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Sample records for h2 n2 o2

  1. Emission noise spectrum in a premixed H2-O2-N2 flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.; Hooymayers, H.P.; Lijnse, P.L.; Vierbergen, T.J.M.J.

    Experimental noise spectra in the frequency range of 15–105 Hz are reported for the thermal emission of the first resonance doublet of Na and K in a premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, and for the flame background emission. Under certain conditions, low-frequency peaks arise in the noise spectrum below 100 Hz,

  2. Structure of H2/O2/N2 flames at atmospheric pressure studied by molecular beam mass spectrometry and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knyazkov, D.A.; Korobeinichev, O.P.; Shmakov, A.G.; Rybitskaya, I.V.; Bolshova, T.A.; Chernov, D.A.; Konnov, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Structure of laminar premixed flat H2/O2/N2 flames with different equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure isinvestigated experimentally and by numerical modeling. Concentration profiles of stable species (H2, O2, H2O) as well as of H atoms and OH radicals in the flames were measured using

  3. Adiabatic burning velocity of H2-O2 mixtures diluted with CO2/N2/Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna Kishore, V.; Muchahary, Ringkhang; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Global warming due to CO 2 emissions has led to the projection of hydrogen as an important fuel for future. A lot of research has been going on to design combustion appliances for hydrogen as fuel. This has necessitated fundamental research on combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuel. In this work, a combination of experiments and computational simulations was employed to study the effects of diluents (CO 2 , N 2 , and Ar) on the laminar burning velocity of premixed hydrogen/oxygen flames using the heat flux method. The experiments were conducted to measure laminar burning velocity for a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and temperature (300 K) with reactant mixtures containing varying concentrations of CO 2 , N 2 , and Ar as diluents. Measured burning velocities were compared with computed results obtained from one-dimensional laminar premixed flame code PREMIX with detailed chemical kinetics and good agreement was obtained. The effectiveness of diluents in reduction of laminar burning velocity for a given diluent concentration is in the increasing order of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide. This may be due to increased capabilities either to quench the reaction zone by increased specific heat or due to reduced transport rates. The lean and stoichiometric H 2 /O 2 /CO 2 flames with 65% CO 2 dilution exhibited cellular flame structures. Detailed three-dimensional simulation was performed to understand lean H 2 /O 2 /CO 2 cellular flame structure and cell count from computed flame matched well with the experimental cellular flame. (author)

  4. Synthesis and crystal structures of new complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine, [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].1.5H2O and [NpO2(C10H8N2)(OOC2H2OH)].2.5H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charushnikova, I.A.; Krot, N.N.; Starikova, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals were prepared, and the structures of two complexes of Np(V) glycolate with 2,2'-bipyridine of the compositions [NpO 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )(OOC 2 H 2 OH)].1.5H 2 O (I) and [NpO 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )(OOC 2 H 2 OH)]2.5H 2 O (II) were studied. The structures of the compounds are based on neptunyl-glycolate chains in which the glycolate anion manifests its complexation ability in different manner. In structure I, the bidentate-bridging anion links the adjacent NpO 2 - cations through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group. The neptunyl-glycolate chains of I exhibits the mutual coordination of the NpO 2 - cations acting toward each other simultaneously as ligands and coordinating centers. In compound II, the glycolate anion is bidentately coordinated to one neptunium atom to form a planar five-membered metallocycle [NpOCCO]. The O atom external with respect to the metallocycle is in the coordination environment of the adjacent neptunyl. The nitrogen-containing molecular ligand Bipy is included into the coordination environment of Np. The coordination polyhedron of the Np atoms in both structures is a pentagonal bipyramid in which the average Np-N bond length is 2.666 Aa (I) and 2.596 Aa (II). (orig.)

  5. Intensities and cross sections of Ne, H2, N2, NO and O2 clusters in a molecular beam, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    Molecular beams of Ne, H 2 , N 2 , NO, and O 2 clusters have been investigated. The temperature and pressure dependence of the ion signals have been measured for masses up to three times the monomer mass. (Auth.)

  6. The catalytic performance of Cu-containing zeolites in N2O decomposition and the influence of O2, NO and H2O on recombination of oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.; Sels, B.F.; Teeffelen, van R.M.; Leeman, H.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic decomposition of N2O was studied over Cu-containing zeolites with different Cu loadings and framework topologies (MFI, MOR, FER, BEA, and FAU). The influence of NO, O2, and H2O on the rate of N2O decomposition was investigated in detail. A kinetic model was developed based on the

  7. 2D NiFe/CeO2 Basic-Site-Enhanced Catalyst via in-Situ Topotactic Reduction for Selectively Catalyzing the H2 Generation from N2H4·H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dandan; Wen, Ming; Gu, Chen; Wu, Qingsheng

    2017-05-17

    An economical catalyst with excellent selectivity and high activity is eagerly desirable for H 2 generation from the decomposition of N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O. Here, a bifunctional two-dimensional NiFe/CeO 2 nanocatalyst with NiFe nanoparticles (∼5 nm) uniformly anchored on CeO 2 nanosheets supports has been successfully synthesized through a dynamic controlling coprecipitation process followed by in-situ topotactic reduction. Even without NaOH as catalyst promoter, as-designed Ni 0.6 Fe 0.4 /CeO 2 nanocatalyst can show high activity for selectively catalyzing H 2 generation (reaction rate (mol N2H4 mol -1 NiFe h -1 ): 5.73 h -1 ). As ceria is easily reducible from CeO 2 to CeO 2-x , the surface of CeO 2 could supply an extremely large amount of Ce 3+ , and the high-density electrons of Ce 3+ can work as Lewis base to facilitate the absorption of N 2 H 4 , which can weaken the N-H bond and promote NiFe active centers to break the N-H bond preferentially, resulting in the high catalytic selectivity (over 99%) and activity for the H 2 generation from N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O.

  8. Modeling Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 Conversion in Mixtures with N2, O2 and H2O: the Bigger Plasma Chemistry Picture

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weizong

    2018-01-18

    Due to the unique properties of plasma technology, its use in gas conversion applications is gaining significant interest around the globe. Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 conversion have become major research areas. Many investigations have already been performed regarding the single component gases, i.e. CO2 splitting and CH4 reforming, as well as for two component mixtures, i.e. dry reforming of methane (CO2/CH4), partial oxidation of methane (CH4/O2), artificial photosynthesis (CO2/H2O), CO2 hydrogenation (CO2/H2), and even first steps towards the influence of N2 impurities have been taken, i.e. CO2/N2 and CH4/N2. In this feature article we briefly discuss the advances made in literature for these different steps from a plasma chemistry modeling point of view. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive plasma chemistry set, combining the knowledge gathered in this field so far, and supported with extensive experimental data. This set can be used for chemical kinetics plasma modeling for all possible combinations of CO2, CH4, N2, O2 and H2O, to investigate the bigger picture of the underlying plasmachemical pathways for these mixtures in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma. This is extremely valuable for the optimization of existing plasma-based CO2 conversion and CH4 reforming processes, as well as for investigating the influence of N2, O2 and H2O on these processes, and even to support plasma-based multi-reforming processes.

  9. The rate constant of the reaction NCN + H2 and its role in NCN and NO modeling in low pressure CH4/O2/N2-flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faßheber, Nancy; Lamoureux, Nathalie; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2015-06-28

    Bimolecular reactions of the NCN radical play a key role in modeling prompt-NO formation in hydrocarbon flames. The rate constant of the so-far neglected reaction NCN + H2 has been experimentally determined behind shock waves under pseudo-first order conditions with H2 as the excess component. NCN3 thermal decomposition has been used as a quantitative high temperature source of NCN radicals, which have been sensitively detected by difference UV laser absorption spectroscopy at [small nu, Greek, tilde] = 30383.11 cm(-1). The experiments were performed at two different total densities of ρ≈ 4.1 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) and ρ≈ 7.4 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) (corresponding to pressures between p = 324 mbar and p = 1665 mbar) and revealed a pressure independent reaction. In the temperature range 1057 K rate constant can be represented by the Arrhenius expression k/(cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) = 4.1 × 10(13) exp(-101 kJ mol(-1)/RT) (Δlog k = ±0.11). The pressure independent reaction as well as the measured activation energy is consistent with a dominating H abstracting reaction channel yielding the products HNCN + H. The reaction NCN + H2 has been implemented together with a set of reactions for subsequent HNCN and HNC chemistry into the detailed GDFkin3.0_NCN mechanism for NOx flame modeling. Two fuel-rich low-pressure CH4/O2/N2-flames served as examples to quantify the impact of the additional chemical pathways. Although the overall NCN consumption by H2 remains small, significant differences have been observed for NO yields with the updated mechanism. A detailed flux analysis revealed that HNC, mainly arising from HCN/HNC isomerization, plays a decisive role and enhances NO formation through a new HNC → HNCO → NH2→ NH → NO pathway.

  10. Radiative transition probabilities for the main diatomic electronic systems of N2, N2+, NO, O2, CO, CO+, CN, C2 and H2 produced in plasma of atmospheric entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate radiative transition probabilities of diatomic electronic systems are required to calculate the discrete radiation of plasmas. However, most of the published transition probabilities are obtained using older spectroscopic constants and electronic transition moment functions (ETMFs), some of which deviates greatly from experimental data. Fortunately, a lot of new spectroscopic constants that include more anharmonic correction terms than the earlier ones have been published over the past few years. In this work, the Einstein coefficients, Franck-Condon factors and absorption band oscillator strengths are calculated for important diatomic radiative transition processes of N2-O2, CO2-N2 and H2 plasmas produced in entering into the atmosphere of Earth, Mars and Jupiter. The most up-to-date spectroscopic constants are selected to reconstruct the potential energy curves by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method. Then the vibrational wave functions are calculated through the resolution of the radial Schrödinger equation for such potential energy curves. These results, together with the latest "ab-initio" ETMFs derived from the literature are used to compute the square of electronic-vibrational transition moments, Einstein coefficients and absorption band oscillator strengths. Moreover, the Franck-Condon factors are determined with the obtained vibrational wave functions. In the supplementary material we present tables of the radiative transition probabilities for 40 band systems of N2, N2+, NO, O2, CO, CO+, CN, C2 and H2 molecules. In addition, the calculated radiative lifetimes are systematically validated by available experimental results.

  11. Effects of variation in background mixing ratios of N2, O2, and Ar on the measurement of δ18O-H2O and δ2H-H2O values by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Rella, Chris W.

    2017-08-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers have generally been designed to operate under conditions in which the background gas has a constant composition. However, there are a number of observational and experimental situations of interest in which the background gas has a variable composition. In this study, we examine the effect of background gas composition on a cavity ring-down spectrometer that measures δ18O-H2O and δ2H-H2O values based on the amplitude of water isotopologue absorption features around 7184 cm-1 (L2120-i, Picarro, Inc.). For background mixtures balanced with N2, the apparent δ18O values deviate from true values by -0.50 ± 0.001 ‰ O2 %-1 and -0.57 ± 0.001 ‰ Ar %-1, and apparent δ2H values deviate from true values by 0.26 ± 0.004 ‰ O2 %-1 and 0.42 ± 0.004 ‰ Ar %-1. The artifacts are the result of broadening, narrowing, and shifting of both the target absorption lines and strong neighboring lines. While the background-induced isotopic artifacts can largely be corrected with simple empirical or semi-mechanistic models, neither type of model is capable of completely correcting the isotopic artifacts to within the inherent instrument precision. The development of strategies for dynamically detecting and accommodating background variation in N2, O2, and/or Ar would facilitate the application of cavity ring-down spectrometers to a new class of observations and experiments.

  12. Effects of variation in background mixing ratios of N2, O2, and Ar on the measurement of δ18O–H2O and δ2H–H2O values by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Johnson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cavity ring-down spectrometers have generally been designed to operate under conditions in which the background gas has a constant composition. However, there are a number of observational and experimental situations of interest in which the background gas has a variable composition. In this study, we examine the effect of background gas composition on a cavity ring-down spectrometer that measures δ18O–H2O and δ2H–H2O values based on the amplitude of water isotopologue absorption features around 7184 cm−1 (L2120-i, Picarro, Inc.. For background mixtures balanced with N2, the apparent δ18O values deviate from true values by −0.50 ± 0.001 ‰ O2 %−1 and −0.57 ± 0.001 ‰ Ar %−1, and apparent δ2H values deviate from true values by 0.26 ± 0.004 ‰ O2 %−1 and 0.42 ± 0.004 ‰ Ar  %−1. The artifacts are the result of broadening, narrowing, and shifting of both the target absorption lines and strong neighboring lines. While the background-induced isotopic artifacts can largely be corrected with simple empirical or semi-mechanistic models, neither type of model is capable of completely correcting the isotopic artifacts to within the inherent instrument precision. The development of strategies for dynamically detecting and accommodating background variation in N2, O2, and/or Ar would facilitate the application of cavity ring-down spectrometers to a new class of observations and experiments.

  13. The role of rotational mechanisms in electron swarm parameters at low reduced electric field in N2, O2 and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridenti, M A; Amorim, J; Alves, L L; Guerra, V

    2015-01-01

    The homogeneous Boltzmann equation for electrons in N 2 , O 2 and H 2 is solved under the classical two-term approximation, for reduced electric fields in the interval 10   −  4   −10 Td where the electron-neutral encounters are limited to elastic, rotational and vibrational collisions. Rotational excitations/de-excitations are described using the following three different approaches: the discrete inelastic/superelastic collisional operator, written for a number of rotational levels that depends on the molecular gas and the specific rotational cross sections considered; the continuous approximation for rotations; a modified version of the continuous approximation for rotations, including a Chapman–Cowling corrective term proportional to the gas temperature. The expression of the rotational collision operator for this latter approach is deduced here and the results show that it bridges the gap between the discrete and the continuous descriptions at low/intermediate reduced electric fields. The calculations are compared with the measurements for the available swarm parameters to assess the validity of the different approaches and cross sections adopted to describe the rotational mechanisms. (paper)

  14. Modeling Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 Conversion in Mixtures with N2, O2 and H2O: the Bigger Plasma Chemistry Picture

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weizong; Snoeckx, Ramses; Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-01-01

    performed regarding the single component gases, i.e. CO2 splitting and CH4 reforming, as well as for two component mixtures, i.e. dry reforming of methane (CO2/CH4), partial oxidation of methane (CH4/O2), artificial photosynthesis (CO2/H2O), CO2

  15. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  16. Time-dependent one-dimensional simulation of atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge in N2/O2/H2O using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Soltani, H.

    2018-04-01

    The results of time-dependent one-dimensional modelling of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a nitrogen-oxygen-water vapor mixture at atmospheric pressure are presented. The voltage-current characteristics curves and the production of active species are studied. The discharge is driven by a sinusoidal alternating high voltage-power supply at 30 kV with frequency of 27 kHz. The electrodes and the dielectric are assumed to be copper and quartz, respectively. The current discharge consists of an electrical breakdown that occurs in each half-period. A detailed description of the electron attachment and detachment processes, surface charge accumulation, charged species recombination, conversion of negative and positive ions, ion production and losses, excitations and dissociations of molecules are taken into account. Time-dependent one-dimensional electron density, electric field, electric potential, electron temperature, densities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as: O, O-, O+, {O}2^{ - } , {O}2^{ + } , O3, {N}, {N}2^{ + } , N2s and {N}2^{ - } are simulated versus time across the gas gap. The results of this work could be used in plasma-based pollutant degradation devices.

  17. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-05-01

    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Vibrational and thermodynamic properties of Ar, N2, O2, H2 and CO adsorbed and condensed into (H,Na)-Y zeolite cages as studied by variable temperature IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, Evgueni N; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Bordiga, Silvia; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Zecchina, Adriano

    2006-03-14

    The adsorption of Ar, H2, O2, N2 and CO on (H,Na)-Y zeolite (Si/Al = 2.9, H+/Na+ approximately 5) has been studied at variable-temperature (90-20 K) and sub-atmospheric pressure (0-40 mbar) by FTIR spectroscopy. Unprecedented filling conditions of the zeolite cavities were attained, which allowed the investigation of very weakly adsorbed species and of condensed, liquid-like or solid-like, phases. Two pressure regimes were singled out, characterized by: (i) specific interaction at low pressure of the probe molecules (P) with the internal Brønsted and Lewis sites, and (ii) multilayer adsorption at higher pressure. In the case of CO the perturbation of the protonic sites located inside the sodalite cages was also observed. As the molecule is too large to penetrate the sodalite cage, the perturbation is thought to involve a proton jump tunneling mechanism. The adsorption energy for the (HF)OH...P (P = Ar, H2, O2, N2 and CO) specific interaction involving the high frequency Brønsted acid sites exposed in the supercages was derived following the VTIR (variable temperature infrared spectroscopy) method described by E. Garrone and C. Otero Areán (Chem. Soc. Rev., 2005, 34, 846).

  19. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  20. Zoledronate complexes. III. Two zoledronate complexes with alkaline earth metals: [Mg(C(5)H(9)N(2)O(7)P(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)] and [Ca(C(5)H(8)N(2)O(7)P(2))(H(2)O)](n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Eleonora; Vega, Daniel R; Baggio, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Diaquabis[dihydrogen 1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonato-kappa(2)O,O']magnesium(II), [Mg(C(5)H(9)N(2)O(7)P(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], consists of isolated dimeric units built up around an inversion centre and tightly interconnected by hydrogen bonding. The Mg(II) cation resides at the symmetry centre, surrounded in a rather regular octahedral geometry by two chelating zwitterionic zoledronate(1-) [or dihydrogen 1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate] anions and two water molecules, in a pattern already found in a few reported isologues where the anion is bound to transition metals (Co, Zn and Ni). catena-Poly[[aquacalcium(II)]-mu(3)-[hydrogen 1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonato]-kappa(5)O:O,O':O',O''], [Ca(C(5)H(8)N(2)O(7)P(2))(H(2)O)](n), consists instead of a Ca(II) cation in a general position, a zwitterionic zoledronate(2-) anion and a coordinated water molecule. The geometry around the Ca(II) atom, provided by six bisphosphonate O atoms and one water ligand, is that of a pentagonal bipyramid with the Ca(II) atom displaced by 0.19 A out of the equatorial plane. These Ca(II) coordination polyhedra are ;threaded' by the 2(1) axis so that successive polyhedra share edges of their pentagonal basal planes. This results in a strongly coupled rhomboidal Ca(2)-O(2) chain which runs along [010]. These chains are in turn linked by an apical O atom from a -PO(3) group in a neighbouring chain. This O-atom, shared between chains, generates strong covalently bonded planar arrays parallel to (100). Finally, these sheets are linked by hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional structure. Owing to the extreme affinity of zoledronic acid for bone tissue, in general, and with calcium as one of the major constituents of bone, it is expected that this structure will be useful in modelling some of the biologically interesting processes in which the drug takes part.

  1. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of the Ni2(C4H4N2)(V4O12)(H2O)2 and Ni3(C4H4N2)3(V8O23) inorganic-organic hybrid compounds. Thermal, spectroscopic and magnetic studies of the hydrated phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrea, Edurne S.; Mesa, Jose L.; Pizarro, Jose L.; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2007-01-01

    Ni 2 (C 4 H 4 N 2 )(V 4 O 12 )(H 2 O) 2 , 1, and Ni 3 (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) 3 (V 8 O 23 ), 2, have been synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions at 170 deg. C under autogenous pressure. Both phases crystallize in the P-1 triclinic space group, with the unit-cell parameters, a=7.437(7), b=7.571(3), c=7.564(4) A, α=65.64(4), β=76.09(4), γ=86.25(3) o for 1 and a=8.566(2), b=9.117(2), c=12.619(3) A, α=71.05(2), β=83.48(4), γ=61.32(3) o for 2, being Z=2 for both compounds. The crystal structure of the three-dimensional 1 is constructed from layers linked between them through the pyrazine molecules. The sheets are formed by edge-shared [Ni 2 O 6 (H 2 O) 2 N 2 ] nickel(II) dimers octahedra and rings composed by four [V 4 O 12 ] vanadium(V) tetrahedra linked through vertices. The crystal structure of 2 is formed from vertex shared [VO 4 ] tetrahedra that give rise to twelve member rings. [NiO 4 (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) 2 ] ∞ chains, resulting from [NiO 4 N 2 ] octahedra and pyrazine molecules, give rise to a 3D skeleton when connecting to [VO 4 ] tetrahedra. Diffuse reflectance measurements of 1 indicate a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with values of Dq=880, B=980 and C=2700 cm -1 . Magnetic measurements of 1, carried out in the 5.0-300 K range, indicate the existence of antiferromagnetic couplings with a Neel temperature near to 38 K. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of a sheet of Ni 2 (C 4 H 4 N 2 )(V 4 O 12 )(H 2 O) 2

  3. A model for radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions of H2, H2O2 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetic model for the radiolysis of pure water describing the formation of H 2 , H 2 O 2 and O 2 and the radiation chemical transformations of aqueous solutions containing these compounds over a broad range of concentrations, pH, absorbed doses and dose rates is proposed and substantiated. The model includes a set of chemical reactions with optimized rate constants and the radiation chemical yields of radiolysis products. The model applicability to the description of the whole set of data on the radiation chemical transformations of water and aqueous solutions of H 2 , H 2 O 2 and O 2 is demonstrated

  4. Effect of air composition (N2, O2, Ar, and H2O) on CO2 and CH4 measurement by wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy: calibration and measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Tohjima, Y.; Mukai, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Katsumata, K.; Rella, C. W.

    2012-11-01

    We examined potential interferences from water vapor and atmospheric background gases (N2, O2, and Ar), and biases by isotopologues of target species, on accurate measurement of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 by means of wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS). Changes of the background gas mole fractions in the sample air substantially impacted the CO2 and CH4 measurements: variation of CO2 and CH4 due to relative increase of each background gas increased as Ar < O2 < N2, suggesting similar relation for the pressure-broadening effects (PBEs) among the background gas. The pressure-broadening coefficients due to variations in O2 and Ar for CO2 and CH4 are empirically determined from these experimental results. Calculated PBEs using the pressure-broadening coefficients are linearly correlated with the differences between the mole fractions of O2 and Ar and their ambient abundances. Although the PBEs calculation showed that impact of natural variation of O2 is negligible on the CO2 and CH4 measurements, significant bias was inferred for the measurement of synthetic standard gases. For gas standards balanced with purified air, the PBEs were estimated to be marginal (up to 0.05 ppm for CO2 and 0.01 ppb for CH4) although the PBEs were substantial (up to 0.87 ppm for CO2 and 1.4 ppb for CH4) for standards balanced with synthetic air. For isotopic biases on CO2 measurements, we compared experimental results and theoretical calculations, which showed excellent agreement within their uncertainty. We derived instrument-specific water correction functions empirically for three WS-CRDS instruments (Picarro EnviroSense 3000i, G-1301, and G-2301), and evaluated the transferability of the water correction function from G-1301 among these instruments. Although the transferability was not proven, no significant difference was found in the water vapor correction function for the investigated WS-CRDS instruments as well as the instruments reported in the past studies

  5. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra.

  6. Effect of air composition (N2, O2, Ar, and H2O on CO2 and CH4 measurement by wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy: calibration and measurement strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Katsumata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined potential interferences from water vapor and atmospheric background gases (N2, O2, and Ar, and biases by isotopologues of target species, on accurate measurement of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 by means of wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS. Changes of the background gas mole fractions in the sample air substantially impacted the CO2 and CH4 measurements: variation of CO2 and CH4 due to relative increase of each background gas increased as Ar 2 2, suggesting similar relation for the pressure-broadening effects (PBEs among the background gas. The pressure-broadening coefficients due to variations in O2 and Ar for CO2 and CH4 are empirically determined from these experimental results. Calculated PBEs using the pressure-broadening coefficients are linearly correlated with the differences between the mole fractions of O2 and Ar and their ambient abundances. Although the PBEs calculation showed that impact of natural variation of O2 is negligible on the CO2 and CH4 measurements, significant bias was inferred for the measurement of synthetic standard gases. For gas standards balanced with purified air, the PBEs were estimated to be marginal (up to 0.05 ppm for CO2 and 0.01 ppb for CH4 although the PBEs were substantial (up to 0.87 ppm for CO2 and 1.4 ppb for CH4 for standards balanced with synthetic air. For isotopic biases on CO2 measurements, we compared experimental results and theoretical calculations, which showed excellent agreement within their uncertainty. We derived instrument-specific water correction functions empirically for three WS-CRDS instruments (Picarro EnviroSense 3000i, G-1301, and G-2301, and evaluated the transferability of the water correction function from G-1301 among these instruments. Although the transferability was not proven, no significant difference was found in the water vapor correction function for the investigated WS-CRDS instruments as well as the instruments reported in the past

  7. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  8. Activity and Selectivity for O-2 Reduction to H2O2 on Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Industrially viable electrochemical production of H2O2 requires active, selective and stable electrocatalyst materials to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction to H2O2. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we explain why single site catalysts such as Pd/Au show improved...

  9. Improved radiosensitive microcapsules using H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Satoshi; Ehara, Shigeru; Ishii, Keizo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation-induced releasing of the liquid-core of the microcapsules was improved using H 2 O 2 , which produced O 2 generation of H 2 O 2 after irradiation. Further, we tested whether these microcapsules enhanced the antitumor effects and decreased the adverse effects in vivo in C3He/J mice. The capsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0% hyaluronic acid, 2.0% alginate, 3.0% H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol of carboplatin on a mixture of 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . The microcapsules were subcutaneously injected into MM46 tumors that had been inoculated in the left hind legs of C3He/J mice. The radiotherapy comprised tumor irradiation with 10 Gy or 20 Gy 60 Co. The antitumor effect of the microcapsules was tested by measuring tumor size and monitoring tumor growth. Three types of adverse effects were considered: fuzzy hair, loss of body weight, and death. The size of the capsule size was 23±2.4 μmφ and that of the liquid core, 20.2±2.2 μmφ. The injected microcapsules localized drugs around the tumor. The production of O 2 by radiation increased the release of carboplatin from the microcapsules. The antitumor effects of radiation, carboplatin, and released oxygen were synergistic. Localization of the carboplatin decreased its adverse effects. However, the H 2 O 2 caused ulceration of the skin in the treated area. The use of our microcapsules enhanced the antitumor effects and decreased the adverse effects of carboplatin. However, the skin-ulceration caused by H 2 O 2 must be considered before these microcapsules can be used clinically. (author)

  10. Reaction of ferric leghemoglobin with H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, S; Davies, M J; Puppo, A

    1995-01-01

    Ferric leghemoglobin in the presence of H2O2 is known to give rise to protein radicals, at least one of which is centred on a tyrosine residue. These radicals are quenched by at least two processes. The first one involves an intramolecular heme-protein cross-link probably involving the tyrosine r...

  11. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  12. Oxidative damage to fibronectin. 2. The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissers, M.C.; Winterbourn, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical (.OH) on fibronectin was investigated. .OH was generated in three ways: (1) by radiolysis with 60Co under N2O, or by the Fenton system using either (2) equimolar Fe(2+)-EDTA and H2O2 or (3) H2O2 and catalytic amounts of Fe(2+)-EDTA recycled with ascorbate. Each system had a different effect. H2O2 alone caused no changes, even at an 800-fold molar excess. Radiolytic .OH caused a rapid loss of tryptophan fluorescence, an increase in bityrosine fluorescence, and extensive crosslinking. The Fenton system using Fe-EDTA, H2O2, and ascorbate caused a loss in tryptophan fluorescence, a smaller increase in bityrosine than was seen with radiolytic .OH, and a threefold increase in carbonyl groups. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis fragmentation of fibronectin was seen. In contrast, when .OH was generated with equimolar Fe-EDTA and H2O2, the only change was a small increase in bityrosine fluorescence at the highest dose of oxidant. None of the systems used affected cysteine. All the changes except the loss of tryptophan by radiolytic .OH were completely inhibited with mannitol. The differences seen with radiolytic .OH and the Fe-EDTA, H2O2, ascorbate system were not solely due to O2 in the latter system since similar results were obtained under N2. The differences between radiolytic .OH and the Fenton systems could be partly due to the components of the latter systems reacting with .OH and thus competing with fibronectin. The authors results demonstrate that the extent and type of fibronectin damage by .OH is dependent on the mode of radical generation

  13. Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, R.M.; Verreycken, T.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O at atmospheric pressure between two pin-shaped electrodes are studied. The evolution of the discharge is investigated with time-resolved imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The discharge consists of three phases, the ignition (mainly molecular

  14. Mesospheric H2O and H2O2 densities inferred from in situ positive ion composition measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for production and loss of oxonium ions in the high-latitude D-region is developed, based on the observed excess of 34(+) which has been interpreted as H2O2(+). The loss mechanism suggested in the study is the attachment of N2 and/or CO2 in three-body reactions. Furthermore, mesospheric water vapor and H2O2 densities are inferred from measurements of four high-latitude ion compositions, based on the oxonium model. Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previous values were obtained. A number of reactions, reaction constants, and a block diagram of the oxonium ion chemistry in the D-region are given.

  15. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H 2 O 2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H 2 O 2 (MW-H 2 O 2 ) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H 2 O 2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H 2 O 2 (0.6 g H 2 O 2 /g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H 2 O 2 /g TS) pretreatment. The residual H 2 O 2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H 2 O 2 at 0.2 g H 2 O 2 /g TS was used in MW-H 2 O 2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H 2 O 2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  16. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to...

  17. Successive heterolytic cleavages of H2 achieve N2 splitting on silica-supported tantalum hydrides: A DFT proposed mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Solá ns, Xavier Luis; Chow, Catherine; Gouré , Eric; Kaya, Yasemin; Basset, Jean-Marie; Taoufik, Mostafa; Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra; Eisenstein, Odile

    2012-01-01

    DFT(B3PW91) calculations have been carried out to propose a pathway for the N2 cleavage by H2 in the presence of silica-supported tantalum hydride complexes [(≡ SiO)2TaHx] that forms [(≡SiO)2Ta(NH)(NH2)] (Science2007, 317, 1056). The calculations

  18. Using H2O2 as oxidant in leaching of uranium ores. The new research on the reaction of H2O2 with Fe2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xizhen

    1997-05-01

    The new research on the reaction of H 2 O 2 with Fe 2+ has been studied. Through determining the electric potential, pH and O 2 release during the mutual titration between H 2 O 2 solution and FeSO 4 solution, deduced the chemical equations of H 2 O 2 (without free hydroxyl) oxidizing FeSO 4 and Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 oxidizing H 2 O 2 . The research results show that acid is a catalytic agent for decomposing H 2 O 2 to be O 2 and H 2 O besides iron ions. The maximum oxidizing potential is up to about 640 mV. While using H 2 O 2 as an oxidant in uranium heap leaching and in-situ leaching, controlling electric potential can be regarded as a method for adjusting the feeding speed of H 2 O 2 to keep the electric potential below 500 mV, thus the H 2 O 2 decomposition can be reduced. (13 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.)

  19. Removal of Organic Dyes from Industrial Wastewaters Using UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/Fe (II, UV/H2O2/Fe (III Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Daneshvar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/Fe (II and UV/H2O2/Fe (III processes are very effective in removing pollutants from wastewater and can be used for treatment of dyestuff units wastewaters. In this study, Rhodamine B was used as a typical organic dye. Rhodamine B has found wide applications in wax, leather, and paper industries. The results from this study showed that this dye was degradable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under UV-C irradiation (30W mercury light and Photo-Fenton process. The dye was resistant to UV irradiation. In the absence of UV irradiation, the decolorization efficiency was very negligible in the presence of hydrogen. The effects of different system variables such as initial dye concentration, duration of UV irradiation, and initial hydrogen peroxide concentration were investigated in the UV/H2O2 process. Investigation of the kinetics of the UV/H2O2 process showed that the semi-log plot of the dye concentration versus time was linear, suggesting a first order reaction. It was found that Rhodamine B decolorization efficiencies in the UV/H2O2/Fe (II and UV/H2O2/Fe (III processes were higher than that in the UV/H2O2 process. Furthermore, a solution containing 20 ppm of Rhodamine B was decolorized in the presence 18 mM of H2O2 under UV irradiation for 15 minutes. It was also found that addition of 0.1 mM Fe(II or Fe(III to the solution containing  20  ppm of the dye and 5 mM H2O2 under UV light  illumination decreased removal time to 10 min.

  20. Heterogeneous Ag-TiO2-SiO2 composite materials as novel catalytic systems for selective epoxidation of cyclohexene by H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 composites were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the structure directing template. Self-assembly hexadecyltrimethyl- ammonium bromide TiO2-SiO2/(CTAB were soaked into silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solution. The Ag-TiO2-SiO2(Ag-TS composite were prepared via a precipitation of AgBr in soaking process and its decomposition at calcination stage. Structural characterization of the materials was carried out by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Characterization results revealed that Ag particles were incorporated into hierarchical TiO2-SiO2 without significantly affecting the structures of the supports. Further heating-treatment at 723 K was more favorable for enhancing the stability of the Ag-TS composite. The cyclohexene oxide was the major product in the epoxidation using H2O2 as the oxidant over the Ag-TS catalysts. Besides, the optimum catalytic activity and stability of Ag-TS catalysts were obtained under operational conditions of calcined at 723 K for 2 h, reaction time of 120 min, reaction temperature of 353 K, catalyst amount of 80 mg, aqueous H2O2 (30 wt.% as oxidant and chloroform as solvent. High catalytic activity with conversion rate up to 99.2% of cyclohexene oxide could be obtainable in water-bathing. The catalyst was found to be stable and could be reused three times without significant loss of catalytic activity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  1. Laser-induced photochemical reaction of aqueous maleic acid solutions containing H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yuichi; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Suzuki, Nobutake

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxy acid such as glycolic, tartaric and malic acids was directly produced by XeF-laser irradiation of the N 2 -saturated maleic acid aqueous solution containing H 2 O 2 . The selectivities of these products at the maximum of tartaric acid were 71, 4, and 2% at H 2 O 2 feeding rate of 3.2 ml h -1 , respectively. On the other hand, the irradiation of maleates such as dipotassium, calcium, and disodium greatly enhanced the selectivities of tartaric acid formation to 19%, and of malic acid formation to 13%, respectively, for dipotassium maleate. It may be considered from these results that the stability of the hydroxylated intermediate radical plays an important role for the efficient formations of tartaric and malic acids. (author)

  2. Decolorization and Mineralization of Reactive Dyes, by the H2O2/UV Process With Electrochemically Produced H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeric, T.; Bisselink, R.J.M.; Tongeren, W. van; Marechal. A.M. Le

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of

  3. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  4. Effect of H2O2 on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    1994-02-01

    In connection with the safe storage of high level nuclear waste, effect of H 2 O 2 on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel was examined. Open circuit potentials and polarization curves were measured with and without H 2 O 2 . The experimental results show that H 2 O 2 increased corrosion potential and decreased pitting potential. The passive range, therefore, decreased as H 2 O 2 concentration increased, indicating that pitting resistance was decreased by the existence of H 2 O 2 in the electrolyte. These effects of H 2 O 2 on corrosion of 304L stainless steel are considered to be similar to those of γ-irradiation. To compare the effects of H 2 O 2 with those of O 2 , cathodic and anodic polarization curves were made in three types of electrolyte such as aerated, deaerated, and stirred electrolyte. The experimental results show that the effects of H 2 O 2 on the corrosion behavior were very similar to those of O 2 such as increase of corrosion potential, decrease of pitting resistance, and increase of repassivation potential. Further, H 2 O 2 played much greater role in controlling cathodic reaction rate in neutral water environment. In acid and alkaline media, potential shifts by H 2 O 2 were restricted by the large current density of proton reduction and by the le Chatelier's principle respectively

  5. Differential regulation of TRPV1 channels by H2O2: implications for diabetic microvascular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelloStritto, Daniel J.; Connell, Patrick J.; Dick, Gregory M.; Fancher, Ibra S.; Klarich, Brittany; Fahmy, Joseph N.; Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Damron, Derek S.; Thodeti, Charles K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that TRPV1-dependent coupling of coronary blood flow (CBF) to metabolism is disrupted in diabetes. A critical amount of H2O2 contributes to CBF regulation; however, excessive H2O2 impairs responses. We sought to determine the extent to which differential regulation of TRPV1 by H2O2 modulates CBF and vascular reactivity in diabetes. We used contrast echocardiography to study TRPV1 knockout (V1KO), db/db diabetic, and wild type C57BKS/J (WT) mice. H2O2 dose-dependently increased CBF in WT mice, a response blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. H2O2-induced vasodilation was significantly inhibited in db/db and V1KO mice. H2O2 caused robust SB366791-sensitive dilation in WT coronary microvessels; however, this response was attenuated in vessels from db/db and V1KO mice, suggesting H2O2-induced vasodilation occurs, in part, via TRPV1. Acute H2O2 exposure potentiated capsaicin-induced CBF responses and capsaicin-mediated vasodilation in WT mice, whereas prolonged luminal H2O2 exposure blunted capsaicin-induced vasodilation. Electrophysiology studies re-confirms acute H2O2 exposure activated TRPV1 in HEK293A and bovine aortic endothelial cells while establishing that H2O2 potentiate capsaicin-activated TRPV1 currents, whereas prolonged H2O2 exposure attenuated TRPV1 currents. Verification of H2O2-mediated activation of intrinsic TRPV1 specific currents were found in isolated mouse coronary endothelial cells from WT mice and decreased in endothelial cells from V1KO mice. These data suggest prolonged H2O2 exposure impairs TRPV1-dependent coronary vascular signaling. This may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and tissue perfusion deficits characteristic of diabetes. PMID:26907473

  6. Application of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 in removal of Acid Red 18 dye from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Shahram

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Organic dyes with a complex structure are often toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, non-biodegradation and stable in the environment and if released to the environment without treatment can endanger the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 Iron in removal of dye Acid Red 18 from aqueous solutions. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted at the laboratory scale. In this study, the removal efficiency of Acid Red 18 from a synthetic solution by H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 was investigated. As well as Effect of solution pH, dye concentration, Concentration of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron, H2O2 and contact time in decolorization efficiency was investigated. Results: Results show that in pH=3, Contact time of 80 minutes, dye concentration of 50 mg/l and Concentration of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron of 2 g/l and H2O2 concentration equal to 200 mmol/l, the removal efficiency was about 98%. Conclusions: According to the results of experiments, H2O2/Fe0 has high efficiency in removal of Acid Red 18 from aqueous solution.

  7. Profiling of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 production using the H2O2-sensitive protein HyPer in LPS-induced microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyung; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2017-07-27

    Dysregulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia exacerbates the pathologic process of neurodegenerative disease. ROS actively affect microglia activation by regulating transcription factors that control the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. However, accurate information regarding the function of ROS in different subcellular organelles has not yet been established. Here, we analyzed the pattern of cytosolic and mitochondrial H 2 O 2 formation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia using the H 2 O 2- sensitive protein HyPer targeted to specific subcellular compartments. Our results show that from an early time, cytosolic H 2 O 2 started increasing constantly, whereas mitochondrial H 2 O 2 rapidly increased later. In addition, we found that MAPK affected cytosolic H 2 O 2 , but not mitochondrial H 2 O 2 . Consequently, our study provides the basic information about subcellular H 2 O 2 generation in activated microglia, and a useful tool for investigating molecular targets that can modulate neuroinflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.

    2017-10-01

    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  9. Application of UV/TiO2/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation to Remove Naphthalene from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is released into the environment by burning such organic materials as fossil fuels and wood and in industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, fuels, and dyes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of UV/TiO2/H2O2 process to decompose naphthalene in aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the photocatalytic degradation of naphthalene was investigated under UV light irradiation in the presence of TiO2 and H2O2 under a variety of conditions. Photodegradation efficiencies of H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV, and H2O2/TiO2/UV processes were compared in a batch reactor using the low pressure mercury lamp irradiation. The effects of operating parameters such as reaction time (min; solution pH; and initial naphthalene, TiO2, and H2O2 concentrations on photodegradation were examined. In the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system with a naphthalene concentration of 15 mg/L, naphthalene removal efficiencies of 63, 75, 80, 88, 92, 95, 96.5, and 98% were achieved, respectively, for reaction times of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 100 and 120 min. This is while removal efficienciesof 50, 59.5, 69, 80, 85, 88, 91, and 95% were obtained in the UV/TiO2 system under the same conditions. For initial pH values of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,9, 10, and 12, naphthalene removal efficiencies of approximately 96.8, 85.5, 86, 75.5, 68.8, 57.8, and 52.5% were acheived, respectively, with the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system. Thus, it may be claiomed that, compared to either H2O2/UV or TiO2/UV process, the H2O2/TiO2/UV process yielded a far more efficient photodegradation.

  10. A novel H2S/H2O2 fuel cell operating at the room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, Ayse Elif [Gazi University (Turkey)], email: aecsanli@gmail.com; Aytac, Aylin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar (Turkey)], email: aytaca@gazi.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This study concerns the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide and a fuel cell; acidic peroxide is used as the oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide is the fuel. A solid state H2S/H2O2 stable fuel cell was produced at room temperature. A cell potential of 0.85 V was reached; this is quite remarkable in comparison to the H2S/O2 fuel cell potential of 0.85 V obtained at 850-1000 degree celsius. The hydrogen sulfide goes through an oxidation reaction in the alkaline fuel cell (H2S/H2O2 fuel cell) which opens up the possibility of using the cheaper nickel as a catalyst. As a result, the fuel cell becomes a potentially low cost technology. A further benefit from using H2S as the alkaline liquid H2S/H2O2 fuel cell, is that sulfide ions are oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons. Sulfur produced reacts with the other sulfide ions and forms disulfide and polysulfide ions in basic electrolytes (such as Black Sea water).

  11. Effect of H2O2 on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Hoh; Kim, In Sub; Noh, Sung Kee

    1995-01-01

    In connection with the safe storage of high level nuclear waste, effect of H 2 O 2 on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel was examined. Open circuit potentials and polarization curves were measured with and without H 2 O 2 . The experimental results show that H 2 O 2 increased corrosion potential and decreased pitting potential. The passive range, therefore, decreased as H 2 O 2 concentration increased, indicating that pitting resistance was decreased by the existence of H 2 O 2 in the electrolyte. These effects of H 2 O 2 on corrosion of 304L stainless steel are considered to be similar to those of γ-irradiation. To compare the effects of H 2 O 2 with those of O 2 , cathodic and anodic polarization curves were made in three types of electrolyte such as aerated, deaerated, and stirred electrolyte. The experimental results show that the effects of H 2 O 2 on the corrosion behavior were very similar to those of O 2 such as increase of corrosion potential, decrease of pitting resistance, and increase of repassivation potential. In acid and alkaline media, the corrosion potential shifts by H 2 O 2 were restricted by the large current density of proton reduction and by the le Chatelier's principle respectively. 13 figs., 1 tabs., 17 refs. (Author)

  12. The Role of Peroxiredoxins in the Transduction of H2O2 Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sue Goo; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kang, Dongmin

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is produced on stimulation of many cell surface receptors and serves as an intracellular messenger in the regulation of diverse physiological events, mostly by oxidizing cysteine residues of effector proteins. Mammalian cells express multiple H 2 O 2 -eliminating enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and peroxiredoxin (Prx). A conserved cysteine in Prx family members is the site of oxidation by H 2 O 2 . Peroxiredoxins possess a high-affinity binding site for H 2 O 2 that is lacking in catalase and GPx and which renders the catalytic cysteine highly susceptible to oxidation, with a rate constant several orders of magnitude greater than that for oxidation of cysteine in most H 2 O 2 effector proteins. Moreover, Prxs are abundant and present in all subcellular compartments. The cysteines of most H 2 O 2 effectors are therefore at a competitive disadvantage for reaction with H 2 O 2 . Recent Advances: Here we review intracellular sources of H 2 O 2 as well as H 2 O 2 target proteins classified according to biochemical and cellular function. We then highlight two strategies implemented by cells to overcome the kinetic disadvantage of most target proteins with regard to H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation: transient inactivation of local Prx molecules via phosphorylation, and indirect oxidation of target cysteines via oxidized Prx. Critical Issues and Future Directions: Recent studies suggest that only a small fraction of the total pools of Prxs and H 2 O 2 effector proteins localized in specific subcellular compartments participates in H 2 O 2 signaling. Development of sensitive tools to selectively detect phosphorylated Prxs and oxidized effector proteins is needed to provide further insight into H 2 O 2 signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 537-557.

  13. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2...

  14. Characterization of a real time H2O2 monitor for use in studies on H2O2 production by antibodies and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harish A; Balcavage, Walter X; Waite, Lee R; Johnson, Mary T; Nindl, Gabi

    2003-01-01

    It was recently shown that antibodies catalyze a reaction between water and ultraviolet light (UV) creating singlet oxygen and ultimately H2O2. Although the in vivo relevance of these antibody reactions is unclear, it is interesting that among a wide variety of non-antibody proteins tested, the T cell receptor is the only protein with similar capabilities. In clinical settings UV is believed to exert therapeutic effects by eliminating inflammatory epidermal T cells and we hypothesized that UV-triggered H2O2 production is involved in this process. To test the hypothesis we developed tools to study production of H2O2 by T cell receptors with the long-term goal of understanding, and improving, UV phototherapy. Here, we report the development of an inexpensive, real time H2O2 monitoring system having broad applicability. The detector is a Clark oxygen electrode (Pt, Ag/AgCl) modified to detect UV-driven H2O2 production. Modifications include painting the electrode black to minimize UV effects on the Ag/AgCl electrode and the use of hydrophilic, large pore Gelnots electrode membranes. Electrode current was converted to voltage and then amplified and recorded using a digital multimeter coupled to a PC. A reaction vessel with a quartz window was developed to maintain constant temperature while permitting UV irradiation of the samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the system and its use in cell-free and cell-based assays will be presented. In a cellfree system, production of H2O2 by CD3 antibodies was confirmed using our real time H2O2 monitoring method. Additionally we report the finding that splenocytes and Jurkat T cells also produce H2O2 when exposed to UV light.

  15. Supersaturation of dissolved H(2) and CO (2) during fermentative hydrogen production with N(2) sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2006-09-01

    Dissolved H(2) and CO(2) were measured by an improved manual headspace-gas chromatographic method during fermentative H(2) production with N(2) sparging. Sparging increased the yield from 1.3 to 1.8 mol H(2)/mol glucose converted, although H(2) and CO(2) were still supersaturated regardless of sparging. The common assumption that sparging increases the H(2) yield because of lower dissolved H(2) concentrations may be incorrect, because H(2) was not lowered into the range necessary to affect the relevant enzymes. More likely, N(2) sparging decreased the rate of H(2) consumption via lower substrate concentrations.

  16. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Junyoung; An, Junyeong; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Ryu, Hodon; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-11-01

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2O2 conversion efficiency was negligible at 0.3-12%. Current density decreased for passive O2 diffusion to the cathode, but H2O2 conversion efficiency increased by 65%. An MEC equipped with a gas diffusion cathode was operated with acetate medium and domestic wastewater, which presented relatively high H2O2 conversion efficiency from 36% to 47%, although cathode overpotential was fluctuated. Due to different current densities, the maximum H2O2 production rate was 141 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with acetate medium, but it became low at 6 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with the wastewater. Our study clearly indicates that improving anodic current density and mitigating membrane fouling would be key parameters for large-scale H2O2-MECs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of H2 and O2 detection in LWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidel, E.C.; Castle, J.G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen detection systems are being installed in existing LWR's and are being planned for new ones. This review summarizes the present status of instrument availability and of application in nuclear power plants. The H 2 sensors in most of the detection systems purchased to date by the nuclear utilities are being located outside of containment. The air sampled for each H 2 sensor is circulated outside to the analyzer and back through two pipes which penetrate the containment wall. The travel time for the air to reach the sensor increases the response time for H 2 detection by approximately one-half minute. A few of the utilities will operate their H 2 sensors inside LWR containment. Since these systems lack radiation-hardened electronics, they require multiple wire penetrations which considerably increase installation costs and reduce the attractiveness of these systems. One electric power utility has requested quotations from hydrogen detector manufacturers for hydrogen detection equipment with better performance and faster system response than that presently available commercially. The requested detector response time of 15 seconds or less would permit the decision delay prior to initiating hydrogen control measures to be on the order of one minute

  18. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm. PMID:25280752

  19. Absolute linestrengths in the H2O2 nu6 band

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Randy D.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute linestrengths at 295 K have been measured for selected lines in the nu6 band of H2O2 using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. H2O2 concentrations in a flowing gas mixture were determined by ultraviolet (uv) absorption at 254 nm using a collinear infrared (ir) and uv optical arrangement. The measured linestrengths are approx. 60 percent larger than previously reported values when absorption by hot bands in H2O2 is taken into account.

