Sample records for h2 n2 o2

  1. H2S Sensing Characteristics of Thin Film SnO2 Sensor with N2 Treatment

    Jong-Won Kim; Kwang-Hyun Yun; Geon-Young Cha; Gi-Hong Rue; Duk-Dong Lee; Jeung-Soo Huh


    SnO2 thin film sensors were fabricated by a thermal evaporation method. The sensors were heated for thermal oxidation. For high porosity, SnO2 thin film sensors were treated in a N2 atmosphere. The sensors that were treated with O2 after being treated with N2 showed 70 % sensitivity for 1 × 10-6 of H2S, which is higher than the sensors that were only treated with O2. The Ni metal, as a catalyst, was evaporated on the thin film Sn on the Al2O3 substrate. The sensor was heated to grow the Sn nanowire in a tube furnace with N2 flow. Sn nanowire was heated for oxidation. The sensitivity of SnO2 nanowire sensor was measured for 500 × 10-9 of H2S. The selectivity of the SnO2 nanowire sensor was compared with the thin film and the thick film SnO2. Each sensor was measured for H2S, CO, and NH3 in this study.

  2. Oxidation of CO and H2 by O2 and N2O on Au/TiO2 catalysts in microreactors

    Walther, Guido; Mowbray, Duncan; Jiang, Tao


    We performed steady-state activity measurements in microreactors to obtain the reaction rates for CO and H2 oxidation. These reactions were studied on three different gold particle sizes (d≈3.6,5.7,16.2 nm) using either O2 or N2O as oxidizing agents. From our TEM analysis, our CO oxidation rates ...... activation barriers of about 37 kJ mol−1 for CO oxidation on the smallest nanoparticles by both O2 and N2O. For all of the reactions studied, we found the overall activation barrier depended only on the size of the TiO2 supported gold nanoparticle....

  3. Diffosion of H2,CO,N2,O2 and CH4 Through Nanoporous Carbon Membranes%H2,CO,N2,O2和CH4在碳膜中的扩散

    吴志强; 刘志平; 汪文川; 范益群; 徐南平


    Diffusion of pure H2,CO,N2,O2and CH4 gases through nanoporous carbon membrane is investigated by carrying out non-equilibrium molecular dynamics(NEMD)simulations.The flux,transport diflusivity and acti-vation energy for the pure gases diffusing through carbon membranes with various pore widths were investigated.The simulation results reveal that transport diffusivity increases with temperature and pore width.and its values port diflusivities are comparablc With that of Rao and Sircar(J.Membr.Sci.,1996).indicating the NEMD simula-tion method iS a good toO]for predicting the transport diflusivities for gases in porous materialS.which iS always difficult to be accurately measured by experiments.

  4. 气相中 H2O2N2O反应机理的探讨%Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of H2O2 with N2O

    刘够生; 宋兴福; 于建国; 钱旭红


    采用 RHF/AM1方法研究了 H2O2N2O的反应机理 .计算结果表明 ,该反应是多步反应 ,先后通过 2个过渡态( TS1,TS3) ,1个内旋转位垒( TS2) ,2个中间体( IM1,IM2) .其中从反应物 Re到 TS1为整个反应的决速步骤 ,速控步骤的活化能为 323.04 kJ· mol- 1.整个反应为一放热反应 ,放出的热量为 147.67kJ· mol- 1.%Greenhouse effect has been received more and more attention in the field of environment protection recently. N2O is an important geenhouse effect gas, whose effect is 206 times stronger than that of CO2. Some researches show that beacuse of coupling relationship and competition effect between different trace gases, other trace gases can affect N2O′ s life and ozone′ s depletion speed in the atmosphere. In order to give an instructive theoretical reference to experimental researchers, AM1 molecular orbital methods using the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculation have been applied to investigate the mechanism of the reaction of H2O2 with N2O. The results show that this is a multi-step reaction. Along the reaction path there are two transition states, one internal rotational barrier and two intermediates. The step from Re to IM1 is the rate-controlling step, whose activation energy is 323.04 kJ· mol 1. The whole reaction is exothermic, with the heat of formation equals to - 147.67 kJ· mol- 1.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of ZnO on thermal SiO2 and Si surfaces using N2-diluted diethylzinc and H2O2 precursors

    Qian, Ke-Jia; Chen, Sun; Zhu, Bao; Chen, Lin; Ding, Shi-Jin; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei; Chen, Zhenyi


    ZnO nanodots are attracting more and more attention in various photoelectrical applications due to multiple excition generation. In this article, atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth of ZnO nanodots has been realized for the first time on both thermal SiO2 and Si surfaces using N2-diluted gaseous DEZn and H2O2 precursors. The experimental results indicate that the ALD ZnO exhibits a nano-crystalline film with corrugated surfaces in the case of the deposition temperature of 200 °C, likely due to concrescence among ZnO nanodots. When the deposition temperature is increased up to 300 °C, ZnO is grown in the form of well-discrete nanodots. This is due to increased desorption of the reacting molecules and a reduction of nucleation sites on the growing surfaces at 300 °C, thus leading to the reaction between DEZn and sbnd OH groups only on some favorable sites from thermodynamic and energy points of view. In terms of the thermal SiO2 surface, ZnO nanodots with a density of around 5 × 1010 cm-2 are obtained for 100 cycles. As for the Si surface, ZnO nanodots with a density as high as ˜1 × 1011 cm-2 are achieved for 50 cycles. Finally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the ALD ZnO at 300 °C is dominated by Znsbnd O bonds together with a small quantity of Znsbnd OH bonds, and the deposition temperature of 300 °C can result in preferential growth of ZnO (0 0 2) orientation and a bigger crystallite size.

  6. Space Group of Aquaimidazolemaleatozinc, [(H2O)(C3H4N2)(O2CCH=CHCO2Zn)]n

    NG Seik Weng


    The space group of [(H2O)(C3H4N2)(O2CCH=CHCO2Zn)]n, which was originally described in the acentric Pc space group (Liu et al., Chin. J. Struct. Chem. 2004, 23, 160~163), is re-described in the centric P21/c space group.The crystal structure of (H2O)(C3H4N2)O2C-CH=CHCO2Zn was refined in the acentric Pc space group on 266 variables to R = 0.037 for the 1926 of the 2067 obeying the I > 2σ criterion[1]. The structure is better described in the centric P21/c space group (Table 1) as the two indepen-dent formula units are related by a center of symmetry. The 21 screw axis is must be pre-sent, as noted from the systematically absent 0k0 (k = 2n + 1) reflections in the 3302 reflections that were simulated[2, 3] from the published cell dimensions and atomic coordinates. Crystallo-graphica[4] estimates the hemisphere of reflections to be 3302, so that only a little more than the minimum monoclinic data must have been collec-ted in the study. A revision from Pc to P21/c is not particularly common[5] as the P21/c space group is uniquely determined from systematic absences. The polymeric chain propagates linearly along the c-axis of the unit cell (Fig. 1).

  7. Key insights into the reacting kinetics of atmospheric pressure plasmas using He +N2 /O2 /CO2 /H2 O/Air mixtures

    Murakami, Tomoyuki


    A zero dimensional kinetic chemistry computational modeling to identify the important collisional mechanisms and the dominant species in atmospheric pressure plasmas has been developed. This modeling provides an enhanced capability to tailor wide variety of reactive intermediates/species in atmospheric pressure plasmas using He +N2 /O2 /CO2 /H2 O/Air mixtures. The influence of the gas constituent, the gas temperature and the excitation frequency (kHz-, RF-, Pulsed-working) on the complex reacting chemical kinetics is clarified. This work also focuses on the benchmarking between the predictive outputs of this computer-based simulations and the diverse experimental diagnostics with particular emphasis on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates/species. This work was partly supported by KAKENHI Grant Number 24561054.

  8. OH-LIF measurement of H2/O2/N2 flames in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile

    Shimizu, T.; Nakamura, H.; Tezuka, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Maruta, K.


    This paper presents combustion and ignition characteristic of H2/O2/N2 flames in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile. OH-LIF measurement was conducted to capture flame images. Flame responses were investigated for variable inlet flow velocity, U, and equivalence ratio, phi. Three kinds of flame responses were experimentally observed for the inlet flow velocities: stable flat flames (normal flames) in the high inlet flow velocity regime; unstable flames called Flames with Repetitive Extinction and Ignition (FREI) in the intermediate flow velocity regime; and stable weak flames in the low flow velocity regime, at phi = 0.6, 1.0 and 1.2. On the other hand, weak flame was not observed at phi = 3.0 by OH-LIF measurement. Computational OH mole fractions showed lower level at the rich conditions than those at stoichiometric and lean conditions. To examine this response of OH signal to equivalence ratio, rate of production analysis was conducted and four kinds of major contributed reaction for OH production: R3(O + H2 H + OH); R38(H + O2 O + OH); R46(H + HO2 2OH); and R86(2OH O + H2O), were found. Three reactions among them, R3, R38 and R46, did not showed significant difference in rate of OH production for different equivalence ratios. On the other hand, rate of OH production from R86 at phi = 3.0 was extremely lower than those at phi = 0.6 and 1.0. Therefore, R86 was considered to be a key reaction for the reduction of the OH production at phi = 3.0.

  9. A New Equation of State for CCS Pipeline Transport: Calibration of Mixing Rules for Binary Mixtures of CO2 with N2, O2 and H2

    Demetriades, Thomas A


    One of the aspects currently holding back commercial scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an accurate understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of carbon dioxide and relevant impurities during the pipeline transport stage. In this article we develop a general framework for deriving pressure-explicit EoS for impure CO2. This flexible framework facilitates ongoing development of custom EoS in response to new data and computational applications. We use our method to generalise a recent EoS for pure CO2 [Demetriades et al. Proc IMechE Part E, 227 (2013) pp. 117] to binary mixtures with N2, O2 and H2, obtaining model parameters by fitting to experiments made under conditions relevant to CCS-pipeline transport. Our model pertains to pressures up to 16MPa and temperatures between 273K and the critical temperature of pure CO2. In this region, we achieve close agreement with experimental data. When compared to the GERG EoS, our EoS has a comparable level of agreement with CO2 -N2 VLE experiments ...

  10. Effects of O 2 and N 2/H 2 plasma treatments on the neuronal cell growth on single-walled carbon nanotube paper scaffolds

    Yoon, Ok Ja; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jang, Yeong Mi; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Won Bok; Kim, Sung Su; Lee, Nae-Eung


    The O 2 and N 2/H 2 plasma treatments of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) papers as scaffolds for enhanced neuronal cell growth were conducted to functionalize their surfaces with different functional groups and to roughen their surfaces. To evaluate the effects of the surface roughness and functionalization modifications of the SWCNT papers, we investigated the neuronal morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, and acetylcholine/acetylcholinesterase levels of human neuroblastoma during SH-SY5Y cell growth on the treated SWCNT papers. Our results demonstrated that the plasma-chemical functionalization caused changes in the surface charge states with functional groups with negative and positive charges and then the increased surface roughness enhanced neuronal cell adhesion, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the level of neurotransmitter in vitro. The cell adhesion and mitochondrial membrane potential on the negatively charged SWCNT papers were improved more than on the positively charged SWCNT papers. Also, measurements of the neurotransmitter level showed an enhanced acetylcholine level on the negatively charged SWCNT papers compared to the positively charged SWCNT papers.

  11. HITRAN2016: Part I. Line lists for H_2O, CO_2, O_3, N_2O, CO, CH_4, and O_2

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Tan, Yan; Kochanov, Roman V.; Hill, Christian


    The HITRAN2016 database is now officially released. Plethora of experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopic data were collected, evaluated and vetted before compiling the new edition of the database. The database is now distributed through the dynamic user interface HITRANonline (available at which offers many flexible options for browsing and downloading the data. In addition HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) offers modern ways to download the HITRAN data and use it to carry out sophisticated calculations. The line-by-line lists for almost all of the 47 HITRAN molecules were updated in comparison with the previous compilation (HITRAN2012. Some of the most important updates for major atmospheric absorbers, such as H_2O, CO_2, O_3, N_2O, CO, CH_4, and O_2, will be presented in this talk, while the trace gases will be presented in the next talk by Y. Tan. The HITRAN2016 database now provides alternative line-shape representations for a number of molecules, as well as broadening by gases dominant in planetary atmospheres. In addition, substantial extension and improvement of cross-section data is featured, which will be described in a dedicated talk by R. V. Kochanov. The new edition of the database is a substantial step forward to improve retrievals of the planetary atmospheric constituents in comparison with previous editions, while offering new ways of working with the data. The HITRAN database is supported by the NASA AURA and PDART program grants NNX14AI55G and NNX16AG51G. I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, et al. The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database. JQSRT 2017;submitted. Many spectroscopists and atmospheric scientists worldwide have contributed data to the database or provided invaluable validations. C. Hill, I. E. Gordon, R. V. Kochanov, L. Barrett, J.S. Wilzewski, L.S. Rothman, JQSRT. 177 (2016) 4-14 R.V. Kochanov, I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, P. Wcislo, C. Hill, J. S. Wilzewski

  12. Incorporation of M(H2O)6(2+) between layers {M(H2O)2Ru2(CO3)4Cl2}n(2n-) (M = Zn, Mn): syntheses, structures and magnetic properties.

    Liu, Bin; Jia, Yan-Yan; Yang, Huai-Qing; Yang, Jian-Hui; Xue, Gang-Lin


    Isostructural heterometallic diruthenium carbonates KM(H2O)6[M(H2O)2Ru2(CO3)4Cl2]·4H2O [M = Zn (1) and Mn (2)] were synthesized from the reaction of the precursors [Ru2(CO3)4Cl2](5-) and transitional metal ions in aqueous solution. Complexes 1 and 2 show layered structures in which Ru2(II,III) units are linked by four octahedral environment M(H2O)2(2+) ions in a cross fashion and vice versa giving a negative bimetallic square grid layer {M(H2O)2Ru2(CO3)4Cl2}n(3n-). M(H2O)6(2+) ions, linked by K(+) forming zigzag chain {KM(H2O)6}n(3+), are located in the void spaces between the layers. The adjacent bimetallic carbonate layers are connected with K-O and K-Cl bonds, and hydrogen bonding, forming a supramolecular 3D framework structure. Their magnetic properties were characterized in detail, and intralayer ferromagnetic coupling between the Ru2 dimer and Mn(2+) ion, as well as long-range ordering (Tc = 5.2 K) coexistence of domain movement behavior were observed for complex 2.

  13. Kinetics of HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2: Implications for Stratospheric H2O2

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jucks, K. W.


    The reaction HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2refid="df01" type="formula">(1) has been studied at 100 Torr and 222 K to 295 K. Experiments employing photolysis of Cl2/CH3OH/O2/N2 and F2/H2/O2/N2 gas mixtures to produce HO2 confirmed that methanol enhanced the observed reaction rate. At 100 Torr, zero methanol, k1 = (8.8 +/- 0.9) 10-13 × exp[(210 +/- 26)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (2σ uncertainties), which agrees with current recommendations at 295 K but is nearly 2 times slower at 231 K. The general expression for k1, which includes the dependence on bath gas density, is k1 = (1.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-12 × exp[(19 +/- 31)/T] + 1.7 × 10-33 × [M] × exp[1000/T], where the second term is taken from the JPL00-3 recommendation. The revised rate largely accounts for a discrepancy between modeled and measured [H2O2] in the lower to middle stratosphere.

  14. Imidazole Coordinated Sandwich-type Antimony Polyoxotungstates Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{M(C3H4N2)}3(SbW9O33)2]·xH2O(M=NiⅡ, CoⅡ, ZnⅡ, MnⅡ)

    CUI Rui-Rui; WANG Hu-Lin; YANG Xin-Yu; REN Shu-Hu; HU Huai-Ming; FU Feng; WANG Ji-Wu; XUE Gang-Lin


    The imidazole covalently coordinated sandwich-type heteropolytungstates Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{M(C3H4N2)}3-(SbW9O33)2]·xH2O (M=NiⅡ, x=32; M=CoⅡ, x=32; M=ZnⅡ, x=33; M=MnⅡ, x=34) were obtained by the reaction of Na2WO4·2H2O, SbCl3·6H2O, NiCl2·6H2O [MnSO4·H2O, Co(NO3)2·6H2O, ZnSO4·7H2O] and imidazole at pH≈7.5. The structure of Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{Ni(C3H4N2)}3(SbW9O33)2]·32H2O was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Polyanion [{Na(H2O)2}3{Ni(C3H4N2)}3(SbW9O33)2}3]9- has approximate C3v symmetry, imidazole coordinated six-nuclear cluster [{Na(H2O)2}3{Ni(C3H4N2)}3]9+ is encapsulated between two (α-SbW9O33)9-,the three rings of imidazole in the polyanion are perpendicular to the horizontal plane formed by six metals (Na-Ni-Na-Ni-Na-Ni) in the central belt, and π-stacking interactions exist between imidazoles of neighboring polyanions with dihedral angel of 60°. The compounds were also characterized by IR, UV-Vis spectra, TG and DSC, and the thermal decomposition mechanism of the four compounds was suggested by TG curves.

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Characterization of the Complex [Cu(C12H8N2)(H2O)2]SO4%[Cu(C12H8N2)(H2O)2]SO4水热合成及晶体结构表征

    靳素荣; 张联盟; 赵卫锋; 胡学雷


    以CuSO4·5H2O,Na2MoO4·2H2O,phen, H3PO4为原料,用中温水热合成技术制得了一种新型一维链状配合物[Cu(phen)(H2O)2]SO4,并通过元素分析,红外线和X射线单晶衍射法进行了结构表征.晶体属于单斜晶系,空间群为C2/c,a=1.485 3(3) nm,b=1.381 1(3) nm,c=0.701 0(14) nm,β=108.650°,V=1.362 5(15) nm3,Dc=1.832 g/cm3,R1=0.029 0,wR2=0.086 2,F(000)=764,Z=4.X射线单晶衍射和IR光谱结果表明,在固态条件下配阳离子与SO42-之间存在氢键作用,Cu2+与2个氮原子和2个氧原子配位.另外还进行了热性质研究,并对配合物的热分解进行了讨论.

  16. Vibrational and thermodynamic properties of Ar, N2, O2, H2 and CO adsorbed and condensed into (H,Na)-Y zeolite cages as studied by variable temperature IR spectroscopy.

    Gribov, Evgueni N; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Bordiga, Silvia; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Zecchina, Adriano


    The adsorption of Ar, H2, O2, N2 and CO on (H,Na)-Y zeolite (Si/Al = 2.9, H+/Na+ approximately 5) has been studied at variable-temperature (90-20 K) and sub-atmospheric pressure (0-40 mbar) by FTIR spectroscopy. Unprecedented filling conditions of the zeolite cavities were attained, which allowed the investigation of very weakly adsorbed species and of condensed, liquid-like or solid-like, phases. Two pressure regimes were singled out, characterized by: (i) specific interaction at low pressure of the probe molecules (P) with the internal Brønsted and Lewis sites, and (ii) multilayer adsorption at higher pressure. In the case of CO the perturbation of the protonic sites located inside the sodalite cages was also observed. As the molecule is too large to penetrate the sodalite cage, the perturbation is thought to involve a proton jump tunneling mechanism. The adsorption energy for the (HF)OH...P (P = Ar, H2, O2, N2 and CO) specific interaction involving the high frequency Brønsted acid sites exposed in the supercages was derived following the VTIR (variable temperature infrared spectroscopy) method described by E. Garrone and C. Otero Areán (Chem. Soc. Rev., 2005, 34, 846).

  17. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    Owen, Kyle


    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.


    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  19. Electron transport coefficients in the mixtures of H2O with N2, O2, CO2 and dry air for the optimization of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Ruíz-Vargas, G.; Yousfi, M.; de Urquijo, J.


    This paper presents the simultaneous measurement and calculation of the electron drift velocity in binary and ternary mixtures of N2, O2, CO2 with H2O. The main aim of this study has been the generation of a self-consistent set of validated collision cross sections that explain thoroughly the dependence of the electron drift velocity in the above pure gases and their mixtures. In doing this, changes to the collision cross section set for H2O had to be made, while all other cross section sets remained unchanged. It is worth mentioning that only a few experiments had been performed before dealing with water mixtures. The electron drift velocities in the binary and ternary mixtures under study show the effects of negative differential conductivity, and this has been explained thoroughly in terms of the collision cross sections and electron distribution functions through a multi-term Boltzmann code. It is important to note that two-term codes fail to predict the dependence of the drift velocity at low water concentrations and low E/N values. Calculated values of longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients, mean energies and distribution functions are also given over the E/N range 0.1 Td-2 kTd (1 Td = 10-17 V cm2).

  20. H2O2 space shuttle APU


    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  1. Synthesis, structure and physicochemical characterization of the hybrid material [C6H16N2O]2 SnCl6·2Cl·2H2O

    Belhaj Salah, S.; Pereira da Silva, P. S.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.; Ammar, S.; Mrad, M. L.


    The current study reports the chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel compound [C6H16N2O]2SnCl6·2Cl·2H2O. This compound crystallizes in the triclinic system (space group P - 1, Z = 1) with the following unit cell dimensions: a = 7.9764(9), b = 8.2703(9), c = 12.1103(14)Å, α = 84.469(6), β = 75.679(6), and γ = 64.066(5)°. The structure was solved using 3093 independent reflections down to R = 0.020. The atomic arrangement shows alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is ensured by Nsbnd H…Cl and Osbnd H…Cl hydrogen bonds that build a three-dimensional network. The 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and the associated 2D fingerprint plots were investigated for intermolecular interactions. The 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the IR and NMR bands. X-ray powder, XPS and UV spectrum have been carried out. The DSC profile shows that the title material exhibits dehydration at 339 K.

  2. The H2O2-H2O Hypothesis: Extremophiles Adapted to Conditions on Mars?

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    evolved into employing H2O2 as an antifreeze, which would also have the function as a water collector. If we would find life on Mars based on an intracellular H2O2-H2O mixture, this would not necessarily imply an independent origin of terrestrial and martian life. For that, a detailed study of the biochemistry and genetics is needed. The transfer of terrestrial organisms to Mars or vice versa is a possibility given favorable conditions for the origin and persistance of life on both planets early in solar system history (Schulze-Makuch and Houtkooper, 2007). The transfer of terrestrial organisms by early spacecrafts to Mars that either landed or crashed is a possibility, but it is not plausible that these organisms evolved in a few years. We suggest that we already have evidence of their existence from the Viking landers in two widely distant locations. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis does explain the Viking observations remarkably well, especially (1) the lack of organics detected by GC-MS, (2) the lack of detected oxidant(s) to support a chemical explanation, (3) evolution of O2 upon wetting (GEx experiment), (4) limited organic synthesis reactions (PR experiment), and (5) the gas release observations made (LR experiment)(Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). From the amounts of evolved CO2, O2 and N2 in the GEx experiment it can be concluded that the organisms have an excess oxidative content. This is a problem since in any destructive test, even by laser desorption-mass spectrometry (LDMS), the organisms may decompose completely into H2O, CO2, O2, and N2. The same will occur if the organisms are exposed to excess water, as they will perish due to hyperhydration. The consequence for future biology experiments is that the most fruitful approach may be the detection of metabolism under close to local environmental conditions, especially avoiding the addition of too much water. Of the Viking experiments, the PR experiment which aimed at carbon assimilation was the closest to

  3. DNA oxidatively damaged by chromium(III) and H(2)O(2) is protected by the antioxidants melatonin, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, resveratrol and uric acid.

    Burkhardt, S; Reiter, R J; Tan, D X; Hardeland, R; Cabrera, J; Karbownik, M


    Chromium (Cr) compounds are widely used industrial chemicals and well known carcinogens. Cr(III) was earlier found to induce oxidative damage as documented by examining the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), an index for DNA damage, in isolated calf thymus DNA incubated with CrCl(3) and H(2)O(2). In the present in vitro study, we compared the ability of the free radical scavengers melatonin, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK), resveratrol and uric acid to reduce DNA damage induced by Cr(III). Each of these scavengers markedly reduced the DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentrations that reduced 8-OH-dG formation by 50% (IC(50)) were 0.10 microM for both resveratrol and melatonin, and 0.27 microM for AFMK. However, the efficacy of the fourth endogenous antioxidant, i.e. uric acid, in terms of its inhibition of DNA damage in the same in vitro system was about 60--150 times less effective than the other scavengers; the IC(50) for uric acid was 15.24 microM. These findings suggest that three of the four antioxidants tested in these studies may have utility in protecting against the environmental pollutant Cr and that the protective effects of these free radical scavengers against Cr(III)-induced carcinogenesis may relate to their direct hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. In the present study, the formation of 8-OH-dG was likely due to a Cr(III)-mediated Fenton-type reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which in turn damage DNA. Once formed, 8-OH-dG can mutate eventually leading to cancer; thus the implication is that these antioxidants may reduce the incidence of Cr-related cancers.

  4. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2-H2 discharges

    Suraj, K. S.; Alex, Prince

    An exact calculation of N2+ and H2+ influx, at cathode surface in N2-H2 discharge, has been derived using electron impact ionization cross-section at plasma sheath boundary. The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2-H2 mixture with H2 percentage ∼70% gives most enhanced result.

  5. Scavenging of H2O2 by mouse brain mitochondria.

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Andreyev, Alexander Yu; Zhang, Steven F; Starkova, Natalia N; Korneeva, Maria; Syromyatnikov, Mikhail; Popov, Vasily N


    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is unique in that mitochondria both generate and scavenge ROS. Recent estimates of ROS scavenging capacity of brain mitochondria are surprisingly high, ca. 9-12 nmol H2O2/min/mg, which is ~100 times higher than the rate of ROS generation. This raises a question whether brain mitochondria are a source or a sink of ROS. We studied the interaction between ROS generation and scavenging in mouse brain mitochondria by measuring the rate of removal of H2O2 added at a concentration of 0.4 μM, which is close to the reported physiological H2O2 concentrations in tissues, under conditions of low and high levels of mitochondrial H2O2 generation. With NAD-linked substrates, the rate of H2O2 generation by mitochondria was ~50-70 pmol/min/mg. The H2O2 scavenging dynamics was best approximated by the first order reaction equation. H2O2 scavenging was not affected by the uncoupling of mitochondria, phosphorylation of added ADP, or the genetic ablation of glutathione peroxidase 1, but decreased in the absence of respiratory substrates, in the presence of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin, or in partially disrupted mitochondria. With succinate, the rate of H2O2 generation was ~2,200-2,900 pmol/min/mg; the scavenging of added H2O2 was masked by a significant accumulation of generated H2O2 in the assay medium. The obtained data were fitted into a simple model that reasonably well described the interaction between H2O2 scavenging and production. It showed that mitochondria are neither a sink nor a source of H2O2, but can function as both at the same time, efficiently stabilizing exogenous H2O2 concentration at a level directly proportional to the ratio of the H2O2 generation rate to the rate constant of the first order scavenging reaction.

  6. Pyruvate protects pathogenic spirochetes from H2O2 killing.

    Bryan Troxell

    Full Text Available Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h generated by glucose oxidase (GOX. Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection.

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of an Azide Bridged Binuclear Zinc(Ⅱ) Dimer Containing Taurine Schiff Base [Zn2(C8H9N2O3S)2·(N3)2·(H2O)2]2·2H2O

    JIANG Yi-Min; LI Jia-Ming; XIE Fu-Qing; WANG Yan-Fei


    The title complex [Zn2L2(N3)2(H2O)2]·2H2O (L = N-(2-pyridylmethylidene) taurine)has been synthesized in a methanol-water solution. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 15.8064(10), b = 10.5015(5), c = 17.3193(11) (A), β = 111.314(2)°, V = 2678.2(3) (A)3, C16H26N10O10S2Zn2, Mr = 713.33, Z = 4, Dc = 1.769 g/cm3, μ = 2.017 mm-1 and F(000) =1456. The asymmetric unit consists of two half-molecules of the complex and two water molecules.Four N and two O atoms form the coordination environment of each Zn atom, resulting in a distorted octahedral configuration. The two halves of each independent dimer are related by a crystallographic inversion centre, which lies at the centre of the ring formed by two Zn atoms and the coordinating the ac plane.

  8. Photosynthesis of H2O2 and O3 in ASW with ambient O2

    Shi, J.; Raut, U.; Loeffler, M.; Kim, J.; Baragiola, R. A.


    Tenuous O2 atmospheres are known to exist around icy satellites such as Europa and Ganymede and around Saturn’s rings and satellites [1,2]. These faint atmospheres with pressures estimated in 10-3 to 10-8 mbar range [2] are thought to be produced from photolysis and radiolysis of surface ice. In efforts to simulate closely the conditions on icy satellites and grains, ion irradiation of laboratory ices have been performed while maintaining an ambient O2 pressure in recent experiments, which lead to the discovery of the ion-induced O2 adsorption [3]. In the experiments presented here, we investigated the effect of UV photolysis on the ice films in the presence of ambient O2 pressure. Water ice films vapor-deposited between 40 and 100 K were irradiated using 193 nm photons from an ArF Excimer laser, under a constant ambient gas pressure of 7x10-7 mbar. The changes in the film during laser irradiation were monitored using infrared spectroscopy and quartz crystal microgravimetry. At 50 K, we exposed our film to photolysis under ambient pressure of different gas species: Ar, N2 and O2. Interestingly we find enhanced gas absorption only in the presence of ambient O2. In addition, we find that the dangling bond IR absorption disappears, indicating the collapse of micropores. We note that the dangling bond absorption decreases only ~10% in an ice film subject to UV irradiation in the absence of ambient gas, which suggests that the enhanced O2 absorption is not due to gas trapping during compaction [3], but to photo-chemical reactions between OH and transiently adsorbed O2, forming H2O2 and O3, which we detected with IR spectroscopy. We observed that the formation of these two products increases below 50 K, which is explained by increased O2 adsorption at decreasing temperature. Interestingly, if we increase the ambient O2 pressure, then we can increase the maximum temperature for which we can make O3. O3 has not been identified in photolysis of laboratory ice and only

  9. Activity and Selectivity for O-2 Reduction to H2O2 on Transition Metal Surfaces

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza;


    Industrially viable electrochemical production of H2O2 requires active, selective and stable electrocatalyst materials to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction to H2O2. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we explain why single site catalysts such as Pd/Au show improved select...

  10. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Two New Compounds Containing Triarylamineand Benzoic Hydrazide Units [Zn(μ-O2CCH=CHCO2)(C3H4N2)(H2O)]n

    邹武新; 于海涛; 郭辉; 孟继本


    Two new compounds containing triarylamine and benzoic hydrazide units, 4-[N,N-di(4-toyl)amino]benzaldehyde-N-(4-ethoxylphenyl)-formyl hydrazone 3a and 4-[N,N-di(4-toyl) amino]benzaldehyde-N-(2-ethoxylphenyl)-formyl hydrazone 3b, have been synthesized and their crystal structures (C30H29N3O2, Mr = 463.56) were interpreted by a combination technique of 1HNMR, IR, elemental analysis, mass spectra, UV-Vis spectra and X-ray crystallography, respec- tively. The crystal of 3a belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 9.321(3) A, b = 11.046(4) A, c = 24.335(9) A, β=92.649(7)°, V = 2502.7(16) A3, Z = 4,μ =0.078 mm-1, Dc =1.230 g/cm3, F(000) = 984, the final R = 0.0590 and wR = 0.1316 for 4367observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The crystal of 3b belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 10.637(4) A, b = 24.138(10) A, c = 10.398(4) A, β= 104.913(8)°, V= 2579.8(17) A3, Z = 4,μ = 0.075 mm-1, Dc = 1.194 g/cm3, F(000) = 984, the final R =0.0631 and wR =0.1006 for 4463 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). X-ray crystallography revealed that the nitrogen atom in the triarylamine moiety is of sp2 hybridization with the three phenyl rings twisted to each other.

  11. Reaction of ferric leghemoglobin with H2O2

    Moreau, S; Davies, M J; Puppo, A


    Ferric leghemoglobin in the presence of H2O2 is known to give rise to protein radicals, at least one of which is centred on a tyrosine residue. These radicals are quenched by at least two processes. The first one involves an intramolecular heme-protein cross-link probably involving the tyrosine...

  12. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Hasan Turkez


    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  13. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min


    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-α, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems.

  14. Preparation and H2O2 oxidation of extract

    Tian Yujiao; Qin Zhihong; Li Baomin


    Tongting coal (TTC) was exhaustively extracted with carbon disulfide and/N/-melthy-2-pyrolidinone (CS2/NMP) mixed solvents to afford brown particles of extract,which was characterized with proximate analyzer,transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.The results show that the nanometer particles of extract,which were free of ash,are superfine and superclean with tract content of 0.02% Ad and particles size of about 100-150 nm.TTC and extract were then subject to oxidation with H2O2 and oxidation products were subsequently analyzed with FTIR and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS).The results show that extract is more reactive with H2O2 in comparison to TTC and richer in oxygen-containing species including phenols,alcohols,ethers,esters,carboxylic acids and anhydrides.

  15. Absolute Infrared Cross Sections of Gas-Phase H2O2 Using Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.; Burton, Sarah D.


    We report quantitative spectra of pressure-broadened H2O2 vapor. An 83% solution was flowed into a disseminator and diluted with N2 gas; water lines were subtracted. The H2O2 spectrum spans the IR and compares well with HITRAN values for ν6 band.

  16. A comparative study on removal of trace nitrobenzene in water by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2%UV/H2O2和UV/TiO2/H2O2去除水中微量硝基苯的比较研究

    尹菁菁; 张彭义; 孙莉


    研究比较了UV/H2O2和UV/TiO2/H2O2对水中微量硝基苯的降解效果,并考察了水中常见HCO-3和腐殖酸对硝基苯降解的影响.结果表明,薄膜状TiO2的存在对UV/H2O2降解硝基苯有显著的促进作用,在最佳H2O2投加量2.1 mg/L时,UV/TiO2/H2O2的反应速率常数比UV/H2O2高32.8%;2 min内UV/TiO2/H2O2对硝基苯的去除率达到80%以上.HCO-3和腐殖酸对硝基苯降解有很强的抑制作用,HCO-3和腐殖酸浓度分别为2 mmol/L和3.2 mg/L时,UV/TiO2/H2O2对硝基苯的反应速率常数分别下降84.6%和92.2%.

  17. Optimization of H2O2 dosage in microwave-H2O2 process for sludge pretreatment with uniform design method

    Qingcong Xiao; Hong Yan; Yuansong Wei; Yawei Wang; Fangang Zeng; Xiang Zheng


    A microwave-H2O2 process for sludge pretreatment exhibited high efficiencies of releasing organics,nitrogen,and phosphorus,but large quantities of H2O2 residues were detected.A uniform design method was thus employed in this study to further optimize H2O2 dosage by investigating effects of pH and H2O2 dosage on the amount of H2O2 residue and releases of organics,nitrogen,and phosphorus.A regression model was established with pH and H2O2 dosage as the independent variables,and H2O2 residue and releases of organics,nitrogen,and phosphorus as the dependent variables.In the optimized microwave-H2O2 process,the pH value of the sludge was firstly adjusted to 11.0,then the sludge was heated to 80C and H2O2 was dosed at a H2O2:mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) ratio of 0.2,and the sludge was finally heated to 100℃ by microwave irradiation.Compared to the microwave-H2O2 process without optimization,the H2O2 dosage and the utilization rate of H2O2 in the optimized microwave-H2O2 process were reduced by 80% and greatly improved by 3.87 times,respectively,when the H2O2:MLSS dosage ratio was decreased from 1.0 to 0.2,resulting in nearly the same release rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the microwave-H2O2 process without optimization at H2O2:MLSS ratio of 0.5.

  18. Infinite Three-Dimensional Coordination Polymers: Synthesis and Structures of [Cd (4,4'-bpy)2 (H2O)2]n (pic)2n, [Zn (4,4'-bpy)2 (H2O)2 ]n-(pic)2n (H2O)2n, and [Zn (4,4'-bpy)2 (H2O)2]n (4,4'-bpy)n (H2O)n (pic)2n


    Three Complexes of the formula [ Cd (4,4'-bpy)2 (H2O)2 ]n (pic)2n (1), [ Zn (4,4'-bpy)2 (H2O)2 ]n-(pic)2n (H2O)2n (2) and [ Zn (4,4'-bpy)2 (H2O)2 ]n (4,4'-bpy)n (pic)2n (H2O)n (3) ( 4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine; pic = picric anion ) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. They all have infinite three-dimensional network structure, crystallizing in the monoclinic space group C2/c (1) and Cc (2,3).

  19. N 2, N 2O and O 2Profiles in a Tagus Estuary Salt Marsh

    Cartaxana, P.; Lloyd, D.


    Vertical gas profiles of N 2, N 2O and O 2were obtained in intact sediment cores from a Tagus estuary salt marsh using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. This technique allows direct measurements of dissolved gas concentrations with minimal disturbance. O 2concentrations decreased sharply with depth, becoming undetectable below 14mm. Denitrification products (N 2and N 2O) occurred in the surface layer of the sediment where O 2was present. Diffusion of N 2and N 2O from the anaerobic zone, denitrification in anaerobic microsites and aerobic denitrification are possible explanations for this observation. N 2was the sole product of denitrification in control sediment cores probably because of the great demand for electron acceptors in this sediment. The addition of NO 3 - and CH 3CO 2 - increased the concentrations of N 2and N 2O in the sediment. Significantly higher concentrations in treated cores occurred between 1·5 and 2·0cm for N 2and between 0·5 and 1·5cm for N 2O. The peak in N 2concentration occurred in the anaerobic zone of the sediment, close to the aerobic-anaerobic interface while the peak in N 2O concentration occurred above this interface where concentrations of O 2were approximately 10μM. This is indicative that, in this sediment, production of N 2O is less sensitive to the presence of O 2than reduction of N 2O to N 2.

  20. On the catalytic effects of UO 2(s) and Pd(s) on the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 in aqueous solution

    Nilsson, Sara; Jonsson, Mats


    The possible catalytic effects of UO 2 and Pd (as a model for noble metal particles) on the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 have been studied experimentally. The experiments were performed in aqueous solution using an autoclave. The aqueous solutions were pressurized with H 2 or N 2 and the H 2O 2 concentration was measured as a function of time. The experiments clearly showed that Pd catalyzes the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 while UO 2 has no catalytic effect. The rate constant of the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 catalyzed by Pd was found to be close to diffusion controlled and independent of the H 2 pressure in the range 1-40 bar. The impact of the catalytic effect on the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 on spent nuclear fuel dissolution is, however, fairly small. Other possible effects of noble metal particles are also discussed, e.g. reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) in the liquid and solid phase.

  1. H 2O 2 and radiation induced dissolution of UO 2 and SIMFUEL pellets

    Nilsson, Sara; Jonsson, Mats


    Dissolution of the UO 2 matrix is of major importance in the safety assessment of a future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this work is to elucidate if the observed differences in dissolution rates between SIMFUEL and UO 2 can be attributed to differences in oxidant reactivity towards these two materials. To elucidate this, the oxidative dissolution of U(VI) and consumption of H 2O 2 have been studied for UO 2 and SIMFUEL pellets under N 2 and H 2 atmosphere. The H 2O 2 and U(VI) concentrations have been measured as a function of reaction time. In addition, γ-radiation induced dissolution UO 2 and SIMFUEL pellets have been studied. The experiments show that while the reactivity of the two types of pellets towards H 2O 2 is almost identical and in good agreement with the previously determined rate constant for the reaction, the dissolution rates differ considerably. The significantly lower rate of dissolution of the SIMFUEL pellet is attributed to an increased fraction of catalytic decomposition of H 2O 2. The radiation chemical experiments reveal a similar but less pronounced difference between the two types of pellets. This implies that the relative impact of the radiolytic oxidants in radiation induced UO 2 dissolution differs between a pure UO 2 pellet and SIMFUEL.

