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lowers HDL levels. Conversely, mechanisms that inhibit miR-33 increase ABCA1 and circulating HDL levels, suggesting that antagonism of miR-33 may be atheroprotective. As the regression of atherosclerosis is clinically desirable, we assessed the impact of miR-33 inhibition in mice deficient for the LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- mice), with established atherosclerotic plaques. Mice treated with anti-miR33 for 4 weeks showed an increase in circulating HDL levels and enhanced reverse cholesterol transport to the plasma, liver, and feces. Consistent with this, anti-miR33-treated mice showed reductions in plaque size and lipid content, increased markers of plaque stability, and decreased inflammatory gene expression. Notably, in addition to raising ABCA1 levels in the liver, anti-miR33 oligonucleotides directly targeted the plaque macrophages, in which they enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol removal. These studies establish that raising HDL levels by anti-miR33 oligonucleotide treatment promotes reverse cholesterol transport and atherosclerosis regression and suggest that it may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  9. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonism and cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Newman, Lawrence; Ashina, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key signaling molecule involved in migraine pathophysiology. Efficacy of CGRP monoclonal antibodies and antagonists in migraine treatment has fueled an increasing interest in the prospect of treating cluster headache (CH) with CGRP antagonism. The exact...... role of CGRP and its mechanism of action in CH have not been fully clarified. A search for original studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English was performed in PubMed and in ClinicalTrials.gov . The search term used was "cluster headache and calcitonin gene related peptide......" and "primary headaches and calcitonin gene related peptide." Reference lists of identified articles were also searched for additional relevant papers. Human experimental studies have reported elevated plasma CGRP levels during both spontaneous and glyceryl trinitrate-induced cluster attacks. CGRP may play...

  11. Separating the Anti-Inflammatory and Diabetogenic Effects of Glucocorticoids Through LXRβ Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rucha; Magomedova, Lilia; Tsai, Ricky; Angers, Stéphane; Orellana, Arturo; Cummins, Carolyn L

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), including dexamethasone (DEX), are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs. Long-term use of GCs, however, can result in metabolic side effects such as hyperglycemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. The GC receptor (GR) and liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) regulate overlapping genes involved in gluconeogenesis and inflammation. We have previously shown that Lxrβ-/- mice are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of DEX but still sensitive to its immunosuppressive actions. To determine whether this finding could be exploited for therapeutic intervention, we treated mice with GSK2033, a pan-LXR antagonist, alone or combined with DEX. GSK2033 suppressed GC-induced gluconeogenic gene expression without affecting immune-responsive GR target genes. The suppressive effect of GSK2033 on DEX-induced gluconeogenic genes was specific to LXRβ, was liver cell autonomous, and occurred in a target gene-specific manner. Compared with DEX treatment alone, the coadministration of GSK2033 with DEX decreased the recruitment of GR and its accessory factors MED1 and C/EBPβ to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter. However, GSK2033 had no effect on DEX-mediated suppression of inflammatory genes expressed in the liver or in mouse primary macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that the gluconeogenic and immunosuppressive actions of GR activation can be mechanistically dissociated by pharmacological antagonism of LXRβ. Treatment with an LXRβ antagonist could allow the safer use of existing GC drugs in patients requiring chronic dosing of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Mitragynine/Corynantheidine Pseudoindoxyls As Opioid Analgesics with Mu Agonism and Delta Antagonism, Which Do Not Recruit β-Arrestin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Palmer, Travis C; Narayan, Ankita; Szabó, Márton R; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Grinnell, Steven G; Subrath, Joan J; Warner, Evelyn; Kalra, Sanjay; Hunkele, Amanda; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Eans, Shainnel O; Medina, Jessica M; Xu, Jin; Pan, Ying-Xian; Borics, Attila; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2016-09-22

    Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine, and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism/delta opioid receptor antagonism. In vitro, 3 and its analogs were potent agonists in [(35)S]GTPγS assays at the mu opioid receptor but failed to recruit β-arrestin-2, which is associated with opioid side effects. Additionally, 3 developed analgesic tolerance more slowly than morphine, showed limited physical dependence, respiratory depression, constipation, and displayed no reward or aversion in CPP/CPA assays, suggesting that analogs might represent a promising new generation of novel pain relievers.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of cis- and trans-isomers of [Pt{C 6H 4-4R 1-1-[C 8H 4N-3'-NOMe]}Cl 2(dmso)] (R 1 = H or Cl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Concepción; Moya, Carlos; Basu, Pradipta K.; González, Asensio; Solans, Xavier; Font-Bardía, Mercè; Calvet, Teresa; Lalinde, Elena; Teresa Moreno, M.

    2011-07-01

    The study of the reactivity of the 3-methoxyimino-2-phenyl-3 H-indoles C 6H 4-4R 1-1-[C 8H 4N-3'-NOMe] [R 1 = Cl ( 1a) or H ( 1b)] with cis-[PtCl 2(dmso) 2] has allowed the isolation of trans-[Pt{C 6H 4-4R 1-1-[C 8H 4N-3'-NOMe]}Cl 2(dmso)] [R 1 = Cl ( 2a) or H ( 2b)] and cis-[Pt{C 6H 4-4R 1-1-[C 8H 4N-3'-NOMe]}Cl 2(dmso)]·CH 2Cl 2 [R 1 = Cl ( 3a) or H ( 3b)]. Their crystal structures confirm: (a) the existence of a Pt sbnd N indole bond, (b) the relative arrangement of the Cl - ligands ( trans in 2a and 2b or cis in 3a and 3b) and (c) the anti- ( E) configuration of the oxime. A comparative study of the spectroscopic and photo-optical properties of ligands and their platinum(II) complexes ( 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b) is also reported.

  14. Kinematic and dynamic gait compensations in a rat model of lumbar radiculopathy and the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kyle D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Mata, Brian A; Gabr, Mostafa A; Sinclair, S Michael; Schmitt, Daniel O; Richardson, William J; Setton, Lori A

    2011-08-26

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) has received significant attention as a mediator of lumbar radiculopathy, with interest in TNF antagonism to treat radiculopathy. Prior studies have demonstrated that TNF antagonists can attenuate heightened nociception resulting from lumbar radiculopathy in the preclinical model. Less is known about the potential impact of TNF antagonism on gait compensations, despite being of clinical relevance. In this study, we expand on previous descriptions of gait compensations resulting from lumbar radiculopathy in the rat and describe the ability of local TNF antagonism to prevent the development of gait compensations, altered weight bearing, and heightened nociception. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated for mechanical sensitivity, weight-bearing, and gait pre- and post-operatively. For surgery, tail nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue was collected and the right L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was exposed (Day 0). In sham animals, NP tissue was discarded (n = 6); for experimental animals, autologous NP was placed on the DRG with or without 20 μg of soluble TNF receptor type II (sTNFRII, n = 6 per group). Spatiotemporal gait characteristics (open arena) and mechanical sensitivity (von Frey filaments) were assessed on post-operative Day 5; gait dynamics (force plate arena) and weight-bearing (incapacitance meter) were assessed on post-operative Day 6. High-speed gait characterization revealed animals with NP alone had a 5% decrease in stance time on their affected limbs on Day 5 (P ≤0.032). Ground reaction force analysis on Day 6 aligned with temporal changes observed on Day 5, with vertical impulse reduced in the affected limb of animals with NP alone (area under the vertical force-time curve, P lumbar radiculopathy. Furthermore, TNF antagonism prevented the development of gait compensations subsequent to lumbar radiculopathy in our model.

  15. Cytokinin Antagonizes Abscisic Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Cotyledon Greening by Promoting the Degradation of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 Protein in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunmei; Wang, Xingchun; Feng, Jian; Hong, Sulei; Liang, Yan; Ren, Bo; Zuo, Jianru

    2014-01-01

    In higher plants, seed germination is followed by postgerminative growth. One of the key developmental events during postgerminative growth is cotyledon greening, which enables a seedling to establish photosynthetic capacity. The plant phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role by inhibiting seed germination and postgerminative growth in response to dynamically changing internal and environmental cues. It has been shown that ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, is an important factor in the regulation of the ABA-mediated inhibitory effect on seed germination and postgerminative growth. Conversely, the phytohormone cytokinin has been proposed to promote seed germination by antagonizing the ABA-mediated inhibitory effect. However, the underpinning molecular mechanism of cytokinin-repressed ABA signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that cytokinin specifically antagonizes ABA-mediated inhibition of cotyledon greening with minimal effects on seed germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that the cytokinin-antagonized ABA effect is dependent on a functional cytokinin signaling pathway, mainly involved in the cytokinin receptor gene CYTOKININ RESPONSE1/ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4, downstream histidine phosphotransfer protein genes AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5, and a type B response regulator gene, ARR12, which genetically acts upstream of ABI5 to regulate cotyledon greening. Cytokinin has no apparent effect on the transcription of ABI5. However, cytokinin efficiently promotes the proteasomal degradation of ABI5 in a cytokinin signaling-dependent manner. These results define a genetic pathway through which cytokinin specifically induces the degradation of ABI5 protein, thereby antagonizing ABA-mediated inhibition of postgerminative growth. PMID:24443524

  16. Kaolinite dissolution and precipitation kinetics at 22oC and pH 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.

    2008-04-01

    Dissolution and precipitation rates of low defect Georgia kaolinite (KGa-1b) as a function of Gibbs free energy of reaction (or reaction affinity) were measured at 22 C and pH 4 in continuously stirred flowthrough reactors. Steady state dissolution experiments showed slightly incongruent dissolution, with a Si/Al ratio of about 1.12 that is attributed to the re-adsorption of Al on to the kaolinite surface. No inhibition of the kaolinite dissolution rate was apparent when dissolved aluminum was varied from 0 and 60 {micro}M. The relationship between dissolution rates and the reaction affinity can be described well by a Transition State Theory (TST) rate formulation with a Temkin coefficient of 2 R{sub diss} (mol/m{sup 2}s) = 1.15 x 10{sup -13} [1-exp(-{Delta}G/2RT)]. Stopping of flow in a close to equilibrium dissolution experiment yielded a solubility constant for kaolinite at 22 C of 10{sup 7.57}. Experiments on the precipitation kinetics of kaolinite showed a more complex behavior. One conducted using kaolinite seed that had previously undergone extensive dissolution under far from equilibrium conditions for 5 months showed a quasi-steady state precipitation rate for 105 hours that was compatible with the TST expression above. After this initial period, however, precipitation rates decreased by an order of magnitude, and like other precipitation experiments conducted at higher supersaturation and without kaolinite seed subjected to extensive prior dissolution, could not be described with the TST law. The initial quasi-steady state rate is interpreted as growth on activated sites created by the dissolution process, but this reversible growth mechanism could not be maintained once these sites were filled. Long-term precipitation rates showed a linear dependence on solution saturation state that is generally consistent with a two dimensional nucleation growth mechanism following the equation R{sub ppt}(mol/m{sup 2}s) = 3.38 x 10{sup -14} exp[- 181776/T{sup 2} 1n

  17. Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay: comparison between the human TV101L and the rat H4IIE cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, M.; Laier, Peter; Vinggaard, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the biologic and toxicological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. The in vitro chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay has been proven...... to be a rapid and sensitive assay for assessing the potency of AhR-activating compounds. We have used the AhR-CALUX assay to investigate the AhR-nnediated activity of the persistent organochlorine insecticide dieldrin and twenty-two pesticides currently used in Denmark by employing the rat H4IIE and the human...... TV101L hepatoma cell lines. In comparison the results indicated that the rat H4IIE cell line is more sensitive than the human TV101L for detection of TCDD inducing AhR-CALUX activity. The pesticides iprodione, chlorpyrifos and prochloraz showed dose-dependent AhR agonistic effects in both cell lines...

  18. The evolution of reduced antagonism--A role for host-parasite coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A K; Stoy, K S; Gelarden, I A; Penley, M J; Lively, C M; Morran, L T

    2015-11-01

    Why do some host-parasite interactions become less antagonistic over evolutionary time? Vertical transmission can select for reduced antagonism. Vertical transmission also promotes coevolution between hosts and parasites. Therefore, we hypothesized that coevolution itself may underlie transitions to reduced antagonism. To test the coevolution hypothesis, we selected for reduced antagonism between the host Caenorhabditis elegans and its parasite Serratia marcescens. This parasite is horizontally transmitted, which allowed us to study coevolution independently of vertical transmission. After 20 generations, we observed a response to selection when coevolution was possible: reduced antagonism evolved in the copassaged treatment. Reduced antagonism, however, did not evolve when hosts or parasites were independently selected without coevolution. In addition, we found strong local adaptation for reduced antagonism between replicate host/parasite lines in the copassaged treatment. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that coevolution was critical to the rapid evolution of reduced antagonism. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Structural basis for recognition of H3K56-acetylated histone H3-H4 by the chaperone Rtt106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dan; Hu, Qi; Li, Qing; Thompson, James R; Cui, Gaofeng; Fazly, Ahmed; Davies, Brian A; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Zhang, Zhiguo; Mer, Georges [Mayo

    2013-04-08

    Dynamic variations in the structure of chromatin influence virtually all DNA-related processes in eukaryotes and are controlled in part by post-translational modifications of histones. One such modification, the acetylation of lysine 56 (H3K56ac) in the amino-terminal α-helix (αN) of histone H3, has been implicated in the regulation of nucleosome assembly during DNA replication and repair, and nucleosome disassembly during gene transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the histone chaperone Rtt106 contributes to the deposition of newly synthesized H3K56ac-carrying H3-H4 complex on replicating DNA, but it is unclear how Rtt106 binds H3-H4 and specifically recognizes H3K56ac as there is no apparent acetylated lysine reader domain in Rtt106. Here, we show that two domains of Rtt106 are involved in a combinatorial recognition of H3-H4. An N-terminal domain homodimerizes and interacts with H3-H4 independently of acetylation while a double pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain binds the K56-containing region of H3. Affinity is markedly enhanced upon acetylation of K56, an effect that is probably due to increased conformational entropy of the αN helix of H3. Our data support a mode of interaction where the N-terminal homodimeric domain of Rtt106 intercalates between the two H3-H4 components of the (H3-H4)2 tetramer while two double PH domains in the Rtt106 dimer interact with each of the two H3K56ac sites in (H3-H4)2. We show that the Rtt106-(H3-H4)2 interaction is important for gene silencing and the DNA damage response.

  20. Polysorbates prevent biofilm formation and pathogenesis of Escherichia coli O104:H4

    OpenAIRE

    Sloup, Rudolph E.; Cieza, Roberto J.; Needle, David B.; Abramovitch, Robert B.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli biotype O104:H4 recently caused the deadliest E. coli outbreak ever reported. Based on prior results, it was hypothesized that compounds inhibiting biofilm formation by O104:H4 would reduce its pathogenesis. The nonionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80) and polysorbate 20 (PS20) were found to reduce biofilms by ≥ 90% at submicromolar concentrations and elicited nearly complete dispersal of preformed biofilms. PS80 did not significantly impact in vivo colonization in a mouse ...

  1. Theoretical Study on the Hole-Transport Property of Fullerene Hydrides C_<60>H_2 and C_<60>H_4

    OpenAIRE

    Tokunaga, Ken; Ohmori, Shigekazu; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Hole-transport property of C_H_2 [1] and C_H_4 [2] is discussed from the viewpoint of reorganization energy λ and hole-transfer rate constant k_, comparing with that of C_.All synthesized isomers [3] of C_H_2 and C_H_4 have better hole-transport property than C_. It is also revealed that the hole-transport property is closely related to the delocalization of HOMO.