  20. Human milk H2O2 content: does it benefit preterm infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Monika; Ferreira, Cristina H F; Shifrin, Yulia; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundHuman milk has a high content of the antimicrobial compound hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). As opposed to healthy full-term infants, preterm neonates are fed previously expressed and stored maternal milk. These practices may favor H 2 O 2 decomposition, thus limiting its potential benefit to preterm infants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the factors responsible for H 2 O 2 generation and degradation in breastmilk.MethodsHuman donors' and rats' milk, along with rat mammary tissue were evaluated. The role of oxytocin and xanthine oxidase on H 2 O 2 generation, its pH-dependent stability, as well as its degradation via lactoperoxidase and catalase was measured in milk.ResultsBreast tissue xanthine oxidase is responsible for the H 2 O 2 generation and its milk content is dependent on oxytocin stimulation. Stability of the human milk H 2 O 2 content is pH-dependent and greatest in the acidic range. Complete H 2 O 2 degradation occurs when human milk is maintained, longer than 10 min, at room temperature and this process is suppressed by lactoperoxidase and catalase inhibition.ConclusionFresh breastmilk H 2 O 2 content is labile and quickly degrades at room temperature. Further investigation on breastmilk handling techniques to preserve its H 2 O 2 content, when gavage-fed to preterm infants is warranted.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  2. Uranous nitrate production using PtO2 catalyst and H2/H2 gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Shyamlal, R.; Narayanan, C.V.; Patil, A.R.; Ramanujam, A.; Kansra, V.P.; Balu, K.; Vaidya, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of producing near 100% uranous nitrate, the partitioning agent used in the spent fuel reprocessing by Purex process, by catalytically reducing uranyl nitrate with H 2 and H 2 gas mixtures was extensively studied. As near quantitative reduction of uranyl nitrate could be easily achieved in laboratory scale studies, pilot plant scale reduction of uranyl nitrate was also carried out and five litres of uranyl nitrate of 100 g/1 could be quantitatively reduced in one hour. (author)

  3. Reactions of Ferrous Coproheme Decarboxylase (HemQ) with O2 and H2O2 Yield Ferric Heme b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Bennett R; Celis, Arianna I; Shisler, Krista; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2017-01-10

    A recently discovered pathway for the biosynthesis of heme b ends in an unusual reaction catalyzed by coproheme decarboxylase (HemQ), where the Fe(II)-containing coproheme acts as both substrate and cofactor. Because both O 2 and H 2 O 2 are available as cellular oxidants, pathways for the reaction involving either can be proposed. Analysis of reaction kinetics and products showed that, under aerobic conditions, the ferrous coproheme-decarboxylase complex is rapidly and selectively oxidized by O 2 to the ferric state. The subsequent second-order reaction between the ferric complex and H 2 O 2 is slow, pH-dependent, and further decelerated by D 2 O 2 (average kinetic isotope effect of 2.2). The observation of rapid reactivity with peracetic acid suggested the possible involvement of Compound I (ferryl porphyrin cation radical), consistent with coproheme and harderoheme reduction potentials in the range of heme proteins that heterolytically cleave H 2 O 2 . Resonance Raman spectroscopy nonetheless indicated a remarkably weak Fe-His interaction; how the active site structure may support heterolytic H 2 O 2 cleavage is therefore unclear. From a cellular perspective, the use of H 2 O 2 as an oxidant in a catalase-positive organism is intriguing, as is the unusual generation of heme b in the Fe(III) rather than Fe(II) state as the end product of heme synthesis.

  4. Uranous nitrate production for purex process applications using PtO2 catalyst and H2/H2-gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Rao, K.; Shyamali, R.; Narayan, C.V.; Patil, A.R.; Jambunathan, U.; Ramanujam, A.; Kansara, V.P.

    2003-04-01

    In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing. the twin objectives- decontamination and partitioning are achieved by extracting uranium (VI) and plutonium (IV) together in the solvent 30% TBP-dodecane and then selectively reducing Pu (IV) to Pu (III) in which valency it is least extractable in the solvent. Uranous nitrate stabilized with hydrazine nitrate is the widely employed partitioning agent. The conventional method of producing U(IV) is by the electrolytic reduction of uranyl nitrate with hydrazine nitrate as uranous ion stabilizer. Tre percentage conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) obtained in this method is 50 -60 %. The use of this solution as partitioning agent leads not only to the dilution of the plutonium product but also to increase in uranium processing load by each externally fed uranous nitrate batch. Also the oxide coating of the anode, TSIA (Titanium Substrate Insoluble Anode) wears out after a certain period of operation. This necessitates recoating which is quite cumbersome considering the amount of the decontamination involved. An alternative to the conventional electrolytic method of reduction of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate was explored at FRD laboratory .The studies have revealed that near 100% uranous nitrate can be produced by reducing uranyl nitrate with H 2 gas or H 2 (8%)- Ar/N 2 gas mixture in presence of PtO 2 catalyst. This report describes the laboratory scale studies carried out to optimize the various parameters. Based on these studies reduction of uranyl nitrate on a pilot plant scale was carried out. The design and operation of the reductor column and also the various studies carried out in the pilot plant studies are discussed. Near 100% conversion of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate and also the redundancy of supply of electrical energy make this process a viable alternative to the existing electrolytic method. (author)

  5. Calculation of intermolecular potentials for H2H2 and H2O2 dimers ab initio and prediction of second virial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van, Tat; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We construct the angular orientations of dimers H 2H 2 and H 2O 2 . • We calculate the ab initio intermolecular interaction energies for all built orientations. • Extrapolating the interaction energies to the complete basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z. • We develop two 5-site ab initio intermolecular potentials of dimers H 2H 2 , H 2O 2 . • Calculating the virial coefficients of dimer H 2H 2 and H 2O 2 . - Abstract: The intermolecular interaction potentials of the dimers H 2H 2 and H 2O 2 were calculated from quantum mechanics, using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T) and correlation-consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVmZ (m = 2, 3); the results were extrapolated to the basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z. The interaction energies were corrected for the basis set superposition error with the counterpoise scheme. For comparison also Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (at levels 2–4) with the basis sets aug-cc-pVTZ were considered, but the results proved inferior. The quantum mechanical results were used to construct analytical pair potential functions. From these functions the second virial coefficients of hydrogen and the cross virial coefficients of the hydrogen–oxygen system were obtained by integration; in both cases corrections for quantum effects were included. The results agree well with experimental data, if available, or with empirical correlations

  6. H2O2 INDUCES DELAYED HYPEREXCITABILITY IN NUCLEUS TRACTUS SOLITARII NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim D.; Hasser, Eileen M.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Kline, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable reactive oxygen species and potent neuromodulator of cellular and synaptic activity. Centrally, endogenous H2O2 is elevated during bouts of hypoxia-reoxygenation, a variety of disease states, and aging. The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) is the central termination site of visceral afferents for homeostatic reflexes and contributes to reflex alterations during these conditions. We determined the extent to which H2O2 modulates synaptic and membrane properties in nTS neurons in rat brainstem slices. Stimulation of the tractus solitarii (which contains the sensory afferent fibers) evoked synaptic currents that were not altered by 10 – 500 μM H2O2. However, 500 μM H2O2 modulated several intrinsic membrane properties of nTS neurons, including a decrease in input resistance, hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential (RMP) and action potential (AP) threshold (THR), and an initial reduction in AP discharge to depolarizing current. H2O2 increased conductance of barium-sensitive potassium currents, and block of these currents ablated H2O2-induced changes in RMP, input resistance and AP discharge. Following washout of H2O2 AP discharge was enhanced due to depolarization of RMP and a partially maintained hyperpolarization of THR. Hyperexcitability persisted with repeated H2O2 exposure. H2O2 effects on RMP and THR were ablated by intracellular administration of the antioxidant catalase, which was immunohistochemically identified in neurons throughout the nTS. Thus, H2O2 initially reduces excitability of nTS neurons that is followed by sustained hyperexcitability, which may play a profound role in cardiorespiratory reflexes. PMID:24397952

  7. Dexmedetomidine attenuates H2O2-induced cell death in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Park, Bong-Soo; Yoon, Ji-Uk; Shin, Sang-Wook; Kim, Do-Wan

    2016-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species play critical roles in homeostasis and cell signaling. Dexmedetomidine, a specific agonist of the α 2 -adrenoceptor, has been commonly used for sedation, and it has been reported to have a protective effect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress and the mechanism of H 2 O 2 -induced cell death in normal human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells. Cells were divided into three groups: control group-cells were incubated in normoxia without dexmedetomidine, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) group-cells were exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 µM) for 2 h, and Dex/H 2 O 2 group-cells were pretreated with dexmedetomidine (5 µM) for 2 h then exposed to H 2 O 2 (200 µM) for 2 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated. Osteoblast maturation was determined by assaying bone nodular mineralization. Expression levels of bone-related proteins were determined by western blot. Cell viability was significantly decreased in the H 2 O 2 group compared with the control group, and this effect was improved by dexmedetomidine. The Hoechst 33342 and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining revealed that dexmedetomidine effectively decreased H 2 O 2 -induced hFOB cell apoptosis. Dexmedetomidine enhanced the mineralization of hFOB cells when compared to the H 2 O 2 group. In western blot analysis, bone-related protein was increased in the Dex/H 2 O 2 group. We demonstrated the potential therapeutic value of dexmedetomidine in H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing osteoblast activity. Additionally, the current investigation could be evidence to support the antioxidant potential of dexmedetomidine in vitro.

  8. Electrochemical Quantification of Extracellular Local H2O2 Kinetics Originating from Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, Monika; Knapp, Phillip; Mirčeski, Valentin; Slowik, Ewa J; Bogeski, Ivan; Kappl, Reinhard; Heinemann, Christian; Hoth, Markus

    2017-05-15

    H 2 O 2 is produced by all eukaryotic cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Due to its enormous relevance for cell signaling at low concentrations and antipathogenic function at high concentrations, precise quantification of extracellular local H 2 O 2 concentrations ([H 2 O 2 ]) originating from single cells is required. Using a scanning electrochemical microscope and bare platinum disk ultramicroelectrodes, we established sensitive long-term measurements of extracellular [H 2 O 2 ] kinetics originating from single primary human monocytes (MCs) ex vivo. For the electrochemical techniques square wave voltammetry, cyclic and linear scan voltammetry, and chronoamperometry, detection limits for [H 2 O 2 ] were determined to be 5, 50, and 500 nM, respectively. Following phorbol ester stimulation, local [H 2 O 2 ] 5-8 μm above a single MC increased by 3.4 nM/s within the first 10 min before reaching a plateau. After extracellular addition of H 2 O 2 to an unstimulated MC, the local [H 2 O 2 ] decreased on average by 4.2 nM/s due to degradation processes of the cell. Using the scanning mode of the setup, we found that H 2 O 2 is evenly distributed around the producing cell and can still be detected up to 30 μm away from the cell. The electrochemical single-cell measurements were validated in MC populations using electron spin resonance spectroscopy and the Amplex ® UltraRed assay. Innovation and Conclusion: We demonstrate a highly sensitive, spatially, and temporally resolved electrochemical approach to monitor dynamics of production and degradation processes for H 2 O 2 separately. Local extracellular [H 2 O 2 ] kinetics originating from single cells is quantified in real time. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  9. Optimization of NO oxidation by H2O2 thermal decomposition at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Qian; Wang, Zhong-Hua; Gao, Xing-Cun; Liu, Cheng-Hao; Qi, Han-Bing

    2018-01-01

    H2O2 was adopted to oxidize NO in simulated flue gas at 100-500°C. The effects of the H2O2 evaporation conditions, gas temperature, initial NO concentration, H2O2 concentration, and H2O2:NO molar ratio on the oxidation efficiency of NO were investigated. The reason for the narrow NO oxidation temperature range near 500°C was determined. The NO oxidation products were analyzed. The removal of NOx using NaOH solution at a moderate oxidation ratio was studied. It was proven that rapid evaporation of the H2O2 solution was critical to increase the NO oxidation efficiency and broaden the oxidation temperature range. the NO oxidation efficiency was above 50% at 300-500°C by contacting the outlet of the syringe needle and the stainless-steel gas pipe together to spread H2O2 solution into a thin film on the surface of the stainless-steel gas pipe, which greatly accelerated the evaporation of H2O2. The NO oxidation efficiency and the NO oxidation rate increased with increasing initial NO concentration. This method was more effective for the oxidation of NO at high concentrations. H2O2 solution with a concentration higher than 15% was more efficient in oxidizing NO. High temperatures decreased the influence of the H2O2 concentration on the NO oxidation efficiency. The oxidation efficiency of NO increased with an increase in the H2O2:NO molar ratio, but the ratio of H2O2 to oxidized NO decreased. Over 80% of the NO oxidation product was NO2, which indicated that the oxidation ratio of NO did not need to be very high. An 86.7% NO removal efficiency was obtained at an oxidation ratio of only 53.8% when combined with alkali absorption.

  10. Thermal Reactions of H2O2 on Icy Satellites and Small Bodies: Descent with Modification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetospheric radiation drives surface and near-surface chemistry on Europa, but below a few meters Europa's chemistry is hidden from direct observation . As an example, surface radiation chemistry converts H2O and SO2 into H2O2 and (SO4)(sup 2-), respectively, and these species will be transported downward for possible thermally-driven reactions. However, while the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, this molecule's thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry has seldom been studied. Here we report new results on thermal reactions in H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices at 50 - 130 K. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to (SO4)(sup 2-). These results have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends, with modification, towards a subsurface ocean on Europa. We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto.

  11. UV and VUV photolysis vs. UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2, treatment for removal of clofibric acid from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2011-07-01

    Clofibric acid (CA), a metabolite of lipid regulators, was investigated in ultra-pure water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent at 10 degrees C under UV, vacuum UV (VUV), UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes. The influences of NO3-, HCO3- and humic acid (HA) on CA photolysis in all processes were examined. The results showed that all the experimental data well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the apparent rate constant (k(ap)) and half-life time (t(1/2)) were calculated accordingly. Direct photolysis of CA through UV irradiation was the main process, compared with the indirect oxidation of CA due to the slight generation of hydroxyl radicals dissociated from water molecules under UV irradiation below 200 nm monochromatic wavelength emission. In contrast, indirect oxidation was the main CA degradation mechanism in UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2, and VUV/H2O2 was the most effective process for CA degradation. The addition of 20 mg L(-1) HA could significantly inhibit CA degradation, whereas, except for UV irradiation, the inhibitive effects of NO3- and HCO3- (1.0 x 10(-3) and 0.1 mol L(-1), respectively) on CA degradation were observed in all processes, and their adverse effects were more significant in UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes, particularly at the high NO3- and HCO3- concentrations. The degradation rate decreased 1.8-4.9-fold when these processes were applied to a real STP effluent owing to the presence of complex constituents. Of the four processes, VUV/H2O2 was the most effective, and the CA removal efficiency reached over 99% after 40 min in contrast to 80 min in both the UV/H2O2 and VUV processes and 240 min in the UV process.

  12. Image-Based Measurement of H2O2 Reaction-Diffusion in Wounded Zebrafish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelcic, Mark; Enyedi, Balázs; Xavier, João B; Niethammer, Philipp

    2017-05-09

    Epithelial injury induces rapid recruitment of antimicrobial leukocytes to the wound site. In zebrafish larvae, activation of the epithelial NADPH oxidase Duox at the wound margin is required early during this response. Before injury, leukocytes are near the vascular region, that is, ∼100-300 μm away from the injury site. How Duox establishes long-range signaling to leukocytes is unclear. We conceived that extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) generated by Duox diffuses through the tissue to directly regulate chemotactic signaling in these cells. But before it can oxidize cellular proteins, H 2 O 2 must get past the antioxidant barriers that protect the cellular proteome. To test whether, or on which length scales this occurs during physiological wound signaling, we developed a computational method based on reaction-diffusion principles that infers H 2 O 2 degradation rates from intravital H 2 O 2 -biosensor imaging data. Our results indicate that at high tissue H 2 O 2 levels the peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin antioxidant chain becomes overwhelmed, and H 2 O 2 degradation stalls or ceases. Although the wound H 2 O 2 gradient reaches deep into the tissue, it likely overcomes antioxidant barriers only within ∼30 μm of the wound margin. Thus, Duox-mediated long-range signaling may require other spatial relay mechanisms besides extracellular H 2 O 2 diffusion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. System and method to control h2o2 level in advanced oxidation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and a method of in-situ production and removal of H2O2 using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES). Further, the invention relates to a method for in-situ control of H2O2 content in an aqueous system of advanced oxidation...

  14. Three-dimensional WS2 nanosheet networks for H2O2 produced for cell signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Quan, Yingzhou; Zhang, Yueyu; Jiang, Min; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Kong, Biao; An, Tiance; Wang, Wenshuo; Xia, Limin; Gong, Xingao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in living RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and neurons. First-principles calculations further demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of probing H2O2 is attributed to the efficient and spontaneous H2O2 adsorption on WS2 nanosheet edge sites. The combined features of 3D WS2 nanosheet networks suggest attractive new opportunities for exploring the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species like H2O2 in living systems.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in

  15. Hydrogen Dynamics in Cyanobacteria Dominated Microbial Mats Measured by Novel Combined H2/H2S and H2/O2 Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Maegaard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen may accumulate to micromolar concentrations in cyanobacterial mat communities from various environments, but the governing factors for this accumulation are poorly described. We used newly developed sensors allowing for simultaneous measurement of H2S and H2 or O2 and H2 within the same point to elucidate the interactions between oxygen, sulfate reducing bacteria, and H2 producing microbes. After onset of darkness and subsequent change from oxic to anoxic conditions within the uppermost ∼1 mm of the mat, H2 accumulated to concentrations of up to 40 μmol L-1 in the formerly oxic layer, but with high variability among sites and sampling dates. The immediate onset of H2 production after darkening points to fermentation as the main H2 producing process in this mat. The measured profiles indicate that a gradual disappearance of the H2 peak was mainly due to the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria that invaded the formerly oxic surface layer from below, or persisted in an inactive state in the oxic mat during illumination. The absence of significant H2 consumption in the formerly oxic mat during the first ∼30 min after onset of anoxic conditions indicated absence of active sulfate reducers in this layer during the oxic period. Addition of the methanogenesis inhibitor BES led to increase in H2, indicating that methanogens contributed to the consumption of H2. Both H2 formation and consumption seemed unaffected by the presence/absence of H2S.

  16. Study on tribological and electrochemistry properties of metal materials in H2O2 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengqing; Yu, Li; Li, Jian; Yan, Xinping

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a kind of ideal green propellant. It is crucial to study the wear behavior and failure modes of the metal materials under the strong oxidizing environment of H2O2. This study aims to investigate the wear of rubbing pairs of 2Cr13 stainless steel against 1045 metal in H2O2 solutions, which has a great effect on wear, the decomposition and damage mechanism of materials. The comparison analysis of the friction coefficients, wear mass loss, worn surface topographies and current densities was conducted under different concentrations of H2O2 solutions. There were significant differences in the tribological and electrochemistry properties of the rubbing pairs in different H2O2 solutions.

  17. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by the ZVI/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Jan; Marcinowski, Piotr; Zapałowska, Ewa; Maksymiec, Justyna; Naumczyk, Jeremi

    2017-10-01

    The ZVI/H 2 O 2 process was applied for cosmetic wastewater treatment. Two commercial zero-valent iron (ZVI) types with different granulations were chosen: Hepure Ferrox PRB and Hepure Ferrox Target. In addition, the pH and stirring method influence on ZVI/H 2 O 2 process efficiency was studied. During the ZVI and ZVI/H 2 O 2 processes, linear Fe ions concentration increase was observed. The addition of H 2 O 2 significantly accelerated the iron dissolution process. The highest COD removal was obtained using finer ZVI (Hepure Ferrox Target) for doses of reagents ZVI/H 2 O 2 1500/1600 mg/L, in a H 2 O 2 /COD weight ratio 2:1, at pH 3.0 with stirring on a magnetic stirrer. After 120 min of the process, 84.0% COD removal (from 796 to 127 mg/L) was achieved. It was found that the efficiency of the process depends, as in the case of the Fenton process, on the ratio of the reagents (ZVI/H 2 O 2 ) and their dose in relation to the COD (H 2 O 2 /COD) but does not depend on the dose of the iron itself. Statistical analysis confirms that COD removal efficiency depends primarily on H 2 O 2 /COD ratio and ZVI granulation, but ZVI dose influence is not statistically significant. The head space, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry results confirm high efficiency of the ZVI/H 2 O 2 process.

  18. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  19. Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Aqueous Solution by the UV/ZrO 2 /H 2 O 2 Photocatalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Samarghandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP, which is one of the resistant phenolic compounds, has been classified in the category of EPA’s priority pollutants due to its high toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Therefore, its removal from water and wastewater is very important. Various methods have been studied for removing the compound, among which advanced oxidation processes (AOPs have attracted much attention because of ease of application and high efficiency. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process, as an AOP, for PCP removal from aquatic environments. The effects of several parameters such as ultraviolet (UV exposure time, initial PCP concentration, pH, concentration of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles, and H2O2 concentration were studied. Kinetics of the reaction was also detected. The concentration of the stated materials in the samples was determined using a spectrophotometer at 500 nm. The results showed that the highest efficiency (approximately 100% was reached at optimized conditions of pH 6, contact time of 30 minutes, initial PCP concentration of 20 mg/L, the nanoparticles concentration of 0.1 g/L and H2O2 concentration of 14.7 mM/L. Also, the process followed the first order kinetics reaction. The obtained results illustrated that the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process has a high ability in removing PCP.

  20. Hydrogen constituents of the mesosphere inferred from positive ions - H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations in the mesosphere of H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN were inferred from data on positive ion compositions, obtained from one mid-latitude and four high-latitude rocket flights. The inferred concentrations were found to agree only partially with the ground-based microwave measurements and/or model prediction by Garcia and Solomon (1985). The CH4 concentration was found to vary between 70 and 4 ppb in daytime and 900 and 100 ppbv at night, respectively. Unexpectedly high H2CO concentrations were obtained, with H2CO/H2O ratios between 0.0006 and 0.1, and a mean HCN volume mixing ratio of 6 x 10 to the -10th was inferred.

  1. Decoloration Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng

    2016-03-01

    In order to decolorize, waste cooking oil, a dark red close to black solution from homes and restaurants, was subjected to 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment. By virtue of UV/Vis spectrophotometric method, the influence of Gamma irradiation to decoloration kinetics and rate constants of the waste cooking oil in the presence of H2O2 was researched. In addition, the influence of different factors such as H2O2 concentration and irradiation dose on the decoloration rate of waste cooking oil was investigated. Results indicated that the decoloration kinetics of waste cooking oil conformed to the first-order reaction. The decoloration rate increased with the increase of irradiation dose and H2O2 concentration. Saponification analysis and sensory evaluation showed that the sample by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment presented better saponification performance and sensory score. Furthermore, according to cost estimate, the cost of the 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 was lower and more feasible than the H2O2 alone for decoloration of waste cooking oil.

  2. Advanced oxidation of hypophosphite and phosphite using a UV/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Liang, Xingang; Xu, Jianhui; Lu, Gang; Ji, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of hypophosphite and phosphite in an aqueous solution by an ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2 process was studied in this work. The reactions were performed in a lab-scale batch photoreactor. The effect of different parameters such as H2O2 dosage, H2O2 feeding mode and the initial pH of the solution on the oxidation efficiency of the process was investigated. The results indicated that the UV/H2O2 process could effectively oxidize hypophosphite and phosphite in both synthesized and real wastewater. However, neither H2O2 nor UV alone was able to appreciably oxidize the hypophosphite or phosphite. The best way of feeding H2O2 was found to be 'continuous feeding', which maximized the reaction rate. It was also found that the process presented a wide range of applicable initial pH (5-11). When treating real rinse-wastewater, which was obtained from the electroless nickel plating industry, both hypophosphite and phosphite were completely oxidized within 60 min, and by extending by another 30 min, over 90% of the chemical oxygen demand removal was obtained. Without any additional catalyst, the UV/H2O2 process can oxidize hypophosphite and phosphite to easily removable phosphate. It is really a powerful and environmentally friendly treatment method for the wastewater containing hypophosphite and phosphite.

  3. Search Directions for Direct H2O2 Synthesis Catalysts Starting from Au-12 Nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Falsig, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    that the rate of H2O2 and H2O formation can be determined from a single descriptor, namely, the binding energy of oxygen (E-O). Our model predicts the search direction starting from an Au-12 nanocluster for an optimal catalyst in terms of activity and selectivity for direct H2O2 synthesis. Taking also stability......We present density functional theory calculations on the direct synthesis of H2O2 from H-2 and O-2 over an Au-12 corner model of a gold nanoparticle. We first show a simple route for the direct formation of H2O2 over a gold nanocatalyst, by studying the energetics of 20 possible elementary...... reactions involved in the oxidation of H-2 by O-2. The unwanted side reaction to H2O is also considered. Next we evaluate the degree of catalyst control and address the factors controlling the activity and the selectivity. By combining well-known energy scaling relations with microkinetic modeling, we show...

  4. H2O2 modulates the energetic metabolism of the cloud microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wirgot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical reactions in clouds lead to oxidation processes driven by radicals (mainly HO⚫, NO3⚫, or HO2⚫ or strong oxidants such as H2O2, O3, nitrate, and nitrite. Among those species, hydrogen peroxide plays a central role in the cloud chemistry by driving its oxidant capacity. In cloud droplets, H2O2 is transformed by microorganisms which are metabolically active. Biological activity can therefore impact the cloud oxidant capacity. The present article aims at highlighting the interactions between H2O2 and microorganisms within the cloud system. First, experiments were performed with selected strains studied as a reference isolated from clouds in microcosms designed to mimic the cloud chemical composition, including the presence of light and iron. Biotic and abiotic degradation rates of H2O2 were measured and results showed that biodegradation was the most efficient process together with the photo-Fenton process. H2O2 strongly impacted the microbial energetic state as shown by adenosine triphosphate (ATP measurements in the presence and absence of H2O2. This ATP depletion was not due to the loss of cell viability. Secondly, correlation studies were performed based on real cloud measurements from 37 cloud samples collected at the PUY station (1465 m a.s.l., France. The results support a strong correlation between ATP and H2O2 concentrations and confirm that H2O2 modulates the energetic metabolism of the cloud microbiome. The modulation of microbial metabolism by H2O2 concentration could thus impact cloud chemistry, in particular the biotransformation rates of carbon compounds, and consequently can perturb the way the cloud system is modifying the global atmospheric chemistry.

  5. H2O2 modulates the energetic metabolism of the cloud microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgot, Nolwenn; Vinatier, Virginie; Deguillaume, Laurent; Sancelme, Martine; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    Chemical reactions in clouds lead to oxidation processes driven by radicals (mainly HO⚫, NO3⚫, or HO2⚫) or strong oxidants such as H2O2, O3, nitrate, and nitrite. Among those species, hydrogen peroxide plays a central role in the cloud chemistry by driving its oxidant capacity. In cloud droplets, H2O2 is transformed by microorganisms which are metabolically active. Biological activity can therefore impact the cloud oxidant capacity. The present article aims at highlighting the interactions between H2O2 and microorganisms within the cloud system. First, experiments were performed with selected strains studied as a reference isolated from clouds in microcosms designed to mimic the cloud chemical composition, including the presence of light and iron. Biotic and abiotic degradation rates of H2O2 were measured and results showed that biodegradation was the most efficient process together with the photo-Fenton process. H2O2 strongly impacted the microbial energetic state as shown by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements in the presence and absence of H2O2. This ATP depletion was not due to the loss of cell viability. Secondly, correlation studies were performed based on real cloud measurements from 37 cloud samples collected at the PUY station (1465 m a.s.l., France). The results support a strong correlation between ATP and H2O2 concentrations and confirm that H2O2 modulates the energetic metabolism of the cloud microbiome. The modulation of microbial metabolism by H2O2 concentration could thus impact cloud chemistry, in particular the biotransformation rates of carbon compounds, and consequently can perturb the way the cloud system is modifying the global atmospheric chemistry.

  6. One- or two-electron water oxidation, hydroxyl radical, or H_2O_2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Li, Guo-Ling; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical or photoelectrochemcial oxidation of water to form hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) or hydroxyl radicals (•OH) offers a very attractive route to water disinfection, and the first process could be the basis for a clean way to produce hydrogen peroxide. A major obstacle in the development of effective catalysts for these reactions is that the electrocatalyst must suppress the thermodynamically favored four-electron pathway leading to O_2 evolution. Here, we develop a thermochemical picture of the catalyst properties that determine selectivity toward the one, two, and four electron processes leading to •OH, H_2O_2, and O_2.

  7. Successive heterolytic cleavages of H2 achieve N2 splitting on silica-supported tantalum hydrides: A DFT proposed mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Soláns, Xavier Luis

    2012-07-02

    DFT(B3PW91) calculations have been carried out to propose a pathway for the N2 cleavage by H2 in the presence of silica-supported tantalum hydride complexes [(≡ SiO)2TaHx] that forms [(≡SiO)2Ta(NH)(NH2)] (Science2007, 317, 1056). The calculations, performed on the cluster models {μ-O[(HO)2SiO] 2}TaH1 and {μ-O[(HO)2SiO] 2}TaH3, labelled as (≡SiO)2TaH x (x = 1, 3), show that the direct hydride transfers to coordinated N-based ligands in (≡SiO)2TaH(η2-N2) and (≡SiO)2TaH(η2-HNNH) have high energy barrier barriers. These high energy barriers are due in part to a lack of energetically accessible empty orbitals in the negatively charged N-based ligands. It is shown that a succession of proton transfers and reduction steps (hydride transfer or 2 electron reduction by way of dihydride reductive coupling) to the nitrogen-based ligands leads to more energetically accessible pathways. These proton transfers, which occur by way of heterolytic activation of H2, increase the electrophilicity of the resulting ligand (diazenido, N 2H-, and hydrazido, NHNH2-, respectively) that can thus accept a hydride with a moderate energy barrier. In the case of (≡SiO)2TaH(η2-HNNH), the H 2 molecule that is adding across the Ta-N bond is released after the hydride transfer step by heterolytic elimination from (≡SiO) 2TaH(NH2)2, suggesting that dihydrogen has a key role in assisting the final steps of the reaction without itself being consumed in the process. This partly accounts for the experimental observation that the addition of H2 is needed to convert an intermediate, identified as a diazenido complex [(≡SiO)2TaH(η 2-HNNH)] from its ν(N-H) stretching frequency of 3400 cm -1, to the final product. Throughout the proposed mechanism, the tantalum remains in its preferred high oxidation state and avoids redox-type reactions, which are more energetically demanding. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Quantifying Fenton reaction pathways driven by self-generated H2O2 on pyrite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lozano, C.; Davila, A. F.; Losa-Adams, E.; Fairén, A. G.; Gago-Duport, L.

    2017-03-01

    Oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) plays a significant role in the redox cycling of iron and sulfur on Earth and is the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD). It has been established that this process involves multi-step electron-transfer reactions between surface defects and adsorbed O2 and H2O, releasing sulfoxy species (e.g., S2O32-, SO42-) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) to the solution and also producing intermediate by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, our understanding of the kinetics of these transient species is still limited. We investigated the kinetics of H2O2 formation in aqueous suspensions of FeS2 microparticles by monitoring, in real time, the H2O2 and dissolved O2 concentration under oxic and anoxic conditions using amperometric microsensors. Additional spectroscopic and structural analyses were done to track the dependencies between the process of FeS2 dissolution and the degradation of H2O2 through the Fenton reaction. Based on our experimental results, we built a kinetic model which explains the observed trend of H2O2, showing that FeS2 dissolution can act as a natural Fenton reagent, influencing the oxidation of third-party species during the long term evolution of geochemical systems, even in oxygen-limited environments.

  9. Bleaching of cotton fabric with tetraacetylhydrazine as bleach activator for H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xuan; Yan, Kelu

    2018-05-15

    Tetraacetylhydrazine (TH) as bleach activator for H 2 O 2 cotton bleaching was synthesized and characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS spectra. TH has better solubility than that of TAED. The CIE whiteness index (WI), H 2 O 2 decomposition rate and bursting strength were employed to investigate the performance of H 2 O 2 /TH bleaching system. By addition of TH, WI and H 2 O 2 decomposition rate increased significantly at 70 °C. Bleaching temperature, NaHCO 3 concentration and bleaching time were also discussed in detail and the loss of bursting strength is not clear. By using benzenepentacarboxylic acid (BA) as a fluorescent probe for hydroxyl radical detection, the bleaching process of H 2 O 2 /TH system was investigated. Acetylhydrazine and diacetylhydrazine were also utilized to further confirm the process. In addition, bimolecular decomposition was investigated by using 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA) as fluorescent probe of 1 O 2 . Based on these experimental results, the bleaching mechanism of H 2 O 2 /TH system was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. H2O2 Production in Microbial Electrochemical Cells Fed with Primary Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Dongwon; Popat, Sudeep C; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, César I

    2017-06-06

    We developed an energy-efficient, flat-plate, dual-chambered microbial peroxide producing cell (MPPC) as an anaerobic energy-conversion technology for converting primary sludge (PS) at the anode and producing hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at the cathode. We operated the MPPC with a 9 day hydraulic retention time in the anode. A maximum H 2 O 2 concentration of ∼230 mg/L was achieved in 6 h of batch cathode operation. This is the first demonstration of H 2 O 2 production using PS in an MPPC, and the energy requirement for H 2 O 2 production was low (∼0.87 kWh/kg H 2 O 2 ) compared to previous studies using real wastewaters. The H 2 O 2 gradually decayed with time due to the diffusion of H 2 O 2 -scavenging carbonate ions from the anode. We compared the anodic performance with a H 2 -producing microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Both cells (MEC and MPPC) achieved ∼30% Coulombic recovery. While similar microbial communities were present in the anode suspension and anode biofilm for the two operating modes, aerobic bacteria were significant only on the side of the anode facing the membrane in the MPPC. Coupled with a lack of methane production in the MPPC, the presence of aerobic bacteria suggests that H 2 O 2 diffusion to the anode side caused inhibition of methanogens, which led to the decrease in chemical oxygen demand removal. Thus, the Coulombic efficiency was ∼16% higher in the MPPC than in the MEC (64% versus 48%, respectively).

  11. Improved hydrogen storage properties of MgH2 catalyzed with TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangir, Mukesh; Meena, Priyanka; Jain, I. P.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the hydrogenation properties of the MgH2, various concentration of rutile Titanium Oxide (TiO2) (X wt%= 5, 10, 15 wt %) is added to MgH2 by ball milling and the catalytic effect of TiO2 on hydriding/dehydriding properties of MgH2 has been investigated. Result shows that the TiO2 significantly reduced onset temperature of desorption. Onset temperature as low as 190 °C were observed for the MgH2-15 wt% TiO2 sample which is 60 °C and 160 °C lower than the as-milled and as-received MgH2. Fromm the Kissinger plot the activation energy of 15 wt% TiO2 added sample is calculated to be -75.48 KJ/mol. These results indicate that the hydrogenation properties of MgH2-TiO2 have been improved compared to the as-milled and as-received MgH2. Furthermore, XRD and XPS were performed to characterize the structural evolution upon milling and dehydrogenation.

  12. Photogeneration of H2O2 in SPEEK/PVA aqueous polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brian K; Lockhart, PaviElle; Slaten, B L; Mills, G

    2013-05-23

    Photolysis of air-saturated aqueous solutions containing sulphonated poly(ether etherketone) and poly(vinyl alcohol) results in the generation of hydrogen peroxide. Consumption of oxygen and H2O2 formation are initially concurrent processes with a quantum yield of peroxide generation of 0.02 in stirred or unstirred solutions within the range of 7 ≤ pH ≤ 9. The results are rationalized in terms of O2 reduction by photogenerated α-hydroxy radicals of the polymeric ketone in competition with radical-radical processes that consume the macromolecular reducing agents. Generation of H2O2 is controlled by the photochemical transformation that produces the polymer radicals, which is most efficient in neutral and slightly alkaline solutions. Quenching of the excited state of the polyketone by both H3O(+) and OH(-) affect the yields of the reducing macromolecular radicals and of H2O2. Deprotonation of the α-hydroxy polymeric radicals at pH > 9 accelerate their decay and contribute to suppressing the peroxide yields in basic solutions. Maxima in [H2O2] are observed when illuminations are performed with static systems, where O2 reduction is faster than diffusion of oxygen into the solutions. Under such conditions H2O2 can compete with O2 for the reducing radicals resulting in a consumption of the peroxide.

  13. Synthesis of CuO nanoflower and its application as a H2O2 sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuO; nanoflowers; electrochemical; H2O2. 1. Introduction. Cupric oxide (CuO) is an important transition metal oxide ... several high temperature superconductors and giant mag- ... precipitate was washed with ethanol and distilled water.

  14. [Mechanism and performance of styrene oxidation by O3/H2O2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jue-Cong; Huang, Qian-Ru; Ye, Qi-Hong; Luo, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Zai-Li; Fan, Qing-Juan; Wei, Zai-Shan

    2013-10-01

    It can produce a large number of free radicals in O3/H2O2, system, ozone and free radical coupling oxidation can improve the styrene removal efficiency. Styrene oxidation by O3/H2O2 was investigated. Ozone dosage, residence time, H2o2 volume fraction, spray density and molar ratio of O3/C8H8 on styrene removal were evaluated. The experimental results showed that styrene removal efficiency achieved 85.7%. The optimal residence time, H2O2, volume fraction, spray density and O3/C8H8 molar ratio were 20. 6 s, 10% , 1.72 m3.(m2.h)-1 and 0.46, respectively. The gas-phase degradation intermediate products were benzaldehyde(C6H5CHO) and benzoic acid (C6H5 COOH) , which were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The degradation mechanism of styrene is presented.

  15. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors. MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of...

  16. Glucose acutely reduces cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 in rat pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglasse, Jean-Philippe; Roma, Leticia Prates; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Gilon, Patrick; Dick, Tobias P; Jonas, Jean-Christophe

    2018-05-14

    Whether H2O2 contributes to the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is highly controversial. We used two H2O2-sensitive probes, roGFP2-Orp1 and HyPer with its pH-control SypHer, to test the acute effects of glucose, monomethylsuccinate, leucine with glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate, on β-cell cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 concentrations. We then tested the effects of low H2O2 and menadione concentrations on insulin secretion. RoGFP2-Orp1 was more sensitive than HyPer to H2O2 (response at 2-5 vs. 10µM) and less pH-sensitive. Under control conditions, stimulation with glucose reduced mitochondrial roGFP2-Orp1 oxidation without affecting cytosolic roGFP2-Orp1 and HyPer fluorescence ratios, except for the pH-dependent effects on HyPer. However, stimulation with glucose decreased the oxidation of both cytosolic probes by 15µM exogenous H2O2. The glucose effects were not affected by overexpression of catalase, mitochondrial catalase or superoxide dismutase 1 and 2. They followed the increase in NAD(P)H autofluorescence, were maximal at 5mM glucose in the cytosol and 10mM glucose in the mitochondria, and were partly mimicked by the other nutrients. Exogenous H2O2 (1-15µM) did not affect insulin secretion. By contrast, menadione (1-5µM) did not increase basal insulin secretion but reduced the stimulation of insulin secretion by 20mM glucose. Subcellular changes in β-cell H2O2 levels are better monitored with roGFP2-Orp1 than HyPer/SypHer. Nutrients acutely lower mitochondrial H2O2 levels in β-cells and promote degradation of exogenously supplied H2O2 in both cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments. The glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion occurs independently of a detectable increase in β-cell cytosolic or mitochondrial H2O2 levels.

  17. Free radical behaviours during methylene blue degradation in the Fe2+/H2O2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Zhao, Haiqian; Qi, Hanbing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yang

    2017-12-22

    Behaviours of the free radicals during the methylene blue (MB) oxidation process in the Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 system were studied to reveal the reason for the low utilization efficiency of H 2 O 2 . The roles of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] radicals were proven to be different in the MB oxidation process. The results showed that [Formula: see text] radicals had a strong ability to oxidize MB; however, they were not the main active substances for MB degradation due to the low concentration in the traditional Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 system. [Formula: see text] radicals could not oxidize MB. [Formula: see text] radicals were the main active substances for MB oxidation. In the short initial stage, the utilization efficiency of H 2 O 2 was high, because the generation rate of [Formula: see text] was much higher than that of [Formula: see text]. More [Formula: see text] radicals were involved in the MB oxidation reaction. In the long deceleration stage (after the short initial stage), a large amount of H 2 O 2 was consumed, but the amount of oxidized MB was very small. Most of the [Formula: see text] radicals were consumed via the rapid useless reaction between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in this stage, resulting in the serious useless consumption of H 2 O 2 . It is a feasible method to improve the utilization efficiency of H 2 O 2 by adding suitable additives into the Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 system to weaken the useless reaction between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text].

  18. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Ananya R.; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response—a function of CC cells—when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae. PMID:26443856

  19. Antioxidative potential of Duranta repens (linn.) fruits against H 2 O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Duranta repens fruits were investigated on H2O2 induced oxidative cell death to evaluate its antioxidative potential in vitro. HEK293T cells were treated with different concentrations [0-1000 ìg/ ml] of ethanol extract (E-Ex) and methanol extract (M-Ex) of D. repens for 24h, and then treated with 100 ìM H2O2 for ...

  20. The rate constant for the CO + H2O2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction CO + H2O2 -> HOCO + OH (R1) at 713 K is determined based on the batch reactor experiments of Baldwin et al. [ R. R. Baldwin, R. W. Walker, S. J. Webster, Combust. Flame 15 (1970) 167] on decomposition of H2O2 sensitized by CO. The value, k(1) (713 K) = 8.1 x 10...

  1. Active sites and mechanisms for H2O2 decomposition over Pd catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plauck, Anthony; Stangland, Eric E.; Dumesic, James A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2016-01-01

    A combination of periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT-GGA-PW91) calculations, reaction kinetics experiments on a SiO2-supported Pd catalyst, and mean-field microkinetic modeling are used to probe key aspects of H2O2 decomposition on Pd in the absence of cofeeding H2. We conclude that both Pd(111) and OH-partially covered Pd(100) surfaces represent the nature of the active site for H2O2 decomposition on the supported Pd catalyst reasonably well. Furthermore, all reaction flux in the closed catalytic cycle is predicted to flow through an O–O bond scission step in either H2O2 or OOH, followed by rapid H-transfer steps to produce the H2O and O2 products. The barrier for O–O bond scission is sensitive to Pd surface structure and is concluded to be the central parameter governing H2O2 decomposition activity. PMID:27006504

  2. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses. PMID:27200043

  3. Cosmetic wastewater treatment using the Fenton, Photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Piotr P; Bogacki, Jan P; Naumczyk, Jeremi H

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), such as the Fenton, photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes, have been investigated for the treatment of cosmetic wastewaters that were previously coagulated by FeCl3. The Photo-Fenton process at pH 3.0 with 1000/100 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) was the most effective (74.0% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal). The Fenton process with 1200/500 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) achieved a COD removal of 72.0%, and the H2O2/UV process achieved a COD removal of 47.0%. Spreading the H2O2 doses over time to obtain optimal conditions did not improve COD removal. The kinetics of the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes may be described by the following equation: d[COD]/dt = -a[COD] t(m) (t represents time and a and m are constants). The rate of COD removal by the H2O2/UV process may be described by a second-order reaction equation. Head Space, Solid-Phase MicroExtraction, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to identify 48 substances in precoagulated wastewater. Among these substances, 26 were fragrances. Under optimal AOP conditions, over 99% of the identified substances were removed in 120 min.

  4. Photochemical degradation of diethyl phthalate with UV/H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Gao Naiyun; Sun Xiaofeng; Xia Shengji; Rui Min; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Causserand, Christel; Zhao Jianfu

    2007-01-01

    The decomposition of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water using UV-H 2 O 2 process was investigated in this paper. DEP cannot be effectively removed by UV radiation and H 2 O 2 oxidation alone, while UV-H 2 O 2 combination process proved to be effective and could degrade this compound completely. With initial concentration about 1.0 mg/L, more than 98.6% of DEP can be removed at time of 60 min under intensity of UV radiation of 133.9 μW/cm 2 and H 2 O 2 dosage of 20 mg/L. The effects of applied H 2 O 2 dose, UV radiation intensity, water temperature and initial concentration of DEP on the degradation of DEP have been examined in this study. Degradation mechanisms of DEP with hydroxyl radicals oxidation also have been discussed. Removal rate of DEP was sensitive to the operational parameters. A simple kinetic model is proposed which confirms to pseudo-first order reaction. There is a linear relationship between rate constant k and UV intensity and H 2 O 2 concentration

  5. The vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of N2-H2O and N2-D2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we report vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of the van der Waals clusters N2-H2O and N2-D2O computed from an ab initio potential energy surface. The only dynamical approximation is that the monomers are rigid. We use a symmetry adapted Lanczos algorithm and an uncoupled product basis set. The pattern of the cluster's levels is complicated by splittings caused by H-H exchange tunneling (larger splitting) and N-N exchange tunneling (smaller splitting). An interesting result that emerges from our calculation is that whereas in N2-H2O, the symmetric H-H tunnelling state is below the anti-symmetric H-H tunnelling state for both K = 0 and K = 1, the order is reversed in N2-D2O for K = 1. The only experimental splitting measurements are the D-D exchange tunneling splittings reported by Zhu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 214309 (2013)] for N2-D2O in the v2 = 1 region of D2O. Due to the inverted order of the split levels, they measure the sum of the K = 0 and K = 1 tunneling splittings, which is in excellent agreement with our calculated result. Other splittings we predict, in particular those of N2-H2O, may guide future experiments.

  6. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P 2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation......The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P 2 production but used...