  2. Preferential Oxidation of CO in H2 over CuO/CeO2 Catalysts

    Liu Yuan; Wang Xiaoyan; Bai Xue


    A very active catalyst of CuO/CeO2 was made by adsorption-impregnation method for preferential oxidation of CO in H2. The CO conversion is close to 100% and selectivity to CO oxidation is 96% over this catalyst at a low reaction temperature of 95 ℃ and a space velocity of 40000 cm3*g-1*h-1 in the reaction mixture of 1%CO, 1%O2, and 50%H2 balanced with N2. The effect of preparation conditions on catalytic performances was investigated. The catalytic performance of the CuO/CeO2 catalysts was compared with that of other CO preferential oxidation catalysts reported in literature.

  3. Effect of H2O2 dosing strategy on sludge pretreatment by microwave-H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Liu, Junxin


    Considering characteristics of breaking down H(2)O(2) into water and molecular oxygen by catalase in waste activated sludge (WAS), the effect of H(2)O(2) dosing strategy on sludge pretreatment by the advanced oxidation process (AOP) of microwave-H(2)O(2) was investigated by batch experiments for optimizing H(2)O(2) dosage. Results showed that the catalase in sludge was active at the low temperature range between 15 degrees C and 45 degrees C, and gradually lost activity from 60 degrees C to 80 degrees C. Therefore, the H(2)O(2) was dosed at 80 degrees C, to which the waste activated sludge was first heated by the microwave (MW), and then the sludge dosed with H(2)O(2) was continuously heated till 100 degrees C by the microwave. Results at different H(2)O(2) dosages showed that the higher the H(2)O(2) dosing ratio was, the more the SCOD and total organic carbon (TOC) were released into the supernatant, and the optimum range of H(2)O(2)/TCOD ratio should be between 0.1 and 1.0. The percentages of consumed H(2)O(2) in the AOP of microwave and H(2)O(2) treating the WAS were 25.38%, 22.53%, 14.82%, 13.61% and 19.63% at different H(2)O(2)/TCOD dosing ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, respectively. Along with the increasing H(2)O(2)/TCOD ratio, the contents of TCOD on particles, soluble substances and mineralization increased and the TCOD distribution on solids decreased.

  4. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast.

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M


    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  5. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast

    Dorival Martins


    Full Text Available Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1 protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  6. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2H2 discharges

    K.S. Suraj


    Full Text Available An exact calculation of N2+ and H2+ influx, at cathode surface in N2H2 discharge, has been derived using electron impact ionization cross-section at plasma sheath boundary. The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2H2 mixture with H2 percentage ∼70% gives most enhanced result.

  7. Responsive mechanism of a newly synthesized fluorescent probe for sensing H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO

    Zhang, Yu-Jin; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Chuan-Kui


    Optical properties of a newly synthesized fluorescent probe for H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO are investigated by employing time-dependent density functional theory. Three different sets of fluorescence signals are obtained when the probe reacts with H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO. Analysis of molecular orbitals is presented to explore responsive mechanism of the probe for the detected objects, where the fluorescent resonance energy transfer process is for H2O2 (H2O2/NO) and the intramolecular charge transfer process is for NO. Our results provide theoretical explanation of the experimental results, and importantly, suggest possibility of the probe as a two-photon fluorescent sensor.

  8. O2 and N2O Activation by Binuclear, Trinuclear, and Tetranuclear Cu Clusters in Biology

    Solomon, Edward I.; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Woertink, Julia S.; Augustine, Anthony J.; Yoon, Jungjoo; Ghosh, Somdatta


    Copper cluster sites in biology exhibit unique spectroscopic features reflecting exchange coupling between oxidized Cu’s and e− delocalization in mixed valent sites. These novel electronic structures play critical roles in O2 binding and activation for electrophilic aromatic attack and H atom abstraction, the 4e−/4H+ reduction of O2 to H2O, and in the 2e−/2H+ reduction of N2O. These electronic structure/reactivity correlations are summarized below.

  9. O2 and N2O activation by Bi-, Tri-, and tetranuclear Cu clusters in biology.

    Solomon, Edward I; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Woertink, Julia S; Augustine, Anthony J; Yoon, Jungjoo; Ghosh, Somdatta


    Copper-cluster sites in biology exhibit unique spectroscopic features reflecting exchange coupling between oxidized Cu's and e (-) delocalization in mixed valent sites. These novel electronic structures play critical roles in O 2 binding and activation for electrophilic aromatic attack and H-atom abstraction, the 4e (-)/4H (+) reduction of O 2 to H 2O, and in the 2e (-)/2H (+) reduction of N 2O. These electronic structure/reactivity correlations are summarized below.

  10. High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 engine

    Adams, A.; Parsley, R. C.


    Vehicle/engine analysis studies have identified the High/Dual Mixture Ratio O2/H2 Engine cycle as a leading candidate for an advanced Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) propulsion system. This cycle is designed to allow operation at a higher than normal O/F ratio of 12 during liftoff and then transition to a more optimum O/F ratio of 6 at altitude. While operation at high mixture ratios lowers specific impulse, the resultant high propellant bulk density and high power density combine to minimize the influence of atmospheric drag and low altitude gravitational forces. Transition to a lower mixture ratio at altitude then provides improved specific impulse relative to a single mixture ratio engine that must select a mixture ratio that is balanced for both low and high altitude operation. This combination of increased altitude specific impulse and high propellant bulk density more than offsets the compromised low altitude performance and results in an overall mission benefit. Two areas of technical concern relative to the execution of this dual mixture ratio cycle concept are addressed. First, actions required to transition from high to low mixture ratio are examined, including an assessment of the main chamber environment as the main chamber mixture ratio passes through stoichiometric. Secondly, two approaches to meet a requirement for high turbine power at high mixture ratio condition are examined. One approach uses high turbine temperature to produce the power and requires cooled turbines. The other approach incorporates an oxidizer-rich preburner to increase turbine work capability via increased turbine mass flow.

  11. H2O2-Promoted Size Growth of Sulfated TiO2 Nanocrystals

    YAN You-Jun; QIU Xiao-Qing; WANG Hui; LI Li-Ping; LI Guang-She


    Anatase nanoparticles modified by sulfate groups were synthesized using hydrother- mal method. The particles were controlled to large sizes by simply adjusting the amount of H2O2, in which HOO- ions replaced the surface sulfate groups and reduced the steric effect to promote the grain growth. The size-induced microstructural changes of the as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized using powder XRD, FT-IR, TG, and UV-vis analyses. The sulfate groups existed on anatase surface in unidentate and bidentate coordination forms. With the particle size reduction, bandgap energies of the as-prepared anatase nanoparticles decreased, and the desorption temperature of sulfate groups shifted towards lower temperatures.

  12. A shock tube study of OH + H(2)O(2) --> H(2)O + HO(2) and H(2)O(2) + M --> 2OH + M using laser absorption of H(2)O and OH.

    Hong, Zekai; Cook, Robert D; Davidson, David F; Hanson, Ronald K


    The rate constants of the reactions: (1) H2O2+M-->2OH+M, (2) OH+H2O2-->H2O+HO2 were measured in shock-heated H(2)O(2)/Ar mixtures using laser absorption diagnostics for H(2)O and OH. Time-histories of H(2)O were monitored using tunable diode laser absorption at 2550.96 nm, and time-histories of OH were achieved using ring dye laser absorption at 306 nm. Initial H(2)O(2) concentrations were also determined utilizing the H(2)O diagnostic. On the basis of simultaneous time-history measurements of OH and H(2)O, k(2) was found to be 4.6 x 10(13) exp(-2630 K/T) [cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)] over the temperature range 1020-1460 K at 1.8 atm; additional measurements of k(2) near 1 atm showed no significant pressure dependence. Similarly, k(1) was found to be 9.5 x 10(15) exp(-21 250 K/T) [cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)] over the same temperature and pressure range.

  13. Cutin monomers and surface wax constituents elicit H2O2 in conditioned cucumber hypocotyl segments and enhance the activity of other H2O2 elicitors

    Fauth; Schweizer; Buchala; Markstadter; Riederer; Kato; Kauss


    Hypocotyls from etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were gently abraded at their epidermal surface and cut segments were conditioned to develop competence for H2O2 elicitation. Alkaline hydrolysates of cutin from cucumber, tomato, and apple elicited H2O2 in such conditioned segments. The most active constituent of cucumber cutin was identified as dodecan-1-ol, a novel cutin monomer capable of forming hydrophobic terminal chains. Additionally, the cutin hydrolysates enhanced the activity of a fungal H2O2 elicitor, similar to cucumber surface wax, which contained newly identified alkan-1,3-diols. The specificity of elicitor and enhancement activity was further elaborated using some pure model compounds. Certain saturated hydroxy fatty acids were potent H2O2 elicitors as well as enhancers. Some unsaturated epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids were also excellent H2O2 elicitors but inhibited the fungal elicitor activity. Short-chain alkanols exhibited good elicitor and enhancer activity, whereas longer-chain alkan-1-ols were barely active. The enhancement effect was also observed for H2O2 elicitation by ergosterol and chitosan. The physiological significance of these observations might be that once the cuticle is degraded by fungal cutinase, the cutin monomers may act as H2O2 elicitors. Corrosion of cutin may also bring surface wax constituents in contact with protoplasts and enhance elicitation.

  14. Application of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 in removal of Acid Red 18 dye from aqueous solutions

    Nazari Shahram


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Organic dyes with a complex structure are often toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, non-biodegradation and stable in the environment and if released to the environment without treatment can endanger the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 Iron in removal of dye Acid Red 18 from aqueous solutions. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted at the laboratory scale. In this study, the removal efficiency of Acid Red 18 from a synthetic solution by H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 was investigated. As well as Effect of solution pH, dye concentration, Concentration of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron, H2O2 and contact time in decolorization efficiency was investigated. Results: Results show that in pH=3, Contact time of 80 minutes, dye concentration of 50 mg/l and Concentration of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron of 2 g/l and H2O2 concentration equal to 200 mmol/l, the removal efficiency was about 98%. Conclusions: According to the results of experiments, H2O2/Fe0 has high efficiency in removal of Acid Red 18 from aqueous solution.

  15. Robertsite, Ca2MnIII3O2(PO43·3H2O

    Marcelo B. Andrade


    Full Text Available Robertsite, ideally Ca2Mn3O2(PO43·3H2O [calcium manganese(III tris(orthophosphate trihydrate], can be associated with the arseniosiderite structural group characterized by the general formula Ca2A3O2(TO43·nH2O, with A = Fe, Mn; T = As, P; and n = 2 or 3. In this study, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were used to determine the robertsite structure from a twinned crystal from the type locality, the Tip Top mine, Custer County, South Dakota, USA, and to refine anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms. The general structural feature of robertsite resembles that of the other two members of the arseniosiderite group, the structures of which have previously been reported. It is characterized by sheets of [MnO6] octahedra in the form of nine-membered pseudo-trigonal rings. Located at the center of each nine-membered ring is a PO4 tetrahedron, and the other eight PO4 tetrahedra sandwich the Mn–oxide sheets. The six different Ca2+ ions are seven-coordinated in form of distorted pentagonal bipyramids, [CaO5(H2O2], if Ca—O distances less than 2.85 Å are considered. Along with hydrogen bonding involving the water molecules, they hold the manganese–phosphate sheets together. All nine [MnO6] octahedra are distorted by the Jahn–Teller effect.

  16. Kinetic Studies of Iron Deposition in Horse Spleen Ferritin Using H2O2 and O2 as Oxidants

    Lowery, Thomas J., Jr.; Bunker, Jared; Zhang, Bo; Costen, Robert; Watt, Gerald D.


    The reaction of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) with Fe(2+) at pH 6.5 and 7.5 using O2, H2O2 and 1:1 a mixture of both showed that the iron deposition reaction using H2O2 is approx. 20- to 50-fold faster than the reaction with O2 alone. When H2O2 was added during the iron deposition reaction initiated with O2 as oxidant, Fe(2+) was preferentially oxidized by H2O2, consistent with the above kinetic measurements. Both the O2 and H202 reactions were well defined from 15 to 40 C from which activation parameters were determined. The iron deposition reaction was also studied using O2 as oxidant in the presence and absence of catalase using both stopped-flow and pumped-flow measurements. The presence of catalase decreased the rate of iron deposition by approx. 1.5-fold, and gave slightly smaller absorbance changes than in its absence. From the rate constants for the O2 (0.044 per second) and H2O2 (0.67 per second) iron-deposition reactions at pH 7.5, simulations of steady-state H2O2 concentrations were computed to be 0.45 micromolar. This low value and reported Fe2(+)/O2 values of 2.0-2.5 are consistent with H2O2 rapidly reacting by an alternate but unidentified pathway involving a system component such as the protein shell or the mineral core as previously postulated.

  17. Crystal Structure and Interaction with DNA of [Ni(phen)(mal)(H2O)2]·3H2O

    GAO En-Jun; CHEN Mao-Sheng; YU Ying; SUN Ya-Guang


    A new complex [Ni(phen)(mal)(H2O)2]·3H2O (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline,mal2-= malonic acid) has been synthesized by the reaction of nickel nitrate,phen and malonic acid.EA,IR spectra and X-ray single-crystal diffraction were carried out to determine the composition and crystal structure of the title complex.Crystal data:monoclinic system,space group P2/c,a =8.937(3),b = 12.163(5),c = 9.725(3)(A),β = 119.36°,C15H19N2O9Ni,Mr= 430.03,Z = 2,F(000) =446,V = 921.3 (A)3,Dc = 1.550 g/cm3,μ = 1.104 mm-1,-10≤h≤ 10,-12≤k≤ 14,-11 ≤l≤7,R =0.0261 and wR = 0.0609 for 4376 (Rint = 0.0203) independent reflections and 1631 observed ones (I> 2σ(I)).Ni(Ⅱ) exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry,with hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions stabilizing the whole structure.UV spectrum of the complex interacting with protamine DNA indicates that the title compound interacts with DNA via insertion mode with bonding constant Kb of 1.11 × 104.

  18. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2...

  19. A novel H2S/H2O2 fuel cell operating at the room temperature

    Sanli, Ayse Elif [Gazi University (Turkey)], email:; Aytac, Aylin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar (Turkey)], email:


    This study concerns the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide and a fuel cell; acidic peroxide is used as the oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide is the fuel. A solid state H2S/H2O2 stable fuel cell was produced at room temperature. A cell potential of 0.85 V was reached; this is quite remarkable in comparison to the H2S/O2 fuel cell potential of 0.85 V obtained at 850-1000 degree celsius. The hydrogen sulfide goes through an oxidation reaction in the alkaline fuel cell (H2S/H2O2 fuel cell) which opens up the possibility of using the cheaper nickel as a catalyst. As a result, the fuel cell becomes a potentially low cost technology. A further benefit from using H2S as the alkaline liquid H2S/H2O2 fuel cell, is that sulfide ions are oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons. Sulfur produced reacts with the other sulfide ions and forms disulfide and polysulfide ions in basic electrolytes (such as Black Sea water).

  20. APA2[Zn3(HPO44(H2O2], a Layered Zincophosphate Featuring Template-to-Framework N–H⋯O and “Synergic” Framework-to-Template O–H⋯N Hydrogen Bonds and C–H⋯O Interactions (APA = 2-Amino-1-phenyleneammonium, C6H9N2+

    Joel C. Aughey


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of APA2[Zn3(HPO44(H2O2] (APA = 2-amino-1-phenylene-ammonium, C6H9N2+ (1, as prepared by a predominantly non-aqueous synthesis, is described and compared to related compounds. 1 is built up from an alternating array of ZnO4 and HPO4 tetrahedra sharing vertices as Zn–O–P bonds to generate infinite anionic sheets. Within these sheets, polyhedral 4-, 6- and 8-rings are apparent. The negative charge of the inorganic layer is balanced by singly-protonated APA template cations and water molecules are also present. The components are linked by Nt–H⋯Of, Of–H⋯Ow, Ow–H⋯Of and Of–H⋯Nt (t = template, f = framework, w = water hydrogen bonds: the last of these represents an unusual framework-to-template interaction. Weak Ct–H⋯Of links may also play a role in consolidating the structure. Crystal data: 1 (C12H26N4O18P4Zn3, Mr = 834.36, monoclinic, C2/c (No. 15, Z = 4, a = 20.194 (8 Å, b = 8.682 (3 Å, c = 15.123 (6 Å, β = 91.510 (11°, V = 2650.5 (17 Å3, R(F = 0.048, wR(F2 = 0.112.

  1. Research on photocatalytic removal of H2S using TiO2%TiO2光催化脱H2S的应用

    陈颖; 汪大海; 李金莲; 于守柱; 嵇境鹏; 刘佳刚




    Yi-hong Lu; Gen-shuan Wei; Jing Peng


    In order to obtain the chitosan oligomers, chitosan was irradiated in the solid state with and without H2O2 as a radiation degradation sensitizer, respectively. At room temperature, the viscosity average-molecular weight (Mη) of chitosan was decreased from 1.6 × 106 to 2.2 × 105 at an absorbed dose of 72 kGy without H2O2, and decreased to 2.7 × 104 at 2 kGy in the presence of an appropriate H2O2 content. In addition, the radiation degradation rate of chitosan containing 38.2wt%H2O2 is 59 times higher than that in the solid state without H2O2. FT-IR analysis suggests that there is no obvious change in the chemical structure of irradiated chitosan with and without H2O2 at a dose below 20 kGy, compared with unirradiated chitosan. On the other hand, the degree of deacetylation (DD) of irradiated chitosan in the studied dose range changed slightly, while DD of irradiated chitosan with H2O2 increased significantly. The XRD pattern indicates that the irradiated chitosan with H2O2 has more perfect crystalline structure than unirradiated chitosan. Therefore, it could be expected that irradiation of chitosan using H2O2 as a sensitizer would be a very effective method to prepare low molecular weight chitosan,because of its feasibility and benignancy to environment.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  4. Reactions of Ferrous Coproheme Decarboxylase (HemQ) with O2 and H2O2 Yield Ferric Heme b.

    Streit, Bennett R; Celis, Arianna I; Shisler, Krista; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L


    A recently discovered pathway for the biosynthesis of heme b ends in an unusual reaction catalyzed by coproheme decarboxylase (HemQ), where the Fe(II)-containing coproheme acts as both substrate and cofactor. Because both O2 and H2O2 are available as cellular oxidants, pathways for the reaction involving either can be proposed. Analysis of reaction kinetics and products showed that, under aerobic conditions, the ferrous coproheme-decarboxylase complex is rapidly and selectively oxidized by O2 to the ferric state. The subsequent second-order reaction between the ferric complex and H2O2 is slow, pH-dependent, and further decelerated by D2O2 (average kinetic isotope effect of 2.2). The observation of rapid reactivity with peracetic acid suggested the possible involvement of Compound I (ferryl porphyrin cation radical), consistent with coproheme and harderoheme reduction potentials in the range of heme proteins that heterolytically cleave H2O2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy nonetheless indicated a remarkably weak Fe-His interaction; how the active site structure may support heterolytic H2O2 cleavage is therefore unclear. From a cellular perspective, the use of H2O2 as an oxidant in a catalase-positive organism is intriguing, as is the unusual generation of heme b in the Fe(III) rather than Fe(II) state as the end product of heme synthesis.

  5. Search Directions for Direct H2O2 Synthesis Catalysts Starting from Au-12 Nanoclusters

    Grabow, Lars; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Falsig, Hanne


    We present density functional theory calculations on the direct synthesis of H2O2 from H-2 and O-2 over an Au-12 corner model of a gold nanoparticle. We first show a simple route for the direct formation of H2O2 over a gold nanocatalyst, by studying the energetics of 20 possible elementary...... that the rate of H2O2 and H2O formation can be determined from a single descriptor, namely, the binding energy of oxygen (E-O). Our model predicts the search direction starting from an Au-12 nanocluster for an optimal catalyst in terms of activity and selectivity for direct H2O2 synthesis. Taking also stability...

  6. Transition metal complexes of Vanillin- 4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H 2VPT); thermal, structural and spectroscopic studies

    El-Reash, Gaber Abu; El-Ayaan, Usama; Gabr, I. M.; El-Rachawy, El-Bastawesy


    The present work carried out a study on the ligational behavior of the new ligand, Vanillin- 4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H 2VPT) 1 towards some transition metal ions namely, Mn 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+,Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and U 6+. These complexes namely [Mn(HVPT)Cl] 2, [Co(VPT)(H 2O)] 2H 2O 3, [Ni(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 4, [Cu(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 5, [Zn(VPT)(H 2O)]H 2O 6, [Cd(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 7, [Hg(VPT)(H 2O)]H 2O 8 and [UO 2(H 2VPT)(OAc) 2]H 2O 9, were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, 1H NMR and UV-vis) and magnetic moment measurements. The suggested structures were confirmed by applying geometry optimization and conformational analysis. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all compounds are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analysis and evaluation of kinetic parameters ( E, A, Δ H, Δ S and Δ G) of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equation. ESR spectra of [Cu(HVPT)Cl]H 2O at room temperature show broad signal, indicating spin-exchange interactions between copper(II) ions.

  7. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode.

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining


    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain.

  8. Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2

    Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...

  9. Production of interstellar hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the surface of dust grains

    Du, Fujun; Bergman, Per


    Context. The formation of water on the dust grains in the interstellar medium may proceed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intermediate. Recently gas-phase H2O2 has been detected in {\\rho} Oph A with an abundance of ~1E-10 relative to H2. Aims. We aim to reproduce the observed abundance of H2O2 and other species detected in {\\rho} Oph A quantitatively. Methods. We make use of a chemical network which includes gas phase reactions as well as processes on the grains; desorption from the grain surface through chemical reaction is also included. We run the model for a range of physical parameters. Results. The abundance of H2O2 can be best reproduced at ~6E5 yr, which is close to the dynamical age of {\\rho} Oph A. The abundances of other species such as H2CO, CH3OH, and O2 can be reasonably reproduced also at this time. In the early time the gas-phase abundance of H2O2 can be much higher than the current detected value. We predict a gas phase abundance of O2H at the same order of magnitude as H2O2, and an abund...

  10. Effects of H2O2 on Oxygen Supply in the Process of DCA Fermentation

    黄英明; 焦鹏; 李书良; 华玉涛; 曹竹安


    Long chain dicarboxylic acid (DCA) produced by Candida tropicalis is produced in an aerobic viscous fermentation system. The gas-liquid transport resistance can be overcome and the oxygen supply can be increased by adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to the fermentation system. This paper shows that H2O2 can not only enhance the oxygen supply but also change the metabolism by inducing cytochrome P450, the key enzyme of α, ω-oxidation. When C. tropicalis was cultivated in a 3-liter bioreactor using the combination of aeration and hydrogen peroxide feeding, the DCA yield increased about 10% except at the beginning of H2O2 feeding. The experiments showed that the maximum activities of P450 could be induced at 2 mmol*L-1 H2O2. By adding H2O2, the DCA yield in a 22-liter bioreactor was increased 25.3% to 153.9 g/L.

  11. H2 O2-induced higher order chromatin degradation: A novel mechanism of oxidative genotoxicity

    Gregory W Konat


    The genotoxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is well established. The underlying mechanism involves oxidation of DNA by ROS. However, we have recently shown that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the major mediator of oxidative stress, can also cause genomic damage indirectly. Thus, H2O2 at pathologically relevant concentrations rapidly induces higher order chromatin degradation (HOCD), i.e. enzymatic excision of chromatin loops and their oligomers at matrix-attachment regions. The activation of endonuclease that catalyzes HOCD is a signalling event triggered specifically by H2O2. The activation is not mediated by an influx of calcium ions, but resting concentrations of intracellular calcium ions are required for the maintenance of the endonuclease in an active form. Although H2O2-induced HOCD can efficiently dismantle the genome leading to cell death, under sublethal oxidative stress conditions H2O2-induced HOCD may be the major source of somatic mutations.

  12. the Treatment Effect of γ-rays Combined with H2O2 on Sludge Filtrate

    ZHANG Hao-jia


    Full Text Available The sludge filtrate was performed by 60Co γ-rays irradiation and additive of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Effects of initial pH, initial H2O2 concentration and radiation dose on irradiation degradation efficiency were studied by analyzing the change of CODCr、 UV/V is absorbance and turbidity before and after irradiation. The results indicated that the CODCr was removed more easily at the acidic condition under the same dose and initial H2O2 concentration. Gamma irradiation and H2O2 had a significant synergistic effect. When the absorbed dose was 18.75 kGy, the initial pH was 2 and the concentration of H2O2 was 2 mmol/L, the removal of CODCr and turbidity was 70.4% and 94.9%, respectively

  13. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng


    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  14. Emerging micropollutant oxidation during disinfection processes using UV-C, UV-C/H2O2, UV-A/TiO2 and UV-A/TiO2/H2O2.

    Pablos, Cristina; Marugán, Javier; van Grieken, Rafael; Serrano, Elena


    Regeneration of wastewater treatment plant effluents constitutes a solution to increase the availability of water resources in arid regions. Water reuse legislation imposes an exhaustive control of the microbiological quality of water in the operation of disinfection tertiary treatments. Additionally, recent reports have paid increasing attention to emerging micropollutants with potential biological effects even at trace level concentration. This work focuses on the evaluation of several photochemical technologies as disinfection processes with the aim of simultaneously achieving bacterial inactivation and oxidation of pharmaceuticals as examples of emerging micropollutants typically present in water and widely studied in the literature. UV-C-based processes show a high efficiency to inactivate bacteria. However, the bacterial damages are reversible and only when using H(2)O(2), bacterial reproduction is affected. Moreover, a complete elimination of pharmaceutical compounds was not achieved at the end of the inactivation process. In contrast, UV-A/TiO(2) required a longer irradiation time to inactivate bacteria but pharmaceuticals were completely removed along the process. In addition, its oxidation mechanism, based on hydroxyl radicals (OH), leads to irreversible bacterial damages, not requiring of chemicals to avoid bacterial regrowth. For UV-A/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) process, the addition of H(2)O(2) improved Escherichia coli inactivation since the cell wall weakening, due to OH attacks, allowed H(2)O(2) to diffuse into the bacteria. However, a total elimination of the pharmaceuticals was not achieved during the inactivation process.

  15. Salidroside Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Protects against H2O2-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    Xing, Shasha; Yang, Xiaoyan; Li, Wenjing; Bian, Fang; Wu, Dan; Chi, Jiangyang; Xu, Gao; Zhang, Yonghui; Jin, Si


    Salidroside (SAL) is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SAL significantly reduced the cytotoxicity brought by H2O2. Functional studies on the rat aortas found that SAL rescued the endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduced superoxide anion (O2∙−) production induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, SAL pretreatment inhibited H2O2-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of H2O2-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Akt, as well as the redox sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB). SAL also increased mitochondrial mass and upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the endothelial cells. H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and ATP production, was rescued by SAL pretreatment. Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could protect endothelium against H2O2-induced injury via promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thus preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways. PMID:24868319

  16. Salidroside Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Protects against H2O2-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    Shasha Xing


    Full Text Available Salidroside (SAL is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with SAL significantly reduced the cytotoxicity brought by H2O2. Functional studies on the rat aortas found that SAL rescued the endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduced superoxide anion (O2∙- production induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, SAL pretreatment inhibited H2O2-induced nitric oxide (NO production. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of H2O2-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and Akt, as well as the redox sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB. SAL also increased mitochondrial mass and upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM in the endothelial cells. H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm and ATP production, was rescued by SAL pretreatment. Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could protect endothelium against H2O2-induced injury via promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thus preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways.

  17. Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Aqueous Solution by the UV/ZrO 2 /H 2 O 2 Photocatalytic Process

    Mohammad Reza Samarghandi


    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP, which is one of the resistant phenolic compounds, has been classified in the category of EPA’s priority pollutants due to its high toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Therefore, its removal from water and wastewater is very important. Various methods have been studied for removing the compound, among which advanced oxidation processes (AOPs have attracted much attention because of ease of application and high efficiency. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process, as an AOP, for PCP removal from aquatic environments. The effects of several parameters such as ultraviolet (UV exposure time, initial PCP concentration, pH, concentration of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles, and H2O2 concentration were studied. Kinetics of the reaction was also detected. The concentration of the stated materials in the samples was determined using a spectrophotometer at 500 nm. The results showed that the highest efficiency (approximately 100% was reached at optimized conditions of pH 6, contact time of 30 minutes, initial PCP concentration of 20 mg/L, the nanoparticles concentration of 0.1 g/L and H2O2 concentration of 14.7 mM/L. Also, the process followed the first order kinetics reaction. The obtained results illustrated that the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process has a high ability in removing PCP.

  18. Technical note the pattern of ClO2 stabilized by Na2CO3/H2O2.

    Junli, H; Lihua, C; Zhenye, Z


    In this paper, the existing patterns of carbonate and ClO2 in the so-called "stabilized chlorine dioxide" solution which is stabilized by stabilizers Na2CO3 and H2O2 are analyzed. Meanwhile, thermostability, UV absorption spectrum, specificity of the paper chromatogram, microstructure and ionic chromatogram of this solution were studied, and contrasted with pure NaClO2 and ClO2. The results show that ClO2 in "stabilized chlorine dioxide" solution exists in the form of chlorite ClO2-, carbonate exists in the form of bicarbonate. Therefore, it is considered that "stabilized chlorine dioxide" solution is mixed solution of ClO2- and HCO3-, its pH being 8.5.

  19. Kinetics of the atrazine degradation process using H2O2-UVC.

    Sarmento, Sandra M; Miranda, José T G


    This work is concerned with the intrinsic reaction kinetic of the degradation of atrazine (ATZ) using H2O2-UVC. Experimental runs were carried out in annular photoreactor. The initial concentration of ATZ was 2.2 × 10(-2) mol m(-3) while the H2O2-ATZ molar ratio range was 0-578 mol H2O2 mol(-1) ATZ. The ATZ molecules are decomposed by means of free-radical attack (95.2%) and direct photolysis (4.8%). There is an optimal H2O2/ATZ molar ratio (ROP = 347 H2O2 mol(-1) ATZ) which maximizes the initial degradation rate and conversion at 300 s at 83% and 77%, respectively. The process is economically feasible as the values of the energy requirement, energy and H2O2 costs at ROP are 0.14 KWh m(-3) order(-1), US$0.02 kWh(-1) m(-3) and US$1.0 m(-3), respectively. The kinetic model proposed is based on Lea's reaction scheme for the H2O2 direct photolysis, the hypothesis that unknown ATZ sub-products that absorb UVC radiation are generated, and the local volumetric rate of photon absorption. The radiation transport equation was solved and the linear spherical source emission model was used to represent the lamp emission. Intrinsic reaction kinetic parameters were estimated and the model was validated. The model predicted the data in a range of 90 to 98%.

  20. Cross talk between H2O2 and interacting signal molecules under plant stress response

    Ina eSaxena


    Full Text Available It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress condition plants have evolved regulatory mechanism to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of ROS, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the by-product of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 acts as a key regulator of many biological processes because H2O2 has been identified as an important second messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecule during various stress responses.

  1. Peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3 form a redox relay for H2O2 signaling.

    Sobotta, Mirko C; Liou, Willy; Stöcker, Sarah; Talwar, Deepti; Oehler, Michael; Ruppert, Thomas; Scharf, Annette N D; Dick, Tobias P


    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) acts as a signaling messenger by oxidatively modifying distinct cysteinyl thiols in distinct target proteins. However, it remains unclear how redox-regulated proteins, which often have low intrinsic reactivity towards H(2)O(2) (k(app) ∼1-10 M(-1) s(-1)), can be specifically and efficiently oxidized by H(2)O(2). Moreover, cellular thiol peroxidases, which are highly abundant and efficient H(2)O(2) scavengers, should effectively eliminate virtually all of the H(2)O(2) produced in the cell. Here, we show that the thiol peroxidase peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), one of the most H(2)O(2)-reactive proteins in the cell (k(app) ∼10(7)-10(8) M(-1) s(-1)), acts as a H(2)O(2) signal receptor and transmitter in transcription factor redox regulation. Prx2 forms a redox relay with the transcription factor STAT3 in which oxidative equivalents flow from Prx2 to STAT3. The redox relay generates disulfide-linked STAT3 oligomers with attenuated transcriptional activity. Cytokine-induced STAT3 signaling is accompanied by Prx2 and STAT3 oxidation and is modulated by Prx2 expression levels.

  2. H2O2 dynamics in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Rahbari, Mahsa; Bogeski, Ivan


    Hydrogen peroxide is an important antimicrobial agent but is also crucially involved in redox signaling and pathogen-host cell interactions. As a basis for systematically investigating intracellular H2O2 dynamics and regulation in living malaria parasites, we established the genetically encoded fluorescent H2O2 sensors roGFP2-Orp1 and HyPer-3 in Plasmodium falciparum. Both ratiometric redox probes as well as the pH control SypHer were expressed in the cytosol of blood-stage parasites. Both redox sensors showed reproducible sensitivity towards H2O2 in the lower micromolar range in vitro and in the parasites. Due to the pH sensitivity of HyPer-3, we used parasites expressing roGFP2-Orp1 for evaluation of short-, medium-, and long-term effects of antimalarial drugs on H2O2 levels and detoxification in Plasmodium. None of the quinolines or artemisinins tested had detectable direct effects on the H2O2 homeostasis at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. However, pre-treatment of the cells with antimalarial drugs or heat shock led to a higher tolerance towards exogenous H2O2. The systematic evaluation and comparison of the two genetically encoded cytosolic H2O2 probes in malaria parasites provides a basis for studying parasite-host cell interactions or drug effects with spatio-temporal resolution while preserving cell integrity. PMID:28369083

  3. CuO/SnO2 Mixed Nanofibers for H2S Detection.

    Katoch, Akash; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Sang Sub


    In this work we report the synthesis of copper oxide/tin oxide (CuO/SnO2) mixed nanofibers and their gas sensing properties in terms of H2S gas. The CuO/SnO2 mixed nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning technique using two needles. Based on the thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, the calcination temperature was optimized at 700 degrees C to acquire both phases of CuO and SnO2. With this method, intermixed nanofibers of SnO2 and CuO were obtained. The sensing properties of the CuO/SnO2 mixed nanofibers to H2S are investigated as functions of operating temperature and gas concentration. The CuO/SnO2 mixed nanofibers were highly sensitive towards H2S with a response 522 for 10 ppm H2S and a response time 1 s at 300 degrees C. The semiconductor-metal transition of CuO due to H2S is likely to the reason of the high H2S response. The results evidently demonstrate that the CuO/SnO2 mixed nanofibers synthesized with double needles are a promising sensor material for detection of H2S.

  4. Decoloration Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng


    In order to decolorize, waste cooking oil, a dark red close to black solution from homes and restaurants, was subjected to 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment. By virtue of UV/Vis spectrophotometric method, the influence of Gamma irradiation to decoloration kinetics and rate constants of the waste cooking oil in the presence of H2O2 was researched. In addition, the influence of different factors such as H2O2 concentration and irradiation dose on the decoloration rate of waste cooking oil was investigated. Results indicated that the decoloration kinetics of waste cooking oil conformed to the first-order reaction. The decoloration rate increased with the increase of irradiation dose and H2O2 concentration. Saponification analysis and sensory evaluation showed that the sample by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment presented better saponification performance and sensory score. Furthermore, according to cost estimate, the cost of the 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 was lower and more feasible than the H2O2 alone for decoloration of waste cooking oil.

  5. Degradation of 5-FU by means of advanced (photo)oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2--Comparison of transformation products, ready biodegradability and toxicity.

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Wilde, Marcelo Luís; Baginska, Ewelina; Leder, Christoph; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus


    The present study investigates the degradation of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by three different advanced photo oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. Prescreening experiments varying the H2O2 and TiO2 concentrations were performed in order to set the best catalyst concentrations in the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 experiments, whereas the UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 process was optimized varying the pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations by means of the Box-Behnken design (BBD). 5-FU was quickly removed in all the irradiation experiments. The UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes achieved the highest degree of mineralization, whereas the lowest one resulted from the UV/H2O2 treatment. Six transformation products were formed during the advanced (photo)oxidation processes and identified using low and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most of them were formed and further eliminated during the reactions. The parent compound of 5-FU was not biodegraded, whereas the photolytic mixture formed in the UV/H2O2 treatment after 256 min showed a noticeable improvement of the biodegradability in the closed bottle test (CBT) and was nontoxic towards Vibrio fischeri. In silico predictions showed positive alerts for mutagenic and genotoxic effects of 5-FU. In contrast, several of the transformation products (TPs) generated along the processes did not provide indications for mutagenic or genotoxic activity. One exception was TP with m/z 146 with positive alerts in several models of bacterial mutagenicity which could demand further experimental testing. Results demonstrate that advanced treatment can eliminate parent compounds and its toxicity. However, transformation products formed can still be toxic. Therefore toxicity screening after advanced treatment is recommendable.

  6. Production of superoxide/H2O2 by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Goncalves, Renata L S; Orr, Adam L; Brand, Martin D


    Dehydrogenases that use ubiquinone as an electron acceptor, including complex I of the respiratory chain, complex II, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are known to be direct generators of superoxide and/or H2O2. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase oxidizes dihydroorotate to orotate and reduces ubiquinone to ubiquinol during pyrimidine metabolism, but it is unclear whether it produces superoxide and/or H2O2 directly or does so only indirectly from other sites in the electron transport chain. Using mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle we establish that dihydroorotate oxidation leads to superoxide/H2O2 production at a fairly high rate of about 300pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) when oxidation of ubiquinol is prevented and complex II is uninhibited. This H2O2 production is abolished by brequinar or leflunomide, known inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Eighty percent of this rate is indirect, originating from site IIF of complex II, because it can be prevented by malonate or atpenin A5, inhibitors of complex II. In the presence of inhibitors of all known sites of superoxide/H2O2 production (rotenone to inhibit sites in complex I (site IQ and, indirectly, site IF), myxothiazol to inhibit site IIIQo in complex III, and malonate plus atpenin A5 to inhibit site IIF in complex II), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase generates superoxide/H2O2, at a small but significant rate (23pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1)), from the ubiquinone-binding site. We conclude that dihydroorotate dehydrogenase can generate superoxide and/or H2O2 directly at low rates and is also capable of indirect production at higher rates from other sites through its ability to reduce the ubiquinone pool.

  7. Microchannel Reactor System Design & Demonstration For On-Site H2O2 Production by Controlled H2/O2 Reaction

    Adeniyi Lawal


    We successfully demonstrated an innovative hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production concept which involved the development of flame- and explosion-resistant microchannel reactor system for energy efficient, cost-saving, on-site H2O2 production. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for controlled direct combination of H2 and O2 in all proportions including explosive regime, at a low pressure and a low temperature to produce about 1.5 wt% H2O2 as proposed. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we demonstrated our H2O2 production approach by ‘numbering up’ the channels in a multi-channel microreactor-based pilot plant to produce 1 kg/h of H2O2 at 1.5 wt% as demanded by end-users of the developed technology. To our knowledge, we are the first group to accomplish this significant milestone. We identified the reaction pathways that comprise the process, and implemented rigorous mechanistic kinetic studies to obtain the kinetics of the three main dominant reactions. We are not aware of any such comprehensive kinetic studies for the direct combination process, either in a microreactor or any other reactor system. We showed that the mass transfer parameter in our microreactor system is several orders of magnitude higher than what obtains in the macroreactor, attesting to the superior performance of microreactor. A one-dimensional reactor model incorporating the kinetics information enabled us to clarify certain important aspects of the chemistry of the direct combination process as detailed in section 5 of this report. Also, through mathematical modeling and simulation using sophisticated and robust commercial software packages, we were able to elucidate the hydrodynamics of the complex multiphase flows that take place in the microchannel. In conjunction with the kinetics information, we were able to validate the experimental data. If fully implemented across the whole

  8. 竹浆常规三段漂E段添加H2O2

    唐红梅; 庞业娟



  9. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    Skøt, Leif


    The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P H2 production but used...... for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P H2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation...