  2. Expressions of B7-H4 and B7-H3 Proteins and Effect of Sorafenib on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study whether B7-H3 and B7-H4 proteins can be candidate drug targets for preventing and treating hepatoma. Methods: Western blot assay was used to study the expressions of B7-H3 and B7-H4 proteins and the effect of sorafenib on their expressions in different human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, ...

  3. Plasma monitoring of nanoparticles formation in SiH4/H2 discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Giannis; Tsigaras, Giannis; Amanatides, Eleftherios; Mataras, Dimitrios; Plasma Technology Laboratory-Department of Chemical Engineering-University of Patras Team

    2016-09-01

    Radio-frequency SiH4/H2 discharges is the most common technique for the growth of silicon thin films. Nanoparticles formation and uncontrollable agglomeration to dust is common drawback of such type of discharges due to the extensive reactivity of the species produced in the gas phase. In this work, we deposited silicon films in different plasma conditions while monitoring at the same time nanoparticles formation. The experiments were performed under Continuous Wave (CW) and Pulsed Plasma generation in order to control particles formation. Different time-resolved plasma diagnostics, such as Optical Emission Imaging, Laser Light Scattering and self-bias voltage (Vdc) measurements were used for the detection of particles. Mass spectrometry was also used to record higher silanes formation during the deposition. The deposited films were characterized in terms of crystallinity, hydrogen content and optical properties by Laser Raman, Fourier Transformed Infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was applied to monitor the morphology and roughness of the films. The properties and the morphology of the deposited films are compared in order to determine the effect of the particles formation on the material's quality.

  4. Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Spontaneous Autoimmune Thyroiditis in NOD.H-2h4 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Xue, Haibo; Li, Yushu; Hou, Xin; Fan, Chenling; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hongmei; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-10-01

    Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the suppressive effect of selenium (Se) treatment on serum thyroid-specific antibody titers in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the mechanism underlying this process is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium on the incidence and severity of AIT, titers of thyroid autoantibodies, and selenoprotein expression in thyroid in a spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) model. NOD.H-2(h4) mice at four weeks of age were randomly divided into control, iodine supplement (SAT), and selenium supplement groups (SAT+Se). Mice were given 0.005% sodium iodide water for eight weeks to induce SAT and then 0.3 mg/L sodium selenite in drinking water for 8 weeks and 16 weeks. The severity of lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid, serum thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) titers, serum selenium concentration, expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase-1 (Txnrd1), and peroxiredoxin 5 were measured. Serum selenium concentration significantly increased after selenium supplementation. Serum TgAb levels were significantly lower in the selenium group compared with the SAT group (pselenium supplementation. The expression of GPx1 and Txnrd1 by Western blotting were found to be significantly higher in the SAT+Se group than in other groups (pselenium treatment can increase the function of antioxidation by upregulating the expression of selenoproteins in the thyroid and have an inhibitory effect on TgAb titers, which may have an impact on AIT.

  5. Stable detonation characteristics of premixed C2H4/O2 gas in narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuejin; Pan, Zhenhua; Zhang, Penggang; Pan, Jianfeng

    2017-09-01

    The detonation initiation and propagation characteristics of premixed gas in a confined channel are greatly influenced by some external factors, such as the channel size and the initial pressure. The influences of different gap height and initial pressure of stoichiometric C2H4/O2 combustible premixed gas on the detonation characteristics were investigated using the self-made narrow gaps. The flame propagation processes were captured by the high-speed photography and the detonation trajectories were recorded by the soot-foil technology. The results show that the gap height is found to be proportional to P0^{ - 1.493} of the dividing lines, which are used to distinguish the three different detonation states. The detonation initiation process can be accelerated by either decreasing the gap height or increasing the initial pressure. Furthermore, the detonation velocity deficit is closely related to the gap height and the initial pressure, and the relation can be expressed as dV ∝ H^{ - 0.8} P0^{ - 0.5}.

  6. Mis16 Independently Recognizes Histone H4 and the CENP-ACnp1-Specific Chaperone Scm3sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sojin; Kim, Hanseong; Cho, Uhn-Soo (Michigan-Med)

    2015-09-04

    CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is required for kinetochore assembly and accurate chromosome segregation. For it to function properly, CENP-A must be specifically localized to centromeres. In fission yeast, Scm3sp and the Mis18 complex, composed of Mis16, Eic1, and Mis18, function as a CENP-ACnp1-specific chaperone and a recruiting factor, respectively, and together ensure accurate delivery of CENP-ACnp1 to centromeres. Although how Scm3sp specifically recognizes CENP-ACnp1 has been revealed recently, the recruiting mechanism of CENP-ACnp1 via the Mis18 complex remains unknown. In this study, we have determined crystal structures of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Mis16 alone and in complex with the helix 1 of histone H4 (H4α1). Crystal structures followed by mutant analysis and affinity pull-downs have revealed that Mis16 recognizes both H4α1 and Scm3sp independently within the CENP-ACnp1/H4:Scm3sp complex. This observation suggests that Mis16 gains CENP-ACnp1 specificity by recognizing both Scm3sp and histone H4. Our studies provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying specific recruitment of CENP-ACnp1/H4:Scm3sp into centromeres.

  7. Structure–function studies of histone H3/H4 tetramer maintenance during transcription by chaperone Spt2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoudeng; Rufiange, Anne; Huang, Hongda; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Nourani, Amine; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Cells use specific mechanisms such as histone chaperones to abrogate the inherent barrier that the nucleosome poses to transcribing polymerases. The current model postulates that nucleosomes can be transiently disrupted to accommodate passage of RNA polymerases and that histones H3 and H4 possess their own chaperones dedicated to the recovery of nucleosomes. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the conserved C terminus of human Suppressors of Ty insertions 2 (hSpt2C) chaperone bound to an H3/H4 tetramer. The structural studies demonstrate that hSpt2C is bound to the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer, mimicking the trajectory of nucleosomal-bound DNA. These structural studies have been complemented with in vitro binding and in vivo functional studies on mutants that disrupt key intermolecular contacts involving two acidic patches and hydrophobic residues on Spt2C. We show that contacts between both human and yeast Spt2C with the H3/H4 tetramer are required for the suppression of H3/H4 exchange as measured by H3K56ac and new H3 deposition. These interactions are also crucial for the inhibition of spurious transcription from within coding regions. Together, our data indicate that Spt2 interacts with the periphery of the H3/H4 tetramer and promotes its recycling in the wake of RNA polymerase. PMID:26109053

  8. Effect of H4R antagonist N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-chloro-1H-indol-2-carboxamides and 5-chloro-2-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole on histamine and 4-methylhistamine-induced mast cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Gomathi; Mariappanadar, Vairamani; Tamizh, Muthu; Kaliappan, Ilango; Elden, Berla Thangam

    2017-06-01

    The histamine plays a decisive role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses and is regulated through its four types of distinct receptors designated from H1 to H4. Recently histamine 4 receptor (H4R) antagonists have been reported to possess various pharmacological effects against various allergic diseases. To investigate the inhibitory effect of N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-chloro-1H-indol-2-carboxamide (Compound A) and 5-chloro-2-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (Compound L) on H4R-mediated calcium mobilization, cytokine IL-13 production, ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB activation in human mastocytoma cells-1 (HMC-1). Compounds A and L were synthesized chemically and their inhibitory effect on intracellular calcium release was analyzed by Fluo-4 calcium assay, cytokine measurement through ELISA and activation of signaling molecules by western blot. Pre-treatment with compounds A and L significantly reduced the H4R-mediated intracellular calcium release. Histamine and 4-methylhistamine (4-MH) induced Th2 cytokine IL-13 production in HMC-1 cells, was inhibited by compound A (77.61%, 74.25% at 1 μM concentration) and compound L (79.63%, 81.70% at 1 μM concentration). Furthermore, histamine induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB was suppressed by compounds A and L at varying levels, ERK1/2 (88%, 86%), Akt (88%, 89%) and NF-κB (89%, 87%) in HMC-1 cells. Taken together these data demonstrate that compound A and compound L may block H4R-mediated downstream signaling events.

  9. Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect androgen receptor activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hnida, Christina; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    Nine structurally different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were tested for their ability to either agonize or antagonize the human androgen receptor (hAR) in a sensitive reporter gene assay based on CHO cells transiently cotransfected with a hAR vector and an MMTV-LUC vector. Benz...

  10. Plasma macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) and its receptor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) and its receptor CCR4 on peripheral blood T lymphocytes of asthmatic children. ... Neutralization and manipulation of CCR4-expressing T cells, as well as MDC antagonism, may represent an adjuvant in the treatment of severe allergic disorders. Keywords: MDC; CCR4 ...

  11. Kaolinite dissolution and precipitation kinetics at 22 °C and pH 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Steefel, Carl I.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolution and precipitation rates of low defect Georgia kaolinite (KGa-1b) as a function of Gibbs free energy of reaction (or reaction affinity) were measured at 22 °C and pH 4 in continuously stirred flowthrough reactors. Steady state dissolution experiments showed slightly incongruent dissolution, with a Si/Al ratio of about 1.12 that is attributed to the re-adsorption of Al on to the kaolinite surface. No inhibition of the kaolinite dissolution rate was apparent when dissolved aluminum was varied from 0 and 60 μM. The relationship between dissolution rates and the reaction affinity can be described well by a Transition State Theory (TST) rate formulation with a Temkin coefficient of 2 R(mol/ms)=1.15×10-131-exp (-ΔG2RT). Stopping of flow in a close to equilibrium dissolution experiment yielded a solubility constant for kaolinite at 22 °C of 10 7.57. Experiments on the precipitation kinetics of kaolinite showed a more complex behavior. One conducted using kaolinite seed that had previously undergone extensive dissolution under far from equilibrium conditions for 5 months showed a quasi-steady state precipitation rate for 105 h that was compatible with the TST expression above. After this initial period, however, precipitation rates decreased by an order of magnitude, and like other precipitation experiments conducted at higher supersaturation and without kaolinite seed subjected to extensive prior dissolution, could not be described with the TST law. The initial quasi-steady state rate is interpreted as growth on activated sites created by the dissolution process, but this reversible growth mechanism could not be maintained once these sites were filled. Long-term precipitation rates showed a linear dependence on solution saturation state that is generally consistent with a two-dimensional nucleation growth mechanism following the equation R(mol/ms)=3.38×10-14exp-181776}/{T2lnΩ}. Further analysis using Synchrotron Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

  12. Numerical modeling of soot formation in a turbulent C2H4/air diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manedhar Reddy Busupally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soot formation in a lifted C2H4-Air turbulent diffusion flame is studied using two different paths for soot nucleation and oxidation; by a 2D axisymmetric RANS simulation using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The turbulence-chemistry interactions are modeled using two different approaches: steady laminar flamelet approach and flamelet-generated manifold. Chemical mechanism is represented by POLIMI to study the effect of species concentration on soot formation. P1 approximation is employed to approximate the radiative transfer equation into truncated series expansion in spherical harmonics while the weighted sum of gray gases is invoked to model the absorption coefficient while the soot model accounts for nucleation, coagulation, surface growth, and oxidation. The first route for nucleation considers acetylene concentration as a linear function of soot nucleation rate, whereas the second route considers two and three ring aromatic species as function of nucleation rate. Equilibrium-based and instantaneous approach has been used to estimate the OH concentration for soot oxidation. Lee and Fenimore-Jones soot oxidation models are studied to shed light on the effect of OH on soot oxidation. Moreover, the soot-radiation interactions are also included in terms of absorption coefficient of soot. Furthermore, the soot-turbulence interactions have been invoked using a temperature/mixture fraction-based single variable PDF. Both the turbulence-chemistry interaction models are able to accurately predict the flame liftoff height, and for accurate prediction of flame length, radiative heat loss should be accounted in an accurate way. The soot-turbulence interactions are found sensitive to the PDF used in present study.

  13. THE NATURE OF EXTREMELY RED H - [4.5] > 4 GALAXIES REVEALED WITH SEDS AND CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, K. I.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G.; Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Castellano, M.; Fontana, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Almaini, O. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Donley, J. L.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koo, D. C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Giavalisco, M., E-mail: karina@astro.rug.nl [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed a sample of 25 extremely red H - [4.5] > 4 galaxies, selected using 4.5 {mu}m data from the Spitzer SEDS survey and deep H-band data from the Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS survey, over {approx}180 arcmin{sup 2} of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. Our aim is to investigate the nature of this rare population of mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources that display such extreme near-to-mid-IR colors. Using up to 17-band photometry (U through 8.0 {mu}m), we have studied in detail their spectral energy distributions, including possible degeneracies in the photometric redshift/internal extinction (z{sub phot}-A{sub V} ) plane. Our sample appears to include sources of very different nature. Between 45% and 75% of them are dust-obscured, massive galaxies at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5. All of the 24 {mu}m detected sources in our sample are in this category. Two of these have S(24 {mu}m)>300 {mu}Jy, which at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5 suggests that they probably host a dust-obscured active galactic nucleus. Our sample also contains four highly obscured (A{sub V} > 5) sources at z{sub phot} < 1. Finally, we analyze in detail two z{sub phot} {approx} 6 galaxy candidates, and discuss their plausibility and implications. Overall, our red galaxy sample contains the tip of the iceberg of a larger population of z > 3 galaxies to be discovered with the future James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Kefiran antagonizes cytopathic effects of Bacillus cereus extracellular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Micaela; Pérez, Pablo Fernando; Abraham, Analía Graciela

    2008-02-29

    Kefiran, the polysaccharide produced by microorganisms present in kefir grains, is a water-soluble branched glucogalactan containing equal amounts of D-glucose and D-galactose. In this study, the effect of kefiran on the biological activity of Bacillus cereus strain B10502 extracellular factors was assessed by using cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and human erythrocytes. In the presence of kefiran concentrations ranging from 300 to 1000 mg/L, the ability of B. cereus B10502 spent culture supernatants to detach and damage cultured human enterocytes was significantly abrogated. In addition, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was higher when kefiran was present during the cell toxicity assays. Protection was also demonstrated in hemolysis and apoptosis/necrosis assays. Scanning electron microscopy showed the protective effect of kefiran against structural cell damages produced by factors synthesized by B. cereus strain B10502. Protective effect of kefiran depended on strain of B. cereus. Our findings demonstrate the ability of kefiran to antagonize key events of B. cereus B10502 virulence. This property, although strain-specific, gives new perspectives for the role of bacterial exopolysaccharides in functional foods.

  15. Calcineurin Antagonizes AMPK to Regulate Lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Xie, Cangsang; Diao, Zhiqing; Liang, Bin

    2017-06-26

    Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC). The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we showed that mutations of tax-6 and cnb-1, which respectively encode the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, together with tacrolimus treatment, consistently led to decreased fat accumulation and delayed growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, disruption of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) encoded by aak-1 and aak-2 reversed the above effects in worms. Moreover, calcineurin deficiency and tacrolimus treatment consistently activated the transcriptional expression of the lipolytic gene atgl-1, encoding triglyceride lipase. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of atgl-1 recovered the decreased fat accumulation in both calcineurin deficient and tacrolimus treated worms. Collectively, our results reveal that immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus and their target calcineurin may antagonize AMPK to regulate ATGL and lipolysis, thereby providing potential therapy for the application of immunosuppressive agents.