  7. Influence of concentration of H2O2 on the phase stability of TiO2-anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanhera, M.A.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Spada, E.R.; Faria, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a semiconductor what has attracted increasing attention because of its physical and chemical properties. In this work, we report the preparation of TiO 2 nanoparticles by dissolving of titanium oxysulfate (TiOSO 4 ) in aqueous solution containing hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and subsequent thermal treatment of the precipitated complex. The results of X-ray diffractometry showed that the first stage of heat treatment at 600°C generates the anatase phase at all concentrations of H 2 O 2 investigated. On the other hand, when treated at 825 deg C, prepared samples with lower concentrations of H 2 O 2 (0.009 and 0.017 mol/L) showed only the rutile phase and for concentrations starting from 0.088 mol/L, is obtained only anatase phase. When the heat treatment is performed at 900°C, phase-pure anatase is obtained only for concentrations higher than 0.122 mol/L. The stability of the phase anatase is related to the crystallite size obtained of the first stage of heat treatment. When the heat treatment is performed at 900°C, phase-pure anatase is obtained only at higher concentrations than 0.122 mol/L. The stability of the phase anatase is related to the crystallite sizes obtained in the first step of heat treatment. (author)

  8. Determinants of glycan receptor specificity of H2N2 influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Karthik; Koh, Xiaoying; Chandrasekaran, Aarthi; Pappas, Claudia; Raman, Rahul; Srinivasan, Aravind; Shriver, Zachary; Tumpey, Terrence M; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2010-10-29

    The H2N2 subtype of influenza A virus was responsible for the Asian pandemic of 1957-58. However, unlike other subtypes that have caused pandemics such as H1N1 and H3N2, which continue to circulate among humans, H2N2 stopped circulating in the human population in 1968. Strains of H2 subtype still continue to circulate in birds and occasionally pigs and could be reintroduced into the human population through antigenic drift or shift. Such an event is a potential global health concern because of the waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin (HA). The first step in such a cross-species transmission and human adaptation of influenza A virus is the ability for its surface glycoprotein HA to bind to glycan receptors expressed in the human upper respiratory epithelia. Recent structural and biochemical studies have focused on understanding the glycan receptor binding specificity of the 1957-58 pandemic H2N2 HA. However, there has been considerable HA sequence divergence in the recent avian-adapted H2 strains from the pandemic H2N2 strain. Using a combination of structural modeling, quantitative glycan binding and human respiratory tissue binding methods, we systematically identify mutations in the HA from a recent avian-adapted H2N2 strain (A/Chicken/PA/2004) that make its quantitative glycan receptor binding affinity (defined using an apparent binding constant) comparable to that of a prototypic pandemic H2N2 (A/Albany/6/58) HA.

  9. Determinants of glycan receptor specificity of H2N2 influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Viswanathan

    Full Text Available The H2N2 subtype of influenza A virus was responsible for the Asian pandemic of 1957-58. However, unlike other subtypes that have caused pandemics such as H1N1 and H3N2, which continue to circulate among humans, H2N2 stopped circulating in the human population in 1968. Strains of H2 subtype still continue to circulate in birds and occasionally pigs and could be reintroduced into the human population through antigenic drift or shift. Such an event is a potential global health concern because of the waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin (HA. The first step in such a cross-species transmission and human adaptation of influenza A virus is the ability for its surface glycoprotein HA to bind to glycan receptors expressed in the human upper respiratory epithelia. Recent structural and biochemical studies have focused on understanding the glycan receptor binding specificity of the 1957-58 pandemic H2N2 HA. However, there has been considerable HA sequence divergence in the recent avian-adapted H2 strains from the pandemic H2N2 strain. Using a combination of structural modeling, quantitative glycan binding and human respiratory tissue binding methods, we systematically identify mutations in the HA from a recent avian-adapted H2N2 strain (A/Chicken/PA/2004 that make its quantitative glycan receptor binding affinity (defined using an apparent binding constant comparable to that of a prototypic pandemic H2N2 (A/Albany/6/58 HA.

  10. Breakdown of the Graphene Coating Effect under Sequential Exposure to O2 and H2S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Hammer, Bjørk

    2013-01-01

    exposures of O2 and H2S, a sequential dose of O2 and H2S causes a breakdown of the coating effect. From density functional theory calculations we explain these observations at the atomic level. We show that it is favorable for oxygen atoms to disrupt the Pt–C bonds at the graphene edge to insert between...... the edge and the surface in a bridging position. This closed-edge configuration explains why oxygen alone is not found to intercalate under the graphene at room temperature. With the subsequent dosing of H2S, we propose that the oxygen atoms are released from the platinum surface causing the breakdown...

  11. Influence of γ-radiation on the reactivity of montmorillonite towards H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmboe, Michael; Jonsson, Mats; Wold, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Compacted and water saturated bentonite will be used as an engineered barrier in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in many countries. Due to the high dose rate of ionizing radiation outside the canisters holding the nuclear waste, radiolysis of the interlayer and pore water in the compacted bentonite is unavoidable. Upon reaction with the oxidizing and reducing species formed by water radiolysis (OH • , e − (aq) , H • , H 2 O 2 , H 2 , HO 2 • , H 3 O + ), the overall redox properties in the bentonite barrier may change. In this study the influence of γ-radiation on the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio in montmorillonite and its reactivity towards hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was investigated in parallel experiments. The results show that under anoxic conditions the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio of dispersed Montmorillonite increased from ≤3 to 25–30% after γ-doses comparable to repository conditions. Furthermore, a strong correlation between the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio and the H 2 O 2 decomposition rate in montmorillonite dispersions was found. This correlation was further verified in experiments with consecutive H 2 O 2 additions, since the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio was seen to decrease concordantly. This work shows that the structural iron in montmorillonite could be a sink for one of the major oxidants formed upon water radiolysis in the bentonite barrier, H 2 O 2 .

  12. Beneficiation of titanium concentrate (anatase) by HCl/H2O2 leaching of impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, R.B.E.; Teixeira, L.A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The HCl/H 2 O 2 leaching of impurities from a Brazilian anatase (TiO 2 ) concentrate has been investigated by factorial experimentations. The effects of the following variables were investigated: temperature (50-90 0 C), redox potential (with and without oxidizing agent-H 2 O 2 ) and HCl concentration (4-18,5%). The conclusions were based on the analyses of Fe, Ca, P, Al, Si, Th,Ce, La, U and Ti in the beneficiated concentrates. The final results recommended the following optimum operational conditions, in a four stage countercurrent leaching: in the 4 th reactor (discharge of beneficiated concentrate): HCl fed at 18.5%, T=75 0 C, and addition of H 2 O 2 at a potential (eH) of 850 mV; in the first three reactors: T=90 0 C; with no oxidizing agent. (author) [pt

  13. Sources of superoxide/H2O2 during mitochondrial proline oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L.S. Goncalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available p53 Inducible gene 6 (PIG6 encodes mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase (PRODH and is up-regulated several fold upon p53 activation. Proline dehydrogenase is proposed to generate radicals that contribute to cancer cell apoptosis. However, there are at least 10 mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or H2O2, and it is unclear whether proline dehydrogenase generates these species directly, or instead drives production by other sites. Amongst six cancer cell lines, ZR75-30 human breast cancer cells had the highest basal proline dehydrogenase levels, and mitochondria isolated from ZR75-30 cells consumed oxygen and produced H2O2 with proline as sole substrate. Insects use proline oxidation to fuel flight, and mitochondria isolated from Drosophila melanogaster were even more active with proline as sole substrate than ZR75-30 mitochondria. Using mitochondria from these two models we identified the sites involved in formation of superoxide/H2O2 during proline oxidation. In mitochondria from Drosophila the main sites were respiratory complexes I and II. In mitochondria from ZR75-30 breast cancer cells the main sites were complex I and the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Even with combinations of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors designed to minimize the contributions of other sites and maximize any superoxide/H2O2 production from proline dehydrogenase itself, there was no significant direct contribution of proline dehydrogenase to the observed H2O2 production. Thus proline oxidation by proline dehydrogenase drives superoxide/H2O2 production, but it does so mainly or exclusively by providing anaplerotic carbon for other mitochondrial dehydrogenases and not by producing superoxide/H2O2 directly.

  14. The H2O2 scavenger ebselen decreases ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2012-07-01

    In the brain, the enzyme catalase by reacting with H(2)O(2) forms Compound I (catalase-H(2)O(2) system), which is the main system of central ethanol metabolism to acetaldehyde. Previous research has demonstrated that acetaldehyde derived from central-ethanol metabolism mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Manipulations that modulate central catalase activity or sequester acetaldehyde after ethanol administration modify the stimulant effects induced by ethanol in mice. However, the role of H(2)O(2) in the behavioral effects caused by ethanol has not been clearly addressed. The present study investigated the effects of ebselen, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, on ethanol-induced locomotion. Swiss RjOrl mice were pre-treated with ebselen (0-50mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) prior to administration of ethanol (0-3.75g/kg; IP). In another experiment, animals were pre-treated with ebselen (0 or 25mg/kg; IP) before caffeine (15mg/kg; IP), amphetamine (2mg/kg; IP) or cocaine (10mg/kg; IP) administration. Following these treatments, animals were placed in an open field to measure their locomotor activity. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of ebselen on the H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation of brain catalase activity by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT). Ebselen selectively prevented ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation without altering the baseline activity or the locomotor stimulating effects caused by caffeine, amphetamine and cocaine. Ebselen reduced the ability of AT to inhibit brain catalase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that a decline in H(2)O(2) levels might result in a reduction of the ethanol locomotor-stimulating effects, indicating a possible role for H(2)O(2) in some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photogeneration of H2O2 in Water-Swollen SPEEK/PVA Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, PaviElle; Little, Brian K; Slaten, B L; Mills, G

    2016-06-09

    Efficient reduction of O2 took place via illumination with 350 nm photons of cross-linked films containing a blend of sulfonated poly(ether etherketone) and poly(vinyl alcohol) in contact with air-saturated aqueous solutions. Swelling of the solid macromolecular matrices in H2O enabled O2 diffusion into the films and also continuous extraction of the photogenerated H2O2, which was the basis for a method that allowed quantification of the product. Peroxide formed with similar efficiencies in films containing sulfonated polyketones prepared from different precursors and the initial photochemical process was found to be the rate-determining step. Generation of H2O2 was most proficient in the range of 4.9 ≤ pH ≤ 8 with a quantum yield of 0.2, which was 10 times higher than the efficiencies determined for solutions of the polymer blend. Increases in temperature as well as [O2] in solution were factors that enhanced the H2O2 generation. H2O2 quantum yields as high as 0.6 were achieved in H2O/CH3CN mixtures with low water concentrations, but peroxide no longer formed when film swelling was suppressed. A mechanism involving reduction of O2 by photogenerated α-hydroxy radicals from the polyketone in competition with second-order radical decay processes explains the kinetic features. Higher yields result from the films because cross-links present in them hinder diffusion of the radicals, limiting their decay and enhancing the oxygen reduction pathway.

  16. The role of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 phosphorylation in H2O2-induced cell death and Golgi morphological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guang; Zhang, Weiwei; Quan, Moyuan; Chen, Yang; Qu, Hui; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress on cell viability and survival, as well as changes in the distribution of Golgi apparatus and in the level of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 (GRASP65). Cell viability of cultured N2a cells treated with H 2 O 2 was measured by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analyses. Cells labeled by indirect immunofluorescence were observed under confocal microscope to detect any Golgi morphological alterations; electron microscopy of Golgi apparatus was also done. Expression of GRASP65 and phospho-GRASP65 was examined by immunoblotting. H 2 O 2 treatment reduced the cell viability and raised the cell mortality of N2a cells in a time-dependent manner. Notable changes were only observed in the distribution and morphology of Golgi apparatus at 6 h after H 2 O 2 treatment. The expression of GRASP65 showed no significant changes at different time points; the phosphorylated GRASP65 level was significantly increased after H 2 O 2 treatment, peaked at 3 h, and finally dropped at 6 h. Taken together, GRASP65 phosphorylation may have a critical role in inducing cell death at the early stage after H 2 O 2 treatment, while its role in H 2 O 2 -induced Golgi morphological changes may be complex.

  17. Decolorization of methylene blue in layered manganese oxide suspension with H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lili; Nie Yulun; Hu Chun; Hu Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Layered birnessite-type manganese oxides exhibited a well-crystallized octahedral layer (OL) structure with β-MnOOH, α-MnOOH and γ-Mn 3 O 4 . → The catalyst was highly effective for the decolorization and degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H 2 O 2 at neutral pH. → The 1 O 2 and O 2 · - were the main reactive oxygen species in the reaction. - Abstract: Layered birnessite-type manganese oxides (Na-OL-1) were prepared via a redox reaction involving MnO 4 - and Mn 2+ under markedly alkaline conditions. According to the XRD analysis, the resulting material exhibited a well-crystallized octahedral layer (OL) structure with several different phases, including β-MnOOH, α-MnOOH and γ-Mn 3 O 4 . The catalyst was highly effective for the decolorization and degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 at neutral pH. The tested MB was completely decolorized in Na-OL-1 suspension by the fraction dosing of H 2 O 2 (556.5 mM at the beginning and then 183.8 mM at 40 min). Based on the studies of electron spin resonance and the effect of radical scavengers, the 1 O 2 and O 2 · - were the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the reaction. It was found that both oxygen and ROS were generated from the decomposition of H 2 O 2 in Na-OL-1 suspension, wherein the decomposition pathways were proposed. The generation of H 2 O 2 in Na-OL-1 suspension at air atmosphere indicated that the existence of multivalent manganese oxides greatly enhanced the interfacial electron transfer, leading to the high activity of Na-OL-1.

  18. Engineering the TiO2 -graphene interface to enhance photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichen; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Annai; Gu, Xianrui; Ge, Chengyan; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin

    2014-02-01

    In this work, TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are synthesized with tunable TiO2 crystal facets ({100}, {101}, and {001} facets) through an anion-assisted method. These three TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites have similar particle sizes and surface areas; the only difference between them is the crystal facet exposed in TiO2 nanocrystals. UV/Vis spectra show that band structures of TiO2 nanocrystals and TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are dependent on the crystal facets. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest that the charge-transfer rate between {100} facets and graphene is approximately 1.4 times of that between {001} facets and graphene. Photoelectrochemical measurements also confirm that the charge-separation efficiency between TiO2 and graphene is greatly dependent on the crystal facets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Ti-C bonds are formed between {100} facets and graphene, while {101} facets and {001} facets are connected with graphene mainly through Ti-O-C bonds. With Ti-C bonds between TiO2 and graphene, TiO2 -100-G shows the fastest charge-transfer rate, leading to higher activity in photocatalytic H2 production from methanol solution. TiO2 -101-G with more reductive electrons and medium interfacial charge-transfer rate also shows good H2 evolution rate. As a result of its disadvantageous electronic structure and interfacial connections, TiO2 -001-G shows the lowest H2 evolution rate. These results suggest that engineering the structures of the TiO2 -graphene interface can be an effective strategy to achieve excellent photocatalytic performances. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The roles of H2S and H2O2 in regulating AsA-GSH cycle in the leaves of wheat seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Changjuan; Zhang, Shengli; Ou, Xingqi

    2018-01-25

    This paper investigated the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and the possible relationship between them in regulating the AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves under drought stress (DS). Results showed that DS markedly increased the production of H 2 S and H 2 O 2 , the transcript levels and activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR); malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and electrolyte leakage (EL). Meanwhile, DS markedly reduced plant height and biomass. Above increases induced by drought stress except MDA content and EL were all suppressed by pretreatments with H 2 S synthesis inhibitor aminooxyaceticacid (AOA) and H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI). Besides, pretreatments with AOA and DPI further significantly increased MDA content and EL and significantly reduced plant height and biomass under DS. DPI reduced the production of H 2 O 2 and H 2 S induced by DS. AOA also reduced the production of H 2 S and H 2 O 2 induced by DS. Pretreatments with NaHS + AOA and H 2 O 2 + DPI reversed above effects of AOA and DPI. Our results suggested that H 2 S and H 2 O 2 all participated in the up-regulation of AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves by DS and possibly affected each other.

  20. Fitting law for the density shift of Q(J) transitinos of H2 in H2-X (X: H2, He, N2) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, X.; Berger, J.-P.; Sinclair, P.M.; Berger, H.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of fitting laws have been developed for the purpose of modelling broadening effects in collisional processes, but only a few have been proposed for modelling collision-induced lineshifts in molecules. We analysed accurate stimulated Raman data obtained in several H 2 -X mixtures (X: H 2 , He and N 2 ). For the first time, we show that an empirical law provides a very good representation of collisional lineshift coefficients in the range 300-1200 K and for J quantum number up to 9. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Effects of H2O and H2O2 on thermal desorption of tritium from stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, M. J.; Shmayda, W. T.; Lim, S.; Salnikov, S.; Chambers, Z.; Pollock, E.; Schroeder, W. U.

    2008-01-01

    Tritiated stainless steel was subjected to thermal desorption at various temperatures, different temperature profiles, and in the presence of different helium carrier gas additives. In all cases the identities of the desorbing tritiated species were characterized as either water-soluble or insoluble. The samples were found to contain 1.1 mCi±0.4 mCi. Approximately ninety-five percent of this activity was released in molecular water-soluble form. Additives of H 2 O or H 2 O 2 to dry helium carrier gas increase the desorption rate and lower the maximum temperature to which the sample must be heated, in order to remove the bulk of the tritium. The measurements validate a method of decontamination of tritiated steel and suggest a technique that can be used to further explore the mechanisms of desorption from tritiated metals. (authors)

  2. Multiple myeloma cells’ capacity to decompose H2O2 determines lenalidomide sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Zhu, Yuan X.; Braggio, Esteban; Shi, Chang-Xin; Panchabhai, Sonali C.; Van Wier, Scott A.; Ahmann, Greg J.; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Stewart, A. Keith

    2017-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiDs) with clinical efficacy in multiple myeloma (MM) and other late B-cell neoplasms. Although cereblon (CRBN) is an essential requirement for IMiD action, the complete molecular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for lenalidomide-mediated sensitivity or resistance remain unknown. Here, we report that IMiDs work primarily via inhibition of peroxidase-mediated intracellular H2O2 decomposition in MM cells. MM cells with lower H2O2-decomposition capacity were more vulnerable to lenalidomide-induced H2O2 accumulation and associated cytotoxicity. CRBN-dependent degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 was a consequence of H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. Lenalidomide increased intracellular H2O2 levels by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cells expressing CRBN, causing accumulation of immunoglobulin light-chain dimers, significantly increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and inducing cytotoxicity by activation of BH3-only protein Bim in MM. Other direct inhibitors of TrxR and thioredoxin (Trx) caused similar cytotoxicity, but in a CRBN-independent fashion. Our findings could help identify patients most likely to benefit from IMiDs and suggest direct TrxR or Trx inhibitors for MM therapy. PMID:28028022

  3. Atmospheric H2O2 measurement: comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, H.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of atmospheric H2O2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2.5 l min-1 for approximately 2 h. Collection efficiency was > 99% and negligible interferences by O3, SO2 or organic matter with the collected H2O2 in the trap were observed. This method was compared with the air impinger bubbling method which has been previously described (Kok et al., 1978a, b, Envir. Sci. Technol. 12, 1072-1080). The measured total peroxide (H2O2 + organic peroxide) values in a series of aim samples collected by the impinger bubbling method (0.06-3.7 ppb) were always higher than those obtained by the cold trap method (0.02-1.2 ppb). Laboratory experiments suggest that the difference in values between the two methods probably results from the aqueous phase generation of H2O2 and organic peroxide in the impinger solution by a reaction of atmospheric O3 with olefinic and aromatic compounds. If these O3-organic compound reactions which occur in the impinger also occur in aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, the process could be very important for aqueous phase generation of H2O2 in clouds and rainwater.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Haber-Bosch Process: An Ammonia-Producing H2 /N2 Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Ross D; Cai, Rong; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Leech, Dónal; De Lacey, Antonio L; Pita, Marcos; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogenases are the only enzymes known to reduce molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) to ammonia (NH 3 ). By using methyl viologen (N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) to shuttle electrons to nitrogenase, N 2 reduction to NH 3 can be mediated at an electrode surface. The coupling of this nitrogenase cathode with a bioanode that utilizes the enzyme hydrogenase to oxidize molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) results in an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) that is able to produce NH 3 from H 2 and N 2 while simultaneously producing an electrical current. To demonstrate this, a charge of 60 mC was passed across H 2  /N 2 EFCs, which resulted in the formation of 286 nmol NH 3  mg -1 MoFe protein, corresponding to a Faradaic efficiency of 26.4 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. GaAs micromachining in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system. From anisotropy to simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    2011-02-01

    The bulk micromachining on (010), (110) and (111)A GaAs substrates in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system is investigated. Focus is placed on anisotropy of 3D etching shapes with a special emphasis on convex and concave undercuts which are of prime importance in the wet micromachining of mechanical structures. Etched structures exhibit curved contours and more and less rounded sidewalls showing that the anisotropy is of type 2. This anisotropy can be conveniently described by a kinematic and tensorial model. Hence, a database composed of dissolution constants is further determined from experiments. A self-elaborated simulator which works with the proposed database is used to derive theoretical 3D shapes. Simulated shapes agree well with observed shapes of microstructures. The successful simulations open up two important applications for MEMS: CAD of mask patterns and meshing of simulated shapes for FEM simulation tools.

  6. Degradation mechanism of alachlor during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhimin; Liu, Chao; Dong, Bingzhi; Zhang, Yalei

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of alachlor by direct ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) was investigated in this study with focus on identification of degradation byproducts. The second-order reaction rate constant between ozone and alachlor was determined to be 2.5+/-0.1M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 20 degrees C. Twelve and eight high-molecular-weight byproducts (with the benzene ring intact) from alachlor degradation were identified during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2), respectively. The common degradation byproducts included N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-methyleneamine, 8-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-quinoline, 8-ethyl-quinoline, 1-chloroacetyl-2-hydro-3-ketone-7-acetyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-diacetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide, 2-chloro-2'-acetyl-6'-ethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide, and two hydroxylated alachlor isomers. In direct ozonation, four more byproducts were also identified including 1-chloroacetyl-2,3-dihydro-7-ethyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-ethyl-acetanilide, 2-chloro-2',6'-acetyl-acetanilide and 2-chloro-2'-ethyl-6'-acetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide. Degradation of alachlor by O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) also led to the formation of low-molecular-weight byproducts including formic, acetic, propionic, monochloroacetic and oxalic acids as well as chloride ion (only detected in O(3)/H(2)O(2)). Nitrite and nitrate formation was negligible. Alachlor degradation occurred via oxidation of the arylethyl group, N-dealkylation, cyclization and cleavage of benzene ring. After O(3) or O(3)/H(2)O(2) treatment, the toxicity of alachlor solution examined by the Daphnia magna bioassay was slightly reduced. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treberg, Jason R.; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state. PMID:26001520

  8. Speciation in the aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate system of biomedical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Getty, Kendra; Andersson, Ingegärd; Pettersson, Lage

    2004-09-21

    The speciation in the quaternary aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate (Cit3-) and H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/L-(+)-lactate (Lac-) systems has been determined at 25 degrees C in the physiological medium of 0.150 M Na(Cl). A combination of 51V NMR integral intensities and chemical shift (Bruker AMX500) as well as potentiometric data (glass electrode) have been collected and evaluated with the computer program LAKE, which is able to treat multimethod data simultaneously. The pKa-values for citric acid have been determined as 2.94, 4.34 and 5.61. Altogether six vanadate-citrate species have been found in the ternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3- system in the pH region 2-10, only two of which are mononuclear. Reduction of vanadium(V) becomes more pronounced at pH acidic solutions limited the final model to pH > 4. In the quaternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/Lac- system, two mixed-ligand species have been determined, with the compositions V2CitLac2- and V2CitLac3- (pKa = 5.0). To our knowledge, this is the first time such complexes have been reported for vanadium(V). 51V NMR chemical shifts, compositions and formation constants are given, and equilibrium conditions are illustrated in distribution diagrams as well as the fit of the model to the experimental data. When suitable, structural proposals are given, based on 13C NMR measurements and available literature data of related compounds.

  9. Influence of H2O2 on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad; Ahmed, Iqbal; Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul; Nadeem, Saad; Ali, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO x , CO x and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H 2 O 2 mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H 2 O 2 can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous

  10. Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...... of CE-O(O)H is dependent on, and correlates with, LDL's alpha-TOH content, yet does not require preformed lipid hydroperoxides or H(2)O(2). This indicates that in native LDL alpha-TOH can act as a phase-transfer agent and alpha-TO(*) as a chain-transfer agent propagating LDL lipid peroxidation via...

  11. Direct Synthesis of H2O2 over Ti-Containing Molecular Sieves Supported Gold Catalysts: A Comparative Study for In-situ-H2O2-ODS of Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Song, Haiyan; Chen, Chunxia; Han, Fuqin; Hu, Shaozheng; Liu, Guangliang; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Zhixi

    2013-01-01

    Direct synthesis of H 2 O 2 and in situ oxidative desulfurization of model fuel over Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 catalysts has been comparatively investigated in water or methanol. Maximum amount (82%) of active Au 0 species for H 2 O 2 synthesis was obtained. Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 exhibited the contrary performances in H 2 O 2 synthesis as CH 3 OH/H 2 O ratio of solvent changed. H 2 O 2 decomposition and hydrogenation in water was inhibited by the introduction of methanol. Effect of O 2 /H 2 ratio on H 2 O 2 concentration, H 2 conversion and H 2 O 2 selectivity revealed a relationship between H 2 O 2 generation and H2 consumption. The highest dibenzothiophene removal rate (83.2%) was obtained over Au/Ti-HMS in methanol at 1.5 of O 2 /H 2 ratio and 60 .deg. C. But removal of thiophene over Au/TS-1 should be performed in water without heating to obtain a high removal rate (61.3%). Meanwhile, H 2 conversion and oxidative desulfurization selectivity of H 2 were presented

  12. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Wang Seto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sailuotong (SLT is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926. SLT (1–50 µg/mL significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed.

  13. Treatment of hospital laundry wastewater by UV/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotesso, Jaqueline Pirão; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Janeiro, Vanderly; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen

    2017-03-01

    Hospitals consume a large volume of water to carry out their activities and, hence, generate a large volume of effluent that is commonly discharged into the local sewage system without any treatment. Among the various sectors of healthcare facilities, the laundry is responsible for the majority of water consumption and generates a highly complex effluent. Although several advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are currently under investigation on the degradation of a variety of contaminants, few of them are based on real wastewater samples. In this paper, the UV/H 2 O 2 AOP was evaluated on the treatment of a hospital laundry wastewater, after the application of a physicochemical pretreatment composed of coagulation-flocculation and anthracite filtration. For the UV/H 2 O 2 process, a photoreactor equipped with a low-pressure UV-C lamp was used and the effects of initial pH and [H 2 O 2 ]/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio on COD removal were investigated through a randomized factorial block design that considered the batches of effluent as blocks. The results indicated that the initial pH had no significant effect on the COD removal, and the process was favored by the increase in [H 2 O 2 ]/COD ratio. Color and turbidity were satisfactorily reduced after the application of the physicochemical pretreatment, and COD was completely removed by the UV/H 2 O 2 process under suitable conditions. The results of this study show that the UV/H 2 O 2 AOP is a promising candidate for hospital laundry wastewater treatment and should be explored to enable wastewater reuse in the washing process.

  14. Antioxidant ameliorating effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in primary endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zal, F; Khademi, F; Taheri, R; Mostafavi-Pour, Z

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress and a disrupted antioxidant system are involved in a variety of pregnancy complications. In the present study, the role of vitamin E (Vit E) and folate as radical scavengers on the GSH homeostasis in stress oxidative induced in rat endometrial cells was investigated. Primary endometrial stromal cell cultures treated with 50 and 200 µM of H 2 O 2 and evaluated the cytoprotective effects of Vit E (5 µM) and folate (0.01 µM) in H 2 O 2 -treated cells for 24 h. Following the exposure of endometrial cells to H 2 O 2 alone and in the presence of Vit E and/or folate, cell survival, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase activities and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. Cell adhesions comprise of cell attachment and spreading on collagen were determined. Flow cytometric analysis using annexin V was used to measure apoptosis. H 2 O 2 treatment showed a marked decrease in cell viability, GPx and GR activities and the level of GSH. Although Vit E or folate had some protective effect, combination therapy with Vit E and folate attenuated all the changes due to H 2 O 2 toxicity. An increasing number of alive cells was showed in the cells exposed to H 2 O 2 (50 µM) accompanied by co-treatment with Vit E and folic acid. The present findings indicate that co-administration of Vit E and folate before and during pregnancy may maintain a viable pregnancy and contribute to its clinical efficacy for the treatment of some idiopathic infertility.

  15. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H2O2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fang; Hu Chun; Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui

    2011-01-01

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H 2 O 2 process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H 2 O 2 process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R OH,UV , defined as the experimentally determined ·OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R OH,UV values represent the background ·OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H 2 O 2 due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H 2 O 2 process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H 2 O 2 process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of ·OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H 2 O 2 process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  16. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan; Pereira Dachi Ângela; Nogueira Fernandes Elizeu; Lais Hamm Bruna; Corrêa de Almeida Fabiane; Moreira Silveira Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control); T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant...

  17. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  18. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomari E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in

  19. Ammonia removal from leachate by photochemical process using H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Archanjo Brota

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was studied the optimization of the photochemical process using H2O2/UV in order to reduce the concentration of ammonia in leachate. It was used landfills leachate previously treated in the development of studies. A photochemical reactor with the capacity of 1.7 liters equipped with refrigeration system and recirculation of leachate was employed in the research. The influence of temperature, the light bulb power, the concentration of H2O2 and treatment time were tested during the study. A removal of 97% of ammonia was observed at 90 min.

  20. Diatomite as high performance and environmental friendly catalysts for phenol hydroxylation with H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Jia et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite catalysts were treated and characterized. For the first time, the resulting materials were used in catalysis for the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 and showed very high hydroxylation activity due to the Fe species in the diatomite. The effect of HCl treatment, contents of catalysts and H2O2 were investigated and the active components of diatomite were discussed. The results show that diatomite is the promising candidate for industrial output due to their high catalytic activity, easy physical separation and very low costs.

  1. Kinetic model describing the UV/H2O2 photodegradation of phenol from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio-Clemente Ainhoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model for phenol transformation through the UV/H2O2 system was developed and validated. The model includes the pollutant decomposition by direct photolysis and HO•, HO2• and O2 •- oxidation. HO• scavenging effects of CO3 2-, HCO3 -, SO4 2- and Cl- were also considered, as well as the pH changes as the process proceeds. Additionally, the detrimental action of the organic matter and reaction intermediates in shielding UV and quenching HO• was incorporated. It was observed that the model can accurately predict phenol abatement using different H2O2/phenol mass ratios (495, 228 and 125, obtaining an optimal H2O2/phenol ratio of 125, leading to a phenol removal higher than 95% after 40 min of treatment, where the main oxidation species was HO•. The developed model could be relevant for calculating the optimal level of H2O2 efficiently degrading the pollutant of interest, allowing saving in costs and time.

  2. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified with polyacrylic acid and H2O2 for use as a novel radiosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenta; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Ikeno, Shinya; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Yuya; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    An induction of polyacrylic acid-modified titanium dioxide with hydrogen peroxide nanoparticles (PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs) to a tumor exerted a therapeutic enhancement of X-ray irradiation in our previous study. To understand the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs, analytical observations that included DLS, FE-SEM, FT-IR, XAFS, and Raman spectrometry were performed. In addition, highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) which PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs produced with X-ray irradiation were quantified by using a chemiluminescence method and a EPR spin-trapping method. We found that PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs have almost the same characteristics as PAA-TiO 2 . Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in hROS generation. However, the existence of H 2 O 2 was confirmed in PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs, because spontaneous hROS production was observed w/o X-ray irradiation. In addition, PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs had a curious characteristic whereby they absorbed H 2 O 2 molecules and released them gradually into a liquid phase. Based on these results, the H 2 O 2 was continuously released from PAA-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 NPs, and then released H 2 O 2 assumed to be functioned indirectly as a radiosensitizing factor.

  3. Alternate switching between MFC and MEC for H2O2 synthesis and residual removal in Bioelectro-Fenton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable H2O2 supply and elimination of residual H2O2 are two key challenges to the Fenton processes treating recalcitrant contaminants. In this study, an innovative Bioelectro-Fenton system capable of alternate switching between microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and microbial fuel cell (MFC......) mode of operation was developed to meet the challenges. In the MEC mode, H2O2 was electrochemically produced which reacts with Fenton’s reagent (Fe II) to form hydroxyradical. The residual H2O2 (unused H2O2) is removed as electron acceptor by switching the system to MFC mode. Complete decolorization...

  4. Peak power and heavy water production from electrolytic H2 and O2 using CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.; Stevens, W.H.; Bradley, W.J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-04-01

    A combined energy storage - heavy water production system is presented. Off-peak nuclear energy is stored in the form of electrolytic H 2 (and O 2 ) from which a large fraction of the deuterium has been transferred to water in an H 2 /H 2 O deuterium exchange catalytic column. The main features and advantages of the combined electrolysis -catalytic exchange D 2 O process are discussed. Significant quantities of D 2 O could be produced economically at reasonable peak to base power cost ratios. Thirty to forty percent of the primary electric energy should be available for peak energy via either gas-steam turbines or fuel cells. (author)

  5. Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Generating H2 O2 through a Piezo-Catalytic Process over Bismuth Oxychloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dengkui; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Songmei; Wang, Wenzhong

    2018-02-09

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for generating H 2 O 2 through green pathways have gained much attention in recent years. Herein, we introduce a piezo-catalytic approach to obtain H 2 O 2 over bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) through an ORR pathway. The piezoelectric response of BiOCl was directly characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The BiOCl exhibits efficient catalytic performance for generating H 2 O 2 (28 μmol h -1 ) only from O 2 and H 2 O, which is above the average level of H 2 O 2 produced by solar-to-chemical processes. A piezo-catalytic mechanism was proposed: with ultrasonic waves, an alternating electric field will be generated over BiOCl, which can drive charge carriers (electrons) to interact with O 2 and H 2 O, then to form H 2 O 2 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan; Fazara, Md Ali Umi; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV / H2O2 experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV / H2O2 process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H2O2 photolysis.

  7. The reaction between H2 and O2 over tungsten carbide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskey, G.J.; Boudart, M.; Frennet, A.

    1992-01-01

    The stationary-state reaction between H 2 and O 2 either in excess H 2 or O 2 has been studied in a flow recirculation reactor over unsupported powders of tungsten carbide with high specific surface area and microporous texture for up to 40 h. Areal rates, v a are first order in the concentration of the limiting reactant and zero order in the concentration of the excess reactant between 273 and 600 K and near atmospheric pressure. Rates are referred to the number of sites counted by titration of preadsorbed oxygen with H 2 at room temperature. This number is multiplied by the surface area per W atom to obtain v a . These tungsten carbides exhibit a microporous structure. A break in the Arrhenius diagram near 450 K is observed. Below 450 K either in excess H 2 or O 2 capillary condensation of product water causes the micropores of the catalyst to become blocked. Thus, the reaction occurs only in the mesopores which account for about 10% of the total specific surface area, S g . Above 450 K, water leaves the micropores and the apparent v a increases as active sites within the micropores become accessible to the reactants. In excess O 2 at 273 K, the first order rate constant of v a based on active area of mesopores, is two times higher for microporous αWC than that for platinum

  8. Utilisation of factorial experiments for the UV/H2O2 process in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenol oxidative degradation kinetics were not significantly influenced by pH or hardness of the solution to be treated, as is predicted by factorial experiments. On the other hand, initial H2O2 concentration, initial phenol concentration and temperature significantly influenced the efficiency of the process. Optimal values were ...

  9. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  10. Removal of Nitrate by Zero Valent Iron in the Presence of H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Samarghandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Nitrate is the oxidation state of nitrogen compounds, which is founded in water resources that contaminated by municipal, industrial and agricultural waste water. If nitrate leek in to ground water resources, it can cause health problems. Material and Methods: Removal of nitrate from ground water by iron powder in the presence of H2O2 was investigated. Experiments have been done by use of 250 ml of water samples containing 100 mg/L nitrate in various condition. Various parameters such as pH (3, 5, 7, 9, iron dosage (10, 15, 20, 30 g/L, initial H2O2 concentration (5, 10, 15, 20 ml/L and contact time (10-120 min. Results: Obtained results shows the removal of nitrate was increased by pH reduction, increment of iron mass and contact time. In addition, nitrate reduction was increased by increment of initial H2O2 concentration up to 15 ml/L. High removal was observed at pH=3, iron mass=30 g/L, contact time equal 120 min and H2O2 concentration=15 ml/L. At above condition, upon 98% of nitrate was removed. Conclusion: In summary, this method is simple, low cost and effective for removal of nitrate from ground water and industrial activity.

  11. The abundance and emission of H2O and O-2 in clumpy molecular clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M; van Dishoeck, EF

    2001-01-01

    Recent observations with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) indicate abundances of gaseous H2O and O-2 in dense molecular clouds that are significantly lower than those found in standard homogeneous chemistry models. We present here results for the thermal and chemical balance of

  12. Mechanisms in manganese catalysed oxidation of alkenes with H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saisaha, Pattama; de Boer, Johannes W.; Browne, Wesley R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new catalytic systems for cis-dihydroxylation and epoxidation of alkenes, based on atom economic and environmentally friendly concepts, is a major contemporary challenge. In recent years, several systems based on manganese catalysts using H2O2 as the terminal oxidant have been

  13. Combined amino acids modulation with H 2 O 2 stress for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies of amino acids addition coupled with H2O2 stresses were developed for glutathione (GSH) overproduction in high cell density (HCD) cultivation of Candida utilis. Based on the fact that glycine shows two functions of promoting cells growth as well as GSH production, precursor amino acids modulations of feeding ...

  14. Effective Reuse of Electroplating Rinse Wastewater by Combining PAC with H2O2/UV Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Kang, Shyh-Fang; Lin, Chen Pei

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of treating electroplating rinse wastewater by powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption, H2O2/UV oxidation, and their combination to remove organic compounds and heavy metals. The results showed that neither the process of PAC adsorption nor H2O2/UV oxidation could reduce COD to 100 mg/L, as enforced by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. On the other hand, the water sample treated by the combined approach of using PAC (5 g/L) pre-adsorption and H2O2/UV post-oxidation (UV of 64 W, H2O2 of 100 mg/L, oxidation time of 90 min), COD and DOC were reduced to 8.2 mg/L and 3.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, the combined approach reduced heavy metals to meet the effluent standards and to satisfy the in-house water reuse criteria for the electroplating factory. The reaction constant analysis indicated that the reaction proceeded much more rapidly for the combined process. Hence, it is a more efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process.

  15. Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñ ez, Natalia Maria; Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Pasqualini, Stefania; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey; Gehring, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K+-efflux and Ca2+-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10 μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24 h does

  16. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibhardt, Christine S; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-09-09

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels.

  17. Manganese catalyzed cis-dihydroxylation of electron deficient alkenes with H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saisaha, Pattama; Pijper, Dirk; van Summeren, Ruben P.; Hoen, Robert; Smit, Christian; de Boer, Johannes W.; Hage, Ronald; Alsters, Paul L.; Feringa, Bernard; Browne, Wesley R.

    2010-01-01

    A practical method for the multigram scale selective cis-dihydroxylation of electron deficient alkenes such as diethyl fumarate and N-alkyl and N-aryl-maleimides using H2O2 is described. High turnovers (>1000) can be achieved with this efficient manganese based catalyst system, prepared in situ from

  18. Histone peptide AKRHRK enhances H2O2-induced DNA damage and alters its site specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Kaoru; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2005-01-01

    Histone proteins are involved in compaction of DNA and the protection of cells from oxygen toxicity. However, several studies have demonstrated that the metal-binding histone reacts with H 2 O 2 , leading to oxidative damage to a nucleobase. We investigated whether histone can accelerate oxidative DNA damage, using a minimal model for the N-terminal tail of histone H4, CH 3 CO-AKRHRK-CONH 2 , which has a metal-binding site. This histone peptide enhanced DNA damage induced by H 2 O 2 and Cu(II), especially at cytosine residues, and induced additional DNA cleavage at the 5'-guanine of GGG sequences. The peptide also enhanced the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and ESR spin-trapping signal from H 2 O 2 and Cu(II). Cyclic redox reactions involving histone-bound Cu(II) and H 2 O 2 , may give rise to multiple production of radicals leading to multiple hits in DNA. It is noteworthy that the histone H4 peptide with specific sequence AKRHRK can cause DNA damage rather than protection under metal-overloaded condition

  19. Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV/H2O2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan; Fazara, Md Ali Umi; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV/H 2 O 2 process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV/H 2 O 2 experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV/H 2 O 2 process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H 2 O 2 photolysis

  20. H2O2-induced higher order chromatin degradation: A novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mediator of oxidative stress, can also cause genomic damage indirectly. Thus, H2O2 at pathologically relevant concentrations rapidly induces higher order chromatin degradation (HOCD), i.e. enzymatic ... clease works through a single strand scission mechanism ... a great mutagenic risk to the surviving cells, because en-.

  1. Response properties of the genetically encoded optical H2O2 sensor HyPer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Jonathan; Kizina, Kathrin M; Can, Karolina; Bao, Guobin; Müller, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species mediate cellular signaling and neuropathologies. Hence, there is tremendous interest in monitoring (sub)cellular redox conditions. We evaluated the genetically engineered redox sensor HyPer in mouse hippocampal cell cultures. Two days after lipofection, neurons and glia showed sufficient expression levels, and H2O2 reversibly and dose-dependently increased the fluorescence ratio of cytosolic HyPer. Yet, repeated H2O2 treatment caused progressively declining responses, and with millimolar doses an apparent recovery started while H2O2 was still present. Although HyPer should be H2O2 specific, it seemingly responded also to other oxidants and altered cell-endogenous superoxide production. Control experiments with the SypHer pH sensor confirmed that the HyPer ratio responds to pH changes, decreasing with acidosis and increasing during alkalosis. Anoxia/reoxygenation evoked biphasic HyPer responses reporting apparent reduction/oxidation; replacing Cl(-) exerted only negligible effects. Mitochondria-targeted HyPer readily responded to H2O2-albeit less intensely than cytosolic HyPer. With ratiometric two-photon excitation, H2O2 increased the cytosolic HyPer ratio. Time-correlated fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) revealed a monoexponential decay of HyPer fluorescence, and H2O2 decreased fluorescence lifetimes. Dithiothreitol failed to further reduce HyPer or to induce reasonable FLIM and two-photon responses. By enabling dynamic recordings, HyPer is superior to synthetic redox-sensitive dyes. Its feasibility for two-photon excitation also enables studies in more complex preparations. Based on FLIM, quantitative analyses might be possible independent of switching excitation wavelengths. Yet, because of its pronounced pH sensitivity, adaptation to repeated oxidation, and insensitivity to reducing stimuli, HyPer responses have to be interpreted carefully. For reliable data, side-by-side pH monitoring with SypHer is essential. Copyright

  2. Sonochemical degradation of Basic Blue 41 dye assisted by nanoTiO2 and H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Mahmood; Asl, Nima Razzaghi

    2008-01-01

    The sonolysis of Basic Blue 41 dye in aqueous solution was performed at 35 kHz using ultrasonic power of 160 W and aqueous temperature of 25 + 1 o C within 180 min. The TiO 2 nanoparticles were used as a catalyst to assist the sonication process. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, H 2 O 2 concentration and initial dye concentration on the reaction were investigated. It was recognized that in lower pH values the dye removal rate decreased. However, dye removal increased via increase in H 2 O 2 concentration and lowering the initial dye concentration. All intermediate compounds were detected by integrated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and also ion chromatograph (IC). During the decolorization, all nitrogen atoms and aromatic groups of Basic Blue 41 were converted to urea, nitrate, formic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid, etc. Kinetic studies revealed that the degradation process followed pseudo-first order mechanism with the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9918 under experimental conditions. The results showed that power ultrasound can be regarded as an appropriate tool for degradation of azo dyes to non-toxic end products

  3. Electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2 by Pt nanoparticles covalently bonded to thiolated carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jung-Min; Kim, Daekun; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel thiolated carbon nanostructures – platinum nanoparticles [t-GO-C(O)-pt and t-MWCNT-C(O)-S-pt] have been synthesized, and [t-GO-C(O)-pt and t-MWCNT-C(O)-S-pt] denotes as t-GO-pt and t-MWCNT-Pt in manuscript, respectively. ► The modified electrode denoted as PDDA/t-GO-pt/GCE was used for the electrochemical determination of H 2 O 2 for the first time. ► The results show that PDDA/t-GO-pt nanoparticles have the promising potential as the basic unit of the electrochemical biosensors for the detection of H 2 O 2 . ► The proposed H 2 O 2 biosensors exhibited wide linear ranges and low detection limits, giving fast responses within 10 s. - Abstract: Glassy carbon electrodes were coated with thiolated carbon nanostructures – multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The subsequent covalent addition of platinum nanoparticles and coating with poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) resulted in biosensors that detected hydrogen peroxide through its electrocatalytic reduction. The sensors were easily and quickly prepared and showed improved sensitivity to the electrocatalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 . The Pt nanoparticles covalently bonded to the thiolated carbon nanostructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to characterize the biosensors’ performances. The sensors exhibited wide linear ranges and low detection limits, giving fast responses within 10 s, thus demonstrating their potential for use in H 2 O 2 analysis.

  4. Chronic hypoxia promotes pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation through H2O2-induced 5-lipoxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi M Porter

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and proliferation. Hypoxia induces PH by increasing vascular remodeling. A potential mediator in hypoxia-induced PH development is arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5. While ALOX5 metabolites have been shown to promote pulmonary vasoconstriction and endothelial cell proliferation, the contribution of ALOX5 to hypoxia-induced proliferation remains unknown. We hypothesize that hypoxia exposure stimulates HPAEC proliferation by increasing ALOX5 expression and activity. To test this, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC were cultured under normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions for 24-, 48-, or 72 hours. In a subset of cells, the ALOX5 inhibitor, zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, MK-886, was administered during hypoxia exposure. ALOX5 expression was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot and HPAEC proliferation was assessed. Our results demonstrate that 24 and 48 hours of hypoxia exposure have no effect on HPAEC proliferation or ALOX5 expression. Seventy two hours of hypoxia significantly increases HPAEC ALOX5 expression, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release, and HPAEC proliferation. We also demonstrate that targeted ALOX5 gene silencing or inhibition of the ALOX5 pathway by pharmacological blockade attenuates hypoxia-induced HPAEC proliferation. Furthermore, our findings indicate that hypoxia-induced increases in cell proliferation and ALOX5 expression are dependent on H2O2 production, as administration of the antioxidant PEG-catalase blocks these effects and addition of H2O2 to HPAEC promotes proliferation. Overall, these studies indicate that hypoxia exposure induces HPAEC proliferation by activating the ALOX5 pathway via the generation of H2O2.