  10. One- or Two-Electron Water Oxidation, Hydroxyl Radical, or H2O2 Evolution.

    Siahrostami, Samira; Li, Guo-Ling; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Nørskov, Jens K


    Electrochemical or photoelectrochemcial oxidation of water to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) offers a very attractive route to water disinfection, and the first process could be the basis for a clean way to produce hydrogen peroxide. A major obstacle in the development of effective catalysts for these reactions is that the electrocatalyst must suppress the thermodynamically favored four-electron pathway leading to O2 evolution. We develop a thermochemical picture of the catalyst properties that determine selectivity toward the one, two, and four electron processes leading to (•)OH, H2O2, and O2.

  11. Time-resolved OES of nanosecond pulsed discharges in N$_{2}$ and N$_{2}$/H$_{2}$O mixtures]{Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of nanosecond pulsed discharges in atmospheric pressure N$_{2}$ and N$_{2}$/H$_{2}$O mixtures

    van der Horst, R M; van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J


    In this contribution, nanosecond pulsed discharges in N$_{2}$ and N$_{2}$/0.9% H$_{2}$O at atmospheric pressure (at 300 K) are studied with time-resolved imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and Rayleigh scattering. A 170 ns high voltage pulse is applied across two pin-shaped electrodes at a frequency of 1 kHz. The discharge consists of three phases: an ignition phase, a spark phase and a recombination phase. During the ignition phase the emission is mainly caused by molecular nitrogen (N$_{2}$(C-B)). In the spark and recombination phase mainly atomic nitrogen emission is observed. The emission when H$_{2}$O is added is very similar, except the small contribution of H$_{\\alpha}$ and the intensity of the molecular N$_{2}$(C-B) emission is less.

  12. Degradation of Atrazine by H2O2 Photocatalyzed under Visible Irradiation of r-TiO2%r-TiO2可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津

    唐建军; 刘淑君; 邹原; 谢炜平; 刘丰良


    以金红石型TiO2(r-TiO2)为光催化剂,以内分泌干扰物阿特拉津作模型污染物,研究了r-TiO2可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津的反应特性.表明r-TiO2能可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津,反应180 min,阿特拉津的降解率达60%;通过对反应体系的荧光光谱分析显示,阿特拉津的降解涉及羟基自由基(·OH)的产生与参与;往反应体系加入自由基抑制剂(Na2CO3或NaHCO3)时,显著降低金红石TiO2的降解效率;阿特拉津的降解反应主要发生在溶液里.

  13. Successive heterolytic cleavages of H2 achieve N2 splitting on silica-supported tantalum hydrides: A DFT proposed mechanism

    Soláns, Xavier Luis


    DFT(B3PW91) calculations have been carried out to propose a pathway for the N2 cleavage by H2 in the presence of silica-supported tantalum hydride complexes [(≡ SiO)2TaHx] that forms [(≡SiO)2Ta(NH)(NH2)] (Science2007, 317, 1056). The calculations, performed on the cluster models {μ-O[(HO)2SiO] 2}TaH1 and {μ-O[(HO)2SiO] 2}TaH3, labelled as (≡SiO)2TaH x (x = 1, 3), show that the direct hydride transfers to coordinated N-based ligands in (≡SiO)2TaH(η2-N2) and (≡SiO)2TaH(η2-HNNH) have high energy barrier barriers. These high energy barriers are due in part to a lack of energetically accessible empty orbitals in the negatively charged N-based ligands. It is shown that a succession of proton transfers and reduction steps (hydride transfer or 2 electron reduction by way of dihydride reductive coupling) to the nitrogen-based ligands leads to more energetically accessible pathways. These proton transfers, which occur by way of heterolytic activation of H2, increase the electrophilicity of the resulting ligand (diazenido, N 2H-, and hydrazido, NHNH2-, respectively) that can thus accept a hydride with a moderate energy barrier. In the case of (≡SiO)2TaH(η2-HNNH), the H 2 molecule that is adding across the Ta-N bond is released after the hydride transfer step by heterolytic elimination from (≡SiO) 2TaH(NH2)2, suggesting that dihydrogen has a key role in assisting the final steps of the reaction without itself being consumed in the process. This partly accounts for the experimental observation that the addition of H2 is needed to convert an intermediate, identified as a diazenido complex [(≡SiO)2TaH(η 2-HNNH)] from its ν(N-H) stretching frequency of 3400 cm -1, to the final product. Throughout the proposed mechanism, the tantalum remains in its preferred high oxidation state and avoids redox-type reactions, which are more energetically demanding. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Progesterone increases skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission in nonmenopausal women.

    Kane, Daniel A; Lin, Chien-Te; Anderson, Ethan J; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Cox, Julie H; Brophy, Patricia M; Hickner, Robert C; Neufer, P Darrell; Cortright, Ronald N


    The luteal phase of the female menstrual cycle is associated with both 1) elevated serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2), and 2) reduced insulin sensitivity. Recently, we demonstrated a link between skeletal muscle mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission (mE(H2O2)) and insulin resistance. To determine whether serum levels of P4 and/or E(2) are related to mitochondrial function, mE(H2O2) and respiratory O(2) flux (Jo(2)) were measured in permeabilized myofibers from insulin-sensitive (IS, n = 24) and -resistant (IR, n = 8) nonmenopausal women (IR = HOMA-IR > 3.6). Succinate-supported mE(H2O2) was more than 50% greater in the IR vs. IS women (P < 0.05). Interestingly, serum P4 correlated positively with succinate-supported mE(H2O2) (r = 0. 53, P < 0.01). To determine whether P4 or E2 directly affect mitochondrial function, saponin-permeabilized vastus lateralis myofibers biopsied from five nonmenopausal women in the early follicular phase were incubated in P4 (60 nM), E2 (1.4 nM), or both. P4 alone inhibited state 3 Jo(2), supported by multisubstrate combination (P < 0.01). However, E2 alone or in combination with P4 had no effect on Jo(2). In contrast, during state 4 respiration, supported by succinate and glycerophosphate, mE(H2O2) was increased with P4 alone or in combination with E2 (P < 0.01). The results suggest that 1) P4 increases mE(H2O2) with or without E2; 2) P4 alone inhibits Jo(2) but not when E2 is present; and 3) P4 is related to the mE(H2O2) previously linked to skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

  15. Quantifying Fenton reaction pathways driven by self-generated H2O2 on pyrite surfaces

    Gil-Lozano, C.; Davila, A. F.; Losa-Adams, E.; Fairén, A. G.; Gago-Duport, L.


    Oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) plays a significant role in the redox cycling of iron and sulfur on Earth and is the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD). It has been established that this process involves multi-step electron-transfer reactions between surface defects and adsorbed O2 and H2O, releasing sulfoxy species (e.g., S2O32-, SO42-) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) to the solution and also producing intermediate by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, our understanding of the kinetics of these transient species is still limited. We investigated the kinetics of H2O2 formation in aqueous suspensions of FeS2 microparticles by monitoring, in real time, the H2O2 and dissolved O2 concentration under oxic and anoxic conditions using amperometric microsensors. Additional spectroscopic and structural analyses were done to track the dependencies between the process of FeS2 dissolution and the degradation of H2O2 through the Fenton reaction. Based on our experimental results, we built a kinetic model which explains the observed trend of H2O2, showing that FeS2 dissolution can act as a natural Fenton reagent, influencing the oxidation of third-party species during the long term evolution of geochemical systems, even in oxygen-limited environments.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange: influence of H2O2 in the TiO2-based system.

    Andronic, Luminita; Manolache, Simona; Duta, Anca


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 was studied using a reactor equipped with UV-A sources, with maximum emission at 365 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 powder (99.9% anatase) and thin films has been measured through the decomposition of methyl orange solutions. The thin film was prepared by doctor blade and spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). The TiO2 suspensions were prepared at 1 g/L concentration, and the initial methyl orange concentration was fixed at 7.8125 mg/L. The influence of the TiO2 (powder or thin films) and/or O2 and H2O2 on the photobleaching rate, was tested under different experiments, at pH = 5. Thin films (doctor blade) of TiO2 formed of mezo-sized aggregates formed of nanosized anatase crystallites show better photobleaching efficiency than thin film (SPD) due to their large internal surface. The rate is even higher in H2O2 compared to oxygen environment.

  17. H(2)O(2)-sensitized TiO(2)/SiO(2) composites with high photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation.

    Zou, Jian; Gao, Jiacheng


    TiO(2)/SiO(2) composite photocatalysts were prepared by depositing of TiO(2) onto nano-SiO(2) particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the properties of the synthesized TiO(2)/SiO(2) composites. These results indicated that the products without calcination were amorphous, and calcination could enhance the crystallinity of TiO(2). Increases in the amount of TiO(2) would decrease the dispersion in the composites. H(2)O(2)-sensitized TiO(2)/SiO(2) composite photocatalysts could absorb visible light at wavelength below 550 nm. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared catalysts was characterized by methyl-orange degradation. The results showed the uncalcined composite photocatalysts with amorphous TiO(2) exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under visible light, and the activity of catalysts with TiO(2) content over 30% decreased with increasing of TiO(2) content. Increases in the calcination temperature and TiO(2) content promote the formation of bulk TiO(2) and result in a decrease in activity.

  18. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors. MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of...

  19. Degradation of Microcystin-RR by Combination of UV/H2O2 Technique


    The experiments were performed to investigate the degradation of microcystins in order to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of UV/H2O2 system for the disinfection of water polluted by microcystins. The influence factors such as H2O2, pH and UV light intensities were investigated respectively. Degradation of microcystin-RR (MC-RR) could be fitted by either the pseudo-first-order or second-order rate equations. This homogenous system could significantly enhance the degradation rate due to the synergetic effect between UV and H2O2. The degradation mainly followed the mechanism of direct photolysis and .OH oxidation reactions. Experimental results showed that 94.83% of MC-RR was removed under optimal experimental conditions and the UV/H2O2 system provided an alternative to promote the removal of microcystins in drinking water supplies.

  20. Prevention of H2O2 Induced Oxidative Damages of Rat Testis by Thymus algeriensis

    Fatma Guesmi; Hamida Beghalem; Amit K Tyagi; Manel Ben Ali; Ramla Ben Mouhoub; Houda Bellamine; Ahmed Landoulsi


    ObjectiveWe evaluate the effects ofThymus algeriensis (TEO) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity on body and testis weight, testis sperm count, testis lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. MethodsRats were treated with low (LD) and high dose (HD) of H2O2 (0.1 and 1 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of TEO (150 mg/kg). ResultsThe results exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and testis weight, in total sperm number decrease (P ConclusionH2O2 has the ability to alter the sperm function, characteristics and development of testis. However, TEO is an efficient natural agent, which can prevent the testis from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rats.

  1. Detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the Martian atmosphere with MEX / PFS

    Aoki, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Giuranna, M.; Geminale, A.; Sindoni, G.; Nakagawa, H.; Kasai, Y.; Murata, I.; Grassi, D.; Formisano, V.


    We first derived the long-term averaged abundance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the Martian atmosphere with data sets of Planetary Fourier Spectroscopy (PFS) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The total averaged amounts of H2O2 at three Martian years were 45 ± 21 ppb and 25 ± 18 ppb in the forward/reverse pendulum direction, respectively. It could not explain the observed short lifetime of CH4 in the Martian atmosphere.

  2. Ferric and cupric ions requirement for DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2.

    Tachon, P


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was able to nick the replicative form of the phage fd, without the addition of a reducing agent or of a metal. This DNA single-strand breakage decreased with an increase of the ionic strength, suggesting that H2O2 reacted with traces of metal bound to DNA. When cupric of ferric ions were added, the rate of DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2 greatly increased and it was 20-30 times faster with cupric than with ferric ions. The addition of EDTA at an equimolar ratio or in excess of metal prevented partially DNA single-strand cleavage by H2O2 in the presence of ferric ions and completely when cupric ions were used. Superoxide dismutase prevented DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2 and ferric ions. On the contrary, with cupric ions and H2O2, the addition of superoxide dismutase increased the rate of DNA single-strand breakage. That superoxide dismutase was acting catalytically was shown by the loss of its effects after heat inactivation of the enzyme. The results of the present study show that besides its involvement in the Fenton reaction, H2O2 is able to reduce the metal bound to DNA, generating the superoxide anion radical or/and its protonated form, the perhydroxyl radical involved in DNA nicking. On the other hand, the ability of cuprous ions unlike ferrous ions to dismutate the superoxide radical may explain some differences observed between iron and copper in the DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2.

  3. Cosmetic wastewater treatment using the Fenton, Photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes.

    Marcinowski, Piotr P; Bogacki, Jan P; Naumczyk, Jeremi H


    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), such as the Fenton, photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes, have been investigated for the treatment of cosmetic wastewaters that were previously coagulated by FeCl3. The Photo-Fenton process at pH 3.0 with 1000/100 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) was the most effective (74.0% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal). The Fenton process with 1200/500 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) achieved a COD removal of 72.0%, and the H2O2/UV process achieved a COD removal of 47.0%. Spreading the H2O2 doses over time to obtain optimal conditions did not improve COD removal. The kinetics of the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes may be described by the following equation: d[COD]/dt = -a[COD] t(m) (t represents time and a and m are constants). The rate of COD removal by the H2O2/UV process may be described by a second-order reaction equation. Head Space, Solid-Phase MicroExtraction, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to identify 48 substances in precoagulated wastewater. Among these substances, 26 were fragrances. Under optimal AOP conditions, over 99% of the identified substances were removed in 120 min.

  4. Corrosion and time dependent passivation of Al 5052 in the presence of H2O2

    Batmanghelich, Farhad; Hariri, Mohiedin Bagheri; Sharifi-Asl, Samin; Yaghoubinezhad, Yadollah; Mortazavi, Golsa; Seo, Youngwoo


    Corrosion and time-dependent oxide film growth on AA5052 Aluminum alloy in 0.25M Na2SO4 solution containing H2O2 was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, chronoamperometric and open circuit potential monitoring. It was found that sequential addition of H2O2 provokes passivation of AA5052 which ultimately thickens the oxide film and brings slower corrosion rates for AA5052. H2O2 facilitates kinetics of oxide film growth on AA 5052 at 25° and 60 °C which is indicative of formation of a thick barrier film that leads to an increment in the charge transfer resistance. Pitting incubation time increases by introduction of H2O2 accompanied by lower pitting and smoother surface morphologies. At short exposure (up to 8 h) to H2O2-containing solution, the inductive response at low frequencies predominantly determined the corrosion mechanism of AA5052. On the other hand, at prolonged exposure times (more than 24 h) to 0.25M Na2SO4+1vol% H2O2 solution, thicker oxide layers resulted in the mixed inductive-Warburg elements in the spectra.

  5. H2O2 release from the very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    Kakimoto, Pâmela A.H.B.; Tamaki, Fábio K.; Cardoso, Ariel R.; Marana, Sandro R.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.


    Enhanced mitochondrial generation of oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is related to a large number of pathological conditions, including diet-induced obesity and steatohepatosis. Indeed, we have previously shown that high fat diets increase the generation of H2O2 in liver mitochondria energized by activated fatty acids. Here, we further study fatty-acid induced H2O2 release in liver mitochondria, and determine the characteristics that regulate it. We find that this production of H2O2 is independent of mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and insensitive to purine nucleotides. On the other hand, palmitate-induced H2O2 production is strongly enhanced by high fat diets and is pH-sensitive, with a peak at a matrix pH of ~8.5. Using recombinantly expressed human very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, we are able to demonstrate that palmitate-induced H2O2 release may be ascribed to the activity of this enzyme alone, acting as an oxidase. Our results add to a number of findings indicating that sources outside of the electron transport chain can generate significant, physiopathologically relevant, amounts of oxidants in mitochondria. PMID:25728796

  6. H2O2 release from the very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    Pâmela A.H.B. Kakimoto


    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial generation of oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, is related to a large number of pathological conditions, including diet-induced obesity and steatohepatosis. Indeed, we have previously shown that high fat diets increase the generation of H2O2 in liver mitochondria energized by activated fatty acids. Here, we further study fatty-acid induced H2O2 release in liver mitochondria, and determine the characteristics that regulate it. We find that this production of H2O2 is independent of mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and insensitive to purine nucleotides. On the other hand, palmitate-induced H2O2 production is strongly enhanced by high fat diets and is pH-sensitive, with a peak at a matrix pH of ~8.5. Using recombinantly expressed human very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, we are able to demonstrate that palmitate-induced H2O2 release may be ascribed to the activity of this enzyme alone, acting as an oxidase. Our results add to a number of findings indicating that sources outside of the electron transport chain can generate significant, physiopathologically relevant, amounts of oxidants in mitochondria.

  7. H2O2 release from the very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    Kakimoto, Pâmela A H B; Tamaki, Fábio K; Cardoso, Ariel R; Marana, Sandro R; Kowaltowski, Alicia J


    Enhanced mitochondrial generation of oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is related to a large number of pathological conditions, including diet-induced obesity and steatohepatosis. Indeed, we have previously shown that high fat diets increase the generation of H2O2 in liver mitochondria energized by activated fatty acids. Here, we further study fatty-acid induced H2O2 release in liver mitochondria, and determine the characteristics that regulate it. We find that this production of H2O2 is independent of mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and insensitive to purine nucleotides. On the other hand, palmitate-induced H2O2 production is strongly enhanced by high fat diets and is pH-sensitive, with a peak at a matrix pH of ~8.5. Using recombinantly expressed human very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, we are able to demonstrate that palmitate-induced H2O2 release may be ascribed to the activity of this enzyme alone, acting as an oxidase. Our results add to a number of findings indicating that sources outside of the electron transport chain can generate significant, physiopathologically relevant, amounts of oxidants in mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GPx8 peroxidase prevents leakage of H2O2 from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Ramming, Thomas; Hansen, Henning G; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Ellgaard, Lars; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian


    Unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis (ER stress) leads to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disulfide-bond formation in the ER by Ero1 family oxidases produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thereby constitutes one potential source of ER-stress-induced ROS. However, we demonstrate that Ero1α-derived H2O2 is rapidly cleared by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 8. In 293 cells, GPx8 and reduced/activated forms of Ero1α co-reside in the rough ER subdomain. Loss of GPx8 causes ER stress, leakage of Ero1α-derived H2O2 to the cytosol, and cell death. In contrast, peroxiredoxin (Prx) IV, another H2O2-detoxifying rough ER enzyme, does not protect from Ero1α-mediated toxicity, as is currently proposed. Only when Ero1α-catalyzed H2O2 production is artificially maximized can PrxIV participate in its reduction. We conclude that the peroxidase activity of the described Ero1α-GPx8 complex prevents diffusion of Ero1α-derived H2O2 within and out of the rough ER. Along with the induction of GPX8 in ER-stressed cells, these findings question a ubiquitous role of Ero1α as a producer of cytoplasmic ROS under ER stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximity-based Protein Thiol Oxidation by H2O2-scavenging Peroxidases*♦

    Gutscher, Marcus; Sobotta, Mirko C.; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Ballikaya, Seda; Meyer, Andreas J.; Samstag, Yvonne; Dick, Tobias P.


    H2O2 acts as a signaling molecule by oxidizing critical thiol groups on redox-regulated target proteins. To explain the efficiency and selectivity of H2O2-based signaling, it has been proposed that oxidation of target proteins may be facilitated by H2O2-scavenging peroxidases. Recently, a peroxidase-based protein oxidation relay has been identified in yeast, namely the oxidation of the transcription factor Yap1 by the peroxidase Orp1. It has remained unclear whether the protein oxidase function of Orp1 is a singular adaptation or whether it may represent a more general principle. Here we show that Orp1 is in fact not restricted to oxidizing Yap1 but can also form a highly efficient redox relay with the oxidant target protein roGFP (redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein) in mammalian cells. Orp1 mediates near quantitative oxidation of roGFP2 by H2O2, and the Orp1-roGFP2 redox relay effectively converts physiological H2O2 signals into measurable fluorescent signals in living cells. Furthermore, the oxidant relay phenomenon is not restricted to Orp1 as the mammalian peroxidase Gpx4 also mediates oxidation of proximal roGFP2 in living cells. Together, these findings support the concept that certain peroxidases harbor an intrinsic and powerful capacity to act as H2O2-dependent protein thiol oxidases when they are recruited into proximity of oxidizable target proteins. PMID:19755417

  10. Proximity-based protein thiol oxidation by H2O2-scavenging peroxidases.

    Gutscher, Marcus; Sobotta, Mirko C; Wabnitz, Guido H; Ballikaya, Seda; Meyer, Andreas J; Samstag, Yvonne; Dick, Tobias P


    H(2)O(2) acts as a signaling molecule by oxidizing critical thiol groups on redox-regulated target proteins. To explain the efficiency and selectivity of H(2)O(2)-based signaling, it has been proposed that oxidation of target proteins may be facilitated by H(2)O(2)-scavenging peroxidases. Recently, a peroxidase-based protein oxidation relay has been identified in yeast, namely the oxidation of the transcription factor Yap1 by the peroxidase Orp1. It has remained unclear whether the protein oxidase function of Orp1 is a singular adaptation or whether it may represent a more general principle. Here we show that Orp1 is in fact not restricted to oxidizing Yap1 but can also form a highly efficient redox relay with the oxidant target protein roGFP (redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein) in mammalian cells. Orp1 mediates near quantitative oxidation of roGFP2 by H(2)O(2), and the Orp1-roGFP2 redox relay effectively converts physiological H(2)O(2) signals into measurable fluorescent signals in living cells. Furthermore, the oxidant relay phenomenon is not restricted to Orp1 as the mammalian peroxidase Gpx4 also mediates oxidation of proximal roGFP2 in living cells. Together, these findings support the concept that certain peroxidases harbor an intrinsic and powerful capacity to act as H(2)O(2)-dependent protein thiol oxidases when they are recruited into proximity of oxidizable target proteins.

  11. Quantification of the production of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 during accelerated wine oxidation.

    Héritier, Julien; Bach, Benoît; Schönenberger, Patrik; Gaillard, Vanessa; Ducruet, Julien; Segura, Jean-Manuel


    Understanding how wines react towards oxidation is of primary importance. Here, a novel approach was developed based on the quantitative determination of the key intermediate H2O2 produced during accelerated oxidation by ambient oxygen. The assay makes use of the conversion of the non-fluorescent Amplex Red substrate into a fluorescent product in presence of H2O2. The total production of H2O2 during 30min was quantified with low within-day and between-day variabilities. Polymerized pigments, but not total polyphenols, played a major role in the determination of H2O2 levels, which were lower in white wines than red wines. H2O2 amounts also increased with temperature and the addition of metal ions, but did not depend on the concentration of many other wine constituents such as SO2. H2O2 levels did not correlate with anti-oxidant properties. We believe that this novel methodology might be generically used to decipher the oxidation mechanisms in wines and food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pretreatment with H2O2 Alleviates Aluminum-induced Oxidative Stress in Wheat Seedlings

    Fang Jie Xu; Chong Wei Jin; Wen Jing Liu; Yong Song Zhang; Xian Yong Lin


    Hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)is a key reactive oxygen species(ROS)in signal transduction pathways Ieading to activation of plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses.In this study,we investigated the effects of H2O2 pretreatment on aluminum (Al)induced antioxidant responses in root tips of two wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)genotypes,Yangmai-5(Al-sensitive)and Jian-864(Al-tolerant).Al increased and root elongation inhibition in Yangmai-5 than in Jian-864.However,H2O2 pretreatment alleviated Alinduced deleterious effects in both genotypes.Under Al stress,H2O2 pretreatment increased the activities of superoxide dismutase,catalase,peroxidase,ascorbate peroxidase and monodehydroascorbate reductase,glutathione reductase and giutathione peroxidase as well as the levels of ascorbate and glutathione more significantly in Yangmai-5 than in Jian-864.Furthermore,H2O2 pretreatment also increased the total antioxidant capacity evaluated as the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power more significantly in Yangmai-5 than in Jian-864.Therefore,we conclude that H2O2 pretreatment improves wheat Al acclimation during subsequent Al exposure by enhancing the antioxidant defense capacity,which prevents ROS accumulation,and that the enhancement is greater in the Al-sensitive genotype than in the Al-tolerant genotype.

  13. Persistent luminescence in MSi2O2N2:Eu phosphors

    Botterman, J.; Van den Eeckhout, K.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P.; Smet, P.F.


    In this work we study the persistent luminescence properties of europium-doped alkaline earth silicon oxynitrides (CaSi2O2N2, SrSi2O2N2 and BaSi2O2N2). All compounds show afterglow emission, with an emission spectrum which is similar to the steady state photoluminescence. The afterglow decay time

  14. Efficiency of Atrazine Degradation by O3 /H2O2%O3/H2O2降解Atrazine效能研究

    李绍峰; 梁媛; 张荣全; 叶非


    The endocrine disrupter Atrazine was oxidized by O3/H2O2 system and the products were analyzed to assess the degradation efficiency of Atrazine.When it's initial content was 2 mg/L and O3 dosage was 7.5 mg/L,Atrazine was removed about 27.2% after 5 minutes.Under the same condition,H2O2/O3 molar ratio was 0.75,Atrazine maximum removal rate reached 96.5%,which suggested that Atrazine could be degraded by O3/H2O2 system effectively.Ion Chromatography(IC) analysis showed that concentrations of chloride and nitrate ions were increasing along with the Atrazine content decreasing.Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry chromatograms (LC-MS) analyzing illuminated the existence of de-ethyl-atrazine,de-isopropyl-atrazine and de-chloro-atrazine,which indicated the Atrazine could not be destroyed completely by O3/H2O2 system.Consequently,it should be combined with GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) or other techniques while used as primary treatment unit or emergency measure.%利用O3/H2O2降解莠去津,对氧化产物进行了色谱分析,以评价该体系降解莠去津效能.莠去津初始浓度2 mg/L,7.5 mg/L的O3单独氧化去除率为27.2%;相同O3投量下,H2O2/O3摩尔比0.75时,5 min莠去津的去除率最高可达96.5%,表明H2O2/O3体系对莠去津的去除效果良好,降解速度快.以离子色谱对产物的离子进行分析,莠去津浓度下降的同时,硝酸根和氯离子浓度增高.GC-MS检测的产物和对LC-MS谱图的分析表明,有机产物中存在脱乙基、脱异丙基和脱氯莠去津,说明H2O2/O3并不能彻底氧化莠去津,因此工程中作为主要去除单元或突发性污染事件的应急手段可能还需要与活性炭等单元联用.

  15. The role of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 phosphorylation in H2O2-induced cell death and Golgi morphological changes.

    Ji, Guang; Zhang, Weiwei; Quan, Moyuan; Chen, Yang; Qu, Hui; Hu, Zhiping


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on cell viability and survival, as well as changes in the distribution of Golgi apparatus and in the level of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 (GRASP65). Cell viability of cultured N2a cells treated with H2O2 was measured by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analyses. Cells labeled by indirect immunofluorescence were observed under confocal microscope to detect any Golgi morphological alterations; electron microscopy of Golgi apparatus was also done. Expression of GRASP65 and phospho-GRASP65 was examined by immunoblotting. H2O2 treatment reduced the cell viability and raised the cell mortality of N2a cells in a time-dependent manner. Notable changes were only observed in the distribution and morphology of Golgi apparatus at 6 h after H2O2 treatment. The expression of GRASP65 showed no significant changes at different time points; the phosphorylated GRASP65 level was significantly increased after H2O2 treatment, peaked at 3 h, and finally dropped at 6 h. Taken together, GRASP65 phosphorylation may have a critical role in inducing cell death at the early stage after H2O2 treatment, while its role in H2O2-induced Golgi morphological changes may be complex.

  16. Using TiO2 as a Conductive Protective Layer for Photocathodic H2 Evolution

    Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas; Laursen, Anders Bo


    Surface passivation is a general issue for Si-based photoelectrodes because it progressively hinders electron conduction at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. In this work, we show that a sputtered 100 nm TiO2 layer on top of a thin Ti metal layer may be used to protect an n+p Si photocathode...... during photocatalytic H2 evolution. Although TiO2 is a semiconductor, we show that it behaves like a metallic conductor would under photocathodic H2 evolution conditions. This behavior is due to the fortunate alignment of the TiO2 conduction band with respect to the hydrogen evolution potential, which...... photocurrent (H2 evolution) was also significantly enhanced by the antireflective properties of the TiO2 layer. It was shown that with proper annealing conditions these electrodes could run 72 h without significant degradation. An Fe2+/Fe3+ redox couple was used to help elucidate details of the band diagram....

  17. Nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer: fundamentals of the mixed 14N2O-15N2O dimer and new combination bands of (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2 involving the Bu, intermolecular bend.

    Dehghany, M; Afshari, Mahin; Abusara, Z; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N


    Spectra of the nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer in the region of the N2O v1 fundamental band are observed in a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion probed with a tunable diode laser. Four bands are analysed: two fundamentals of the mixed 14N2O-15N2O dimer and combination bands involving the intermolecular disrotation of the monomers (Bu intermolecular bend) for both (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2. Because the determination of this intermolecular frequency relies on the experimentally unknown frequency of the (forbidden) symmetric fundamental, we used previously published ab initio results and their proximity to our experimental values to assign the upper state of the combination bands. The resulting intermolecular disrotation frequencies are 42.3(1.0) and 41.6(1.0) cm(-1) for the (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2, respectively. This represents the first observation of the mixed 14N2O-15N2O dimer, and the direct determination of a second intermolecular frequency for the nonpolar (N2O)2.

  18. Sources of superoxide/H2O2 during mitochondrial proline oxidation

    Renata L.S. Goncalves


    Full Text Available p53 Inducible gene 6 (PIG6 encodes mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase (PRODH and is up-regulated several fold upon p53 activation. Proline dehydrogenase is proposed to generate radicals that contribute to cancer cell apoptosis. However, there are at least 10 mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or H2O2, and it is unclear whether proline dehydrogenase generates these species directly, or instead drives production by other sites. Amongst six cancer cell lines, ZR75-30 human breast cancer cells had the highest basal proline dehydrogenase levels, and mitochondria isolated from ZR75-30 cells consumed oxygen and produced H2O2 with proline as sole substrate. Insects use proline oxidation to fuel flight, and mitochondria isolated from Drosophila melanogaster were even more active with proline as sole substrate than ZR75-30 mitochondria. Using mitochondria from these two models we identified the sites involved in formation of superoxide/H2O2 during proline oxidation. In mitochondria from Drosophila the main sites were respiratory complexes I and II. In mitochondria from ZR75-30 breast cancer cells the main sites were complex I and the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Even with combinations of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors designed to minimize the contributions of other sites and maximize any superoxide/H2O2 production from proline dehydrogenase itself, there was no significant direct contribution of proline dehydrogenase to the observed H2O2 production. Thus proline oxidation by proline dehydrogenase drives superoxide/H2O2 production, but it does so mainly or exclusively by providing anaplerotic carbon for other mitochondrial dehydrogenases and not by producing superoxide/H2O2 directly.

  19. Sources of superoxide/H2O2 during mitochondrial proline oxidation.

    Goncalves, Renata L S; Rothschild, Daniel E; Quinlan, Casey L; Scott, Gary K; Benz, Christopher C; Brand, Martin D


    p53 Inducible gene 6 (PIG6) encodes mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and is up-regulated several fold upon p53 activation. Proline dehydrogenase is proposed to generate radicals that contribute to cancer cell apoptosis. However, there are at least 10 mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or H2O2, and it is unclear whether proline dehydrogenase generates these species directly, or instead drives production by other sites. Amongst six cancer cell lines, ZR75-30 human breast cancer cells had the highest basal proline dehydrogenase levels, and mitochondria isolated from ZR75-30 cells consumed oxygen and produced H2O2 with proline as sole substrate. Insects use proline oxidation to fuel flight, and mitochondria isolated from Drosophila melanogaster were even more active with proline as sole substrate than ZR75-30 mitochondria. Using mitochondria from these two models we identified the sites involved in formation of superoxide/H2O2 during proline oxidation. In mitochondria from Drosophila the main sites were respiratory complexes I and II. In mitochondria from ZR75-30 breast cancer cells the main sites were complex I and the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Even with combinations of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors designed to minimize the contributions of other sites and maximize any superoxide/H2O2 production from proline dehydrogenase itself, there was no significant direct contribution of proline dehydrogenase to the observed H2O2 production. Thus proline oxidation by proline dehydrogenase drives superoxide/H2O2 production, but it does so mainly or exclusively by providing anaplerotic carbon for other mitochondrial dehydrogenases and not by producing superoxide/H2O2 directly.

  20. The H2O2 scavenger ebselen decreases ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in mice.

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Aragon, Carlos M G


    In the brain, the enzyme catalase by reacting with H(2)O(2) forms Compound I (catalase-H(2)O(2) system), which is the main system of central ethanol metabolism to acetaldehyde. Previous research has demonstrated that acetaldehyde derived from central-ethanol metabolism mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Manipulations that modulate central catalase activity or sequester acetaldehyde after ethanol administration modify the stimulant effects induced by ethanol in mice. However, the role of H(2)O(2) in the behavioral effects caused by ethanol has not been clearly addressed. The present study investigated the effects of ebselen, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, on ethanol-induced locomotion. Swiss RjOrl mice were pre-treated with ebselen (0-50mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) prior to administration of ethanol (0-3.75g/kg; IP). In another experiment, animals were pre-treated with ebselen (0 or 25mg/kg; IP) before caffeine (15mg/kg; IP), amphetamine (2mg/kg; IP) or cocaine (10mg/kg; IP) administration. Following these treatments, animals were placed in an open field to measure their locomotor activity. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of ebselen on the H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation of brain catalase activity by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT). Ebselen selectively prevented ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation without altering the baseline activity or the locomotor stimulating effects caused by caffeine, amphetamine and cocaine. Ebselen reduced the ability of AT to inhibit brain catalase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that a decline in H(2)O(2) levels might result in a reduction of the ethanol locomotor-stimulating effects, indicating a possible role for H(2)O(2) in some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Degradation of norfloxacin by nano-Fe3O4/H2O2].

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Niu, Hong-Yun; Meng, Zhao-Fu


    The degradation of norfloxacin in aquatic environment was studied in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and H2O2. The effects of solution pH, temperature, dose of catalysts and concentration of H2O2 on norfloxacin degradation were surveyed. The degradation behaviors of different substrates by nano-Fe3O4/H2O2 were investigated and the reaction mechanism of norfloxacin was discussed. The results showed that the reaction was strongly pH-dependent and favored in acidic solution (pH = 3.5). The removal efficiency of norfloxacin was enhanced with the increase of temperature, catalysts dosage and H2O2 concentration. The degradation efficiency of norfloxacin by nano-Fe3O4/H2O2 was significantly higher than those of sulfathiazole, phenolic and aniline compounds. In the presence of 4.4 mmol x L(-1) of H2O2, 0.80 g x L(-1) of Fe3O4 and T = 303 K, norfloxacin was degraded completely in 5 min. The F element in norfloxacin molecule existed totally as F(-) in solution within 5 min, and the removal efficiency of total organic carbon was 57% in 1 h. In the ESR spectrum of nano-Fe3O4/H2O2 system, the characteristic peaks of BMPO-*OH adduct was detected, however, the intensity of the peaks was reduced to 5% with the addition of tert-butanol, a strong *OH scavenger, and the degradation efficiency of norfloxacin was correspondingly decreased to 10% in 1 h. These results indicated that *OH played an important role on norfloxacin degradation, and the reaction proceeded based on a heterogeneous Fenton-like system.

  2. Engineering the TiO2 -graphene interface to enhance photocatalytic H2 production.

    Liu, Lichen; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Annai; Gu, Xianrui; Ge, Chengyan; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin


    In this work, TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are synthesized with tunable TiO2 crystal facets ({100}, {101}, and {001} facets) through an anion-assisted method. These three TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites have similar particle sizes and surface areas; the only difference between them is the crystal facet exposed in TiO2 nanocrystals. UV/Vis spectra show that band structures of TiO2 nanocrystals and TiO2 -graphene nanocomposites are dependent on the crystal facets. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest that the charge-transfer rate between {100} facets and graphene is approximately 1.4 times of that between {001} facets and graphene. Photoelectrochemical measurements also confirm that the charge-separation efficiency between TiO2 and graphene is greatly dependent on the crystal facets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Ti-C bonds are formed between {100} facets and graphene, while {101} facets and {001} facets are connected with graphene mainly through Ti-O-C bonds. With Ti-C bonds between TiO2 and graphene, TiO2 -100-G shows the fastest charge-transfer rate, leading to higher activity in photocatalytic H2 production from methanol solution. TiO2 -101-G with more reductive electrons and medium interfacial charge-transfer rate also shows good H2 evolution rate. As a result of its disadvantageous electronic structure and interfacial connections, TiO2 -001-G shows the lowest H2 evolution rate. These results suggest that engineering the structures of the TiO2 -graphene interface can be an effective strategy to achieve excellent photocatalytic performances.

  3. Suspended Pt nanoparticles over TiO2 nanotubes for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Altomare, Marco; Schmuki, Patrik


    In the present work we introduce a technique to form a photocatalyst, based on Pt nanoparticles suspended over the mouth of TiO2 nanotubes. These structures are obtained by the decoration of the top end of highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes with a web of TiO2 nanofibrils, followed by sputter deposition of a minimum amount of Pt. A subsequent thermal dewetting step forms 3-6 nm-sized Pt nanoparticles along the nanofibrils. These structures, when compared to conventional Pt decoration techniques of TiO2 nanotubes, show a strongly enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution efficiency.

  4. Characterization of the primary hydration shell of the hydroxide ion with H2 tagging vibrational spectroscopy of the OH- ṡ (H2O)n=2,3 and OD- ṡ (D2O)n=2,3 clusters

    Gorlova, Olga; DePalma, Joseph W.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Brathwaite, Antonio; Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T.; Jordan, Kenneth D.; McCoy, Anne B.; Johnson, Mark A.


    We report the isotope-dependent vibrational predissociation spectra of the H2-tagged OH- ṡ (H2O)n=2,3 clusters, from which we determine the strongly coordination-dependent energies of the fundamentals due to the OH groups bound to the ion and the intramolecular bending modes of the water molecules. The HOH bending fundamental is completely missing in the delocalized OH- ṡ (H2O) binary complex but is recovered upon adding the second water molecule, thereby establishing that the dihydrate behaves as a hydroxide ion solvated by two essentially intact water molecules. The energies of the observed OH stretches are in good agreement with the values predicted by Takahashi and co-workers [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 25505 (2015); 15, 114 (2013)] with a theoretical model that treats the strong anharmonicities at play in this system with explicit coupling between the bound OH groups and the O-O stretching modes on an extended potential energy surface. We highlight a surprising similarity between the spectral signatures of OH- ṡ (H2O)3 and the excess proton analogue, H3O+ ṡ (H2O)3, both of which correspond to completed hydration shells around the proton defect. We discuss the origin of the extreme solvatochromicity displayed by both OH- and H+ in the context of the anomalously large "proton polarizabilities" of the H5O2+ and H3O2- binary complexes.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide from simulated flue gas by wet scrubbing using ultraviolet/TiO2/H2O2 process

    张波; 仲兆平; 付宗明


    Nitric oxide (NO) from flue gas is hard to remove because of low solubility and reactivity. A new technology for photocatalytic oxidation of NO using ultraviolet (UV)/TiO2/H2O2 process is studied in an efficient laboratory-scale reactor. Effects of several key operational parameters on NO removal efficiency are studied, including TiO2 content, H2O2 initial concentration, UV lamp power, NO initial content, oxygen volume fraction and TiO2/H2O2 solution volume. The results illustrate that the NO removal efficiency increases with the increasing of H2O2 initial concentration or UV lamp power. Meanwhile, a lower NO initial content or a higher TiO2/H2O2 solution volume will result in higher NO removal efficiency. In addition, oxygen volume fraction has a little effect. The highest NO removal efficiency is achieved at the TiO2 content of 0.75 g/L, H2O2 initial concentration of 2.5 mol/L, UV lamp power of 36 W, NO initial content of 206×10−6 and TiO2/H2O2 solution volume of 600 mL. It is beneficial for the development and application of NO removal from coal-fired flue gas with UV/TiO2/H2O2 process.