  16. Calcineurin Antagonizes AMPK to Regulate Lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC. The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we showed that mutations of tax-6 and cnb-1, which respectively encode the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, together with tacrolimus treatment, consistently led to decreased fat accumulation and delayed growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, disruption of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK encoded by aak-1 and aak-2 reversed the above effects in worms. Moreover, calcineurin deficiency and tacrolimus treatment consistently activated the transcriptional expression of the lipolytic gene atgl-1, encoding triglyceride lipase. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of atgl-1 recovered the decreased fat accumulation in both calcineurin deficient and tacrolimus treated worms. Collectively, our results reveal that immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus and their target calcineurin may antagonize AMPK to regulate ATGL and lipolysis, thereby providing potential therapy for the application of immunosuppressive agents.

  17. Acute cocaine toxicity: antagonism by agents interacting with adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, R W; Albertson, T E

    1990-06-01

    Agents which interact with alpha- or beta-adrenoceptors were evaluated for efficacy in preventing seizures and death from a lethal dose of cocaine. Rats were first pretreated with the test drug(s), then subjected to an intraperitoneal LD86 of cocaine (70 mg/kg). In this model, control vehicle-pretreated animals developed seizures within six minutes, followed by death within 10 minutes. Significant protection against death was afforded by pretreatment with clonidine (0.25 mg/kg), prazocin (5.0 to 20 mg/kg), propranolol (8.0 to 32 mg/kg), or labetalol (40 mg/kg). Surviving animals still experienced seizures as judged through behavior and EEG recordings. Phentolamine did not affect the incidence of seizures or death. Two nonadrenoceptor agents were also studied: hydralazine reduced the incidence of death and seizures at 5.0 and 10 mg/kg, but reserpine did not alter the incidence of death or seizures. A combination of prazocin and propranolol did not provide additional protection compared to single agents. We conclude that the pathogenesis of acute cocaine death is complex, and that this toxicity can be antagonized by agents having either central or peripheral effects.

  18. Antagonism of methoxyflurane-induced anesthesia in rats by benzodiazepine inverse agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D W; Yourick, D L; Tessel, R E

    1989-11-28

    Injection of the partial benzodiazepine inverse agonist Ro15-4513 (1-32 mg/kg i.p.) or nonconvulsant i.v. doses of the full benzodiazepine inverse agonist beta-CCE immediately following cessation of exposure of rats to an anesthetic concentration of methoxyflurane significantly antagonized the duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia as measured by recovery of the righting reflex and/or pain sensitivity. This antagonism was inhibited by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro15-1788 at doses which alone did not alter the duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia. In addition, high-dose Ro15-4513 pretreatment (32 mg/kg) antagonized the induction and duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia but was unable to prevent methoxyflurane anesthesia or affect the induction or duration of anesthesia induced by the dissociative anesthetic ketamine (100 mg/kg). These findings indicate that methoxyflurane anesthesia can be selectively antagonized by the inverse agonistic action of Ro15-4513 and beta-CCE.

  19. Reduction of 1,4-dien-3-one steroids with LiAl2H4 or NaB2H4: stereospecific deuterium-labeling at the c-1alpha position of a 4-en-3-one steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako

    2006-04-01

    Reduction of a double bond at C-1 of 1,4-dien-3-one steroids 7 and 8 with LiAl2H4 in THF or NaB2H4 in MeOH and H2O gave stereospecifically [1alpha-2H]-labeled 4-en-3-one steroids 9 and 10, respectively. When the deuterated solvents, MeO2H and 2H2O, were used for the reaction of steroid 8 with NaB2H4, [1alpha,2xi-2H2]-labeled compound 10 was produced. This indicates that the reaction proceeds through the initial hydride attack at the C-1alpha position, followed by ketonization of the 2-en-3-ol intermediate.

  20. p-NO2-Bn-H4neunpa and H4neunpa-Trastuzumab: Bifunctional Chelator for Radiometalpharmaceuticals and (111)In Immuno-Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelmeyer, Sarah; Ramogida, Caterina F; Rousseau, Julie; Arane, Karen; Bratanovic, Ivica; Colpo, Nadine; Jermilova, Una; Dias, Gemma M; Dude, Iulia; Jaraquemada-Peláez, Maria de Guadalupe; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Orvig, Chris

    2017-08-16

    Potentially nonadentate (N5O4) bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-H4neunpa and its immunoconjugate H4neunpa-trastuzumab for (111)In radiolabeling are synthesized. The ability of p-SCN-Bn-H4neunpa and H4neunpa-trastuzumab to quantitatively radiolabel (111)InCl3 at an ambient temperature within 15 or 30 min, respectively, is presented. Thermodynamic stability determination with In(3+), Bi(3+), and La(3+) resulted in high conditional stability constant (pM) values. In vitro human serum stability assays have demonstrated both (111)In complexes to have high stability over 5 days. Mouse biodistribution of [(111)In][In(p-NO2-Bn-neunpa)](-), compared to that of [(111)In][In(p-NH2-Bn-CHX-A″-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA))](2-), at 1, 4, and 24 h shows fast clearance of both complexes from the mice within 24 h. In a second mouse biodistribution study, the immunoconjugates (111)In-neunpa-trastuzumab and (111)In-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab demonstrate a similar distribution profile but with slightly lower tumor uptake of (111)In-neunpa-trastuzumab compared to that of (111)In-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab. These results were also confirmed by immuno-single photon emission computed tomography (immuno-SPECT) imaging in vivo. These initial investigations reveal the acyclic bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-H4neunpa to be a promising chelator for (111)In (and other radiometals) with high in vitro stability and also show H4neunpa-trastuzumab to be an excellent (111)In chelator with promising biodistribution in mice.

  1. Poisson Lie symmetry and D-branes in WZW model on the Heisenberg Lie group H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eghbali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that the WZW model on the Heisenberg Lie group H4 has Poisson–Lie symmetry only when the dual Lie group is A2⊕2A1. In this way, we construct the mutual T-dual sigma models on Drinfel'd double generated by the Heisenberg Lie group H4 and its dual pair, A2⊕2A1, as the target space in such a way that the original model is the same as the H4 WZW model. Furthermore, we show that the dual model is conformal up to two-loop order. Finally, we discuss D-branes and the worldsheet boundary conditions defined by a gluing matrix on the H4 WZW model. Using the duality map obtained from the canonical transformation description of the Poisson–Lie T-duality transformations for the gluing matrix which locally defines the properties of the D-brane, we find two different cases of the gluing matrices for the WZW model based on the Heisenberg Lie group H4 and its dual model.

  2. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of the Schistosoma mansoni Genes RbAp48 and Histone H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The human nuclear protein RbAp48 is a member of the tryptophan/aspartate (WD repeat family, which binds to the retinoblastoma (Rb protein. It also corresponds to the smallest subunit of the chromatin assembly factor and is able to bind to the helix 1 of histone H4, taking it to the DNA in replication. A cDNA homologous to the human gene RbAp48 was isolated from a Schistosoma mansoni adult worm library and named SmRbAp48. The full length sequence of SmRbAp48 cDNA is 1036 bp long, encoding a protein of 308 amino acids. The transcript of SmRbAp48 was detected in egg, cercariae and schistosomulum stages. The protein shows 84% similarity with the human RbAp48, possessing four WD repeats on its C-terminus. A hypothetical tridimensional structure for the SmRbAp48 C-terminal domain was constructed by computational molecular modeling using the b-subunit of the G protein as a model. To further verify a possible interaction between SmRbAp48 and S. mansoni histone H4, the histone H4 gene was amplified from adult worm genomic DNA using degenerated primers. The gene fragment of SmH4 is 294 bp long, encoding a protein of 98 amino acids which is 100% identical to histone H4 from Drosophila melanogaster.

  3. A modern and versatile data-acquisition package for calorimeter prototypes test-beams H4DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Marini, Andrea Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the calorimeters for the HL-LHC or for future colliders requires an extensive programme of tests to qualify different detector prototypes with dedicated test beams. A common data-acquisition system (called H4DAQ) was developed for the H4 test beam line at the North Area of the CERN SPS in 2014 and it has since been adopted by an increasing number of teams involved in the CMS experiment and AIDA groups. Several different calorimeter prototypes and precision timing detectors have used H4DAQ from 2014 to 2017, and it has proved to be a versatile application, portable to many other beam test environments (the CERN beam lines EA-T9 at the PS, H2 and H4 at the SPS, and at the INFN Frascati Beam Test Facility).The H4DAQ is fast, simple, modular and can be configured to support different setups. The different functionalities of the DAQ core software are split into three configurable finite state machines the data readout, run control, and event builder. The distribution of information and data betw...

  4. NMDA receptor antagonism: escalation of aggressive behavior in alcohol-drinking mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Emily L; Chu, Adam; Bahamón, Brittany; Takahashi, Aki; Debold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2012-11-01

    Memantine is a potential treatment for alcoholic patients, yet few studies investigate the effect of concurrent treatment with memantine and ethanol on aggression. We evaluated aggressive behavior following ethanol consumption and treatment with glutamatergic drugs to characterize interactions between these compounds. This study aimed to use rodent models of aggression to examine interactions between glutamatergic compounds and ethanol. Once male CFW mice reliably self-administered 1 g/kg ethanol or water, they were assessed for aggression in resident-intruder confrontations. Alternatively, aggression was evaluated following a social-instigation procedure. Animals were then injected with memantine, ketamine, neramexane, MTEP, or LY379268 before aggressive confrontations. Effects of the pharmacological manipulations on salient aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed. Moderate doses of memantine, neramexane, and MTEP interacted with ethanol to increase the frequency of attack bites while ketamine did not. The highest dose of LY379268, an mGluR(2/3) agonist, reduced both aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors after water and ethanol self-administration. Attack bites increased with social instigation and decreased with administration of high doses of MTEP and LY379268. Memantine and MTEP both reduced attack bite frequency in the instigation condition without reducing locomotor behavior. Memantine and neramexane interacted with ethanol to heighten aggression. The binding characteristics of these compounds allow for 'partial trapping' by which some NMDARs are unblocked between depolarizations. We propose that this feature may contribute to the differential aggression-heightening interactions between these compounds and ethanol. MTEP also interacted with ethanol to escalate aggression, possibly through inhibition of mGluR(5) modulation of NMDARs.

  5. Opioid-receptor antagonism increases pain and decreases pleasure in obese and non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca C; Christou, Nicolas V; Backman, Steven B; Stone, Laura; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous opioids inhibit nociceptive processing and promote the experience of pleasure. It has been proposed that pain and pleasure lie at opposite ends of an affective spectrum, but the relationship between pain and pleasure and the role of opioids in mediating this relationship has not been tested. Here, we used obese individuals as a model of a dysfunctional opioid system to assess the role of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, on pain and pleasure sensitivity. Obese (10M/10F) and age- and gender-matched non-obese (10M/10F) controls were included in the study. Pain sensitivity using threshold, tolerance, and subjective rating assessments and perceived sweet pleasantness using sucrose solutions were assessed in two testing sessions with placebo or the opioid antagonist, naltrexone (0.7 mg/kg body weight). Beta-endorphin levels were assessed in both sessions. Despite having higher levels of baseline beta-endorphin and altered beta-endorphin-reactivity to naltrexone, obese individuals reported a similar increase in pain and decrease in pleasantness following naltrexone compared to non-obese individuals. Beta-endorphin levels did not correlate with pain or pleasantness in either group, but naltrexone-induced changes in pain and pleasantness were mildly correlated. Moreover, naltrexone-induced changes in pain were related to depression scores, while naltrexone-induced changes in sweet pleasantness were related to anxiety scores, indicating that pain and pleasantness are related, but influenced by different processes.

  6. SPINAL ANTINOCICEPTION BY MORPHINE IN RATS IS ANTAGONIZED BY GALANIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REIMANN, W; ENGLBERGER, W; FRIDERICHS, E; SELVE, N; WILFFERT, B

    1994-01-01

    Galanin, a 29 amino acid peptide, has been reported to possess antinociceptive properties at the spinal site and to potentiate opioid-induced antinociception. Our aim was to investigate whether also endogenous galanin interacts with an exogenously administered opioid, morphine, in the rat spinal

  7. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Dagdas, YF; K. Belhaj; A Maqbool; Chaparro-Garcia, A; Pandey, P; Petre, B; Tabassum, N.; Cruz-Mireles, N; Hughes, RK; Sklenar, J.; Win, J.; Menke, F.; Findlay, K.; Banfield, MJ; Kamoun, S.

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest Plants and other living organisms can survive stress and starvation by digesting and recycling parts of their own cells. This process is known as autophagy and it involves engulfing cellular material inside spherical structures called autophagosomes, before delivering it to sites in the cell where digestive enzymes can break the material down. A form of autophagy, known as selective autophagy, can specifically degrade toxic substances such as disease-causing microbes. Selective a...

  8. Diverse chromatin remodeling genes antagonize the Rb-involved SynMuv pathways in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxue Cui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, vulval cell-fate specification involves the activities of multiple signal transduction and regulatory pathways that include a receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and synthetic multivulva (SynMuv pathways. Many genes in the SynMuv pathways encode transcription factors including the homologs of mammalian Rb, E2F, and components of the nucleosome-remodeling deacetylase complex. To further elucidate the functions of the SynMuv genes, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen to search for genes that antagonize the SynMuv gene activities. Among those that displayed a varying degree of suppression of the SynMuv phenotype, 32 genes are potentially involved in chromatin remodeling (called SynMuv suppressor genes herein. Genetic mutations of two representative genes (zfp-1 and mes-4 were used to further characterize their positive roles in vulval induction and relationships with Ras function. Our analysis revealed antagonistic roles of the SynMuv suppressor genes and the SynMuv B genes in germline-soma distinction, RNAi, somatic transgene silencing, and tissue specific expression of pgl-1 and the lag-2/Delta genes. The opposite roles of these SynMuv B and SynMuv suppressor genes on transcriptional regulation were confirmed in somatic transgene silencing. We also report the identifications of ten new genes in the RNAi pathway and six new genes in germline silencing. Among the ten new RNAi genes, three encode homologs of proteins involved in both protein degradation and chromatin remodeling. Our findings suggest that multiple chromatin remodeling complexes are involved in regulating the expression of specific genes that play critical roles in developmental decisions.