  5. LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system study for the selection of optimal conditions of lithium peroxide synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    Using solubility method the decay kinetics of peroxide products contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H 2 O 2 - H 2 O trinary system with 2 to 6% by wt hydrogen peroxide content in liquid phase in 21 to 33 °C temperature range has been studied. Conducted studies have allowed to determine temperature and concentration limits of solid phase existence of Li 2 O 2 ·H 2 O content, distinctness of which has been confirmed using chemical and qualitative X- ray phase analysis. Stabilizing effect of solid phase of Li 2 O 2 ·H 2 O content on hydrogen peroxide decay contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H 2 O 2 - H 2 O trinary system under conditions of experiments conducted has been shown. (paper)

  6. LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system study for the selection of optimal conditions of lithium peroxide synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, R. A.; Ferapontov, Yu A.; Kozlova, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Using solubility method the decay kinetics of peroxide products contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system with 2 to 6% by wt hydrogen peroxide content in liquid phase in 21 to 33 °C temperature range has been studied. Conducted studies have allowed to determine temperature and concentration limits of solid phase existence of Li2O2·H2O content, distinctness of which has been confirmed using chemical and qualitative X- ray phase analysis. Stabilizing effect of solid phase of Li2O2·H2O content on hydrogen peroxide decay contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system under conditions of experiments conducted has been shown.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Dissolved Silica on the H2O2 Decomposition by Iron(III) and Manganese(IV) Oxides: Implications for H2O2-based In Situ Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M.; Sedlak, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of H2O2 on iron minerals can generate •OH, a strong oxidant that can transform a wide range of contaminants. This reaction is critical to In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) processes used for soil and groundwater remediation, as well as advanced oxidation processes employed in waste treatment systems. The presence of dissolved silica at concentrations comparable to those encountered in natural waters decreases the reactivity of iron minerals toward H2O2, because silica adsorbs onto the surface of iron minerals and alters catalytic sites. At circumneutral pH values, goethite, amorphous iron oxide, hematite, iron-coated sand and montmorillonite that were pre-equilibrated with 0.05 – 1.5 mM SiO2 were significantly less reactive toward H2O2 decomposition than their original counterparts, with the H2O2 loss rates inversely proportional to the SiO2 concentration. In the goethite/H2O2 system, the overall •OH yield, defined as the percentage of decomposed H2O2 producing •OH, was almost halved in the presence of 1.5 mM SiO2. Dissolved SiO2 also slows the H2O2 decomposition on manganese(IV) oxide. The presence of dissolved SiO2 results in greater persistence of H2O2 in groundwater, lower H2O2 utilization efficiency and should be considered in the design of H2O2-based treatment systems. PMID:22129132

  8. Reaction of H2 with O2 in Excited Electronic States: Reaction Pathways and Rate Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelevkin, Alexey V; Loukhovitski, Boris I; Sharipov, Alexander S

    2017-12-21

    Comprehensive quantum chemical analysis with the use of the multireference state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field approach was carried out to study the reactions of H 2 with O 2 in a 1 Δ g , b 1 Σ g + , c 1 Σ u - , and A' 3 Δ u electronically excited states. The energetically favorable reaction pathways and possible intersystem crossings have been revealed. The energy barriers were refined employing the extended multiconfiguration quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation theory. It has been shown that the interaction of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 (A' 3 Δ u ) with H 2 occurs through the H-abstraction process with relatively low activation barriers that resulted in the formation of the HO 2 molecule in A″ and A' electronic states, respectively. Meanwhile, molecular oxygen in singlet sigma states (b 1 Σ g + and c 1 Σ u - ) was proved to be nonreactive with respect to the molecular hydrogen. Appropriate rate constants for revealed reaction and quenching channels have been estimated using variational transition-state theory including corrections for the tunneling effect, possible nonadiabatic transitions, and anharmonicity of vibrations for transition states and reactants. It was demonstrated that the calculated reaction rate constant for the H 2 + O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) process is in reasonable agreement with known experimental data. The Arrhenius approximations for these processes have been proposed for the temperature range T = 300-3000 K.

  9. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2017-02-08

    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H 2 O 2 , superoxide radical (O 2 ·- ), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H 2 O 2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H 2 O 2 , O 2 ·- , and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H 2 O 2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H 2 O 2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H 2 O 2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H 2 O 2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H 2 O 2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant.

  10. Catalase-dependent H2O2 consumption by cardiac mitochondria and redox-mediated loss in insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M; Cacciola, Angela; Kinter, Michael; Szweda, Luke I

    2016-11-01

    We have recently demonstrated that catalase content in mouse cardiac mitochondria is selectively elevated in response to high dietary fat, a nutritional state associated with oxidative stress and loss in insulin signaling. Catalase and various isoforms of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin each catalyze the consumption of H 2 O 2 Catalase, located primarily within peroxisomes and to a lesser extent mitochondria, has a low binding affinity for H 2 O 2 relative to glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin. As such, the contribution of catalase to mitochondrial H 2 O 2 consumption is not well understood. In the current study, using highly purified cardiac mitochondria challenged with micromolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 , we found that catalase contributes significantly to mitochondrial H 2 O 2 consumption. In addition, catalase is solely responsible for removal of H 2 O 2 in nonrespiring or structurally disrupted mitochondria. Finally, in mice fed a high-fat diet, mitochondrial-derived H 2 O 2 is responsible for diminished insulin signaling in the heart as evidenced by reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. While elevated mitochondrial catalase content (∼50%) enhanced the capacity of mitochondria to consume H 2 O 2 in response to high dietary fat, the selective increase in catalase did not prevent H 2 O 2 -induced loss in cardiac insulin signaling. Taken together, our results indicate that mitochondrial catalase likely functions to preclude the formation of high levels of H 2 O 2 without perturbing redox-dependent signaling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Classification of H2O2 as a Neuromodulator that Regulates Striatal Dopamine Release on a Subsecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Here we review evidence that the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), meets the criteria for classification as a neuromodulator through its effects on striatal dopamine (DA) release. This evidence was obtained using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect evoked DA release in striatal slices, along with whole-cell and fluorescence imaging to monitor cellular activity and H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The data show that (1) exogenous H2O2 suppresses DA release in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell and the same effect is seen with elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels; (2) H2O2 is generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in MSNs, but not DA axons; (3) generation of modulatory H2O2 is activity dependent; (4) H2O2 generated in MSNs diffuses to DA axons to cause transient DA release suppression by activating ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on DA axons; and (5) the amplitude of H2O2-dependent inhibition of DA release is attenuated by enzymatic degradation of H2O2, but the subsecond time course is determined by H2O2 diffusion rate and/or KATP-channel kinetics. In the dorsal striatum, neuromodulatory H2O2 is an intermediate in the regulation of DA release by the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as other neuromodulators, including cannabinoids. However, modulatory actions of H2O2 occur in other regions and cell types, as well, consistent with the widespread expression of KATP and other H2O2-sensitive channels throughout the CNS. PMID:23259034

  12. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase-representative H2O2-detoxifying heme enzymes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Sharma, Pallavi; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Khan, Ekhlaque A; Kachhap, Kiran; Mohamed, Amal A; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Devi, Gurumayum Devmanjuri; Vasudhevan, Palanisamy; Sofo, Adriano; Khan, Nafees A; Misra, Amarendra Narayan; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Singh, Harminder Pal; Pereira, Eduarda; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Plants have to counteract unavoidable stress-caused anomalies such as oxidative stress to sustain their lives and serve heterotrophic organisms including humans. Among major enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) are representative heme enzymes meant for metabolizing stress-provoked reactive oxygen species (ROS; such as H2O2) and controlling their potential impacts on cellular metabolism and functions. CAT mainly occurs in peroxisomes and catalyzes the dismutation reaction without requiring any reductant; whereas, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and utilizes ascorbate (AsA) as specific electron donor for the reduction of H2O2 into H2O in organelles including chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Literature is extensive on the glutathione-associated H2O2-metabolizing systems in plants. However, discussion is meager or scattered in the literature available on the biochemical and genomic characterization as well as techniques for the assays of CAT and APX and their modulation in plants under abiotic stresses. This paper aims (a) to introduce oxidative stress-causative factors and highlights their relationship with abiotic stresses in plants; (b) to overview structure, occurrence, and significance of CAT and APX in plants; (c) to summarize the principles of current technologies used to assay CAT and APX in plants; (d) to appraise available literature on the modulation of CAT and APX in plants under major abiotic stresses; and finally, (e) to consider a brief cross-talk on the CAT and APX, and this also highlights the aspects unexplored so far.

  13. [Effect of germacrone in alleviating HUVECs damaged by H2O2-induced oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong-Fang; Wang, Gang; Tang, Li-Qing; Yu, Xian-Wen; Li, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Xiu-Fen

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the protective effect of germacrone on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) damaged by H2O2-induced oxidative stress and its possible mechanisms. The oxidative damage model was established by using 500 μmol•L⁻¹ H2O2 to treat HUVECs for 3 hours, and then protected with different concentrations of germacrone for 24 hours. The effect of germacrone on cell viability of HUVECs damaged by H2O2 was detected by MTT. The contents of PGI2, TXB2, ET-1, t-PA, PAI-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. The content of NO was detected by using nitrate reductase method. Colorimetry was used to detect NOS and GSH-Px. The contents of MDA, SOD and LDH were detected by TBA, WST-1 and microplate respectively. Apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining. The mRNA expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 in cells were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the cell damage rate was 52% after treated with 500 μmol•L⁻¹ H2O2 for 3 hours. The cell activity was increasing with the rise of germacrone concentration within the range of 20-200 mol•L⁻¹. Compared with normal group, the contents of PGI2, NO, T-NOS, t-PA, SOD, GSH-Px and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions were lower after damaged with H2O2. The contents of PAI-1, ET-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TXB2, LDH, MDA, Bax mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA expressions were increased. Compared with model group, the contents of PGI2, NO, T-NOS, t-PA, SOD, GSH-Px and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions were increased after treated with germacrone. The contents of PAI-1, ET-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TXB2, LDH, MDA, Bax mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA expressions were lower after treated with germacrone. According to Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, compared with normal group, the cell membrane and the nucleus showed strong dense blue fluorescence, and the number of cells significantly decreased in model group. Compared with model group, blue fluorescence intensity decreased in drug group. The above findings demonstrate that

  14. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...

  15. Kinetic Studies of Iron Deposition Catalyzed by Recombinant Human Liver Heavy, and Light Ferritins and Azotobacter Vinelandii Bacterioferritin Using O2 and H2O2 as Oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Jared; Lowry, Thomas; Davis, Garrett; Zhang, Bo; Brosnahan, David; Lindsay, Stuart; Costen, Robert; Choi, Sang; Arosio, Paolo; Watt, Gerald D.

    2005-01-01

    The discrepancy between predicted and measured H2O2 formation during iron deposition with recombinant heavy human liver ferritin (rHF) was attributed to reaction with the iron protein complex [Biochemistry 40 (2001) 10832-10838]. This proposal was examined by stopped-flow kinetic studies and analysis for H2O2 production using (1) rHF, and Azotobacter vinelandii bacterial ferritin (AvBF), each containing 24 identical subunits with ferroxidase centers; (2) site-altered rHF mutants with functional and dysfunctional ferroxidase centers; and (3) rccombinant human liver light ferritin (rLF), containing 110 ferroxidase center. For rHF, nearly identical pseudo-first-order rate constants of 0.18 per second at pH 7.5 were measured for Fe(2+) oxidation by both O2 and H2O2, but for rLF, the rate with O2 was 200-fold slower than that for H2O2 (k-0.22 per second). A Fe(2+)/O2 stoichiometry near 2.4 was measured for rHF and its site altered forms, suggesting formation of H2O2. Direct measurements revealed no H2O2 free in solution 0.5-10 min after all Fe(2+) was oxidized at pH 6.5 or 7.5. These results are consistent with initial H2O2 formation, which rapidly reacts in a secondary reaction with unidentified solution components. Using measured rate constants for rHF, simulations showed that steady-state H2O2 concentrations peaked at 14 pM at approx. 600 ms and decreased to zero at 10-30 s. rLF did not produce measurable H2O2 but apparently conducted the secondary reaction with H2O2. Fe(2+)/O2 values of 4.0 were measured for AvBF. Stopped-flow measurements with AvBF showed that both H2O2 and O2 react at the same rate (k=0.34 per second), that is faster than the reactions with rHF. Simulations suggest that AvBF reduces O2 directly to H2O without intermediate H2O2 formation.

  16. Antiapoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors on H2O2-treated lung cancer cells concerning oxidative stress and GSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in cancer cells. This study evaluated the antiapoptotic effects of pan-caspase and caspase-3, -8, or -9 inhibitors on H 2 O 2 -treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). Treatment with 50-500 μM H 2 O 2 inhibited the growth of Calu-6 and A549 cells at 24 h and induced apoptosis in these cells. All the tested caspase inhibitors significantly prevented cell death in H 2 O 2 -treated lung cancer cells. H 2 O 2 increased intracellular ROS levels, including that of O 2 ·- , at 1 and 24 h. It also increased the activity of catalase but decreased the activity of SOD. In addition, H 2 O 2 triggered GSH deletion in Calu-6 and A549 cells at 24 h. It reduced GSH levels in Calu-6 cells at 1 h but increased them at 24 h. Caspase inhibitors decreased O 2 ·- levels in H 2 O 2 -treated Calu-6 cells at 1 h and these inhibitors decreased ROS levels, including that of O 2 ·- , in H 2 O 2 -treated A549 cells at 24 h. Caspase inhibitors partially attenuated GSH depletion in H 2 O 2 -treated A549 cells and increased GSH levels in these cells at 24 h. However, the inhibitors did not affect GSH deletion and levels in Calu-6 cells at 24 h. In conclusion, H 2 O 2 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in Calu-6 and A549 cells, which was accompanied by increases in ROS and GSH depletion. The antiapoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors were somewhat related to the suppression of H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress and GSH depletion.

  17. A comparative study of the disinfection efficacy of H2O2/ferrate and UV/H2O2/ferrate processes on inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by response surface methodology for modeling and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Atiyeh Rajabi; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Mahvi, Amirhossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Aslani, Hassan; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2018-04-03

    Although chlorination can inactivate most of the microorganisms in water but protozoan parasites like C. parvum oocysts and Giardia cysts can resist against it. Therefore, many researches have been conducted to find a novel method for water disinfection. Present study evaluated the synergistic effect of H2O2 and ferrate followed by UV radiation to inactivate Bacillus subtilis spores as surrogate microorganisms. Response surface methodology(RSM) was employed for the optimization for UV/H2O2/ferrate and H2O2/ferrate processes. By using central composite design(CCD), the effect of three main parameters including time, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrate concentrations was examined on process performance. The results showed that the combination of UV, H2O2 and ferrate was the most effective disinfection process in compare with when H2O2 and ferrate were used. This study indicated that by UV/H2O2/ferrate, about 5.2 log reductions of B. subtilis spores was inactivated at 9299 mg/l of H2O2 and 0.4 mg/l of ferrate concentrations after 57 min of contact time which was the optimum condition, but H2O2/ferrate can inactivate B. subtilis spores about 4.7 logs compare to the other process. Therefore, the results of this research demonstrated that UV/H2O2 /ferrate process is a promising process for spore inactivation and water disinfection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nickel(II) in chelate N2O2 environment. DFT approach and in-depth molecular orbital and configurational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunovic, Srecko R.; Miletic, Vesna D.; Jevtic, Verica V.; Meetsma, Auke; Matovic, Zoran D.

    2013-01-01

    The O-N-N-O-type tetradentate ligands H2S,S-eddp (H2S,S-eddp stands for S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-propionic acid) and H(2)edap (H(2)edap stands for ethylenediamine-N-acetic-N'-3-propionic acid) and the corresponding novel octahedral nickel(II) complexes have been prepared and characterized. N2O2

  19. Dynamic Chemical Model for $\\text {H} _2 $/$\\text {O} _2 $ Combustion Developed Through a Community Workflow

    KAUST Repository

    Oreluk, James

    2018-01-30

    Elementary-reaction models for $\\\\text{H}_2$/$\\\\text{O}_2$ combustion were evaluated and optimized through a collaborative workflow, establishing accuracy and characterizing uncertainties. Quantitative findings were the optimized model, the importance of $\\\\text{H}_2 + \\\\text{O}_2(1\\\\Delta) = \\\\text{H} + \\\\text{HO}_2$ in high-pressure flames, and the inconsistency of certain low-temperature shock-tube data. The workflow described here is proposed to be even more important because the approach and publicly available cyberinfrastructure allows future community development of evolving improvements. The workflow steps applied here were to develop an initial reaction set using Burke et al. [2012], Burke et al. [2013], Sellevag et al. [2009], and Konnov [2015]; test it for thermodynamic and kinetics consistency and plausibility against other sets in the literature; assign estimated uncertainties where not stated in the sources; select key data targets (

  20. Effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Cuban isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Oloriz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Black leaf streak disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet is the main foliar disease of bananas and plantain. One of the possible mechanisms of resistance is the hypersensitive response observed in ‘Calcutta 4’ (Musa AA that involves the formation of reactive oxygen species. In order to determine the effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of M. fijiensis Cuban isolate CCIBP-Pf-83, several concentrations added to a culture medium PDB were tested. After seven days of incubation the mycelial dry weight was determined. It was found that with 30 mmol l-1 H2O2 in the culture medium, mycelial growth was stimulated and with 50 up to 100 mmol l-1 it decreased. The results provide elements for understanding plantpathogen interactions in this pathosystem. Key words: black leaf streak disease, in vitro culture, ROS

  1. Dynamic Chemical Model for $\\text {H} _2 $/$\\text {O} _2 $ Combustion Developed Through a Community Workflow

    KAUST Repository

    Oreluk, James; Needham, Craig D.; Baskaran, Sathya; Sarathy, Mani; Burke, Michael P.; West, Richard H.; Frenklach, Michael; Westmoreland, Phillip R.

    2018-01-01

    Elementary-reaction models for $\\text{H}_2$/$\\text{O}_2$ combustion were evaluated and optimized through a collaborative workflow, establishing accuracy and characterizing uncertainties. Quantitative findings were the optimized model, the importance of $\\text{H}_2 + \\text{O}_2(1\\Delta) = \\text{H} + \\text{HO}_2$ in high-pressure flames, and the inconsistency of certain low-temperature shock-tube data. The workflow described here is proposed to be even more important because the approach and publicly available cyberinfrastructure allows future community development of evolving improvements. The workflow steps applied here were to develop an initial reaction set using Burke et al. [2012], Burke et al. [2013], Sellevag et al. [2009], and Konnov [2015]; test it for thermodynamic and kinetics consistency and plausibility against other sets in the literature; assign estimated uncertainties where not stated in the sources; select key data targets (

  2. Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria

    2014-02-13

    Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K+-efflux and Ca2+-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10 μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24 h does significantly reduce net K+-leakage and Ca2+-influx, and in the case of the K+-fluxes, the cell permeant cyclic mononucleotides are more effective. We also examined the effect of 10 μM of the cell permeant 8-Br-cGMP on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome and noted a specific increase in proteins with a role in stress responses and ion transport, suggesting that cGMP is sufficient to directly and/or indirectly induce complex adaptive changes to cellular stresses induced by H2O2. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Manganese catalyzed cis-dihydroxylation of electron deficient alkenes with H(2)O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisaha, Pattama; Pijper, Dirk; van Summeren, Ruben P; Hoen, Rob; Smit, Christian; de Boer, Johannes W; Hage, Ronald; Alsters, Paul L; Feringa, Ben L; Browne, Wesley R

    2010-10-07

    A practical method for the multigram scale selective cis-dihydroxylation of electron deficient alkenes such as diethyl fumarate and N-alkyl and N-aryl-maleimides using H(2)O(2) is described. High turnovers (>1000) can be achieved with this efficient manganese based catalyst system, prepared in situ from a manganese salt, pyridine-2-carboxylic acid, a ketone and a base, under ambient conditions. Under optimized conditions, for diethyl fumarate at least 1000 turnovers could be achieved with only 1.5 equiv. of H(2)O(2) with d/l-diethyl tartrate (cis-diol product) as the sole product. For electron rich alkenes, such as cis-cyclooctene, this catalyst provides for efficient epoxidation.

  4. Synthesis and crystal structure of trans-[Ni(pyzdcH)M 2 (H 2 O) 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determined structure of the title compound C24H20Ni2N8O20 consists of the mononuclear trans-[Ni(pyzdc)2(H2O)2], (pyzdc = pyrazine-2,3- dicarboxylate). The Ni(II) atom is hexa-coordinated by two (pyzdcH)- groups and two water molecules. The coordinated water molecules are in trans-diaxial positions and the ...

  5. Lactobacilli inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through lactic acid but not H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C

  6. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of H2O2-induced premature senescent human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Eui-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Ji-Young; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2011-06-01

    Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) occurs after exposure to many different sublethal stresses including H(2)O(2), hyperoxia, or tert-butylhydroperoxide. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) exhibit limited proliferative potential in vitro, the so-called Hayflick limit. According to the free-radical theory, reactive oxygen species (ROS) might be the candidates responsible for senescence and age-related diseases. H(2)O(2) may be responsible for the production of high levels of ROS, in which the redox balance is disturbed and the cells shift into a state of oxidative stress, which subsequently leads to premature senescence with shortening telomeres. H(2)O(2) has been the most commonly used inducer of SIPS, which shares features of replicative senescence (RS) including a similar morphology, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, cell cycle regulation, etc. Therefore, in this study, the senescence of hMSC during SIPS was confirmed using a range of different analytical methods. In addition, we determined five differentially expressed spots in the 2-DE map, which were identified as Annexin A2 (ANXA2), myosin light chain 2 (MLC2), peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase 1 (ECH1), prosomal protein P30-33K (PSMA1) and mutant β-actin by ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS. Also, proton ((1)H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to elucidate the difference between metabolites in the control and hMSCs treated with H(2)O(2). Among these metabolites, choline and leucine were identified by (1)H-NMR as up-regulated metabolites and glycine and proline were identified as down-regulated metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Facile, Nonreactive Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Detection Method Enabled by Ion Chromatography with UV Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingrui; Wang, Junli; Chen, Baiyang; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-07

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is ubiquitous in the natural environment, and it is now widely used for pollutant control in water and wastewater treatment processes. However, current analytical methods for H 2 O 2 inevitably require reactions between H 2 O 2 and other reactants to yield signals and are thus likely subjective to the interferences of coexisting colored, oxidative, and reductive compounds. In order to overcome these barriers, we herein for the first time propose to analyze H 2 O 2 by ion chromatography (IC) using an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The proposal is based on two principles: first, that H 2 O 2 can deprotonate to hydroperoxyl ion (HO 2 - ) when eluent pH is higher than the acid-dissociation coefficient of H 2 O 2 (pK a = 11.6); and second, that after separation from other compounds via IC column, H 2 O 2 can be quantified by a UV detector. Under favorable operating conditions, this method has successfully achieved acceptable recoveries (>91%) of H 2 O 2 dosed to ultrapure and natural waters, a calibration curve with R 2 > 0.99 for a wide range of H 2 O 2 concentrations from 0.1 to 50 mg/L and a method detection limit of 0.027 mg/L. In addition, this approach was shown to be capable of distinguishing H 2 O 2 from anions (e.g., fluoride and chloride) and organics (e.g., glycolate) and monochloramine, suggesting that it is insensitive to many neighboring compounds as long as they do not react quickly with H 2 O 2 . Hence, this study proves the combination of IC and UV detector a facile and reliable method for H 2 O 2 measurement.

  8. Combined UV-C/H2O2-VUV processes for the treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Kambiz Vaezzadeh; Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar

    2017-05-04

    In this study, a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology were used to maximize the TOC removal and minimize the H 2 O 2 residual in the effluent of the combined UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV system for the treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) collected from one of the meat processing plants in Ontario, Canada. The irradiation time and the initial concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC o ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2o ) were the three predictors, as independent variables, studied in the design of experiments. The multiple response approach was used to obtain desirability response surfaces at the optimum factor settings. Subsequently, the optimum conditions to achieve the maximum percentage TOC removal of 46.19% and minimum H 2 O 2 residual of 1.05% were TOC o of 213 mg L -1 , H 2 O 2o of 450 mg L -1 , and irradiation time of 9 min. The attained optimal operating conditions were validated with a complementary test. Consequently, the TOC removal of 45.68% and H 2 O 2 residual of 1.03% were achieved experimentally, confirming the statistical model reliability. Three individual processes, VUV alone, VUV/H 2 O 2 , and UV-C/H 2 O 2 , were also evaluated to compare their performance for the treatment of the actual SWW using the optimum parameters obtained in combined UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV processes. Results confirmed that an adequate combination of the UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV processes is essential for an optimized TOC removal and H 2 O 2 residual. Finally, respirometry analyses were also performed to evaluate the biodegradability of the SWW and the BOD removal efficiency of the combined UV-C/H 2 O 2 -VUV processes.

  9. The influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the photochemical production of H2O2 in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, LJA; Rijkenberg, MJA; Timmermans, KR; Buma, AGJ

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured in marine surface waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean between 25degreesN and 25degreesS. H2O2 concentrations decreased from 80 nM in the north to 20 nM in the south, in agreement with earlier observations. A diel cycle of H2O2 production as a function of

  10. Nonlinear feedback drives homeostatic plasticity in H2O2 stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulev, Youlian; Morlot, Sandrine; Matifas, Audrey; Huang, Bo; Molin, Mikael; Toledano, Michel B; Charvin, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Homeostatic systems that rely on genetic regulatory networks are intrinsically limited by the transcriptional response time, which may restrict a cell’s ability to adapt to unanticipated environmental challenges. To bypass this limitation, cells have evolved mechanisms whereby exposure to mild stress increases their resistance to subsequent threats. However, the mechanisms responsible for such adaptive homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we used live-cell imaging and microfluidics to investigate the adaptive response of budding yeast to temporally controlled H2O2 stress patterns. We demonstrate that acquisition of tolerance is a systems-level property resulting from nonlinearity of H2O2 scavenging by peroxiredoxins and our study reveals that this regulatory scheme induces a striking hormetic effect of extracellular H2O2 stress on replicative longevity. Our study thus provides a novel quantitative framework bridging the molecular architecture of a cellular homeostatic system to the emergence of nonintuitive adaptive properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23971.001 PMID:28418333

  11. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  12. Effect of H2O2 application during ‘Grande naine’-Mycosphaerella fijiensis interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milady Mendoza-Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Musa spp. considerable economical lost are cause by Mycosphaerella fijiensis infection around the world, that is why the study of the pathosystem constitute a priority. However, the main mechanisms activated in banana after infection are still unknown and are a limitation for a better understanding of this complex relationship. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 application, on leaves of ‘Grande naine’ plants, on black leaf streak disease development (BLSD. For this purpose, the first three open leaves of banana plants were inoculated with the monoascosporic isolate of M. fijiensis CCIBP-Pf-83. At three days post-inoculation different H2O2 concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 mmol l-1 were sprayed to these plants as well as to non-inoculated ones. During the time course of the experiment for inoculated, sprayed plants and for control plants (infected with M. fijiensis epidemiological variables as well as the area of necrotic lesions at 49 dpi were measured. The findings of this analysis showed that the early application of H2O2 have influence on the BLSD development.   Keywords: banana, black leaf streak disease, hemibiotrophic, hydrogen peroxide

  13. JRR-3 cold neutron source facility H2-O2 explosion safety proof testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibi, T.; Fuse, H.; Takahashi, H.; Akutsu, C.; Kumai, T.; Kawabata, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A cold Neutron Source (CNS) will be installed in Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) during its remodeling project. This CNS holds liquid hydrogen at a temperature of about 20 K as a cold neutron source moderator in the heavy water area of the reactor to moderate thermal neutrons from the reactor to cold neutrons of about 5 meV energy. In the hydrogen circuit of the CNS safety measures are taken to prevent oxygen/hydrogen reaction (H 2 -O 2 explosion). It is also designed in such manner that, should an H 2 -O 2 explosion take place, the soundness of all the components can be maintained so as not to harm the reactor safety. A test hydrogen circuit identical to that of the CNS (real components designed by TECHNICATOME of France) was manufactured to conduct the H 2 -O 2 explosion test. In this test, the detonation that is the severest phenomenon of the oxygen/hydrogen reaction took place in the test hydrogen circuit to measure the exerted pressure on the components and their strain, deformation, leakage, cracking, etc. Based on the results of this measurement, the structural strength of the test hydrogen circuit was analyzed. The results of this test show that the hydrogen circuit components have sufficient structural strength to withstand an oxygen/hydrogen reaction

  14. Carnosol promotes endothelial differentiation under H2O2-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Shulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress causes deregulation of endothelial cell differentiation. Carnosol is a potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory compound. In the present study, we examined whether the antioxidant effect of carnosol might protect bone marrow stem cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and promote endothelial differentiation. We examined cell viability by the MTT assay; oxidative stress and apoptosis were analyzed through changes in ROS levels, apoptotic ratio and caspase-3 activity; changes in protein expression of OCT-4, Flk-1, CD31 and Nrf-2 were assessed by Western blot analysis. H2O2 treatment increased oxidative stress and reduced cell viability, while the stem cell marker OCT-4 and endothelial markers Flk-1, CD31 were significantly downregulated as a result of the treatment with H2O2. Treatment with carnosol improved the antioxidant status, increased OCT-4 expression and promoted endothelial differentiation. This study provides evidence that carnosol could increase the antioxidant defense mechanism and promote endothelial differentiation.

  15. Polydatin Attenuates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress via PKC Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilian Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, which is found to precede the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. The aim of this study was to observe the protective effects of PD against H2O2-induced oxidative stress injury (OSI in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and the possible mechanism of PD in OSI treatment. HUVECs were subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of PD. It turned out that PD improved cell viability and adhesive and migratory abilities, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and reactive oxygen species (ROS, and elevated the content of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD. TUNEL, fluorometric assays, and Western blotting showed that OSI upregulated the apoptosis ratio, the activity of caspase-3 and the level of proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased the level of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, PD treatment partially reversed these damage effects and Protein Kinase C (PKC activation by thymeleatoxin (THX in turn eliminated the antiapoptotic effect of PD. Furthermore, PD attenuated the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of PKCs α and δ and increased the phosphorylation of PKC ε. Our results indicated that PD might exert protective effects against OSI through various interactions with PKC pathway.

  16. Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil against H2O2 -induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bihamta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been well documented that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Previous studies have shown that pomegranate seed oil (PSO has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to investigate probable protective effects of PSO against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Materials and Methods: The cells were pretreated 24 hr with PSO 1 hr before exposure to 200 µM H2O2. Cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods.Results: H2O2 significantly decreased cell viability which was accompanied by an increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation and a decline in superoxide dismutase activity. Pretreatment with PSO increased viability of cardiomyocytes and decrease the elevated ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Also, PSO was able to restore superoxide dismutase activity.Conclusion: PSO has protective effect against oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a natural cardioprotective agent to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Descent Without Modification? The Thermal Chemistry of H2O2 on Europa and Other Icy Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark Josiah; Hudson, Reggie Lester

    2015-01-01

    The strong oxidant H2O2 is known to exist in solid form on Europa and is suspected to exist on several other Solar System worlds at temperatures below 200 K. However, little is known of the thermal chemistry that H2O2 might induce under these conditions. Here, we report new laboratory results on the reactivity of solid H2O2 with eight different compounds in H2O-rich ices. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored compositional changes in ice mixtures during warming. The compounds CH4 (methane), C3H4 (propyne), CH3OH (methanol), and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were unaltered by the presence of H2O2 in ices, showing that exposure to either solid H2O2 or frozen H2O+H2O2 at cryogenic temperatures will not oxidize these organics, much less convert them to CO2. This contrasts strongly with the much greater reactivity of organics with H2O2 at higher temperatures, and particularly in the liquid and gas phases. Of the four inorganic compounds studied, CO, H2S, NH3, and SO2, only the last two reacted in ices containing H2O2, NH3 making NHþ 4 and SO2 making SO2 4 by H+ and e - transfer, respectively. An important astrobiological conclusion is that formation of surface H2O2 on Europa and that molecule's downward movement with H2O-ice do not necessarily mean that all organics encountered in icy subsurface regions will be destroyed by H2O2 oxidation.

  18. Surface reactions during low-k etching using H2/N2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Oshima, Keiji; Nagahata, Kazunori; Uchida, Saburo; Takashima, Seigo; Hori, Masaru; Kamide, Yukihiro

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the hard mask faceting that occurs during organic low-k etching and the ion energy distribution function of a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. We minimized the hard mask faceting by precisely controlling the ion energy. This precise control was obtained by selecting the optimum bottom frequency and bias power. We measured the amount of damage done to a SiOCH film exposed to H 2 /N 2 plasma in order to find the H 2 /N 2 ratio at which the plasma caused the least damage. The amount of moisture uptake by the damaged SiOCH film is the dominant factor controlling the dielectric constant increase (Δk). To suppress Δk, the incident ion species and ion energies have to be precisely controlled. This reduces the number of adsorption sites in the bulk SiOCH and maintains the hydrophobic surface that suppresses water permeation during air exposure

  19. Modulating and Measuring Intracellular H2O2 Using Genetically Encoded Tools to Study Its Toxicity to Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beijing K; Stein, Kassi T; Sikes, Hadley D

    2016-12-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H 2 O 2 play paradoxical roles in mammalian physiology. It is hypothesized that low, baseline levels of H 2 O 2 are necessary for growth and differentiation, while increased intracellular H 2 O 2 concentrations are associated with pathological phenotypes and genetic instability, eventually reaching a toxic threshold that causes cell death. However, the quantities of intracellular H 2 O 2 that lead to these different responses remain an unanswered question in the field. To address this question, we used genetically encoded constructs that both generate and quantify H 2 O 2 in a dose-response study of H 2 O 2 -mediated toxicity. We found that, rather than a simple concentration-response relationship, a combination of intracellular concentration and the cumulative metric of H 2 O 2 concentration multiplied by time (i.e., the area under the curve) determined the occurrence and level of cell death. Establishing the quantitative relationship between H 2 O 2 and cell toxicity promotes a deeper understanding of the intracellular effects of H 2 O 2 specifically as an individual reactive oxygen species, and it contributes to an understanding of its role in various redox-related diseases.

  20. Photosynthesis-dependent H2O2 transfer from chloroplasts to nuclei provides a high-light signalling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito-Rodriguez, Marino; Laissue, Pierre Philippe; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Mullineaux, Philip M

    2017-06-29

    Chloroplasts communicate information by signalling to nuclei during acclimation to fluctuating light. Several potential operating signals originating from chloroplasts have been proposed, but none have been shown to move to nuclei to modulate gene expression. One proposed signal is hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by chloroplasts in a light-dependent manner. Using HyPer2, a genetically encoded fluorescent H 2 O 2 sensor, we show that in photosynthetic Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells, exposure to high light increases H 2 O 2 production in chloroplast stroma, cytosol and nuclei. Critically, over-expression of stromal ascorbate peroxidase (H 2 O 2 scavenger) or treatment with DCMU (photosynthesis inhibitor) attenuates nuclear H 2 O 2 accumulation and high light-responsive gene expression. Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase over-expression has little effect on nuclear H 2 O 2 accumulation and high light-responsive gene expression. This is because the H 2 O 2 derives from a sub-population of chloroplasts closely associated with nuclei. Therefore, direct H 2 O 2 transfer from chloroplasts to nuclei, avoiding the cytosol, enables photosynthetic control over gene expression.Multiple plastid-derived signals have been proposed but not shown to move to the nucleus to promote plant acclimation to fluctuating light. Here the authors use a fluorescent hydrogen peroxide sensor to provide evidence that H 2 O 2 is transferred directly from chloroplasts to nuclei to control nuclear gene expression.

  1. H2O2 INDUCES APOPTOSIS OF RABBIT CHONDROCYTES VIA BOTH THE EXTRINSIC AND THE CASPASE-INDEPENDENT INTRINSIC PATHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIPING ZHUANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA, one of the most common joint diseases with unknown etiology, is characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage and the apoptosis of chondrocytes. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of H2O2-mediated rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. CCK-8 assay showed that H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability, which was further verified by the remarkable phosphatidylserine externalization after H2O2 treatment for 1 h, the typical characteristics of apoptosis. H2O2 treatment induced a significant dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, but did not induce casapse-9 activation, indicating that H2O2 treatment induced caspase-independent intrinsic apoptosis that was further verified by the fact that silencing of AIF but not inhibiting caspase-9 potently prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis. H2O2 treatment induced a significant increase of caspase-8 and -3 activation, and inhibition of caspase-8 or -3 significantly prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway played an important role. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that H2O2 induces apoptosis via both the casapse-8-mediated extrinsic and the caspase-independent intrinsic apoptosis pathways in rabbit chondrocytes.

  2. TiO2 promoted by two different non-noble metal cocatalysts for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jing-Dong; Yan, Shi; Huang, Qin-Dong; Fan, Mei-Ting; Yuan, You-Zhu; Tan, Timothy Thatt-Yang; Liao, Dai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalysts modified by cobalt and nickel cocatalysts were prepared via polymerized complex method (PCM) and evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Hydrogen generation in 6 h for the TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel (0.1%Co + 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ) is about two times (2456 μmol H 2 ) compared to that of TiO 2 promoted only by cobalt (1180 μmol H 2 for 0.1%Co/TiO 2 ) or nickel (1127 μmol H 2 for 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ), and mechanically mixed TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and TiO 2 promoted by nickel (0.1%Co/TiO 2 :0.2%Ni/TiO 2 = 1:1 (m/m), 1282 μmol H 2 ). The high photocatalytic H 2 evolution activity over TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel is ascribed to enhanced photo response due to the presence of cobalt and nickel impurity level, and effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the synergistic effect of cobalt and nickel, which serve as active sites for H 2 evolution reaction (HER) and oxidation reaction (OR) respectively. This study demonstrates a viable strategy to design more active photocatalysts for photocatalytic H 2 evolution by substituting noble metals with more abundant elements using as HER and OR cocatalysts, respectively.

  3. Effects of H2O, CO2, and N2 Air Contaminants on Critical Airside Strain Rates for Extinction of Hydrogen-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.; Guerra, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Coaxial tubular opposed jet burners (OJB) were used to form dish shaped counterflow diffusion flames (CFDF), centered by opposing laminar jets of H2, N2 and both clean and contaminated air (O2/N2 mixtures) in an argon bath at 1 atm. Jet velocities for flame extinction and restoration limits are shown versus wide ranges of contaminant and O2 concentrations in the air jet, and also input H2 concentration. Blowoff, a sudden breaking of CFDF to a stable ring shape, occurs in highly stretched stagnation flows and is generally believed to measure kinetically limited flame reactivity. Restore, a sudden restoration of central flame, is a relatively new phenomenon which exhibits a H2 dependent hysteresis from Blowoff. For 25 percent O2 air mixtures, mole for mole replacement of 25 percent N2 contaminant by steam increased U(air) or flame strength at Blowoff by about 5 percent. This result is consistent with laminar burning velocity results from analogous substitution of steam for N2 in a premixed stoichiometric H2-O2-N2 (or steam) flame, shown by Koroll and Mulpuru to promote a 10 percent increase in experimental and calculated laminar burning velocity, due to enhanced third body efficiency of water in: H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M. When the OJB results were compared with Liu and MacFarlane's experimental laminar burning velocity of premixed stoichiometric H2 + air + steam, a crossover occurred, i.e., steam enhanced OJB flame strength at extinction relative to laminar burning velocity.

  4. Theoretical study of the interaction of N2 with water molecules. (H2O)/sub n/:N2, n = 1--8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, L.A.; Eisgruber, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations including correlation energy have been carried out on the interaction of a single H 2 O molecule with N 2 . The potential energy surface for H 2 O:N 2 is found to have a minimum corresponding to a HOH xxx N 2 structure with a weak ( -1 ) hydrogen bond. A second, less stable, configuration corresponding to a H 2 O xxx N 2 structure with N 2 bonded side on to the oxygen of H 2 O was found to be either a minimum or a saddle point in the potential energy surface depending on the level of calculation. The minimal STO-3G basis set was used to investigate the interaction of up to eight H 2 O molecules with N 2 . Two types of clusters, one containing only HOH xxx N 2 interactions and the other containing both HOH xxxN 2 and H 2 O xxx N 2 interactions, were investigated for [N 2 :(H 2 O)/sub n/, n = 2--8

  5. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  6. Surface properties of SiO2 with and without H2O2 treatment as gate dielectrics for pentacene thin-film transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Chun; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2018-01-01

    The effect of H2O2 treatment on the surface properties of SiO2 is studied. H2O2 treatment leads to the formation of Si(sbnd OH)x at the SiO2 surface that serves to reduce the number of trap states, inducing the shift of the Fermi level toward the conduction band minimum. H2O2 treatment also leads to a noticeable reduction in the value of the SiO2 capacitance per unit area. The effect of SiO2 layers with H2O2 treatment on the behavior of carrier transports for the pentacene/SiO2-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) is also studied. Experimental identification confirms that the shift of the threshold voltage towards negative gate-source voltages is due to the reduced number of trap states in SiO2 near the pentacene/SiO2 interface. The existence of a hydrogenated layer between pentacene and SiO2 leads to a change in the pentacene-SiO2 interaction, increasing the value of the carrier mobility.

  7. Kinetics and Efficiency of H2O2 Activation by Iron-Containing Minerals and Aquifer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M.; Sedlak, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into factors that control H2O2 persistence and ˙OH yield in H2O2-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H2O2 and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H2O2 decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2 to 10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H2O2 decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H2O2 on manganese oxides does not produce ˙OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H2O2 decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO2 slowed the rate of H2O2 decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency. PMID:23047055

  8. Hydrothermal crystallization in the KOH-TiO2-GeO2-H2O system at 500 deg C and 0.1 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushin, G.D.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of structural phases and crystallochemical analysis of phases in a KOH-TiO 2 -GeO 2 -H 2 O system under conditions of high temperatures and pressures are performed. A comparison is made with earlier obtained results for a system of KOH-GeO 2 (quartz-like structure)-H 2 O. It is established that K 2 Ti 6 O 13 skeleton potassium titanate is a basic phase in the system of KOH-TiO 2 -GeO 2 -H 2 O at 500 deg C and 0.1 GPa within a wide range of varying TiO 2 :GeO 2 and KOH concentrations [ru

  9. TriPer, an optical probe tuned to the endoplasmic reticulum tracks changes in luminal H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Eduardo Pinho; Lopes, Carlos; Gollwitzer, Peter; Lortz, Stephan; Lenzen, Sigurd; Mehmeti, Ilir; Kaminski, Clemens F; Ron, David; Avezov, Edward

    2017-03-27

    The fate of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been inferred indirectly from the activity of ER-localized thiol oxidases and peroxiredoxins, in vitro, and the consequences of their genetic manipulation, in vivo. Over the years hints have suggested that glutathione, puzzlingly abundant in the ER lumen, might have a role in reducing the heavy burden of H 2 O 2 produced by the luminal enzymatic machinery for disulfide bond formation. However, limitations in existing organelle-targeted H 2 O 2 probes have rendered them inert in the thiol-oxidizing ER, precluding experimental follow-up of glutathione's role in ER H 2 O 2 metabolism. Here we report on the development of TriPer, a vital optical probe sensitive to changes in the concentration of H 2 O 2 in the thiol-oxidizing environment of the ER. Consistent with the hypothesized contribution of oxidative protein folding to H 2 O 2 production, ER-localized TriPer detected an increase in the luminal H 2 O 2 signal upon induction of pro-insulin (a disulfide-bonded protein of pancreatic β-cells), which was attenuated by the ectopic expression of catalase in the ER lumen. Interfering with glutathione production in the cytosol by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or enhancing its localized destruction by expression of the glutathione-degrading enzyme ChaC1 in the lumen of the ER further enhanced the luminal H 2 O 2 signal and eroded β-cell viability. A tri-cysteine system with a single peroxidatic thiol enables H 2 O 2 detection in oxidizing milieux such as that of the ER. Tracking ER H 2 O 2 in live pancreatic β-cells points to a role for glutathione in H 2 O 2 turnover.

  10. Study on the proliferation of human gastric cancer cell AGS by activation of EGFR in H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Shen, W; Tao, G-Q; Sun, J; Shi, L-P

    2017-03-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of low concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the proliferation of gastric cancer AGS cell line in vitro and the mechanism. AGS cells were treated with different low concentrations of H2O2 (1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 μm) for 48 hours. The effect of H2O2 concentration gradient on the activity of AGS cell activities was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathway extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein in H2O2 was detected by Western blot method; moreover, the effect of H2O2 on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AGS cells was observed under the fluorescence microscope and quantitative analysis by flow cytometry. The effect of H2O2 on the level of c-myc mRNA in AGS cells was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MTT detection results showed that 1 μm and 0.1 μm H2O2 at 48h can effectively promote the proliferation of AGS cells (pH2O2 treatment of AGS cells, the EGFR protein levels and ERK protein phosphorylation levels increased significantly (pH2O2 increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). RT-PCR results showed the levels of c-myc mRNA in AGS cells treated with a low concentration of H2O2 were significantly increased (pH2O2 can significantly promote the proliferation of AGS cells by activating EGFR/ERK signaling pathway.

  11. The denitrification paradox: The role of O2 in sediment N2O production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jonathan; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    We designed a novel laboratory sediment flux chamber in which we maintained the headspace O2 partial pressure at preselected values, allowing us to experimentally regulate "in-situ" O2 to evaluate its role in net N2O production by an intertidal estuarine sediment (Tyne, UK). In short-term (30 h) incubations with 10 L of overlying estuarine water (∼3 cm depth) and headspace O2 regulation (headspace: sediment/water ratio ∼9:1), net N2O production was highest at 1.2% O2 (sub-oxic; 32.3 nmol N2O m-2 d-1), an order of magnitude higher than at either 0.0% (anoxic; 2.5 N2O nmol m-2 d-1) or 20.85% (ambient; 2.3 nmol N2O m-2 d-1) O2. In a longer-term sealed incubation (∼490 h) without O2 control, time-dependent behaviour of N2O in the tank headspace was highly non-linear with time, showing distinct phases: (i) an initial period of no or little change in O2 or N2O up to ∼ 100 h; (ii) a quasi-linear, inverse correlation between O2 and N2O to ∼360 h, in which O2 declined to ∼2.1% and N2O rose to ∼7800 natm; (iii) over the following 50 h a slower O2 decline, to ∼1.1%, and a more rapid N2O increase, to ∼12000 natm; (iv) over the next 24 h a slowed O2 decline towards undetectable levels and a sharp fall in N2O to ∼4600 natm; (iv) a continued N2O decrease at zero O2, to ∼3000 natm by ∼ 490 h. These results show clearly that rapid N2O consumption (∼115 nmol m-2 d-1), presumably via heterotrophic denitrification (HD), occurs under fully anoxic conditions and therefore that N2O production, which was optimal for sub-oxic O2, results from other nitrogen transformation processes. In experiments in which we amended sediment overlying water to either 1 mM NH4+ or 1 mM NO3-, N2O production rates were 2-134 nmol N2O m-2 d-1 (NH4+ addition) and 0.4-2.2 nmol N2O m-2 d-1 (NO3- addition). We conclude that processes involving NH4+ oxidation (nitrifier nitrification; nitrifier denitrification; nitrification-coupled denitrification) are principally responsible for N2O

  12. The reduction of I2 by H2O2 in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.M.; Hnatiw, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The reduction of iodine by hydrogen peroxide is an important process which leads to a lower amount of molecular iodine in irradiated solutions of iodide as the pH is increased. There is quite a large amount of information on the reaction now but no consensus in the literature on the mechanisms for reaction and the generally accepted mechanism does not appear to be correct. A number of studies of the kinetics of the reaction in the pH range 2-7 have been carried out where the iodine reduction process exhibited a 1/[H + ] 2 dependence consistent with the proposed mechanism which were attributed primarily to the reaction of H 2 O 2 with IO - . Deviations were observed in the pH range 6-7 and were explained by incorporating the reaction of I 2 OH - with H 2 O 2 . In some other experiments it was suggested that the failure to maintain a 1/[H + ] 2 dependence at high pH was due to the iodine hydrolysis being rate determining. Data from an experimental program performed at AECL described in this paper confirms that the 1/[H + ] 2 dependence does not hold at high pH. These studies were carried out as a function of acid, iodide, peroxide and buffer concentration for three buffers, barbital, citrate and phosphate. This paper discuss two mechanisms which involve the formation of an HOOI intermediate in the rate determining step and which adequately describe the experimental data. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 23 refs

  13. Modeling char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to model combustion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures. Experiments used for model validation have been carried out in an electrically heated Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) at temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K with inlet O2...... concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The COal COmbustion MOdel, COCOMO, includes the three char morphologies: cenospheric char, network char and dense char each divided between six discrete particle sizes. Both combustion and gasification with CO2 are accounted for and reaction rates include thermal char...

  14. Prediction of absolute infrared intensities for the fundamental vibrations of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute infrared intensities are predicted for the vibrational bands of gas-phase H2O2 by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from the hydroxyl hydrogen atom of CH3OH. These predicted intensities are compared with intensities predicted by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from H2O. The predicted relative intensities agree well with published spectra of gas-phase H2O2, and the predicted absolute intensities are expected to be accurate to within at least a factor of two. Among the vibrational degrees of freedom, the antisymmetric O-H bending mode nu(6) is found to be the strongest with a calculated intensity of 60.5 km/mole. The torsional band, a consequence of hindered rotation, is found to be the most intense fundamental with a predicted intensity of 120 km/mole. These results are compared with the recent absolute intensity determinations for the nu(6) band.