  6. Direct functionalization of M-C (M = Pt(II), Pd(II)) bonds using environmentally benign oxidants, O2 and H2O2.

    Vedernikov, Andrei N


    Atom economy and the use of "green" reagents in organic oxidation, including oxidation of hydrocarbons, remain challenges for organic synthesis. Solutions to this problem would lead to a more sustainable economy because of improved access to energy resources such as natural gas. Although natural gas is still abundant, about a third of methane extracted in distant oil fields currently cannot be used as a chemical feedstock because of a dearth of economically and ecologically viable methodologies for partial methane oxidation. Two readily available "atom-economical" "green" oxidants are dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide, but few methodologies have utilized these oxidants effectively in selective organic transformations. Hydrocarbon oxidation and C-H functionalization reactions rely on Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes. These reagents have practical advantages because they can tolerate moisture and atmospheric oxygen. But this tolerance for atmospheric oxygen also makes it challenging to develop novel organometallic palladium and platinum-catalyzed C-H oxidation reactions utilizing O(2) or H(2)O(2). This Account focuses on these challenges: the development of M-C bond (M = Pt(II), Pd(II)) functionalization and related selective hydrocarbon C-H oxidations with O(2) or H(2)O(2). Reactions discussed in this Account do not involve mediators, since the latter can impart low reaction selectivity and catalyst instability. As an efficient solution to the problem of direct M-C oxidation and functionalization with O(2) and H(2)O(2), this Account introduces the use of facially chelating semilabile ligands such as di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate and the hydrated form of di(2-pyridyl)ketone that enable selective and facile M(II)-C(sp(n)) bond functionalization with O(2) (M = Pt, n = 3; M = Pd, n = 3 (benzylic)) or H(2)O(2) (M = Pd, n = 2). The reactions proceed efficiently in protic solvents such as water, methanol, or acetic acid. With the exception of benzylic Pd(II) complexes, the

  7. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions between H2O2 and copper and copper oxides.

    Björkbacka, Åsa; Yang, Miao; Gasparrini, Claudia; Leygraf, Christofer; Jonsson, Mats


    One of the main challenges for the nuclear power industry today is the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the most developed methods for its long term storage is the Swedish KBS-3 concept where the spent fuel is sealed inside copper canisters and placed 500 meters down in the bedrock. Gamma radiation will penetrate the canisters and be absorbed by groundwater thereby creating oxidative radiolysis products such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (HO˙). Both H2O2 and HO˙ are able to initiate corrosion of the copper canisters. In this work the kinetics and mechanism of reactions between the stable radiolysis product, H2O2, and copper and copper oxides were studied. Also the dissolution of copper into solution after reaction with H2O2 was monitored by ICP-OES. The experiments show that both H2O2 and HO˙ are present in the systems with copper and copper oxides. Nevertheless, these species do not appear to influence the dissolution of copper to the same extent as observed in recent studies in irradiated systems. This strongly suggests that aqueous radiolysis can only account for a very minor part of the observed radiation induced corrosion of copper.

  8. Treatment of Sulfonated Azo Dye Reactive Red 198 by UV/H2O2

    Jefferson P. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available UV/H2O2 system was tested on the color removal of sulfonated azo dye Reactive Red 198 (RR, which is widely used in textile process. The effects of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, pH, and the in-line addition of hydrogen peroxide on high color and chemical oxygen demand (COD removals were investigated. The kinetic of dye decolorization was also determined. The results showed that 2% H2O2 decreased the process efficiency, while 1% H2O2 solution led to a better performance of the system. Despite the fact that the pH increase had small effect on color removal, it affects positively COD removals. The same behavior was found for temperature increase. A high temperature resulted in a slight decrease in color removal and a sharp decrease for COD removal. In addition the H2O2 in-line provided a small improvement in both color and COD removals. UV/1% H2O2 treatment was the most efficient, the good performance was linked to higher amount of hydroxyl radicals formed.

  9. Multiple myeloma cells' capacity to decompose H2O2 determines lenalidomide sensitivity.

    Sebastian, Sinto; Zhu, Yuan X; Braggio, Esteban; Shi, Chang-Xin; Panchabhai, Sonali C; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P Leif; Stewart, A Keith; Fonseca, Rafael


    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiDs) with clinical efficacy in multiple myeloma (MM) and other late B-cell neoplasms. Although cereblon (CRBN) is an essential requirement for IMiD action, the complete molecular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for lenalidomide-mediated sensitivity or resistance remain unknown. Here, we report that IMiDs work primarily via inhibition of peroxidase-mediated intracellular H2O2 decomposition in MM cells. MM cells with lower H2O2-decomposition capacity were more vulnerable to lenalidomide-induced H2O2 accumulation and associated cytotoxicity. CRBN-dependent degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 was a consequence of H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. Lenalidomide increased intracellular H2O2 levels by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cells expressing CRBN, causing accumulation of immunoglobulin light-chain dimers, significantly increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and inducing cytotoxicity by activation of BH3-only protein Bim in MM. Other direct inhibitors of TrxR and thioredoxin (Trx) caused similar cytotoxicity, but in a CRBN-independent fashion. Our findings could help identify patients most likely to benefit from IMiDs and suggest direct TrxR or Trx inhibitors for MM therapy.

  10. Degradation of 40 selected pharmaceuticals by UV/H2O2.

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M; Harmsen, D J H; Beerendonk, E F


    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in source waters is increasing. Although UV advanced oxidation is known to be an effective barrier against micropollutants, degradation rates are only available for limited amounts of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the degradation of a large group of pharmaceuticals has been studied in this research for the UV/H2O2 process under different conditions, including pharmaceuticals of which the degradation by UV/H2O2 was never reported before (e.g., metformin, paroxetine, pindolol, sotalol, venlafaxine, etc.). Monochromatic low pressure (LP) and polychromatic medium pressure (MP) lamps were used for three different water matrices. In order to have well defined hydraulic conditions, all experiments were conducted in a collimated beam apparatus. Degradation rates for the pharmaceuticals were determined. For those compounds used in this research that are also reported in literature, measured degradation results are in good agreement with literature data. Pharmaceutical degradation for only photolysis with LP lamps is small, which is increased by using a MP lamp. Most of the pharmaceuticals are well removed when applying both UV (either LP or MP) and H2O2. However, differences in degradation rates between pharmaceuticals can be large. For example, ketoprofen, prednisolone, pindolol are very well removed by UV/H2O2, whereas metformin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide are very little removed by UV/H2O2.

  11. Synergistic effect of proanthocyanidin on the bactericidal action of the photolysis of H2O2.

    Ikai, Hiroyo; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Shirato, Midori; Meirelles, Luiz; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi


    The in vitro antibacterial activity of the hydroxyl radical generation system by the photolysis of H2O2 in combination with proanthocyanidin, which refers to a group of polyphenolic compounds, was examined. Bactericidal activity of photo-irradiated H2O2 at 405 nm against Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, was augmented in the presence of proanthocyanidin, whose bactericidal effect by itself was very poor, in a concentration-dependent manner. This combination was also proven effective against Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of periodontitis. It is speculated that H2O2, generated from photo-irradiated proanthocyanidin around the bacterial cells, is photolyzed to the hydroxyl radical, which would in turn affect the membrane structure and function of the bacterial cells, resulting in augmented sensitivity of bacterial cells to the disinfection system utilizing the photolysis of H2O2. The present study suggests that the combination of H2O2 and proanthocyanidin works synergistically to kill bacteria when photo-irradiated.

  12. Sipunculan celomocytes increase the resistance to H2O2-induced cell death under hypoxia

    T Lombardo


    Full Text Available Themiste petricola is a marine intertidal endolithic worm that experiences transient hypoxia within its habitat, owing to natural sediment movements or increased organic enrichment. We characterized and quantified the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 in celomocytes of the sipunculan Themiste petricola under normoxia and hypoxia (O2 < 0.1 % through the median effect method. The 50 % cell death H2O2 dose at 24 h (EC50 under normoxia was 1.5 mM. The range EC10-EC90 was 0.6 mM - 3.9 mM. The fraction of cells having collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was increased dose-dependently after 3 h exposure with 24 h cytotoxic doses of H2O2 from EC10 to EC90. The 24 h cytotoxic dose inducing 50 % of cells with collapsed MMP at 3 h was 3.67 mM. Intracellular superoxide anion production was increased dose-dependently, while reduced glutathione was decreased dose-dependently at 3 h with H2O2 from EC10 to EC90. Exposure to 24 h hypoxia did not cause cell death but induced intracellular acidification. The 24 h EC50 of H2O2 under hypoxia was increased to 4.7 mM while the range EC10-EC90 was increased to 0.9 mM - 25.1 mM. We conclude that hypoxia induces anaerobic metabolism and increases tolerance to H2O2-induced cell death in celomocytes of Themiste petricola preserving the immune functions and providing an advantage to survive under low oxygen tension.

  13. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration

    Jason R. Treberg


    Full Text Available Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1] based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state.

  14. Electrocatalytic Activity of Ti/TiO2 Electrodes in H2SO4 Solution

    王雅琼; 童宏扬; 许文林


    Ti/TiO2 electrodes were prepared with the polymeric precursor method (PPM). The structure and morphology of Ti/TiO2 electrodes were examined with XRD and ESEM. The voltammetric charge (q*) of Ti/TiO2 electrodes as cathode in 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution was investigated with cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the electrocatalytic activity of the Ti/TiO2 electrodes was affected by the structure and morphology of the Ti/TiO2 electrodes, in other words, was affected by the calcination conditions of preparing the electrodes. The value of q*ln was considerably larger than that of q*out,which means that the 'inner' active surface area was much larger than the 'outer' active surface area, and 'inner' active surface played a main role in the electrocatalytic activity of the Ti/TiO2 electrodes.

  15. Simulations of H 2O 2 concentration profiles in the water surrounding spent nuclear fuel

    Nielsen, Fredrik; Lundahl, Karin; Jonsson, Mats


    A simple mathematical model describing the hydrogen peroxide concentration profile in water surrounding a spent nuclear fuel pellet as a function of time has been developed. The water volume is divided into smaller elements, and the processes that affect hydrogen peroxide concentration are applied to each volume element. The model includes production of H 2O 2 from α-radiolysis, surface reaction between H 2O 2 and UO 2 and diffusion. Simulations show that the surface concentration of H 2O 2 increases fairly rapidly and approaches the steady-state concentration. The time to reach steady-state is sufficiently short to be neglected compared to the times of interest when simulating spent fuel dissolution under deep repository conditions. Consequently, the steady-state approach can be used to estimate the rate for radiation-induced spent nuclear fuel dissolution.

  16. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Ko, Wai Man; Zhou, Xian; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Hoi, Maggie P. M.; Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Liu, Jianxun


    Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926). SLT (1–50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h) caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed. PMID:28067784

  17. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

    Sai Wang Seto


    Full Text Available Sailuotong (SLT is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926. SLT (1–50 µg/mL significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed.

  18. H2O2 Improves Quality of Radix scutellariae Through Anti-oxidant Effect.

    Qi, Song; Wu-Lin, Cao; Hua, Jiang; Ai-Hua, Zhang; Xiang-Cai, Meng


    The correlation between the quality and geographical origin of herbal medicine was traced back to Tang Dynasty in China, more than 1200 years, and the effects of ecological environments on the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have been confirmed. However, little is known about how the adversity impacts on the quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be medium between the ecological environment and the secondary metabolism. The fresh roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were treated with 0.002 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, and 20 μmol/L H2O2, respectively. A stress model was established to elucidate the change of secondary metabolism, anti-oxidant enzyme system, and enzymes relating to flavonoids. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase decreased. Too much H2O2, firstly, boosted transformation of flavonoids glycoside into aglucon with the most remarkable activities through UDP-glucuronate baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase (UBGAT), and β-glucuronidase (GUS), then regulated the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase, GUS, and UBGAT, and increased the contents of flavones, motivated the flavonoid glycoside converting into aglucon. With this action, the flavones displaced the anti-oxidant enzymes. The higher the dosage, the more baicalein and wogonin increased, the later they took action. The plant secondary metabolites to keep ROS constant are identical to the effective materials in clinic. They are closely linked. H2O2 can improve flavones, especially the aglucon, and further increased the quality of herbal medicine, which possesses very important value in medical practice. H2O2 decreasing the activities of CAT and POD lead to accumulation of more H2O2. Excess of H2O2 up-regulated PAL, BUG, promote biosynthesis of flavones, and enhance the nonenzyme system. "↑" and "↓" represent activity or content "up" and "down" respectively.

  19. [Study on UV and H2O2 combined inactivation of E. coli in drinking water].

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Zhou, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Yong-Ji


    The inactivation effect of E. coli with both UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide disinfection individually and in different combination modes was investigated. The results showed that hydrogen peroxide alone caused hardly any inactivation of E. coli. Only 0.02 lg inactivation was achieved by hydrogen peroxide with concentration of 20 mg x L(-1) and contact time of 30 min. UV irradiation was able to inactivate E. coli to a certain extent. The inactivation reached 4.51 lg at a UV dose of 10 mJ x cm(-2). The combination of UV and H2O2 could significantly improve the inactivation effect and the different combination modes affected the inactivation effect. The inactivation effect of UV-H2O2 was better than that of H2O2 -UV. The inactivation was increased by 0.09, 0.35, 0.38, 0.68 lg and 0.01, 0.07, 0.14, 0.53 lg when compared to the treatment with solely UV irradiation, respectively, at UV dose of 5 mJ x cm(-2) with hydrogen peroxide at contact time of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 minutes. UV/H2O2 achieved better results than sequential disinfection. The inactivation was enhanced by 0.43 lg and 0.58 lg when compared to UV-H2O2 and H2O2-UV, respectively, at UV dose of 5 mJ x cm(-2) with hydrogen peroxide at contact time of 20 minutes. The inactivation of E. coli increased with the enhancement of UV radiation intensity.

  20. Photodegradation of the antineoplastic cyclophosphamide: a comparative study of the efficiencies of UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes.

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus


    Anticancer drugs are harmful substances that can have carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. More than 50 years after its introduction, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is still one of the most consumed anticancer drug worldwide. CP has been detected in water bodies in several studies and is known as being persistent in the aquatic environment. As the traditional water and wastewater treatment technologies are not able to remove CP from the water, different treatment options such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are under discussion to eliminate these compounds. The present study investigated the degradation of CP by three different AOPs: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. The light source was a Hg medium-pressure lamp. Prescreening tests were carried out and afterwards experiments based on the optimized conditions were performed. The primary elimination of the parent compounds and the detection of transformation products (TPs) were monitored with LC-UV-MS/MS analysis, whereas the degree of mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Ecotoxicological assays were carried out with the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. CP was completely degraded in all treatments and UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 was the fastest process, followed by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. All the reactions obeyed pseudo-first order kinetics. Considering the mineralization UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 were the most efficient process with mineralization degrees higher than 85%, whereas UV/H2O2 achieved 72.5% of DOC removal. Five transformation products were formed during the reactions and identified. None of them showed significant toxicity against V. fischeri.


    王寅观; 杨海涛; 孙庆德; 蒋勇; 钟斐晖


    In this paper,an on-line ultrasonic H2O2 concentration meteroperating according to the relationship between the concentration,temperature and ultrasonic velocity in H2O2 solution is introduced. The ultrasonic velocities in H2O2 solution are measured at different concentrations and temperatures.The velocity-concentration coefficients and velocity-temperature coefficients of H2O2 solution are calculated. In the on-line ultrasonic H2O2 concentration meter,the ultrasonic transducer installed outside the H2O2 solution pipeline generates an ultrasonic wave pulse. The ultrasonic wave travels through the pipeline of H2O2 solution. The computer transfers the ultrasonic travel time into ultrasonic velocity. The platinum resister is installed inside the H2O2 solution pipeline. The resistor variation caused by temperature is sent to the computer through the interface. The computer calculates the ultrasonic velocity and H2O2 temperature by means of velocity-concentration coefficients and velocity-temperature coefficients. It displays and prints the value of the instant H2O2 solution concentration,and meantime displays the 8 hour curve for H2O2 solution concentration variation in the screen. It also can give alarm and output a 4—20 mA analogue signal for automatic control in the production process.

  2. Photodegradation of Reactive Dyes by UV/Ferrioxalate/H2O2 System

    Wang Binsong(王滨松); Huang Junli; Zhang Jie


    Three types of simulated commercial reactive dye wastewater, separately prepared with FN-2BL red, C-R blue and C-2R yellow, were oxidized with UV/ferrioxalate/H2O2 system, especially by the introduction of Fe2+ ion. The experimental results show that the optimized experimental conditions are pH=3.5, [Fe2+]=1mM, H2O2782mg/L for FN-2BL red and C-R blue and H2O2646mg/L for C-2R yellow, t=4h and T=80℃ when the concentration of dye is 400mg/L. Under such conditions, the observed COD and color removal efficiencies are above 94% and 99%, respectively for all the cases. This investigation has provided fundamental information for the treatment of wastewater containing reactive dyes using UV/ferrioxalate/H2O2.

  3. Diatomite as high performance and environmental friendly catalysts for phenol hydroxylation with H2O2

    Yuxin Jia et al


    Full Text Available A series of diatomite catalysts were treated and characterized. For the first time, the resulting materials were used in catalysis for the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 and showed very high hydroxylation activity due to the Fe species in the diatomite. The effect of HCl treatment, contents of catalysts and H2O2 were investigated and the active components of diatomite were discussed. The results show that diatomite is the promising candidate for industrial output due to their high catalytic activity, easy physical separation and very low costs.

  4. Attempts to improve the H2S sensitivity of TiO2 films

    Jagadale, T. C.; Nagmani, Ramgir, N. S.; Prajapat, C. L.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.


    We report the pulsed laser deposited titanium oxide thin film for H2S gas sensing. The surface and bulk electronic structure is revealed using XPS technique. These TiO2 films showed very good selectivity to H2S with response of around ~ 60% at 200°C operating temperature. In order to improve the sensor response so as to realize the technological application, we hereby attempted bi-directional efforts as (i) Nb-doping and (ii) defects engineering in the TiO2 film. It is revealed that Nb-doping reduces response however defect engineering improves the same.

  5. Ammonia removal from leachate by photochemical process using H2O2

    Giovani Archanjo Brota


    Full Text Available In this work, it was studied the optimization of the photochemical process using H2O2/UV in order to reduce the concentration of ammonia in leachate. It was used landfills leachate previously treated in the development of studies. A photochemical reactor with the capacity of 1.7 liters equipped with refrigeration system and recirculation of leachate was employed in the research. The influence of temperature, the light bulb power, the concentration of H2O2 and treatment time were tested during the study. A removal of 97% of ammonia was observed at 90 min.

  6. System and method to control h2o2 level in advanced oxidation processes


    The present invention relates to a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and a method of in-situ production and removal of H2O2 using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES). Further, the invention relates to a method for in-situ control of H2O2 content in an aqueous system of advanced oxidation...... processes (AOPs) involving in-situ generation of hydroxyl radical (OH) by using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and to a method for treatment of wastewater and water disinfection. The bio-electrochemical system (BES) according to the invention comprises: - an aqueous cathode compartment comprising...

  7. Capacity control of power stations by O 2/H 2 rocket combustor technology

    Sternfeld, Ing. H. J.


    The concept of a hydrogen/oxygen spinning reserve system is described. The novel component of this concept is a socalled hydrogen/oxygen steam generator derived from modern H 2/O 2 rocket combustor technology. With the HYDROSS-project the DLR and German power plant industries as well as electric utilities have converted the rocket combustor technology to a power plant component. The status of the project as well as technical problems encountered with the conversion are described. Finally, future options for utilizing H 2/O 2 steam generator technology for stand-by and peak-load power plants are discussed.

  8. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica


    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  9. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    Pomari E


    Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in

  10. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase-representative H2O2-detoxifying heme enzymes in plants.

    Anjum, Naser A; Sharma, Pallavi; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Khan, Ekhlaque A; Kachhap, Kiran; Mohamed, Amal A; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Devi, Gurumayum Devmanjuri; Vasudhevan, Palanisamy; Sofo, Adriano; Khan, Nafees A; Misra, Amarendra Narayan; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Singh, Harminder Pal; Pereira, Eduarda; Tuteja, Narendra


    Plants have to counteract unavoidable stress-caused anomalies such as oxidative stress to sustain their lives and serve heterotrophic organisms including humans. Among major enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT; EC and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC are representative heme enzymes meant for metabolizing stress-provoked reactive oxygen species (ROS; such as H2O2) and controlling their potential impacts on cellular metabolism and functions. CAT mainly occurs in peroxisomes and catalyzes the dismutation reaction without requiring any reductant; whereas, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and utilizes ascorbate (AsA) as specific electron donor for the reduction of H2O2 into H2O in organelles including chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Literature is extensive on the glutathione-associated H2O2-metabolizing systems in plants. However, discussion is meager or scattered in the literature available on the biochemical and genomic characterization as well as techniques for the assays of CAT and APX and their modulation in plants under abiotic stresses. This paper aims (a) to introduce oxidative stress-causative factors and highlights their relationship with abiotic stresses in plants; (b) to overview structure, occurrence, and significance of CAT and APX in plants;

  11. H2S Detection Sensing Characteristic of CuO/SnO2 Sensor

    Zenglian Yu


    Full Text Available Among the various metal oxide additives tested, the complex of CuO is outstanding in promoting the sensing propoerties of an SnO2 sensor for H2S in air. The SnO2 sensors loaded with 5 wt. % CuO is extremely sensitive to H2S at 200 C° and below, while it is almost unsensitive to many other gases. The response to H2S is rather slow but the recovery is very rapid. Tha added CuO particles interact electronically with the surface of SnO2 (p-n junctions to make the sensor highly resistive, while the interaction is disconnected when CuO is sulfurized to CuS in the H2S containing atmosphere, leading to a drastic decrease in electrical resistance. The H2S sensing properties, particularly the rate of response of CuO/SnO2 sensors are influenced by the CuO loadings andoperating temperature as well as the thickness of Cuo loading film.

  12. Kinetics of oxidation of odorous sulfur compounds in aqueous alkaline solution with H2O2.

    Feliers, C; Patria, L; Morvan, J; Laplanche, A


    Sulfur species oxidation is a crucial issue wastewater treatment. The production of sulfur compounds like H2S,CH3SH, C2H5SH, disulfides and dimethyle sulfide generates odorous nuisances for the neighborhood. The oxidation of these species by H2O2 in alkaline solution has been investigated. The results showed that thiols CH3SH and C2H5SH react with H202 only in their dissociated form RS- with rate constants respectively k = 8.81 +/- 0.48 M-1s-1 and 8.37 +/- 0.63 M-1.s-1. Mercaptans oxidation produces 100 % of dimethyldisulfide or diethyldisulfide. The oxidation of disulfides shows a difference of reactivity between H2O2 and HO2- towards sulfur species. Increasing the pH accelerates significantly the reactions in the case of CH3SSCH3. The oxidation rate can be described as: r = k[RSSR][H2O2][RSSR][H2O2] + k[RSSR][HO2-] [RSSR][HO2-] with k[RSSR][H2O2] = 1.2 x 10(-4) +/- 0.2 x 10(-4) M-1s-1 and k[RSSR][HO2-] = 3.4 x 10(-4) +/- 0.6 x 10(-4) M-1.s-1 for CH3SSCH3. Dimethyl sulfide presents a reactivity different from disulfides. The oxidation rate can also be described as: r = k[CH3SCH3][H2O21][CH3SCH3][H2O2] + k[CH3SCH3][HO-] [CH3SCH3][HO2-], however, oxidation rate decreases with pH increase. k[CH3SCH3][H2O2] = 12.8 x 10(-3) +/- 0.96 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1 and k[CH3SCH3][HO2-] = 4 x 10(-3) +/- 0.3 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1.

  13. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Macrocycle [Cu(dadm)(mal)(H2O)]2·2H2O

    林郑忠; 江飞龙; 陈莲; 洪茂椿


    The reaction of 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (dadm), malonic acid (H2mal) and Cu(NO3)2 in aqueous solution results in a discrete binuclear Cu(II) macrocycle: [Cu(dadm)(mal)- (H2O)]2(2H2O. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 15.231(3), b = 11.847(2), c = 9.801(2)A,Z= 106.75(3)o, V = 1693.5(6)A3, Z = 2, C32H40Cu2N4O12, Mr = 799.76, Dc = 1.568 g/cm3, λ(MoK() = 0.71073A, μ = 1.325 mm-1, F(000) = 828, the final R = 0.0531 and Wr = 0.1244 for 3421 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). Each Cu(II) is coordinated by two oxygen atoms from a mal ligand, two nitrogen atoms from two dadm ligands and a water oxygen atom to form a triangle bipyramidal motif. The title compound possesses a distorted macrocycle enclosed by dadm with approximate dimensions of 8.3A× 5.9A.

  14. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified with polyacrylic acid and H2O2 for use as a novel radiosensitizer.

    Morita, Kenta; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Ikeno, Shinya; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Yuya; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko


    An induction of polyacrylic acid-modified titanium dioxide with hydrogen peroxide nanoparticles (PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs) to a tumor exerted a therapeutic enhancement of X-ray irradiation in our previous study. To understand the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs, analytical observations that included DLS, FE-SEM, FT-IR, XAFS, and Raman spectrometry were performed. In addition, highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) which PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs produced with X-ray irradiation were quantified by using a chemiluminescence method and a EPR spin-trapping method. We found that PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs have almost the same characteristics as PAA-TiO2. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in hROS generation. However, the existence of H2O2 was confirmed in PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs, because spontaneous hROS production was observed w/o X-ray irradiation. In addition, PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs had a curious characteristic whereby they absorbed H2O2 molecules and released them gradually into a liquid phase. Based on these results, the H2O2 was continuously released from PAA-TiO2/H2O2 NPs, and then released H2O2 assumed to be functioned indirectly as a radiosensitizing factor.

  15. Rate constant and thermochemistry for K + O2 + N2 = KO2 + N2

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Viljanen, Jan; Toivonen, Juha;


    The addition reaction of potassium atoms with oxygen has been studied using the collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) method. KCl vapor was photolyzed with 266 nm pulses and the absorbance by K atoms at 766.5 nm was measured at various delay times with a narrow...... line width diode laser. Experiments were carried out with O2/N2 mixtures at a total pressure of 1 bar, over 748-1323 K. At the lower temperatures single exponential decays of [K] yielded the third-order rate constant for addition, kR1, whereas at higher temperatures equilibration was observed...... in the form of double exponential decays of [K], which yielded both kR1 and the equilibrium constant for KO2 formation. kR1 can be summarized as 1.07 × 10-30(T/1000 K)-0.733 cm6 molecule-2 s-1. Combination with literature values leads to a recommended kR1 of 5.5 × 10-26T-1.55 exp(-10/T) cm6 molecule-2 s-1...

  16. Boron carbide nanoclusters as H2 and N2 gases nanosensors: theoretical investigation

    Fallahpour, F.; Gorgani, S. Soleimani; Nouraliei, M.


    Interactions between boron carbide nanoclusters (B16C16 and B24C24) and H2 and N2 molecules have been investigated using the structural and electronic properties of the adsorbate/cluster complexes derived from density functional theory. The adsorption energies of the most stable configurations have been calculated to be about -0.13, -0.66 eV for H2 and N2 adsorbed on the B16C16 surface and -1.05, -3.80 eV for H2 and N2 adsorbed on the B24C24 surface, respectively. Moreover, the interaction between H2 and the B16C16 has induced dramatic changes to the cluster electronic properties, so that the HOMO/LUMO gap of the cluster decreases to its original value. It has been shown that this phenomenon has led to an increment in the electrical conductivity of the cluster at a definite temperature. Thus, this work suggests that the B16C16 and B24C24 nano-cages function selectively as a gas sensor device for H2 and N2 molecules.

  17. Magnetic Properties of a Three-dimensional Supramolecular Complex[Co(hmt)2(SCN)2(H2O)2][Co(SCN)2(H2O)4](H2O)2%三维超分子配合物[Co(hmt)2(SCN)2(H2O)2][Co(SCN)2(H2O)4](H2O)2的磁性质(英文)

    李纲; 李金鹏; 王翠红; 李林科; 侯红卫


    Supramolecular complex [Co(hmt)2(SCN)2(H2O)2][Co(SCN)2(H2O)4](H2O)2 (hmt =hexamethylenetetramine) is prepared according to previous literature. The determination of variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities (5~300 K) shows that the magnetic behavior obeys the Curie-Weiss law over the whole temperature range. In this compound weak antiferromagnetic coupling can be observed.%参照文献制备了三维超分子配合物[Co(hmt)2(SCN)2(H2O)2][Co(SCN)2(H2O)4](H2O)2, 测试了该化合物在5~300 K范围内的变温磁化率.结果表明,其磁行为在测定的温度范围内遵守Curie-Weiss定律, 金属离子之间存在弱的反铁磁偶合.

  18. [Efficiency of atrazine degradation by O3/H2O2].

    Li, Shao-Feng; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Rong-Quan; Ye, Fei


    The endocrine disrupter Atrazine was oxidized by O3/H2O2 system and the products were analyzed to assess the degradation efficiency of Atrazine. When it's initial content was 2 mg/L and O3 dosage was 7.5 mg/L, Atrazine was removed about 27.2% after 5 minutes. Under the same condition, H2O2/O3 molar ratio was 0.75, Atrazine maximum removal rate reached 96.5%, which suggested that Atrazine could be degraded by O3/H2O2 system effectively. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis showed that concentrations of chloride and nitrate ions were increasing along with the Atrazine content decreasing. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry chromatograms (LC-MS) analyzing illuminated the existence of de-ethyl-atrazine, de-isopropyl-atrazine and de-chloro-atrazine, which indicated the Atrazine could not be destroyed completely by O3/H2O2 system. Consequently, it should be combined with GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) or other techniques while used as primary treatment unit or emergency measure.

  19. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Hamid R Molavian


    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  20. Mechanisms in manganese catalysed oxidation of alkenes with H2O2

    Saisaha, Pattama; de Boer, Johannes W.; Browne, Wesley R.


    The development of new catalytic systems for cis-dihydroxylation and epoxidation of alkenes, based on atom economic and environmentally friendly concepts, is a major contemporary challenge. In recent years, several systems based on manganese catalysts using H2O2 as the terminal oxidant have been dev

  1. Enabling direct H2O2 production through rational electrocatalyst design

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza;


    electrocatalysts are needed. Using density functional theory calculations, we identify Pt-Hg as a promising candidate. Electrochemical measurements on Pt-Hg nanoparticles show more than an order of magnitude improvement in mass activity, that is, A g(-1) precious metal, for H2O2 production, over the best...

  2. H2O2 inhibits ABA-signaling protein phosphatase HAB1.

    Madhuri Sridharamurthy

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to be rapidly generated and propagated over long distances, H2O2 is an important second messenger for biotic and abiotic stress signaling in plants. In response to low water potential and high salt concentrations sensed in the roots of plants, the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA activates NADPH oxidase to generate H2O2, which is propagated in guard cells in leaves to induce stomatal closure and prevent water loss from transpiration. Using a reconstituted system, we demonstrate that H2O2 reversibly prevents the protein phosphatase HAB1, a key component of the core ABA-signaling pathway, from inhibiting its main target in guard cells, SnRK2.6/OST1 kinase. We have identified HAB1 C186 and C274 as H2O2-sensitive thiols and demonstrate that their oxidation inhibits both HAB1 catalytic activity and its ability to physically associate with SnRK2.6 by formation of intermolecular dimers.

  3. Morroniside protects SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced damage.

    Zhang, Jing-Xing; Wang, Rui; Xi, Jin; Shen, Lin; Zhu, An-You; Qi, Qi; Wang, Qi-Yi; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Wang, Feng-Chao; Lü, He-Zuo; Hu, Jian-Guo


    Oxidative stress-induced cell injury has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Morroniside is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb Shan-Zhu-Yu. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of morroniside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. H2O2 increased cell apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. This effect was reversed by pretreatment with morroniside at concentrations of 1-100 µM. The increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 was also abrogated by morroniside. H2O2 induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3 activity, and caused downregulation of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression. These effects were blocked by morroniside pretreatment. Thus, morroniside protects human neuroblastoma cells against oxidative damage by inhibiting ROS production while suppressing Bax and stimulating Bcl-2 expression, thereby blocking mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. These results indicate that morroniside has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Dysregulated autophagy increased melanocyte sensitivity to H2O2-induced oxidative stress in vitiligo

    He, Yuanmin; Li, Shuli; Zhang, Weigang; Dai, Wei; Cui, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen; Li, Chunying


    In vitiligo, melanocytes are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress owing to the pro-oxidant state generated during melanin synthesis and to the genetic antioxidant defects. Autophagy is a controlled self-digestion process which can protect cells against oxidative damage. However, the exact role of autophagy in vitiligo melanocytes in response to oxidative stress and the mechanism involved are still not clear. To determine the implications of autophagy for melanocyte survival in response to oxidative stress, we first detected the autophagic flux in normal melanocytes exposure to H2O2, and found that autophagy was significantly enhanced in normal melanocytes, for protecting cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. Nevertheless, vitiligo melanocytes exhibited dysregulated autophagy and hypersensitivity to H2O2-induced oxidative injury. In addition, we confirmed that the impairment of Nrf2-p62 pathway is responsible for the defects of autophagy in vitiligo melanocytes. Noteworthily, upregulation of the Nrf2-p62 pathway or p62 reduced H2O2-induced oxidative damage of vitiligo melanocytes. Therefore, our data demonstrated that dysregulated autophagy owing to the impairment of Nrf2-p62 pathway increase the sensitivity of vitiligo melanocytes to oxidative stress, thus promote the development of vitiligo. Upregulation of p62-dependent autophagy may be applied to vitiligo treatment in the future. PMID:28186139

  5. Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 enhances drought tolerance of ...



    Nov 16, 2009 ... including higher net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and dry weight. Moreover, H2O2 .... m-2s-1 light intensity at leaf surface and 50 - 55% relative humidity ... The reaction mixture contained 25 mM potassium phosphate buffer.

  6. Indonesian low rank coal oxidation: The effect of H2O2 concentration and oxidation temperature

    Rahayu, S. S.; Findiati, F.; Aprilia, F.


    Extraction of Indonesian low rank coals by alkaline solution has been performed to isolate the humic substances. Pretreatments of the coals by oxidation using H2O2 prior to extraction are required to have higher yield of humic substances. In the previous research, only the extraction process was considered. Therefore, the effects of reaction temperature and residence time on coal oxidation and composition of extract residues are also investigated in this research. The oxidation temperatures studied were 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C and the H2O2 concentrations studied were 5%, 15%, 20 %, and 30 %. All the oxidation variables were studied for 90 minutes. The results show that the higher the concentration of H2O2 used, the less oxidized coal produced. The same trend was obtained by using higher oxidation temperature. The effect of H2O2 concentration, oxidation temperature and reaction time to the yield of humic substances extraction have positive trends.

  7. UV/H(2)O(2) treatment of drinking water increases post-chlorination DBP formation.

    Dotson, Aaron D; Keen, Volha Olya S; Metz, Debbie; Linden, Karl G


    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has become popular as a primary disinfectant because it is very effective against Cryptosporidium and does not directly form regulated disinfection by-products. Higher UV doses and UV advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes are under consideration for the treatment of trace organic pollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products). Despite the disinfection effectiveness of UV light, a secondary disinfectant capable of maintaining a distribution system residual is required to meet current U.S. regulation. This study investigated changes in disinfection by-product (DBP) formation attributed to UV or UV/H2O2 followed by application of free chlorine to quench hydrogen peroxide and provide residual disinfectant. At a UV dose of 1000 mJ/cm(2), trihalomethane (THM) yield increased by up to 4 microg/mg-C and 13 microg/mg-C when treated with low and medium pressure UV, respectively. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide, THM yield increased by up to 25 microg/mg-C (5mg-H2O2/L) and 37 microg/mg-C (10 mg-H2O2/L). Although no changes in DBPs are expected during UV disinfection, application of UV advanced oxidation followed by chlorine addition was assessed with regard to impacts on DBP formation.

  8. Removal of sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac from water: strategies involving O3 and H2O2.

    Gomes, Daniela S; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Martins, Rui C


    Diclofenac (DCF) and Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are two of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in water and are hardly removed by biological treatment systems. The presence of H2O2 was investigated in the ozonation of these two compounds. Experiments were carried out with both using distilled water and secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant spiked with pharmaceuticals. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement rate improved when H2O2 was added at the beginning of the ozonation process and when the ozone inlet concentration increased, attaining a maximum value of 91% and simultaneously a lower ozone waste for a H2O2 initial concentration of 5 mM and an ozone inlet concentration of 20 g Nm(-3). For these operation conditions, the water matrix has no significant impact on SMX and DCF removal, which were totally degraded in 45 and 60 min, respectively. Nevertheless, lower COD degradation and ozone usage were obtained when the secondary effluent was used. Inorganic ions such as chloride, sulphate and nitrate and short-chain organic compounds were detected as by-products of the SMX and DCF oxidation. Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition tests revealed that simultaneous use of ozone and H2O2 reduced acute toxicity.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy of the H2/HD/D2-O2 Van Der Waals Complexes

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley


    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and oxygen is the third, so understanding the interaction between the two in their different forms is important to understanding astrochemical processes. The interaction between H2 and O2 has been explored in low energy scattering experiments and by far infrared synchrotron spectroscopy of the van der Waals complex. The far infrared spectra suggest a parallel stacked average structure with seven bound rotationally excited states. Here, we present the far infrared spectrum of HD/D2-O2 and the mid infrared spectrum of H2-O2 at 80 K, recorded at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. We observed 'sharp' peaks in the mid infrared region, corresponding to the end over end rotation of H2-O2, that are comparatively noisier than analogous peaks in the far infrared where the synchrotron light is brightest. The larger reduced mass of HD and D2 compared to H2 is expected to result in more rotational bound states and narrower bands. The latest results in our ongoing efforts to explore this system will be presented. Y. Kalugina, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 16458 (2012) S. Chefdeville et al. Science 341, 1094 (2013) H. Bunn et al. ApJ 799, 65 (2015)

  10. Kinetic Model for UV/H2O2 Degradation of 5-Methoxypsoralen

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Bryantseva, N. G.; Carrasco, J. L. Gómez; Krayukhina, V. S.; Almagro, M. D. Murcia; Gómez, M. Gómez


    The influence of H2O2 on the photodegradataion of 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in ethanol and in waterethanol solutions upon exposure to KrCl excilamp radiation (λrad = 222 nm) and XeBr excilamp radiation (λrad = 283 nm) is investigated. A kinematic model of photodegradation of the investigated molecule is constructed. The addition of H2O2 resulted in a weak increase of the decay rate of 5-MOP in ethanol exposed to KrCl excilamp radiation. In water-ethanol solutions the addition of H2O2 altered the mechanism of decay of 5-MOP irradiated by the KrCl excilamp in comparison with irradiation by the XeBr excilamp. It has been shown that upon exposure to XeBr excilamp radiation in the presence of H2O2, the primary photoproduct of the transformation of 5-MOP in the reaction corresponding to the first-order kinetic model is formed both in ethanol and in the water-ethanol solutions. Maximum removal of 5-MOP takes place for the ratio of initial concentrations [5-MOP]:[H2O2] = 1:3 after 60 min irradiation. It is found that irradiation by the XeBr excilamp the decay rate of 5-MOP is 5 times higher in the water-ethanol solutions in comparison with ethanol. Upon exposure to KrCl excilamp radiation the mechanism of 5-MOP decay corresponds to a pseudo-firstorder kinetic model. The nature of the dependence of the decay rate of 5-MOP on the irradiation time for the ratio of initial concentrations [5-MOP]:[H2O2] = 1:24 indicates that during decay of the initial compound a photoproduct appears in the system which decays during the irradiation time into secondary compounds. Efficient removal of 5-MOP under this irradiation takes place for the ratio of initial concentrations [5-MOP]:[H2O2] = 1:10 after 60 min irradiation.