  9. Mechanistic understanding of MeHg-Se antagonism in soil-rice systems: the key role of antagonism in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Dang, Fei; Evans, R. Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Jiating; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice has great implications for human health. Here, effects of selenium (Se) on MeHg availability to rice are explored by growing rice under soil or foliar fertilization with Se. Results indicate that soil amendment with Se could reduce MeHg levels in soil and grain (maximally 73%). In contrast, foliar fertilization with Se enhanced plant Se levels (3–12 folds) without affecting grain MeHg concentrations. This evidence, along with the distinct distribution of MeHg and Se within the plant, demonstrate for the first time that Se-induced reduction in soil MeHg levels (i.e., MeHg-Se antagonism in soil) rather than MeHg-Se interactions within the plant might be the key process triggering the decreased grain MeHg levels under Se amendment. The reduction in soil MeHg concentrations could be mainly attributed to the formation of Hg-Se complexes (detected by TEM-EDX and XANES) and thus reduced microbial MeHg production. Moreover, selenite and selenate were equally effective in reducing soil MeHg concentrations, possibly because of rapid changes in Se speciation. The dominant role of Se-induced reduction in soil MeHg levels, which has been largely underestimated previously, together with the possible mechanisms advance our mechanistic understanding about MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems. PMID:26778218

  10. Mechanistic understanding of MeHg-Se antagonism in soil-rice systems: the key role of antagonism in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Dang, Fei; Evans, R. Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Jiating; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice has great implications for human health. Here, effects of selenium (Se) on MeHg availability to rice are explored by growing rice under soil or foliar fertilization with Se. Results indicate that soil amendment with Se could reduce MeHg levels in soil and grain (maximally 73%). In contrast, foliar fertilization with Se enhanced plant Se levels (3-12 folds) without affecting grain MeHg concentrations. This evidence, along with the distinct distribution of MeHg and Se within the plant, demonstrate for the first time that Se-induced reduction in soil MeHg levels (i.e., MeHg-Se antagonism in soil) rather than MeHg-Se interactions within the plant might be the key process triggering the decreased grain MeHg levels under Se amendment. The reduction in soil MeHg concentrations could be mainly attributed to the formation of Hg-Se complexes (detected by TEM-EDX and XANES) and thus reduced microbial MeHg production. Moreover, selenite and selenate were equally effective in reducing soil MeHg concentrations, possibly because of rapid changes in Se speciation. The dominant role of Se-induced reduction in soil MeHg levels, which has been largely underestimated previously, together with the possible mechanisms advance our mechanistic understanding about MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems.

  11. The Netrin-related domain of Sfrp1 interacts with Wnt ligands and antagonizes their activity in the anterior neural plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Pilar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted frizzled related proteins (SFRPs are multifunctional modulators of Wnt and BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signalling necessary for the development of most organs and the homeostasis of different adult tissues. SFRPs fold in two independent domains: the cysteine rich domain (SfrpCRD related to the extracellular portion of Frizzled (Fz, Wnt receptors and the Netrin module (SfrpNTR defined by homologies with molecules such as Netrin-1, inhibitors of metalloproteinases and complement proteins. Due to its structural relationship with Fz, it is believed that SfrpCRD interferes with Wnt signalling by binding and sequestering the ligand. In contrast, the functional relevance of the SfrpNTR has been barely addressed. Results Here, we combine biochemical studies, mutational analysis and functional assays in cell culture and medaka-fish embryos to show that the Sfrp1NTR mimics the function of the entire molecule, binds to Wnt8 and antagonizes Wnt canonical signalling. This activity requires intact tertiary structure and is shared by the distantly related Netrin-1NTR. In contrast, the Sfrp1CRD cannot mirror the function of the entire molecule in vivo but interacts with Fz receptors and antagonizes Wnt8-mediated β-catenin transcriptional activity. Conclusion On the basis of these results, we propose that SFRP modulation of Wnt signalling may involve multiple and differential interactions among Wnt, Fz and SFRPs.

  12. Detection of NO sub x,C2H4 concentrations by using CO and CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengchen, W.; Qinxin, K.

    1986-01-01

    A laser, especially the infrared line tunable laser, opens up a new way to monitor the atmospheric environment, and already has gotten effective practical application. One of the most serious problems in open path remote measurement at atmospheric pressure is the broadening effect which leads to increased linewidths, spectral interferences, and, as a result, tends to reduce detection sensitivity, so measuring laser wavelengths should be selected carefully, and interaction between the measuring wavelength and gas to be measured must be known very well. Therefore, N2O, No, NO2, CH4, NH3 and C2H4 absorption properties at some lines of CO and CO2 line tunable lasers were studied. The absorption coefficients of NO, NO2, and C2H4; some results on detection of NO sub x, C2H4 concentrations in both laboratory and field; and selection of measuring wavelengths and error analysis are discussed.

  13. Oxidation Of Cyclohexane To Cyclohexanol And Cyclohexanone Using H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr As Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and preparation of polyoxometalate H4[α-SiW12O40].nH2O with Zr as support at various weights of Zr 0.01g; 0.05 g; 0.25 g; 0.5 g; 0.75 g; 1 g and 1.25 g to form H4[α- SiW12O40]/Zr was conducted. The compounds from preparation were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy and crystallinity analysis using X-Ray diffraction. Thus H4[α- SiW12O40]/Zr was applied as catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Oxidation process was studied through reaction time, hydrogen peroxide amount, temperature, and weight of catalyst. FTIR spectrum of H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr was appeared at wavenumber 771.53-979.84 cm-1 and Zr at 486.06-1481.33 cm-1. Diffraction pattern of H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr showed that high crystallinity was identified at 2θ 8o-10o and 28.3o. Based on FTIR spectrum and XRD powder pattern, the optimum preparation of H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr was obtained using 0.5 g of Zr. The catalytic study of cyclohexane using H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr at 0.5 g of Zr resulted conversion about 99.73%. Catalyst can convert cyclohexane with the highest conversion then used for further deep catalytic investigation. Optimization of oxidation process resulted optimum reaction time at 2 h, 3 mL of hydrogen peroxide amount, 80 oC of temperature, and 0.038 g of catalyst. The GCMS analysis indicated the oxidation of cyclohexane using H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr at 0.5 g of Zr formed cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with selectivity 18.77 and 23.57, respectively.

  14. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Man Hou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL, and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL. This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05 by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05 by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  15. Reversible hydrogen storage by NaAlH4 confined within a titanium-functionalized MOF-74(Mg) nanoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavila, Vitalie; Bhakta, Raghunandan K; Alam, Todd M; Majzoub, Eric H; Allendorf, Mark D

    2012-11-27

    We demonstrate that NaAlH(4) confined within the nanopores of a titanium-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) template MOF-74(Mg) can reversibly store hydrogen with minimal loss of capacity. Hydride-infiltrated samples were synthesized by melt infiltration, achieving loadings up to 21 wt %. MOF-74(Mg) possesses one-dimensional, 12 Å channels lined with Mg atoms having open coordination sites, which can serve as sites for Ti catalyst stabilization. MOF-74(Mg) is stable under repeated hydrogen desorption and hydride regeneration cycles, allowing it to serve as a "nanoreactor". Confining NaAlH(4) within these pores alters the decomposition pathway by eliminating the stable intermediate Na(3)AlH(6) phase observed during bulk decomposition and proceeding directly to NaH, Al, and H(2), in agreement with theory. The onset of hydrogen desorption for both Ti-doped and undoped nano-NaAlH(4)@MOF-74(Mg) is ∼50 °C, nearly 100 °C lower than bulk NaAlH(4). However, the presence of titanium is not necessary for this increase in desorption kinetics but enables rehydriding to be almost fully reversible. Isothermal kinetic studies indicate that the activation energy for H(2) desorption is reduced from 79.5 kJ mol(-1) in bulk Ti-doped NaAlH(4) to 57.4 kJ mol(-1) for nanoconfined NaAlH(4). The structural properties of nano-NaAlH(4)@MOF-74(Mg) were probed using (23)Na and (27)Al solid-state MAS NMR, which indicates that the hydride is not decomposed during infiltration and that Al is present as tetrahedral AlH(4)(-) anions prior to desorption and as Al metal after desorption. Because of the highly ordered MOF structure and monodisperse pore dimensions, our results allow key template features to be identified to ensure reversible, low-temperature hydrogen storage.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica: protein arginine transferase 1a methylates arginine residues and potentially modify the H4 histone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbolla-Vázquez, Jessica; Orozco, Esther; Betanzos, Abigail; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2015-04-10

    In eukaryotes, histone arginine methylation associates with both active and repressed chromatin states depending on the residues involved and the status of methylation. Even when the amino-terminus of Entamoeba histolytica histones diverge from metazoan sequences, these regions contain arginine residues that are potential targets for methylation. However, histone arginine methylation as well as the activity of arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has not been studied in this parasite. The aim of this work was to examine the dimethylation of arginine 3 of H4 histone (H4R3me2) and to identify the parasite PRMT that could be responsible for this modification (EhPRMT1). To examine the presence of H4R3me2 in E histolytica, we performed Western blot and immunofluorescence assays on trophozoites using an antibody against this epigenetic mark. To recognize the PRMT1 enzyme of this parasite that possibly perform that modification, we first performed a phylogenetic analysis of E. histolytica and human PRMTs. RT-PCR assays were carried out to analyze the expression of the putative PRMT1 genes. One of these genes was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was tested by its recognition by an antibody against human PRMT1 and in its ability to form homodimers and to methylate commercial histones. The arginine 3 of human H4, which is subjected to post translational methylation, was aligned with the arginine 8 of E. histolytica H4, suggesting that this residue could be methylated. The recognition of an 18 kDa nuclear protein of E. histolytica by an antibody against H4R3me2 confirmed this assumption. We found that this parasite expresses three phylogenetic and structural proteins related to PRMT1. Antibodies against the human PRMT1 detected E. histolytica proteins in cytoplasm and nuclei and recognized a recombinant PRMT1 of this parasite. The recombinant protein was able to form homodimers and homotetramers and displayed methyltransferase activity on

  17. Concentration-Dependent Antagonism and Culture Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Neesha; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Denti, Paolo; Sirgel, Frederick; Lesosky, Maia; Gumbo, Tawanda; Meintjes, Graeme; McIlleron, Helen; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2017-05-15

    There is scant evidence to support target drug exposures for optimal tuberculosis outcomes. We therefore assessed whether pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters could predict 2-month culture conversion. One hundred patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (65% human immunodeficiency virus coinfected) were intensively sampled to determine rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide plasma concentrations after 7-8 weeks of therapy, and PK parameters determined using nonlinear mixed-effects models. Detailed clinical data and sputum for culture were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 5-6 months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on baseline isolates. Multivariate logistic regression and the assumption-free multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) were used to identify clinical and PK/PD predictors of 2-month culture conversion. Potential PK/PD predictors included 0- to 24-hour area under the curve (AUC0-24), maximum concentration (Cmax), AUC0-24/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and percentage of time that concentrations persisted above the MIC (%TMIC). Twenty-six percent of patients had Cmax of rifampicin conversion using multivariate logistic regression after adjusting for MIC. However, MARS identified negative interactions between isoniazid Cmax and rifampicin Cmax/MIC ratio on 2-month culture conversion. If isoniazid Cmax was conversion. For patients with isoniazid Cmax >4.6 mg/L, higher isoniazid exposures were associated with improved rates of culture conversion. PK/PD analyses using MARS identified isoniazid Cmax and rifampicin Cmax/MIC thresholds below which there is concentration-dependent antagonism that reduces 2-month sputum culture conversion.

  18. Novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies: synergy and antagonism with tumor necrosis factor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One-third of breast cancers display amplifications of the ERBB2 gene encoding the HER2 kinase receptor. Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. However, many tumors are either natively resistant or acquire resistance against Trastuzumab. Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. For example, Pertuzumab that binds to subdomain II of HER2 extracellular domain and inhibits receptor dimerization is under clinical trial. Alternative antibodies directed to novel HER2 epitopes may serve as additional tools for breast cancer therapy. Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Methods Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2 extracellular domain protein to produce monoclonal antibodies. Anti-HER2 antibodies were characterized with breast cancer cell lines using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blot techniques. Antibody epitopes were localized using plasmids encoding recombinant HER2 protein variants. Antibodies, either alone or in combination with TNF-α, were tested for their effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. Results We produced five new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, all directed against conformational epitope or epitopes restricted to the native form of the extracellular domain. When tested alone, some antibodies inhibited modestly but significantly the growth of SK-BR-3, BT-474 and MDA-MB-361 cells displaying ERBB2 amplification. They had no detectable effect on MCF-7 and T47D cells lacking ERBB2 amplification. When tested in combination with TNF-α, antibodies acted synergistically on SK-BR-3 cells, but antagonistically on BT

  19. Novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies: synergy and antagonism with tumor necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceran Ceyhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One-third of breast cancers display amplifications of the ERBB2 gene encoding the HER2 kinase receptor. Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. However, many tumors are either natively resistant or acquire resistance against Trastuzumab. Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. For example, Pertuzumab that binds to subdomain II of HER2 extracellular domain and inhibits receptor dimerization is under clinical trial. Alternative antibodies directed to novel HER2 epitopes may serve as additional tools for breast cancer therapy. Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Methods Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2 extracellular domain protein to produce monoclonal antibodies. Anti-HER2 antibodies were characterized with breast cancer cell lines using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blot techniques. Antibody epitopes were localized using plasmids encoding recombinant HER2 protein variants. Antibodies, either alone or in combination with TNF-α, were tested for their effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. Results We produced five new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, all directed against conformational epitope or epitopes restricted to the native form of the extracellular domain. When tested alone, some antibodies inhibited modestly but significantly the growth of SK-BR-3, BT-474 and MDA-MB-361 cells displaying ERBB2 amplification. They had no detectable effect on MCF-7 and T47D cells lacking ERBB2 amplification. When tested in combination with TNF-α, antibodies acted synergistically on SK-BR-3 cells

  20. Water exposure assessment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in Three Gorges Reservoir, China using SPMD-based virtual organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Bernhöft, Silke; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-10-15

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were deployed at five to eight sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China for five periods in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The water exposure of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists was assessed by the VOs. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the VOs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The results show that the extracts from the VOs could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) accounted for dam were also obviously higher in 2009 and 2011 than in 2008, indicating big changes in the composition of pollutants in the area after water level reached a maximum of 175 m. Although the aqueous concentration of AhR agonists of 0.8-4.8 pg TCDDL(-1) in TGR was not alarming, the tendency of accumulating high concentration of AhR agonists in VO lipid and existence of possible synergism or antagonism in the water may exhibit a potential hazard to local biota being exposed to AhR agonists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... simple competitive agonism or antagonism by ligands interacting with the orthosteric binding site of the receptor to incorporate concepts of allosteric agonism, allosteric modulation, signaling bias, constitutive activity, and inverse agonism. Herein, we consider how evolving concepts of GPCR...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  2. First line shape analysis and spectroscopic parameters for the ν11 band of 12C2H4

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2016-08-11

    An accurate knowledge of line intensities, collisional broadening coefficients and narrowing parameters is necessary for the interpretation of high-resolution infrared spectra of the Earth and other planetary atmospheres. One of the most promising spectral domains for (C2H4)-C-12 monitoring in such environments is located near the 336 gm window, through its v(11) C-H stretching mode. In this paper, we report an extensive study in which we precisely determine spectroscopic parameters of (C2H4)-C-12 v(11) band at 297 +/- 1 K, using a narrow Difference-Frequency-Generation (DFG) laser with 10(-4) cm(-1) resolution. Absorption measurements were performed in the 2975-2980 cm(-1) spectral window to investigate 32 lines corresponding to where, J\\'ka\\',kc\\'<- Jka,kc, 5 <= J <= 7; 0.5 <= K-a <= 6 and 1 <= K-c <= 14. Spectroscopic parameters are retrieved using either Voigt or appropriate Galatry profile to simulate the measured (C2H4)-C-12 line shape. Line intensities along with self-broadening coefficients are reported for all lines. Narrowing coefficients for each isolated line are also derived. To our knowledge, the current study reports the first extensive spectroscopic parameter measurements of the (C2H4)-C-12 v(11) band in the 2975-2980 cm(-1) range. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SETD4 Regulates Cell Quiescence and Catalyzes the Trimethylation of H4K20 during Diapause Formation in Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Ye, Sen; Li, Hua-Wei; Chen, Dian-Fu; Wang, Hong-Liang; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Cheng; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Fan; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2017-04-01

    As a prominent characteristic of cell life, the regulation of cell quiescence is important for proper development, regeneration, and stress resistance and may play a role in certain degenerative diseases. However, the mechanism underlying quiescence remains largely unknown. Encysted embryos of Artemia are useful for studying the regulation of this state because they remain quiescent for prolonged periods during diapause, a state of obligate dormancy. In the present study, SET domain-containing protein 4, a histone lysine methyltransferase from Artemia, was identified, characterized, and named Ar-SETD4. We found that Ar-SETD4 was expressed abundantly in Artemia diapause embryos, in which cells were in a quiescent state. Meanwhile, trimethylated histone H4K20 (H4K20me3) was enriched in diapause embryos. The knockdown of Ar-SETD4 reduced the level of H4K20me3 significantly and prevented the formation of diapause embryos in which neither the cell cycle nor embryogenesis ceased. The catalytic activity of Ar-SETD4 on H4K20me3 was confirmed by an in vitro histone methyltransferase (HMT) assay and overexpression in cell lines. This study provides insights into the function of SETD4 and the mechanism of cell quiescence regulation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Stereoselective reduction of prochiral ketones, using aluminum hydride reagents prepared from LiAlH4and chiral diethanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, E.F.J.; Brussee, J.; Knise, Chris G.; Van Der Gen, A.