  15. Kinetic removal of haloacetonitrile precursors by photo-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2, UV/O3, and UV/H2O2/O3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithep, Sirinthip; Phattarapattamawong, Songkeart

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of conventional treatment process (i.e., coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and sand filtration) on the removals of haloacetonitrile (HAN) precursors. In addition, the removals of HAN precursors by photo-based advanced oxidation processes (Photo-AOPs) (i.e., UV/H 2 O 2 , UV/O 3 , and UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 ) are investigated. The conventional treatment process was ineffective to remove HAN precursors. Among Photo-AOPs, the UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 was the most effective process for removing HAN precursors, followed by UV/H 2 O 2 , and UV/O 3 , respectively. For 20min contact time, the UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 , UV/H 2 O 2 , and UV/O 3 suppressed the HAN formations by 54, 42, and 27% reduction. Increasing ozone doses from 1 to 5 mgL -1 in UV/O 3 systems slightly improved the removals of HAN precursors. Changes in pH (6-8) were unaffected most of processes (i.e., UV, UV/H 2 O 2 , and UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 ), except for the UV/O 3 system that its efficiency was low in the weak acid condition. The pseudo first-order kinetic constant for removals of dichloroacetonitrile precursors (k' DCANFP ) by the UV/H 2 O 2 /O 3 , UV/H 2 O 2 and standalone UV systems were 1.4-2.8 orders magnitude higher than the UV/O 3 process. The kinetic degradation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) tended to be higher than the k' DCANFP value. This study firstly differentiates the kinetic degradation between DON and HAN precursors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient H2 production over Au/graphene/TiO2 induced by surface plasmon resonance of Au and band-gap excitation of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Hongtao; Wang, Hua; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Both surface plasmon resonance and band-gap excitation were used for H 2 production. • Au/Gr/TiO 2 composite photocatalyst was synthesized. • Au/Gr/TiO 2 exhibited enhancement of light absorption and charge separation. • H 2 production rate of Au/Gr/TiO 2 was about 2 times as high as that of Au/TiO 2 . - Abstract: H 2 production over Au/Gr/TiO 2 composite photocatalyst induced by surface plasmon resonance of Au and band-gap excitation of TiO 2 using graphene (Gr) as an electron acceptor has been investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance study indicated that, in this composite, Gr collected electrons not only from Au with surface plasmon resonance but also from TiO 2 with band-gap excitation. Surface photovoltage and UV–vis absorption measurements revealed that compared with Au/TiO 2 , Au/Gr/TiO 2 displayed more effective photogenerated charge separation and higher optical absorption. Benefiting from these advantages, the H 2 production rate of Au/Gr/TiO 2 composite with Gr content of 1.0 wt% and Au content of 2.0 wt% was about 2 times as high as that of Au/TiO 2 . This work represents an important step toward the efficient application of both surface plasmon resonance and band-gap excitation on the way to converting solar light into chemical energy

  17. The Effect of H2O2 Interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal During Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most oxidants in AOPs. By H2O2 dissociation, hydroxyl radical with a standard oxidation potential of 2.7 is produced. It is reported H2O¬ residual in AOPs has been led to interference in chemical oxygen demand (COD test and it is able to hinder biological treatment of waste water. Because of high mixed organic load of solid waste leachate, this study investigated effect of H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. In this study effect of parameters such as pH (3,5,7,12, H2O2 dose (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 mol l-1, and time reaction(10,20,30,40,50,60 min evaluated on H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. Optimum pH and concentration were 3 and 0.02 moll-1 respectively. With increasing reaction time, COD removal was increased. The false COD obtained between 0.49mg per 1mg of H2O2. The average of COD removal by H2O2 for 60 min was 6.57%. Also reaction rate of this process was 0.0029 min-1. The presence of H2O2 leads to overestimation of COD values after reaction time because it consumes the oxidation agent. The extent of H2O2 interference in COD analysis was proportional to the remaining H2O2 concentration at the moment of sampling.

  18. Phase formation in the systems ZrO2-H2SO4-Na2SO4 (NaCl)-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozinova, Yu.P.; Motov, D.L.; Rys'kina, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of solid phases in the systems ZrO 2 - H 2 SO 4 - Na 2 SO 4 (NaCl) - H 2 O at 25 and 75 deg C is studied. Three basic Na 2 Zr(OH) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 x (0.2 - 0.4)H 2 O, NaZrOH(SO 4 ) 2 x H 2 O, NaZrO 0.5 (OH) 2 SO 4 x 2H 2 O and three normal sodium sulfatozirconates Na 2 Zr(SO 4 ) 3 x 3H 2 O, Na 4 Zr(SO 4 ) 4 x 3H 2 O, Na 6 Zr(SO 4 ) 5 x 4H 2 O have been isolated, their solubility and crystal optical properties are determined

  19. Sensitivity of mitochondrial DNA depleted ρ0 cells to H2O2 depends on the plasma membrane status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kazuo; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takashi, Yuko; Tsukahara, Takao; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sato, Tomoaki

    2017-08-19

    To clarify the relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted ρ0 cells and the cellular sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), we established HeLa and SAS ρ0 cell lines and investigated their survival rate in H 2 O 2 , radical scavenging enzymes, plasma membrane potential status, and chronological change in intracellular H 2 O 2 amount under the existence of extracellular hydrogen peroxide compared with the parental cells. The results revealed that ρ0 cells had higher sensitivity to H 2 O 2 than their parental cells, even though the catalase activity of ρ0 cells was up-regulated, and the membrane potential of the ρ0 cells was lower than their parental cells. Furthermore, the internal H 2 O 2 amount significantly increased only in ρ0 cells after 50 μM H 2 O 2 treatment for 1 h. These results suggest that plasma membrane status of ρ0 cells may cause degradation, and the change could lead to enhanced membrane permeability to H 2 O 2 . As a consequence, ρ0 cells have a higher H 2 O 2 sensitivity than the parental cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of MWCNT treatment by H2O2 and/or UV on fulvic acids sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bożena

    2017-05-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNT) present in the wastewater subjected to treatment will possess altered physico-chemical properties. The changed properties will result in the unknown behavior of CNT in the environment after disposal; and it is expected to differ from their pristine analogues. In the present paper the effect of sorption of dissolved organic matter with fulvic acids (FA) as representatives onto UV and/or H 2 O 2 treated CNT was tested. Both kinetics and mechanism of sorption was estimated. The chemical adsorption was a rate limiting step and a pseudo-second order kinetics described the sorption of FA onto UV and/or H 2 O 2 treated CNT. The treating increased affinity towards FA and treating by UV and H 2 O 2 simultaneously possessed greater impact on k 2 than UV and H 2 O 2 separately. The greatest effect on CNT sorption capacity revealed H 2 O 2 . The sorption mechanism was described by Temkin (CNT-H 2 O 2 ) and Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The increase in CNT surface disorder caused by UV and/or H 2 O 2 treatment favored sorption of FA via π-π interactions (exfoliated surface and disordered CNT walls). FA sorption occurred between aromatic rings of FA and CNT and hydrogen bonds formed with the oxygen functional groups. The results indicate that UV and/or H 2 O 2 treatment affected the sorption capacity and affinity of CNT towards FA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of PKR protects against H2O2-induced injury on neonatal cardiac myocytes by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyi; Men, Min; Xie, Bo; Shan, Jianggui; Wang, Chengxi; Liu, Jidong; Zheng, Hui; Yang, Wengang; Xue, Song; Guo, Changfa

    2016-12-08

    Reactive oxygenation species (ROS) generated from reperfusion results in cardiac injury through apoptosis and inflammation, while PKR has the ability to promote apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PKR is involved in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCM) injury. In our study, NCM, when exposed to H 2 O 2 , resulted in persistent activation of PKR due to NCM endogenous RNA. Inhibition of PKR by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or siRNA protected against H 2 O 2 induced apoptosis and injury. To elucidate the mechanism, we revealed that inhibition of PKR alleviated H 2 O 2 induced apoptosis companied by decreased caspase3/7 activity, BAX and caspase-3 expression. We also revealed that inhibition of PKR suppressed H 2 O 2 induced NFκB pathway and NLRP3 activation. Finally, we found ADAR1 mRNA and protein expression were both induced after H 2 O 2 treatment through STAT-2 dependent pathway. By gain and loss of ADAR1 expression, we confirmed ADAR1 modulated PKR activity. Therefore, we concluded inhibition of PKR protected against H 2 O 2 -induced injury by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation. A self-preservation mechanism existed in NCM that ADAR1 expression is induced by H 2 O 2 to limit PKR activation simultaneously. These findings identify a novel role for PKR/ADAR1 in myocardial reperfusion injury.

  2. Understanding the role of H(2)O(2) during pea seed germination: a combined proteomic and hormone profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Job, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Claudette; Hernández, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    In a previous publication, we showed that the treatment of pea seeds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased germination performance as well as seedling growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this behaviour, we have analysed the effect of treating mature pea seeds in the presence of 20 mm H(2)O(2) on several oxidative features such as protein carbonylation, endogenous H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation levels. We report that H(2)O(2) treatment of the pea seeds increased their endogenous H(2)O(2) content and caused carbonylation of storage proteins and of several metabolic enzymes. Under the same conditions, we also monitored the expression of two MAPK genes known to be activated by H(2)O(2) in adult pea plants. The expression of one of them, PsMAPK2, largely increased upon pea seed imbibition in H(2)O(2) , whereas no change could be observed in expression of the other, PsMAPK3. The levels of several phytohormones such as 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and zeatin appeared to correlate with the measured oxidative indicators and with the expression of PsMAPK2. Globally, our results suggest a key role of H(2)O(2) in the coordination of pea seed germination, acting as a priming factor that involves specific changes at the proteome, transcriptome and hormonal levels. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  4. Conductivity And Thermal Stability of Solid Acid Composites CsH2PO4 /NaH2PO4/ SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyahida Mohammad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum

    2016-01-01

    Solid acid composites CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 with different mole ratios of CsH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 to SiO 2 were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary infrared measurements of CsH 2 PO 4 and its composites indicated that hydrogen bonds breaking and formation were detected between 1710 to 2710 cm -1 , while the rotation of phosphate tetrahedral anions occurred between 900 and 1200 cm -1 . The superprotonic transition of CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 composite was identified at superprotonic temperatures between 230 and 260 degree Celcius, under atmospheric pressure. This study reveals higher conductivity values for composites with higher CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP) content. Solid acid composite CDP 613 appeared as the composite with the highest conductivity that is 7.2x10 -3 S cm -1 at 230 degree Celcius. Thermal stability of the solid acid composites such as temperature of dehydration, melting and decomposition were investigated. The addition of NaH 2 PO 4 lowers the dehydration temperature of the solid acid composites. (author)

  5. Graphene blended with SnO2 and Pd-Pt nanocages for sensitive non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of H2O2 released from living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yamin; Huang, Di; Li, Congming; Zou, Lina; Ye, Baoxian

    2018-07-19

    This paper described a novel, facile and nonenzymatic electrochemical biosensor to detect hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The sensor was fabricated based on Pd-Pt nanocages and SnO 2 /graphene nanosheets modified electrode (PdPt NCs@SGN/GCE). The electrochemical behavior of PdPt NCs@SGN/GCE exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 with fast response, high selectivity, superior sensitivity, low detection limit of 0.3 μM and large linear range from 1 μM to 300 μM. Under these obvious advantages, the constructed biosensor provided to be reliable for determination of H 2 O 2 secreted from human cervical cancer cells (Hela cells). Hence, the proposed biosensor is a promising candidate for detection of H 2 O 2 in situ released from living cells in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ab initio studies of O2-(H2O)n and O3-(H2O)n anionic molecular clusters, n≤12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurtén, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    2011-01-01

    that anionic O2−(H2O)n and O3−(H2O)n clusters are thermally stabilized at typical atmospheric conditions for at least n = 5. The first 4 water molecules are strongly bound to the anion due to delocalization of the excess charge while stabilization of more than 4 H2O is due to normal hydrogen bonding. Although...... clustering up to 12 H2O, we find that the O2 and O3 anions retain at least ca. 80 % of the charge and are located at the surface of the cluster. The O2− and O3− speicies are thus accessible for further reactions. Finally, the thermodynamics of a few relevant cluster reactions are considered....

  7. Ab initio studies of O-2(-) (H2O)(n) and O-3(-) (H2O)(n) anionic molecular clusters, n

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurten, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    2011-01-01

    that anionic O-2(-)(H2O)n and O-3(-)(H2O)n clusters are thermally stabilized at typical atmospheric conditions for at least n = 5. The first 4 water molecules are strongly bound to the anion due to delocalization of the excess charge while stabilization of more than 4 H2O is due to normal hydrogen bonding....... Although clustering up to 12 H2O, we find that the O-2 and O-3 anions retain at least ca. 80 % of the charge and are located at the surface of the cluster. The O-2(-) and O-3(-) speicies are thus accessible for further reactions. We consider the distributions of cluster sizes as function of altitude before...

  8. Nanoporous graphene obtained by hydrothermal process in H2O2 and its application for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang

    2016-08-01

    Nanohole graphene oxide (NHGO) was obtained in a homogeneous aqueous mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and H2O2 at 120 °C. Supercapacitors were fabricated as the electrode material by using NHGO. A specific capacitance of 240.1 F g-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 m KOH electrolyte and specific capacitance remained 193.6 F g-1 at the current density of 20 A g-1. This was attributed to reducing the inner space between the double-layers, enhanced ion diffusion and large specific surface area. Supercapacitor prepared with NHGO electrodes also exhibited an excellent cycle stability.

  9. Synthesis of Poly aniline-Montmorillonite Nano composites Using H2O2 as the Oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.; Binitha, N.; Suraja, V.; Zahira Yaakob; Sugunan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Poly aniline montmorillonite nano composite was prepared using H 2 O 2 as the oxidant. The catalytic environment of montmorillonite favours polymerization. Intercalation and composite formation was proven from various techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DRS and thermal analysis. XRD patterns give the dimension of the intercalated PANI, from the shift of 2θ values, which is in the nano range. FTIR showed that PANI composite formation occurred without affecting the basic clay layer structure. Thus the successful development of an alternative cheap route for poly aniline-montmorillonite nano composite was well established. (author)

  10. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using...

  11. Formation of nitrogen complexes when [Ru(NH3)5H2O]2+ ion reaction with diazo-acetic ester and aromatic salts of diazonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shur, V.B.; Tikhonova, I.A.; Vol'pin, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    A possibility of formation of nitrogen complexes during transition metal compound interaction with aliphatic and aromatic diazo compounds is studied. It is shown that at the interaction of [Ru(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] 2+ with diazo-acetic ester in water (pH7) at 20 deg, quick splitting of the CN-bond in the ester molecule takes place with the formation of [Ru(NH 3 ) 5 N 2 ] 2+ and [(NH 3 ) 5 RuN 2 Ru(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ (NRRN) nitrogen complexes. The sum yield of complexes comprises 86% taking into acount diazo-acetic ester. Aromatic salts of diazonium, n-O 3 SC 6 H 4 N 2 and p-quinone diazide react with the [Ru(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] 2+ excess forming NRRN (the yield equals 40-53%). The reaction mechanism is discussed

  12. H2O2 augments cytosolic calcium in nucleus tractus solitarii neurons via multiple voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim D; Dantzler, Heather A; Polo-Parada, Luis; Kline, David D

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a profound role in cardiorespiratory function under normal physiological conditions and disease states. ROS can influence neuronal activity by altering various ion channels and transporters. Within the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), a vital brainstem area for cardiorespiratory control, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induces sustained hyperexcitability following an initial depression of neuronal activity. The mechanism(s) associated with the delayed hyperexcitability are unknown. Here we evaluate the effect(s) of H 2 O 2 on cytosolic Ca 2+ (via fura-2 imaging) and voltage-dependent calcium currents in dissociated rat nTS neurons. H 2 O 2 perfusion (200 µM; 1 min) induced a delayed, slow, and moderate increase (~27%) in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). The H 2 O 2 -mediated increase in [Ca 2+ ] i prevailed during thapsigargin, excluding the endoplasmic reticulum as a Ca 2+ source. The effect, however, was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca 2+ or the addition of cadmium to the bath solution, suggesting voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (VGCCs) as targets for H 2 O 2 modulation. Recording of the total voltage-dependent Ca 2+ current confirmed H 2 O 2 enhanced Ca 2+ entry. Blocking VGCC L, N, and P/Q subtypes decreased the number of cells and their calcium currents that respond to H 2 O 2 The number of responder cells to H 2 O 2 also decreased in the presence of dithiothreitol, suggesting the actions of H 2 O 2 were dependent on sulfhydryl oxidation. In summary, here, we have shown that H 2 O 2 increases [Ca 2+ ] i and its Ca 2+ currents, which is dependent on multiple VGCCs likely by oxidation of sulfhydryl groups. These processes presumably contribute to the previously observed delayed hyperexcitability of nTS neurons in in vitro brainstem slices. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. H2O2-responsive liposomal nanoprobe for photoacoustic inflammation imaging and tumor theranostics via in vivo chromogenic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Liang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Zhijuan; Zhao, He; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-05-23

    Abnormal H 2 O 2 levels are closely related to many diseases, including inflammation and cancers. Herein, we simultaneously load HRP and its substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), into liposomal nanoparticles, obtaining a Lipo@HRP&ABTS optical nanoprobe for in vivo H 2 O 2 -responsive chromogenic assay with great specificity and sensitivity. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , colorless ABTS would be converted by HRP into the oxidized form with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, enabling photoacoustic detection of H 2 O 2 down to submicromolar concentrations. Using Lipo@HRP&ABTS as an H 2 O 2 -responsive nanoprobe, we could accurately detect the inflammation processes induced by LPS or bacterial infection in which H 2 O 2 is generated. Meanwhile, upon systemic administration of this nanoprobe we realize in vivo photoacoustic imaging of small s.c. tumors (∼2 mm in size) as well as orthotopic brain gliomas, by detecting H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells. Interestingly, local injection of Lipo@HRP&ABTS further enables differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from those nonmetastatic ones, based on their difference in H 2 O 2 contents. Moreover, using the H 2 O 2 -dependent strong NIR absorbance of Lipo@HRP&ABTS, tumor-specific photothermal therapy is also achieved. This work thus develops a sensitive H 2 O 2 -responsive optical nanoprobe useful not only for in vivo detection of inflammation but also for tumor-specific theranostic applications.

  14. Progesterone amplifies oxidative stress signal and promotes NO production via H2O2 in mouse kidney arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Fan, Yang-Yang; Yang, Chun-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Rui; Zhang, Li-Li; Hu, Ying; Wang, Ya-Qin; Jun, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The role of progesterone on the cardiovascular system is controversial. Our present research is to specify the effect of progesterone on arterial endothelial cells in response to oxidative stress. Our result showed that H2O2 (150 μM and 300 μM) induced cellular antioxidant response. Glutathione (GSH) production and the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in H2O2-treated group. The expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) was induced in response to H2O2. However, progesterone absolutely abolished the antioxidant response through increasing ROS level, inhibiting the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), decreasing GSH level and reducing expression of GClC and GCLM. In our study, H2O2 induced nitrogen monoxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and progesterone promoted H2O2-induced NO production. Progesterone increased H2O2-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) which in turn regulated eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Further study demonstrated that progesterone increased H2O2 concentration of culture medium which may contribute to NO synthesis. Exogenous GSH decreased the content of H2O2 of culture medium pretreated by progesterone combined with H2O2 or progesterone alone. GSH also inhibited expression of HIFα and eNOS, and abolished NO synthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated for the first time that progesterone inhibited cellular antioxidant effect and increased oxidative stress, promoted NO production of arterial endothelial cells, which may be due to the increasing H2O2 concentration and amplified oxidative stress signal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Descent with Modification: Thermal Reactions of Subsurface H2O2 of Relevance to Icy Satellites and Other Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loefler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Similarly, cosmic radiation (mainly protons) acting on cometary and interstellar ices can promote extensive chemical change. Among the products that have been identified in irradiated H20-ice is hydrogen peroxide (H202), which has been observed on Europa and is suspected on other worlds. Although the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, the thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry of H2O2 is largely unknown. Therefore, in this presentation we report new laboratory results on reactions at 50 - 130 K in ices containing H2O2 and other molecules, both in the presence and absence of H2O. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to SO4(2-). We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto. If other molecules prove to be just as reactive with frozen H2O2 then it may explain why H2O2 has been absent from surfaces of many of the small icy bodies that are known to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Our results also have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends towards a subsurface ocean on Europa.

  16. Effects of pH and H2O2 on ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate transformations during UV254nm irradiation: Implications to nitrogen removal and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli; Song, Mingrui; Chen, Baiyang; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Rongshu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve better removal and analyses of three dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) species via ultraviolet-activated hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) process, this study systematically investigated the rates of photo-oxidations of ammonia/ammonium (NH 3 /NH 4 + ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) as well as the photo-reduction of nitrate (NO 3 - ) at varying pH and H 2 O 2 conditions. The results showed that the mass balances of nitrogen were maintained along irradiation despite of interconversions of DIN species, suggesting that no nitrogen gas (N 2 ) or other nitrogen-containing compound was formed. NH 3 was more reactive than NH 4 + with hydroxyl radical (OH), and by a stepwise H 2 O 2 addition method NH 3 /NH 4 + can be completely converted to NO x - ; NO 2 - underwent rapid oxidation to form NO 3 - when H 2 O 2 was present, suggesting that it is an intermediate compound linking NH 3 /NH 4 + and NO 3 - ; but once H 2 O 2 was depleted, NO 3 - can be gradually photo-reduced back to NO 2 - at high pH conditions. Other than H 2 O 2 , the transformation kinetics of DINs were all dependent on pH, but to varying aspects and extents: the NH 3 photo-oxidation favored a pH of 10.3, which fell within the pK a values of NH 4 + (9.24) and H 2 O 2 (11.6); the NO 3 - photo-reduction increased with increasing pH provided that it exceeds the pK a of peroxynitrous acid (6.8); while the NO 2 - photo-oxidation remained stable unless the pH neared the pK a of H 2 O 2 (11.6). The study thereby demonstrates a picture of the evolutions of DIN species together during UV/H 2 O 2 irradiation process, and for the first time presents a method to achieve complete conversion of NH 4 + to NO 3 - with UV/H 2 O 2 process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human ECG Changes During Prolonged Hyperbaric Exposures Breathing N2-O2 Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, James M; Kligfield, Paul D; Adams, George M; Harvey, Claude; Schaefer, Karl E

    1976-01-01

    In an effort to determine whether hyperbaric exposures while breathing N2-O2 mixtures have an effect on cardiac depolarization and repolarization, electrocardiograms of 10 divers participating in four...

  18. Micropore Formation of [Zn2(Oxac) (Taz)2]·(H2O)2.5 via CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, Moondra; Hamasaki, Atom; Iiyama, Taku; Ohta, Akira; Ohki, Hiroshi; Ozeki, Sumio

    2017-01-24

    As-synthesized [Zn 2 (Oxac) (Taz) 2 ]·(H 2 O) 2.5 , referred to as ZOTW 2.5 , was prepared from aqueous methanol solutions of Zn 5 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 6 and two kinds of ligands of 1,2,4-triazole (Taz) and oxalic acid (Oxac) at 453 K for 12 h. The crystal structure was determined by the Rietveld method. As-synthesized ZOTW 2.5 was pretreated at 383 K and 1 mPa for t pt h, ZOTW x (t pt h). ZOTW x (≥3h) showed a type I adsorption isotherm for N 2 at 77 K having a saturation amount (V s ) of 180 mg/g, but that pretreated shortly showed only 1/10 in V s . CO 2 was adsorbed at 303 K in sigmoid on nonporous ZOTW x (≤2h) and in Langmuir-type on ZOTW x (≥3h) to reach the adsorption amount of 120 mg/g at 700 Torr. N 2 adsorption on ZOTW x (≤2h)deCO 2 , degassed after CO 2 adsorption on ZOTW x (≤2h), was promoted 5-fold from 180 mg/g on ZOTW x (t pt h) and ZOTW x (≥3h)deCO 2 up to ca. 1000 mg/g. The interaction of CO 2 and H 2 O molecules in micropores may lead to a new route for micropore formation.

  19. [Effect of Residual Hydrogen Peroxide on Hydrolysis Acidification of Sludge Pretreated by Microwave -H2O2-Alkaline Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui-lai; Liu, Ji-bao; Wei, Yuan-song; Cai, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have found that in the hydrolysis acidification process, sludge after microwave -H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2-OH, pH = 10) pretreatment had an acid production lag due to the residual hydrogen peroxide. In this study, effects of residual hydrogen peroxide after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment on the sludge hydrolysis acidification were investigated through batch experiments. Our results showed that catalase had a higher catalytic efficiency than manganese dioxide for hydrogen peroxide, which could completely degraded hydrogen peroxide within 10 min. During the 8 d of hydrolysis acidification time, both SCOD concentrations and the total VFAs concentrations of four groups were firstly increased and then decreased. The optimized hydrolysis times were 0.5 d for four groups, and the optimized hydrolysis acidification times were 3 d for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group. The optimized hydrolysis acidification time for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group was 4 d. Residual hydrogen peroxide inhibited acid production for sludge after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) pretreatment, resulting in a lag in acidification stage. Compared with MW-H2O2-OH ( pH = 10) pretreatment, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11 ) pretreatment released more SCOD by 19.29% and more organic matters, which resulted in the increase of total VFAs production significantly by 84.80% at 5 d of hydrolysis acidification time and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group could shorten the lag time slightly. Dosing catalase (100 mg x -L(-1)) after the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment not only significantly shortened the lag time (0.5 d) in acidification stage, but also produced more total VFAs by 23.61% and 50.12% in the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group, compared with MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group at 3d of hydrolysis acidification time. For MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and

  20. Application of H2O and UV/H2O2 processes for enhancing the biodegradability of reactive black 5 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, S Divya; Kalyanaraman, Chitra; Gandhi, N Nagendra

    2011-07-01

    Leather processing is a traditional activity in India during which many organic and inorganic chemicals are added while part of it is absorbed by the leather, the remaining chemicals are discharged along with the effluent. The effluent contains both easily biodegradable and not easily biodegradable synthetic organics like dyes, syntans. Easily biodegradable organics are removed in the existing biological treatment units whereas synthetic organics present in the wastewater are mostly adsorbed over the microbes. As the tannery effluent contains complex chemicals, it is difficult to ascertain the degradation of specific pollutants. To determine the increase in the biodegradability, one of the complex and synthetic organic chemical like dye used in the tanning operation was selected for Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs) treatment for cleaving complex organics and its subsequent treatment in aerobic process. In the present study, Reactive Black 5 Dye used in the tanning operation was selected for Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and UV/H2O2 pre-treatment for different operating conditions like pH, contact time and different volume of H2O2. A comparison was made between the untreated, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and UV/H2O2 treated effluent in order to ascertain the influence of AOP on the improvement of biodegradability of effluent. An increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.21 to 0.435 was achieved in the UV/H2O2 pre-treatment process. This pre-treated effluent was further subjected to aerobic process. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 pre-treated dye solution in the aerobic process was found to be 86.39% and 77.82% when compared to 52.43% of BOD5 and 51.55% of COD removal efficiency without any pre-treatment. Hence from these results, to increase the biodegradability of Reactive Black 5 dye pre-treatment methods like H2O2 and UV/H2O2 can be used prior to biological treatment process.

  1. Mixed Matrix Membranes for O2/N2 Separation: The Influence of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández-Barquín

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs composed of small-pore zeolites with various topologies (CHA (Si/Al = 5, LTA (Si/Al = 1 and 5, and Rho (Si/Al = 5 as dispersed phase, and the hugely permeable poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne (PTMSP as continuous phase, have been synthesized via solution casting, in order to obtain membranes that could be attractive for oxygen-enriched air production. The O2/N2 gas separation performance of the MMMs has been analyzed in terms of permeability, diffusivity, and solubility in the temperature range of 298–333 K. The higher the temperature of the oxygen-enriched stream, the lower the energy required for the combustion process. The effect of temperature on the gas permeability, diffusivity, and solubility of these MMMs is described in terms of the Arrhenius and Van’t Hoff relationships with acceptable accuracy. Moreover, the O2/N2 permselectivity of the MMMs increases with temperature, the O2/N2 selectivities being considerably higher than those of the pure PTMSP. In consequence, most of the MMMs prepared in this work exceeded the Robeson’s upper bound for the O2/N2 gas pair in the temperature range under study, with not much decrease in the O2 permeabilities, reaching O2/N2 selectivities of up to 8.43 and O2 permeabilities up to 4,800 Barrer at 333 K.

  2. Advanced Low-Cost O2/H2 Engines for the SSTO Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracke, B. David; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Nixon, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent NASA Access to Space study examined future Earth to orbit (ETO) transportation needs and fleets out to 2030. The baseline in the option 3 assessment was a single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle. A study was conducted to assess the use of new advanced low cost O2/H2 engines for this SSTO application. The study defined baseline configurations and ground rules and defined six engine cycles to explore engine performance. The cycles included an open cycle, and a series of closed cycles with varying abilities to extract energy from the propellants to power he turbomachinery. The cycles thus varied in the maximum chamber pressure they could reach and in their weights at any given chamber pressure. The weight of each cycle was calculated for two technology levels versus chamber pressure up to the power limit of the cycle. The performance in the SSTO mission was then modeled using the resulting engine weights and specific impulse performance using the Access to Space option 3 vehicle. The results showed that new O2/H2 engines are viable and competitive candidates for the SSTO application using chamber pressures of 4,000 psi.

  3. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  4. Antiapoptotic Actions of Methyl Gallate on Neonatal Rat Cardiac Myocytes Exposed to H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Khurana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species trigger cardiomyocyte cell death via increased oxidative stress and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The prevention of cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a putative therapeutic target in cardioprotection. Polyphenol intake has been associated with reduced incidences of cardiovascular disease and better overall health. Polyphenols like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG can reduce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, resulting in better health outcomes in animal models of cardiac disorders. Here, we analyzed whether the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or polyphenols EGCG, gallic acid (GA or methyl gallate (MG can protect cardiomyocytes from cobalt or H2O2-induced stress. We demonstrate that MG can uphold viability of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2 by diminishing intracellular ROS, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential, augmenting endogenous glutathione, and reducing apoptosis as evidenced by impaired Annexin V/PI staining, prevention of DNA fragmentation, and cleaved caspase-9 accumulation. These findings suggest a therapeutic value for MG in cardioprotection.

  5. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatment: A laboratory batch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Liu, Gang; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-10-01

    H 2 O 2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H 2 O 2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H 2 O 2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%. A H 2 O 2 dosage of 0.25 mg/L did not impact microbial activity (as measured by ATP) while high H 2 O 2 dosages, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L, resulted in reduced microbial activity of 23%, 37% and 37% respectively. Therefore, DOC removal was promoted by the increase of H 2 O 2 dosage while microbial activity was reduced. The pyrosequencing results illustrated that bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria. The presence of H 2 O 2 showed clear influence on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities, which became more diverse under 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 but conversely less diverse when the dosage increased to 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 . Anaerobic bacteria were found to be most sensitive to H 2 O 2 as their growth in batch reactors was limited by both 0.25 and 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 (17-88% reduction). In conclusion, special attention should be given to effects of AOPs residuals on microbial ecology before introducing AOPs as a pre-treatment to biological (sand) processes. Additionally, the guideline on the maximum allowable H 2 O 2 concentration should be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of O2 and N2 insertion reactions with atomic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Toth, L.M.; Yustein, J.T.; Andrews, L.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation of refractory metals can be an effective source of vapor for matrix isolation IR studies. This combination of techniques was used for the first time to study the mechanisms of U vapor reactions with atmospheric components. U atoms and O 2 were codeposited with excess Ar at 12 K. The dominant codeposition products were UO 2 and UO 3 . In contrast, the UO yield was always small because UO 2 is formed by an insertion mechanism. This mechanism was verified in the 16 O 2 / 18 O 2 experiments which failed to produce 16 OU 18 O. The effects of UV photolysis and matrix annealings were also examined. The U atoms and O 2 reaction requires little or no activation energy since UO 2 was formed from cold reagents. New charge-transfer species, (UO 2+ 2 )(O 2- 2 ) and (UO + 2 )(O - 2 ), and a weak complex, UO 3 --O 2 , were primarily produced under conditions which favored further O 2 reactions. Similar U atom and N 2 experiments produced only linear NUN which is also produced by an insertion mechanism. This U reaction represents the first time that atom was observed breaking and inserting into the triple bond of N 2 . Photolysis dramatically increased the NUN yield by 3-fold. Matrix annealings produced weak UN 2 --N 2 and UN 2 --2N 2 complexes

  7. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of O2 and N2 insertion reactions with atomic uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Rodney D.; Toth, L. Mac; Yustein, Jason T.; Andrews, Lester

    1993-10-01

    Laser ablation of refractory metals can be an effective source of vapor for matrix isolation IR studies. This combination of techniques was used for the first time to study the mechanisms of U vapor reactions with atmospheric components. U atoms and O2 were codeposited with excess Ar at 12 K. The dominant codeposition products were UO2 and UO3. In contrast, the UO yield was always small because UO2 is formed by an insertion mechanism. This mechanism was verified in the 16O2/18O2 experiments which failed to produce 16OU18O. The effects of UV photolysis and matrix annealings were also examined. The U atoms and O2 reaction requires little or no activation energy since UO2 was formed from cold reagents. New charge-transfer species, (UO2+2)(O2-2) and (UO+2)(O-2), and a weak complex, UO3-O2, were primarily produced under conditions which favored further O2 reactions. Similar U atom and N2 experiments produced only linear NUN which is also produced by an insertion mechanism. This U reaction represents the first time that atom was observed breaking and inserting into the triple bond of N2. Photolysis dramatically increased the NUN yield by 3-fold. Matrix annealings produced weak UN2-N2 and UN2-2N2 complexes.

  8. The fluxes of H2O2 and O2 can be used to evaluate seed germination and vigor of Caragana korshinskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaguo; Wang, Yu; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-06-01

    Seed deterioration is detrimental to plant germplasm conservation, and predicting seed germination and vigor with reliability and sensitivity means is urgently needed for practical problems. We investigated the link between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) flux, oxygen influx and seed vigor of Caragana korshinskii by the non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT). Some related physiological and biochemical changes in seeds were also determined to further explain the changes in the molecular fluxes. The results showed that there was a good linear relationship between germination and H2O2 flux, and that O2 influx was more suitable for assessing seed vigor. H2O2 flux changed relatively little initially, mainly affected by antioxidants (APX, CAT and GSH) and H2O2 content; afterward, the efflux increased more and more rapidly due to high membrane permeability. With the damage of mitochondrial respiration and membrane integrity, O2 influx was gradually reduced. We propose that monitoring H2O2 and O2 fluxes by NMT may be a reliable and sensitive method to evaluate seed germination and vigor.

  9. Nitroxides protect horseradish peroxidase from H2O2-induced inactivation and modulate its catalase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Amram; Maimon, Eric; Goldstein, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes H 2 O 2 dismutation while undergoing heme inactivation. The mechanism underlying this process has not been fully elucidated. The effects of nitroxides, which protect metmyoglobin and methemoglobin against H 2 O 2 -induced inactivation, have been investigated. HRP reaction with H 2 O 2 was studied by following H 2 O 2 depletion, O 2 evolution and heme spectral changes. Nitroxide concentration was followed by EPR spectroscopy, and its reactions with the oxidized heme species were studied using stopped-flow. Nitroxide protects HRP against H 2 O 2 -induced inactivation. The rate of H 2 O 2 dismutation in the presence of nitroxide obeys zero-order kinetics and increases as [nitroxide] increases. Nitroxide acts catalytically since its oxidized form is readily reduced to the nitroxide mainly by H 2 O 2 . The nitroxide efficacy follows the order 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (TPO)>4-OH-TPO>3-carbamoyl proxyl>4-oxo-TPO, which correlates with the order of the rate constants of nitroxide reactions with compounds I, II, and III. Nitroxide catalytically protects HRP against inactivation induced by H 2 O 2 while modulating its catalase-like activity. The protective role of nitroxide at μM concentrations is attributed to its efficient oxidation by P940, which is the precursor of the inactivated form P670. Modeling the dismutation kinetics in the presence of nitroxide adequately fits the experimental data. In the absence of nitroxide the simulation fits the observed kinetics only if it does not include the formation of a Michaelis-Menten complex. Nitroxides catalytically protect heme proteins against inactivation induced by H 2 O 2 revealing an additional role played by nitroxide antioxidants in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The topotactic dehydration of monoclinic {[Co(pht)(bpy)(H2O)2]·2H2O}n into orthorhombic [Co(pht)(bpy)(H2O)2]n (pht is phthalate and bpy is 4,4'-bipyridine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Miguel Angel; Suarez, Sebastián; Cukiernik, Fabio D; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Controlled heating of single crystals of the previously reported [Köferstein & Robl (2007). Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 633, 1127-1130] dihydrate {[Co(pht)(bpy)(H2O)2]·2H2O}n, (II) [where pht is phthalate (C8H4O4) and bpy is 4,4'-bipyridine (C10H8N2)], produced a topotactic transformation into an unreported diaqua anhydrate, namely poly[diaqua(μ2-benzene-1,2-dicarboxylato-κ(2)O(1):O(2))(μ2-4,4'-bipyridine-κ(2)N:N')cobalt(II)], [Co(C8H4O4)(C10H8N2)(H2O)2]n, (IIa). The structural change consists of the loss of the two solvent water molecules linking the original two-dimensional covalent substructures which are the `main frame' of the monoclinic P2/n hydrate (strictly preserved during the transformation), with further reaccommodation of the latter. The anhydrate organizes itself in the orthorhombic system (space group Pmn2(1)) in a disordered fashion, where the space-group-symmetry restrictions are achieved only in a statistical sense, with mirror-related two-dimensional planar substructures, mirrored in a plane perpendicular to [100]. Thus, the asymmetric unit in the refined model is composed of two superimposed mirror-related `ghosts' of half-occupancy each. Similarities and differences with the parent dihydrate and some other related structures in the literature are discussed.

  11. Comparisons of multilayer H2O adsorption onto the (110) surfaces of alpha-TiO2 and SnO2 as calculated with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Andrei V; Kubicki, James D; Sofo, Jorge O

    2008-09-18

    Mono- and bilayer adsorption of H2O molecules on TiO2 and SnO 2 (110) surfaces has been investigated using static planewave density functional theory (PW DFT) simulations. Potential energies and structures were calculated for the associative, mixed, and dissociative adsorption states. The DOS of the bare and hydrated surfaces has been used for the analysis of the difference between the H2O interaction with TiO2 and SnO 2 surfaces. The important role of the bridging oxygen in the H2O dissociation process is discussed. The influence of the second layer of H2O molecules on relaxation of the surface atoms was estimated.

  12. Inhibition of cyclophilin A suppresses H2O2-enhanced replication of HCMV through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Song, Xin; Deng, Jiang; Lv, Liping; Ma, Ping; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xipeng; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can be accelerated by intracellular and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation, mediated by the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, it remains unknown whether host gene expression is involved in H2O2-upregulated HCMV replication. Here, we show that the expression of the host gene, cyclophilin A (CyPA), could be facilitated by treatment with H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Experiments with CyPA-specific siRNA, or with cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of CyPA, confirmed that H2O2-mediated upregulation of HCMV replication is specifically mediated by upregulation of CyPA expression. Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of CyPA reduced H2O2-induced p38 activation, consistent with that of H2O2-upregulated HCMV lytic replication. These results show that H2O2 is capable of activating ROS-CyPA-p38 MAPK interactions to enhance HCMV replication.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) irreversibly inactivates creatine kinase from Pelodiscus sinensis by targeting the active site cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Jinhyuk; Hao, Hao; Park, Yong-Doo; Qian, Guo-Ying

    2017-12-01

    Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2, CK) plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis by catalysing the transfer of phosphate between ATP and creatine phosphate. In this study, we investigated the effects of H 2 O 2 on PSCKM (muscle type creatine kinase from Pelodiscus sinensis) by the integrating method between enzyme kinetics and docking simulations. We found that H 2 O 2 strongly inactivated PSCKM (IC 50 =0.25mM) in a first-order kinetic process, and targeted the active site cysteine directly. A conformational study showed that H 2 O 2 did not induce the tertiary structural changes in PSCKM with no extensive exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. Sequential docking simulations between PSCKM and H 2 O 2 indicated that H 2 O 2 interacts with the ADP binding region of the active site, consistent with experimental results that demonstrated H 2 O 2 -induced inactivation. Our study demonstrates the effect of H 2 O 2 on PSCKM enzymatic function and unfolding, and provides important insight into the changes undergone by this central metabolic enzyme in ectothermic animals in response to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustained Submicromolar H2O2 Levels Induce Hepcidin via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millonig, Gunda; Ganzleben, Ingo; Peccerella, Teresa; Casanovas, Guillem; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dick, Tobias P.; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mueller, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin regulates mammalian iron homeostasis by blocking ferroportin-mediated iron export from macrophages and the duodenum. During inflammation, hepcidin is strongly induced by interleukin 6, eventually leading to the anemia of chronic disease. Here we show that hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes strongly up-regulate hepcidin when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2 (0.3–6 μm), concentrations that are comparable with levels of H2O2 released by inflammatory cells. In contrast, bolus treatment of H2O2 has no effect at low concentrations and even suppresses hepcidin at concentrations of >50 μm. H2O2 treatment synergistically stimulates hepcidin promoter activity in combination with recombinant interleukin-6 or bone morphogenetic protein-6 and in a manner that requires a functional STAT3-responsive element. The H2O2-mediated hepcidin induction requires STAT3 phosphorylation and is effectively blocked by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing, overexpression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3), and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is required for H2O2 responsiveness, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for adequate basal signaling, whereas Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is dispensable upstream of STAT3. Importantly, hepcidin levels are also increased by intracellular H2O2 released from the respiratory chain in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of hepcidin regulation by nanomolar levels of sustained H2O2. Thus, similar to cytokines, H2O2 provides an important regulatory link between inflammation and iron metabolism. PMID:22932892

  15. HF/H2O2 treated graphite felt as the positive electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangxing; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Jiang, Fengyun; Zhou, Huizhu; Li, Yuehua; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Ling; Dai, Lei

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of the positive graphite felt electrode in vanadium flow redox battery, a novel method is developed to effectively modify the graphite felt by combination of etching of HF and oxidation of H2O2. After the etching of HF for the graphite felt at ambient temperature, abundant oxygen-containing functional groups were further introduced on the surface of graphite felt by hydrothermal treatment using H2O2 as oxidant. Benefiting from the surface etching and introduction of functional groups, mass transfer and electrode process can be improved significantly on the surface of graphite felt. VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction on the graphite felt modified by HF and H2O2 jointly (denote: GF-HF/H2O2) exhibits superior electrochemical kinetics in comparison with the graphite felt modified by single HF or H2O2 treatment. The cell using GF-HF/H2O2 as the positive electrode was assembled and its electrochemical properties were evaluated. The increase of energy efficiency of 4.1% for GF-HF/H2O2 at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 was obtained compared with the pristine graphite felt. The cell using GF-HF/H2O2 also demonstrated higher discharge capacity. Our study revealed that HF/H2O2 treatment is an efficient method to enhance the electrochemical performance of graphite felt, further improving the comprehensive energy storage performance of the vanadium flow redox battery.

  16. Combination of sunlight irradiated oxidative processes for landfill leachate: heterogeneous catalysis (TiO2 versus homogeneous catalysis (H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Cobra Guimarães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the treatment of landfill leachate liquid in nature, after the use of a combination of advanced oxidation processes. More specifically, it compared heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2 to homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, both under photo-irradiated sunlight. The liquid used for the study was the leachate from the landfill of the city of Cachoeira Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in a semi-batch reactor open to the absorption of solar UV radiation, with 120 min reaction time. The factors and their respective levels (-1, 0 and 1 were distributed in a experimental design 24-1 with duplicate and triplicate in the central point, resulting in an array with 19 treatment trials. The studied factors in comparing the two catalytic processes were: liquid leachate dilution, TiO2 concentration on the reactor plate, the H2O2 amount and pH level. The leachate had low photo-catalytic degradability, with NOPC reductions ranging from 1% to a maximum of 24.9%. When considering each factor alone, neither homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, nor heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2, could degrade the percolated liquid without significant reductions (5% level in total NOPC. On the other hand, the combined use of homogenous catalysis with H2O2 and heterogeneous catalysis H2O2 resulted in the greatest reductions in NOPC. The optimum condition for the NOPC reduction was obtained at pH 7, dilution of percolated:water at 1:1 (v v-1 rate; excess of 12.5% H2O2 and coating plate reactor with 0.025 g cm-2 TiO2.

  17. Fourier transform infrared studies of the N2-O2 binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, M.; Jodi, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Solid solutions (N 2 ) x (O 2 ) 1-x have been investigated by infrared absorption measurements mainly in the O 2 and N 2 stretching regions, between 60-10 K, completing former similar studies by Raman scattering. We produced thermodynamically stable samples by a careful thermal treatment, followed by cooling/heating cycles over weeks, during which we took spectra. From fingerprints in the infrared spectra we deduce phase-transition and solubility lines and suggest a refined, improved T-x % phase diagram in respect to the inconsistencies between those in the literature. The spectra of N 2 -O 2 mixtures are pretty complex, but by referring to known spectra of the pure systems N 2 or O 2 we were able to assign and interpret broad (∼100 cm - 1 ) phonon side bands to fundamentals and an electronic transition (O 2 ), depending on actual temperature and concentration. Narrow features in the spectra ( -1 ) were attributed to the vibron DOS of N 2 or O 2 , whose bandwidth, band shape, and intensity are different and characteristic for each phase. Differences between pure and mixed systems are pointed out. The matrix isolation technique (2 ppm of CO) was used to probe our mixture

  18. Rate constant and thermochemistry for K + O2 + N2 = KO2 + N2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Viljanen, Jan; Toivonen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    in the form of double exponential decays of [K], which yielded both kR1 and the equilibrium constant for KO2 formation. kR1 can be summarized as 1.07 × 10-30(T/1000 K)-0.733 cm6 molecule-2 s-1. Combination with literature values leads to a recommended kR1 of 5.5 × 10-26T-1.55 exp(-10/T) cm6 molecule-2 s-1...... over 250-1320 K, with an error limit of a factor of 1.5. A vant Hoff analysis constrained to fit the computed ΔS298 yields a K-O2 bond dissociation enthalpy of 184.2 ± 4.0 kJ mol-1 at 298 K and ΔfH298(KO2) = -95.2 ± 4.1 kJ mol-1. The corresponding D0 is 181.5 ± 4.0 kJ mol-1. This value compares well...