  11. Role of TRPM2 in H(2O(2-induced cell apoptosis in endothelial cells.

    Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Melastatin-like transient receptor potential channel 2 (TRPM2 is an oxidant-sensitive and cationic non-selective channel that is expressed in mammalian vascular endothelium. Here we investigated the functional role of TRPM2 channels in hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2-induced cytosolic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](i elavation, whole-cell current increase, and apoptotic cell death in murine heart microvessel endothelial cell line H5V. A TRPM2 blocking antibody (TM2E3, which targets the E3 region near the ion permeation pore of TRPM2, was developed. Treatment of H5V cells with TM2E3 reduced the [Ca(2+](i rise and whole-cell current change in response to H(2O(2. Suppressing TRPM2 expression using TRPM2-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA had similar inhibitory effect. H(2O(2-induced apoptotic cell death in H5V cells was examined using MTT assay, DNA ladder formation analysis, and DAPI-based nuclear DNA condensation assay. Based on these assays, TM2E3 and TRPM2-specific shRNA both showed protective effect against H(2O(2-induced apoptotic cell death. TM2E3 and TRPM2-specific shRNA also protect the cells from tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-induced cell death in MTT assay. In contrast, overexpression of TRPM2 in H5V cells resulted in an increased response in [Ca(2+](i and whole-cell currents to H(2O(2. TRPM2 overexpression also aggravated the H(2O(2-induced apoptotic cell death. Downstream pathways following TRPM2 activation was examined. Results showed that TRPM2 activity stimulated caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3. These findings strongly suggest that TRPM2 channel mediates cellular Ca(2+ overload in response to H(2O(2 and contribute to oxidant-induced apoptotic cell death in vascular endothelial cells. Down-regulating endogenous TRPM2 could be a means to protect the vascular endothelial cells from apoptotic cell death.

  12. Sonochemical degradation of Basic Blue 41 dye assisted by nanoTiO2 and H2O2.

    Abbasi, Mahmood; Asl, Nima Razzaghi


    The sonolysis of Basic Blue 41 dye in aqueous solution was performed at 35 kHz using ultrasonic power of 160 W and aqueous temperature of 25+1 degrees C within 180 min. The TiO2 nanoparticles were used as a catalyst to assist the sonication process. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, H2O2 concentration and initial dye concentration on the reaction were investigated. It was recognized that in lower pH values the dye removal rate decreased. However, dye removal increased via increase in H2O2 concentration and lowering the initial dye concentration. All intermediate compounds were detected by integrated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and also ion chromatograph (IC). During the decolorization, all nitrogen atoms and aromatic groups of Basic Blue 41 were converted to urea, nitrate, formic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid, etc. Kinetic studies revealed that the degradation process followed pseudo-first order mechanism with the correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9918 under experimental conditions. The results showed that power ultrasound can be regarded as an appropriate tool for degradation of azo dyes to non-toxic end products.

  13. Chronic hypoxia promotes pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation through H2O2-induced 5-lipoxygenase.

    Kristi M Porter

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and proliferation. Hypoxia induces PH by increasing vascular remodeling. A potential mediator in hypoxia-induced PH development is arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5. While ALOX5 metabolites have been shown to promote pulmonary vasoconstriction and endothelial cell proliferation, the contribution of ALOX5 to hypoxia-induced proliferation remains unknown. We hypothesize that hypoxia exposure stimulates HPAEC proliferation by increasing ALOX5 expression and activity. To test this, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC were cultured under normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions for 24-, 48-, or 72 hours. In a subset of cells, the ALOX5 inhibitor, zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, MK-886, was administered during hypoxia exposure. ALOX5 expression was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot and HPAEC proliferation was assessed. Our results demonstrate that 24 and 48 hours of hypoxia exposure have no effect on HPAEC proliferation or ALOX5 expression. Seventy two hours of hypoxia significantly increases HPAEC ALOX5 expression, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release, and HPAEC proliferation. We also demonstrate that targeted ALOX5 gene silencing or inhibition of the ALOX5 pathway by pharmacological blockade attenuates hypoxia-induced HPAEC proliferation. Furthermore, our findings indicate that hypoxia-induced increases in cell proliferation and ALOX5 expression are dependent on H2O2 production, as administration of the antioxidant PEG-catalase blocks these effects and addition of H2O2 to HPAEC promotes proliferation. Overall, these studies indicate that hypoxia exposure induces HPAEC proliferation by activating the ALOX5 pathway via the generation of H2O2.

  14. Degradation of antibiotics norfloxacin by Fenton, UV and UV/H2O2.

    Santos, Lucilaine Valéria de Souza; Meireles, Alexandre Moreira; Lange, Liséte Celina


    This study aimed to evaluate the degradation of the antibiotic norfloxacin, using direct photolysis (UV), photolysis with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) and Fenton's oxidation processes. Initially, it was evaluated the behavior of the antibiotic norfloxacin on direct photolysis, in order to see if the process could be a pertinent way to eliminate the drug in water treatment stations. The results showed that the use of direct photolysis was not effective in the degradation of the antibiotic, reaching a degradation rate of 85% and a mineralization rate of 2% in 7 h of reaction; leading to the formation of intermediates products. To optimize the UV treatment, it was used the combined UV/H2O2 process. Several concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0.7, 1.4, 2.1, 2.8, 3.5 and 4.2 mmol/L) at pH 7 were tested. The concentration of 2.1 mmol/L reached a degradation rate of 100% in 100 min of reaction. Based on this result, the speed of the reaction at pH 2, 3, 5, and 10 was evaluated for that same concentration of H2O2. The shortest reaction time (60 min) was verified at pH 2 and 3. For the treatment using Fenton oxidation, a degradation rate of 60% of the compound and a mineralization rate of 55% was obtained in 60 min. The study revealed that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 can be used for norfloxacin removal, reaching respectively degradation rates of 100% and 60%, and mineralization rates of 55% and 32%.

  15. H2O2O2协同引发的TiO2/Fe3+光催化降解苯酚%H2O2 and O2 combined-leading photo-catalytic degradation of phenol with TiO2/Fe3+ 

    王西峰; 彭党聪; 胡晓莲


    Class fiber used as carrier, TiO2/Fe3+ has been loaded to its surfacee,forming the space glass fiber reactor. Using high pressure mercury lamp as its light source,so as to carry out the experimental research on the degradation of phenol in water. The influences of the synergistic effect of H2O2 and O2 on photo-catalysis oxidation are investigated emphatically. It is found through experiments that adding H2O2 has remarkable initiation effect on the production of HO? ,and oxygenizing to the solution can obviously improve the efficiency of photo-catalysis and reduce H2O2 dosage. The results show that the phenol mineralization rate can reach about 83% ,when the power of UV365 high pressure mercury lamp is 250 W,pH 3-5,O2 inlet quantity 1.0 L/(min?L),H2O2 dosage 0.1 mmol/L, rising flow rate in the reactor 0.7 m/min, initial mass concentration of phenol wastewater 30 mg/L,and photo-catalystic reaction time 120 min.%以玻璃纤维为载体,将TiO2/Fe3+负载到其表面制成了空间玻璃纤维反应器.利用该反应器以高压汞灯为光源进行了光催化降解水中苯酚的试验研究,重点考察了H2O2O2的协同作用对光催化氧化的影响.试验发现,H2O2的加入对HO·的产生有显著的引发作用,同时向溶液中充入O2可明显提高光催化效率,降低H2O2用量.试验结果表明,以UV365-250W光源照射,在初始pH为3~5,O2通入量为1.0L/(min·L),上升流速为0.7 m/min,H2O2浓度为0.1mmol/L等试验条件下,初始质量浓度为30mgL的苯酚废水经120 min光催化反应后,其矿化率可达83%左右.

  16. Comparative study of diethyl phthalate degradation by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2: kinetics, mechanism, and effects of operational parameters.

    Song, Chengjie; Wang, Liping; Ren, Jie; Lv, Bo; Sun, Zhonghao; Yan, Jing; Li, Xinying; Liu, Jingjing


    The photodegradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 is studied. The DEP degradation kinetics and multiple crucial factors effecting the clearance of DEP are investigated, including initial DEP concentration ([DEP]0), initial pH values (pH0), UV light intensity, anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), and CO3 (2-)), cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(3+)), and humic acid (HA). Total organic carbon (TOC) removal is tested by two treatments. And, cytotoxicity evolution of DEP degradation intermediates is detected. The relationship between molar ratio ([H2O2]/[DEP] or [TiO2]/[DEP]) and degradation kinetic constant (K) is also studied. And, the cytotoxicity tests of DEP and its degradation intermediates in UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 treatments are researched. The DEP removal efficiency of UV/H2O2 treatment is higher than UV/TiO2 treatment. The DEP degradation fitted a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern under experimental conditions. The K linearly related with molar ratio in UV/H2O2 treatment while nature exponential relationship is observed in the case of UV/TiO2. However, K fitted corresponding trends better in H2O2 treatment than in TiO2 treatment. The Cl(-) is in favor of the DEP degradation in UV/H2O2 treatment; in contrast, it is disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment. Other anions are all disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in two treatments. Fe(3+) promotes the degradation rates significantly. And, all other cations in question inhibit the degradation of DEP. HA hinders DEP degradation in two treatments. The intermediates of DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment are less toxic to biological cell than that in UV/H2O2 treatment.

  17. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng


    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2·−), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H2O2, O2·−, and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H2O2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H2O2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H2O2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant. PMID:28176859

  18. Research on the degradation 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene by O3/H2O2/UV process%O3/H2O2/UV降解1,2,4-三氯苯的研究

    孙云娜; 魏东洋; 陆桂英; 贾晓珊; 李杰; 许振成


    采用O3/H2O2/UV工艺处理1,2,4-三氯苯(TCB)模拟废水,考察了TCB初始浓度、pH、H2O2投加量及O3转化率等因素对O3/H2O2/UV降解TCB的影响,推断了TCB可能的降解途径.结果表明:(1)H2O2、O3、UV、O3/H2O2、O3/H2 O2/UV 5种体系对TCB的降解效果为H2O2 <UV<O3 <O3/H2O2 <O3/H2O2/UV.(2)O3/H2O2/UV对TCB降解的单因素实验表明,TCB初始浓度越小、O3转化率越高,TCB去除率越大;H2O2的投加量存在一个最佳值,低于或高于这个最佳值都会导致TCB去除率的下降;在碱性条件下,TCB的降解效果更佳.(3)推测O3/H2O2/UV工艺降解TCB的机制主要为TCB与·OH的反应过程,其历程可分为3步:反应初期阶段,苯环上的C-Cl被·OH攻击,产生羟基化氯苯化合物;苯环得到活化,·OH进攻苯环,产生低氯代苯类物质;羟基化合物破环,生成小分子有机酸.%The O3/H2O2/UV combination process was employed to treat the simulated 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) containing wastewater. The effect of initial TCB concentration, pH, H2O2 dosage and ozone transform rate on TCB removal efficiency was investigated. The potential degradation pathway of TCB was proposed with the help of GC,GC/MS and HPLC analysis. Results showed that the removal efficiency of TCB in 5 degradation system (H2O2 , O3,UV,O3/H2O2,O3/H2O2/UV) followed the order of H2O2 <UV<03 <O3/H2O2 <O3/H2 O2/UV. The single-factor test of O3/H2O2/UV degradation system showed that higher TCB removal efficiency always found in system with lower initial TCB efficiency or higher ozone transform rate. H2O2 dosage had an optimum value, below or above the optimum value could reduce the TCB removal efficiency. Alkaline condition of O3/H2O2/UV process was in favor to the TCB degradation. The mechanism of TCB degradation in O3/H2O2/UV system was the reaction between TCB and o OH. In the early stages of degradation, the C-Cl bond in benzene rings was attacked by o OH and produced hy-droxylation chlorobenzene

  19. Induced peroxidase and cytoprotective enzyme expressions support adaptation of HUVECs to sustain subsequent H2O2 exposure.

    Patel, Hemang; Chen, Juan; Kavdia, Mahendra


    H2O2 mediates autocrine and paracrine signaling in the vasculature and can propagate endothelial dysfunction. However, it is not clear how endothelial cells withstand H2O2 exposure and promote H2O2-induced vascular remodeling. To understand the innate ability of endothelial cells for sustaining excess H2O2 exposure, we investigated the genotypic and functional regulation of redox systems in primary HUVECs following an H2O2 treatment. Primary HUVECs were exposed to transient H2O2 exposure and consistent H2O2 exposure. Following H2O2 treatments for 24, 48 and 72 h, we measured O2(-) production, mitochondrial membrane polarization (MMP), and gene expressions of pro-oxidative enzymes, peroxidase enzymes, and cytoprotective intermediates. Our results showed that the 24 h H2O2 exposure significantly increased O2(-) levels, hyperpolarized MMP, and downregulated CAT, GPX1, TXNRD1, NFE2L2, ASK1, and ATF2 gene expression in HUVECs. At 72 h, HUVECs in both treatment conditions were shown to adapt to reduce O2(-) levels and normalize MMP. An upregulation of GPX1, TXNRD1, and HMOX1 gene expression and a recovery of NFE2L2 and PRDX1 gene expression to control levels were observed in both consistent and transient treatments at 48 and 72 h. The response of endothelial cells to excess levels of H2O2 involves a complex interaction amongst O2(-) levels, mitochondrial membrane polarization and anti- and pro-oxidant gene regulation. As a part of this response, HUVECs induce cytoprotective mechanisms including the expression of peroxidase and antioxidant enzymes along with the downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes. This adaptation assists HUVECs to withstand subsequent exposures to H2O2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Active hydrogen species on TiO2 for photocatalytic H2 production.

    Wu, Zongfang; Zhang, Wenhua; Xiong, Feng; Yuan, Qing; Jin, Yuekang; Yang, Jinlong; Huang, Weixin


    Photocatalytic H2 production over TiO2 has attracted tremendous attention and achieved great progress, but the active hydrogen species is still unknown. Employing a rutile TiO2(110) surface as a model catalyst we report here for the first time the direct observation of photocatalytic H2 production under ultrahigh vacuum conditions during UV-light irradiation at 115 K and the identification of negatively-charged hydride-type H-Ti species as the corresponding photoactive surface species by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy, photon-stimulated desorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The formation and stability of H-Ti species are closely related to available surplus electrons on the rutile TiO2(110) surface that can be created by the formation of surface BBO vacancies or by the formation of surface hydroxyls via the adsorption of atomic H or molecular H2 on O sites. The photocatalytic H2 production from H-Ti species is hole-mediated and co-existing water exerts a negative effect on this process.

  1. An empirical solvus for CO 2-H 2O-2.6 wt% salt

    Hendel, Eva Marie; Hollister, Lincoln S.


    The solvus in the system CO 2-H 2O-2.6 wt% NaCl-equivalent was determined by measuring temperature of homogenization in fluid inclusions which contained variable CO 2/H 2O but the same amount of salt dissolved in the aqueous phase at room temperature. The critical point of the solvus is at 340 ± 5° C, at pressures between 1 and 2 kbar; this is about 65°C higher than for the pure CO 2-H 2O system. The solvus is assymetrical, with a steeper H 2O-rich limb and with the critical point at mole fraction of water between 0.65 and 0.8.

  2. Type II skeletal myofibers possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation.

    Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell


    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a number of skeletal muscle pathologies, most notably aging-induced atrophy and loss of type II myofibers. Although oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to be a primary cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying factors governing mitochondrial superoxide production in different skeletal myofiber types is unknown. Using a novel in situ approach to measure H(2)O(2) production (indicator of superoxide formation) in permeabilized rat skeletal muscle fiber bundles, we found that mitochondrial free radical leak (H(2)O(2) produced/O(2) consumed) is two- to threefold higher (P < 0.05) in white (WG, primarily type IIB fibers) than in red (RG, type IIA) gastrocnemius or soleus (type I) myofibers during basal respiration supported by complex I (pyruvate + malate) or complex II (succinate) substrates. In the presence of respiratory inhibitors, maximal rates of superoxide produced at both complex I and complex III are markedly higher in RG and WG than in soleus muscle despite approximately 50% less mitochondrial content in WG myofibers. Duplicate experiments conducted with +/-exogenous superoxide dismutase revealed striking differences in the topology and/or dismutation of superoxide in WG vs. soleus and RG muscle. When normalized for mitochondrial content, overall H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity is lower in RG and WG fibers, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity, which is largely responsible for H(2)O(2) removal in mitochondria, is similar in all three muscle types. These findings suggest that type II myofibers, particularly type IIB, possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial superoxide production and/or release, providing a potential mechanism for the heterogeneous development of mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

  3. Preparation and characterization of SiO2-pillared H2Ti4O9 and its photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation.

    Jiang, Fang; Zheng, Zheng; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong


    SiO(2) pillared layered titanate (SiO(2)-H(2)Ti(4)O(9)) was prepared via intercalating organosilanes into the interlayers of the layered K(2)Ti(4)O(9) followed by calcination at 500 degrees C. The resulting materials were characterized using XRD, N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-vis spectra, IR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of SiO(2)-H(2)Ti(4)O(9) was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of aqueous methylene blue dye (MB). XRD and specific surface area results showed that SiO(2)-H(2)Ti(4)O(9) had an interlayer distance of 1.45 nm and a specific surface area of 148 m(2)g(-1). UV-vis absorption spectrum of SiO(2)-H(2)Ti(4)O(9) showed a red shift, indicative of a narrower band gap compared to K(2)Ti(4)O(9). In addition, SiO(2)-H(2)Ti(4)O(9) showed higher MB adsorption capacity compared to H(2)Ti(4)O(9) and K(2)Ti(4)O(9). MB photodegradation over H(2)Ti(4)O(9), K(2)Ti(4)O(9) and SiO(2)-K(2)Ti(4)O(9) followed zero-order kinetics under our experimental conditions, and the photocatalytic activity of SiO(2)-H(2)Ti(4)O(9) was found to be three times higher than that of K(2)Ti(4)O(9), which could be attributed to the increase of interlayer space and specific surface area of SiO(2)-pillared layered titanate.

  4. Nickel(II) in chelate N2O2 environment. DFT approach and in-depth molecular orbital and configurational analysis

    Trifunovic, Srecko R.; Miletic, Vesna D.; Jevtic, Verica V.; Meetsma, Auke; Matovic, Zoran D.


    The O-N-N-O-type tetradentate ligands H2S,S-eddp (H2S,S-eddp stands for S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-propionic acid) and H(2)edap (H(2)edap stands for ethylenediamine-N-acetic-N'-3-propionic acid) and the corresponding novel octahedral nickel(II) complexes have been prepared and characterized. N2O2

  5. Use of Enzymatic Biosensors to Quantify Endogenous ATP or H2O2 in the Kidney

    Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Evans, Louise C.; Blass, Gregory; Cowley, Allen W.; Staruschenko, Alexander


    Enzymatic microelectrode biosensors have been widely used to measure extracellular signaling in real-time. Most of their use has been limited to brain slices and neuronal cell cultures. Recently, this technology has been applied to the whole organs. Advances in sensor design have made  possible the measuring of cell signaling in blood-perfused in vivo kidneys. The present protocols list the steps needed to measure ATP and H2O2 signaling in the rat kidney interstitium. Two separate sensor designs are used for the ex vivo and in vivo protocols. Both types of sensor are coated with a thin enzymatic biolayer on top of a permselectivity layer to give fast responding, sensitive and selective biosensors. The permselectivity layer protects the signal from the interferents in biological tissue, and the enzymatic layer utilizes the sequential catalytic reaction of glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase in the presence of ATP to produce H2O2. The set of sensors used for the ex vivo studies further detected analyte by oxidation of H2O2 on a platinum/iridium (Pt-Ir) wire electrode. The sensors for the in vivo studies are instead based on the reduction of H2O2 on a mediator coated gold electrode designed for blood-perfused tissue. Final concentration changes are detected by real-time amperometry followed by calibration to known concentrations of analyte. Additionally, the specificity of the amperometric signal can be confirmed by the addition of enzymes such as catalase and apyrase that break down H2O2 and ATP correspondingly. These sensors also rely heavily on accurate calibrations before and after each experiment. The following two protocols establish the study of real-time detection of ATP and H2O2 in kidney tissues, and can be further modified to extend the described method for use in other biological preparations or whole organs. PMID:26485400

  6. Kinetics and mechanisms of degradation of chloroacetonitriles by the UV/H2O2 process.

    Ling, Li; Sun, Jianliang; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii


    Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are emerging disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are more toxic than the regulated DBPs and widely found in the chlorinated/chloraminated water. This paper studied kinetics and mechanisms of the degradation of chloroacetonitriles (CANs) by the UV/H2O2 process at pH 6 and 7.5 and H2O2 concentrations of 1 × 10(-3) M, 5 × 10(-3) M and 1 × 10(-2) M. The degradation followed pseudo first-order degradation kinetics. The degradation rate of monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) remained similar, while those of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) increased with increasing pH and H2O2 concentrations. The different trends were attributed to the changing contributions of the two major mechanisms: the nucleophilic attack by hydroperoxide ions ( [Formula: see text] ) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH) oxidation. The second-order rate constants of [Formula: see text] towards MCAN, DCAN and TCAN were determined to be 11.8 (±0.62), 4.83 (±0.01) × 10(3), and 2.54 (±0.23) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, while that of •OH were 8.7 × 10(6), 4.4 × 10(6), and degradation of TCAN was mainly attributed to the [Formula: see text] nucleophilic attack, while that of MCAN was dominated by the •OH oxidation. DCAN was degraded by both mechanisms. The nucleophilic attack increased linearly with increasing [Formula: see text] concentration as a result of increasing H2O2 concentration and/or pH, while the •OH oxidation was less dependent on H2O2 concentrations and/or pH. The nucleophilic attack mainly transformed HANs to haloacetamides, while the •OH oxidation dechlorinated HANs. This paper firstly illustrated the importance of the [Formula: see text] nucleophilic attack, in addition to the •OH oxidation, on the CAN degradation in the UV/H2O2 process.

  7. Absolute Line Intensities for the nu6 Band of H2O2.

    Klee; Winnewisser; Perrin; Flaud


    The purpose of this work was to obtain reliable absolute intensities for the nu6 band of H2O2. It was undertaken because strong discrepancies exist between the different nu6 band intensities which are presently available in the literature (A. Perrin, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, L. Schriver, A. Schriver, and P. Arcas, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 1995. 171, 358), (R. May, J. Quant. Radiat. Transfer 1991. 45, 267), and (R. L. Sams, personal communication). The method which was chosen in the present work was to measure simultaneously the far-infrared absorptions and the nu6 absorptions of H2O2. Consequently, Fourier transform spectra of H2O2 were recorded at Giessen in a spectral range (370-1270 cm-1) which covers both the R branch of the torsion-rotation band and the P branch of the nu6 band which appear at low and high wavenumbers, respectively. From the low wavenumber data, the partial pressure of H2O2 present in the cell during the recording of the spectra was determined by calibrating the observed absorptions in the torsion-rotation band with intensities computed using the permanent H2O2 dipole moment measured by Stark effect (A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, R. Schermaul, M. Winnewisser, J.-Y. Mandin, V. Dana, M. Badaoui, and J. Koput, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 1996. 176, 287-296) and [E. A. Cohen and H. M. Pickett, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 1981. 87, 582-583). In the high frequency range, this value of the partial pressure of H2O2 was used to measure absolute line intensities in the nu6 band. Finally, the line intensities in the nu6 band were fitted using the theoretical methods described in detail in our previous works. Using these new results on line intensities together with the line position parameters that we obtained previously, a new synthetic spectra of the nu6 band was generated, leading to a total band intensity of 0.185 x 10(-16) cm-1/( at 296 K. It has to be pointed out that the new line intensities agree to within the experimental

  8. TiO2 Nanotubes Membrane Flexible Sensor for Low-Temperature H2S Detection

    Patricia María Perillo


    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a flexible gas sensor based on TiO2 nanotubes membrane, onto which array interdigitated gold electrodes in one side and a common heater in the backside were obtained using conventional microfabrication techniques. This was used to detect hydrogen sulphide within a concentration range of 6–38 ppm. The response to low concentrations of H2S at low temperature and good stability make the sensor a promising candidate for practical applications. These results support the proposal that the TiO2 nanotubes membrane flexible sensors are promising in portable on-site detection based on low cost nanomaterials.

  9. Synthesis of CuO nanoflower and its application as a H2O2 sensor

    Aixia Gu; Guangfeng Wang; Xiaojun Zhang; Bin Fang


    CuO three-dimensional (3D) flower-like nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a simple method at 100°C with Cu(NO3)2.3H2O and NH3.H2O for 6 h in the absence of any additives. We found that NH3.H2O amount was critical for CuO morphology evolution. The phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the result confirmed that the CuO nanoflowers were single-phase. The morphological investigations by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) revealed that the CuO nanoflowers were mono-dispersed in a large quantity and consisted of nanosheets. And then, CuO nanoflowers were successfully used to modify a gold electrode to detect H2O2 with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric (AC). It was found that CuO nanoflowers may be of great potential for H2O2 electrochemical sensing.

  10. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady;

    on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  11. TiO2/H2O2/UV和TiO2/O3/UV降解对氯苯甲酸和喹啉的试验研究%Degradation of 4-CBA and quinoline by TiO2/H2O2/UV and TiO2/O3/UV systems

    方喜玲; 成捷; 胡兰花; 王小毛; 黄霞; 施汉昌



  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Two-dimensional Silver(I)-Iron(III) Heteronuclear Coordination Polymer:{[Ag4Fe2(SCN)12(H2O)2] [(inaH)2(H2O)2]}n

    LI,Xiu-Ling(李秀玲); TONG,Ming-Liang(童明良); NIU,De-Zhong(牛德仲); CHEN,Jiu-Tong(陈久桐)


    The 2-D heteronuclear coordination polymer {[Ag4Fe2(SCN)12(H2O)2] [(inaH)2(H2O)2]}n (1) (inaH is the abbreviation of protonated isonicotinic acid) with chemical formula C24H20Ag4Fe2N14O8S12 has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The Ag2S2 rings connect two kinds of octahedral geometries of Fe(III) ions, [Fe(NCS)6]3- and [Fe(H2O)2(NCS)4]- units with bridging thiocyanate ions leading to 2-D [Ag4Fe2(SCN)12(H2O)2]2- anion framework. Four kinds of rings including the unprecedented thirty-two membered Ag4Fe4(SCN)8 rings share corners or edges in the 2-D anion layer structure. All thiocyanates coordinate to the metal ions according to the HSAB principle with N atoms binding to the Fe(III) ions and with S atoms binding to Ag(I) ions. Pronoated ina cations stabilize the layer structure as counter ions and hydrogen bonds were formed within the pronoated ina cations dimer and between the dimers and the lattice waters. Crystal data: Mr=1560.44, triclinic, P(1-) a=0.76082(1) nm, b=0.9234 nm, c=1.85611(4) nm, α=103.0170(10)°, β=93.7780(10)°, γ=97.4080(10), V=1.25385(3) nm3, Z=1, μ(Mo Kα)=2.650 mm-1, Dc=2.067 g·cm-3, F(000)=758, R1=0.0412, wR2=0.1003.

  13. TCF Bleaching of Populus tomentosa Kraft Pulps with H2O2 Pretreatment under Acid Condition


    The process of peroxide bleaching of Populus tomentosa kraft pulp with H2O2 pretreatment under acid condition was studied. The variations of pulp characteristics such as brightness, Kappa number and viscosity during the peroxide bleaching process were discussed and the concept of the A/B value was presented for the first time. The results show that acid pretreatment with H2O2 is essential to improve pulp brightness and avoid viscosity loss. The conclusion is reached that the A/B value has great influence on pulp properties when the total amount of peroxide used in the bleaching process is 2%-5%. Pulp with a high viscosity and brightness can be obtained when A/B is about 0.15.

  14. Effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Cuban isolate

    María I. Oloriz


    Full Text Available Black leaf streak disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet is the main foliar disease of bananas and plantain. One of the possible mechanisms of resistance is the hypersensitive response observed in ‘Calcutta 4’ (Musa AA that involves the formation of reactive oxygen species. In order to determine the effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of M. fijiensis Cuban isolate CCIBP-Pf-83, several concentrations added to a culture medium PDB were tested. After seven days of incubation the mycelial dry weight was determined. It was found that with 30 mmol l-1 H2O2 in the culture medium, mycelial growth was stimulated and with 50 up to 100 mmol l-1 it decreased. The results provide elements for understanding plantpathogen interactions in this pathosystem. Key words: black leaf streak disease, in vitro culture, ROS

  15. Photoassisted Oxygen Reduction Reaction in H2 -O2 Fuel Cells.

    Zhang, Bingqing; Wang, Shengyang; Fan, Wenjun; Ma, Weiguang; Liang, Zhenxing; Shi, Jingying; Liao, Shijun; Li, Can


    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a key step in H2 -O2 fuel cells, which, however, suffers from slow kinetics even for state-of-the-art catalysts. In this work, by making use of photocatalysis, the ORR was significantly accelerated with a polymer semiconductor (polyterthiophene). The onset potential underwent a positive shift from 0.66 to 1.34 V, and the current was enhanced by a factor of 44 at 0.6 V. The improvement was further confirmed in a proof-of-concept light-driven H2 -O2 fuel cell, in which the open circuit voltage (Voc ) increased from 0.64 to 1.18 V, and the short circuit current (Jsc ) was doubled. This novel tandem structure combining a polymer solar cell and a fuel cell enables the simultaneous utilization of photo- and electrochemical energy, showing promising potential for applications in energy conversion and storage.

  16. The rate constant for the CO + H2O2 reaction

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul


    The rate constant for the reaction CO + H2O2 -> HOCO + OH (R1) at 713 K is determined based on the batch reactor experiments of Baldwin et al. [ R. R. Baldwin, R. W. Walker, S. J. Webster, Combust. Flame 15 (1970) 167] on decomposition of H2O2 sensitized by CO. The value, k(1) (713 K) = 8.1 x 10...... in combustion. The present analysis reconciles the batch reactor data of Baldwin et al. with recent high-level theoretical work on the CO + HO2 reaction.......(2) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), is consistent with spin-unrestricted density functional theory. Extrapolation to a wider temperature range through ab initio calculations yields the rate constant k(1) = 3.6 x 10(4)T(2.5) exp(-14425[K]/T) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). The reaction is probably of minor importance...

  17. Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria


    Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K+-efflux and Ca2+-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10 μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24 h does significantly reduce net K+-leakage and Ca2+-influx, and in the case of the K+-fluxes, the cell permeant cyclic mononucleotides are more effective. We also examined the effect of 10 μM of the cell permeant 8-Br-cGMP on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome and noted a specific increase in proteins with a role in stress responses and ion transport, suggesting that cGMP is sufficient to directly and/or indirectly induce complex adaptive changes to cellular stresses induced by H2O2. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement and modeling of neutral, radical, and ion densities in H2-N2-Ar plasmas

    Sode, M.; Jacob, W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Kersten, H.


    A comprehensive experimental investigation of absolute ion and neutral species densities in an inductively coupled H2-N2-Ar plasma was carried out. Additionally, the radical and ion densities were calculated using a zero-dimensional rate equation model. The H2-N2-Ar plasma was studied at a pressure of 1.5 Pa and an rf power of 200 W. The N2 partial pressure fraction was varied between fN2=0 % and 56% by a simultaneous reduction of the H2 partial pressure fraction. The Ar partial pressure fraction was held constant at about 1%. NH3 was found to be produced almost exclusively on the surfaces of the chamber wall. NH3 contributes up to 12% to the background gas. To calculate the radical densities with the rate equation model, it is necessary to know the corresponding wall loss times twrad of the radicals. twrad was determined by the temporal decay of radical densities in the afterglow with ionization threshold mass spectrometry during pulsed operation and based on these experimental data the absolute densities of the radical species were calculated and compared to measurement results. Ion densities were determined using a plasma monitor (mass and energy resolved mass spectrometer). H3+ is the dominant ion in the range of 0.0 ≤fN2reasonably well. The ion chemistry, i.e., the production and loss processes of the ions and radicals, is discussed in detail. The main features, i.e., the qualitative abundance of the ion species and the ion density dependence on the N2 partial pressure fraction, are well reproduced by the model.

  19. A novel approach towards dethioacetalization reactions with H2O2-SOCl2 system

    Kiumars Bahrami; Mohammad Mehdi Khodaei; Maryam Tajik; Vida Shakibaian


    A simple and efficient protocol for the deprotection of dithioacetal,1,3-dithianes and 1,3-dithiolanes has been developed using H2O2-SOCl2 reagent system.In addition to the absence of overoxidation products for oxidation-prone substrates,high chemoselectivity,the low cost and availability of the reagents,simplicity of the method,short reaction times,and excellent yields can also be considered as strong points for this method.

  20. Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2 at ExposedTemperatures for Industrial Processes

    Michael J. Schöning


    Full Text Available An H2O2 sensor for the application in industrial sterilisation processes has beendeveloped. Therefore, automated sterilisation equipment at laboratory scale has beenconstructed using parts from industrial sterilisation facilities. In addition, a software tool hasbeen developed for the control of the sterilisation equipment at laboratory scale. Firstmeasurements with the developed sensor set-up as part of the sterilisation equipment havebeen performed and the sensor has been physically characterised by optical microscopy andSEM.

  1. H2O2/UV process for surfactants removal from water

    Melihen, Andrej


    Besides conventional approaches to water and wastewater treatment, we know many of advanced processes that are considered as more efficient ways of treatment. Amongst them have an important role, so called, advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s) that generates highly reactive hydroksyl radicals which degrade and remove a wide specter of biologicaly nondegradable pollutants. While operating a source of UV radiation can be used or not. In present study, H2O2/UV-C treatment was appl...

  2. Lactobacilli inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through lactic acid but not H2O2.

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C

  3. Vitamin D derivatives enhance cytotoxic effects of H2O2 or cisplatin on human keratinocytes.

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Ślebioda, Tomasz; Woźniak, Michał; Tuckey, Robert C; Slominski, Andrzej T; Żmijewski, Michał A


    Although the skin production of vitamin D is initiated by ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB), the role vitamin D plays in antioxidative or pro-oxidative responses remains to be elucidated. We have used immortalized human HaCaT keratinocytes as a model of proliferating epidermal cells to test the influence of vitamin D on cellular response to H2O2 or the anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. Incubation of keratinocytes with 1,25(OH)2D3 or its low calcemic analogues, 20(OH)D3, 21(OH)pD or calcipotriol, sensitized cells to ROS resulting in more potent inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation by H2O2 in the presence of vitamin D compounds. These results were supported by cell cycle and apoptosis analyses, and measurement of the mitochondrial transmembrane potentials (MMP), however some unique properties of individual secosteroids were observed. Furthermore, in HaCaT keratinocytes treated with H2O2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 21(OH)pD and calcipotriol stimulated the expression of SOD1 and CAT genes, but not SOD2, indicating a possible role of mitochondria in ROS-modulated cell death. 1,25(OH)2D3 also showed a short-term, protective effect on HaCaT keratinocytes, as exemplified by the inhibition of apoptosis and the maintenance of MMP. However, with prolonged incubation with H2O2 or cisplatin, 1,25(OH)2D3 caused an acceleration in the death of the keratinocytes. Therefore, we propose that lead vitamin D derivatives can protect the epidermis against neoplastic transformation secondary to oxidative or UV-induced stress through activation of vitamin D-signaling. Furthermore, our data suggest that treatment with low calcemic vitamin D analogues or the maintenance of optimal level of vitamin D by proper supplementation, can enhance the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using of Photochemical H2O2/UVC Decontamination Cell for Heavily Polluted Waters

    Žebrák, R.; Mašín, P.; Klusoň, P. (Petr); Krystyník, P. (Pavel)


    The presented contribution focuses on the complex study of the pilot-scale photochemical H2O2/UVC system arranged as the ex-situ decontamination cell for heavily polluted waters (contamination with organic substances. The method principle comprises the rational decomposition of hydrogen peroxide induced by UV-C (254 nm). The produced OH radicals are very efficient oxidation species enabling the direct destruction of wide spectrum of organic compounds (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinat...

  5. The influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the photochemical production of H2O2 in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    Gerringa, LJA; Rijkenberg, MJA; Timmermans, KR; Buma, AGJ


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured in marine surface waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean between 25degreesN and 25degreesS. H2O2 concentrations decreased from 80 nM in the north to 20 nM in the south, in agreement with earlier observations. A diel cycle of H2O2 production as a function of sunlig

  6. Nonlinear feedback drives homeostatic plasticity in H2O2 stress response

    Goulev, Youlian; Morlot, Sandrine; Matifas, Audrey; Huang, Bo; Molin, Mikael; Toledano, Michel B; Charvin, Gilles


    Homeostatic systems that rely on genetic regulatory networks are intrinsically limited by the transcriptional response time, which may restrict a cell’s ability to adapt to unanticipated environmental challenges. To bypass this limitation, cells have evolved mechanisms whereby exposure to mild stress increases their resistance to subsequent threats. However, the mechanisms responsible for such adaptive homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we used live-cell imaging and microfluidics to investigate the adaptive response of budding yeast to temporally controlled H2O2 stress patterns. We demonstrate that acquisition of tolerance is a systems-level property resulting from nonlinearity of H2O2 scavenging by peroxiredoxins and our study reveals that this regulatory scheme induces a striking hormetic effect of extracellular H2O2 stress on replicative longevity. Our study thus provides a novel quantitative framework bridging the molecular architecture of a cellular homeostatic system to the emergence of nonintuitive adaptive properties. DOI: PMID:28418333

  7. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie


    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  8. Microwave-assisted pretreatment of woody biomass with ammonium molybdate activated by H2O2.

    Verma, Pradeep; Watanabe, Takahito; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi


    Pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification are crucial for the establishment of lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this study, we focused on ammonium ions and peroxometal complexes as potential delignifying agents. We first examined the pretreatment of beech wood with nine different ammonium salts in the presence of H(2)O(2). Significant pretreatment effects were found only for ammonium molybdate, which is transformed to a peroxometal complex on reacting with H(2)O(2). Since microwave sensitizer effects are expected for (peroxo)molybdate, beech wood was pretreated using external heating and microwave irradiation. As a result, a maximum sugar yield of 59.5% was obtained by microwave irradiation at 140°C for 30 min, while external heating in an autoclave gave a sugar yield of 41.8%. We also found that an ammonium ion is the key counterion accelerating the pretreatment with molybdate. These results highlight the powerful selective delignifying capability of the H(2)O(2)-activated ammonium molybdate system energized by microwave radiation.

  9. Phosphate buffer effects on thermal stability and H2O2-resistance of horseradish peroxidase.

    Asad, Sedigheh; Torabi, Seyed-Fakhreddin; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Ghaemi, Nasser; Khajeh, Khosro


    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has attracted intense research interest due to its potential applications in biotechnological fields. However, inadequate stability under prevalent conditions such as elevated temperatures and H(2)O(2) exposure, has limited its industrial application. In this study, stability of HRP was investigated in the presence of different buffer systems (potassium phosphate and Tris-HCl) and additives. It was shown that the concentration of phosphate buffer severely affects enzyme thermostability in a way that in diluted potassium phosphate buffer (10mM) half-life (from 13 to 35 min at 80 °C) and T(m) (from 73 to 77.5 °C) increased significantly. Among additives tested, trehalose had the most thermostabilizing effect. Exploring the role of glycosylation in stabilizing effect of phosphate buffer, non-glycosylated recombinant HRP was also examined for its thermal and H(2)O(2) stability in both diluted and concentrated phosphate buffers. The recombinant enzyme was more thermally stable in diluted buffer in accordance to glycosylated HRP; but interestingly recombinant HRP showed higher H(2)O(2) tolerance in concentrated buffer.