    1994-01-01

    The asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones to chiral secondary alcohols by LiAlH4, modified with optically active diethanolamines, was studied. Asymmetric inductions of up to 94% were obtained with these reagents. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was found to depend both upon the temperature

  5. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3–H4 at replication forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia; Hödl, Martina; Strandsby, Anne; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Chen, Shoudeng; Groth, Anja; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-01-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, chaperones histones H3–H4. Our first structure shows an H3–H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3–H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required for MCM2–7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3–H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling histones genome wide during DNA replication. PMID:26167883

  6. Melting temperature of H2, D2, N2 and СH4 under high pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melting temperature of H2, D2, N2 and СH4 under high pressure. KAMAL KAPOOR, NARsINGH DAss and RAJENDRA KUMAR*. Physics Department, College of Engineering Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India. *. Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar 249 404, India. Email: ndass2@rediffmail.com. MS received 6 May ...

  7. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic activities indicated that lipopeptides were involved in the antibiosis mechanism of the studied antagonists. Fermentation studies were carried out with the isolates that showed highest antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, to follow up growth and production of bioactive and surfactant compounds. Production of bioactive and surfactant compounds was observed during the late growth phase of the Bacillus isolates.Investigação sobre o antagonismo de oito isolados de Bacillus: B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. megaterium pv. cerealis C211, B. megaterium C116, Bacillus sp. RAB9, B. cereus C240, Bacillus sp. C11 e B. cereus C210, contra nove linhagens de X. campestris pv. campestris (bactéria responsável pela podridão negra das crucíferas foi realizada para se verificar a participação de lipopeptídeos neste mecanismo. Testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica (surfactante foram realizados, utilizando-se o método de difusão em ágar. Antibiose e hemólise foram positivas para quatro isolados de Bacillus: R14, RAB7, C116 e C210. A correlação observada entre as atividades antimicrobiana e a hemolítica indica que lipopeptídeos estão envolvidos no mecanismo de antibiose dos isolados investigados. As fermentações foram realizadas com os isolados que demonstraram melhores resultados nos testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica: R14, RAB7 e C116, para acompanhar o crescimento e a produção de compostos bioativos e

  8. Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Antoinette; Bundy, Brian; Becker, Dorothy J

    2013-01-01

    Innate immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, but until now no randomised, controlled trials of blockade of the key innate immune mediator interleukin-1 have been done. We aimed to assess whether canakinumab, a human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1...... antibody, or anakinra, a human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, improved β-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes....

  9. Modeling the rovibrationally excited C2H4OH radicals from the photodissociation of 2-bromoethanol at 193 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, B J; Womack, C C; Tang, X N; Landau, W M; Butler, L J; Szpunar, D E

    2010-04-15

    This study photolytically generates, from 2-bromoethanol photodissociation, the 2-hydroxyethyl radical intermediate of the OH + ethene reaction and measures the velocity distribution of the stable radicals. We introduce an impulsive model to characterize the partitioning of internal energy in the C(2)H(4)OH fragment. It accounts for zero-point and thermal vibrational motion to determine the vibrational energy distribution of the nascent C(2)H(4)OH radicals and the distribution of total angular momentum, J, as a function of the total recoil kinetic energy imparted in the photodissociation. We render this system useful for the study of the subsequent dissociation of the 2-hydroxyethyl radical to the possible asymptotic channels of the OH + ethene reaction. The competition between these channels depends on the internal energy and the J distribution of the radicals. First, we use velocity map imaging to separately resolve the C(2)H(4)OH + Br((2)P(3/2)) and C(2)H(4)OH + Br((2)P(1/2)) photodissociation channels, allowing us to account for the 10.54 kcal/mol partitioned to the Br((2)P(1/2)) cofragment. We determine an improved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) line strength for the Br transitions at 233.681 nm (5p (4)P(1/2) distribution of total internal energy, rotational and vibrational, in the C(2)H(4)OH radicals. Then, using 10.5 eV photoionization, we measure the velocity distribution of the radicals that are stable to subsequent dissociation. The onset of dissociation occurs at internal energies much higher than those predicted by theoretical methods and reflects the significant amount of rotational energy imparted to the C(2)H(4)OH photofragment. Instead of estimating the mean rotational energy with an impulsive model from the equilibrium geometry of 2-bromoethanol, our model explicitly includes weighting over geometries across the quantum wave function with zero, one, and two quanta in the harmonic mode that most strongly alters the exit impact

  10. Central ghrelin increases food foraging/hoarding that is blocked by GHSR antagonism and attenuates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The stomach-derived “hunger hormone” ghrelin increases in the circulation in direct response to time since the last meal, increasing preprandially and falling immediately following food consumption. We found previously that peripheral injection of ghrelin potently stimulates food foraging (FF), food hoarding (FH), and food intake (FI) in Siberian hamsters. It remains, however, largely unknown if central ghrelin stimulation is necessary/sufficient to increase these behaviors regardless of peripheral stimulation of the ghrelin receptor [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)]. We injected three doses (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μg) of ghrelin into the third ventricle (3V) of Siberian hamsters and measured changes in FF, FH, and FI. To test the effects of 3V ghrelin receptor blockade, we used the potent GHSR antagonist JMV2959 to block these behaviors in response to food deprivation or a peripheral ghrelin challenge. Finally, we examined neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in response to peripheral ghrelin administration and 3V GHSR antagonism. Third ventricular ghrelin injection significantly increased FI through 24 h and FH through day 4. Pretreatment with 3V JMV2959 successfully blocked peripheral ghrelin-induced increases in FF, FH, and FI at all time points and food deprivation-induced increases in FF, FH, and FI up to 4 h. c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, but not in the arcuate nucleus, following pretreatment with intraperitoneal JMV2959 and ghrelin. Collectively, these data suggest that central GHSR activation is both necessary and sufficient to increase appetitive and consummatory behaviors in Siberian hamsters. PMID:26561646

  11. HAT2 mediates histone H4K4 acetylation and affects micrococcal nuclease sensitivity of chromatin in Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin K Jha

    Full Text Available Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs such as acetylation and methylation are known to affect chromatin higher order structures. Primary targets of these modifications include basic residues present at N-terminus tail region of core histones. Four histone acetyltransferase (HAT genes have been identified in trypanosomatids. HAT1, HAT3 and HAT4 of Leishmania donovani have been partially characterized. However, there is no report about HAT2 of Leishmania donovani. Lysine residues present on the N-terminal tail of Leishmania donovani histone H4 are conserved in other trypanosomatids and humans. PTMs of lysines modulate various functions at chromatin level. The four histone acetyltransferases encoded in Leishmania genome were over-expressed to analyse their functional activity. All four HATs were found actively acetylating core histones H3/H4. Similar to L. donovani HAT3 and HAT4, HAT2 was found to be a member of MYST family protein and have SAS2 type domain. Over-expression of HAT2 significantly increases acetylation of H4K4. To analyse the effect of HAT2 over-expression on chromatin accessibility, micrococcal nuclease digestion assay was performed. MNase digestion resulted in a higher proportion of the mononucleosomes and dinucleosomes in HAT2 over-expressing cells as compared to WT L. donovani cells. Acetylation of lysine-4 neutralizes the amino terminal region of histone H4. This weakens its interaction with neighbouring nucleosomes and the linker DNA. HAT2 over-expression in L. donovani resulted in highly accessible chromatin suggesting chromatin decondensation. HAT2 may have an important role to play in global regulation of transcription in L. donovani. Better understanding of these epigenetic determinants of parasite would help in designing novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. Sulfate Reduction at pH 4 During the Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Acidification of Sucrose in UASB Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, S.I.C.; Capela, M.I.; Dar, S.A.; Muyzer, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous sulfate reduction at pH 4.0 was demonstrated in a pH controlled thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor fed with sucrose at a COD/SO42- ratio of 0.9 and an organic loading rate of 0.8 and 1.9 gCOD (l(reactor) d)(-1) for a period of 78 days. A near v complete

  13. Radiation-induced reduction of U(VI) ion at 6>pH>4 as observed by fast conductimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszkiewicz, Roman K.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Michael, Barry D.

    Reactions between U(VI) and ionic species produced upon irradiation of aqueous (pH 4.4 or 5.5) and acetonic solutions have been observed directly using a.c. conductivity. Apart from e -aq also H 3O + reacts rapidly with hydroxides of the UO 2+2. An electron pulse of 20 ns duration starts a sequence of phenomena which does not terminated until ca. 10 s.

  14. Expressions of B7-H4 and B7-H3 Proteins and Effect of Sorafenib on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Over-expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 proteins is common in different human hepatoma cell lines and thus, B7-H3 and ..... Habib A, Desai K, Hickey R, Thornburg B, Lewandowski. R, Salem R. Locoregional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Liver Dis 2015; 19(2): 401-420. 7. Yang DS, Yoon WS, Lee JA, ...

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Globally Enhance H3/H4 Tail Acetylation Without Affecting H3 Lysine 56 Acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Drogaris, Paul; Villeneuve, Val?rie; Pomi?s, Christelle; Lee, Eun-Hye; Bourdeau, V?ronique; Bonneil, ?ric; Ferbeyre, Gerardo; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represent a promising avenue for cancer therapy. We applied mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the impact of clinically relevant HDACi on global levels of histone acetylation. Intact histone profiling revealed that the HDACi SAHA and MS-275 globally increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation in both normal diploid fibroblasts and transformed human cells. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) recently elicited much interest and controversy due to its p...

  16. Photon Echoes in the 3P0 ← 3H4 Transition of Pr3+/LaF3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, Jos B.W.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1979-01-01

    Photon-echo quantum beats observed in the two-pulse and three-pulse photon echo of the 3P0 ← 3H4 transition in Pr3+/LaF3 were used to determine the excited-state spin-hamiltonian. In addition we report on the anomalous stimulated photon echo observed in the same transition which in a magnetic field

  17. Expressions of B7-H4 and B7-H3 Proteins and Effect of Sorafenib on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancers [10,11]. In the present study, western blot was used to study the expressions of B7-H3 and B7-H4 proteins in different human hepatoma cell lines. (HepG2, Hep3B, BEL-7402, BEL-7404, BEL-. 7405, QGY-7701, QGY-7703, SMMC-7721,. MHCC97H, MHCC97L, HCCLM3 and HCCLM6) and normal human liver cell ...

  18. Grafting of carboxyl groups using CO2/C2H4/Ar pulsed plasma: Theoretical modeling and XPS derivatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakhov, Anton; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philip; Michlíček, Miroslav; Permyakova, Elizaveta; Dvořáková, Eva; Polčák, Josef; Popov, Zakhar; Visotin, Maxim; Shtansky, Dmitry V.

    2018-03-01

    The grafting of carboxyl groups enhances cell adhesion and can be used for immobilization of different biomolecules onto plasma-treated materials. The process, however, was not well optimized due to lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of carboxylic group incorporation into plasma and their grafting to polymer surface. In this work the deposition of COOH plasma polymers from CO2/C2H4/Ar pulsed discharge has been studied depending on the gas mixture and duty cycle. We have demonstrated that the CO2/C2H4/Ar plasma with adjustable thickness of COOH functionalized layer and high stability of the grafted functions in water is a better solution for the COOH surface functionalization compared to the thoroughly analyzed CO2 plasma. The concentration of different carbon environments and the density of COOH groups have been measured by using chemical derivatization combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the CO2/C2H4/Ar plasma mainly contains ester groups (COOC), the COOH/COOC ratio being between 0.03 and 0.08. The water stability of the COOH groups was significantly higher compared to ester environment, so immersing in water for 24 h allowed to increase the COOH/COOC ratio by a factor of 3. The mechanisms of the CO2 molecule attachment to hydrocarbon chains on the polymer surface and those located inside the plasma were modeled using ab initio calculations.

  19. ChIP on SNP-chip for genome-wide analysis of human histone H4 hyperacetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Christopher J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SNP microarrays are designed to genotype Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs. These microarrays report hybridization of DNA fragments and therefore can be used for the purpose of detecting genomic fragments. Results Here, we demonstrate that a SNP microarray can be effectively used in this way to perform chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP on chip as an alternative to tiling microarrays. We illustrate this novel application by mapping whole genome histone H4 hyperacetylation in human myoblasts and myotubes. We detect clusters of hyperacetylated histone H4, often spanning across up to 300 kilobases of genomic sequence. Using complementary genome-wide analyses of gene expression by DNA microarray we demonstrate that these clusters of hyperacetylated histone H4 tend to be associated with expressed genes. Conclusion The use of a SNP array for a ChIP-on-chip application (ChIP on SNP-chip will be of great value to laboratories whose interest is the determination of general rules regarding the relationship of specific chromatin modifications to transcriptional status throughout the genome and to examine the asymmetric modification of chromatin at heterozygous loci.

  20. Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Rauw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.