  19. Control of strain in GaN by a combination of H2 and N2 carrier gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kariya, Michihiko; Kosaki, Masayoshi; Yukawa, Yohei; Nitta, Shugo; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2001-01-01

    We study the effect of a combination of N 2 and H 2 carrier gases on the residual strain and crystalline properties of GaN, and we propose its application to the improvement of crystalline quality of GaN/Al 0.17 Ga 0.83 N multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. GaN was grown with H 2 or N 2 carrier gas (H 2 - or N 2 - GaN) on an AlN low-temperature-deposited buffer layer. A (0001) sapphire substrate was used. N 2 - GaN was grown on H 2 - GaN. The total thickness was set to be 1.5 μm, and the ratio of N 2 - GaN thickness to the total thickness, x, ranged from 0 to 1. With increasing x, the tensile stress in GaN increased. Photoluminescence intensity at room temperature was much enhanced. Moreover, the crystalline quality of GaN/Al 0.17 Ga 0.83 N MQW was much higher when the MQW was grown with N 2 on H 2 - GaN than when it was grown with H 2 on H 2 - GaN. These results were due to the achievement of control of strain in GaN using a combination of N 2 - GaN and H 2 - GaN. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Study of ZrO2-H2SO4-(NH4)2SO4(NH4Cl)-H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motov, D.L.; Sozinova, Yu.P.; Rys'kina, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    Regions of formation, composition and solubility of ammonium sulfatozirconates (ASZ) in ZrO 2 -H 2 SO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (NH 4 Cl)-H 2 O systems at 25 and 75 deg C are studied by the isothermal method. Five ASZ: (NH 4 ) 2 Zr(OH) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 , NH 4 ZrOH(SO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O, NH 4 ZrO 0.5 (OH) 2 SO 4 x1.5H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 Zr(SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 4 Zr(SO 4 ) 4 x4H 2 O are detected, their properties are investigated. Main sulfates are new compounds never described ealier

  1. Hierarchical Honeycomb Br-, N-Codoped TiO2 with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuming; Bao, Jiehua; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Chen, Wenxia

    2018-06-06

    The halogen elements modification strategy of TiO 2 encounters a bottleneck in visible-light H 2 production. Herein, we have for the first time reported a hierarchical honeycomb Br-, N-codoped anatase TiO 2 catalyst (HM-Br,N/TiO 2 ) with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H 2 production. During the synthesizing process, large amounts of meso-macroporous channels and TiO 2 nanosheets were fabricated in massive TiO 2 automatically, constructing the hierarchical honeycomb structure with large specific surface area (464 m 2 g -1 ). cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and melamine played a key role in constructing the meso-macroporous channels. Additionally, HM-Br,N/TiO 2 showed a high visible-light H 2 production rate of 2247 μmol h -1 g -1 , which is far more higher than single Br- or N-doped TiO 2 (0 or 63 μmol h -1 g -1 , respectively), thereby demonstrating the excellent synergistic effects of Br and N elements in H 2 evolution. In HM-Br,N/TiO 2 catalytic system, the codoped Br-N atoms could reduce the band gap of TiO 2 to 2.88 eV and the holes on acceptor levels (N acceptor) can passivate the electrons on donor levels (Br donor), thereby preventing charge carriers recombination significantly. Furthermore, the proposed HM-Br,N/TiO 2 fabrication strategy had a wide range of choices for N source (e.g., melamine, urea, and dicyandiamide) and it can be applied to other TiO 2 materials (e.g., P25) as well, thereby implying its great potential application in visible-light H 2 production. Finally, on the basis of experimental results, a possible photocatalytic H 2 production mechanism for HM-Br,N/TiO 2 was proposed.

  2. CodY Regulates Thiol Peroxidase Expression as Part of the Pneumococcal Defense Mechanism against H2O2 Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaj, Barak; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Zhi, Xiangyun; Benisty, Rachel; Tchalah, Shiran; Kuipers, Oscar P; Porat, Nurith

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative anaerobic pathogen. Although it maintains fermentative metabolism, during aerobic growth pneumococci produce high levels of H 2 O 2 , which can have adverse effects on cell viability and DNA, and influence pneumococcal interaction with its host. The pneumococcus is unusual in its dealing with toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in that it neither has catalase nor the global regulators of peroxide stress resistance. Previously, we identified pneumococcal thiol peroxidase (TpxD) as the key enzyme for enzymatic removal of H 2 O 2 , and showed that TpxD synthesis is up-regulated upon exposure to H 2 O 2 . This study aimed to reveal the mechanism controlling TpxD expression under H 2 O 2 stress. We hypothesize that H 2 O 2 activates a transcription factor which in turn up-regulates tpxD expression. Microarray analysis revealed a pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H 2 O 2 . Mutation of tpxD abolished H 2 O 2 -mediated response to high H 2 O 2 levels, signifying the need for an active TpxD under oxidative stress conditions. Bioinformatic tools, applied to search for a transcription factor modulating tpxD expression, pointed toward CodY as a potential candidate. Indeed, a putative 15-bp consensus CodY binding site was found in the proximal region of tpxD- coding sequence. Binding of CodY to this site was confirmed by EMSA, and genetic engineering techniques demonstrated that this site is essential for TpxD up-regulation under H 2 O 2 stress. Furthermore, tpxD expression was reduced in a Δ codY mutant. These data indicate that CodY is an activator of tpxD expression, triggering its up-regulation under H 2 O 2 stress. In addition we show that H 2 O 2 specifically oxidizes the 2 CodY cysteines. This oxidation may trigger a conformational change in CodY, resulting in enhanced binding to DNA. A schematic model illustrating the contribution of TpxD and CodY to pneumococcal global transcriptional response to H 2 O 2 is

  3. Clofibric acid degradation in UV254/H2O2 process: effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2010-04-15

    The degradation of clofibric acid (CA) in UV(254)/H(2)O(2) process under three temperature ranges, i.e. T1 (9.0-11.5 degrees C), T2 (19.0-21.0 degrees C) and T3 (29.0-30.0 degrees C) was investigated. The effects of solution constituents including NO(3)(-) and HCO(3)(-) anions, and humic acid (HA) on CA degradation were evaluated in Milli-Q waters. CA degradation behaviors were simulated with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the apparent rate constant (k(ap)) and half-life time (t(1/2)) were calculated. The results showed that higher temperature would favor CA degradation, and CA degradation was taken place mostly by indirect oxidation through the formation of OH radicals in UV(254)/H(2)O(2) process. In addition, the effects of both NO(3)(-) and HCO(3)(-) anions at two selected concentrations (1.0x10(-3) and 0.1 mol L(-1)) and HA (20 mg L(-1)) on CA degradation were investigated. The results showed that HA had negative effect on CA degradation, and this effect was much more apparent under low temperature condition. On the other hand, the inhibitive effect on CA degradation at both lower and higher concentrations of bicarbonate was observed, and this inhibitive effect was much more apparent at higher bicarbonate concentration and lower temperature condition. While, at higher nitrate concentration the inhibitive effect on CA degradation under three temperature ranges was observed, and with the temperature increase this negative effect was apparently weakened. However, at lower nitrate concentration a slightly positive effect on CA degradation was found under T2 and T3 conditions. Moreover, when using a real wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent spiked with CA over 99% of CA removal could be achieved under 30 degrees C within only 15 min compared with 40 and 80 min under 20 and 10 degrees C respectively, suggesting a significant promotion in CA degradation under higher temperature condition. Therefore, it can be concluded that temperature plays an

  4. Oxidation of Alkenes with H2O2 by an in-Situ Prepared Mn(II)/Pyridine-2-carboxylic Acid Catalyst and the Role of Ketones in Activating H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jia Jia; Saisaha, Pattama; Meinds, Tim G.; Alsters, Paul L.; Ijpeij, Edwin G.; van Summeren, Ruben P.; Mao, Bin; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; de Boer, Johannes W.; Hage, Ronald; Feringa, Ben L.; Browne, Wesley R.

    A simple, high yielding catalytic method for the multigram scale selective epoxidation of electron-rich alkenes using near-stoichiometric H2O2 under ambient conditions is reported. The system consists of a Mn(II) salt (

  5. Removal of phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds from waste activated sludge using UV, H2O2, and UV/H2O2 oxidation processes: Effects of reaction conditions and sludge matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ai; Li, Yongmei

    2014-01-01

    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using ultraviolet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and the combined UV/H 2 O 2 processes. Effects of initial EDC concentration, H 2 O 2 dosage, and pH value were investigated. Particularly, the effects of 11 metal ions and humic acid (HA) contained in a sludge matrix on EDC degradation were evaluated. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model was used to describe the EDC degradation during UV, H 2 O 2 , and UV/H 2 O 2 treatments of WAS. The results showed that the degradation of the 6 EDCs during all the three oxidation processes fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetics. Compared with the sole UV irradiation or H 2 O 2 oxidation process, UV/H 2 O 2 treatment was much more effective for both EDC degradation and WAS solubilization. Under their optimal conditions, the EDC degradation rate constants during UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation were 45–197 times greater than those during UV irradiation and 11–53 times greater than those during H 2 O 2 oxidation. High dosage of H 2 O 2 and low pH were favorable for the degradation of EDCs. Under the conditions of pH = 3, UV wavelength = 253.7 nm, UV fluence rate = 0.069 mW cm −2 , and H 2 O 2 dosage = 0.5 mol L −1 , the removal efficiencies of E1, E2, EE2, E3, BPA, and NP in 2 min were 97%, 92%, 95%, 94%, 89%, and 67%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical (·OH) was proved to take the most important role for the removal of EDCs. Metal ions in sludge could facilitate the removal of EDCs during UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation. Fe, Ag, and Cu ions had more obvious effects compared with other metal ions. The overall role of HA was dependent on the balance between its competition as organics and its catalysis/photosensitization effects. These indicate that the sludge matrix plays an important role in the degradation of EDCs. - Highlights:

  6. Ab initio and transition state theory study of the OH + HO2 → H2O + O2(3Σg−)/O2(1Δg) reactions: yield and role of O2(1Δg) in H2O2 decomposition and in combustion of H2

    KAUST Repository

    Monge Palacios, Manuel

    2018-01-22

    Reactions of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) are important for governing the reactivity of combustion systems. We performed post-CCSD(T) ab initio calculations at the W3X-L//CCSD = FC/cc-pVTZ level to explore the triplet ground-state and singlet excited-state potential energy surfaces of the OH + HO2 → H2O + O2(3Σg−)/O2(1Δg) reactions. Using microcanonical and multistructural canonical transition state theories, we calculated the rate constant for the triplet and singlet channels over the temperature range 200–2500 K, represented by k(T) = 3.08 × 1012T0.07 exp(1151/RT) + 8.00 × 1012T0.32 exp(−6896/RT) and k(T) = 2.14 × 106T1.65 exp(−2180/RT) in cm3 mol−1 s−1, respectively. The branching ratios show that the yield of singlet excited oxygen is small (<0.5% below 1000 K). To ascertain the importance of singlet oxygen channel, our new kinetic information was implemented into the kinetic model for hydrogen combustion recently updated by Konnov (Combust. Flame, 2015, 162, 3755–3772). The updated kinetic model was used to perform H2O2 thermal decomposition simulations for comparison against shock tube experiments performed by Hong et al. (Proc. Combust. Inst., 2013, 34, 565–571), and to estimate flame speeds and ignition delay times in H2 mixtures. The simulation predicted a larger amount of O2(1Δg) in H2O2 decomposition than that predicted by Konnov\\'s original model. These differences in the O2(1Δg) yield are due to the use of a higher ab initio level and a more sophisticated methodology to compute the rate constant than those used in previous studies, thereby predicting a significantly larger rate constant. No effect was observed on the rate of the H2O2 decomposition and on the flame speeds and ignition delay times of different H2–oxidizer mixtures. However, if the oxidizer is seeded with O3, small differences appear in the flame speed. Given that O2(1Δg) is much more reactive than O2(3Σg−), we do not preclude an effect of the

  7. Pd-catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 from H2 and O2 produced by water electrolysis for the efficient electro-fenton degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Yucheng; Tong, Man; Liao, Peng

    2011-10-01

    A novel electro-Fenton process was developed for wastewater treatment using a modified divided electrolytic system in which H2O2 was generated in situ from electro-generated H2 and O2 in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. Appropriate pH conditions were obtained by the excessive H+ produced at the anode. The performance of the novel process was assessed by Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in an aqueous solution. Experimental results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 occurred when the pH decreased and time elapsed. The maximum concentration of H2O2 reached 53.1 mg/L within 120 min at pH 2 and a current of 100 mA. Upon the formation of the Fenton reagent by the addition of Fe2+, RhB degraded completely within 30 min at pH 2 with a pseudo first order rate constant of 0.109 ± 0.009 min(-1). An insignificant decline in H2O2 generation and RhB degradation was found after six repetitions. RhB degradation was achieved by the chemisorption of H2O2 on the Pd/C surface, which subsequently decomposed into •OH upon catalysis by Pd0 and Fe2+. The catalytic decomposition of H2O2 to •OH by Fe2+ was more powerful than that by Pd0, which was responsible for the high efficiency of this novel electro-Fenton process.

  8. Protective effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 on RPE cells injury caused by H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6(BMP-6on cellular morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial cells(ARPE-19incubated in hydrogen peroxide(H2O2. METHODS:ARPE-19 cells were cultured conventionally and divided into four groups. One group was untreated as blank group, the other three groups were incubated in 75μm/L H2O2, 150ng/mLBMP-6 or75μm/L H2O2+150ng/mL BMP-6. All the groups were incubated for 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h. We tested the cell viabilitity by MTT. We used flow cytometry to test the cell cycle and cell apoptosis.RESULTS:H2O2 significantly decreased the cell activity in time-dependent manner. The activity of cells with BMP-6+H2O2 was higher H2O2 group, and the differences between the two groups at 3h and 6h were significant(P2O2, while the cells with BMP-6 were less cell detachment and apoptosis. CONCLUSION:BMP-6 has protective effects on RPE cells from oxidative stress in certain extent.

  9. Yield of H2O2 in Gas-Liquid Phase with Pulsed DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Song; Wen, Yiyong; Liu, Kefu

    2014-01-01

    Electric discharge in water can generate a large number of oxidants such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. In this paper, a non-thermal plasma processing system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in gas-liquid phase. The electrodes of discharge reactor were staggered. The yield of H2O2 was enhanced after discharge. The effects of discharge time, discharge voltage, frequency, initial pH value, and feed gas were investigated. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide and ozone was measured after discharge. The experimental results were fully analyzed. The chemical reaction equations in water were given as much as possible. At last, the water containing Rhodamine B was tested in this system. The degradation rate came to 94.22% in 30 min.

  10. The Sabatier Principle Illustrated by Catalytic H2O2 Decomposition on Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anders Bo; Man, Isabela Costinela; Trinhammer, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis is important in today’s industry. Hence, it is imperative to introduce students to this field and its tools. A new way of introducing one of these tools, the Sabatier principle, via a laboratory exercise is presented. A volcano plot is constructed for the well-known hetero......Heterogeneous catalysis is important in today’s industry. Hence, it is imperative to introduce students to this field and its tools. A new way of introducing one of these tools, the Sabatier principle, via a laboratory exercise is presented. A volcano plot is constructed for the well......-known heterogeneous H2O2 catalytic decomposition reaction on various metal foils. The activity per catalyst surface area versus the computationally calculated binding energy of OH groups on the catalysts is plotted. The OH group is identified as the only surface intermediate in an intuitive reaction mechanism...

  11. Strong enhancement of the chemiluminescence of the Cu(II)-H2O2 system on addition of carbon nitride quantum dots, and its application to the detection of H2O2 and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaj, Tooba; Amjadi, Mohammad; Song, Zhenlun; Bagheri, Robabeh

    2017-12-19

    The authors report that carbon nitride quantum dots (CN QDs) exert a strong enhancing effect on the Cu(II)/H 2 O 2 chemiluminescent system. Chemiluminescence (CL) intensity is enhanced by CN QDs by a factor of ~75, while other carbon nanomaterials have a much weaker effect. The possible mechanism of the effect was evaluated by recording fluorescence and CL spectra and by examining the effect of various radical scavengers. Emitting species was found to be excited-state CN QDs that produce green CL peaking at 515 nm. The new CL system was applied to the sensitive detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose (via glucose oxidase-catalyzed formation of H 2 O 2 ) with detection limits (3σ) of 10 nM for H 2 O 2 and 100 nM for glucose. The probe was employed for glucose determination in human plasma samples with satisfactory results. Graphical abstract The effect of carbon nitride quantum dots (CN QDs) on Cu(II)-H 2 O 2 chemiluminescence reaction was studied and the new CL system was applied for sensitive detection of glucose based on the glucose oxidase (GOx)-catalyzed formation of H 2 O 2 .

  12. Hydrothermal stability of adenine under controlled fugacities of N2, CO2 and H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiatte, Michael; Richard, Laurent; Elie, Marcel; Nguyen-Trung, Chinh; Perfetti, Erwan; LaRowe, Douglas E

    2008-04-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the stability of adenine (one of the five nucleic acid bases) under hydrothermal conditions. The experiments were performed in sealed autoclaves at 300 degrees C under fugacities of CO(2), N(2) and H(2) supposedly representative of those in marine hydrothermal systems on the early Earth. The composition of the gas phase was obtained from the degradation of oxalic acid, sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride, and the oxidation of metallic iron. The results of the experiments indicate that after 200 h, adenine is still present in detectable concentration in the aqueous phase. In fact, the concentration of adenine does not seem to be decreasing after approximately 24 h, which suggests that an equilibrium state may have been established with the inorganic constituents of the hydrothermal fluid. Such a conclusion is corroborated by independent thermodynamic calculations.

  13. Cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias upon H2O2 induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darehshouri, Anza; Affenzeller, Matthias; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we investigate whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction and by which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks it is characterized. This is particularly interesting as unicellular fresh water green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions and the capability to perform PCD may provide an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically “immortal” alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system since many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatment with low concentrations of H2O2 known to induce PCD in other organisms resulted in severe ultrastructural changes of organelles as observed in TEM. These include deformation and partly disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, the occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity could be detected which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H2O2 exposure whereas pigment composition, except of a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as PCD hallmark in higher plants could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

  14. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  15. Measurements and Modeling of SiCl(4) Combustion in a Low-Pressure H2/O2 Flame

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, T; Brady, B; Martin, L. R

    2006-01-01

    .... A gas-phase chemical kinetics mechanism for the combustion of SiCl in an H2/O2/Ar flame was proposed, and experimental results were compared with predictions for a premixed, one-dimensional laminar...

  16. Reduced gas seepages in ophiolitic complexes: Evidences for multiple origins of the H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquand, Christèle; Deville, Eric; Beaumont, Valérie; Guyot, François; Sissmann, Olivier; Pillot, Daniel; Arcilla, Carlo; Prinzhofer, Alain

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a comparative study of reduced gas seepages occurring in ultrabasic to basic rocks outcropping in ophiolitic complexes based on the study of seepages from Oman, the Philippines, Turkey and New Caledonia. This study is based on analyses of the gas chemical composition, noble gases contents, stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. These seepages are mostly made of mixtures of three main components which are H2, CH4 and N2 in various proportions. The relative contents of the three main gas components show 4 distinct types of gas mixtures (H2-rich, N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4). These types are interpreted as reflecting different zones of gas generation within or below the ophiolitic complexes. In the H2-rich type, associated noble gases display signatures close to the value of air. In addition to the atmospheric component, mantle and crustal contributions are present in the N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4 types. H2-bearing gases are either associated with ultra-basic (pH 10-12) spring waters or they seep directly in fracture systems from the ophiolitic rocks. In ophiolitic contexts, ultrabasic rocks provide an adequate environment with available Fe2+ and alkaline conditions that favor H2 production. CH4 is produced either directly by reaction of dissolved CO2 with basic-ultrabasic rocks during the serpentinization process or in a second step by H2-CO2 interaction. H2 is present in the gas when no more carbon is available in the system to generate CH4. The N2-rich type is notably associated with relatively high contents of crustal 4He and in this gas type N2 is interpreted as issued mainly from sediments located below the ophiolitic units.

  17. Photoproduction of One-Electron Reducing Intermediates by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM): Relation to O2- and H2O2 Photoproduction and CDOM Photooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Blough, Neil V

    2016-10-06

    A molecular probe, 3-amino-2,2,5,5,-tetramethy-1-pyrrolydinyloxy (3ap), was employed to determine the formation rates of one-electron reducing intermediates generated photochemically from both untreated and borohydride-reduced Suwanee River fulvic and humic acids (SRFA and SRHA, respectively). This stable nitroxyl radical reacts rapidly with reducing radicals and other one-electron reductants to produce a relatively stable product, the hydroxylamine, which can be derivatized with fluorescamine, separated by HPLC and quantified fluorimetrically. We provide evidence that O 2 and 3ap compete for the same pool(s) of photoproduced reducing intermediates, and that under appropriate experimental conditions, the initial rate of hydroxylamine formation (R H ) can provide an estimate of the initial rate of superoxide (O 2 - ) formation. However, comparison of the initial rates of H 2 O 2 formation (R H2O2 ) to that of R H show far larger ratios of R H /R H2O2 (∼6-13) than be accounted for by simple O 2 - dismutation (R H /R H2O2 = 2), implying a significant oxidative sink of O 2 - (∼67-85%). Because of their high reactivity with O 2 - and their likely importance in the photochemistry of CDOM, we suggest that coproduced phenoxy radicals could represent a viable oxidative sink. Because O 2 - /phenoxy radical reactions can lead to more highly oxidized products, O 2 - could be playing a far more significant role in the photooxidation of CDOM than has been previously recognized.

  18. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  19. Polysulfides and products of H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione in comparison to H2S, glutathione and antioxidant Trolox are potent scavengers of superoxide anion radical and produce hydroxyl radical by decomposition of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Bacova, Zuzana; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Hudecova, Sona; Ondriasova, Elena; Krizanova, Olga; Brezova, Vlasta; Chovanec, Miroslav; Ondrias, Karol

    2018-06-01

    Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H 2 S/HS - /S 2- , polysulfides and products of the H 2 S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and O 2 - , we found that a polysulfide (Na 2 S 4 ) and S/GSNO were potent scavengers of O 2 - and cPTIO radicals compared to H 2 S (Na 2 S), GSH and Trolox, and S/GSNO scavenged the DEPMPO-OH radical. As detected by the EPR spectra of DEPMPO-OH, the formation of OH in physiological solution by S/GSNO was suggested. All the studied sulfide derivatives, but not Trolox or GSH, had a bell-shaped potency to decompose H 2 O 2 and produced OH in the following order: S/GSNO > Na 2 S 4  ≥ Na 2 S > GSH = Trolox = 0, but they scavenged OH at higher concentrations. In studies of the biological consequences of these sulfide derivatives/H 2 O 2 properties, we found the following: (i) S/GSNO alone and all sulfide derivatives in the presence of H 2 O 2 cleaved plasmid DNA; (ii) S/GSNO interfered with viral replication and consequently decreased the infectivity of viruses; (iii) the sulfide derivatives induced apoptosis in A2780 cells but inhibited apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 ; and (iv) Na 2 S 4 modulated intracellular calcium in A87MG cells, which depended on the order of Na 2 S 4 /H 2 O 2 application. We suggest that the apparent inconsistency of the cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic biological effects of sulfide derivatives results from their time

  20. Ab initio studies on the reaction of O2 with Ban (n=2,5) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.F.; Xue Xinlian; Chen, G.; Yuan, D.W.; Jia Yu; Gong, X.G.

    2006-01-01

    Ab initio theoretical calculations have been performed to study the reaction of O 2 with Ba n (n=2,5) clusters. Our results show that O 2 can easily chemisorb and dissociate on small Ba n clusters and there is no obvious energy barrier in the process of the dissociation. The local magnetic moment contributed by oxygen must vanish during the intermediate states before the O 2 dissociation. Correspondingly, local magnetic moment only decreases from 2μ B to about 1μ B if O 2 molecularly adsorbs onto Ba 5 cluster. The electronic structure analysis indicates that the charge transfer from Ba n cluster to O 2 as well as the orbital hybridization between the cluster and the oxygen molecule may play a key role in O 2 dissociation

  1. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady

    The deactivation performance of Pt-catalysts for CO oxidation has been studied in relation to use in sewage sludge municipal waste burners, where HMDS was found to poison the industrial catalyst in a similar way to the model Pt/TiO2 catalyst. A promising regeneration procedure was developed based...... on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  2. Peroxy defects in Rocks and H2O2 formation on the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.; Balk, M.; Mason, P.; Freund, F.; Rothschild, L.

    2013-12-01

    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. The question is still shrouded in uncertainty how free oxygen became available on the early Earth. Here we study processes of peroxy defects in silicate minerals which, upon weathering, generate mobilized electronic charge carriers resulting in oxygen formation in an initially anoxic subsurface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are precursors to molecular oxygen during this process. Due to their toxicity they may have strongly influenced the evolution of life. ROS are generated during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions. A second pathway for formation occurs during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, microorganisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defenses against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of ROS and oxygen. We have investigated how oxygen might be released through weathering and test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces. Our results show how early Life might have adapted to oxygen. Early microorganisms must have "trained" to detoxify ROS prior to the evolution of aerobic metabolism and oxygenic photosynthesis. A possible way out of this dilemma comes from a study of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, whose minerals contain a small but significant fraction of oxygen anions in the valence state 1- , forming peroxy links of the type O3Si-OO-SiO3 [1, 2]. As water hydrolyzes the peroxy links hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, forms. Continued experimental discovery of H2O2 formation at rock

  3. The Effects of Nitroxyl (HNO) on H2O2 Metabolism and Possible Mechanisms of HNO Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew I.; Fields, Hannah F.; Lujan, Timothy S.; Cantrell, Megan M.; Lin, Joseph; Fukuto, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) possesses unique and potentially important biological/physiological activity that is currently mechanistically ill-defined. Previous work has shown that the likely biological targets for HNO are thiol proteins, oxidized metalloproteins (i.e. ferric heme proteins) and, most likely, selenoproteins. Interestingly, these are the same classes of proteins that interact with H2O2. In fact, these classes of proteins not only react with H2O2, and thus potentially responsible for the sig...

  4. Using H2O2 treatments for the degradation of cyanobacteria and microcystins in a shallow hypertrophic reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Theodoti; Kormas, Konstantinos; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Laspidou, Chrysi

    2016-11-01

    Toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems constitute a serious health risk worldwide for humans that may use the affected water bodies for recreation, drinking water, and/or irrigation. Cyanotoxins have also been deemed responsible for loss of animal life in many places around the world. This paper explores the effect of H 2 O 2 treatments on cyanobacteria and microcystins in natural samples from a hypertrophic reservoir in microcosm experiments. According to the results, cyanobacteria were more easily affected by H 2 O 2 than by other phytoplanktonic groups. This was shown by the increase in the fractions of chlorophyll-a (a proxy for phytoplankton) and chlorophyll-b (a proxy for green algae) over total phytoplankton pigments and the decrease in the fraction of phycocyanin (a proxy for cyanobacteria) over total phytoplankton pigments. Thus, while an overall increase in phytoplankton occurred, a preferential decrease in cyanobacteria was observed with H 2 O 2 treatments over a few hours. Moreover, significant degradation of total microcystins was observed under H 2 O 2 treatments, while more microcystins were degraded when UV radiation was used in combination with H 2 O 2 . The combination of H 2 O 2 and ultraviolet (UV) treatment in natural samples resulted in total microcystin concentrations that were below the World Health Organization limit for safe consumption of drinking water of 1 μg/L. Although further investigation into the effects of H 2 O 2 addition on ecosystem function must be performed, our results show that the application of H 2 O 2 could be a promising method for the degradation of microcystins in reservoirs and the reduction of public health risks related to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms.

  5. Tyrphostin AG-related compounds attenuate H2O2-induced TRPM2-dependent and -independent cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Toda, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2017-05-01

    TRPM2 is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is activated by H 2 O 2 . TRPM2-mediated Ca 2+ signaling has been implicated in the aggravation of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the development of TRPM2 inhibitors to prevent the aggravation of these diseases is expected. We recently reported that some Tyrphostin AG-related compounds inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of TRPM2 by scavenging the intracellular hydroxyl radical. In the present study, we examined the effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced cellular responses in human monocytic U937 cells, which functionally express TRPM2. The effects of AG-related compounds on H 2 O 2 -induced changes in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, and CXCL8 secretion were assessed using U937 cells. Ca 2+ influxes via TRPM2 in response to H 2 O 2 were blocked by AG-related compounds. AG-related compounds also inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced activation of ERK, and subsequent secretion of CXCL8 mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our results show that AG-related compounds inhibit H 2 O 2 -induced CXCL8 secretion following ERK activation, which is mediated by TRPM2-dependent and -independent mechanisms in U937 cells. We previously reported that AG-related compounds blocked H 2 O 2 -induced TRPM2 activation by scavenging the hydroxyl radical. The inhibitory effects of AG-related compounds on TRPM2-independent responses may be due to scavenging of the hydroxyl radical. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng

    Full Text Available The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2 and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  7. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hong; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2) and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz) at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  8. Effects of CO, O2, NO, H2O, and irradiation temperature on the radiation-induced oxidation of SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Nishimura, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobutake; Washino, Masamitsu

    1977-01-01

    When a SO 2 -H 2 O-O 2 -N 2 gaseous mixture was irradiated by electron beams of 1.5 MeV, SO 2 was easily oxidized to H 2 SO 4 . Effects of CO, O 2 , NO, H 2 O, and irradiation temperature on the radiation-induced oxidation of SO 2 were studied by measuring the SO 2 concentration gas chromatographically. The G(-SO 2 ) increased greatly at the addition of a small amount of O 2 , and then decreased gradually with an increase in the O 2 concentration, i.e., the G(-SO 2 ) values were 0.9, 8.0, and 5.3 for the 0, 0.1, and 20% O 2 concentrations at 100 0 C, respectively (Fig.4). The G(-SO 2 ) was independent of the H 2 O concentration in the range of 0.84 to 8.4% (Fig.5). The G(-SO 2 ) decreased with a rise in the irradiation temperature (Fig.6) and an apparent activation energy of the oxidation reaction of SO 2 obtained was -4.2 kcal.mol -1 . The effects of CO, NO, and O 2 on the G(-SO 2 ) showed that SO 2 was mainly oxidized by OH and O and that the contribution of OH to the oxidation of SO 2 increased with an increase in the O 2 concentration (Table 1). The rate constants for the reactions of SO 2 with OH and O, obtained from competitive reactions of SO 2 with CO and O 2 , were 5.4 x 10 11 cm 3 .mol -1 .sec -1 and 5.0 x 10 11 cm 3 .mol -1 .sec -1 , respectively. (auth.)

  9. Decolorizing of azo dye Reactive red 24 aqueous solution using exfoliated graphite and H2O2 under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Li, Ji-Tai; Sun, Han-Wen

    2008-07-01

    At its natural pH (6.95), the decolorization of Reactive red 24 in ultrasound, ultrasound/H2O2, exfoliated graphite, ultrasound/exfoliated graphite, exfoliated graphite/H2O2 and ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 systems were compared. An enhancement was observed for the decolorization in ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 system. The effect of solution pH, H2O2 and exfoliated graphite dosages, and temperature on the decolorization of Reactive red 24 was investigated. The sonochemical treatment in combination with exfoliated graphite/H2O2 showed a synergistic effect for the decolorization of Reactive red 24. The results indicated that under proper conditions, there was a possibility to remove Reactive red 24 very efficient from aqueous solution. The decolorization of other azo dyes (Reactive red 2, Methyl orange, Acid red 1, Acid red 73, Acid red 249, Acid orange 7, Acid blue 113, Acid brown 75, Acid green 20, Acid yellow 42, Acid mordant brown 33, Acid mordant yellow 10 and Direct green 1) was also investigated, at their natural pH.

  10. Electrocatalytic activity of LaNiO3 toward H2O2 reduction reaction: Minimization of oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirfakhri, Seyed Javad; Meunier, Jean-Luc; Berk, Dimitrios

    2014-12-01

    The catalytic activity of LaNiO3 toward H2O2 reduction reaction (HPRR), with a potential application in the cathode side of fuel cells, is studied in alkaline, neutral and acidic solutions by rotating disk electrode. The LaNiO3 particles synthesised by citrate-based sol-gel method have sizes between 30 and 70 nm with an active specific surface area of 1.26 ± 0.05 m2 g-1. LaNiO3 shows high catalytic activity toward HPRR in 0.1 M KOH solution with an exchange current density based on the active surface area (j0A) of (7.4 ± 1) × 10-6 A cm-2 which is noticeably higher than the j0A of N-doped graphene. The analysis of kinetic parameters suggests that the direct reduction of H2O2, H2O2 decomposition, O2 reduction and O2 desorption occur through HPRR on this catalyst. In order to control and minimize oxygen evolution from the electrode surface, the effects of catalyst loading, bulk concentration of H2O2, and using a mixture of LaNiO3 and N-doped graphene are studied. Although the mechanism of HPRR is independent of the aforementioned operating conditions, gas evolution decreases by increasing the catalyst loading, decreasing the bulk concentration of H2O2, and addition of N-doped graphene to LaNiO3.

  11. Decapado de un acero inoxidable austenítico mediante mezclas ecológicas basadas en H2O2 - H2SO4 - iones F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez, L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of 316L stainless steel using mixtures of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and fluoride ions as hydrofluoric acid (HF, sodium fluoride (NaF and potassium fluoride (KF. The decomposition of H2O2 in the mixtures was assessed at different temperatures 25 °C to 60 °C, with ferric ion contents from 0 to 40 g/l. According to the results obtained, were established the optimal condition pickling at 20 g/l of ferric ions, 25 °C and p-toluensulphonic acid as stabilizer of H2O2. The HF pickling mixture was the only capable to remove totally the oxide layer from the 316L stainless steel after 300 s. The fluoride salts pickling mixtures only remove partially the oxide layer (20 to 40 % aprox. after 300 s. When the pickling time was increased until 1200 s, the removal percentages were around to 80 %.En este estudio se presenta el decapado del acero inoxidable austenítico 316L utilizando mezclas de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2/ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4/iones fluoruro; los iones fluoruro provienen del ácido fluorhídrico (HF, fluoruro de sodio (NaF y fluoruro de potasio (KF. La estabilidad del H2O2 fue valorada modificando las concentraciones del ión férrico de 0 a 40 g/l y las temperaturas de 25 °C a 60 °C en las mezclas decapantes. Se establecieron las condiciones óptimas de decapado utilizando 20 g/l de iones férrico a 25 °C empleando el ácido p-toluensulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2. La mezcla que contenía HF fue la única capaz de eliminar completamente los óxidos superficiales del acero a tiempos de 300 s. Las mezclas a base de sales fluoradas eliminaron parcialmente los óxidos (20 y 40 % aprox. en 300 s. Al incrementar el tiempo de decapado hasta 1200 s se obtuvieron porcentajes de eliminación alrededor de un 80 %.

  12. Chlorogenic acid analogues from Gynura nepalensis protect H9c2 cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bang-Wei; Li, Jin-Long; Guo, Bin-Bin; Fan, Hui-Min; Zhao, Wei-Min; Wang, He-Yao

    2016-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid has shown protective effect on cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced damage. Herein, we evaluated nine caffeoylquinic acid analogues (1-9) isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis for their protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to H 2 O 2 (0.3 mmol/L) for 3 h, and cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis. MMPs (mitochondrial membrane potentials) were measured using a JC-1 assay kit, and ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation was measured using CM-H 2 DCFDA. The expression levels of relevant proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. Exposure to H 2 O 2 markedly decreased the viability of H9c2 cells and catalase activity, and increased LDH release and intracellular ROS production; accompanied by a loss of MMP and increased apoptotic rate. Among the 9 chlorogenic acid analogues as well as the positive control drug epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) tested, compound 6 (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester) was the most effective in protecting H9c2 cells from H 2 O 2 -induced cell death. Pretreatment with compound 6 (1.56-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently alleviated all the H 2 O 2 -induced detrimental effects. Moreover, exposure to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of Bax, p53, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased the level of Bcl-2, resulting in cell apoptosis. Exposure to H 2 O 2 also significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK in the H9c2 cells. Pretreatment with compound 6 (12.5 and 25 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced increase in the level of cleaved caspase-9 but not of cleaved caspase-8. It also dose-dependently suppressed the H 2 O 2 -induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK but not that of p38. Compound 6 isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis potently protects H9c2

  13. Oxyhydroxide of metallic nanowires in a molecular H2O and H2O2 environment and their effects on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Gurcan; Islam, Md Mahbubul; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Ogata, Shigenobu; Duin, Adri C T van

    2018-06-14

    To avoid unexpected environmental mechanical failure, there is a strong need to fully understand the details of the oxidation process and intrinsic mechanical properties of reactive metallic iron (Fe) nanowires (NWs) under various aqueous reactive environmental conditions. Herein, we employed ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to elucidate the oxidation of Fe NWs exposed to molecular water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) environment, and the influence of the oxide shell layer on the tensile mechanical deformation properties of Fe NWs. Our structural analysis shows that oxidation of Fe NWs occurs with the formation of different iron oxide and hydroxide phases in the aqueous molecular H2O and H2O2 oxidizing environments. We observe that the resulting microstructure due to pre-oxide shell layer formation reduces the mechanical stress via increasing the initial defect sites in the vicinity of the oxide region to facilitate the onset of plastic deformation during tensile loading. Specifically, the oxide layer of Fe NWs formed in the H2O2 environment has a relatively significant effect on the deterioration of the mechanical properties of Fe NWs. The weakening of the yield stress and Young modulus of H2O2 oxidized Fe NWs indicates the important role of local oxide microstructures on mechanical deformation properties of individual Fe NWs. Notably, deformation twinning is found as the primary mechanical plastic deformation mechanism of all Fe NWs, but it is initially observed at low strain and stress level for the oxidized Fe NWs.

  14. Adsorbed Layers of D2, H2, O2, and 3He on Graphite Studied by Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; McTague, J. P.; Ellenson, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The phase diagrams of adsorbed monolayers of D2, H2, O2, and 3He on graphite have been measured by neutron diffraction. H2 and D2-layers have a registered √3 structure at low coverages, and at monolayer completion they have a dense triangular structure, which is incommensurate with the substrate...

  15. H2O2 assisted room temperature oxidation of Ti2C MXene for Li-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-03-08

    Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as compared to as-prepared MXenes. For instance, after 50 charge/discharge cycles, specific discharge capacities of 389 mA h g−1, 337 mA h g−1 and 297 mA h g−1 were obtained for H2O2 treated MXene at current densities of 100 mA g−1, 500 mA g−1 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, when tested at a very high current density, such as 5000 mA g−1, the H2O2 treated MXene showed a specific capacity of 150 mA h g−1 and excellent rate capability. These results clearly demonstrate that H2O2 treatment of Ti2C MXene improves MXene properties in energy storage applications, such as Li ion batteries or capacitors.

  16. H2O2 assisted room temperature oxidation of Ti2C MXene for Li-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Gogotsi, Yury; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as compared to as-prepared MXenes. For instance, after 50 charge/discharge cycles, specific discharge capacities of 389 mA h g−1, 337 mA h g−1 and 297 mA h g−1 were obtained for H2O2 treated MXene at current densities of 100 mA g−1, 500 mA g−1 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, when tested at a very high current density, such as 5000 mA g−1, the H2O2 treated MXene showed a specific capacity of 150 mA h g−1 and excellent rate capability. These results clearly demonstrate that H2O2 treatment of Ti2C MXene improves MXene properties in energy storage applications, such as Li ion batteries or capacitors.

  17. H_2O_2-assisted photocatalysis on flower-like rutile TiO_2 nanostructures: Rapid dye degradation and inactivation of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kőrösi, László; Prato, Mirko; Scarpellini, Alice; Kovács, János; Dömötör, Dóra; Kovács, Tamás; Papp, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchically assembled rutile TiO_2 was synthesized at room temperature. • Hydrothermal treatment enhanced the crystallinity, while morphology was maintained. • Hydrothermal treatment also led to larger crystallites and a lower surface area. • Effective K. pneumoniae killing and MO degradation were achieved with the use of H_2O_2. • Higher crystallinity enhanced the reaction rate in the presence of H_2O_2. - Abstract: Hierarchically assembled flower-like rutile TiO_2 (FLH-R-TiO_2) nanostructures were successfully synthesized from TiCl_4 at room temperature without the use of surfactants or templates. An initial sol–gel synthesis at room temperature allowed long-term hydrolysis and condensation of the precursors. The resulting FLH-R-TiO_2 possessed relatively high crystallinity (85 wt%) and consisted of rod-shaped subunits assembling into cauliflower-like nanostructures. Hydrothermal evolution of FLH-R-TiO_2 at different temperatures (150, 200 and 250 °C) was followed by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These FLH-R-TiO_2 nanostructures were tested as photocatalysts under simulated daylight (full-spectrum lighting) in the degradation of methyl orange and in the inactivation of a multiresistant bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the structure, photocatalytic behavior and antibacterial activity of FLH-R-TiO_2 are discussed.

  18. SO4= uptake and catalase role in preconditioning after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Rossana; Remigante, Alessia; Di Pietro, Maria Letizia; Giannetto, Antonino; La Spada, Giuseppina; Marino, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to a mild and transient oxidative stress, shown for the first time in myocardial cells and not described in erythrocytes so far. The possible adaptation of human erythrocytes to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative stress has been here verified by monitoring one of band 3 protein functions, i.e., Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange, through rate constant for SO 4 = uptake measurement. With this aim, erythrocytes were exposed to a mild and transient oxidative stress (30 min to either 10 or 100 μM H 2 O 2 ), followed by a stronger oxidant condition (300- or, alternatively, 600-μM H 2 O 2 treatment). SO 4 = uptake was measured by a turbidimetric method, and the possible role of catalase (CAT, significantly contributing to the anti-oxidant system in erythrocytes) in PC response has been verified by measuring the rate of H 2 O 2 degradation. The preventive exposure of erythrocytes to 10 μM H 2 O 2 , and then to 300 μM H 2 O 2 , significantly ameliorated the rate constant for SO 4 = uptake with respect to 300 μM H 2 O 2 alone, showing thus an adaptive response to oxidative stress. Our results show that (i) SO 4 = uptake measurement is a suitable model to monitor the effects of a mild and transient oxidative stress in human erythrocytes, (ii) band 3 protein anion exchange capability is retained after 10 μM H 2 O 2 treatment, (iii) PC response induced by the 10 μM H 2 O 2 pretreatment is clearly detected, and (iv) PC response, elicited by low-concentrated H 2 O 2 , is mediated by CAT enzyme and does not involve band 3 protein tyrosine phosphorylation pathways. Erythrocyte adaptation to a short-term oxidative stress may serve as a basis for future studies about the impact of more prolonged oxidative events, often associated to aging, drug consumption, chronic alcoholism, hyperglycemia, or neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Response speed of SnO2-based H2S gas sensors with CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Mozumdar, Subho; Patanjali, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles on sputtered SnO 2 thin-film surface exhibit a fast response speed (14 s) and recovery time (61 s) for trace level (20 ppm) H 2 S gas detection. The sensitivity of the sensor (S∼2.06x10 3 ) is noted to be high at a low operating temperature of 130 deg. C. CuO nanoparticles on SnO 2 allow effective removal of excess adsorbed oxygen from the uncovered SnO 2 surface due to spillover of hydrogen dissociated from the H 2 S-CuO interaction

  20. Quasiparticle interfacial level alignment of highly hybridized frontier levels: H2O on TiO2(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migani, Annapaola; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2015-01-13

    Knowledge of the frontier levels' alignment prior to photoirradiation is necessary to achieve a complete quantitative description of H2O photocatalysis on TiO2(110). Although H2O on rutile TiO2(110) has been thoroughly studied both experimentally and theoretically, a quantitative value for the energy of the highest H2O occupied levels is still lacking. For experiment, this is due to the H2O levels being obscured by hybridization with TiO2(110) levels in the difference spectra obtained via ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). For theory, this is due to inherent difficulties in properly describing many-body effects at the H2O-TiO2(110) interface. Using the projected density of states (DOS) from state-of-the-art quasiparticle (QP) G0W0, we disentangle the adsorbate and surface contributions to the complex UPS spectra of H2O on TiO2(110). We perform this separation as a function of H2O coverage and dissociation on stoichiometric and reduced surfaces. Due to hybridization with the TiO2(110) surface, the H2O 3a1 and 1b1 levels are broadened into several peaks between 5 and 1 eV below the TiO2(110) valence band maximum (VBM). These peaks have both intermolecular and interfacial bonding and antibonding character. We find the highest occupied levels of H2O adsorbed intact and dissociated on stoichiometric TiO2(110) are 1.1 and 0.9 eV below the VBM. We also find a similar energy of 1.1 eV for the highest occupied levels of H2O when adsorbed dissociatively on a bridging O vacancy of the reduced surface. In both cases, these energies are significantly higher (by 0.6 to 2.6 eV) than those estimated from UPS difference spectra, which are inconclusive in this energy region. Finally, we apply self-consistent QPGW (scQPGW1) to obtain the ionization potential of the H2O-TiO2(110) interface.

  1. Structural and physical properties of the NaxCoO2·yH2O superconducting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y G; Li, J Q; Yu, H C; Zhou, Y Q; Zhang, H R; Dong, C

    2004-01-01

    The structural features and physical properties of Na x CoO 2 and Na x CoO 2 ·yH 2 O materials have been investigated. The Na x CoO 2 -yH 2 O samples, in general, undergo superconducting transitions at around 3.5 K. Energy dispersive x-ray analyses suggest that our samples have average compositions of Na 0.65 CoO 2 for the parent compounds and Na 0.26 CoO 2 ·yH 2 O for the superconducting oxyhydrates. Transmission electron microscopy observations reveal a new superstructure with wave vector q = in the parent material. This superstructure becomes very weak in the superconducting samples. Electron energy loss spectra analyses show that the Co ions have valence states of around +3.3 in Na 0.65 CoO 2 and around +3.7 in Na 0.26 CoO 2 -yH 2 O

  2. Increase vs. decrease of calcium uptake by isolated heart cells induced by H2O2 vs. HOCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminishi, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Yanagishita, T.; Kako, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adult rat heart myocytes were labeled rapidly with exogenous [45Ca2+]. Addition of 2.5 mM H2O2 to the heart cell suspension raised the content of rapidly exchangeable intracellular Ca2+ twofold, whereas addition of 1-30 mM HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content. The H2O2-induced increase in Ca2+ content was dependent on the medium Na+, pH, and temperature but was not significantly affected by addition of verapamil, diltiazem, amiloride, or 3-aminobenzamide. The [3H]ouabain binding to myocytes was suppressed by H2O2, whereas the Ca2+ efflux from myocytes was not influenced. An uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, reduced Ca2+ content, implying that the H2O2-induced change in Ca2+ content was not directly related to ATP depletion. On the other hand, the H2O2-induced Ca2+ accumulation in myocytes was prevented by deferoxamine or o-phenanthroline. These results suggest that H2O2 inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase, resulting in an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration and stimulation of sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity, which caused a transient net Ca2+ influx into myocytes. By contrast, HOCl decreased the Ca2+ content of the rapidly exchangeable pool below control levels and this action of HOCl was antagonized by 1,4-dithiothreitol. HOCl accelerated Ca2+ efflux from myocytes. Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase of the isolated sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) fraction were highly sensitive to the action of HOCl. Ca2+ uptake by intracellular sites, studied with myocytes permeabilized with digitonin, was inhibited by both H2O2 and HOCl. Thus these results suggest that HOCl inhibits the SR Ca2+ pump, resulting in the observed acceleration of Ca2+ efflux from and decline in Ca2+ content of myocytes

  3. Allicin protects against H2O2-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Runxiao; Du, Lili; Lu, Chunwen; Wu, Jinhui; Ding, Muchen; Wang, Chao; Mao, Ningfang; Shi, Zhicai

    2017-09-01

    Allicin is a major bioactive ingredient of garlic and has a broad range of biological activities. Allicin has been reported to protect against cell apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of allicin on the H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in vitro and explored the underlying mechanism involved. PC12 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of allicin and the toxic effect of allicin was measured by MTT assay. The cells were pretreated for 24 h with low dose (L-), medium dose (M-) and high dose (H-) of allicin, followed by exposure to 200 µM H 2 O 2 for 2 h, and the cell viability was examined by MTT assay. In addition, cell apoptosis rate was analyzed by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, while intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (∆ψm) were measured by flow cytometry. Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3 and cytochrome c (Cyt C) in the mitochondria were also examined by western blotting. The results demonstrated that 0.01 µg/ml (L-allicin), 0.1 µg/ml (M-allicin) and 1 µg/ml (H-allicin) were non-toxic doses of allicin. Furthermore, H 2 O 2 reduced cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis, induced ROS production and decreased ∆ψm. However, allicin treatment reversed the effect of H 2 O 2 in a dose-dependent manner. It was also observed that H 2 O 2 exposure significantly decreased Bcl-2 and mitochondrial Cyt C, while it increased Bax and cleaved-caspase-3, which were attenuated by allicin pretreatment. The results revealed that allicin protected PC12 cells from H 2 O 2 -induced cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, suggesting the potential neuroprotective effect of allicin against neurological diseases.