  10. Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil against H2O2 -induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes

    Bihamta, Mehdi; Hosseini, Azar; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher


    Objective: It has been well documented that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Previous studies have shown that pomegranate seed oil (PSO) has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to investigate probable protective effects of PSO against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Materials and Methods: The cells were pretreated 24 hr with PSO 1 hr before exposure to 200 µM H2O2. Cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods. Results: H2O2 significantly decreased cell viability which was accompanied by an increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation and a decline in superoxide dismutase activity. Pretreatment with PSO increased viability of cardiomyocytes and decrease the elevated ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Also, PSO was able to restore superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusion: PSO has protective effect against oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a natural cardioprotective agent to prevent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28265546

  11. Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil against H2O2 -induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes

    Mehdi Bihamta


    Full Text Available Objective: It has been well documented that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Previous studies have shown that pomegranate seed oil (PSO has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to investigate probable protective effects of PSO against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Materials and Methods: The cells were pretreated 24 hr with PSO 1 hr before exposure to 200 µM H2O2. Cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods.Results: H2O2 significantly decreased cell viability which was accompanied by an increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation and a decline in superoxide dismutase activity. Pretreatment with PSO increased viability of cardiomyocytes and decrease the elevated ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Also, PSO was able to restore superoxide dismutase activity.Conclusion: PSO has protective effect against oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a natural cardioprotective agent to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Descent Without Modification? The Thermal Chemistry of H2O2 on Europa and Other Icy Worlds

    Loeffler, Mark Josiah; Hudson, Reggie Lester


    The strong oxidant H2O2 is known to exist in solid form on Europa and is suspected to exist on several other Solar System worlds at temperatures below 200 K. However, little is known of the thermal chemistry that H2O2 might induce under these conditions. Here, we report new laboratory results on the reactivity of solid H2O2 with eight different compounds in H2O-rich ices. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored compositional changes in ice mixtures during warming. The compounds CH4 (methane), C3H4 (propyne), CH3OH (methanol), and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were unaltered by the presence of H2O2 in ices, showing that exposure to either solid H2O2 or frozen H2O+H2O2 at cryogenic temperatures will not oxidize these organics, much less convert them to CO2. This contrasts strongly with the much greater reactivity of organics with H2O2 at higher temperatures, and particularly in the liquid and gas phases. Of the four inorganic compounds studied, CO, H2S, NH3, and SO2, only the last two reacted in ices containing H2O2, NH3 making NHþ 4 and SO2 making SO2 4 by H+ and e - transfer, respectively. An important astrobiological conclusion is that formation of surface H2O2 on Europa and that molecule's downward movement with H2O-ice do not necessarily mean that all organics encountered in icy subsurface regions will be destroyed by H2O2 oxidation.

  13. Study of the transient "free" OH radical generated in H2O-H2O2 mixtures by stimulated Raman scattering

    Li, Fangfang; Ma, Zhiwei; Wang, Shenghan; Li, Tianyu; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Zhanlong; Men, Zhiwei


    Forward and backward stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) were studied in the H2O2-H2O mixtures by a strong excitation laser with 532 nm. Only the backward SRS (BSRS) of the H2O2-H2O system shows an unexpected SRS shoulder peak at around 3600 cm- 1, which is similar to the characteristic peak of "free" OH radical. The generation of the "free" OH radical is mainly attributed to the dissociation of hydrogen peroxide (HP) molecules. Simultaneously, the ionization of HP-water clusters generates a part of "free" OH radical under the Laser-induced breakdown (LIB). The interaction of water and HP is also discussed.




    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA, one of the most common joint diseases with unknown etiology, is characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage and the apoptosis of chondrocytes. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of H2O2-mediated rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. CCK-8 assay showed that H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability, which was further verified by the remarkable phosphatidylserine externalization after H2O2 treatment for 1 h, the typical characteristics of apoptosis. H2O2 treatment induced a significant dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, but did not induce casapse-9 activation, indicating that H2O2 treatment induced caspase-independent intrinsic apoptosis that was further verified by the fact that silencing of AIF but not inhibiting caspase-9 potently prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis. H2O2 treatment induced a significant increase of caspase-8 and -3 activation, and inhibition of caspase-8 or -3 significantly prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway played an important role. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that H2O2 induces apoptosis via both the casapse-8-mediated extrinsic and the caspase-independent intrinsic apoptosis pathways in rabbit chondrocytes.

  15. Oxidative dissolution of actinide oxides in H 2O 2 containing aqueous solution - A preliminary study

    Pehrman, Reijo; Amme, Marcus; Roth, Olivia; Ekeroth, Ella; Jonsson, Mats


    Oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel is an important issue in the safety assessment of a future geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Although UO 2 constitutes, in terms of mass, the majority of the spent fuel material, its main radiotoxicity is (after extended storage times) contained in actinides with half lives shorter than that of 238-uranium, such as isotopes of Np and Pu. Relatively little information is available on the dissolution behavior of Np and Pu in comparable environments. This work investigates the oxidative dissolution of NpO 2 and PuO 2 in non-complexing aqueous solutions containing H 2O 2 and compares their behavior with that of UO 2. We have found that oxidative dissolution takes place for all three actinides in the presence of H 2O 2. Based on the obtained dissolution rates, we would not expect the dissolution of the actinides to be congruent. Instead, in a system without complexing agent, the release rates of Np and Pu are expected to be lower than the U release rate.

  16. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    was burned at 1573 K and 1673 K a faster conversion was found in N2 suggesting that the lower molecular diffusion coefficient of O2 in CO2 lowers the char conversion rate when external mass transfer influences combustion. The reaction of char with CO2 was not observed to have an influence on char conversion......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...... indicates that a shift from air to oxy-fuel combustion does not influence the devolatilization process significantly. Char combustion experiments yielded similar char conversion profiles when N2 was replaced with CO2 under conditions where combustion was primarily controlled by chemical kinetics. When char...

  17. Vibrational corrections for some electric and magnetic properties of H2, N2, HF, and CO

    Bishop, David M.; Cybulski, sławomir M.


    The effects of vibration on certain electric and magnetic properties of H2, N2, HF, and CO are reported. These properties include electric field gradients, generalized Sternheimer shielding constants, electric-field-gradient polarizabilities, nuclear shielding constants, and shielding polarizabilities. The calculations were based on both electron correlated and uncorrelated methods. Pure vibrational effects, where appropriate, were investigated as well as conventional vibrational averaging. It is found that in many cases vibration plays a very significant role.

  18. Decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla ecológica de H2O2-H2SO4-HF

    Gómez, P. P.


    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel (SS using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrofluoric acid (HF at pH 2.0. The stability of H2O2 was also studied using different concentrations of ferric ion from 0 to 40 g/l and temperature from 25 to 60 °C. The pickling rate at 50 °C in the presence and absence of 40 g/l ferric ion was 2.6 and 0.2 mg/dm2 day (mdd, respectively. p-Toluene sulphonic acid was used as stabilizer of H2O2.En la presente investigación se estudia el decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla de agua oxigenada (H2O2 y los ácidos sulfúrico (H2SO4 y fluorhídrico (HF a pH 2,0. La estabilidad de la mezcla H2O2-H2SO4-HF se ha ensayado variando el contenido de iones férrico de O a 40 g/l y la temperatura de 25 a 60 °C. La velocidad de decapado a 50 °C ha sido de 2,6 y 0,2 mg/dm2 día (mdd, en ausencia y presencia de 40 g/l de iones férrico, respectivamente. Se ha utilizado el ácido p-toluen sulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2.

  19. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F


    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  20. The dynamics of H 2 and N 2 sorption in carbon nanotubes

    Ötvös, Zs.; Onyestyák, Gy.; Valyon, J.; Kiricsi, I.; Kónya, Z.; Rees, L. V. C.


    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT and MWNT) were prepared by catalytic decomposition of methane and acetylene, respectively. The resulting catalyst/carbon composites were subjected to chemical treatments to obtain samples which were enriched in nanotubes. Isotherms and frequency response (FR) spectra of N2 and H2 were recorded at 195 and 77 K, respectively, in the 1-800 Pa pressure range. The adsorption isotherms for N2 were found to obey Henry's law, while the isotherms of H2 adsorption indicated some energetic heterogeneity of the sorption sites. Stronger adatom-substrate interaction was detected for those samples which had been subjected to oxidative treatment. The FR measurements showed that treatment of MWNT in KMnO4 solution changed the rate-controlling mechanism of mass transport from one of sorption to one of diffusion. Results substantiated that the surface functional groups, generated by the oxidative treatment, have significant influence on both the equilibrium and the dynamic N2 and H2 sorption properties of the carbon nanotubes.

  1. Interference of H2 O2 on COD Test and Removal Method for Advanced Oxidation Process%高级氧化法中H2 O2对COD的测定影响及消除

    郭亮; 焦纬洲; 刘有智; 许承骋; 刘文丽; 李静


    通过测定含不同 H2O2浓度的纯水体系及硝基苯类化合物水样体系的废水化学需氧量(COD),分析发现硝基苯类化合物水样中 H2 O2对 COD 的测量存在正干扰,且具有很好的线性关系。在不引入新的干扰前提下,探讨了相应的 H2 O2消除方法。结果表明,当水样中 H2O2浓度475 mg·L-1,COD 值为747.6 mg·L-1时,改变水样 pH 值为碱性有利于 H2O2的去除;添加二氧化锰催化剂虽然能在较短时间内去除 H2 O2,但可能引入新的干扰物;添加过氧化氢酶在不引入新的干扰情况下可快速去除 H2 O2。当反应时间3 min,分别调节水样 pH 为12、添加二氧化锰、添加过氧化氢酶,水样中 H2 O2去除率为1.2%、45.6%、100%。在相同酶量下处理含不同浓度 H2 O2的水样,H2 O2均可在短时间内被除净。分析表明,添加过氧化氢酶可为快速、高效消除废水中未知浓度 H2O2对 CODCr测定的影响提供一条新的途径。%The chemical oxygen demand( COD)for pure water and nitrobenzene waste water sample containing different content of H2 O2 was measured and the linear interference of H2 O2 concentration on COD test was studied. It shows that with increase of the H2 O2 ,the COD increases. Without new interference,the ways to suppress interference of H2 O2 on COD test were discussed including pH value,manganese dioxide catalyst,and catalase. Results show that the catalase eliminates the influence of H2O2on COD determination effectively,and the alkaline environment is in favor of removing the H2O2 to some extent,and manganese di-oxide catalyst can remove H2 O2 in short time but it may introduce new interferences. When the reaction time is 3 min,by adjus-ing initial liquid pH value of 12,adding manganese dioxide catalyst and catalase,respectively,the H2O2 removal rate can reach 1.2%,45.6% and 100%,indicating that catalase can conveniently remove H2O2 with unknown concentration

  2. Selective photocatalytic reduction of CO2 by H2O/H2 to CH4 and CH3OH over Cu-promoted In2O3/TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Tahir, Muhammad; Tahir, Beenish; Saidina Amin, Nor Aishah; Alias, Hajar


    Photocatalytic CO2 reduction by H2O and/or H2 reductant to selective fuels over Cu-promoted In2O3/TiO2 photocatalyst has been investigated. The samples, prepared via a simple and direct sol-gel method, were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, UV-vis diffuse reflectance, Raman and PL spectroscopy. Cu and In loaded into TiO2, oxidized as Cu2+ and In3+, promoted efficient separation of photo-generated electron/hole pairs (e-/h+). The results indicate that the reduction rate of CO2 by H2O to CH4 approached to 181 μmol g-1 h-1 using 0.5% Cu-3% In2O3/TiO2 catalyst, a 1.53 fold higher than the production rate over the 3% In2O3/TiO2 and 5 times the amount produced over the pure TiO2. In addition, Cu was found to promote efficient production of CH3OH and yield rate reached to 68 μmol g-1 h-1 over 1% Cu-3% In2O3/TiO2 catalyst. This improvement was attributed to charge transfer property and suppressed recombination rate by Cu-metal. More importantly, H2 reductant was less favorable for CH4 production, yet a significant amount of CH4 and CH3OH were obtained using a mixture of H2O/H2 reductant. Therefore, Cu-loaded In2O3/TiO2 catalyst has shown to be capable for methanol production, whereas product selectivity was greatly depending on the amount of Cu-loading and the type of reductant. A photocatalytic reaction mechanism was proposed to understand the experimental results over the Cu-loaded In2O3/TiO2 catalyst.

  3. Modeling char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn


    concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The COal COmbustion MOdel, COCOMO, includes the three char morphologies: cenospheric char, network char and dense char each divided between six discrete particle sizes. Both combustion and gasification with CO2 are accounted for and reaction rates include thermal char......The aim of this investigation has been to model combustion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures. Experiments used for model validation have been carried out in an electrically heated Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) at temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K with inlet O2...

  4. H2O2 Metabolism of Apple Leaves Under Water Stress%水分胁迫下苹果叶片的H2O2代谢

    贾虎森; 李德全



  5. A novel near-infrared fluorescent probe for H2O2 in alkaline environment and the application for H2O2 imaging in vitro and in vivo.

    Liu, Keyin; Shang, Huiming; Kong, Xiuqi; Ren, Mingguang; Wang, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yong; Lin, Weiying


    H2O2 as one of the most important ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) has more attack activity to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and enzyme in alkaline environment and leads to a series of disease. However, no attention has been paid to the fluorescent detection of H2O2 in alkaline environment in the past. Herein, we reported the first ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe based on a boric acid derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSBOH) for H2O2 detection in alkaline condition and the application for H2O2 imaging in vivo. ICT (intra-molecular charge transfer) mechanism was used in CSBOH to modulate the fluorescence change. The photophysical change of CSBOH was investigated by comparison with a phenol derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSOH), a structural analogue bearing phenol group. In the presence of H2O2, CSBOH exhibited remarkably different fluorescence change at 650 nm and 720 nm when excited by 560 nm and 670 nm light respectively in alkaline buffer and showed high selectivity toward H2O2. Cellular experiments demonstrate that CSBOH can image endogenously generated H2O2 in macrophages and A431 cells. In vivo experiment demonstrates that both CSOH and CSBOH can be used for bio-imaging, and CSBOH can image H2O2 in living animal successfully.

  6. H2O2位于ABA的上游参与葡萄对低温的应答%H2O2 Production was Upstream of the Rise of ABA in Response of Grape to Low Temperature

    刘新; 车永梅; 卢江


    以抗寒性较强的葡萄品种(砧木)贝达1 a生枝条叶片为材料,研究低温胁迫下贝达叶片中H2O2与ABA含量的变化及外源H2O2和抗坏血酸(AsA)对贝达叶片中ABA含量的影响.结果表明:低温胁迫下贝达叶片中H2O2与ABA含量先增加后降低,具有猝发现象,H2O2猝发时间早于ABA;外施一定浓度的H2O2可以促进贝达内源ABA的积累,缓解5℃低温对膜的伤害;而外施H2O2的清除剂AsA显著降低内源ABA的含量.表明H2O2与ABA参与了贝达对低温胁迫的应答,H2O2可能位于ABA的上游.

  7. Treatment of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process in TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV reactors

    M. Verma


    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes involving TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV were evaluated for their potential use in decolorization of textile dye effluents. A coil photo reactor, consisting of UV radiation source and a spiral coil coated with TiO2, was used to treat synthetic effluent of Remazol Brilliant Blue dye. The TiO2 coating was performed using the sol-gel technique. The effects of UV radiation, TiO2 coatings and dye concentration were studied and the results were compared to dye treatment involving H2O2. The maximum dye removal efficiencies were 7.3, 12.2 and 12.5 % for uncoated, single coat and dual coat of TiO2, respectively. The decolorization efficiency was inversely related to dye concentration of the effluent. The treatments with UV only, TiO2 only, UV+TiO2, H2O2 only and UV+H2O2 resulted in color reduction of 7.6, 2.3, 12.5, 4.1 and 99.9 % respectively. The maximum decolorization occurred in ≤ 100 min in all cases. The temperature varied from 29.2 to 54.7°C for UV+TiO2 treatment and no change in reactor temperature was observed when UV was not used.

  8. Kinetics and efficiency of H2O2 activation by iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials.

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L


    To gain insight into factors that control H(2)O(2) persistence and ·OH yield in H(2)O(2)-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H(2)O(2) and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H(2)O(2) decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2-10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H(2)O(2) on manganese oxides does not produce ·OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO(2) slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency.

  9. TiO2/SiO2复合物与H2O2对有机染料的协同光催化降解作用研究%Photodegradation of Organic Dye Based on the Synergetic Catalytic Effect of TiO2/SiO2 and H2O2



    采用溶胶凝胶法制备了SiO2含量较高的TiO2/SiO2复合氧化物,并采用SEM、XRD、FTIR等手段进行了表征.测试结果表明,制备得到的复合物是由TiO2和SiO2纳米颗粒所组成的具有多孔网络结构的聚集体,钛氧基团通过Ti-O-si键同定于SiO2基体中,TiO2主要以无定型态存在.实验发现,在紫外光作用下,ZiO2/SiO2复合物与H2O2协同作用,对有机染料曙红B溶液具有较高的催化降工、解效率.复合物对曙红B的光催化降懈符合一级反应动力学方程.%TiO2/SiO2 composites containing high content of SiO2 were prepared based on sol-gel method and characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD, Characterization resulted reveals that the as-synthesized composite was an aggregate composed of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles and owned nanoporous network. Amorphous titania binds to SiO2 matrix through Ti-O-Si bonds. The composite showed good photodegradation performance towards organic dyes after treated with hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic results revealed that the photodcgradation of cosin B obey to first-order equation and the dccolorization rate of organic dye had been significantly accelerated based on the syncrgetic catalytic effect of TiO2/SiO2 composite and H2O2.

  10. UV/草酸铁/H2O2法降解苯系物的研究%Degradation of BTX by UV/Ferrioxalate/H2O2 Process

    程丽华; 倪福祥



  11. Inhibition of PKR protects against H2O2-induced injury on neonatal cardiac myocytes by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation

    Wang, Yongyi; Men, Min; Xie, Bo; Shan, Jianggui; Wang, Chengxi; Liu, Jidong; Zheng, Hui; Yang, Wengang; Xue, Song; Guo, Changfa


    Reactive oxygenation species (ROS) generated from reperfusion results in cardiac injury through apoptosis and inflammation, while PKR has the ability to promote apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PKR is involved in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCM) injury. In our study, NCM, when exposed to H2O2, resulted in persistent activation of PKR due to NCM endogenous RNA. Inhibition of PKR by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or siRNA protected against H2O2 induced apoptosis and injury. To elucidate the mechanism, we revealed that inhibition of PKR alleviated H2O2 induced apoptosis companied by decreased caspase3/7 activity, BAX and caspase-3 expression. We also revealed that inhibition of PKR suppressed H2O2 induced NFκB pathway and NLRP3 activation. Finally, we found ADAR1 mRNA and protein expression were both induced after H2O2 treatment through STAT-2 dependent pathway. By gain and loss of ADAR1 expression, we confirmed ADAR1 modulated PKR activity. Therefore, we concluded inhibition of PKR protected against H2O2-induced injury by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation. A self-preservation mechanism existed in NCM that ADAR1 expression is induced by H2O2 to limit PKR activation simultaneously. These findings identify a novel role for PKR/ADAR1 in myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:27929137

  12. Flow cytometric analysis of the H2O2-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of rat thymocytes.

    Okazaki, E; Chikahisa, L; Kanemaru, K; Oyama, Y


    The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of rat thymocytes was examined by a flow cytometer and two fluorescent dyes, fluo-3-AM and ethidium bromide, a dye impermeant to intact membranes, to characterize the H2O2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. H2O2 at concentrations greater than 30 microM dose-dependently increased the [Ca2+]i of thymocytes which were not stained with ethidium. Removal of external Ca2+ greatly reduced the degree of H2O2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. However, H2O2 still increased the [Ca2+]i under the external Ca(2+)-free condition. Diethylmaleate, which is known to produce a chemical depletion of cellular nonprotein thiol, significantly increased the [Ca2+]i. Dithiothreitol, which is used to protect cellular nonprotein thiol, slightly decreased the [Ca2+]i, but greatly reduced the H2O2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. Therefore, it is considered that H2O2 may increase the [Ca2+]i through a mechanism related to the effects of H2O2 on the cellular nonprotein thiol.

  13. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles by [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O: influence of inorganic precursor type


    Spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles with high surface area were synthesized by thermal decomposition of three different ion-pair complexes precursors, including [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O, [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O. Influence of the inorganic precursor was investigated on synthesis and textural properties of magnesium aluminate nanopowders. The precursors [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O and [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] displayed pure spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$, while the sample synthesized by [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O precursor consisted of MgAl$_2$O$_4$ and MgO. The MgAl$_2$O$_4$ synthesizedvia [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] precursor exhibited higher BET specific surface area (226.7 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$) and smaller particle size than those of the samples obtained from the two other precursors.

  14. Biological dosimetry after H2O2/L-histidine treatment

    Hausmann, Michael; Lentfer, Heiko; Wolf, Dietmar; Bauer, Eckhard; Aldinger, Klaus; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Cremer, Christoph G.


    In biological dosimetry after radiation or chemical exposure, it has been well established to estimate exposure doses from the relative rate of aberrant chromosomes, especially dicentric chromosomes in a given number of cells. For this purpose, dose-efficiency curves depending on laboratory parameters (e.g. preparation technique, analysis procedure etc.) have to be measured under standard conditions. For statistical reasons, a high number of chromosomes or cells, respectively, has to be evaluated. For a Chinese hamster cell line (CO60) as a typical model system in mutation research, a dose efficiency relation after H2O2/L-histidine treatment of the cells was determined using the Heidelberg slit-scan flow fluorometer. This technique has the advantage that several thousand chromosomes can be automatically analyzed in a very short time. As expected, for low doses of H2O2/L-histidine exposure, a nearly linear dependence of the relative number of dicentric chromosomes to the concentration of H2O2 was obtained. In order to correlate the relative number of dicentric chromosomes to the relative number of double strand breaks, the cells were analyzed by the technique of the neutral comet assay. The dose dependent `tail moment' obtained from the comet assay also showed a linear behavior. This confirmed the results obtained by slit-scan flow fluorometry. Furthermore, the linear dependence of the dose efficiency curve was well compatible to results obtained by visual counting by means of a fluorescence microscope. In this case chromosome 1 of the Chinese hamster cell line DON was specifically labelled by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  15. H2 production with low CO selectivity from photocatalytic reforming of glucose on metal/TiO2 catalysts


    H2 with low CO concentration is produced via photocatalytic reforming of glucose (as a representative of biomass component) on metal/TiO2 catalyst (metals: Pt, Rh, Ru, Ir, Au, Ni, Cu). It is shown that the loaded metals generally enhance the rate of H2 production, while they depress the CO selectivity. Both H2 production and CO selectivity are strongly dependent on the kind of deposited metals on TiO2. For example, Rh/TiO2 catalyst is found to be most active for H2 production while with the most extremely low CO concentration from the photocatalytic reforming of glucose.

  16. Herschel/HIFI observations of Mars: first detection of O_2 at submillimetre wavelengths and upper limits on HCl and H_2O_2

    Hartogh, P; Lellouch, E; de Val-Borro, M; Rengel, M; Moreno, R; Medvedev, A S; Sagawa, H; Swinyard, B M; Cavalié, T; Lis, D C; Błęcka, M I; Banaszkiewicz, M; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Crovisier, J; Encrenaz, T; Küppers, M; Lara, L -M; Szutowicz, S; Vandenbussche, B; Bensch, F; Bergin, E A; Billebaud, F; Biver, N; Blake, G A; Blommaert, J A D L; Cernicharo, J; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; Feuchtgruber, H; Fulton, T; de Graauw, T; Jehin, E; Kidger, M; Lorente, R; Naylor, D A; Portyankina, G; Sánchez-Portal, M; Schieder, R; Sidher, S; Thomas, N; Verdugo, E; Waelkens, C; Whyborn, N; Teyssier, D; Helmich, F; Roelfsema, P; Stutzki, J; LeDuc, H G; Stern, J A


    We report on the initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) and molecular oxygen (O_2) in the martian atmosphere performed on 13 and 16 April 2010 (L_s ~ 77{\\deg}). We derived a constant volume mixing ratio of 1400 +/- 120 ppm for O_2 and determined upper limits of 200 ppt for HCl and 2 ppb for H_2O_2. Radiative transfer model calculations indicate that the vertical profile of O_2 may not be constant. Photochemical models find lowest values for H_2O_2 around L_s ~ 75{\\deg} but overestimate the volume mixing ratio compared to our measurements.

  17. Abatement and toxicity reduction of antimicrobials by UV/H2O2 process.

    Urbano, Vanessa Ribeiro; Peres, Marcela Souza; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Guimarães, José Roberto


    Antimicrobials are continuously detected in environmental waters and their removal is important to avoid health and microorganisms damage. In this work, the peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (UV/H2O2) was studied to verify if the process was able to degrade sulfaquinoxaline and ofloxacin antimicrobials and to remove the toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of the solution. This process was effective on degradation of the antimicrobials, despite the antimicrobial activity removal, the toxicity of the solution increased throughout the reaction time.

  18. Nanoporous graphene obtained by hydrothermal process in H2O2 and its application for supercapacitors

    Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang


    Nanohole graphene oxide (NHGO) was obtained in a homogeneous aqueous mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and H2O2 at 120 °C. Supercapacitors were fabricated as the electrode material by using NHGO. A specific capacitance of 240.1 F g-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 m KOH electrolyte and specific capacitance remained 193.6 F g-1 at the current density of 20 A g-1. This was attributed to reducing the inner space between the double-layers, enhanced ion diffusion and large specific surface area. Supercapacitor prepared with NHGO electrodes also exhibited an excellent cycle stability.

  19. Chitosan-phosphotungstic acid complex as membranes for low temperature H2-O2 fuel cell

    Santamaria, M.; Pecoraro, C. M.; Di Quarto, F.; Bocchetta, P.


    Free-standing Chitosan/phosphotungstic acid polyelectrolyte membranes were prepared by an easy and fast in-situ ionotropic gelation process performed at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study their morphological features and their thickness as a function of the chitosan concentration. The membrane was tested as proton conductor in low temperature H2-O2 fuel cell allowing to get peak power densities up to 350 mW cm-2. Electrochemical impedance measurements allowed to estimate a polyelectrolyte conductivity of 18 mS cm-1.

  20. High selectively oxidative bromination of toluene derivatives by the H2O2-HBr system

    Jie Ju; Yu Jin Li; Jian Rong Gao; Jian Hong Jia; Liang Han; Wei Jian Sheng; Yi Xia Jia


    An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen bromide illuminated by a 60 W incandescent light bulb serves as a source of bromine radicals. Various substituted toluenes (NO2,Cl, Br, H, CH3) were high selectively brominated at the benzyl position for monobromination in CH2C12 at ice water with catalyst free. This simple but effective bromination of toluene derivatives with an aqueous H2O2-HBr system is characterized with the use of inexpensive reagents and a lower impact on the environment, which make it a good alternative to the existing bromination methods.

  1. Modeling of durability of polyelectrolyte membrane of O2/H2 fuel cell

    Atrazhev, Vadim V


    In this paper, we discuss critical aspects of the mechanisms and features of polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) degradation in low-temperature H2/O2 fuel cell. In this paper, we focused on chemical mechanism of OH radical generation and their distribution in operational fuel cell. According to the current concept, free radicals are generated from hydrogen and oxygen crossover gases at the surface of Pt particles that precipitated in the membrane. We explicitly calculate Pt precipitation rate and electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane that controls it. Based on radical generation rate and Pt distribution we calculate degradation rate of the membrane taking advantage of simple kinetics equations.

  2. Degradation of crystal violet using nanometer TiO2 under the synergistic action of H2O2 and ultrasonic wave

    GUO Xiaojun; YUAN Li; QI Youli; LI Xien; YANG Wu; GAO Jinzhang


    TiO2 nanoparticles with different phases are prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetrabutoxide in the presence of HCl. The composition and microstructure of the resulting samples are studied by XRD and TEM. These results show that the range of particle size of TiO2 is from 20 to 30 nm. The mechanism of TiO2 photocatalysis reaction has been discussed extensively. Photocatalytic activities of nanometer TiO2 are also evaluated by degradation of the crystal violet solution. Experimental results indicate that the synergistic action of H2O2 and ultrasonic wave greatly enhances photo-catalytic reaction of TiO2.

  3. Mixed Matrix Membranes for O2/N2 Separation: The Influence of Temperature

    Ana Fernández-Barquín


    Full Text Available In this work, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs composed of small-pore zeolites with various topologies (CHA (Si/Al = 5, LTA (Si/Al = 1 and 5, and Rho (Si/Al = 5 as dispersed phase, and the hugely permeable poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne (PTMSP as continuous phase, have been synthesized via solution casting, in order to obtain membranes that could be attractive for oxygen-enriched air production. The O2/N2 gas separation performance of the MMMs has been analyzed in terms of permeability, diffusivity, and solubility in the temperature range of 298–333 K. The higher the temperature of the oxygen-enriched stream, the lower the energy required for the combustion process. The effect of temperature on the gas permeability, diffusivity, and solubility of these MMMs is described in terms of the Arrhenius and Van’t Hoff relationships with acceptable accuracy. Moreover, the O2/N2 permselectivity of the MMMs increases with temperature, the O2/N2 selectivities being considerably higher than those of the pure PTMSP. In consequence, most of the MMMs prepared in this work exceeded the Robeson’s upper bound for the O2/N2 gas pair in the temperature range under study, with not much decrease in the O2 permeabilities, reaching O2/N2 selectivities of up to 8.43 and O2 permeabilities up to 4,800 Barrer at 333 K.

  4. Expression of ROS-responsive genes and transcription factors after metabolic formation of H2O2 in chloroplasts

    Salma eBalazadeh; Nils eJaspert; Muhammad eArif; Bernd eMueller-Roeber; Veronica Graciela Maurino


    Glycolate oxidase (GO) catalyses the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate, thereby consuming O(2) and producing H(2)O(2). In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing GO in the chloroplasts (GO plants) were used to assess the expressional behavior of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive genes and transcription factors (TFs) after metabolic induction of H(2)O(2) formation in chloroplasts. In this organelle, GO uses the glycolate derived from the oxygenase activity of RubisCO. Here,...

  5. Kinetics Research of UV/H2O2 Combination Method in PAEs Degradation%UV/H2O2联用技术降解水中PAEs的动力学研究



    针对水体中较高含量的邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)污染,采用UV/H2O2联用技术降解PAEs,考察H2O2浓度、PAEs初始浓度及反应体系中pH等因素对PAEs降解效果的影响.结果表明:UV/H2O2对DMP、DEP的处理效果要优于UV、H2O2单一处理.且PAEs的降解效率随反应体系中H2O2浓度增大而升高,随着PAEs初始浓度的增加而降低,不同pH对于光降解PAEs产生的影响不大.在优化实验条件下,采用UV/H2O2降解DMP、DEP,当PAEs初始浓度为5 mg/L、H2O2投加量为330 mg/L时,DMP和DEP的降解率可分别达到80.7%和84%.

  6. Degradation of dye effluents with UV/H2 O2/ferric ammonium oxalate system%UV/H2O2/草酸高铁铵对甲苯胺蓝的降解作用

    张昕; 塔娜


    研究采用UV、H2O2、草酸高铁铵体系处理甲苯胺蓝(Toluidine blue,简称为TB)溶液的降解作用.考察了TB初始浓度、初始pH值、H2O2浓度、草酸高铁铵浓度对TB降解率的影响.试验结果表明,酸性条件有利于TB的降解,其最佳降解pH值为4.0.在UV/H2O2体系中,H2O2浓度在100 mmoL/L时,TB降解率相对高;UV/草酸高铁铵体系中,草酸高铁铵浓度为10.0 mmol/L时TB降解率较高;相比于其它体系,UV/H2O2/草酸高铁铵体系的降解效果最好,降解率可达88.62%.%The influences of initial concentration of TB, initial pH value and dosages of H2O2 and amrnonium ferric oxalate on degradation of TB are investigated.The results show that acidic condition tends to promote the degradation of TB , especially at pH value of 4.0.In UV/H2 O2 system and UV/ammonium ferric oxalate system , the degradation of TB is relative higher with the concentration of H2O2 100 mmol/L and ammonium ferric oxalate 10.0 mmol/L respectively.Compared to other systems,UV/H2O2/ammonium ferric oxalate system show the highest degradation rate of TB with 88.62 % .

  7. The fluxes of H2O2 and O2 can be used to evaluate seed germination and vigor of Caragana korshinskii.

    Li, Jiaguo; Wang, Yu; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng


    Seed deterioration is detrimental to plant germplasm conservation, and predicting seed germination and vigor with reliability and sensitivity means is urgently needed for practical problems. We investigated the link between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) flux, oxygen influx and seed vigor of Caragana korshinskii by the non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT). Some related physiological and biochemical changes in seeds were also determined to further explain the changes in the molecular fluxes. The results showed that there was a good linear relationship between germination and H2O2 flux, and that O2 influx was more suitable for assessing seed vigor. H2O2 flux changed relatively little initially, mainly affected by antioxidants (APX, CAT and GSH) and H2O2 content; afterward, the efflux increased more and more rapidly due to high membrane permeability. With the damage of mitochondrial respiration and membrane integrity, O2 influx was gradually reduced. We propose that monitoring H2O2 and O2 fluxes by NMT may be a reliable and sensitive method to evaluate seed germination and vigor.

  8. Free Superoxide is an Intermediate in the Production of H2O2 by Copper(I)-Aβ Peptide and O2.

    Reybier, Karine; Ayala, Sara; Alies, Bruno; Rodrigues, João V; Bustos Rodriguez, Susana; La Penna, Giovanni; Collin, Fabrice; Gomes, Cláudio M; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter


    Oxidative stress is considered as an important factor and an early event in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cu bound to the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ) is found in AD brains, and Cu-Aβ could contribute to this oxidative stress, as it is able to produce in vitro H2O2 and HO˙ in the presence of oxygen and biological reducing agents such as ascorbate. The mechanism of Cu-Aβ-catalyzed H2O2 production is however not known, although it was proposed that H2O2 is directly formed from O2 via a 2-electron process. Here, we implement an electrochemical setup and use the specificity of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) to show, for the first time, that H2O2 production by Cu-Aβ in the presence of ascorbate occurs mainly via a free O2˙(-) intermediate. This finding radically changes the view on the catalytic mechanism of H2O2 production by Cu-Aβ, and opens the possibility that Cu-Aβ-catalyzed O2˙(-) contributes to oxidative stress in AD, and hence may be of interest.

  9. Theory of Collision-Induced Absorption for Electronic Transitions in the Atmospherically Relevant O_2-O_2 and O_2-N_2 Pairs.

    Karman, Tijs; van der Avoird, Ad; Groenenboom, Gerrit


    Collision-induced absorption of O_2-O_2 and O_2-N_2 pairs is observed in remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere, and absorption by O_2-O_2 pairs has been put forward as a biomarker to be observed in exoplanetary transit spectra. The relevant electronic transitions, X {}^3Σ_g^- → a {}^1Δ_g and X {}^3Σ_g^- → b {}^1Σ_g^+, are electric-dipole forbidden by both spin and spatial selection rules, such that collision-induced absorption represents an important contribution to the absorption. We present an ab initio study of collision-induced absorption for these electronic transitions using quantum-mechanical scattering calculations. Two mechanisms for breaking the spin-symmetry are taken into account: intramolecular spin-orbit coupling and intermolecular exchange interactions. We find and explain qualitative differences in the line shape and temperature dependence of the absorption due to these mechanisms. The contributions of these mechanisms furthermore explain qualitative differences between the atmospherically relevant O_2-O_2 and O_2-N_2 systems. Reasonable agreement with experimental data is obtained for various near-infrared transitions in both systems.

  10. (113)Cd Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Probe of Structural Dynamics in a Flexible Porous Framework Showing Selective O2/N2 and CO2/N2 Adsorption.

    Haldar, Ritesh; Inukai, Munehiro; Horike, Satoshi; Uemura, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Maji, Tapas Kumar


    Two new isomorphous three-dimensional porous coordination polymers, {[Cd(bpe)0.5(bdc)(H2O)]·EtOH}n (1) and {[Cd(bpe)0.5(bdc)(H2O)]·2H2O}n (2) [bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, and H2bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid], have been synthesized by altering the solvent media. Both structures contain one-dimensional channels filled with metal-bound water and guest solvent molecules, and desolvated frameworks show significant changes in structure. However, exposure to the solvent vapors (water and methanol) reverts the structure back to the as-synthesized structure, and thus, the reversible flexible nature of the structure was elucidated. The flexibility and permanent porosity were further reinforced from the CO2 adsorption profiles (195 and 273 K) that show stepwise uptake. Moreover, a high selectivity for O2 over N2 at 77 K was realized. The framework exhibits interesting solvent vapor adsorption behavior with dynamic structural transformation depending upon the size, polarity, and coordination ability of the solvent molecules. Further investigation was conducted by solid state (113)Cd nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that unambiguously advocates the reversible transformation "pentagonal-bipyramidal CdO6N → octahedral CdO5N" geometry in the desolvated state. For the first time, (113)Cd NMR has been used as a probe of structural flexibility in a porous coordination polymer system.

  11. Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase is a secreted enzyme that confers resistance to H2O2.

    Girinathan, Brintha Prasummanna; Braun, Sterling E; Govind, Revathi


    Clostridium difficile produces an NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which converts l-glutamate into α-ketoglutarate through an irreversible reaction. The enzyme GDH is detected in the stool samples of patients with C. difficile-associated disease and serves as one of the diagnostic tools to detect C. difficile infection (CDI). We demonstrate here that supernatant fluids of C. difficile cultures contain GDH. To understand the role of GDH in the physiology of C. difficile, an isogenic insertional mutant of gluD was created in strain JIR8094. The mutant failed to produce and secrete GDH as shown by Western blot analysis. Various phenotypic assays were performed to understand the importance of GDH in C. difficile physiology. In TY (tryptose yeast extract) medium, the gluD mutant grew slower than the parent strain. Complementation of the gluD mutant with the functional gluD gene reversed the growth defect in TY medium. The presence of extracellular GDH may have a functional role in the pathogenesis of CDI. In support of this assumption we found higher sensitivity to H2O2 in the gluD mutant as compared to the parent strain. Complementation of the gluD mutant with the functional gluD gene reversed the H2O2 sensitivity.

  12. The Metabolic Responses of Aspergillus flavus to N-Acetylcysteine, Ascorbate, and H2O2


    Aflatoxin, the secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus, is the most toxic product in nature. In this study, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ascorbate, and H2O2 were used to ascertain their effects on fungal metabolic esponse of A. Flavus. The results demonstrated that NAC did not affect fungal growth, but inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production, with the concomitant sporulation reduction. NAC increased the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), hut decreased the activity of glutathione reductase (GR). Ascorbate had similar effect on fungal growth, sporulation,and GR activity, but GSH/GSSG and total glutathione (tGSH, including GSH and GSSG) were significantly increased. H2O2 at high concentration (5 mM) inhibited fungal growth, but the aflatoxin production was increased. At the same time, it reduced GR activity and enhanced tGSH. Though reductive agents had different effects on GSH metabolism, reductive conditions inhibited aflatoxin production and sporulation without any effect on fungal growth. The results in this report confirmed that the relationship between oxidative stress and aflatoxin production is theoretically important in controlling aflatoxin contamination.

  13. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan


    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  14. Protective effect of enzymatic extracts from microalgae against DNA damage induced by H2O2.