  1. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. Copyright © 2016 by U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  2. West Nile Virus NS1 Antagonizes Interferon Beta Production by Targeting RIG-I and MDA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Lei; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-09-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes epidemics of encephalitis and viscerotropic disease worldwide. This virus has spread rapidly and has posed a significant public health threat since the outbreak in New York City in 1999. The interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response represents an important component of virus-host interactions and plays an essential role in regulating viral replication. Previous studies have suggested that multifunctional nonstructural proteins encoded by flaviviruses antagonize the host IFN response via various means in order to establish efficient viral replication. In this study, we demonstrated that the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV antagonizes IFN-β production, most likely through suppression of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) activation. In a dual-luciferase reporter assay, WNV NS1 significantly inhibited the activation of the IFN-β promoter after Sendai virus infection or poly(I·C) treatment. NS1 also suppressed the activation of the IFN-β promoter when it was stimulated by interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)/5D or its upstream molecules in the RLR signaling pathway. Furthermore, NS1 blocked the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 upon stimulation by various inducers. Mechanistically, WNV NS1 targets RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) by interacting with them and subsequently causing their degradation by the proteasome. Furthermore, WNV NS1 inhibits the K63-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I, thereby inhibiting the activation of downstream sensors in the RLR signaling pathway. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which WNV NS1 interferes with the host antiviral response. IMPORTANCE WNV Nile virus (WNV) has received increased attention since its introduction to the United States. However, the pathogenesis of this virus is poorly understood. This study demonstrated that the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV

  3. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun; Hu, Kang-Di; Wang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Lan-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yan-Hong; Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG). Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates postharvest ripening and senescence of banana by antagonizing the effect of ethylene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ge

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H2S acts as a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants, whereas the interaction between H2S and ethylene is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the role of H2S in ethylene-promoted banana ripening and senescence by the application of ethylene released from 1.0 g·L-1 ethephon solution or H2S with 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as the donor or in combination. Fumigation with ethylene was found to accelerate banana ripening and H2S treatment effectively alleviated ethylene-induced banana peel yellowing and fruit softening in parallel with decreased activity of polygalacturonase (PG. Ethylene+H2S treatment also delayed the decreases in chlorophyll and total phenolics, and increased the accumulation of flavonoid, whereas decreased the contents of carotenoid, soluble protein in banana peel and reducing sugar in pulp compared with ethylene treatment alone. Besides, ethylene+H2S treatment suppressed the accumulation of superoxide radicals (·O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA which accumulated highly in ethylene-treated banana peels. Furthermore H2S enhanced total antioxidant capacity in ethylene-treated banana peels with the 2,2'-azobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assay. The result of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the combined treatment of ethylene with H2S down-regulated the expression of ethylene synthesis genes MaACS1, MaACS2 and MaACO1 and pectate lyase MaPL compared with ethylene treatment, while the expression of ethylene receptor genes MaETR, MaERS1 and MaERS2 was enhanced in combination treatment compared with ethylene alone. In all, it can be concluded that H2S alleviates banana fruit ripening and senescence by antagonizing the effect of ethylene through reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of ethylene signaling pathway.

  5. Crystal structure of Lymnaea stagnalis AChBP complexed with the potent nAChR antagonist DHβE suggests a unique mode of antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Shahsavar

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that belong to the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. These receptors are allosteric proteins that exist in different conformational states, including resting (closed, activated (open, and desensitized (closed states. The acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP is a structural homologue of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. In previous studies, the degree of the C-loop radial extension of AChBP has been assigned to different conformational states of nAChRs. It has been suggested that a closed C-loop is preferred for the active conformation of nAChRs in complex with agonists whereas an open C-loop reflects an antagonist-bound (closed state. In this work, we have determined the crystal structure of AChBP from the water snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls in complex with dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, which is a potent competitive antagonist of nAChRs. The structure reveals that binding of DHβE to AChBP imposes closure of the C-loop as agonists, but also a shift perpendicular to previously observed C-loop movements. These observations suggest that DHβE may antagonize the receptor via a different mechanism compared to prototypical antagonists and toxins.

  6. Crystal structure of Lymnaea stagnalis AChBP complexed with the potent nAChR antagonist DHβE suggests a unique mode of antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Kastrup, Jette S; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Kristensen, Jesper L; Gajhede, Michael; Balle, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that belong to the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. These receptors are allosteric proteins that exist in different conformational states, including resting (closed), activated (open), and desensitized (closed) states. The acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) is a structural homologue of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. In previous studies, the degree of the C-loop radial extension of AChBP has been assigned to different conformational states of nAChRs. It has been suggested that a closed C-loop is preferred for the active conformation of nAChRs in complex with agonists whereas an open C-loop reflects an antagonist-bound (closed) state. In this work, we have determined the crystal structure of AChBP from the water snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls) in complex with dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), which is a potent competitive antagonist of nAChRs. The structure reveals that binding of DHβE to AChBP imposes closure of the C-loop as agonists, but also a shift perpendicular to previously observed C-loop movements. These observations suggest that DHβE may antagonize the receptor via a different mechanism compared to prototypical antagonists and toxins.

  7. Monohalogenated ferrocenes C5H5FeC5H4 X (X = Cl, Br and I) and a second polymorph of C5H5FeC5H4I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Alexander S.; Mulroy, Joseph M.; Khrustalev, Victor N.; Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of the three title monosubstituted ferrocenes, namely 1-chloro­ferrocene, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H4Cl)], (I), 1-bromo­ferrocene, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H4Br)], (II), and 1-iodo­ferrocene, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H4I)], (III), were determined at 100 K. The chloro- and bromo­ferrocenes are isomorphous crystals. The new triclinic polymorph [space group P , Z = 4, T = 100 K, V = 943.8 (4) Å3] of iodo­ferrocene, (III), and the previously reported monoclinic polymorph of (III) [Laus, Wurst & Schottenberger (2005 ▶). Z. Kristallogr. New Cryst. Struct. 220, 229–230; space group Pc, Z = 4, T = 100 K, V = 924.9 Å3] were obtained by crystallization from ethanolic solutions at 253 and 303 K, respectively. All four phases contain two independent mol­ecules in the unit cell. The relative orientations of the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) rings are eclipsed and staggered in the independent mol­ecules of (I) and (II), while (III) demonstrates only an eclipsed conformation. The triclinic and monoclinic polymorphs of (III) contain nonbonded inter­molecular I⋯I contacts, causing different packing modes. In the triclinic form of (III), the mol­ecules are arranged in zigzag tetra­mers, while in the monoclinic form the mol­ecules are arranged in zigzag chains along the a axis. Crystallographic data for (III), along with the computed lattice energies of the two polymorphs, suggest that the monoclinic form is more stable. PMID:19893225

  8. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Keun Chee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands.

  9. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Satoko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ono, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro an...

  10. Induction and antagonism of pica induced by teriparatide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Kato, Naoto; Isogai, Yukihiro; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko; Ishida, Takayuki; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2015-10-05

    Intermittent subcutaneous injection of teriparatide, an active fragment of human parathyroid hormone, is clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Patients suffer from nausea, which is one of the side effects teriparatide induces; however, the etiology of teriparatide-induced nausea remains unknown. We have reported pica, kaolin ingestion behavior, can be used as an assessment of nausea-related response in rats. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of teriparatide-induced pica and the abilities of anti-emetic drugs to inhibit teriparatide-induced pica. Male and female adolescent (4-week-old), young (8-week-old), and adult (30-week-old) naive rats, and ovariectomized (OVX: 17-week-old) and sham-operated (17-week-old) rats subcutaneously received teriparatide (0.4 mg/kg, n=4), and their kaolin and food intakes were monitored for 24 h after the injection. Among the tested rats, we found that OVX rats, rather than male, female, and sham-operated rats, showed marked teriparatide-induced pica (0 mg/kg: 0.17±0.07 g, 0.4 mg/kg: 6.18±0.91 g). Teriparatide-induced pica in OVX rats was inhibited by intraperitoneal pretreatment with serotonin 5-HT3 (granisetron 0.5 mg/kg), dopamine D2 (prochlorperazine 0.5 mg/kg), neurokinin NK1 (fosaprepitant 1 mg/kg), and histamine H1 (diphenhydramine 10 mg/kg) receptor antagonists to 70%, 11%, 19%, and 59% of that in vehicle-treated control, respectively. These results suggest that teriparatide-induced pica in OVX rats has the potential to reflect teriparatide-induced nausea; 5-HT3, D2, NK1, and H1 receptor activation is involved in the development of this behavior; antagonists of these receptors have the potential to be medical candidates used as treatments for teriparatide-induced nausea in human patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The tumor suppressor SirT2 regulates cell cycle progression and genome stability by modulating the mitotic deposition of H4K20 methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of the epigenetic mark H4K20me1 (monomethylation of H4K20) by PR-Set7 during G2/M directly impacts S-phase progression and genome stability. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of this event are not well understood. Here we show that SirT2 regulates H4K20me1 depositi...

  12. High-resolution mapping of H4K16 and H3K23 acetylation reveals conserved and unique distribution patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Li; Chen, Xiangsong; Sanders, Dean; Qian, Shuiming; Zhong, Xuehua

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation are key epigenetic gene regulatory mechanisms that play critical roles in eukaryotes. Acetylation of histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16ac) is implicated in many cellular processes. However, its biological function and relationship with transcription are largely unexplored in plants. We generated first genome-wide high-resolution maps of H4K16ac in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. We showed that H4K16ac is preferentially enriched around the transcription sta...

  13. Pre-treatment with the NMDA receptor glycine-binding site antagonist L-701, 324 improves pharmacosensitivity in a mouse kindling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellinger, Ch.; Salvamoser, J.D.; Soerensen, J.; van Vliet, E.A.; Aronica, E.; Gorter, J.; Potschka, H.

    2014-01-01

    The glycine co-agonist binding site of the N-methyl-d-aspartat (NMDA) receptor is discussed as an interesting target for different central nervous system diseases. Antagonism at this co-agonist site has been suggested as an alternative to the use of non-competitive or competitive NMDA receptor

  14. Endogenous opioid antagonism in physiological experimental pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Pereira, Manuel P; Andersen, Lars Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Opioid antagonists are pharmacological tools applied as an indirect measure to detect activation of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in experimental pain models. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) antagonists in placebo-controlled, double...... hyperalgesia models (6 studies), 'pain' models (25 studies), summation models (2 studies), nociceptive reflex models (3 studies) and miscellaneous models (2 studies). A consistent reversal of analgesia by a MOR-antagonist was demonstrated in 10 of the 25 ITP-studies, including stress-induced analgesia and r......TMS. In the remaining 14 conditioning modulation studies either absence of effects or ambiguous effects by MOR-antagonists, were observed. In the STP-studies, no effect of the opioid-blockade could be demonstrated in 5 out of 6 secondary hyperalgesia studies. The direction of MOR-antagonist dependent effects upon pain...

  15. Interleukin-17B Antagonizes Interleukin-25-Mediated Mucosal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joseph M; Lee, Young-Hee; Shi, Yun; Wang, Xiaohu; Angkasekwinai, Pornpimon; Nallaparaju, Kalyan C; Flaherty, Stephanie; Chang, Seon Hee; Watarai, Hiroshi; Dong, Chen

    2015-04-21

    The interleukin-17 (IL-17) family of cytokines has emerged as a critical player in inflammatory diseases. Among them, IL-25 has been shown to be important in allergic inflammation and protection against parasitic infection. Here we have demonstrated that IL-17B, a poorly understood cytokine, functions to inhibit IL-25-driven inflammation. IL-17B and IL-25, both binding to the interleukin-17 receptor B (IL-17RB), were upregulated in their expression after acute colonic inflammation. Individual inhibition of these cytokines revealed opposing functions in colon inflammation: IL-25 was pathogenic but IL-17B was protective. Similarly opposing phenotypes were observed in Citrobacter rodentium infection and allergic asthma. Moreover, IL-25 was found to promote IL-6 production from colon epithelial cells, which was inhibited by IL-17B. Therefore, our data demonstrate that IL-17B is an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the IL-17 family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Online Antagonism of the Alt-Right in the 2016 Election

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heikkilä, Niko

    2017-01-01

    .... In particular, the alt-right’s unique style and internal jargon created notable confusion and also attracted interest by the media, while its promotional tactics included the use of social media and Internet memes, through which the movement came to epitomize online antagonism in the 2016 election.

  17. The mechanism of the antagonism by naloxone of acute alcohol intoxication.

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, A A; Evans, M

    1981-01-01

    Naloxone lowers blood-ethanol concentration and causes a simultaneous reversal of the disturbances in the redox states of the hepatic nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) couples in acutely-ethanol-intoxicated rats. It is suggested that these effects of naloxone form the basis of its antagonism of acute alcohol intoxication.

  18. Mutualism and Antagonism: Ecological Interactions Among Bark Beetles, Mite and Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; M.J. Lombardero; M.P. Ayres; R.W. Hofstetter; C.J. Walkinshaw

    2001-01-01

    Insect-fungal complexes provide challenging and fascinating systems for the study of biotic interactions between plants. plant pathogens, insect vectors and other associated organisms. The types of interactions among these organisms (mutualism. antagonism. parasitism. phoresy. etc.) are as variable as the range of organisms involved (plants, fungi, insects. mites. etc...

  19. ORE1 balances leaf senescence against maintenance by antagonizing G2-like-mediated transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf, Mamoona; Arif, Muhammad; Dortay, Hakan; Matallana-Ramírez, Lilian P; Waters, Mark T.; Gil Nam, Hong; Lim, Pyung-Ok; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor ORE1 is a key regulator of senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, it is shown to also inhibit the function of Golden2-like transcription factors, which antagonize senescence, revealing a new mechanism of ORE1-mediated senescence control.

  20. Testosterone Antagonizes Doxorubicin-Induced Senescence of Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Paola; Barisione, Chiara; Lazzarini, Edoardo; Garuti, Anna; Bezante, Gian Paolo; Canepa, Marco; Spallarossa, Paolo; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Bollini, Sveva; Brunelli, Claudio; Ameri, Pietro

    2016-01-08

    Chronic cardiotoxicity is less common in male than in female patients receiving doxorubicin and other anthracyclines at puberty and adolescence. We hypothesized that this sex difference might be secondary to distinct activities of sex hormones on cardiomyocyte senescence, which is thought to be central to the development of long-term anthracycline cardiomyopathy. H9c2 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were exposed to doxorubicin with or without prior incubation with testosterone or 17β-estradiol, the main androgen and estrogen, respectively. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, counteracted doxorubicin-elicited senescence. Downregulation of telomere binding factor 2, which has been pinpointed previously as being pivotal to doxorubicin-induced senescence, was also prevented by testosterone, as were p53 phosphorylation and accumulation. Pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester abrogated the reduction in senescence and the normalization of telomere binding factor 2 levels attained by testosterone. Consistently, testosterone enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and nitric oxide synthase 3. In H9c2 cells, doxorubicin-stimulated senescence was still observed up to 21 days after treatment and increased further when cells were rechallenged with doxorubicin 14 days after the first exposure to mimic the schedule of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects were also inhibited by testosterone. Testosterone protects cardiomyocytes against senescence caused by doxorubicin at least in part by modulating telomere binding factor 2 via a pathway involving the androgen receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, AKT, and nitric oxide synthase 3. This is a potential mechanism by which pubescent and adolescent boys are less prone to chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity than girls. © 2016 The Authors. Published on

  1. Methods for thymidylate synthase pharmacodynamics: serial biopsy, free and total TS, FdUMP and dUMP, and H4PteGlu and CH2-H4PteGlu assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, C.P.; Gustavsson, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    This report details our methods for performance of the major parameters related to quantitation of TS inhibition resulting from fluoropyrimidine administration to patients, methods equally applicable to preclinical studies. Sampling of tumors before and after drug treatment is done by 4 mm disposable punch biopsy or forceps biopsy via subcutaneous tunneling. Homogenates are prepared using N2 or polytron-mincing. Cytosolic free TS is measured by either the tritium-release method for small biopsies or by (/sup 3/H)FdUMP ligand-binding. FdUMP and dUMP are separated by DEAE-cellulose column and measured by competitive binding and (/sup 14/C)dTMP synthesis by the Moran methods. Total, post-FUra TS is measured by pre-incubation dissociation of FdUMP-bound TS after neutral charcoal removal of cytosolic ligands. H4PteGlu and CH2-H4PteGlu are measured by the Priest method using L. Casei TS. The materials and methods are described in sufficient detail to permit wide application of this approach.