  4. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H 2 O 2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO 2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H 2 O 2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H 2 O 2 mediate SO 2 -caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO 2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L -1 , which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H 2 O 2 , and Ca 2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO 2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO 2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca 2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca 2+ channel inhibitor LaCl 3 also markedly blocked SO 2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO 2 -induced elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO 2 -induced H 2 O 2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO 2 -induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H 2 O 2 are produced and accumulated in SO 2 -treated guard cells, which further activate Ca 2+ signaling to mediate SO 2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H 2 O 2 contribute to SO 2 toxicity via Ca 2+ signaling.

  5. Combined use of O3/H2O2 and O3/Mn2+ in flotation of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Silva Carvalho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the degradation of organic matter present in synthetic dairy wastewater by the combination of ozonation (ozone (O3/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and catalytic ozonation (ozone (O3/manganese (Mn2+ associated with dispersed air flotation process. The effect of independent factors such as O3 concentration, pH and H2O2 and Mn2+ concentration was evaluated. For the flotation/O3/H2O2 treatment, the significant variables (p ≤ 0.05 were: O3 concentration (linear and quadratic effect, H2O2 concentration linear and quadratic effect, pH values (linear and quadratic effect and interaction O3 concentration versus pH. For catalytic ozonation, it was observed that the significant variable was the linear effect of O3 concentration. According to the desirability function, it was concluded that the optimal condition for the treatment of flotation/O3/H2O2 can be obtained in acidic solution using O3 concentrations greater than 42.9 mg L-1 combined with higher concentrations of H2O2 to 1071.5 mg L-1. On other hand, at pH values higher than 9.0, the addition of O3 may be neglected when using higher concentrations than 1071.5 mg L-1 of H2O2. For flotation/ozonation catalyzed by Mn2+, it was observed that metal addition did not affect treatment, resulting in an optimum condition: 53.8 mg L-1 of O3 and pH 3.6.

  6. Low levels of iron enhance UV/H2O2 efficiency at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulliman, Sydney L; McKay, Garrett; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Linden, Karl G

    2018-03-01

    While the presence of iron is generally not seen as favorable for UV-based treatment systems due to lamp fouling and decreased UV transmittance, we show that low levels of iron can lead to improvements in the abatement of chemicals in the UV-hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation process. The oxidation potential of an iron-assisted UV/H 2 O 2 (UV 254  + H 2 O 2  + iron) process was evaluated at neutral pH using iron levels below USEPA secondary drinking water standards (UV/H 2 O 2 systems. The effects of iron species (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ), iron concentration (0-0.3 mg/L), H 2 O 2 concentration (0-10 mg/L) and background water matrix (low-carbon tap (LCT) and well water) on HO production and compound removal were examined. Iron-assisted UV/H 2 O 2 efficiency was most influenced by the target chemical and the water matrix. Added iron to UV/H 2 O 2 was shown to increase the steady-state HO concentration by approximately 25% in all well water scenarios. While CBZ removal was unchanged by iron addition, 0.3 mg/L iron improved NDMA removal rates in both LCT and well water matrices by 15.1% and 4.6% respectively. Furthermore, the combination of UV/Fe without H 2 O 2 was also shown to enhance NDMA removal when compared to UV photolysis alone indicating the presence of degradation pathways other than HO oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption of H2S molecule on TiO2/Au nanocomposites: A density functional theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide molecule on undoped and N-doped TiO2/Au nanocomposites was investigated by density functional theory (DFT calculations. The results showed that the adsorption energies of H2S on the nanocomposites follow the order of 2N doped (Ti site>N-doped (Ti site>Undoped (Ti site. The structural properties including bond lengths, angles and adsorption energies and electronic properties in view of the projected density of states (PDOSs and molecular orbitals (MOs were analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the interaction between H2S molecule and N-doped TiO2/Au nanocomposite is stronger than that between H2S and undoped nanocomposite, suggesting that N-doping helps to strengthen the interaction of H2S with TiO2/Au nanocomposite. Mulliken population analysis was conducted to analyze the charge transfer between the nanocomposite and H2S molecule. Although H2S molecule has no significant interaction with undoped nanocomposite, it tends to be strongly adsorbed on the N-doped nanocomposite. The results also suggest that the two doped nitrogen atoms in TiO2 greatly strengthen the adsorption process, being a helpful procedure to help in the design and development of improved sensor devices for H2S detection.

  8. Syngas production by gasification of aquatic biomass with CO2/O2 and simultaneous removal of H2S and COS using char obtained in the gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Hiasa, Shou; Edashige, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Applicability of gulfweed as feedstock for a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was studied for both production of gas with high syngas (CO + H 2 ) content via gasification of gulfweed and removal of gaseous impurities using char obtained in the gasification. Gulfweed as aqueous biomass was gasified with He/CO 2 /O 2 using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier at ambient pressure and 900 °C at equivalence ratios (ER) of 0.1–0.3. The syngas content increased while the conversion to gas on a carbon basis decreased with decreasing ER. At an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%, the syngas content was maximized at 67.6% and conversion to gas on a carbon basis was 94.2%. The behavior of the desulfurization using char obtained during the gasification process at ER = 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15% was investigated using a downdraft fixed-bed reactor at 250–550 °C under 3 atmospheres (H 2 S/N 2 , COS/N 2 , and a mixture of gases composed of CO, CO 2 , H 2 , N 2 , CH 4 , H 2 S, COS, and steam). The char had a higher COS removal capacity at 350 °C than commercial activated carbon because (Ca,Mg)S crystals were formed during desulfurization. The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from the mixture of gases at 450 °C more efficiently than did activated carbon. These results support this novel BTL process consisting of gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 and dry gas cleaning using self-supplied bed material. -- Highlights: • A product gas with high syngas content was produced from the gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 . • The syngas content increased with decreasing the equivalence ratio. • The syngas content was maximized at 67.6% at an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%. • The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from a mixture of gases at 450 °C efficiently

  9. The temperature dependences of the N2+ + N2 → N4+ and O2+ + O2 → O4+ association reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Arnold, F.; Smith, D.; Adams, N.G.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependencies of three body association reactions have been investigated in attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of ion-molecule association. The variation with temperature of the three-body rate coefficients is described usually as a power law k approximately Tsup(-n). Experience has shown that with measurements over limited temperature ranges as with previous methods the derived coefficients n are wrong and measurements over large temperature ranges are desirable. The selected ion flow-tube and the drift tube methods developed in Birmingham and Heidelberg provide measurements over (overlapping) wide temperature rang. In collaboration of the Birmingham and the Heidelberg group the He stabilized reactions N 2 + + N 2 + He → N 4 + + He and O 2 + + O 2 + He → O 4 + + He reactions over 30 to 600 deg K. A power law dependence is found above 100 K. The temperature dependencies of the rate constants are interpred and used as a critical test of recent theories of association reactions by D.R. Bates and E. Herbst. (G.Q.)

  10. H2-O2 supercritical combustion modeling using a CFD code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benarous Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of propellant injection, mixing, and combustion have a profound effect on liquid rocket engine performance. The necessity of raising rocket engines performance requires a combustion chamber operation often in a supercritical regime. A supercritical combustion model based on a one-phase multi-components approach is developed and tested on a non-premixed H2-O2 flame configuration. A two equations turbulence model is used for describing the jet dynamics where a limited Pope correction is added to account for the oxidant spreading rate. Transport properties of the mixture are calculated using extended high pressure forms of the mixing rules. An equilibrium chemistry scheme is adopted in this combustion case, with both algebraic and stochastic expressions for the chemistry/turbulence coupling. The model was incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics commercial code (Fluent 6.2.16. The validity of the present model was investigated by comparing predictions of temperature, species mass fractions, recirculation zones and visible flame length to the experimental data measured on the Mascotte test rig. The results were confronted also with advanced code simulations. It appears that the agreement between the results was fairly good in the chamber regions situated downstream the near injection zone.

  11. Particle Sampling and Real Time Size Distribution Measurement in H2/O2/TEOS Diffusion Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.H.; Jung, C.H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Growth characteristics of silica particles have been studied experimentally using in situ particle sampling technique from H 2 /O 2 /Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) diffusion flame with carefully devised sampling probe. The particle morphology and the size comparisons are made between the particles sampled by the local thermophoretic method from the inside of the flame and by the electrostatic collector sampling method after the dilution sampling probe. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image processed data of these two sampling techniques are compared with Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurement. TEM image analysis of two sampling methods showed a good agreement with SMPS measurement. The effects of flame conditions and TEOS flow rates on silica particle size distributions are also investigated using the new particle dilution sampling probe. It is found that the particle size distribution characteristics and morphology are mostly governed by the coagulation process and sintering process in the flame. As the flame temperature increases, the effect of coalescence or sintering becomes an important particle growth mechanism which reduces the coagulation process. However, if the flame temperature is not high enough to sinter the aggregated particles then the coagulation process is a dominant particle growth mechanism. In a certain flame condition a secondary particle formation is observed which results in a bimodal particle size distribution

  12. Thermal Neutron Diffraction from the Liquids N2 and O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K. Schou; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Carneiro, Kim

    1979-01-01

    Using a double axis crystal spectrometer, we have determined the structure factor S (kappa) of the liquids N2 and O2 up to a maximum wavevector kappam=11 Å−1. We derive the parameters characterizing the first nearest neighbor shell and find that the intramolecular bond length is well determined, ...

  13. Rapid food decomposition by H2O2-H2SO4 for determination of total mercury by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebon, Odair; Sakuma, Alice M; Dovidauskas, Sergio; Okada, Isaura A; de, MaioFrancaD; Lichtig, Jaim

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of 50% H2O2-H2SO4 (3 + 1, v/v) was used for decomposition of food in open vessels at 80 degrees C. The treatment allowed rapid total mercury determination by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Cabbage, potatoes, peanuts paste, hazelnuts paste, oats, tomatoes and their derivatives, oysters, shrimps, prawns, shellfish, marine algae, and many kinds of fish were analyzed by the proposed methodology with a limit of quantitation of 0.86 +/- 0.08 microg/L mercury in the final solution. Reference materials tested also gave excellent recovery.

  14. LED and low level laser therapy association in tooth bleaching using a novel low concentration H2O2/N-doped TiO2 bleaching agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra Dias, Hércules; Teixeira Carrera, Emanuelle; Freitas Bortolatto, Janaína; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo; Nara de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Since low concentration bleaching agents containing N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced as an alternative to conventional agents, it is important to verify their efficacy and the hypersensitivity effect in clinical practice. Six volunteer patients were evaluated for color change and hypersensitivity after bleaching using 35% H2O2 (one session of two 12 min applications) and 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 (one session of three 12 min applications) and after low level laser therapy application (LLLT) (780 nm, 40 mW, 10 J.cm-2, 10 s). Based on this case study, the nanobleaching agent provided better or similar aesthetic results than the conventional agent under high concentration, and its association with LLLT satisfactorily decreased the hypersensitivity. The 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 agent could be used instead of conventional in-office bleaching agents under high concentrations to fulfill the rising patient demand for aesthetics.

  15. Fiber-Optic Determination of N2, O2, and Fuel Vapor in the Ullage of Liquid-Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system has been developed that can remotely measure the concentration of molecular oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), hydrocarbon vapor, and other gases (CO2, CO, H2O, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) in the ullage of a liquid-fuel tank. The system provides an accurate and quantitative identification of the above gases with an accuracy of better than 1 percent by volume (for O2 or N2) in real-time (5 seconds). In an effort to prevent aircraft fuel tank fires or explosions similar to the tragic TWA Flight 800 explosion in 1996, OBIGGS are currently being developed for large commercial aircraft to prevent dangerous conditions from forming inside fuel tanks by providing an inerting gas blanket that is low in oxygen, thus preventing the ignition of the fuel/air mixture in the ullage. OBIGGS have been used in military aircraft for many years and are now standard equipment on some newer large commercial aircraft (such as the Boeing 787). Currently, OBIGGS are being developed for retrofitting to existing commercial aircraft fleets in response to pending mandates from the FAA. Most OBIGGS use an air separation module (ASM) that separates O2 from N2 to make nitrogen-enriched air from compressed air flow diverted from the engine (bleed air). Current OBIGGS systems do not have a closed-loop feedback control, in part, due to the lack of suitable process sensors that can reliably measure N2 or O2 and at the same time, do not constitute an inherent source of ignition. Thus, current OBIGGS operate with a high factor-of-safety dictated by process protocol to ensure adequate fuel-tank inerting. This approach is inherently inefficient as it consumes more engine bleed air than is necessary compared to a closed-loop controlled approach. The reduction of bleed air usage is important as it reduces fuel consumption, which translates to both increased flight range and lower operational costs. Numerous approaches to developing OBIGGS feedback-control sensors have been under

  16. In Situ Forming and H2O2-Releasing Hydrogels for Treatment of Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunki; Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Park, Kyung Min; Lee, Jong-Min; Park, Bong Joo; Park, Ki Dong

    2017-05-24

    Various types of commercialized wound dressings (e.g., films, foams, gels, and nanofiber meshes) have been clinically used as a physical barrier against bacterial invasion and as wound-healing materials. Although these dressings can protect the wounded tissue from the external environment, they cannot treat the wounds that are already infected with bacteria. Herein, we report in situ H 2 O 2 -releasing hydrogels as an active wound dressing with antibacterial properties for treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infection. In this study, H 2 O 2 was used for two major purposes: (1) in situ gel formation via a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H 2 O 2 -triggered cross-linking reaction, and (2) antibacterial activity of the hydrogel via its oxidative effects. We found that there were residual H 2 O 2 in the matrix after in situ HRP-catalyzed gelling, and varying the feed amount of H 2 O 2 (1-10 mM; used to make hydrogels) enabled control of H 2 O 2 release kinetics within a range of 2-509 μM. In addition, although the gelatin-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid (GH) gel called "GH 10" (showing the greatest H 2 O 2 release, 509 μM) slightly decreased cell viability (to 82-84%) of keratinocyte (HaCaT) and fibroblast (L-929) cells in in vitro assays, none of the hydrogels showed significant cytotoxicity toward tissues in in vivo skin irritation tests. When the H 2 O 2 -releasing hydrogels that promote in vivo wound healing, were applied to various bacterial strains in vitro and ex vivo, they showed strong killing efficiency toward Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, drug-resistant bacteria), where the antimicrobial effect was dependent on the concentration of the H 2 O 2 released. The present study suggests that our hydrogels have great potential as an injectable/sprayable antimicrobial dressing with biocompatibility and antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacteria including

  17. H2O2 and/or TiO2 photocatalysis under UV irradiation for the removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and their antibiotic resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Kai; Hou, Song; Wan, Li; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiaodong; Chen, Shuyi; Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 thin film was successfully synthesized for treating ARB and ARGs from water. • More than 5.5 log units of ARB reduction was achieved by TiO 2 under UV irradiation. • With TiO 2 , ARGs were reduced by more than 5 log units under UV irradiation. • TiO 2 could remove both intracellular and extracellular forms of ARGs. - Abstract: Inactivating antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and removing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are very important to prevent their spread into the environment. Previous efforts have been taken to eliminate ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution and sludges, however, few satisfying results have been obtained. This study investigated whether photocatalysis by TiO 2 was able to reduce the two ARGs, mecA and ampC, within the host ARB, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. The addition of H 2 O 2 and matrix effect on the removal of ARB and ARGs were also studied. TiO 2 thin films showed great effect on both ARB inactivation and ARGs removal. Approximately 4.5-5.0 and 5.5–5.8 log ARB reductions were achieved by TiO 2 under 6 and 12 mJ/cm 2 UV 254 fluence dose, respectively. For ARGs, 5.8 log mecA reduction and 4.7 log ampC reduction were achieved under 120 mJ/cm 2 UV 254 fluence dose in the presence of TiO 2 . Increasing dosage of H 2 O 2 enhanced the removal efficiencies of ARB and ARGs. The results also demonstrated that photocatalysis by TiO 2 was capable of removing both intracellular and extracellular forms of ARGs. This study provided a potential alternative method for the removal of ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution.

  18. Determine the Intensity of UV Radiation and H2O2 on the Removal of Methylene Blue from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a tremendous amount of color in textile wastewater that discharge it to the environment can cause a lot of environmental problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the photocatalytic process UV/H2O2 to remove methylene blue dye from synthetic wastewater. Methods: UVC lamp was used as light source. In this study the effect of UV light intensity, irradiation distance, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and reaction time on the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 and excel software. Results: The result showed that with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the color removal increases. Color removal changes were negligible at H2O2 concentration more than 5 mM. After 10 minutes reaction time at H2O2 concentration of 1 mm, efficiency of UVC/H2O2 is equal to 36.6%. Whilst at 5 mM concentration, removal efficiency is 89.2%. By increasing intensity of UV radiation, dye removal measure is also was increased, as the highest percentage of dye removal was obtained at 24 W radiation intensity. Conclusion: in present study, type of radiation and measure of hydrogen peroxide were the main factors in removal of methylene blue. Due to high efficiency of UVC/H2O2 process in removal of dye from aqueous solution, this method can use as an efficient process for removal of dye.

  19. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs’ antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2− and NO3− can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2−, but not NO3−, acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2− in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2− and NO3− in solution. PMID:27364563

  20. The performance and decolourization kinetics of O3/H2O2 oxidation of reactive green 19 dye in wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S. N.; Abidin, C. Z. A.; Fahmi; Kow, S. H.; Razali, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    The degradations characteristic of azo dye Reactive Green 19 (RG19) was investigated using advanced oxidation process (AOPs). It was evaluated based on colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, initial dosage of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), contact time, and pH was also being studied. The samples were treated by ozonation (O3) and peroxone O3/H2O2 process. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involve two stages of oxidation; firstly is the formation of strong oxidant and secondly the reaction of organic contaminants in water. In addition, the term advanced oxidation is referring to the processes in which oxidation of organic contaminants occurs primarily through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. There are several analyses that use to determine the efficiency of the treatment process, which are UV-Vis absorption spectra, COD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and pH. The results demonstrated that the ozone oxidation was efficient in decolourization and good in mineralization, based on the reduction of colour and COD. Additionally, results indicate that H2O2 is able to perform better than ozonation in order to decolourize the dye wastewater with 0.5 mL H2O2/L dye dosage of H2O2 at different initial concentration, initial pH, with contact time.

  1. Tumor cells have decreased ability to metabolize H2O2: Implications for pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Doskey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate (AscH− functions as a versatile reducing agent. At pharmacological doses (P-AscH−; [plasma AscH−] ≥≈20 mM, achievable through intravenous delivery, oxidation of P-AscH− can produce a high flux of H2O2 in tumors. Catalase is the major enzyme for detoxifying high concentrations of H2O2. We hypothesize that sensitivity of tumor cells to P-AscH− compared to normal cells is due to their lower capacity to metabolize H2O2. Rate constants for removal of H2O2 (kcell and catalase activities were determined for 15 tumor and 10 normal cell lines of various tissue types. A differential in the capacity of cells to remove H2O2 was revealed, with the average kcell for normal cells being twice that of tumor cells. The ED50 (50% clonogenic survival of P-AscH− correlated directly with kcell and catalase activity. Catalase activity could present a promising indicator of which tumors may respond to P-AscH−.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Sensitive Hydrogen (H2 Sensing Device Based on Ag Doped SnO2 Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaorui Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pure and Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, respectively. The gas sensing performance of the pure, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, and 5 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 sensing devices toward hydrogen (H2 were systematically evaluated. The results indicated that compared with pure SnO2 nanospheres, Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres could not only decrease the optimum working temperature but also significantly improve H2 sensing such as higher gas response and faster response-recovery. Among all the samples, the 3 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 showed the highest response 39 to 100 μL/L H2 at 300 °C. Moreover, its gas sensing mechanism was discussed, and the results will provide reference and theoretical guidance for the development of high-performance SnO2-based H2 sensing devices.

  3. Removal of diethyl phthalate from water solution by adsorption, photo-oxidation, ozonation and advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2, O3/H2O2 and O3/activated carbon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medellin-Castillo, Nahum A.; Ocampo-Pérez, Raúl; Leyva-Ramos, Roberto; Sanchez-Polo, Manuel; Rivera-Utrilla, José; Méndez-Díaz, José D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the effectiveness of conventional technologies (adsorption on activated carbon, AC, and ozonation) and technologies based on advanced oxidation processes, AOPs, (UV/H 2 O 2 , O 3 /AC, O 3 /H 2 O 2 ) to remove phthalates from aqueous solution (ultrapure water, surface water and wastewater). Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was chosen as a model pollutant because of its high water solubility (1080 mg/L at 293 K) and toxicity. The activated carbons showed a high adsorption capacity to adsorb DEP in aqueous solution (up to 858 mg/g), besides the adsorption mechanism of DEP on activated carbon is governed by dispersive interactions between π electrons of its aromatic ring with π electrons of the carbon graphene planes. The photodegration process showed that the pH solution does not significantly affect the degradation kinetics of DEP and the first-order kinetic model satisfactorily fitted the experimental data. It was observed that the rate of decomposition of DEP with the O 3 /H 2 O 2 and O 3 /AC systems is faster than that with only O 3 . The technologies based on AOPs (UV/H 2 O 2 , O 3 /H 2 O 2 , O 3 /AC) significantly improve the degradation of DEP compared to conventional technologies (O 3 , UV). AC adsorption, UV/H 2 O 2 , O 3 /H 2 O 2 , and O 3 /AC showed a high yield to remove DEP; however, the disadvantage of AC adsorption is its much longer time to reach maximum removal. The best system to treat water (ultrapure and natural) polluted with DEP is the O 3 /AC one since it achieved the highest DEP degradation and TOC removal, as well as the lower water toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Activated carbons showed a high adsorption capacity (up to 858 mg/g) to remove DEP. ► The pH solution did not significantly affect the photodegradation kinetics of DEP. ► The O 3 /H 2 O 2 and O 3 /AC systems were more efficient than O 3 to degrade DEP. ► The generation of HO • from O 3 was enhanced by ACs, mainly by those of basic nature. ► O

  4. Monte Carlo analysis of Pu-H2O and UO2-PuO2-H2O critical assemblies with ENDF/B-IV data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J. Jr.; Ullo, J.J.

    1981-04-01

    A set of critical experiments, comprising thirteen homogeneous Pu-H 2 O assemblies and twelve UO 2 -PuO 2 lattices, was analyzed with ENDF/B-IV data and the RCPO1 Monte Carlo program, which modeled the experiments explicitly. Some major data sensitivities were also evaluated. For the Pu-H 2 O assemblies, calculated K/sub eff/ averaged 1.011. The large (2.7%) scatter of K/sub eff/ values for these assemblies was attributed mostly to uncertainties in physical specifications since no clear trends of K/sub eff/ were evident and data sensitivities were insignificant. The UO 2 -PuO 2 lattices showed just one trend of K/sub eff/, which indicated an overprediction of U238 capture consistent with that observed for uranium-H 2 O experiments. There was however a approx. 1% discrepancy in calculated K/sub eff/ between the two sets of UO 2 -PuO 2 lattices studied

  5. H2O2 Synthesis Induced by Irradiation of H2O with Energetic H(+) and Ar(+) Ions at Various Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Loeffler, M. J.; Raut, U.; Vidal, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detection of H2O2 on Jupiter's icy satellite Europa by the Galileo NIMS instrument presented a strong evidence for the importance of radiation effects on icy surfaces. A few experiments have investigated whether solar flux of protons incident on Europa ice could cause a significant if any H2O2 production. These published results differ as to whether H2O2 can be formed by ions impacting water at temperatures near 80 K, which are appropriate to Europa. This discrepancy may be a result of the use of different incident ion energies, different vacuum conditions, or different ways of processing the data. The latter possibility comes about from the difficulty of identifying the 3.5 m peroxide OH band on the long wavelength wing of the much stronger water 3.1 m band. The problem is aggravated by using straight line baselines to represent the water OH band with a curvature, in the region of the peroxide band, that increases with temperature. To overcome this problem, we use polynomial baselines that provide good fits to the water band and its derivative.

  6. Zn-Fe-CNTs catalytic in situ generation of H2O2 for Fenton-like degradation of sulfamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Fan, Qin; Wang, Jianlong

    2018-01-15

    A novel Fenton-like catalyst (Zn-Fe-CNTs) capable of converting O 2 to H 2 O 2 and further to OH was prepared through infiltration fusion method followed by chemical replacement in argon atmosphere. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, XRD and XPS. The reaction between Zn-Fe-CNTs and O 2 in aqueous solution could generate H 2 O 2 in situ, which was further transferred to OH. The Fenton-like degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) using Zn-Fe-CNTs as catalyst was evaluated. The results indicated that Zn-Fe-CNTs had a coral porous structure with a BET area of 51.67m 2 /g, exhibiting excellent adsorption capacity for SMX, which enhanced its degradation. The particles of Zn 0 and Fe 0 /Fe 2 O 3 were observed on the surface of Zn-Fe-CNTs. The mixture of Zn 0 and CNTs could reduce O 2 into H 2 O 2 by micro-electrolysis and Fe 0 /Fe 2 O 3 could catalyze in-situ generation of H 2 O 2 to produce OH through Fenton-like process. When initial pH=1.5, T=25°C, O 2 flow rate=400mL/min, Zn-Fe-CNTs=0.6g/L, SMX=25mg/L and reaction time=10min, the removal efficiency of SMX and TOC was 100% and 51.3%, respectively. The intermediates were detected and the possible pathway of SMX degradation and the mechanism of Zn-Fe-CNTs/O 2 process were tentatively proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-diffusion at the melting point: From H2 and N2 to liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    A nominal lower bound to the mean free diffusion time at the melting point T m was obtained earlier which provided a factor-two type estimate for self-diffusion coefficients of the alkali halides, alkali metals, eight other metals, and Ar. The argument was based on the classical Uncertainty Principle applied to the solid crystal, whereby maximum-frequency phonons lose validity as collective excitations and degenerate into aperiodic, single-particle diffusive motion at the melting point. Because of the short time scale of this motion, the perfect-gas diffusion equation and true mass can be used to obtain the self-diffusion coefficient in the Debye approximation to the phonon spectrum. This result for the self-diffusion coefficient also yields the scale factor that determines the order of magnitude of liquid self-diffusion coefficients, which has long been an open question. The earlier theory is summarized and clarified, and the results extended to the more complex molecular liquids H 2 and N 2 . It is also demonstrated that combining Lindemann's melting law with the perfect-gas diffusion equation estimate yields a well-known empirical expression for liquid-metal self-diffusion at T m . Validity of the self-diffusion estimate over a melting temperature range from 14 to more than 1,300 K and over a wide variety of crystals provides strong confirmation for the existence of the specialized diffusive motion at the melting point, as well as confirmation of a relation between the phonon spectrum of the solid crystal and diffusive motion in the melt. 21 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Nqrs Data for C3H2Cl10N2PSb[C3HCl4N2P·Cl6HSb](Subst. No. 0601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C3H2Cl10N2PSb [C3HCl4N2P·Cl6HSb] (Subst. No. 0601)

  9. Redox reactions of U(IV) and Pu(IV) with H2O2 generated in nitric acid media by power ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisy, P.; Venault, L.; Madic, C.; Nikitenko, S.

    1998-01-01

    Power ultrasound causes water molecule dissociation on H o and OH o radicals due to high local temperatures and pressures generated in the cavitation threshold. In nitric acid media scavenging of OH o radicals with NO 3 - followed by NO 3 o radicals hydrolysis leads to H 2 O 2 formation. It was shown that H 2 O 2 generated under the effect of ultrasound with the frequency 20 kHz and intensity 1-3 Wcm -2 (Ar atmosphere) oxidizes U(IV) to U(VI) or reduces Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in 1-4 M HNO 3 in the presence of antinitrous reagents ( N 2 H 5 NO 3 or NH 2 SO 3 H). The effect of HNO 3 concentration and ultrasonic intensity on the kinetics of U(IV) oxidation and Pu(IV) reduction was studied. (author)

  10. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  11. Efficient degradation of H2S over transition metal modified TiO2 under VUV irradiation: Performance and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gaoyuan; Ji, Jian; Hu, Peng; Lin, Sixin; Huang, Haibao

    2018-03-01

    Odor pollution causes great harm to the atmospheric environment and human health. H2S, as an odor gas, is highly toxic and corrosive and thus requires removal efficiently. In this study, TiO2 catalysts modified by transition metals including Mn, Cu, Ni and Co, were prepared using a modified sol-gelatin method and tested under UV-PCO or VUV-PCO process. H2S degradation was great enhanced in VUV-PCO compared with conventional UV-PCO. Among the catalysts, 1 wt% Mn-TiO2 showed the highest removal efficiency of 89.9%, which is 30 times higher than that under 254 nm UV irradiation. Residual ozone in the outlet can be completely eliminated by Mn-TiO2. Photocatalytic oxidation, photolysis and ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation all involved in the VUV-PCO process and their contribution were determined by H2S removal efficiency.

  12. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Water during UV/H2O2 Treatment: Role of Sulphate and Bicarbonate Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Am Fadaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides, malathian and diazinon, by sulfate radicals and bicarbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. The effect of the operational parameters such as pH, salt concentration, water type, H2O2 concentration and initial concentration of pesticides was studied. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC–MS was used for analyses of pesticides. When salt effect was studied, it was found that sodium bicarbonate was the most powerful inhibitor used, while sodium sulfate was the weakest one. The highest degradation in UV/H2O2 process for malathion was found in alkaline condition and for diazinon in acidic condition. The photodegradation in all waters used in this work exhibited first order kinetics. Photodegradation rate in distilled water was higher than real water. The degradation of pesticides increased with increasing of H2O2 concentration.

  13. Degradation kinetics of reactive dye by UV/H2O2/US process under continuous mode operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, P C; Poon, C S; Chu, C W; Tsui, S M

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of a dye, C. I . Reactive Red 120, in dyeing waatewater by the process o UV/H2O2/US was studied with a bench-scale reactor under the continuous mode of operation. The effects of dyeing wastewater flow rate and the feeding rate of an oxidant, H2O2, on the color removal efficiency of the process were investigated. The significance of ultrasonic (US) combined with UV irradiation was also investigated and the performances of the process on color removal were evaluated. The results showed that the decoloration process followed a pseudo first-order kinetic model and the UV light is the most significant factor on dye removal. Besides, at higher flow rates, incomplete color removal was observed due to relatively insufficient irradiation time (low degradation rate). In order to achieve a higher degradation rate, the feeding rate of H2O2 should be increased.

  14. Sorption of diclofenac and naproxen onto MWCNT in model wastewater treated by H2O2 and/or UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-04-01

    The application of oxidation processes such as UV and/or H2O2 will change the physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT). It may affect the sorption affinity of CNT to different contaminants and then affect their fate in the environment. In the present study the adsorption of two very common used pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and naproxen) onto CNT treated by UV, H2O2 or UV/H2O2 was investigated. Four different adsorption models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich) were tested. The best fitting of experimental data was observed for Freundlich or Langmuir model. The significant relationships between Q calculated from Langmuir model with O% and dispersity were observed. Kinetics of diclofenac and naproxen followed mainly pseudo-second order indicating for chemisorption limiting step of adsorption. The data showed that the mechanism of sorption was physical or chemical depending on the type of CNT modification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactobacillus Species Identification, H2O2 Production, and Antibiotic Resistance and Correlation with Human Clinical Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, Annie; Barreau, Claude; Bizet, Chantal; Lagrange, Philippe Henri; Philippon, Alain

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacilli recovered from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, respiratory tract, and gut of 20 hospitalized immunocompromised septic patients were analyzed. Biochemical carbohydrate fermentation and total soluble cell protein profiles were used to identify the species. Hydrogen peroxide production was measured. Susceptibility to 19 antibiotics was tested by a diffusion method, and the MICs of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, imipenem, erythromycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin were determined. A small number of species produced H2O2, and antibiotic susceptibilities were species related. Eighteen (90%) of the isolates were L. rhamnosus, one was L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, and one was L. crispatus. L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei isolates, and the type strains were neither H2O2 producers nor vancomycin susceptible (MICs, ≥256 μg/ml). L. crispatus, as well as most of the type strains of lactobacilli which belong to the L. acidophilus group, was an H2O2 producer and vancomycin susceptible (MICs, <4 μg/ml). PMID:9986841

  16. A H2O2 Biosensor Based on Immobilization of HorseradishPeroxidase in a Gelatine Network Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Zhu

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple and promising H2O2 biosensor has been developed by successfulentrapment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in a gelatine matrix which was cross-linkedwith formaldehyde. The large microscopic surface area and porous morphology of thegelatine matrix lead to high enzyme loading and the enzyme entrapped in this matrix canretain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogenperoxide (H2O2. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 2.5×10-5 to2.5×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-6 M based on S / N = 3. This biosensorpossessed very good reproducibility.

  17. Simulation of gas bubbles in hypobaric decompressions: roles of O2, CO2, and H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, H D; Burkard, M E

    1995-01-01

    To gain insight into the special features of bubbles that may form in aviators and astronauts, we simulated the growth and decay of bubbles in two hypobaric decompressions and a hyperbaric one, all with the same tissue ratio (TR), where TR is defined as tissue PN2 before decompression divided by barometric pressure after. We used an equation system which is solved by numerical methods and accounts for simultaneous diffusion of any number of gases as well as other major determinants of bubble growth and absorption. We also considered two extremes of the number of bubbles which form per unit of tissue. A) Because physiological mechanisms keep the partial pressures of the "metabolic" gases (O2, CO2, and H2O) nearly constant over a range of hypobaric pressures, their fractions in bubbles are inversely proportional to pressure and their large volumes at low pressure add to bubble size. B) In addition, the large fractions facilitate the entry of N2 into bubbles, and when bubble density is low, enhance an autocatalytic feedback on bubble growth due to increasing surface area. C) The TR is not closely related to bubble size; that is when two different decompressions have the same TR, metabolic gases cause bubbles to grow larger at lower hypobaric pressures. We conclude that the constancy of partial pressures of metabolic gases, unimportant in hyperbaric decompressions, affects bubble size in hypobaric decompressions in inverse relation to the exposure pressure.

  18. Removal of organic matter and ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate using the UV/H2O2 photochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Rolando Nunes; Nagel-Hassemer, Maria Eliza; Matias, William Gerson; Muller, Jose Miguel; de Castilhos Junior, Armando Borges

    2017-12-04

    This study investigates the effects of pH, H 2 O 2 concentration and reaction time of the UV/H 2 O 2 photochemical process on the removal of organic matter and ammonia from biologically pre-treated landfill leachates in anaerobic stabilization ponds. The results show that the concentration of H 2 O 2 and the initial pH are significant factors, with no significant interaction between them. A pH of 3 is the optimum value for the UV/H 2 O 2 process for the removal of organic matter, resulting in 51.63% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in addition to the removal of aromatic compounds. The N-NH 3 removal showed little variation between pH values of 1, 5, 7, 11 and 13; the removal was on the order of 16.43 ± 2.00%. The consumption of H 2 O 2 was elevated at pH 9, 11 and 13; at these pH values, the average removal was 94.56 ± 0.43%, compared to 43.07% at pH 3. First-order polynomial models and reaction times on the order of 15 min are sufficient for optimization studies and for evaluation of the effects of the studied parameters. The results of this study support the optimization of the UV/H 2 O 2 process for the removal of organic matter and ammonia from landfill leachates.

  19. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanosheets-Based Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe for Highly Sensitive Detection of H2O2 and Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Wen; Luo, Ying; Wang, Yu-Min; Duan, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-12-14

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheets, an emerging graphene-like carbon-based nanomaterial with high fluorescence and large specific surface areas, hold great potential for biosensor applications. Current g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets based fluorescent biosensors majorly rely on single fluorescent intensity reading through fluorescence quenching interactions between the nanosheets and metal ions. Here we report for the first time the development of a novel g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets-based ratiometric fluorescence sensing strategy for highly sensitive detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose. With o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidized by H 2 O 2 in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the oxidization product can assemble on the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking, which effectively quenches the fluorescence of g-C 3 N 4 while delivering a new emission peak. The ratiometric signal variations enable robust and sensitive detection of H 2 O 2 . On the basis of the glucose converting into H 2 O 2 through the catalysis of glucose oxidase, the g-C 3 N 4 -based ratiometric fluorescence sensing platform is also exploited for glucose assay. The developed strategy is demonstrated to give a detection limit of 50 nM for H 2 O 2 and 0.4 μM for glucose, at the same time, it has been successfully used for glucose levels detection in human serum. This strategy may provide a cost-efficient, robust, and high-throughput platform for detecting various species involving H 2 O 2 -generation reactions for biomedical applications.

  20. Pt-MWCNT modified carbon electrode strip for rapid and quantitative detection of H2O2 in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Cheng Chou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A single-use screen-printed carbon electrode strip was designed and fabricated. Nanohybrids, prepared by deposition of platinum (Pt nanoparticles on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT, was modified on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode for the development of a fast, sensitive and cost-effective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection amperometric sensor strip. With Pt-MWCNT nanohybrids surface modification, current generated in response to H2O2 by the screen-printed carbon electrode strip was enhanced 100 fold with an applied potential of 300 mV. Quality of as-prepared electrode strip was assured by the low coefficient of variation (CV (<5% of currents measured at 5 s. Three linear detection ranges with sensitivity of 75.2, 120.7, and 142.8 μA mM−1 cm−2 were observed for H2O2 concentration in the range of 1–15 mM, 0.1–1 mM, and 10–100 μM, respectively. The lowest H2O2 concentration could be measured by the as-prepared strip was 10 μM. H2O2 levels in green tea infusion and pressed Tofu could be rapidly detected with results comparable to that measured by ferrous oxidation xylenol orange (FOX assay and peroxidase colorimetric method. Keywords: Platinum-multi-wall carbon nanotube (Pt-MWCNT, Disposable carbon electrode, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, Amperometric sensor

  1. Active species in a large volume N2-O2 post-discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasi, K; Pintassilgo, C D; Loureiro, J; Coelho, P J

    2007-01-01

    A large volume post-discharge reactor placed downstream from a flowing N 2 -O 2 microwave discharge is modelled using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The density distributions of the most populated active species present in the reactor-O( 3 P), O 2 (a 1 Δ g ), O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ), NO(X 2 Π), NO(A 2 Σ + ), NO(B 2 Π), NO 2 (X), O 3 , O 2 (X 3 Σ g - ) and N( 4 S)-are calculated and the main source and loss processes for each species are identified for two discharge conditions: (i) p = 2 Torr, f = 2450 MHz, and (ii) p = 8 Torr, f = 915 MHz; in the case of a N 2 -2%O 2 mixture composition and gas flow rate of 2 x 10 3 sccm. The modification of the species relative densities by changing the oxygen percentage in the initial gas mixture composition, in the 0.2%-5% range, are presented. The possible tuning of the species concentrations in the reactor by changing the size of the connecting afterglow tube between the active discharge and the large post-discharge reactor is investigated as well

  2. Solar treatment (H2O2, TiO2-P25 and GO-TiO2 photocatalysis, photo-Fenton) of organic micropollutants, human pathogen indicators, antibiotic resistant bacteria and related genes in urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Polo-López, M Inmaculada; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa M; Faria, Joaquim L; Manaia, Célia M; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Nunes, Olga C; Silva, Adrián M T

    2018-05-15

    Solar-driven advanced oxidation processes were studied in a pilot-scale photoreactor, as tertiary treatments of effluents from an urban wastewater treatment plant. Solar-H 2 O 2 , heterogeneous photocatalysis (with and/or without the addition of H 2 O 2 and employing three different photocatalysts) and the photo-Fenton process were investigated. Chemical (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac) and biological contaminants (faecal contamination indicators, their antibiotic resistant counterparts, 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes), as well as the whole bacterial community, were characterized. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO 2 -P25 and assisted with H 2 O 2 (P25/H 2 O 2 ) was the most efficient process on the degradation of the chemical organic micropollutants, attaining levels below the limits of quantification in less than 4 h of treatment (corresponding to Q UV  < 40 kJ L -1 ). This performance was followed by the same process without H 2 O 2 , using TiO 2 -P25 or a composite material based on graphene oxide and TiO 2 . Regarding the biological indicators, total faecal coliforms and enterococci and their antibiotic resistant (tetracycline and ciprofloxacin) counterparts were reduced to values close, or beneath, the detection limit (1 CFU 100 mL -1 ) for all treatments employing H 2 O 2 , even upon storage of the treated wastewater for 3-days. Moreover, P25/H 2 O 2 and solar-H 2 O 2 were the most efficient processes in the reduction of the abundance (gene copy number per volume of wastewater) of the analysed genes. However, this reduction was transient for 16S rRNA, intI1 and sul1 genes, since after 3-days storage of the treated wastewater their abundance increased to values close to pre-treatment levels. Similar behaviour was observed for the genes qnrS (using TiO 2 -P25), bla CTX-M and bla TEM (using TiO 2 -P25 and TiO 2 -P25/H 2 O 2 ). Interestingly, higher proportions of sequence reads affiliated to the phylum Proteobacteria

  3. Effects of different activation processes on H2O2/TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhao; Dezhi Sun; Zhaohong Wang; Junwen Pu; Xiaojuan Jin; Mian Xing

    2012-01-01

    Tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used as an activator in H2O2 bleaching to improve bleaching efficiency. The present work was aimed at confirming different activations for various H2O2/TAED bleaching processes, including the addition of acetic anhydride and the step-addition of sodium hydroxide. The results showed that an acetic anhydride dosage of 1%, an acetic anhydride treatment time of 10 min, and an addition time of 45 min were the optimal treatment conditions. The optimum proces...

  4. Detection of γ-irradiation of foods. Use of H2O2-stimulated and photostimulated chemiluminescence. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, G.; Popov, I.N.; Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.

    1993-01-01

    Beside methods for unequivocal identification of irradiation treatment of food screening methods which do not always give a final answer are needed for an effective control. In this paper preliminary results are presented which were obtained by measurement of the H 2 O 2 -stimulated and photostimulated chemiluminescence of apples treated by ionising radiation. Appels were chosen as a model for fresh fruit and vegetables. It seems that the H 2 O 2 -stimulated chemiluminescence can be used to screen fruit and vegetables to detect irradiation treatment. (orig.) [de

  5. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 tensions on growth of fungi isolated from damaged flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Lucas, G B

    1970-02-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N(2)-O(2) or CO(2)-O(2). A 1 to 5% concentration of O(2) in an N(2) atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O(2) for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O(2). High O(2) concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O(2) in the N(2) atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O(2) in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O(2) decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO(2)-O(2) mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO(2). All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO(2). In contrast to N(2)-O(2) mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O(2) concentrations.

  6. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 Tensions on Growth of Fungi Isolated from Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Lucas, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N2-O2 or CO2-O2. A 1 to 5% concentration of O2 in an N2 atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O2 for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O2. High O2 concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O2 in the N2 atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O2 in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O2 decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO2-O2 mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO2. All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO2. In contrast to N2-O2 mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O2 concentrations. PMID:5461786

  7. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  8. Effects of H2/O2 mixed gas plasma treatment on electrical and optical property of indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Lee, Dong-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Yang, Su-Hwan; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The specific resistivity of ITO was enhanced by H 2 + O 2 mixed gas plasma treatment. ► The transmittance was same as that of untreated ITO after plasma treatment. ► The process was carried out at room temperature without any step of post-treatment. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of H 2 and H 2 + O 2 mixed gas plasma treatment on the properties of ITO films. The films were deposited on corning glass by RF magnetron sputtering under Ar and Ar/O 2 mixed gas ambient. After a H 2 plasma treatment, the ITO films showed an improved specific resistance due to the formation of oxygen vacancies acting as shallow donors, but showed quenched transmittance due to the formation of agglomerated metals on the surface. After an H 2 + O 2 mixed gas plasma treatment, the specific resistance of the film was improved without deteriorating transmittance. The enhanced specific resistance by mixed gas plasma treatment was attributed to the formation of free electrons by the incorporation of H in the lattice.

  9. The effect of CNTs on structures and catalytic properties of AuPd clusters for H2O2 synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-feng; Xie, Peng-yang; Yu, Hui-you; Li, Xiao-nian; Wang, Jian-guo

    2012-12-28

    The structures and catalytic properties of AuPd clusters supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for H(2)O(2) synthesis have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. Firstly, the structures of AuPd clusters are strongly influenced by CNTs, in which the bottom layers are mainly composed of Pd and the top layers are a mix of Au and Pd due to the stronger binding of Pd than Au on CNTs. Especially, it is found that O(2) adsorption on the Pd/CNTs interfacial sites is much weaker than that on the only Pd sites, which is in contrast to transition metal oxide (for example TiO(2), Al(2)O(3), CeO(2)) supported metal clusters. Furthermore, Pd ensembles on the interfacial sites have far superior catalytic properties for H(2)O(2) formation than those away from CNT supports due to the changes in electronic structures caused by the CNTs. Therefore, our study provides a physical insight into the enhanced role of carbon supports in H(2)O(2) synthesis over supported AuPd catalysts.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy of shock-compressed fluid N2 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.; Shaw, M.S.; Johnson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Single-pulse multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) was used to observe the vibrational spectra of liquid N 2 shock-compressed to several pressures and temperatures up to 41 GPa and 5200 K and liquid O 2 shock-compressed to several pressures and temperatures up to 10 GPa and 1000 K. For N 2 , the experimental spectra were compared to synthetic spectra calculated using a semiclassical model for CARS intensities and estimated vibrational frequencies, peak Raman susceptibilities, and Raman line widths. The question of excited state populations in the shock-compressed state is addressed

  11. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds from synthetic and real aqueous mixtures and simultaneous disinfection by supported TiO2/UV-A, H2O2/UV-A, and TiO2/H2O2/UV-A processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, Morgana; Satyro, Suéllen; Bassin, João Paulo; Saggioro, Enrico; Dezotti, Márcia

    2018-05-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds are carried into aquatic bodies along with domestic sewage, industrial and agricultural wastewater discharges. Psychotropic drugs, which can be toxic to the biota, have been detected in natural waters in different parts of the world. Conventional water treatments, such as activated sludge, do not properly remove these recalcitrant substances, so the development of processes able to eliminate these compounds becomes very important. Advanced oxidation processes are considered clean technologies, capable of achieving high rates of organic compounds degradation, and can be an efficient alternative to conventional treatments. In this study, the degradation of alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, and carbamazepine was evaluated through TiO 2 /UV-A, H 2 O 2 /UV-A, and TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /UV-A, using sunlight and artificial irradiation. While using TiO 2 in suspension, best results were found at [TiO 2 ] = 0.1 g L -1 . H 2 O 2 /UV-A displayed better results under acidic conditions, achieving from 60 to 80% of removal. When WWTP was used, degradation decreased around 50% for both processes, TiO 2 /UV-A and H 2 O 2 /UV-A, indicating a strong matrix effect. The combination of both processes was shown to be an adequate approach, since removal increased up to 90%. H 2 O 2 /UV-A was used for disinfecting the aqueous matrices, while mineralization was obtained by TiO 2 -photocatalysis.