    Karawita, Rohan; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Athukorala, Yasantha; Affan, Abu; Lee, Young-Jae; Kim, Se-Kwon; Lee, Joon-Baek; Jeon, You-Jin


    The enzymatic extracts from seven species of microalgae (Pediastrum duplex, Dactylococcopsis fascicularis, Halochlorococcum porphyrae, Oltmannsiellopsis unicellularis, Achnanthes longipes, Navicula sp. and Amphora coffeaeformis) collected from three habitats (freshwater, tidal pool, and coastal benthic) at Jeju Island in Korea were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Of the extracts tested, the AMG 300 L (an exo 1, 4-alpha-D-glucosidase) extract of P. duplex, the Viscozyme extract of Navicula sp., and the Celluclast extract of A. longipes provided the most potential as antioxidants. Meanwhile, the Termamyl extract of P. duplex in an H(2)O(2) scavenging assay exhibited an approximate 60% scavenging effect. In this study, we report that the DNA damage inhibitory effects of P. duplex (Termamyl extract) and D. fascicularis (Kojizyme extract) were nearly 80% and 69% respectively at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Thus, it is suggested that the microalgae tested in this study yield promising DNA damage inhibitory properties on mouse lymphoma L 5178 cells that are treated with H(2)O(2). Therefore, microalgae such as P. duplex may be an excellent source of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds with potent DNA damage inhibition potential.

  15. Visible light induced H2PO(4)(-) removal over CuAlO2 catalyst.

    Benreguia, N; Omeiri, S; Bellal, B; Trari, M


    The delafossite CuAlO(2) is successfully used for the visible light driven H(2)PO(4)(-) reduction. It is prepared from the nitrates decomposition in order to increase the ratio of reaction surface per given mass. CuAlO(2) is a narrow band gap semiconductor which exhibits a good chemical stability with a corrosion rate of 1.70 μmol year(-1) at neutral pH. The flat band potential (+0.25 V(SCE)) is determined from the Mott-Schottky characteristic. Hence, the conduction band, positioned at (-1.19 V(SCE)), lies below the H(2)PO(4)(-) level yielding a spontaneous reduction under visible illumination. The photocatalytic process is investigated under mild conditions and 30% conversion occurs in less than ~6h with a quantum efficiency of 0.04% under full light. The concentration decreases by a factor of 39% after a second cycle. The photoactivity follows a first order kinetic with a rate constant of 6.6 × 10(-2)h(-1). The possibility of identifying the reaction products via the intensity-potential characteristics is explored. The decrease of the conversion rate over illumination time is due to the competitive water reduction.

  16. Hugoniot Information for Bromonitromethane, Isopropyl Nitrate, and 90 wt% H_2O_2

    Sheffield, Stephen A.; Davis, Lloyd; Engelke, Ray


    Hugoniot curves and related information are reported for three liquid explosives: bromonitromethane (BrNM), isopropyl nitrate (IPN), and 90/10 wt% hydrogen peroxide/water (H_2O_2). Hugoniot curves were determined using the measured sound speeds and the universal liquid Hugoniot empirical form(Woolfolk, R. W.; Cowperthwaite, M.; Shaw, R. Thermochimica Acta,) 1973, 5, 409-414. which only requires the initial sound speed as a parameter. We measured sound speeds for these liquids. In addition, gas gun experiments were conducted to determine experimental Hugoniot states for BrNM and IPN. Magnetic gauges were used to measure the input particle velocity and to track the shock front (a shock velocity measurement), providing the necessary information to determine a Hugoniot state. These measured states were compared to those predicted using the universal liquid Hugoniot and agreement was found to be very good. Using the calculated Hugoniot curves and the detonation velocities for IPN and H_2O_2, von Neumann spike detonation conditions were estimated and compared to nitromethane (NM). BrNM was also found to be more sensitive to shock initiation than neat NM.

  17. Photodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds in aqueous solutions in the UV/H2O2 process

    CHEN Bing; YANG Chun; GOH Ngoh Khang


    Photodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenols in aqueous solutions by means of UV/H2 O2 process was studied in the Rayox batch reactors. Three nitrophenol isomers were identified as main photoproducts in the irradiated NB aqueous solutions. The distribution of nitrophenol isomers follows the order p-> m-> o-nitrophenol. Other intermediates detected include nitrohydroquinone, nitrocatechol,catechol, benzoquinone, phenol, nitrate/nitrite ions, formic acid, glyoxylic acid, maleic acid, oxalic acid and some aliphatic ketones and aldehydes. The degradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenols at initial stages follows the first-order kinetics and the decay rate constants for nitrobenzene(NB) are around 10-3- 10-2 s-1 and for nitrophenols are around 10-2 s-1. The decomposition of H2 O2 in the presence of NB and each nitrophenol isomers follows zero-order kinetics. The quantum yields at initial stages for NB decay were estimated around 0.30 to 0.36, and for NPs decay is around 0.31-0.54.

  18. Treatment of an industrial stream containing vinylcyclohexene by the H2O2/UV process.

    Gonçalves, Lenise V F; Azevedo, Eduardo B; de Aquino-Neto, Francisco R; Bila, Daniele M; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Márcia


    Petrochemical industries generate wastewaters containing pollutants that can severely impact the biological treatment systems. Some streams from specific production units may contain nonbiodegradable or toxic compounds that impair the performance of the wastewater treatment plant and should be segregated and treated by specific techniques. In this work, the utilization of chemical oxidation (H2O2/UV) was investigated for removing 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) from a liquid stream coming from the production of hydroxylated liquid polybutadiene (HLPB). Besides VCH, this stream also contains ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and many other organic compounds. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale photochemical reactor (0.7 L) using a 25-W low-pressure mercury vapor lamp. The photochemical reactor was operated in batch, and the reaction times were comprised between 10 and 60 min. Assays were also performed with a synthetic medium containing VCH, H2O2, and ethanol to investigate the removal of these substances in a less complex aqueous matrix. By-products formed in the reaction were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). VCH was significantly removed by the oxidation process, in most assays to undetectable levels. Ethanol removal varied from 16 to 23 % depending on the reaction conditions. Acetic acid, acetaldehyde, and diols were detected as by-products of the industrial wastewater stream oxidation. A drop on the toxicity of the industrial stream was also observed in assays using the organism Artemia salina.

  19. Catalytic decolorization of Acid blue 29 dye by H2O2 and a heterogeneous catalyst

    Ibrahim A. Salem


    Full Text Available The montmorillonite K10-Cu(IIethylenediamine (MMTK10-Cu(en2 catalyst has been prepared by intercalation of copper-ethylenediamine [Cu(en2]2+ complex onto the montmorillonite K10. The intercalation process is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements. The decolorization of the Acid blue29 was conducted using MMTK10-Cu(en2 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The effect of reactants concentrations and the temperature on the decolorization efficiency was studied. It was found that the efficiency of decolorization process increases with increasing the concentration of H2O2 and the dye and the temperature. The results indicated that complete removal of AB29 was achieved in 15 min when the concentrations of H2O2 and AB29 were 0.4 and 5 × 10−5 M respectively and 0.1 g of the catalyst at 30 °C. The activation parameters of the decolorization process were determined. Two possible mechanisms were proposed.

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase silencing protects against H2O2-induced cell death.

    Blenn, Christian; Althaus, Felix R; Malanga, Maria


    PAR [poly(ADP-ribose)] is a structural and regulatory component of multiprotein complexes in eukaryotic cells. PAR catabolism is accelerated under genotoxic stress conditions and this is largely attributable to the activity of a PARG (PAR glycohydrolase). To overcome the early embryonic lethality of parg-knockout mice and gain more insights into the biological functions of PARG, we used an RNA interference approach. We found that as little as 10% of PARG protein is sufficient to ensure basic cellular functions: PARG-silenced murine and human cells proliferated normally through several subculturing rounds and they were able to repair DNA damage induced by sublethal doses of H2O2. However, cell survival following treatment with higher concentrations of H2O2 (0.05-1 mM) was increased. In fact, PARG-silenced cells were more resistant than their wild-type counterparts to oxidant-induced apoptosis while exhibiting delayed PAR degradation and transient accumulation of ADP-ribose polymers longer than 15-mers at early stages of drug treatment. No difference was observed in response to the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, suggesting a specific involvement of PARG in the cellular response to oxidative DNA damage.

  1. Synthesis, Properties and Crystal Structure of a Novel Coordinated Polymer: {(H2en)(H3O)[(BiPb(C2O4)4(H2O)2)]·2(H2O)}n

    GUO Wen-Jun; ZHANG Han-Hui; HUANG Chang-Cang; SUN Rui-Qing; CHEN Yi-Ping; CAO Yan-Ning


    A novel oxalate compound {(H2en)(H3O)[BiPb(C2O4)4(H2O)2]·2(H2O)}n 1 (en = ethylenediamine) containing lead and bismuth has been synthesized by hydrothermal methods, and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 11.6160(1), b = 12.7426(1), c = 15.5683(5) (A), β = 108.442(4)°, BiPbC10N2O21H21, Mr = 921.46, V = 2186.0(4) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 2.800 g/cm3, F(000) = 1712 and μ(MoKα) = 15.837 mm-1. The final R = 0.0502 and wR = 0.1261 for 3391 observed reflections with I > 2(σI). The title com- pound consists of 2-D polyanions and protonized organic amine cations, and they are combined to each other by static attractive force and H-bonds to form the so-called organic-inorganic hybrid material.

  2. Removal of phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds from waste activated sludge using UV, H2O2, and UV/H2O2 oxidation processes: effects of reaction conditions and sludge matrix.

    Zhang, Ai; Li, Yongmei


    Removal of six phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estriol, bisphenol A, and 4-nonylphenols) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using ultraviolet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the combined UV/H2O2 processes. Effects of initial EDC concentration, H2O2 dosage, and pH value were investigated. Particularly, the effects of 11 metal ions and humic acid (HA) contained in a sludge matrix on EDC degradation were evaluated. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model was used to describe the EDC degradation during UV, H2O2, and UV/H2O2 treatments of WAS. The results showed that the degradation of the 6 EDCs during all the three oxidation processes fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetics. Compared with the sole UV irradiation or H2O2 oxidation process, UV/H2O2 treatment was much more effective for both EDC degradation and WAS solubilization. Under their optimal conditions, the EDC degradation rate constants during UV/H2O2 oxidation were 45-197 times greater than those during UV irradiation and 11-53 times greater than those during H2O2 oxidation. High dosage of H2O2 and low pH were favorable for the degradation of EDCs. Under the conditions of pH = 3, UV wavelength = 253.7 nm, UV fluence rate = 0.069 mW cm(-2), and H2O2 dosage = 0.5 mol L(-1), the removal efficiencies of E1, E2, EE2, E3, BPA, and NP in 2 min were 97%, 92%, 95%, 94%, 89%, and 67%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical (OH) was proved to take the most important role for the removal of EDCs. Metal ions in sludge could facilitate the removal of EDCs during UV/H2O2 oxidation. Fe, Ag, and Cu ions had more obvious effects compared with other metal ions. The overall role of HA was dependent on the balance between its competition as organics and its catalysis/photosensitization effects. These indicate that the sludge matrix plays an important role in the degradation of EDCs.

  3. Comparisons of multilayer H2O adsorption onto the (110) surfaces of alpha-TiO2 and SnO2 as calculated with density functional theory.

    Bandura, Andrei V; Kubicki, James D; Sofo, Jorge O


    Mono- and bilayer adsorption of H2O molecules on TiO2 and SnO 2 (110) surfaces has been investigated using static planewave density functional theory (PW DFT) simulations. Potential energies and structures were calculated for the associative, mixed, and dissociative adsorption states. The DOS of the bare and hydrated surfaces has been used for the analysis of the difference between the H2O interaction with TiO2 and SnO 2 surfaces. The important role of the bridging oxygen in the H2O dissociation process is discussed. The influence of the second layer of H2O molecules on relaxation of the surface atoms was estimated.

  4. Analysis of Global Expression Profiles of Arabidopsis Genes Under Abscisic Acid and H2O2 Applications

    Peng-Cheng Wang; Yan-Yan Du; Guo-Yong An; Yun Zhou; Chen Miao; Chun-Peng Song


    To gain insight into the coordination of gene expression profiles under abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 applications,global changes in gene expression in response to ABA and H2O2 in Arabidopsis seedlings were investigated using GeneChip (Santa Clara, CA, USA) arrays. Among over 24 000 genes present in the arrays, 459 transcripts were found to be significantly increased, whereas another 221 decreased following H2O2 treatment compared with control. Similar to treatment with H2O2, ABA treatment elevated the transcription of 391 genes and repressed that of 322 genes. One hundred and forty-three upregulated genes and 75 downregulated genes were shared between the two treatments and these genes were mainly involved in metabolism, signal transduction, transcription, defense, and resistance. Only two genes, which encode an APETALA2/dehydration-responsive element binding protein (AP2/DREBP) family transcriptional factor and a late embryogenesisabundant protein, were downregulated by H2O2, but upregulated by ABA. These results suggest that, similar to ABA, H2O2 plays a global role in gene transcription of Arabidopsisseedlings. The transcriptional responses induced by the application of exogenous ABA and H2O2 overlapped substantially. These two treatments regulated most of the downstream genes in a coordinated manner.

  5. Systemic induction of H2O2 in pea seedlings pretreated by wounding and exogenous jasmonic acid

    LIU; Yan; HUANG; Weidong; ZHAN; Jicheng; PAN; Qiuhong


    Pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) were used as materials to test the timings and compartments of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) triggered by wounding and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA). The results showed that H2O2 could be systemically induced by wounding and exogenous JA. H2O2 increased within 1 h and reached the peak 3-5 h after wounding in either the wounded leaves or the unwounded leaves adjacent to the wounded ones and the inferior leaves far from the wounded ones. After this, H2O2 decreased and recovered to the control level 12 h after wounding. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, however, were rapidly increased by wounding.Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, could significantly inhibit H2O2 burst that was mediated by wounding and exogenous JA. Assay of H2O2 subcellular location showed that H2O2 in response to wounding and exogenous JA was predominantly accumulated in plasma membrane, cell wall and apoplasmic space. Numerous JA (gold particles) was found via immunogold electron microscopy to be located in cell wall and phloem zones of mesophyll cell after wounding.

  6. MAP kinase specifically mediates the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L

    JIANG Jing; AN Guoyong; WANG Pengcheng; WANG Pengtao; HAN Jinfeng; JIA Yanbin; SONG Chunpeng


    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is involved in ABA- or H2O2-signaling, and H2O2 acts as intermediate in the downstream of ABA signal transduction pathway, which has recently emerged as a secondary messenger of ABA signaling. Using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser scanning confocal microscope, we provided the first evidence that MAP kinase plays an important role in H2O2 signal initial, amplification and specific targeting in response to stimuli in guard cells. ABA- or H2O2-induced Vicia faba stomatal closure was inhibited or reversed by the specific inhibitor PD98059 of MEK1/2; the guard cells were pre-incubated or -microinjected by 10 (mol·L-1 PD98059, ABA could not enhance the fluorescence intensity of H2O2 probe dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Meanwhile, after ABA induced the H2O2 accumulation in guard cells, the exogenous or intracellular PD98059 could reduce the DCF fluorescence intensity. Most interestingly, on the contrary to ABA, the DCF fluorescence intensity of guard cells treated by 100 (mol·L-1 salicylic acid (SA) was not down-regulated by PD98059, yet PD98059 did not regulate the stomatal movement being induced by light, dark or salicylic acid. These results suggest that MEK1/2 could mediate stomatal closure by abolishing the ABA-induced H2O2 generation/accumula- tion in the specific manner.

  7. Combination of sunlight irradiated oxidative processes for landfill leachate: heterogeneous catalysis (TiO2 versus homogeneous catalysis (H2O2

    Oswaldo Luiz Cobra Guimarães


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the treatment of landfill leachate liquid in nature, after the use of a combination of advanced oxidation processes. More specifically, it compared heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2 to homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, both under photo-irradiated sunlight. The liquid used for the study was the leachate from the landfill of the city of Cachoeira Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in a semi-batch reactor open to the absorption of solar UV radiation, with 120 min reaction time. The factors and their respective levels (-1, 0 and 1 were distributed in a experimental design 24-1 with duplicate and triplicate in the central point, resulting in an array with 19 treatment trials. The studied factors in comparing the two catalytic processes were: liquid leachate dilution, TiO2 concentration on the reactor plate, the H2O2 amount and pH level. The leachate had low photo-catalytic degradability, with NOPC reductions ranging from 1% to a maximum of 24.9%. When considering each factor alone, neither homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, nor heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2, could degrade the percolated liquid without significant reductions (5% level in total NOPC. On the other hand, the combined use of homogenous catalysis with H2O2 and heterogeneous catalysis H2O2 resulted in the greatest reductions in NOPC. The optimum condition for the NOPC reduction was obtained at pH 7, dilution of percolated:water at 1:1 (v v-1 rate; excess of 12.5% H2O2 and coating plate reactor with 0.025 g cm-2 TiO2.

  8. Metformin selectively attenuates mitochondrial H2O2 emission without affecting respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle of obese rats.

    Kane, Daniel A; Anderson, Ethan J; Price, Jesse W; Woodlief, Tracey L; Lin, Chien-Te; Bikman, Benjamin T; Cortright, Ronald N; Neufer, P Darrell


    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, although no cellular mechanism of action has been established. To determine whether in vivo metformin treatment alters mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, respiratory O(2) flux and H(2)O(2) emission were measured in saponin-permeabilized myofibers from lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats treated for 4 weeks with metformin. Succinate- and palmitoylcarnitine-supported respiration generated greater than twofold higher rates of H(2)O(2) emission in myofibers from untreated obese versus lean rats, indicative of an obesity-associated increased mitochondrial oxidant emitting potential. In conjunction with improved glycemic control, metformin treatment reduced H(2)O(2) emission in muscle from obese rats to rates near or below those observed in lean rats during both succinate- and palmitoylcarnitine-supported respiration. Surprisingly, metformin treatment did not affect basal or maximal rates of O(2) consumption in muscle from obese or lean rats. Ex vivo dose-response experiments revealed that metformin inhibits complex I-linked H(2)O(2) emission at a concentration approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than that required to inhibit respiratory O(2) flux. These findings suggest that therapeutic concentrations of metformin normalize mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission by blocking reverse electron flow without affecting forward electron flow or respiratory O(2) flux in skeletal muscle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Property value estimation for inhaled therapeutic binary gas mixtures: He, Xe, N2O, and N2 with O2

    Katz Ira


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The property values of therapeutic gas mixtures are important in designing devices, defining delivery parameters, and in understanding the therapeutic effects. In the medical related literature the vast majority of articles related to gas mixtures report property values only for the pure substances or estimates based on concentration weighted averages. However, if the molecular size or structures of the component gases are very different a more accurate estimate should be considered. Findings In this paper estimates based on kinetic theory are provided of density, viscosity, mean free path, thermal conductivity, specific heat at constant pressure, and diffusivity over a range of concentrations of He-O2, Xe-O2, N2O-O2 and N2-O2 mixtures at room (or normal and body temperature, 20 and 37°C, respectively and at atmospheric pressure. Conclusions Property value estimations have been provided for therapeutic gas mixtures and compared to experimental values obtained from the literature where possible.

  10. The synergistic effects of atrazine degradation with H2O2 photocatalyzed by TiO2-Fe3+ under visible irradiation%TiO2-Fe3+可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津的协同效应

    唐建军; 邹原


    以内分泌干扰物阿特拉津为模型污染物,研究了TiO2-Fe3+可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津的协同效应.结果表明,在H2O2存在条件下,金红石TiO2经可见光激发可持续稳定地产生·OH自由基,在Fe3+协同作用下,·OH自由基生成量急剧增加;TiO2能可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津,金红石TiO2显示出较锐钛矿TiO2及混晶TiO2(TiO2P25)更高的催化活性,反应60 min,阿特拉津的降解率可达40%;以Fe3+协同TiO2可见光催化H2O2降解阿特拉津时,反应效率显著加快,反应5 min即对阿特拉津的降解率达到100%,而金红石TiO2显示出更为明显的协同效应.%The synergistic effects of atrazine degradation with H2O2 photocatalyzed by TiO2-Fe + were studied. The results indicated that·OH radicals could be constantly produced by rutile TiO2 under visible irradiation with H2O2 addition, and the generation of ·OH radicals increased sharply with the synergistic addition of Fe + . Atrazine could be degradated by TiO2 visible - light photocatalysis with H2O2 addition. Rutile TiO2 exhibited a better photocatalytic activity than anatase and mixed crystal TiO2 (TiO2 P25) , and its degradation ratio could be 40% after 60 minutes reaction. Synergistic degradation of atrazine with H2O2 photocatalyzed by TiO2-Fe3+ was evidently fast with complete degradation after 5 minutes reaction, and rutile TiO2 showed more evident synergistic effects.

  11. In vitro biocompatibility of titanium-nickel alloy with titanium oxide film by H2O2 oxidation

    HU Tao; CHU Cheng-lin; YIN Li-hong; PU Yao-pu; DONG Yin-sheng; GUO Chao; SHENG Xiao-bo; CHUNG Jonathan-CY; CHU Paul-K


    Titanium oxide film with a graded interface to NiTi matrix was synthesized in situ on NiTi shape memory alloy(SMA) by oxidation in H2O2 solution. In vitro studies including contact angle measurement, hemolysis, MTT cytotoxicity and cell morphology tests were employed to investigate the biocompatibility of the H2O2-oxidized NiTi SMAs with this titanium oxide film. The results reveal that wettability, blood compatibility and fibroblasts compatibility of NiTi SMA are improved by the coating of titanium oxide film through H2O2 oxidation treatment.

  12. UV+O3+H2O2法处理活性染料废水的研究%A research on the reactive dye wastewater treatment using UV+O3+H2O2 method

    戴晓红; 田俊莹; 姚晓庆



  13. Oxidation of Alkenes with H2O2 by an in-Situ Prepared Mn(II)/Pyridine-2-carboxylic Acid Catalyst and the Role of Ketones in Activating H2O2

    Dong, Jia Jia; Saisaha, Pattama; Meinds, Tim G.; Alsters, Paul L.; Ijpeij, Edwin G.; van Summeren, Ruben P.; Mao, Bin; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; de Boer, Johannes W.; Hage, Ronald; Feringa, Ben L.; Browne, Wesley R.


    A simple, high yielding catalytic method for the multigram scale selective epoxidation of electron-rich alkenes using near-stoichiometric H2O2 under ambient conditions is reported. The system consists of a Mn(II) salt (


    陆兰晶; 曾鸿鹄; 王宝亮; 唐玉芳; 乔凤美


    利用MW/H2O2高级氧化技术处理水中微量硝基苯(NB),研究了该工艺对硝基苯的去除效果,分析了微波功率、H2O2投加量、硝基苯初始质量浓度、水中普遍存在的腐植酸和碳酸氢根对MW/H2O2工艺降解硝基苯的影响.结果表明,MW/H2O2工艺在处理2L初始质量浓度为300 μg·L-1的硝基苯时效果显著,32 min后NB去除率就达88.5%,远高于单独H2O2氧化或单独的微波辐射.试验中该工艺最佳微波功率为300W,随H2O2投加量和NB初始质量浓度的增加,MW/H2O2对NB的去除率先增后减,但单位H2O2降解NB的量始终随着NB初始质量浓度的增加而增大.腐植酸对MW/H2O2氧化降解硝基苯有显著的抑制作用,但HCO3-却对硝基苯的氧化降解有一定的促进作用.%The removal of trace nitrobenzene (NB) in water using the microwave-enhanced H2O2-based (MW/H2O2) process and the influencing factors were investigated. Effects of microwave power, H2O2 dosage, NB initial concentration, humic acid and HCO3 on the efficiency degradation of NB were studied. The results showed that MW/H2O2 process in dealing with 2 L wastewater was favorable for enhancing the removal of NB. The NB removal rate reached 88.5% at NB initial concentration of 300 ug·L-1 for a 32 min reaction time, which was much higher than the situations when microwave irradiation process and H2O2 oxidation were used separately. The optimum MW power of this experiment was 300 W. The removal of NB increased firstly then decreased with the increase of H2O2 dosage and initial concentrations of NB, while the amount of NB degraded by unit H2O2 was directly proportional to initial concentrations of NB. Humic acid significantly inhibited the removal of NB. However, HCO3', usually an inhibitor present in natural water, enhanced the removal of NB over a certain range.

  15. Aclimatação ao estresse salino em plantas de arroz induzida pelo pré-tratamento com H2O2 Salt stress acclimation in rice plants induced by H2O2 pretreatment

    Fabricio E. L. Carvalho


    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da aplicação exógena de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 na aclimatação ao estresse salino com base nas alterações fotossintéticas, indicadores de estresse oxidativo e atividade de enzimas antioxidativas em folhas de plantas de arroz. Utilizaram-se duas diferentes concentrações de H2O2 (1 e 10 μM para o pré-tratamento, concentrações essas aplicadas na solução nutritiva dois dias antes da indução do estresse salino (100 μM de NaCl. A limitação fotossintética e estomática resultante da exposição ao NaCl foi amenizada quando as plantas foram pré-tratadas com 1 μM de H2O2. Plantas expostas ao pré-tratamento com H2O2 e expostas ao NaCl apresentaram dano de membrana menor quando comparadas com as plantas submetidas ao NaCl isoladamente. O conteúdo de TBARS e H2O2 foi reduzido sensivelmente nas plantas pré-tratadas com 1 μM de H2O2 e expostas ao NaCl em relação às que não foram pré-tratadas. O sistema antioxidativo enzimático nas plantas expostas ao NaCl foi induzido principalmente quando ocorreu o pré-tratamento com 1 μM de H2O2. Os dados sugerem que exposição prévia ao H2O2, pode resultar numa aclimatação mais efetiva às condições de estresse salino.The effect of exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the acclimation to salt stress was studied on the basis of photosynthetic changes, indicators of oxidative stress and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of rice plants. Two different concentrations of the H2O2 (1 and 10 μM were used for the pre-treatment, these concentrations were applied in the nutrient solution two days before the induction of salt stress (100 μM NaCl. The photosynthetic and stomatal limitations after exposure to NaCl were alleviated when the plants were pretreated with 1 μM H2O2. Plants pretreated with H2O2 and submitted to salt stress showed membrane damage lower in compared to plants exposed to NaCl alone. TBARS and H2O2 content was reduced


    吴祖成; 李伟


    In this paper, the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater is studied by using UV/H2O2 system in a bench scale. The influence factors including concentration of H2O2 and phenol, pH, and some metal ions are investigated. The addition of H2O2 was favorable to the removal of phenol, however, the excess of H2O2 does not significantly affect the removal efficiency. It has shown that changes in reaction rates are rather insignificant over a wide pH range from 3 to 8. The co-existence of metal ions has significant influence upon the photocatalytic reaction rates, Fe2+ increases the reaction rates, but Co2O3 and Zn2+ given negative results. The mechanism of the reaction process is also discussed with chromatograms of phenol and its intermediate products.

  17. The Degradation of p-Nitrochlorobenzene in Aqueous Solution by TiO2/UV/O2 and TiO2/UV/N2 System%TiO2/UV/O2和TiO2/UV/N2体系降解水中对氯硝基苯

    叶苗苗; 陈忠林; 沈吉敏; 贲岳



  18. Effects of H2O2 Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Grass Pea%H2O2胁迫对山黧豆生理生化指标的影响



    用不同浓度H2O2的水培液处理7d山黧豆幼苗24 h,分析山黧豆叶片鲜质量、H2O2O2-组织化学定位、丙二醛(MDA)与抗坏血酸(ASA)质量摩尔浓度和过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)及抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)的活性变化,研究H2O2诱导氧化胁迫下山黧豆叶片的生理应答特征,揭示山黧豆叶片对氧化胁迫的耐受机制.结果显示:与对照组相比,5 mmol·L-1和10 mmol·L-1 H2O2处理组叶片鲜质量无显著变化,20 mmol·L-1 H2O2处理叶片鲜质量显著降低.山黧豆叶绿素a、叶绿素b和类胡萝卜素的质量分数并无显著变化.随外源H2O2处理浓度不断增加,叶片组织内源O2-染色范围和程度呈明显减少趋势,H2O2染色范围和程度呈先增加后减少趋势.H2O2与MDA积累水平也呈现先增加后减少的趋势;山黧豆叶片中CAT、POD与APX的活性均表现先升高后降低的趋势,而ASA质量摩尔浓度则呈现先降低后上升的趋势.研究表明,叶片内H2O2和MDA水平变化与抗氧化酶的活性变化均处于动态平衡中并呈现一致变化趋势,低浓度H2O2处理可以提高山黧豆抗氧化酶的活性.

  19. Stress response and tolerance of Zea mays to CeO2 nanoparticles: cross talk among H2O2, heat shock protein, and lipid peroxidation.

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peng, Bo; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Rico, Cyren; Sun, Youping; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Tang, Xiaolei; Niu, Genhua; Jin, Lixin; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Zhang, Jian-ying; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L


    The rapid development of nanotechnology will inevitably release nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment with unidentified consequences. In addition, the potential toxicity of CeO(2) NPs to plants and the possible transfer into the food chain are still unknown. Corn plants (Zea mays) were germinated and grown in soil treated with CeO(2) NPs at 400 or 800 mg/kg. Stress-related parameters, such as H(2)O(2), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), lipid peroxidation, cell death, and leaf gas exchange were analyzed at 10, 15, and 20 days post-germination. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image H(2)O(2) distribution in corn leaves. Results showed that the CeO(2) NP treatments increased accumulation of H(2)O(2), up to day 15, in phloem, xylem, bundle sheath cells and epidermal cells of shoots. The CAT and APX activities were also increased in the corn shoot, concomitant with the H(2)O(2) levels. Both 400 and 800 mg/kg CeO(2) NPs triggered the up-regulation of the HSP70 in roots, indicating a systemic stress response. None of the CeO(2) NPs increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, indicating that no lipid peroxidation occurred. CeO(2) NPs, at both concentrations, did not induce ion leakage in either roots or shoots, suggesting that membrane integrity was not compromised. Leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were not affected by CeO(2) NPs. Our results suggest that the CAT, APX, and HSP70 might help the plants defend against CeO(2) NP-induced oxidative injury and survive NP exposure.

  20. Quantum tunneling during interstellar surface-catalyzed formation of water: the reaction H + H$_2$O$_2$ $\\rightarrow$ H$_2$O + OH

    Lamberts, Thanja; Köhn, Andreas; Kästner, Johannes


    The final step of the water formation network on interstellar grain surfaces starting from the H + O$_2$ route is the reaction between H and H$_2$O$_2$. This reaction is known to have a high activation energy and therefore at low temperatures it can only proceed via tunneling. To date, however, no rate constants are available at temperatures below 200 K. In this work, we use instanton theory to compute rate constants for the title reaction with and without isotopic substitutions down to temperatures of 50 K. The calculations are based on density functional theory, with additional benchmarks for the activation energy using unrestricted single-reference and multireference coupled-cluster single-point energies. Gas-phase bimolecular rate constants are calculated and compared with available experimental data not only for H + H$_2$O$_2$ $\\rightarrow$ H$_2$O + OH, but also for H + H$_2$O$_2$ $\\rightarrow$ H$_2$ + HO$_2$. We find a branching ratio where the title reaction is favored by at least two orders of magnitu...

  1. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.


    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopic properties of a supramolecular zinc(II) complex with N2O2 coordination sphere.

    Dong, Wen-Kui; Zhang, Li-Sha; Sun, Yin-Xia; Zhao, Meng-Meng; Li, Gang; Dong, Xiu-Yan


    A new hexa-coordinated zinc(II) complex, namely [ZnL(H2O)2]n, with N2O2 coordination sphere (H2L=4,4'-dibromo-6,6'-dichloro-2,2'-[ethylenedioxybis(nitrilomethylidyne)]diphenol) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis spectra and TG-DTA analyses, etc. Crystallographic data are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a=24.634(2)Å, b=10.144(1)Å, c=7.9351(6)Å, β=91.371(2)°, V=1982.4(3)Å(3), Dc=2.099 g/cm(3), Z=4. The zinc(II) complex exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with halogen-substituted Salen-type bisoxime forming the basal N2O2 coordination sphere and two oxygen atoms from two coordinated water molecules in the axial position. The hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions have stabilized the zinc(II) complex molecules to form a self-assembling infinite dual metal-water chain-like structure with the nearest Zn⋯Zn distance of 4.954(4)Å.

  3. Experimental Study on UV/Mn2+-Fe3+/H2O2 for Wastewater Treatment%UV/Mn2+-Fe3+/H2O2处理染料废水的实验研究



    研究了常温常压下UV/Mn2+-Fe3+/H2O2光催化非均相反应体系处理偶氮染料模拟废水的特性,并与UV-Mn2+/H2O2、UV/Fe2+/H2O2等体系处理染料废水的效果进行了对比;考察了Mn2+、Fe2+、Fe3+、H2O2投加量对UV/Mn2+-Fe3+/H2O2反应体系处理染料废水的影响.结果表明,UV/Mn2+-Fe3+/H2O2反应体系具有良好的催化氧化作用,在20 w紫外光照射下,100 mg·L-1的直接大红D-GLN在反应20 min时,降解效率高达到90%以上.

  4. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2H2 discharges

    Suraj, K.S; Alex, Prince


    .... The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2...

  5. Decolorization of some azo dyes by direct photolysis and H2O2/UV processes

    Keiko Takashima


    Full Text Available The decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO7, direct orange 34 (DO 34, direct red 23 (DR23 and direct yellow 86 (DY86 azo dyes was investigated by direct photolysis and hydrogen peroxide-assisted photodegradation respectively in closed and open reactor to the atmosphere under UV radiation at natural pHs and 30 ºC. Four azo dyes decolorization (1,5x10-4 mol L-1 was not significant in presence of H2O2 in closed reactor during 3 h irradiation, whereas in open reactor, the decolorization was respectively 96, 82, 32, and 45% for AO7, DO34, DR23 and DY86. The decolorization by direct photolysis in open reactor was significantly higher in comparison to closed one.

  6. Thorium divanadate dihydrate, Th(V2O7(H2O2

    Mohamed Saadi


    Full Text Available The title compound, Th(V2O7(H2O2, was synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction. The crystal structure consists of ThO7(OH22 tricapped trigonal prisms that share edges, forming [ThO5(OH22]n chains along [010]. The edge-sharing ThO7(OH22 polyhedra share one edge and five vertices with the V2O7 divanadate anions having a nearly ecliptic conformation parallel to [001]. This results in an open framework with the water molecules located in channels. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between water molecules and framework O atoms is observed. Bond-valence-sum calculations are in good agreement with the chemical formula of the title compound.

  7. Simultaneous measurements of photocurrents and H2O2 evolution from solvent exposed photosystem 2 complexes.

    Vöpel, Tobias; Ning Saw, En; Hartmann, Volker; Williams, Rhodri; Müller, Frank; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Plumeré, Nicolas; Nowaczyk, Marc; Ebbinghaus, Simon; Rögner, Matthias


    In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem 2 (PS2) catalyzes the light driven oxidation of water. The main products of this reaction are protons and molecular oxygen. In vitro, however, it was demonstrated that reactive oxygen species like hydrogen peroxide are obtained as partially reduced side products. The transition from oxygen to hydrogen peroxide evolution might be induced by light triggered degradation of PS2's active center. Herein, the authors propose an analytical approach to investigate light induced bioelectrocatalytic processes such as PS2 catalyzed water splitting. By combining chronoamperometry and fluorescence microscopy, the authors can simultaneously monitor the photocurrent and the hydrogen peroxide evolution of light activated, solvent exposed PS2 complexes, which have been immobilized on a functionalized gold electrode. The authors show that under limited electron mediation PS2 displays a lower photostability that correlates with an enhanced H2O2 generation as a side product of the light induced water oxidation.

  8. Perfusion culture process plus H2O2 stimulation for efficient astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Liu, Yuan Shuai; Wu, Jian Yong


    A semicontinuous perfusion culture process (repeated medium renewal with cell retention) was evaluated together with batch and repeated fed-batch processes for astaxanthin production in shake-flask cultures of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The perfusion process with 25% medium renewal every 12 h for 10 days achieved a biomass density of 65.6 g/L, a volumetric astaxanthin yield of 52.5 mg/L, and an astaxanthin productivity of 4.38 mg/L-d, which were 8.4-fold, 5.6-fold, and 2.3-fold of those in the batch process, 7.8 g/L, 9.4 mg/L, and 1.88 mg/L-d, respectively. The incorporation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stimulation of astaxanthin biosynthesis into the perfusion process further increased the astaxanthin yield to 58.3 mg/L and the productivity to 4.86 mg/L-d. The repeated fed-batch process with 8 g/L glucose and 4 g/L corn steep liquor fed every 12 h achieved 42.2 g/L biomass density, 36.5 mg/L astaxanthin yield, and 3.04 mg/L-d astaxanthin productivity. The lower biomass and astaxanthin productivity in the repeated fed-batch than in the perfusion process may be mostly attributed to the accumulation of inhibitory metabolites such as ethanol and acetic acid in the culture. The study shows that perfusion process plus H(2)O(2) stimulation is an effective strategy for enhanced astaxanthin production in X. dendrorhous cultures.

  9. Study of reactive blue 171 dye degradation in hybrid system of UV/H2O2 & SBAR

    leila Moradi Pasand


    Conclusion: According to the results, because of complexity of dye structure, biological system was not able to remove the dye as efficient as hybrid system of advanced oxidation processes UV/H2O2 with SBAR.

  10. Analysis of environmental stress in plants with the aid of marker genes for H2O2 responses.

    Hieno, Ayaka; Naznin, Hushna Ara; Sawaki, Katsunobu; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yusaku; Ishino, Haruka; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y


    Hydrogen peroxide acts as a signaling molecule mediating the acquisition of tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of marker genes for H2O2 response could help to intercept the signaling network of stress response of plants. Here, we describe application of marker genes for H2O2 responses to monitoring several abiotic stress responses. Arabidopsis plants were treated with UV-B, high light, and cold stresses, where involvement of H2O2-mediated signaling is known or suggested. Monitoring of these stress responses with molecular markers using quantitative real-time RT-PCR can detect landmark events in the sequential stress responses. These methods can be used for analysis of mutants and transgenic plants to examine natural H2O2 responses that are involved in environmental adaptation.

  11. A green and efficient deoximation using H2O2 catalyzed by montmorillonite-K10 supported COCl2


    Oximes were oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl compounds in good to high yields by environmentally friendly and green oxidant, H2O2 catalyzed by montmorillonite K310 supported cobalt(Ⅱ) chloride.

  12. Ozone production and losses in N2/O2 mixtures in an ozone generator

    Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Poroykov, A. Yu.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Voloshin, D. G.; Chukalovskii, A. A.; Zosimov, A. V.; Lunin, V. V.; Samoilovich, V. G.


    Nonunique ozone concentrations at the output of an ozone generator under identical external conditions of barrier discharge activation of N2/O2 mixtures but with different prehistories of operating practice and employed gas mixtures are investigated theoretically. An analytical approach is developed to determine the ozone yield with regard for its heterogeneous loss. Plasma-chemical and electron kinetics in the N2/O2-mixtures are calculated numerically. The results of numerical calculations are compared to experimental data obtained by the authors. It is noted that the heterogeneous loss of ozone is the probable reason for the observed variety of behavior of O3 concentrations, depending on prehistory of ozone generator operation, along with the N2 and O2 gas flow rates and the specific active power.

  13. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth.

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; den Os, Désirée; Monshausen, Gabriele B; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Bednárová, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj


    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and auxin-resistant mutant, diageotropica (dgt), of tomato (S. lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig') were characterized in terms of root apical meristem and elongation zone histology, expression of the cell-cycle marker gene Sl-CycB1;1, accumulation of ROS, response to auxin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and expression of ROS-related mRNAs. The dgt mutant exhibited histological defects in the root apical meristem and elongation zone and displayed a constitutively increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root tip, part of which was detected in the apoplast. Treatments of wild-type with auxin increased the H2O2 concentration in the root tip in a dose-dependent manner. Auxin and H2O2 elicited similar inhibition of cell elongation while bringing forth differential responses in terms of meristem length and number of cells in the elongation zone. Auxin treatments affected the expression of mRNAs of ROS-scavenging enzymes and less significantly mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The dgt mutation resulted in resistance to both auxin and H2O2 and affected profoundly the expression of mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The results indicate that auxin regulates the level of H2O2 in the root tip, so increasing the auxin level triggers accumulation of H2O2 leading to inhibition of root cell elongation and root growth. The dgt mutation affects this pathway by reducing the auxin responsiveness of tissues and by disrupting the H2O2 homeostasis in the root tip.