  2. A comparative evaluation of the chelators H4octapa and CHX-A″-DTPA with the therapeutic radiometal 90Y☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Eric W.; Edwards, Kimberly J.; Carnazza, Kathryn E.; Carlin, Sean D.; Zeglis, Brian M.; Adam, Michael J.; Orvig, Chris; Lewis, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the radiolabeling performance, stability, and practical efficacy of the chelators CHX-A″-DTPA and H4octapa with the therapeutic radiometal 90Y. Methods The bifunctional chelators p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa and p-SCN-Bn-CHX-A″-DTPA were conjugated to the HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab. The resulting immunoconjugates were radiolabeled with 90Y to compare radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro and in vivo stability, and in vivo performance in a murine model of ovarian cancer. Results High radiochemical yields (>95%) were obtained with 90Y-CHX-A′-DTPA-trastuzumab and 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab after 15 min at room temperature. Both 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab and 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab exhibited excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. Furthermore, the radioimmunoconjugates displayed high tumoral uptake values (42.3 ± 4.0%ID/g for 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab and 30.1 ± 7.4%ID/g for 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab at 72 h post-injection) in mice bearing HER2-expressing SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenografts. Finally, 90Y radioimmunotherapy studies performed in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-trastuzumab and 90Y-octapa-trastuzumab are equally effective therapeutic agents, as treatment with both radioimmunoconjugates yielded substantially decreased tumor growth compared to controls. Conclusions Ultimately, this work demonstrates that the acyclic chelators CHX-A″-DTPA and H4octapa have comparable radiolabeling, stability, and in vivo performance, making them both suitable choices for applications requiring 90Y. PMID:27419360

  3. Psychiatric symptoms in patients with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 induced haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kleimann

    Full Text Available In May 2011 an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (STEC O104:H4 in Northern Germany led to a high number of in-patients, suffering from post-enteritis haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS and often severe affection of the central nervous system. To our knowledge so far only neurological manifestations have been described systematically in literature.To examine psychiatric symptoms over time and search for specific symptom clusters in affected patients.31 in-patients suffering from E. coli O104:H4 associated HUS, were examined and followed up a week during the acute hospital stay. Psychopathology was assessed by clinical interview based on the AMDP Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale.At baseline mental disorder due to known physiological condition (ICD-10 F06.8 was present in 58% of the examined patients. Patients suffered from various manifestations of cognitive impairment (n = 27 and hallucinations (n = 4. Disturbances of affect (n = 28 included severe panic attacks (n = 9. Psychiatric disorder was significantly associated with higher age (p<0.0001, higher levels of C-reactive protein (p<0.05, and positive family history of heart disease (p<0.05. Even within the acute hospital stay with a median follow up of 7 days, symptoms improved markedly over time (p <0.0001.Aside from severe neurological symptoms the pathology in E.coli O104:H4 associated HUS frequently includes particular psychiatric disturbances. Long term follow up has to clarify whether or not these symptoms subside.

  4. Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Izabel; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Liu, Shichong; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Garcia, Benjamin A; Casas-Mollano, J Armando

    2015-01-01

    Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in

  5. Purified monomeric ligand.MD-2 complexes reveal molecular and structural requirements for activation and antagonism of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, Theresa L; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zhang, DeSheng; Esparza, Gregory; Yu, Liping; Weiss, Jerrold

    2014-08-01

    A major focus of work in our laboratory concerns the molecular mechanisms and structural bases of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin recognition by host (e.g., human) endotoxin-recognition proteins that mediate and/or regulate activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Here, we review studies of wild-type and variant monomeric endotoxin.MD-2 complexes first produced and characterized in our laboratories. These purified complexes have provided unique experimental reagents, revealing both quantitative and qualitative determinants of TLR4 activation and antagonism. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Theresa L. Gioannini (1949-2014) who played a central role in many of the studies and discoveries that are reviewed.

  6. Determining pharmacological selectivity of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2456302 using pupillometry as a translational biomarker in rat and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorick-Kehn, Linda M; Witcher, Jennifer W; Lowe, Stephen L; Gonzales, Celedon R; Weller, Mary Ann; Bell, Robert L; Hart, John C; Need, Anne B; McKinzie, Jamie H; Statnick, Michael A; Suico, Jeffrey G; McKinzie, David L; Tauscher-Wisniewski, Sitra; Mitch, Charles H; Stoltz, Randall R; Wong, Conrad J

    2014-10-31

    Selective kappa opioid receptor antagonism is a promising experimental strategy for the treatment of depression. The kappa opioid receptor antagonist, LY2456302, exhibits ~30-fold higher affinity for kappa opioid receptors over mu opioid receptors, which is the next closest identified pharmacology. Here, we determined kappa opioid receptor pharmacological selectivity of LY2456302 by assessing mu opioid receptor antagonism using translational pupillometry in rats and humans. In rats, morphine-induced mydriasis was completely blocked by the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3mg/kg, which produced 90% mu opioid receptor occupancy), while 100 and 300 mg/kg LY2456302 (which produced 56% and 87% mu opioid receptor occupancy, respectively) only partially blocked morphine-induced mydriasis. In humans, fentanyl-induced miosis was completely blocked by 50mg naltrexone, and LY2456302 dose-dependently blocked miosis at 25 and 60 mg (minimal-to-no blockade at 4-10mg). We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of translational pupillometry in the context of receptor occupancy to identify a clinical dose of LY2456302 achieving maximal kappa opioid receptor occupancy without evidence of significant mu receptor antagonism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  7. Radiation-induced reduction of U(VI) ion at 6>pH>4 as observed by fast conductimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broszkiewicz, R.K. (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna (Poland)); Vojnovic, B.; Michael, B.D. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Gray Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    Reactions between U(VI) and ionic species produced upon irradiation of aqueous (pH 4.4 or 5.5) and acetonic solutions have been observed directly using a.c. conductivity. Apart from e{sub aq}{sup -} also H{sub 3}O{sup +} reacts rapidly with hydroxides of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. An electron pulse of 20 ns duration starts a sequence of phenomena which does not terminate until ca. 10 s. (author).

  8. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families.

  9. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase...... for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling...... histones genome wide during DNA replication....

  10. Inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptors with eplerenone alleviates short-term cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Thomsen; Jensen, Boye L; Marcussen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent data indicate that aldosterone aggravates cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity. We examined whether the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker eplerenone (EPL) antagonized early deterioration of renal function and blood pressure (BP) increase in CsA-treated rats. METHODS...

  11. Molecular determinants of non-competitive antagonist binding to the mouse GPRC6A receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Helene; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Rice, Nadejda

    2009-01-01

    GPRC6A displays high sequence homology to the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR). Here we report that the calcimimetic Calindol and the calcilytic NPS2143 antagonize increases in inositol phosphate elicited by L-ornithine-induced activation of mouse GPRC6A after transient coexpression with Galpha(qG66D...

  12. Cancer cell-associated cytoplasmic B7–H4 is induced by hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and promotes cancer cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, You-Kyoung [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sae-Gwang; Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Woong [Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Inhak, E-mail: miccih@inje.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Aberrant B7–H4 expression in cancer tissues serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for poor survival in patients with cancer. However, the factor(s) that induce cancer cell-associated B7–H4 remain to be fully elucidated. We herein demonstrate that hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription in primary CD138{sup +} multiple myeloma cells and cancer cell lines. In support of this finding, analysis of the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) data set revealed a positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of B7–H4 and the endogenous hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrogenase 9. Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 expression was detected in the cytoplasm, but not in cancer cell membranes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to proximal hypoxia-response element (HRE) sites within the B7–H4 promoter. Knockdown of HIF-1α and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α diminished B7–H4 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of cytoplasmic B7–H4 in MCF-7 decreased the S-phase cell population under hypoxia. Finally, MMGP analysis revealed a positive correlation between the transcript levels of B7–H4 and proliferation-related genes including MKI67, CCNA1, and Myc in several patients with multiple myeloma. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying B7–H4 upregulation and its role in cancer cell proliferation in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription and protein expression. • Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 is detected in the cytoplasm, but not on membrane. • ChIP assay reveals a binding of HIF-1α to B7–H4 promoter at HRE site. • Knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α reduce B7–H4 expression. • B7–H4 knockdown decrease the number of cells in S-phase of cell cycle.

  13. Histone deacetylase 1, 2, 6 and acetylated histone H4 in B- and T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, L.; Poulsen, C.B.; Gjerdrum, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim was to det......AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim...... was to determine HDAC expression in DLBCL and PTCL which has not previously been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6 and acetylated histone H4 was examined immunohistochemically in 31 DLBCL and 45 PTCL. All four markers showed high expression in both DLBCL and PTCL compared...... with normal lymphoid tissue. HDAC1 was more abundantly expressed in PTCL than in DLBCL (P = 0.0046), whereas acetylated H4 was more frequent in DLBCL (P

  14. Astronomical Triplets: Alma Observations of C2H4O2 Isomers in SGR b2 (n)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ci; Remijan, Anthony; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Herbst, Eric

    2017-06-01

    The C_2H_4O_2 triplet found in the interstellar medium (ISM) consists of glycolaldehyde (CH_2OHCHO), acetic acid (CH_3COOH) and methyl formate (HCOOCH_3). The forming mechanism of their HCO-bearing component involves both gas-phase and grain-surface processes whose relative roles plays into fundamental questions within the fields of astrochemistry and astrobiology. Glycolaldehyde is closely related to ribose and deoxyribose, the primary components of genetic materials. The first detection of Glycolaldehyde was toward Sgr B2 with using NRAO 12 m telescope in 2000 (J. M. Hollis et al). A new careful search for glycolaldehyde toward the hot dense core Sgr B2 (N) is needed. While methyl formate has a large number of detected transitions throughout the ISM, the detection of acetic acid, the least abundant of these isomers, is more tentative. Mehringer et al. (1997) reported only 4 lines of acetic acid toward Sgr B2 Large Molecule Heimat source. Here, we confirm these detections of each species toward Sgr B2 (N) with the more sensitive and larger bandwidth from ALMA Band 3 observations (A. Belloche, 2012), providing us more transitions and more accurate continuum subtraction. Based on these results, the abundances and spatial distributions of the C_2H_4O_2 triplet species would be obtained and compared.

  15. Serological evidence of asymptomatic infections during Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany in 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Balabanova

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The largest known outbreak caused by a rare hybrid strain of Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC (E.coli O104:H4 of serotype O104:H4 occurred in Germany in 2011. Fenugreek sprouts acted as a transmission vehicle and were widely consumed in the outbreak area at the time of the epidemic. In total 3,842 people developed a clinical illness caused by this strain; however the rates of asymptomatic infections remain unclear. We aimed to develop a serological assay for detection of E.coli O104 LPS specific antibodies and to establish the post-outbreak levels of seropositivity among people with documented exposure to contaminated sprouts. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Developed serological assays (ELISA with 84% sensitivity, 63% specificity and Western Blot with 100% sensitivity, 82.5% specificity identified 33% (16/49 level of asymptomatic infection. Relatively small sample size and a significant time- lapse between the onset of symptoms and serum samples collection (appr. 8 weeks might explain the assay variability. No association was found between clinical or demographic characteristics and assay positivity. Larger studies are needed to understand the complexity of human immune response and factors influencing development of clinical symptoms. Development of intra-outbreak research plans will substantially aid the conduct of more thorough scientific investigation during an outbreak period.

  16. Relationships of new sibling species of Paramecium jenningsi based on sequences of the histone H4 gene fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Agnieszka

    2007-06-01

    Paramecium jenningsi Diller & Earl, 1958 belongs to the "aurelia" subgroup of the genus, together with Paramecium caudatum, Paramecium multimicronucleatum, Paramecium schewiakoffi and species of the Paramecium aurelia complex. The original assumption that the morphospecies P. jenningsi was a single genetic species was questioned because a comparison of genome analyses suggested the possibility that this morphospecies contained two sibling species. To refine understanding of relationships between the strains of P. jenningsi, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted using H4 gene sequences. Some polymorphic sites were found among the compared sequences, and specific patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers characterize two groups of strains of P. jenningsi. Phylogenetic trees constructed by different methods identified two clearly different groups (from Japan and mainland Asia) whatever the method used. The sequences of the H4 gene analyzed in the present study are closely related, and provide a good subject for phylogenetic analysis. The presence of two isolated groups of strains in the P. jenningsi group can reveal the evolutionary relationship between them; it confirms the presence of two sibling species among the known strains of P. jenningsi, and the close relationships between them and species of the P. aurelia complex.

  17. Quantitative analysis of histone H3 and H4 post-translational modifications in doxorubicin-resistant leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Guo, Qingcheng; Guo, Huaizu; Hou, Sheng; Li, Jing; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    The epigenetic remodeling of chromatin through histone modifications has been widely implicated in drug resistance of cancer cells. However, whether epigenetic mechanisms contribute specifically to doxorubicin resistance in leukemia has not been carefully examined. Using a stable and sensitive workflow based on LC-MS, we quantitatively compared the extents of methylation and acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in acute leukemia cell line HL60 and its doxorubicin-resistant derivative, HL60/ADR, as well as the chronic leukemia cell line K562 and its doxorubicin-resistant derivative, K562/ADR. We found that increased levels of H3K9 methylation, H3K14, H3K18 and H3K23 acetylation, and potentially H4K20 methylation, are associated with drug resistance in both cells. Our results demonstrated that the doxorubicin-resistant acute and chronic leukemia cell lines may share a common epigenetic mechanism that involves a combination of transcriptional activation and silencing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Design of a Potent CB1 Receptor Antagonist Series: Potential Scaffold for Peripherally-Targeted Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Robert L; Carpino, Philip A; Gautreau, Denise; Hadcock, John R; Iredale, Philip A; Kelly-Sullivan, Dawn; Lizano, Jeffrey S; O'Connor, Rebecca E; Schneider, Steven R; Scott, Dennis O; Ward, Karen M

    2012-05-10

    Antagonism of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor signaling has been demonstrated to inhibit feeding behaviors in humans, but CB1-mediated central nervous system (CNS) side effects have halted the marketing and further development of the lead drugs against this target. However, peripherally restricted CB1 receptor antagonists may hold potential for providing the desired efficacy with reduced CNS side effect profiles. In this report we detail the discovery and structure-activity-relationship analysis of a novel bicyclic scaffold (3) that exhibits potent CB1 receptor antagonism and oral activity in preclinical feeding models. Optimization of physical properties has led to the identification of analogues which are predicted to have reduced CNS exposure and could serve as a starting point for the design of peripherally targeted CB1 receptor antagonists.

  19. Oxidation of Cyclohexane to Cylohexanol and Cyclohexanone Over H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone was carried out using H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2 as catalyst. In the first experiment, catalyst H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2 was synthesized and characterized using FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray analysis. In the second experiment, catalyst H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2 was applied for conversion of cyclohexane. The conversion of cyclohexane was monitored using GC and GCMS. The results showed that H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2 was successfully synthesized using 1 g of H4[a-SiW12O40] and 0.5 g of TiO2. The FTIR spectrum showed vibration of H4[a-SiW12O40] appeared at 771-979 cm-1 and TiO2 at 520-680 cm-1. The XRD powder pattern analysis indicated that crystallinity of catalyst still remained after impregnation to form H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2. The H4[a-SiW12O40]/TiO2 catalyst was used for oxidation of cyclohexane in heterogeneous system under mild condition at 2 h, 70 °C, 0.038 g catalyst, and 3 mL hydrogen peroxide to give cyclohexanone as major product.