  12. Effect of stabilization temperature during pyrolysis process of P84 co-polyimide-based tubular carbon membrane for H2/N2 and He/N2 separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali, N.; Salleh, W. N. W.; Ismail, A. F.; Ismail, N. H.; Aziz, F.; Yusof, N.; Hasbullah, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effect of stabilization temperature on the performance of tubular carbon membrane was being investigated. P84 co-polyimide-based tubular carbon membrane will be fabricated through the dip-coating technique. The tubular carbon membrane performance can be controlled by manipulating the pyrolysis conditions which was conducted at different stabilization temperatures of 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450°C under N2 environment (200 ml/min). The prepared membranes were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and pure gas permeation system. The pure gas of H2, He, and N2 were used to determine the permeation properties of the carbon membrane. The P84 co-polyimide-based tubular carbon membrane stabilized at 300°C demonstrated an excellent permeation property with H2, He, and N2 gas permeance of 1134.51±2.87, 1287.22±2.86 and 2.98±1.28GPU, respectively. The highest H2/N2 and He/N2 selectivity of 380.71±2.34 and 431.95±2.61 was obtained when the stabilization temperature of 450°C was applied. It is concluded that the stabilization temperatures have protrusive effect on the carbon membrane properties specifically their pore structure, and eventually their gas separation properties.

  13. Methanol reformer with water vapor and oxygen in catalysts of Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 to generate H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguila M, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the problems more important to solve in the present time because its affect the quality of the alive beings' life. For such a reason alternatives have been looked for to diminish the percentage of air pollution (NO x , CO x , SO x , etc.), for they have been developed it the well-known catalytic converters. Another possibility is the energy use through fuel cells in vehicles using H 2 as fuel free of CO (smaller concentration to 10 ppm). Processes exist for the production of H 2 starting from the methanol and in this work the one was used reformed of methanol with water vapor and oxygen (OSRM) as the main reaction of this work. The primordial objective of this work consists on studying the catalytic properties of the copper (Cu) supported in mixed oxides (ZrO 2 -CeO 2 ) in the reaction of having reformed of methanol with water vapor and oxygen for the production of H 2 . Zirconia is synthesized (ZrO 2 ) and mixed oxides ZrO 2 -CeO 2 (with different relationship Zr/Ce) for the sol-gel method and the one cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) by direct combustion of the cerium nitrate. The oxides were stabilized thermally at 600 C by 5h. The catalysts were prepared by classic impregnation using copper acetate, the nominal concentration was of 3% in weight. The catalysts were roasted at 350 C and later on reduced in flow from H 2 to 350 C for 1h. The characterization of the catalytic materials is carried out through different techniques as: adsorption-desorption of nitrogen to determine the surface area BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the final morphology of the catalysts, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the crystalline phases of the catalytic materials and reduction to programmed temperature (TPR) to evidence the interaction metal-support. The catalytic properties of the catalysts were studied in the reaction CH 3 OH + H 2 O + O 2 , to determine the activity and selectivity. The surface area of the mixed oxides was

  14. Solar degradation of 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone by TiO2 and iron(III) catalyst with H2O2 and O2 as electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Victor; Peringer, Paul; Caceres, Julia; Blanco, Julian; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater containing mainly 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone (AMBI), used in the manufacture of dyes, was characterized as bio-recalcitrant by means of different biodegradability tests. In order to enhance the biodegradability of this important pollutant, solar photocatalytic degradation methods were explored. The systems light/TiO 2 /O 2 , light/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 , light/Fe 3+ /O 2 and light/Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 were compared under direct sunlight at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain), using a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC). The iron photo-assisted systems exhibited the most interesting behaviour, from the kinetic and engineering points of view, especially if their combination (as pre-treatment) with a biological process is considered. To compare the efficiency of these systems, the evolution of the following parameters were studied: (a) the dissolved organic carbon and initial compound concentration, (b) the toxicity, and (c) the biodegradability of treated solution. At lab scale, using a solar lamp, the degradation rate of the system light/Fe 3+ /H 2 O 2 was two times higher than the system light/Fe 3+ /O 2 but this last system does not need H 2 O 2 addition, improving the economical requirements of the system

  15. Sterilization of E. coli bacterium in a flowing N2-O2 post-discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeger, S; Cousty, S; Ricard, A; Sixou, M

    2003-01-01

    Effective destruction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria has been obtained in a flowing N 2 -O 2 microwave post-discharge reactor. The sterilizing agents are the O atoms and the UV emissions of NOβ which are produced by N and O atoms recombination in the reactor. In the following plasma conditions: pressure 5 Torr, flow rate 1 L n min -1 , microwave power of 100 W in a quartz tube of 5 mm, an O atom density of 2.5x10 15 cm -3 is measured by NO titration in the post-discharge reactor with UV emission in a N 2 -(5%)O 2 gas mixture. Full destruction of 10 13 cfu ml -1 E. coli is observed after a treatment time of 25 min. (rapid communication)

  16. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of TiO3H2-: Probing the TiO2- + H2O dissociative adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVine, Jessalyn A.; Abou Taka, Ali; Babin, Mark C.; Weichman, Marissa L.; Hratchian, Hrant P.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2018-06-01

    Slow electron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy of cryogenically cooled TiO3H2- anions is used to probe the simplest titania/water reaction, TiO20/- + H2O. The resultant spectra show vibrationally resolved structure assigned to detachment from the cis-dihydroxide TiO(OH)2- geometry based on density functional theory calculations, demonstrating that for the reaction of the anionic TiO2- monomer with a single water molecule, the dissociative adduct (where the water is split) is energetically preferred over a molecularly adsorbed geometry. This work represents a significant improvement in resolution over previous measurements, yielding an electron affinity of 1.2529(4) eV as well as several vibrational frequencies for neutral TiO(OH)2. The energy resolution of the current results combined with photoelectron angular distributions reveals Herzberg-Teller coupling-induced transitions to Franck-Condon forbidden vibrational levels of the neutral ground state. A comparison to the previously measured spectrum of bare TiO2- indicates that reaction with water stabilizes neutral TiO2 more than the anion, providing insight into the fundamental chemical interactions between titania and water.

  17. A Coupled Soil-Atmosphere Model of H2O2 on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1994-01-01

    The Viking Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer failed to detect organic compounds on Mars, and both the Viking Labeled Release and the Viking Gas Exchange experiments indicated a reactive soil surface. These results have led to the widespread belief that there are oxidants in the martian soil. Since H2O2 is produced by photochemical processes in the atmosphere of Mars, and has been shown in the laboratory to reproduce closely the Viking LR results, it is a likely candidate for a martian soil oxidant. Here, we report on the results of a coupled soil/atmosphere transport model for H202 on Mars. Upon diffusing into the soil, its concentration is determined by the extent to which it is adsorbed and by the rate at which it is catalytically destroyed. An analytical model for calculating the distribution of H202 in the martian atmosphere and soil is developed. The concentration of H202 in the soil is shown to go to zero at a finite depth, a consequence of the nonlinear soil diffusion equation. The model is parameterized in terms of an unknown quantity, the lifetime of H202 against heterogeneous catalytic destruction in the soil. Calculated concentrations are compared with a H202 concentration of 30 nmoles/cu cm, inferred from the Viking Labeled Release experiment. A significant result of this model is that for a wide range of H202 lifetimes (up to 105 years), the extinction depth was found to be less than 3 m. The maximum possible concentration in the top 4 cm is calculated to be approx. 240 nmoles/cu cm, achieved with lifetimes of greater than 1000 years. Concentrations higher than 30 nmoles/cu cm require lifetimes of greater than 4.3 terrestrial years. For a wide range of H202 lifetimes, it was found that the atmospheric concentration is only weakly coupled with soil loss processes. Losses to the soil become significant only when lifetimes are less than a few hours. If there are depths below which H202 is not transported, it is plausible that organic compounds

  18. [Protective effect of taxifolin on H2O2-induced 
H9C2 cell pyroptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanqiong; Wang, Xiaoli; Cai, Qian; Zhuang, Jian; Tan, Xiaohua; He, Wei; Zhao, Mingyi

    2017-12-28

    To explore the effect of taxifolin on H2O2-induced pyroptosis in H9C2 cells and the possible mechanisms.
 Methods: The H9C2 cells was divided into 3 groups: a control group, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)group and a taxifolin group. The morphology of H9C2 cells was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining and flow cytometry. The alteration of the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by specific mitochondrial probe. The protein levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1)was determined by Western blot. The mRNA levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-1a (IL-1a), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), apoptosis-associated apeck-like protein (ASC), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
 Results: Compared with the control group, the morphology of H9C2 cells obviously changed in the H2O2-treated group, which was guadually improved in the presence of taxifolin. Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential was markedly decreased in the H2O2-treated cells, accompanied by the increase ofROS (both PH2O2 group, the mitochondrial membrane potential changes in the taxifolin group was increased while the ROS was decreased, with significant difference (both PH2O2-treated group were significantly increased (all PH2O2-induced H9C2 cell pyroptosis through inhibition of AIM2, NLRP3 and NLRC4 in flammasome.

  19. Photocatalytic Decomposition of N2O on Ag-TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Krejčíková, Simona; Šolcová, Olga; Obalová, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2012), s. 134-137 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Symposium on Nitrogen Oxides Emission Abatement. Zakopane, 04.09.2011-07.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : photocatalytic decomposition * N2O * Ag doping * TiO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  20. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of N2H+ by H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielfiedel, Annie; Balança, Christian; Feautrier, Nicole; Senent, Maria Luisa; Kalugina, Yulia; Scribano, Yohann; Lique, François

    2015-01-01

    We compute a new potential energy surface (PES) for the study of the inelastic collisions between N 2 H + and H 2 molecules. A preliminary study of the reactivity of N 2 H + with H 2 shows that neglecting reactive channels in collisional excitation studies is certainly valid at low temperatures. The four dimensional (4D) N 2 H + –H 2 PES is obtained from electronic structure calculations using the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation level of theory. The atoms are described by the augmented correlation consistent triple zeta basis set. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. The potential energy surface exhibits a well depth of ≃2530 cm −1 . Considering this very deep well, it appears that converged scattering calculations that take into account the rotational structure of both N 2 H + and H 2 should be very difficult to carry out. To overcome this difficulty, the “adiabatic-hindered-rotor” treatment, which allows para-H 2 (j = 0) to be treated as if it were spherical, was used in order to reduce the scattering calculations to a 2D problem. The validity of this approach is checked and we find that cross sections and rate coefficients computed from the adiabatic reduced surface are in very good agreement with the full 4D calculations

  1. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of N2H(+) by H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielfiedel, Annie; Senent, Maria Luisa; Kalugina, Yulia; Scribano, Yohann; Balança, Christian; Lique, François; Feautrier, Nicole

    2015-07-14

    We compute a new potential energy surface (PES) for the study of the inelastic collisions between N2H(+) and H2 molecules. A preliminary study of the reactivity of N2H(+) with H2 shows that neglecting reactive channels in collisional excitation studies is certainly valid at low temperatures. The four dimensional (4D) N2H(+)-H2 PES is obtained from electronic structure calculations using the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation level of theory. The atoms are described by the augmented correlation consistent triple zeta basis set. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. The potential energy surface exhibits a well depth of ≃2530 cm(-1). Considering this very deep well, it appears that converged scattering calculations that take into account the rotational structure of both N2H(+) and H2 should be very difficult to carry out. To overcome this difficulty, the "adiabatic-hindered-rotor" treatment, which allows para-H2(j = 0) to be treated as if it were spherical, was used in order to reduce the scattering calculations to a 2D problem. The validity of this approach is checked and we find that cross sections and rate coefficients computed from the adiabatic reduced surface are in very good agreement with the full 4D calculations.

  2. A Tale of Two Gases: Isotope Effects Associated with the Enzymatic Production of H2 and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Gandhi, H.; Kreuzer, H. W.; Moran, J.; Hill, E. A.; McQuarters, A.; Lehnert, N.; Ostrom, N. E.; Hegg, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotopes can provide considerable insight into enzymatic mechanisms and fluxes in various biological processes. In our studies, we used stable isotopes to characterize both enzyme-catalyzed H2 and N2O production. H2 is a potential alternative clean energy source and also a key metabolite in many microbial communities. Biological H2 production is generally catalyzed by hydrogenases, enzymes that combine protons and electrons to produce H2 under anaerobic conditions. In our study, H isotopes and fractionation factors (α) were used to characterize two types of hydrogenases: [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Due to differences in the active site, the α associated with H2 production for [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases separated into two distinct clusters (αFeFe > αNiFe). The calculated kinetic isotope effects indicate that hydrogenase-catalyzed H2 production has a preference for light isotopes, consistent with the relative bond strengths of O-H and H-H bonds. Interestingly, the isotope effects associated with H2 consumption and H2-H2O exchange reactions were also characterized, but in this case no specific difference was observed between the different enzymes. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 300 times that of CO2, and the concentration of N2O is currently increasing at a rate of ~0.25% per year. Thus far, bacterial and fungal denitrification processes have been identified as two of the major sources of biologically generated N2O. In this study, we measured the δ15N, δ18O, δ15Nα (central N atom in N2O), and δ15Nβ (terminal N atom in N2O) of N2O generated by purified fungal P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor) from Histoplasma capsulatum. We observed normal isotope effects for δ18O and δ15Nα, and inverse isotope effects for bulk δ15N (the average of Nα and Nβ) and δ15Nβ. The observed isotope effects have been used in conjunction with DFT calculations to provide important insight into the mechanism of P450nor. Similar

  3. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of polyhedral Fe3O4 nanocrystals, influencing factors and application in the electrochemical detection of H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Kefeng; Ni Yonghong; Zhang Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe 3 O 4 polyhedra had been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal technology. ► The as-obtained product exhibited the room-temperature ferrimagnetic property. ► The final product could be prepared into an electrochemical sensor for the detection of H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Polyhedral Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal technique, employing FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O, N 2 H 4 and NH 3 ·H 2 O as the reactants without the assistance of any surfactant. The phase of the as-obtained Fe 3 O 4 was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and further proved by Rietveld refinement of XRD data. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the composition and morphology analyses of the final product. Some factors influencing the formation of polyhedral Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals were systematically investigated, including the reaction temperature and time, and the original volume ratio of NH 3 ·H 2 O/N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O. It was found that the as-prepared Fe 3 O 4 polyhedra exhibited a good electrochemical property in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) with pH 7.0 and could be prepared into an electrochemical sensor for the detection of H 2 O 2 . The linear response range of the sensor was 10.0 × 10 −6 to 140.0 × 10 −6 M and a sensitivity was 11.05 μA/mM. Furthermore, the room-temperature magnetic property of the product was also investigated.

  4. A lysosome-locating and acidic pH-activatable fluorescent probe for visualizing endogenous H2O2 in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhou, Shunqing; Ren, Jing; Wu, Chuanliu; Zhao, Yibing

    2017-11-20

    There is increasing evidence indicating that lysosomal H 2 O 2 is closely related to autophagy and apoptotic pathways under both physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, fluorescent probes that can be exploited to visualize H 2 O 2 in lysosomes are potential tools for exploring diverse roles of H 2 O 2 in cells. However, functional exploration of lysosomal H 2 O 2 is limited by the lack of fluorescent probes capable of compatibly sensing H 2 O 2 under weak acidic conditions (pH = 4.5) of lysosomes. Lower spatial resolution of the fluorescent visualization of lysosomal H 2 O 2 might be caused by the interference of signals from cytosolic and mitochondrial H 2 O 2 , as well as the non-specific distribution of the probes in cells. In this work, we developed a lysosome-locating and acidic-pH-activatable fluorescent probe for the detection and visualization of H 2 O 2 in lysosomes, which consists of a H 2 O 2 -responsive boronate unit, a lysosome-locating morpholine group, and a pH-activatable benzorhodol fluorophore. The response of the fluorescent probe to H 2 O 2 is significantly more pronounced under acidic pH conditions than that under neutral pH conditions. Notably, the present probe enables the fluorescence sensing of endogenous lysosomal H 2 O 2 in living cells without external stimulations, with signal interference from the cytoplasm and other intracellular organelles being negligible.

  5. The Tunable Bandgap of AB-Stacked Bilayer Graphene on SiO2 with H2O Molecule Adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Guo Qing; Liu Yan; Wang Wen-Bo; Sheng Kuang; Ao Zhi-Min; Yu Bin

    2011-01-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of AB-stacking bilayer graphene (BLG) in the presence of H 2 O molecules are investigated by density functional theory calculations. For free-standing BLG, the bandgap is opened to 0.101 eV with a single H 2 O molecule adsorbed on its surface. The perfectly suspended BLG is sensitive to H 2 O adsorbates, which break the BLG lattice symmetry and open an energy gap. While a single H 2 O molecule is adsorbed on the BLG surface with a SiO 2 substrate, the bandgap widens to 0.363 eV. Both the H 2 O molecule adsorption and the oxide substrate contribute to the BLG bandgap opening. The phenomenon is interpreted with the charge transfer process in 2D carbon nanostructures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Decolorization of Mordant red 73 azo dye in water using H2O2/UV and photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorsi, Taha M; Riyad, Yasser M; Mohamed, Zeinhom H; Abd El Bary, Hassan M H

    2010-02-15

    Decolorization of the Mordant red 73 (MR73) azo dye in water was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments using UV/H(2)O(2) and photo-Fenton treatments. Photodegradation experiments were carried out in a stirred batch photoreactor equipped with a low-pressure mercury lamp as UV source at 254 nm. The effect of operating parameters such as pH, [H(2)O(2)](,) [dye] and the presence of inorganic salts (NaNO(3), NaCl and Na(2)CO(3)) were also investigated. The results indicated that complete dye decolorization was obtained in less than 60 min under optimum conditions. Furthermore, results showed that dye degradation was dependent upon pH, [H(2)O(2)] and initial dye concentration. The presence of chloride ion led to large decreases in the photodegradation rate of MR73 while both nitrate and carbonate ions have a slight effect. The photo-Fenton treatment, in the presence of Fe powder as a source of Fe(2+) ions, was highly efficient and resulted in 99% decolorization of the dye in 15 min. Mineralization of MR73 dye was investigated by determining chemical oxygen demand (COD). In a 3h photoperiod "65%" of the dye was mineralized by the H(2)O(2)/UV process, while the photo-Fenton treatment was more efficient producing 85% mineralization over the same 3-h period.

  7. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla M. S. Hansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous exposure of aquatic life to estrogenic chemicals via wastewater treatment plant effluents has in recent years received considerable attention due to the high sensitivity of oviparous animals to disturbances of estrogen-controlled physiology. The removal efficiency by direct UV and the UV/H2O2 treatment was investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals, and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through setup. The effect of different concentrations of H2O2 and different UV doses was investigated for all compounds in an effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Removal effectiveness increased with H2O2 concentration until 60 mg/L. The treatment effectiveness was reported as the electrical energy consumed per unit volume of water treated required for 90% removal of the investigated compound. It was found that the removal of all the compounds was dependent on the UV dose for both treatment methods. The required energy for 90% removal of the compounds was between 28 kWh/m3 (butylparaben and 1.2 kWh/m3 (estrone for the UV treatment. In comparison, the UV/H2O2 treatment required between 8.7 kWh/m3 for bisphenol A and benzophenone-7 and 1.8 kWh/m3 for ethinylestradiol.

  8. Direct comparison of gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase variants and glucose oxidase: substrate range and H2O2 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu V; Foumani, Maryam; MacCormick, Benjamin; Kwan, Rachel; Master, Emma R

    2016-11-21

    Glucose oxidase (GO) activity is generally restricted to glucose and is susceptible to inactivation by H 2 O 2 . By comparison, the Y300A variant of gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase (GOOX) from Sarocladium strictum showed broader substrate range and higher H 2 O 2 stability. Specifically, Y300A exhibited up to 40 times higher activity on all tested sugars except glucose, compared to GO. Moreover, fusion of the Y300A variant to a family 22 carbohydrate binding module from Clostridium thermocellum (CtCBM22A) nearly doubled its catalytic efficiency on glucose, while retaining significant activity on oligosaccharides. In the presence of 200 mM of H 2 O 2 , the recombinant CtCBM22A_Y300A retained 80% of activity on glucose and 100% of activity on cellobiose, the preferred substrate for this enzyme. By contrast, a commercial glucose oxidase reported to contain ≤0.1 units catalase/ mg protein, retained 60% activity on glucose under the same conditions. GOOX variants appear to undergo a different mechanism of inactivation, as a loss of histidine instead of methionine was observed after H 2 O 2 incubation. The addition of CtCBM22A also promoted functional binding of the fusion enzyme to xylan, facilitating its simultaneous purification and immobilization using edible oat spelt xylan, which might benefit the usage of this enzyme preparation in food and baking applications.

  9. Real-Time in Vivo Detection of H2O2 Using Hyperpolarized 13C-Thiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Arif; Park, Jae Mo; Liu, Shie-Chau; Khosla, Chaitan; Spielman, Daniel M

    2017-07-21

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential cellular metabolites widely implicated in many diseases including cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, ROS signaling remains poorly understood, and their measurements are a challenge due to high reactivity and instability. Here, we report the development of 13 C-thiourea as a probe to detect and measure H 2 O 2 dynamics with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution using hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. In particular, we show 13 C-thiourea to be highly polarizable and to possess a long spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ), which enables real-time monitoring of ROS-mediated transformation. We also demonstrate that 13 C-thiourea reacts readily with H 2 O 2 to give chemically distinguishable products in vitro and validate their detection in vivo in a mouse liver. This study suggests that 13 C-thiourea is a promising agent for noninvasive detection of H 2 O 2 in vivo. More broadly, our findings outline a viable clinical application for H 2 O 2 detection in patients with a range of diseases.

  10. Cathodic detection of H2O2 based on nanopyramidal gold surface with enhanced electron transfer of myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peipei; Liu, Haiqing; Tian, Yang

    2009-04-15

    Direct and reversible electron transfer of myoglobin (Mb), for the first time, is achieved at nanopyramidal gold surface, which was fabricated by one-step electrodeposition, with redox formal potential of 0.21+/-0.01 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and an apparent heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant (k(s)) of 1.6+/-0.2 s(-1). Electrochemical investigation indicates that Mb is stably confined on the nanopyramidal gold surface and maintains electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The facilitated electron transfer combined with the intrinsic catalytical activity of Mb substantially construct the third-generation biosensor for H(2)O(2). The positive redox potential of Mb at the nanostructured gold electrode gives a strong basis for determination of H(2)O(2) with high selectivity. Besides this advantage, the present biosensor also exhibits quick response time, broad linear range, and good sensitivity. The dynamic detection linear range is from 1 microM to 1.4 mM with a detection limit of 0.5 microM at 3sigma. The striking analytical performance of the present biosensor, as well as the biocompatibility of gold nanostructures provided a potential for continuous, on-line detection of H(2)O(2) in the biological system.

  11. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Celina M; Pastori, Gabriela M; Driscoll, Simon; Groten, Karin; Bernard, Stephanie; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-01-01

    Plants co-ordinate information derived from many diverse external and internal signals to ensure appropriate control of gene expression under optimal and stress conditions. In this work, the relationships between catalase (CAT) and H2O2 during drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are studied. Drought-induced H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in soil water content and CO2 assimilation. Leaf H2O2 content increased even though total CAT activity doubled under severe drought conditions. Diurnal regulation of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNA abundance was apparent in all conditions and day/night CAT1 and CAT2 expression patterns were modified by mild and severe drought. The abundance of CAT1 transcripts was regulated by circadian controls that persisted in continuous darkness, while CAT2 was modulated by light. Drought decreased abundance, and modified the pattern, of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNAs. It was concluded that the complex regulation of CAT mRNA, particularly at the level of translation, allows precise control of leaf H2O2 accumulation.

  12. Protective effects of veskamide, enferamide, becatamide, and oretamide on H2O2-induced apoptosis of PC-12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veskamide, enferamide, becatamide, and oretamide are phenolic amides whose analogues are found in plants. In this study, the four amides were prepared by chemical synthesis and their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells were investigated. The syntheses were relatively si...

  13. Atomic scale simulation of H2O2 permeation through aquaporin: toward the understanding of plasma cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, Maksudbek; Yan, Dayun; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-03-01

    Experiments have demonstrated the potential selective anticancer capacity of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using computer simulations, we try to shed light on the mechanism of selectivity, based on aquaporins (AQPs), i.e. transmembrane protein channels transferring external H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species, created e.g. by CAPs, to the cell interior. Specifically, we perform molecular dynamics simulations for the permeation of H2O2 through AQP1 (one of the members of the AQP family) and the palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayer (PLB). The free energy barrier of H2O2 across AQP1 is lower than for the POPC PLB, while the permeability coefficient, calculated using the free energy and diffusion rate profiles, is two orders of magnitude higher. This indicates that the delivery of H2O2 into the cell interior should be through AQP. Our study gives a better insight into the role of AQPs in the selectivity of CAPs for treating cancer cells.

  14. Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometr...

  15. Oxalate metabolism in liquid cultures of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora : a possible pathway for extracellular H2O2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulises. Urzua; Claudio. Aguilar; Philip J. Kersten; Rafael. Vicuna

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the source of extracellular hydrogen peroxide in cultures of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was investigated. A thorough search for the presence in the growth medium of oxidases known to be produced by other fungi gave negative results. We therefore explored the prospect that H2O2 might arise from the oxidation of organic acids by MnP. Both oxalate and...

  16. A novel H(2)O(2) amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Chen, Zixuan; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Chenbin; Yan, Wei; Yao, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    A new kind of gold nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline nanofibers (Au/SPAN) with grooves has been prepared for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The ratio of gold in the composite nanofibers was up to 64%, which could promote the conductivity and biocompatibility of SPAN and increase the immobilized amount of HRP molecules greatly. The electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity in the reduction of H(2)O(2) in the presence of the mediator hydroquinone (HQ). The effects of concentration of HQ, solution pH and the working potential on the current response of the modified electrode toward H(2)O(2) were optimized to obtain the maximal sensitivity. The proposed biosensor exhibited a good linear response in the range from 10 to 2000 μM with a detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N=3) under the optimum conditions. The response showed Michaelis-Menten behavior at larger H(2)O(2) concentrations, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) was estimated to be 2.21 mM. The detection of H(2)O(2) concentration in real sample showed acceptable accuracy with the traditional potassium permanganate titration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequencing treatment of industrial wastewater with ultraviolet/H2O2 advanced oxidation and moving bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mehrabani Ardekani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a sequencing treatment including ultraviolet (UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation followed by a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR. Materials and Methods: Effect of solution pH, reaction time, and H 2 O 2 concentration were investigated for an industrial wastewater sample. The effluent of the advanced oxidation processes unit was introduced to the MBBR operated for three hydraulic retention times of 4, 8, and 12 h. Results: The optimum condition for industrial wastewater treatment via advanced oxidation was solution pH: 7, H 2 O 2 dose: 1000 mg/L and 90 min reaction time. These conditions led to 74.68% chemical oxygen demand (COD removal and 66.15% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 removal from presedimentation step effluent that initially had COD and BOD 5 contents of 4,400 and 1,950 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Combination of UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation with MBBR could result in effluents that meet water quality standards for discharge to receiving waters.

  18. Improving Methane Production through Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung by H2O2 Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTAF ALAM NOONARI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw and BD (Buffalo Dung by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System at mesophilic (37±1oC conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2.

  19. First measurements of H2O2 and organic peroxide surface fluces by the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Canossa, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Rappenglück, B.; Steinbrecher, R.; Klemm, O.; Schuster, G.; Moortgat, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    The relaxed eddy-accumulation (REA) technique was specially adapted to a high-performance liquid chromatographer (enzymatic method) and scrubbing coils to measure concentrations and fluxes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides with a carbon chain C4, of which only methylhydroperoxide

  20. CodY Regulates Thiol Peroxidase Expression as Part of the Pneumococcal Defense Mechanism against H2O2 Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajaj, Barak; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Zhi, Xiangyun; Benisty, Rachel; Tchalah, Shiran; Kuipers, Oscar P; Porat, Nurith

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative anaerobic pathogen. Although it maintains fermentative metabolism, during aerobic growth pneumococci produce high levels of H2O2, which can have adverse effects on cell viability and DNA, and influence pneumococcal interaction with its host. The pneumococcus

  1. Development of an online analyzer of atmospheric H 2O 2 and several organic hydroperoxides for field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S.; Sowka, I.; Monod, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Laugier, J. M.; Wortham, H.

    2005-03-01

    An online automated instrument was developed for atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides with separation and quantification of H 2O 2 and several organic hydroperoxides. Samples were trapped in aqueous solutions in a scrubbing glass coil. Analyses were performed on an HPLC column followed by para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (POPHA) acetic acid and peroxidase derivatization and fluorescence detection. Analytical and sampling tests were performed on different parameters to obtain optimum signal-to-noise ratios, high resolution and collection efficiencies higher than 95% for H 2O 2 and organic hydroperoxides. The obtained performances show large improvements compared to previous studies. The sampling and analytical devices can be coupled providing an online analyzer. The device was used during two field campaigns in the Marseilles area in June 2001 (offline analyzer) and in July 2002 (online analyzer) at rural sites at low and high altitudes, respectively, during the ESCOMPTE and BOND campaigns. During the ESCOMPTE campaign, H 2O 2 was detected occasionally, and no organic hydroperoxides was observed. During the BOND campaign, substantial amounts of H 2O 2 and 1-HEHP+MHP were often detected, and two other organic hydroperoxides were occasionally detected. These observations are discussed.

  2. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    and the UV/H2O2-treatment were investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through set...

  3. Metastable α-AgVO3 microrods as peroxidase mimetics for colorimetric determination of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Wang, Jin

    2017-12-01

    Single phase metastable α-AgVO 3 microrods with high crystallinity, tetragonal rod-like microstructure, uniform particle size distribution, and good dispersion were synthesized by direct coprecipitation at room temperature. They are shown to be viable peroxidase mimics that catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H 2 O 2 . Kinetic analysis indicated typical Michaelis-Menten catalytic behavior. The findings were used to design a colorimetric assay for H 2 O 2 , best measured at 652 nm. The method has a linear response in the 60 to 200 μM H 2 O 2 concentration range, with a 2 μM detection limit. Benefitting from the chemical stability of the microrods, the method is well reproducible. It also is easily performed and highly specific. Graphic abstract Single phase metastable α-AgVO 3 microrods with high crystallinity, tetragonal rod-like microstructure, uniform particle size distribution, and good dispersion can efficiently catalyze the oxidation reaction of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 to produce a blue color change.

  4. Repairable and nonrepairable inactivation of irradiated aqueous papain: effect of OH, O2-, e/sub aq-/, and H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.S.; Clement, J.R.; Gaucher, G.M.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Repairable inactivation of papain irradiated in dilute aqueous solutions saturated with air or nitrous oxide is caused predominantly by reversible oxidation of Cys 25 SH by H 2 O 2 . The same process occurs in nitrogen-saturated solutions but the yield of repairable product decreases at higher doses, probably because of the consumption of H 2 O 2 by intermediates formed from e - /sub aq/ and papain. The OH radical produces only nonrepairable damage, with the fraction of the OH radical causing nonrepairable inactivation (f/sub OH//sup n.r./) equal to 0.1 and this is accompanied by, if not solely due to, SH loss. The O 2 - radical with f/sub O 2 //sup -n.r. = 0.4 also causes nonrepairable damage resulting from or accompanied by SH loss. In addition, there is evidence that every O 2 - reacts with papain to produce a hydrogen peroxide molecule, thus causing a marked increase in the repairable yield. The solvated electron for which f/sub e//Sup n.r./ is 0.07 does not appear to destroy Cys 25 SH, and must, therefore, inactivate papain by damaging other essential residues or changing the active site geometry. The inactivation yields for the present papain solutions prepared by affinity chromatography are compared with other work. Discrepancies in previous determinations of sulfhydryl loss are attributed to the special properties of the sulfenic acid product of the H 2 O 2 -papain reaction and its different effects on pHMB and DTNB assays. (U.S.)

  5. Ferrous ion oxidations by ·H, ·OH and H2O2 in aerated FBX dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.; Nilekani, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    In the ferrous ion, benzoic acid and xylenol orange (FBX) dosimetric system, benzoic acid (BA) increases the G(Fe 3+ ) value. Xylenol orange (XO) controls the BA sensitized chain reaction as well as forms a complex with Fe 3+ . In the aerated FBX system each ·H, ·OH and H 2 O 2 oxidizes 8.5, 6.6 and 7.6 Fe 2+ ions, respectively; and these values respectively increase to 11.3, 7.6 and 8.6 in oxygenated solution. About 8% ·OH reacts with XO and the remaining with BA. The above fractional values are due to this competition. This ·OH reaction with XO oxidizes 1.8% and 2.1% ferrous ions only in aerated and oxygenated solutions, respectively. There is a competition between ·H reactions with O 2 and with BA, but both lead to the production of H 2 O 2 . The oxidation of Fe 2+ by ·OH reactions at different concentrations of H 2 O 2 is linear with absorbed dose while the ·H reactions make the oxidation of Fe 2+ non-linear with dose. This is due to competition reaction of H-adduct of BA between O 2 and Fe 3+

  6. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and antioxidants were less extended after the oxidative

  7. Role of H2O2 in the photo-transformation of phenol in artificial and natural seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Paola; Campra, Laura; Pelizzetti, Ezio; Minero, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In previous works, it was observed that phenol photo-induced transformation in natural seawater (NSW) mediated by natural photosensitizers occurs and leads to the formation of numerous hydroxylated, condensed, halogenated and nitroderivatives. Irradiation of NSW added with phenol and iron species had provided the enhanced formation of several halophenols, suggesting a central role played by iron species on the phenol halogenation in marine water. In this paper, we focus on hydrogen peroxide, another key photosensitizer, and its interaction with iron species. The ability of Fe(II)/Fe(III) and H 2 O 2 species to act as photo-sensitizers towards the transformation of organic compounds in seawater was investigated under simulated solar radiation. Light activation is necessary to induce the transformation of phenol, as no degradation occurs in the dark when either H 2 O 2 or iron/H 2 O 2 are initially added to artificial seawater (ASW). Fe(II) is easily transformed into Fe(III), assessing that a Fenton reaction (dark, Fe(II)/H 2 O 2 ) does not take place in marine environment, in favour of a photo-activated reaction involving Fe(III) and H 2 O 2 . When NSW is spiked with H 2 O 2 and Fe(III), halophenols' and nitrophenols' concentration decreases and completely disappears at high hydrogen peroxide concentration. Since Fe(II) and Fe(III) in spiked seawater induce an enhanced formation of haloderivatives, an excess of hydrogen peroxide act as scavenger towards the photo-produced chloro/bromo radicals, so hindering halogenation process in seawater. Hence, even if hydrogen peroxide efficiently induces the ·OH radical formation, and could then promote the phenol phototransformation, nevertheless it is negligibly involved in the production of the intermediates formed during phenol photolysis in seawater, whose formation is necessarily linked to other photosensitizer species. - Highlights: ► Hydrogen peroxide-mediated solar-driven transformations of pollutant in seawater are

  8. Rice Bioactive Peptide Binding with TLR4 To Overcome H2O2-Induced Injury in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells through NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lin, Qinlu; Huang, Ping; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Jianzhong

    2018-01-17

    Reactive oxygen species-induced vessel endothelium injury is crucial in cardiovascular diseases progression. Rice-derived bran bioactive peptides (RBAP) might exert antioxidant effect through unknown mechanisms. Herein, we validated the antioxidant effect and mechanism of RBAP on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Here, HUVECs were treated with RBAP under H 2 O 2 stimulation; the effects of RBAP on HUVECs oxidative injury were evaluated. H 2 O 2 injury-induced cell morphology changes were ameliorated by RBAP. The effect of H 2 O 2 - on HUVEC apoptosis (percentage of apoptotic cell: 38.00 ± 2.00 in H 2 O 2 group vs 21.07 ± 2.06 in RBAP + H 2 O 2 group, P = 0.0013 compared to H 2 O 2 group), the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 (relative protein expression: 2.90 ± 0.10 in H 2 O 2 group vs 1.82 ± 0.09 in RBAP + H 2 O 2 group, P < 0.0001 compared to H 2 O 2 group) and p-p65 (relative protein expression: 1.86 ± 0.09 in H 2 O 2 group vs 1.35 ± 0.08 in RBAP + H 2 O 2 group, P < 0.0001 compared to H 2 O 2 group) could be attenuated by RBAP. RBAP exerts its protective function through binding with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Taken together, RBAP protects HUVECs against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidant injury, which provided the theoretical basis for the molecular mechanism of rice deep processing and exploitation of functional peptides.

  9. Synthesis, structure, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of K2[Co(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·4H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimhulu, M.; Hussain, K. A.

    2018-06-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic behaviour of potassium bis(oxalato)cobaltate(II)tertrahydrate{K2[Co(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·4H2O} are described. The compound was grown at room temperature from mixture of aqueous solutions by slow evaporation method. The X-ray crystallographic data showed that the compound belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group and Z = 4. The UV-visible diffuse absorbance spectra exhibited bands at 253, 285 and 541 nm in the visible and ultraviolet regions. The optical band gap of the compound was estimated as 3.4 eV. At room temperature, an intense photoluminescence was observed from this material around 392 nm when it excited at 254 nm. The variable temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements exposed paramagnetic behaviour at high temperatures and antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures.

  10. Non-noble metal Cu-loaded TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wei Jian; Zhang, Chun; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-01-21

    Here we have demonstrated the preparation of high-quality, monodispersed and tunable phases of Cu nanoparticles. Structural and chemical composition studies depict the evolution of Cu-Cu(2)O-CuO nanoparticles at various process stages. The loading of Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles on TiO(2) catalyst has enhanced the photocatalytic H(2) production. Comparatively, H(2) treatment produces well-dispersed Cu nanoparticles with thin oxide shells that show the highest H(2) production amongst the samples. The relatively higher photocatalytic performance is deemed to result from reduced structural defects, higher surface area and dispersivity as well as favorable charge transfer, which inhibits recombination. The Cu nanoparticles are shown to be a promising alternative to noble metal-loaded TiO(2) catalyst systems due to their low cost and high performance in photocatalytic applications.

  11. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    Full Text Available A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-ylphenol (4-IMP, 4-iodophenol (4-IOP, 4-bromophenol (4-BOP and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP in their utilized HRP concentration ranges.

  12. Comparative investigation of X-ray contrast medium degradation by UV/chlorine and UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi; Pang, Suyan

    2018-02-01

    The degradation of iopamidol and diatrizoate sodium (DTZ) by UV/chlorine was carried out according to efficiency, mechanism, and oxidation products, and compared to that by UV/H 2 O 2 . The pseudo-first order rate (k') of iopamidol and DTZ was accelerated by UV/chlorine compared to that by UV and chlorine alone. k' of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine increased with increasing chlorine dosage. Both of iopamidol and DTZ could not be effectively removed by UV/H 2 O 2 compared to that by UV/chlorine. Secondary radicals (Cl 2 - and ClO) rather than primary radicals (HO and Cl) were demonstrated to be mainly responsible for the enhanced removal of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine. The oxidation products of iopamidol and DTZ resulting from UV/chlorine and UV/H 2 O 2 process were identified, and differences existed in the two systems. IO 3 - (the desired sink of I - ) was the major inorganic product in the UV/chlorine process whereas I - was the predominant inorganic product in the UV/H 2 O 2 process. The formation of chlorine-containing products during the degradation of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine was also observed. H-abstraction, additions, de-iodination were shared during the degradation of iopamidol by UV/chlorine and UV/H 2 O 2 . Neutral pH condition was preferred for the removal of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine. UV/chlorine could also be applied in real waters for the removal of iopamidol and DTZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced oxidation removal of hypophosphite by O3/H2O2 combined with sequential Fe(II) catalytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zilong; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Chen, Guanhan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zekun; Gao, Yaguang; Zhou, Beili

    2017-08-01

    Elimination of hypophosphite (HP) was studied as an example of nickel plating effluents treatment by O 3 /H 2 O 2 and sequential Fe(II) catalytic oxidation process. Performance assessment performed with artificial HP solution by varying initial pH and employing various oxidation processes clearly showed that the O 3 /H 2 O 2 ─Fe(II) two-step oxidation process possessed the highest removal efficiency when operating under the same conditions. The effects of O 3 dosing, H 2 O 2 concentration, Fe(II) addition and Fe(II) feeding time on the removal efficiency of HP were further evaluated in terms of apparent kinetic rate constant. Under improved conditions (initial HP concentration of 50 mg L -1 , 75 mg L -1 O 3 , 1 mL L -1 H 2 O 2 , 150 mg L -1 Fe(II) and pH 7.0), standard discharge (<0.5 mg L -1 in China) could be achieved, and the Fe(II) feeding time was found to be the limiting factor for the evolution of apparent kinetic rate constant in the second stage. Characterization studies showed that neutralization process after oxidation treatment favored the improvement of phosphorus removal due to the formation of more metal hydroxides. Moreover, as a comparison with lab-scale Fenton approach, the O 3 /H 2 O 2 ─Fe(II) oxidation process had more competitive advantages with respect to applicable pH range, removal efficiency, sludge production as well as economic costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diclofenac degradation in water by FeCeOx catalyzed H2O2: Influencing factors, mechanism and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shan; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yucan; Huang, Ting; Chang, Huazhen

    2017-07-15

    The degradation of diclofenac in a like Fenton system, FeCeO x -H 2 O 2 , was studied in details. The influencing factors, reaction kinetics, reaction mechanism and degradation pathways of diclofenac were investigated. The optimum conditions were at a solution pH of 5.0, H 2 O 2 concentration of 3.0mmol/L, diclofenac initial concentration of 0.07mmol/L, FeCeO x dosage of 0.5g/L, and 84% degradation of diclofenac was achieved within 40min. The kinetics of FeCeO x catalyzed H 2 O 2 process involved adsorption-dominating and degradation-dominating stages and fitted pseudo-second order model and pseudo-first order model, respectively. Singlet oxygen 1 O 2 was the primary intermediate oxidative species in the degradation process; superoxide radical anion O 2 - also participated in the reaction. The surface cerium and iron sites and the oxygen vacancies in the FeCeO x catalyst were proposed to play an important role in H 2 O 2 decomposition and active species generation. The detected intermediates were identified as hydroxylated derivatives (m/z of 310, 326 and 298), quinone imine compounds (m/z of 308, 278 and 264) and hydroxyl phenylamine (m/z of 178). The majority intermediates were hydroxylated derivatives and the minority was hydroxyl phenylamine. The degradation pathways were proposed to involve hydroxylation, decarboxylation, dehydrogenation and CN bond cleavage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of H2O, O2, and SO2 on postcombustion CO2 capture in metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiamei; Ma, Yuguang; Balbuena, Perla B

    2012-05-29

    Molecular modeling methods are used to estimate the influence of impurity species: water, O(2), and SO(2) in flue gas mixtures present in postcombustion CO(2) capture using a metal organic framework, HKUST-1, as a model sorbent material. Coordinated and uncoordinated water effects on CO(2) capture are analyzed. Increase of CO(2) adsorption is observed for both cases, which can be attributed to the enhanced binding energy between CO(2) and HKUST-1 due to the introduction of a small amount of water. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the binding energy between CO(2) and HKUST-1 with coordinated water is ~1 kcal/mol higher than that without coordinated water. It is found that the improvement of CO(2)/N(2) selectivity induced by coordinated water may mainly be attributed to the increased CO(2) adsorption on the hydrated HKUST-1. On the other hand, the enhanced selectivity induced by uncoordinated water in the flue gas mixture can be explained on the basis of the competition of adsorption sites between water and CO(2) (N(2)). At low pressures, a significant CO(2)/N(2) selectivity increase is due to the increase of CO(2) adsorption and decrease of N(2) adsorption as a consequence of competition of adsorption sites between water and N(2). However, with more water molecules adsorbed at higher pressures, the competition between water and CO(2) leads to the decrease of CO(2) adsorption capacity. Therefore, high pressure operation should be avoided in HKUST-1 sorbents for CO(2) capture. In addition, the effects of O(2) and SO(2) on CO(2) capture in HKUST-1 are investigated: The CO(2)/N(2) selectivity does not change much even with relatively high concentrations of O(2) in the flue gas (up to 8%). A slightly lower CO(2)/N(2) selectivity of a CO(2)/N(2)/H(2)O/SO(2) mixture is observed compared with that in a CO(2)/N(2)/H(2)O mixture, especially at high pressures, due to the strong SO(2) binding with HKUST-1.

  16. H2O incorporation in the phosphorene/a-SiO2 interface: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopel, Wanderlã L; Souza, Everson S; Miwa, R H

    2017-02-22

    Based on first-principles calculations, we investigate (i) the energetic stability and electronic properties of single-layer phosphorene (SLP) adsorbed on an amorphous SiO 2 surface (SLP/a-SiO 2 ), and (ii) the further incorporation of water molecules at the phosphorene/a-SiO 2 interface. In (i), we find that the phosphorene sheet binds to a-SiO 2 through van der Waals interactions, even in the presence of oxygen vacancies on the surface. The SLP/a-SiO 2 system presents a type-I band alignment, with the valence (conduction) band maximum (minimum) of the phosphorene lying within the energy gap of the a-SiO 2 substrate. The structure and the surface-potential corrugations promote the formation of electron-rich and electron-poor regions on the phosphorene sheet and at the SLP/a-SiO 2 interface. Such charge density puddles are strengthened by the presence of oxygen vacancies in a-SiO 2 . In (ii), because of the amorphous structure of the surface, we consider a number of plausible geometries for H 2 O embedded in the SLP/a-SiO 2 interface. There is an energetic preference for the formation of hydroxyl (OH) groups on the a-SiO 2 surface. Meanwhile, in the presence of oxygenated water or interstitial oxygen in the phosphorene sheet, we observe the formation of metastable OH bonded to the phosphorene, and the formation of energetically stable P-O-Si chemical bonds at the SLP/a-SiO 2 interface. Further x-ray absorption spectra simulations are performed, which aim to provide additional structural/electronic information on the oxygen atoms forming hydroxyl groups or P-O-Si chemical bonds at the interface region.

  17. Hydrophilic CeO2 nanocubes protect pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 from H2O2-induced oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Guang-Ming; Wang, Yan-Jie; Huang, Xue; Zhang, Huai-Yuan; Sun, Ling-Dong; Liu, Yan-Jun; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the occurrence and development of diabetes. With their unique redox properties, CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria) exhibit promising potential for the treatment of diabetes resulting from oxidative stress. Here, we develop a novel preparation of hydrophilic CeO2 nanocubes (NCs) with two different sizes (5 nm and 25 nm) via an acetate assisted hydrothermal method. Dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analyses were utilized to investigate the changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of CeO2 NCs when exposed to in vitro cell culture conditions. CCK-8 assays revealed that the CeO2 NCs did not impair cell proliferation in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 at the highest dose of 200 μg mL-1 over the time scale of 72 h, while being able to protect INS-1 cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity even after protein adsorption. It is also noteworthy that nanoceria with a smaller hydrodynamic radius exhibit stronger antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, which is consistent with their H2O2 quenching capability in biological systems. These findings suggest that nanoceria can be used as an excellent antioxidant for controlling oxidative stress-induced pancreatic β-cell damage.Oxidative stress plays a key role in the occurrence and development of diabetes. With their unique redox properties, CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria) exhibit promising potential for the treatment of diabetes resulting from oxidative stress. Here, we develop a novel preparation of hydrophilic CeO2 nanocubes (NCs) with two different sizes (5 nm and 25 nm) via an acetate assisted hydrothermal method. Dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analyses were utilized to investigate the changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of Ce