  20. Clipping of Flexible Tails of Histones H3 and H4 Affects the Structure and Dynamics of the Nucleosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Nathan P.; Jimenez-Useche, Isabel; Smith, Ian Tad; Yuan, Chongli

    2013-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer was used to monitor the dynamic conformations of mononucleosomes under different chromatin folding conditions to elucidate the role of the flexible N-terminal regions of H3 and H4 histones. The H3 tail was shown to partake in intranucleosomal interactions by restricting the DNA breathing motion and compacting the nucleosome. The H3 tail effects were mostly independent of the ionic strength and valency of the ions. The H4 tail was shown to not greatly affect the nucleosome conformation, but did slightly influence the relative population of the preferred conformation. The role of the H4 tail varied depending on the valency and ionic strength, suggesting that electrostatic forces play a primary role in H4 tail interactions. Interestingly, despite the H4 tail’s lack of influence, when H3 and H4 tails were simultaneously clipped, a more dramatic effect was seen than when only H3 or H4 tails were clipped. The combinatorial effect of H3 and H4 tail truncation suggests a potential mechanism by which various combinations of histone tail modifications can be used to control accessibility of DNA-binding proteins to nucleosomal DNA. PMID:23473491

  1. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D; Fowler, J.S.; Thanos, P K; Wong, C.; Casado, V.; Ferre, S.; Tomasi, D

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interactio...

  2. No Effect of Nutritional Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on Exercise Performance in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    358–363, 1996. 11. Cook NC, Samman S. Flavonoids —chemistry, metabolism, cardiopro- tective effects, and dietary sources. Nutr Biochem 7: 66–76, 1996...metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man. Biomed Pharmacother 51: 305–310, 1997. R400 ADENOSINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM AND EXERCISE IN THE HEAT...Interactions of flavonoids with adenosine receptors. J Med Chem 39: 781–788, 1996. 35. MacRae HS, Mefferd KM. Dietary antioxidant supplementation com

  3. A trans-tail histone code defined by monomethylated H4 Lys-20 and H3 Lys-9 demarcates distinct regions of silent chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Jennifer K; Houston, Sabrina I; Magazinnik, Tanya; Rice, Judd C

    2006-05-05

    The specific post-translational modifications of the histone proteins are associated with specific DNA-templated processes, such as transcriptional activation or repression. To investigate the biological role(s) of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4 Lys-20) methylation, we created a novel panel of antibodies that specifically detected mono-, di-, or trimethylated H4 Lys-20. We report that the different methylated forms of H4 Lys-20 are compartmentalized within visually distinct, transcriptionally silent regions in the mammalian nucleus. Interestingly, direct comparison of methylated H4 Lys-20 with the different methylated states of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3 Lys-9) revealed significant overlap and exclusion between the specific groups of methyl modifications. Trimethylated H4 Lys-20 and H3 Lys-9 were both selectively enriched within pericentric heterochromatin. Similarly, monomethylated H4 Lys-20 and H3 Lys-9 partitioned together and the dimethylated forms partitioned together within the chromosome arms; however, the mono- and dimethylated modifications were virtually exclusive. These findings strongly suggest that the combinatorial presence or absence of the different methylated states of H4 Lys-20 and H3 Lys-9 define particular types of silent chromatin. Consistent with this, detailed analysis of monomethylated H4 Lys-20 and H3 Lys-9 revealed that both were preferentially and selectively enriched within the same nucleosome particle in vivo. Collectively, these findings define a novel trans-tail histone code involving monomethylated H4 Lys-20 and H3 Lys-9 that act cooperatively to mark distinct regions of silent chromatin within the mammalian epigenome.

  4. Lability of the pAA Virulence Plasmid in Escherichia coli O104:H4: Implications for Virulence in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Zhang

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4 that caused the large German outbreak in 2011 is a highly virulent hybrid of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC and enteroaggregative (EAEC E. coli. The strain displays "stacked-brick" aggregative adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells mediated by aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I encoded on the pAA plasmid. The AAF/I-mediated augmented intestinal adherence might facilitate systemic absorption of Shiga toxin, the major virulence factor of EHEC, presumably enhancing virulence of the outbreak strain. However, the stability of pAA in the outbreak strain is unknown. We therefore tested outbreak isolates for pAA, monitored pAA loss during infection, and determined the impact of pAA loss on adherence and clinical outcome of infection.E. coli O104:H4 outbreak isolates from 170 patients (128 with hemolytic uremic syndrome [HUS] and 42 with diarrhea without HUS were tested for pAA using polymerase chain reaction and plasmid profiling. pAA-harboring bacteria in stool samples were quantified using colony blot hybridization, and adherence to HCT-8 cells was determined. Isolates from 12 (7.1% patients lacked pAA. Analyses of sequential stool samples demonstrated that the percentages of pAA-positive populations in the initial stools were significantly higher than those in the follow-up stools collected two to eight days later in disease (P≤0.01. This indicates a rapid loss of pAA during infections of humans. The pAA loss was associated with loss of the aggregative adherence phenotype and significantly reduced correlation with HUS (P  = 0.001.The pAA plasmid can be lost by E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain in the human gut in the course of disease. pAA loss might attenuate virulence and diminish the ability to cause HUS. The pAA instability has clinical, diagnostic, epidemiologic, and evolutionary implications.

  5. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absolute line strengths in nu4, /C-12/H4 - A dual-beam diode laser spectrometer with sweep integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer with several unique features has been developed for use in the middle IR. The all-reflective optical system has a dual-beam configuration before the dispersive mode selector to eliminate transit-angle errors at the calibration etalon. By maintaining separated beams through the mode selector, beam combiner losses are avoided. Averaging successive sweeps of the current-modulated laser permits stable reproducible spectral integrations, eliminating etalon thermal errors and producing high photometric sensitivity. Line strengths have been measured using this instrument for eleven transitions in nu4 of (C-12)H4. These include R0 and R1 and nine P-branch transitions in the 1202-1263-per cm range. Techniques for measuring strengths with a diode laser are discussed.

  7. A Diels-Alder super diene breaking benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic polyene with six carbon atoms (benzene) is very stable, whereas cyclic polyene with four carbon atoms (cyclobutadiene) is extremely unstable. The electron-withdrawing pentafluorophenyl group of a substituted cyclobutadiene lowers the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, greatly increasing its reactivity as a diene in Diels-Alder reactions with acetylene, ethylene and even benzene. Here we show that the reaction with benzene occurs cleanly at the relatively low temperature of 120 °C and results in the formal fragmentation of benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units, via a unique Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction. This is a new example of the rare case where breaking the C-C bond of benzene is possible with no activation by a transition metal.

  8. Plasticity of fission yeast CENP-A chromatin driven by relative levels of histone H3 and H4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli G Castillo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The histone H3 variant CENP-A assembles into chromatin exclusively at centromeres. The process of CENP-A chromatin assembly is epigenetically regulated. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of a central kinetochore domain on which CENP-A chromatin is assembled, and this is flanked by heterochromatin. Marker genes are silenced when placed within kinetochore or heterochromatin domains. It is not known if fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin is confined to specific sequences or whether histone H3 is actively excluded. Here, we show that fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1 can assemble on noncentromeric DNA when it is inserted within the central kinetochore domain, suggesting that in fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin assembly is driven by the context of a sequence rather than the underlying DNA sequence itself. Silencing in the central domain is correlated with the amount of CENP-A(Cnp1 associated with the marker gene and is also affected by the relative level of histone H3. Our analyses indicate that kinetochore integrity is dependent on maintaining the normal ratio of H3 and H4. Excess H3 competes with CENP-A(Cnp1 for assembly into central domain chromatin, resulting in less CENP-A(Cnp1 and other kinetochore proteins at centromeres causing defective kinetochore function, which is manifest as aberrant mitotic chromosome segregation. Alterations in the levels of H3 relative to H4 and CENP-A(Cnp1 influence the extent of DNA at centromeres that is packaged in CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin and the composition of this chromatin. Thus, CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin assembly in fission yeast exhibits plasticity with respect to the underlying sequences and is sensitive to the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1 and other core histones.

  9. Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments.

  10. Adaptive mutations and replacements of virulence traits in the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Guy

    Full Text Available The sequencing of highly virulent Escherichia coli O104:H4 strains isolated during the outbreak of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in Europe in 2011 revealed a genome that contained a Shiga toxin encoding prophage and a plasmid encoding enteroaggregative fimbriae. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of a strain isolated in Sweden from a patient who had travelled to Tunisia in 2010 (E112/10 and was found to differ from the outbreak strains by only 38 SNPs in non-repetitive regions, 16 of which were mapped to the branch to the outbreak strain. We identified putatively adaptive mutations in genes for transporters, outer surface proteins and enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. A comparative analysis with other historical strains showed that E112/10 contained Shiga toxin prophage genes of the same genotype as the outbreak strain, while these genes have been replaced by a different genotype in two otherwise very closely related strains isolated in the Republic of Georgia in 2009. We also present the genome sequences of two enteroaggregative E. coli strains affiliated with phylogroup A (C43/90 and C48/93 that contain the agg genes for the AAF/I-type fimbriae characteristic of the outbreak population. Interestingly, C43/90 also contained a tet/mer antibiotic resistance island that was nearly identical in sequence to that of the outbreak strain, while the corresponding island in the Georgian strains was most similar to E. coli strains of other serotypes. We conclude that the pan-genome of the outbreak population is shared with strains of the A phylogroup and that its evolutionary history is littered with gene replacement events, including most recently independent acquisitions of antibiotic resistance genes in the outbreak strains and its nearest neighbors. The results are summarized in a refined evolutionary model for the emergence of the O104:H4 outbreak population.

  11. Novel 4-(piperidin-4-yl)-1-hydroxypyrazoles as gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henriette A; Sander, Tommy; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2010-01-01

    A series of substituted 1-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the GABA(A) receptor partial agonist 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol (4-PIOL) have been synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. Several of the analogues displayed K(i) in the low nanomolar range at the native GABA(A) receptors and potent...... antagonism of the alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2) receptor. It appears that several regions situated in proximity to the core of the orthosteric binding site of the GABA(A) receptor are able to accommodate large hydrophobic substituents....

  12. β-Endorphin Antagonizes the Effects of α-MSH on Food Intake and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Dutia, Roxanne; Meece, Kana; Dighe, Shveta; Andrea J. Kim; Wardlaw, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is posttranslationally processed to several peptides including α-MSH, a primary regulator of energy balance that inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. However, another POMC-derived peptide, β-endorphin (β-EP), has been shown to stimulate food intake. In this study we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) β-EP on food intake and its ability to antagonize the negative effects of α-MSH on energy balance in male rats. A single icv injec...

  13. Antipsychotic agents antagonize non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist-induced behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, R; Camacho, F; Woods, A T; Kerman, L L; Fishkin, R J; Brooks, K; Dunn, R W

    1995-07-01

    Antipsychotic agents were tested for their ability to antagonize both dopaminergic-induced and non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist-induced behaviors. All of the agents dose-dependently antagonized the apomorphine-induced climbing mouse assay (CMA) and dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced locomotion and falling assay (MK-801-LF) with a CMA/MK-801-LF ratio of less than or equal to 1.6. However, clozapine and its structural analog olanzapine more potently antagonized MK-801-LF (1.1 and 0.05 mg/kg) than the CMA (12.3 and 0.45 mg/kg) and as a result had a CMA/MK-801-LF ratio of 11.2 and 9, respectively. Furthermore, phencyclidine (PCP) (2 mg/kg) can selectively induce social withdrawal in naive rats that were housed in pairs (familiar) for 10 days prior to testing without affecting motor activity. SCH 23390, raclopride, haloperidol, chlorpromazine and risperidone failed to reverse the social withdrawal induced by PCP up to doses which produced significant motor impairment. However, clozapine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) and olanzapine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) significantly reversed this social withdrawal in rats. Therefore, the non-competitive NMDA antagonists PCP and MK-801 can induce behaviors in Rodents which are selectively antagonized by clozapine and olanzapine. Furthermore, assessment of the effects of antipsychotic agents in the CMA, MK-801-LF and PCP-induced social withdrawal assays may provide a preclinical approach to identify novel agents for negative symptoms and treatment resistant schizophrenia.

  14. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Mediates Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol-Induced Cerebral Artery Constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Leffler, Charles W.; Bukiya, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite preventive education, the combined consumption of alcohol and caffeine (particularly from “energy drinks”) continues to rise. Physiologic perturbations by separate intake of ethanol and caffeine have been widely documented. However, the biologic actions of the alcohol-caffeine combination and their underlying subcellular mechanisms have been scarcely studied. Using intravital microscopy on a closed-cranial window and isolated, pressurized vessels, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro action of ethanol-caffeine mixtures on cerebral arteries from rats and mice, widely recognized models to address cerebrovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee (10 µM) antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication (40–70 mM). Caffeine antagonism against alcohol was similar whether evaluated in vivo or in vitro, suggesting independence of systemic factors and drug metabolism, but required a functional endothelium. Moreover, caffeine protection against alcohol increased nitric oxide (NO•) levels over those found in the presence of ethanol alone, disappeared upon blocking NO• synthase, and could not be detected in pressurized cerebral arteries from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knockout (eNOS−/−) mice. Finally, incubation of de-endothelialized cerebral arteries with the NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (10 µM) fully restored the protective effect of caffeine. This study demonstrates for the first time that caffeine antagonizes ethanol-induced cerebral artery constriction and identifies endothelial NO• as the critical caffeine effector on smooth muscle targets. Conceivably, situations that perturb endothelial function and/or NO• availability will critically alter caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction without

  15. Caffeine intake antagonizes salt sensitive hypertension through improvement of renal sodium handling

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Yu; Tao Yang; Peng Gao; Xing Wei; Hexuan Zhang; Shiqiang Xiong; Zongshi Lu; Li Li; Xiao Wei; Jing Chen; Yu Zhao; Arendshorst, William J.; Qianhui Shang; Daoyan Liu; Zhiming Zhu

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension. Although acute caffeine intake produces moderate diuresis and natriuresis, caffeine increases the blood pressure (BP) through activating sympathetic activity. However, the long-term effects of caffeine on urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure are rarely investigated. Here, we investigated whether chronic caffeine administration antagonizes salt sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dah...

  16. Parental antagonism and parent-offspring co-adaptation interact to shape family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Joël; Kölliker, Mathias

    2012-10-07

    The family is an arena for conflicts between offspring, mothers and fathers that need resolving to promote the evolution of parental care and the maintenance of family life. Co-adaptation is known to contribute to the resolution of parent-offspring conflict over parental care by selecting for combinations of offspring demand and parental supply that match to maximize the fitness of family members. However, multiple paternity and differences in the level of care provided by mothers and fathers can generate antagonistic selection on offspring demand (mediated, for example, by genomic imprinting) and possibly hamper co-adaptation. While parent-offspring co-adaptation and parental antagonism are commonly considered two major processes in the evolution of family life, their co-occurrence and the evolutionary consequences of their joint action are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the simultaneous and entangled effects of these two processes on outcomes of family interactions, using a series of breeding experiments in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect species with uniparental female care. As predicted from parental antagonism, we show that paternally inherited effects expressed in offspring influence both maternal care and maternal investment in future reproduction. However, and as expected from t