  14. Research data supporting "Photoelectrochemical H2 Evolution with a Hydrogenase Immobilized on a TiO2-protected Silicon Electrode"

    Lee, Chong-Yong; Park, Hyun S.; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C.; Reisner, Erwin


    Experimental Raw data supporting publication: Photoelectrochemical H2 Evolution with a Hydrogenase Immobilized on a TiO2-protected Silicon Electrode This research data supports “Photoelectrochemical H2 Evolution with a Hydrogenase Immobilized on a TiO2-protected Silicon Electrode" which has been published in “Angewandte Chemie international edition (English)”. This work was supported by the BBSRC [grant number BB/K010220/1].

  15. Using H2O2 treatments for the degradation of cyanobacteria and microcystins in a shallow hypertrophic reservoir.

    Papadimitriou, Theodoti; Kormas, Konstantinos; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Laspidou, Chrysi


    Toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems constitute a serious health risk worldwide for humans that may use the affected water bodies for recreation, drinking water, and/or irrigation. Cyanotoxins have also been deemed responsible for loss of animal life in many places around the world. This paper explores the effect of H2O2 treatments on cyanobacteria and microcystins in natural samples from a hypertrophic reservoir in microcosm experiments. According to the results, cyanobacteria were more easily affected by H2O2 than by other phytoplanktonic groups. This was shown by the increase in the fractions of chlorophyll-a (a proxy for phytoplankton) and chlorophyll-b (a proxy for green algae) over total phytoplankton pigments and the decrease in the fraction of phycocyanin (a proxy for cyanobacteria) over total phytoplankton pigments. Thus, while an overall increase in phytoplankton occurred, a preferential decrease in cyanobacteria was observed with H2O2 treatments over a few hours. Moreover, significant degradation of total microcystins was observed under H2O2 treatments, while more microcystins were degraded when UV radiation was used in combination with H2O2. The combination of H2O2 and ultraviolet (UV) treatment in natural samples resulted in total microcystin concentrations that were below the World Health Organization limit for safe consumption of drinking water of 1 μg/L. Although further investigation into the effects of H2O2 addition on ecosystem function must be performed, our results show that the application of H2O2 could be a promising method for the degradation of microcystins in reservoirs and the reduction of public health risks related to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms.

  16. Effect of vitamin C on blood picture and some biochemical parameters of quail stressed by H2O2

    A.F. Abdulmajeed


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the Vitamin C protective effect against the H2O2 – induced oxidative stress effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters of female quails (Coturnix coturnix.120 sexed female quails were reared from 21-56 days. Randomly the birds divided into 4 groups (30 birds/group (2 replicates as follows: 1st group: T1 (control: reared on standard ration and tap water.2nd group: T2 (H2O2 group: reared on standard ration and tap water supplemented with 0.5% H2O2. 3rdgroup: T3 (Vitamin C group: reared on standard ration supplemented with 300mg/kg ration and tap water. 4thgroup: T4 (H2O2 + Vitamin C: reared on standard ration supplemented with 300mg/kg ration and tap water supplemented with 0.5% H2O2. Results revealed that Vit. C supplementation improve female quails blood picture, this effects were adversive to the H2O2 effects, Vit. C causes a significant increase in lymphocytes % and a significant decrease in hetrophils and hetrophils: lymphocyte ratio (stress index, also a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as a significant increase in serum protein when compared with the effect of H2O2 – induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, oxidative stress causes a negative effects on blood picture and some serum biochemical parameters, and Vit. C supplementation reduces and reverses the H2O2 effects.

  17. Reduction in central H2O2 levels prevents voluntary ethanol intake in mice: a role for the brain catalase-H2O2 system in alcohol binge drinking.

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Baliño, Pablo; Aragon, Carlos M G


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the cosubstrate used by the enzyme catalase to form Compound I (the catalase-H2 O2 system), which is the major pathway for the conversion of ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde in the brain. This centrally formed acetaldehyde has been shown to be involved in some of the psychopharmacological effects induced by EtOH in rodents, including voluntary alcohol intake. It has been observed that different levels of this enzyme in the central nervous system (CNS) result in variations in the amount of EtOH consumed. This has been interpreted to mean that the brain catalase-H2 O2 system, by determining EtOH metabolism, mediates alcohol self-administration. To date, however, the role of H2 O2 in voluntary EtOH drinking has not been investigated. In the present study, we explored the consequence of a reduction in cerebral H2 O2 levels in volitional EtOH ingestion. With this end in mind, we injected mice of the C57BL/6J strain intraperitoneally with the H2 O2 scavengers alpha-lipoic acid (LA; 0 to 50 mg/kg) or ebselen (Ebs; 0 to 25 mg/kg) 15 or 60 minutes, respectively, prior to offering them an EtOH (10%) solution following a drinking-in-the-dark procedure. The same procedure was followed to assess the selectivity of these compounds in altering EtOH intake by presenting mice with a (0.1%) solution of saccharin. In addition, we indirectly tested the ability of LA and Ebs to reduce brain H2 O2 availability. The results showed that both LA and Ebs dose-dependently reduced voluntary EtOH intake, without altering saccharin consumption. Moreover, we demonstrated that these treatments decreased the central H2 O2 levels available to catalase. Therefore, we propose that the amount of H2 O2 present in the CNS, by determining brain acetaldehyde formation by the catalase-H2 O2 system, could be a factor that determines an animal's propensity to consume EtOH. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Comparative Study of Two Different TiO2 Film Sensors on Response to H2 under UV Light and Room Temperature

    Xiaoying Peng


    Full Text Available An anatase TiO2 film sensor was prepared by a facile in-situ method on the interdigitated Au electrode deposited on the alumina substrate. The structure, morphology and the optical properties of the in-situ TiO2 film sensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photo-assisted gas sensitivities of the prepared film towards H2 gas were evaluated at room temperature in N2 and synthetic air atmospheres. As compared to TiO2 film sensor prepared by drop-coating method, this in-situ TiO2 film sensor exhibited a more compact structure composed of uniform TiO2 microspheres as well as a better gas sensitivity towards H2 under UV irradiation, especially in synthetic air. The photo-electrochemical measurements suggest that these improvements may be associated with the efficient charge transfer in the TiO2 interface induced by the TiO2 microsphere structure. This study might offer a feasible approach to develop photo-assisted gas sensors at ambient temperature.

  19. Comparative Study of Two Different TiO2 Film Sensors on Response to H2 under UV Light and Room Temperature

    Peng, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhongming; Huang, Pan; Chen, Xun; Fu, Xianzhi; Dai, Wenxin


    An anatase TiO2 film sensor was prepared by a facile in-situ method on the interdigitated Au electrode deposited on the alumina substrate. The structure, morphology and the optical properties of the in-situ TiO2 film sensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photo-assisted gas sensitivities of the prepared film towards H2 gas were evaluated at room temperature in N2 and synthetic air atmospheres. As compared to TiO2 film sensor prepared by drop-coating method, this in-situ TiO2 film sensor exhibited a more compact structure composed of uniform TiO2 microspheres as well as a better gas sensitivity towards H2 under UV irradiation, especially in synthetic air. The photo-electrochemical measurements suggest that these improvements may be associated with the efficient charge transfer in the TiO2 interface induced by the TiO2 microsphere structure. This study might offer a feasible approach to develop photo-assisted gas sensors at ambient temperature. PMID:27509502

  20. Enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots-H2O2 by horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme

    Zhang, Junli; Li, Baoxin

    In this study, it was found that horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme could effectively enhance the CL emission of CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-H2O2 system, whereas HRP could not enhance the CL intensity. The CL enhancement mechanism was investigated, and the CL enhancement was supposed to originate from the catalysis of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme on the CL reaction between CdTe QDs and H2O2. Meantime, compared with CdTe QDs-H2O2 CL system, H2O2 concentration was markedly decreased in QDs-H2O2-HRP-mimicking DNAzyme CL system, improving the stability of QDs-H2O2 CL system. The QDs-based CL system was used to detect sensitively CdTe QDs and HRP-mimicking DNAzyme (as biologic labels). This work gives a path for enhancing CL efficiency of QDs system, and will be helpful to promote the step of QDs application in various fields such as bioassay and trace detection of analyte.

  1. Peroxiredoxin I and II inhibit H2O2-induced cell death in MCF-7 cell lines.

    Bae, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Soo-Jung; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young


    Apoptosis is known to be induced by direct oxidative damage due to oxygen-free radicals or hydrogen peroxide or by their generation in cells by the actions of injurious agents. Together with glutathione peroxidase and catalase, peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes play an important role in eliminating peroxides generated during metabolism. We investigated the role of Prx enzymes during cellular response to oxidative stress. Using Prx isoforms-specific antibodies, we investigated the presence of Prx isoforms by immunoblot analysis in cell lysates of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Treatment of MCF-7 with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resulted in the dose-dependent expressions of Prx I and II at the protein and mRNA levels. To investigate the physiologic relevance of the Prx I and II expressions induced by H2O2, we compared the survivals of MCF10A normal breast cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line following exposure to H2O2. The treatment of MCF10A with H2O2 resulted in rapid cell death, whereas MCF-7 was resistant to H2O2. In addition, we found that Prx I and II transfection enabled MCF10A cells to resist H2O2-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Prx I and II have important functions as inhibitors of cell death during cellular response to oxidative stress.

  2. Degradation and antibiotic activity reduction of chloramphenicol in aqueous solution by UV/H2O2 process.

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marco; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto


    The efficacy of the UV/H2O2 process to degrade the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CHL) was investigated at 20 °C using a low-pressure mercury lamp as UV source. A preliminary analysis of CHL degradation showed that the process followed apparent first-order kinetics and that an optimum H2O2 concentration existed for the degradation rate. The first-order rate constant was used as the response variable and its dependence on initial CHL and H2O2 concentrations, UV light intensity and reaction time was investigated by a central composite design based on the response surface methodology. Analysis of response surface plots revealed a large positive effect of radiation intensity, a negative effect of CHL concentration and that there was a region of H2O2 concentration leading to maximum CHL degradation. CHL solutions submitted to the UV/H2O2 process were characterized by TOC and their activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. No residual antibiotic activity was detected, even at CHL concentrations higher than those used in the designed experiments. Overall, the obtained results strongly support the possibility of reducing the risks associated with the release of CHL into the environment, including the spread of antibiotic resistance, by the UV/H2O2 process.

  3. Efficiency of the UV/H2O2 process for the disinfection of humic surface waters.

    Alkan, Ufuk; Teksoy, Arzu; Atesli, Ahu; Baskaya, Huseyin S


    The efficiency of the UV/H2O2 process for the disinfection of total coliforms and the prevention of bacterial regrowth in humic surface waters were investigated. Inactivation of total coliforms was determined in water samples containing various concentrations ranging from 0-10 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of fulvic acid, which were exposed to various doses (68-681 mWs/cm2) of UV radiation in the presence of 0.125 mg/L and 3.000 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide. Disinfection efficiencies of the UV radiation and the UV/H2O2 processes were compared. The results of bacterial inactivation experiments showed that the performances of the UV and the UV/H2O2 (0.125) were comparable whereas the UV/H2O2 (3.000) process showed significant improvement in performance, especially, in highly humic waters. Inactivation coefficient appeared to be almost doubled by the addition of 3.000 mg/L hydrogen peroxide during the treatment of highly humic waters. In contradiction to significant regrowth which occurred in the single UV radiation treatment, residual bacteria following the UV/H2O2 (0.125) and the UV/H2O2 (3.000) treatments were completely inactivated during dark incubation indicating the elimination of possible bacterial regrowth.

  4. Oxidative degradation of dyes in water using Co2+/H2O2 and Co2+/peroxymonosulfate.

    Ling, Sie King; Wang, Shaobin; Peng, Yuelian


    Dye degradation using advanced oxidation processes with Co(2+)/H(2)O(2) and Co(2+)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) systems has been investigated. Two types of dyes, basic blue 9 and acid red 183, were employed. Several parameters affecting dye degradation such as Co(2+), PMS, H(2)O(2), and dye concentrations were investigated. The optimal ratio of oxidant (PMS, H(2)O(2))/Co(2+) for the degradation of two dyes was determined. It is found that dye decomposition is much faster in Co(2+)/PMS system than in Co(2+)/H(2)O(2). For Co(2+)/H(2)O(2), an optimal ratio of H(2)O(2) to Co(2+) at 6 is required for the maximum decomposition of the dyes. For Co(2+)/PMS, higher concentrations of Co(2+) and PMS will increase dye degradation rate with an optimal ratio of 3, achieving 95% decolourisation. For basic blue 9, a complete decolourisation can be achieved in 5 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 7 mg/l basic blue 9 while the complete degradation of acid red 183 will be achieved at 30 min at 0.13 mM Co(2+), 0.40 mM PMS and 160 mg/l of acid red 183. The degradation of acid red 183 follows the second-order kinetics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Peroxiredoxin Promotes H2O2 Signaling and Oxidative Stress Resistance by Oxidizing a Thioredoxin Family Protein

    Jonathon D. Brown


    Full Text Available H2O2 can cause oxidative damage associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes and cancer but is also used to initiate diverse responses, including increased antioxidant gene expression. Despite significant interest, H2O2-signaling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we present a mechanism for the propagation of an H2O2 signal that is vital for the adaptation of the model yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxins are abundant peroxidases with conserved antiaging and anticancer activities. Remarkably, we find that the only essential function for the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of the Prx Tpx1(hPrx1/2 in resistance to H2O2 is to inhibit a conserved thioredoxin family protein Txl1(hTxnl1/TRP32. Thioredoxins regulate many enzymes and signaling proteins. Thus, our discovery that a Prx amplifies an H2O2 signal by driving the oxidation of a thioredoxin-like protein has important implications, both for Prx function in oxidative stress resistance and for responses to H2O2.

  6. Decapado de un acero inoxidable austenítico mediante mezclas ecológicas basadas en H2O2 - H2SO4 - iones F-

    Narváez, L.


    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of 316L stainless steel using mixtures of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and fluoride ions as hydrofluoric acid (HF, sodium fluoride (NaF and potassium fluoride (KF. The decomposition of H2O2 in the mixtures was assessed at different temperatures 25 °C to 60 °C, with ferric ion contents from 0 to 40 g/l. According to the results obtained, were established the optimal condition pickling at 20 g/l of ferric ions, 25 °C and p-toluensulphonic acid as stabilizer of H2O2. The HF pickling mixture was the only capable to remove totally the oxide layer from the 316L stainless steel after 300 s. The fluoride salts pickling mixtures only remove partially the oxide layer (20 to 40 % aprox. after 300 s. When the pickling time was increased until 1200 s, the removal percentages were around to 80 %.En este estudio se presenta el decapado del acero inoxidable austenítico 316L utilizando mezclas de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2/ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4/iones fluoruro; los iones fluoruro provienen del ácido fluorhídrico (HF, fluoruro de sodio (NaF y fluoruro de potasio (KF. La estabilidad del H2O2 fue valorada modificando las concentraciones del ión férrico de 0 a 40 g/l y las temperaturas de 25 °C a 60 °C en las mezclas decapantes. Se establecieron las condiciones óptimas de decapado utilizando 20 g/l de iones férrico a 25 °C empleando el ácido p-toluensulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2. La mezcla que contenía HF fue la única capaz de eliminar completamente los óxidos superficiales del acero a tiempos de 300 s. Las mezclas a base de sales fluoradas eliminaron parcialmente los óxidos (20 y 40 % aprox. en 300 s. Al incrementar el tiempo de decapado hasta 1200 s se obtuvieron porcentajes de eliminación alrededor de un 80 %.

  7. Production of NO, N2O and N2 by extracted soil bacteria, regulation by NO2(-) and O2 concentrations.

    Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Dörsch, Peter; Bakken, Lars


    The oxygen control of denitrification and its emission of NO/N2O/N2 was investigated by incubation of Nycodenz-extracted soil bacteria in an incubation robot which monitors O2, NO, N2O and N2 concentrations (in He+O2 atmosphere). Two consecutive incubations were undertaken to determine (1) the regulation of denitrification by O2 and NO2(-) during respiratory O2 depletion and (2) the effects of re-exposure to O2 of cultures with fully expressed denitrification proteome. Early denitrification was only detected (as NO and N2O) at modelling of denitrification and N2O emission. Short anoxic spells caused by transient flooding during rainfall, could lead to subsequent unbalanced aerobic denitrification, in which N2O is a major end product.

  8. H2 Production with Low CO Selectivity from Photocatalytic Reforming of Glucose on Ni/TiO2-SiO2%Ni/TiO2-SiO2上光催化重整葡萄糖以低CO选择性制H2R.M.MOHAMED,Elham S.AAZAM

    R. M. MOHAMED; Elham S. AAZAM


    Nano-sized Ni particles on TiO2-SiO2 were synthesized by the two methods of photo-assisted deposition (PAD) and impregnation.H2,which is a promising energy carrier,with a low CO concentration was produced by the photocatalytic reforming of glucose (a model biomass) on the Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst.The supported Ni enhanced the rate of H2 production while it suppressed CO selectivity.The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction,X-ray absorption fine structure,transmission electron microscope,and nitrogen adsorption analysis.Both H2 production and CO selectivity were strongly dependent on the preparation method,and PAD-Ni/TiO2-SiO2 was the better catalyst for H2 production with the lowest CO concentration.

  9. Flame-Made Pt-Loaded TiO2 Thin Films and Their Application as H2 Gas Sensors

    Weerasak Chomkitichai


    Full Text Available The hydrogen gas sensors were developed successfully using flame-made platinum-loaded titanium dioxide (Pt-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles as the sensing materials. Pt-loaded TiO2 thin films were prepared by spin-coating technique onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. Structural and gas-sensing characteristics were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and showed surface morphology of the deposited film. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns can be confirmed to be the anatase and rutile phases of TiO2. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM showed that Pt nanoparticles deposited on larger TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 films loaded with Pt nanoparticles were used as conductometric sensors for the detection of H2. The gas sensing of H2 was studied at the operating temperatures of 300, 350, and 400°C in dry air. It was found that 2.00 mol% Pt-loaded TiO2 sensing films showed higher response towards H2 gas than the unloaded film. In addition, the responses of Pt-loaded TiO2 films at all operating temperatures were higher than that of unloaded TiO2 film. The response increased and the response time decreased with increasing of H2 concentrations.

  10. H2O2, H2O and HDO thermal mapping on Mars using TEXES/IRTF and EXES/SOFIA

    Encrenaz, T.; Greathouse, T.; Richter, M.; Lacy, J.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.; Lefèvre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Atreya, S.


    Ever since the Viking era, hydrogen peroxide has been suggested as a possible oxidizer of the Mars surface [1]. H2O2 was first detected in the submillimeter range [2], then regularly monitored, simultaneously with HDO, using high-resolution imaging spectroscopy at 8 μm with TEXES at IRTF [3]. Comparison with the Global Climate Models (GCM) shows that the observations favor the simulations taking into account heterogeneous chemistry [4]. New observations have been performed on H2O2 and HDO with TEXES at IRTF in February 2014, and on H2O and HDO with EXES on SOFIA in April 2014. The latter dataset, obtained near summer solstice, will be used to build a map of D/H on Mars.

  11. A comparative study of Mn/CeO2, Mn/ZrO2 and Mn/Ce-ZrO2 for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 in the presence of SO2 and H2O.

    Shen, Boxiong; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Ma, Hongqing; Yao, Yan; Liu, Ting


    Ce-ZrO2 is a widely used three-way catalyst support. Because of the large surface area and excellent redox quality, Ce-ZrO2 may have potential application in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. In the present work, Ce-ZrO2 was introduced into a low-temperature SCR system and CeO2 and ZrO2 supports were also introduced to make a contrastive study. Mn/CeO2, Mn/ZrO2 and Mn/Ce-ZrO2 were prepared by impregnating these supports with Mn(NO3)2 solution, and have been characterized by N2-BET, XRD, TPR, TPD, XPS, FT-IR and TG. The activity and resistance to SO2 and H2O of the catalysts were investigated. Mn/Ce-ZrO2 and Mn/CeO2 were proved to have better low-temperature activities than Mn/ZrO2, and yielded 98.6% and 96.8% NO conversion at 180 degrees C, respectively. This is mainly because Mn/Ce-ZrO2 and Mn/CeO2 had higher dispersion of manganese oxides, better redox properties and more weakly adsorbed oxygen species than Mn/ZrO2. In addition, Mn/Ce-ZrO2 showed a good resistance to SO2 and H2O and presented 87.1% NO conversion, even under SO2 and H2O treatment for 6 hours, and the activity of Mn/Ce-ZrO2 was almost restored to its original level after cutting off the injection of SO2 and H2O. This was due to the weak water absorption and weak sulfation process on the surface of the catalyst.

  12. UV/H_2O_2降解活性黑5动力学研究%Degradation Kinetics and Mechanics of Reactive Black 5 by UV/H_2O_2

    徐航; 李国芝


    建立一种双曲线模型对UV/H2O2降解偶氮染料活性黑5过程进行描述,考察不同H2O2初始浓度对活性黑5去除率、瞬态.OH浓度和反应速率的影响,并利用液相色谱质谱联用分析降解中间产物。结果表明:最佳的H2O2投加量是8.824 mM,50 min后活性黑5的去除率可达94%以上。双曲线模型能较好地描述UV/H2O2降解活性黑5过程,利用该模型可估算反应过程中瞬时.OH的浓度和瞬时反应速率。%Hyperbolic model could be established to describe the degradation performance of Reactive Black 5(RB5) using UV/H2O2 process.The effects of initial H2O2 dosage on RB5 removal,instant ·OH concentration and reaction rate were investigated.The results showed that the optimal H2O2 dosage was 8.824 mM and after 50 min,the RB5 removal was around 94%.The RB5 degradation process was followed the hyperbolic model which can calculate instant ·OH concentration and reaction rate.

  13. H2O2体外抗棘阿米巴作用研究%Study on the Effect of H2O2 Against Acanthamoeba in vitro

    赵群飞; 高学良; 钱旻


    目的检测H2O2的抗棘阿米巴(Acanthamoeba spp.)作用.方法自角膜炎患者角膜刮片分离获得棘阿米巴复合体(Acanthamoeba lugdunensis-Acanthamoeba quma).于培养基(PYG)培养传代.实验前将棘阿米巴用新鲜的PYG培养1 d使其活化,配成2.5×106/ml细胞悬液加入细胞培养板,实验组各孔分别加入不同浓度H2O2,对照组加等量PYG,28 ℃ 24 h后实验组更换新鲜PYG继续培养3 d.取细胞悬液滴片,瑞氏染色,观察细胞形态变化.用定量培养法作棘阿米巴生长曲线,观察其增殖速率.用四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)比色法,观察H2O2对棘阿米巴成活率的影响.用乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)测定法测定H2O2对棘阿米巴的损伤.结果棘阿米巴滋养体在O.125%H 2O2作用下,不可逆转地成为包囊,20~120 h增殖率为O;1%H2O2可使其破裂.结论H2O2具有较强的抗棘阿米巴作用,有可能成为预防棘阿米巴角膜炎的理想药物.

  14. H2O2乳酸杆菌对大肠杆菌的体外拮抗作用%Antagonistic activity of the H2O2 + lactobacilli against E. coli in vitro

    王丽莉; 陈其御



  15. Self-Assembly,Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of Three-Dimensional Supramolecular Complex [Ni (hmt)2 (SCN)2 (H2O)2 ] [Ni (SCN)2 (H2O)4 ] (H2O)2 (hmt = hexamethylenetetramine)%三维超分子[Ni(hmt)2(SCN)2(H2O)2][Ni(SCN)2(H2O)4](H2O)2的自组装,晶体结构及磁性质(hmt=六次甲基四胺)

    李纲; 朱玉; 李林科; 侯红卫; 樊耀亭; 杜晨霞


    Compound [Ni(hmt) 2(SCN) 2(H2O) 2] [Ni(SCN) 2(H2O) 4] (H2O) 2 (hmt = hexamethylenetetramine) was prepared and structurally characterized by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction.The two neutral units [Ni(hmt)2variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities (5 ~ 300K) shows that the magnetic behavior obeys the Curie-Weiss law over the whole temperature ranges.

  16. Adsorbed Layers of D2, H2, O2, and 3He on Graphite Studied by Neutron Scattering

    Nielsen, Mourits; McTague, J. P.; Ellenson, W. D.


    The phase diagrams of adsorbed monolayers of D2, H2, O2, and 3He on graphite have been measured by neutron diffraction. H2 and D2-layers have a registered √3 structure at low coverages, and at monolayer completion they have a dense triangular structure, which is incommensurate with the substrate....

  17. H2O2 assisted room temperature oxidation of Ti2C MXene for Li-ion battery anodes

    Ahmed, Bilal


    Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as compared to as-prepared MXenes. For instance, after 50 charge/discharge cycles, specific discharge capacities of 389 mA h g−1, 337 mA h g−1 and 297 mA h g−1 were obtained for H2O2 treated MXene at current densities of 100 mA g−1, 500 mA g−1 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, when tested at a very high current density, such as 5000 mA g−1, the H2O2 treated MXene showed a specific capacity of 150 mA h g−1 and excellent rate capability. These results clearly demonstrate that H2O2 treatment of Ti2C MXene improves MXene properties in energy storage applications, such as Li ion batteries or capacitors.

  18. Decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in aqueous solution during UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes.

    Yan, Yingjie; Liao, Qi-Nan; Ji, Feng; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Shoujun; Hu, Zhen-Hu


    3,5-Dinitrobenzamide has been widely used as a feed additive to control coccidiosis in poultry, and part of the added 3,5-dinitrobenzamide is excreted into wastewater and surface water. The removal of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide from wastewater and surface water has not been reported in previous studies. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals from UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can decompose organic contaminants efficiently. In this study, the decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in aqueous solution during UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes was investigated. The decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide fits well with a fluence-based pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The decomposition in both two oxidation processes was affected by solution pH, and was inhibited under alkaline conditions. Inorganic anions such as NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) inhibited the degradation of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide during the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes. After complete decomposition in both oxidation processes, approximately 50% of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide was decomposed into organic intermediates, and the rest was mineralized to CO2, H2O, and other inorganic anions. Ions such as NH4(+), NO3(-), and NO2(-) were released into aqueous solution during the degradation. The primary decomposition products of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide were identified using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF). Based on these products and ions release, a possible decomposition pathway of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in both UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes was proposed.

  19. SO4(=) uptake and catalase role in preconditioning after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    Morabito, Rossana; Remigante, Alessia; Di Pietro, Maria Letizia; Giannetto, Antonino; La Spada, Giuseppina; Marino, Angela


    Preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to a mild and transient oxidative stress, shown for the first time in myocardial cells and not described in erythrocytes so far. The possible adaptation of human erythrocytes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress has been here verified by monitoring one of band 3 protein functions, i.e., Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange, through rate constant for SO4(=) uptake measurement. With this aim, erythrocytes were exposed to a mild and transient oxidative stress (30 min to either 10 or 100 μM H2O2), followed by a stronger oxidant condition (300- or, alternatively, 600-μM H2O2 treatment). SO4(=) uptake was measured by a turbidimetric method, and the possible role of catalase (CAT, significantly contributing to the anti-oxidant system in erythrocytes) in PC response has been verified by measuring the rate of H2O2 degradation. The preventive exposure of erythrocytes to 10 μM H2O2, and then to 300 μM H2O2, significantly ameliorated the rate constant for SO4(=) uptake with respect to 300 μM H2O2 alone, showing thus an adaptive response to oxidative stress. Our results show that (i) SO4(=) uptake measurement is a suitable model to monitor the effects of a mild and transient oxidative stress in human erythrocytes, (ii) band 3 protein anion exchange capability is retained after 10 μM H2O2 treatment, (iii) PC response induced by the 10 μM H2O2 pretreatment is clearly detected, and (iv) PC response, elicited by low-concentrated H2O2, is mediated by CAT enzyme and does not involve band 3 protein tyrosine phosphorylation pathways. Erythrocyte adaptation to a short-term oxidative stress may serve as a basis for future studies about the impact of more prolonged oxidative events, often associated to aging, drug consumption, chronic alcoholism, hyperglycemia, or neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Effects of different sources and levels of zinc on H2O2-induced apoptosis in IEC-6 cells.

    Mao, Lei; Chen, Juncai; Peng, Quanhui; Zhou, Aiming; Wang, Zhisheng


    Zinc has been shown to be an inhibitor of apoptosis for many years. The present study was designed to investigate effects of three zinc chemical forms on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells via analysis of cell vitality, LDH activity, apoptosis percentage, caspase-3 activity, and Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 gene expression. Cells were divided into H2O2 and zinc sources+H2O2 groups, and there are three different zinc sources [zinc oxide nanoparticle (nano-ZnO), zinc oxide (ZnO), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)] and three concentrations (normal = 25 μM, medium = 50 μM, and high = 100 μM) used in this article. In the present study, we found the striking cytotoxicity of H2O2 higher than 200 μM on cell vitality, LDH activity, and apoptosis percentage in the cells using five different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM) of H2O2 for 4 h. Moreover, we observed that cell vitality was increased, LDH activity and apoptotic percentage were decreased, and gene expression level of Bax and caspase-3 and -9 was markedly reduced, while gene expression level of Bcl-2 and ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased in normal concentration groups of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 compared with H2O2 group, but no significant difference was observed in caspase-8 gene expression. Furthermore, medium or, more intensely, high concentrations of nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 enhanced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis. Compared with nano-ZnO and ZnSO4, ZnO showed weakest protective effect on H2O2-induced apoptosis at normal concentration and was less toxic to cells at high level. Taken together, we proposed that preventive and protective effects of zinc on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis varied in IEC-6 cells with its chemical forms and concentrations, and maybe for the first time, we suggested that nano-ZnO have a protective effect on H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in IEC-6 cells.

  1. Quasiparticle Interfacial Level Alignment of Highly Hybridized Frontier Levels: H2O on TiO2(110)

    Migani, Annapaola; Mowbray, Duncan J.; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje


    Knowledge of the frontier levels’ alignment prior to photoirradiation is necessary to achieve a complete quantitative description of H2O photocatalysis on TiO2(110). Although H2O on rutile TiO2(110) has been thoroughly studied both experimentally and theoretically, a quantitative value for the energy of the highest H2O occupied levels is still lacking. For experiment, this is due to the H2O levels being obscured by hybridization with TiO2(110) levels in the difference spectra obtained via ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). For theory, this is due to inherent difficulties in properly describing many-body effects at the H2O–TiO2(110) interface. Using the projected density of states (DOS) from state-of-the-art quasiparticle (QP) G0W0, we disentangle the adsorbate and surface contributions to the complex UPS spectra of H2O on TiO2(110). We perform this separation as a function of H2O coverage and dissociation on stoichiometric and reduced surfaces. Due to hybridization with the TiO2(110) surface, the H2O 3a1 and 1b1 levels are broadened into several peaks between 5 and 1 eV below the TiO2(110) valence band maximum (VBM). These peaks have both intermolecular and interfacial bonding and antibonding character. We find the highest occupied levels of H2O adsorbed intact and dissociated on stoichiometric TiO2(110) are 1.1 and 0.9 eV below the VBM. We also find a similar energy of 1.1 eV for the highest occupied levels of H2O when adsorbed dissociatively on a bridging O vacancy of the reduced surface. In both cases, these energies are significantly higher (by 0.6 to 2.6 eV) than those estimated from UPS difference spectra, which are inconclusive in this energy region. Finally, we apply self-consistent QPGW (scQPGW1) to obtain the ionization potential of the H2O–TiO2(110) interface.

  2. Mitochondrial H2O2 generated from electron transport chain complex 1 stimulates muscle differentiation

    Seonmin Lee; Eunyoung Tak; Jisun Lee; MA Rashid; Michael P Murphy; Joohun Ha; Sung Soo Kim


    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species(mROS)have been considered detrimental to cells. However, their physiological roles as signaling mediators have not been thoroughly explored. Here, we investigated whether mROS generated from mitochondrial electron transport chain(mETC)complex I stimulated muscle differentiation. Our results showed that the quantity of mROS was increased and that manganese superoxide dismutase(MnSOD)was induced via NF-KB activation during muscle differentiation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants(MitoQ and MitoTEMPOL)and mitochondria-targeted catalase decreased mROS quantity and suppressed muscle differentiation without affecting the amount of ATP Mitochondrial alterations, including the induction of mitochondrial transcription factor A and an increase in the number and size of mitochondria, and functional activations were observed during muscle differentiation. In particular, increased expression levels of mETC complex I subunits and a higher activity of complex I than other complexes were observed. Rotenone, an inhibitor of mETC complex I, decreased the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio and mROS levels during muscle differentiation. The inhibition of complex I using small interfering RNAs and rotenone reduced mROS levels, suppressed muscle differentiation, and depleted ATP levels with a concomitant increase in glycolysis. From these results, we conclude that complex I-derived O2, produced through reverse electron transport due to enhanced metabolism and a high activity of complex I, was dismutated into H2O2 by MnSOD induced via NF-KB activation and that the dismutated mH202 stimulated muscle differentiation as a signaling messenger.

  3. Fe(O)/H2O2协同降解亚甲基蓝的研究%Degradation of Methylene Blue by Fe(0)/H2O2

    廖琳; 黄宏星; 叶俊炜; 唐小燕; 尹光彩; 侯梅芳


    Degradation of methylene blue by Fe(0)-based Fenton process with H2O2 in dark was investigated. The effects of H2O2 dose, Fe(0) dose, initial concentration of methylene blue and initial pH value on the degradation of methylene blue were examined. The results showed that the degradation of methylene blue occurred with low dose of H2O2 and Fe(0). The removal of MB can be over 90% at pH 4.5 with 2.0 g·L-1 Fe(0) and 3.0 mmolL-1 H2O2. The degradation rate of MB by Fe(0)-based Fenton process with H2O2 increased with the increasing of Fe(0) dose and H2O2 dose, but decreased with the increasing of initial concentration of MB. The optimum pH value for the degradation of MB by Fe(0)/H2O2 is near neutral. The change of UV-vis spectra of MB during reaction suggested some small molecular intermediates produced during reaction.%进行了Fe(0)和H2O2协同催化降解亚甲基蓝的研究,分析了Fe(0)投加量、H2O2投加量、溶液初始pH值和染料初始质量浓度等因素的影响.研究表明:Fe(0)和H2O2协同可有效催化降解亚甲基蓝;在pH为4.5,Fe(0)用量为2.0 g·L-1,H2O2用量为3.0 mmol·L-1时对10 mg·L-1亚甲基蓝的去除率在60 min内达到90%以上.MB的降解去除率随着Fe(0)投加量与H2O2用量的增加而增加,但随着其初始质量浓度的增大而降低.研究结果还表明,Fe(0)和H2O2可在接近中性条件下有效协同催化降解亚甲基蓝.UV-Vis光谱在反应过程的变化说明亚甲基蓝降解生成了一些小分子物质.

  4. H2O2与Pd反应的平衡压力研究%Equilibrium pressures for reactions of Pd with H2 and O2

    罗文浪; 阮文; 张莉; 蒙大桥; 朱正和; 傅依备


    At the temperature from 100 K to 1000 K, the standard formation enthalpy changes, entropy changes, free energy changes, and equilibrium gas pressures for reactions of Pd with gases H2 and O2 have been calculated combining density functional method B3P86 and basis set SDD with statistic thermodynamics, based on the method of electron and nuclear vibration approximation. The results show that Pd adsorbing H2 and O2 are exothermal reactions with larger released heat for adsorbing H2 than O2, and the released heats both rise with increasing temperature, which is unfavorable to the adsorbing reactions; the temperature for Pd automatically adsorbing O2 is so low that reaction hardly occurs at room temperature; on the contrary, the temperature for Pd automatically adsorbing H2 is over 500 K;the equilibrium gas pressures of O2 are far larger than that of H2 by 9~18 orders of magnitude at the automatically adsorbing temperatures from 100K to 284. 394 K. Therefore, the O2 acted as an impurity gas affects the Pd-H2 reaction at very low level.%基于电子与核振动近似方法,应用密度泛函B3P86方法和相对论有效核势SDD计算,结合统计热力学方法,研究了100 K~1000 K温度范围内Pd与H2O2反应的标准生成热力学函数以及反应平衡压力与温度的关系.结果表明:Pd与H2O2反应是放热反应,Pd原子吸附H2的放热量大于吸附O2的放热量,温度升高不利于吸附反应进行;Pd对O2的自发吸附温度很低,室温下几乎不能进行,而对H2的自发吸附温度可高达500 K以上;在100 K~284.394 K可自发吸附O2H2的温度范围内,O2的反应平衡压力比H2的平衡压力高出9~18个数量级.因此,O2作为杂质气体对目标反应Pd-H2的影响非常有限.

  5. Resistless photochemical etching of a silicon wafer by UV laser with an H2O2 and HF aqueous solution


    A new resistless etching method has been developed for Silicon wafers. This new method uses an aqueous solution consisting of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) as the activating etchants. A 193 nm ArF excimer laser and a 266 nm fourth harmonic generation Nd:YAG laser were used as the photon sources. Results showed that pattern etching has been achieved without any photoresist film. In the case of the 193 nm laser, the optimal etching appeared at a 1.3 H2O2/HF ratio, where an etch depth of 210 nm was achieved with a fluence of 29 mJ/cm2 and shot number of 10000. At the same conditions, the etch depth with H2O2 and HF solution was three times of that by using H2O and HF mixture. In the case of the 266 nm Nd:YAG laser, the optimal etching appeared at twice ratio of H2O2/HF, where the etch depth of 420 nm was achieved with a fluence of 12 mJ/cm2 and shot number of 30000. Results showed that the etch effect of the 266 nm Nd: YAG laser was more desirable than that of the 193 nm ArF excimer laser.``Keyords: UV laser, resistless photochemical etching, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  6. N2H4·H2O水热体系ZnO微晶的结晶特性%ZnO microcrystal growth in hydrothermal processing with N2H4·H2O

    刘长友; 谷智; 王涛; 查钢强; 介万奇


    研究了低浓度(0.01~0.20mol/L)N2H4.H2O条件下ZnO微晶的低温水热结晶特性。N2H4.H2O弱碱性和N2H5+吸附配位性影响ZnO微晶的形核和各晶面的生长速率。随着N2H4.H2O浓度的提高,ZnO微晶分别呈板条状、六角片状和六角棒束状。碱性分散剂和超声的分散作用影响主要在成核阶段;受分散剂弱碱性的影响,0.20mol/L N2H4.H2O显现出强的还原性,N2气泡模板生长机制使所制ZnO微晶呈六角管状晶须束。%ZnO microcrystal growth was investigated under a low temperature hydrothermal process with a relatively low concentration of N2H4·H2O(0.01-0.20mol/L).The nucleation and the growth rates of various crystal planes are strongly affected by the weak alkalinity of N2H4·H2O and the co-ordinative activity of N2H+5 ion.ZnO microcrystals change from oatmeal-like plate to hexagonal plate,and then to hexagonal rod-like cluster with increasing of N2H4·H2O concentrations,respectively.The nucleations of ZnO microcrystals are influenced by the alkaline dispersant and ultrasonic treatment.The solution of 0.20mol/L N2H4·H2O with the alkaline dispersant has a strong reducibility,which changes the mechanism of nucleation and growth of ZnO microcrystals.The center-hollow hexagonal rod-like ZnO clusters were obtained through the N2 bubble template-growth route.

  7. UV/草酸铁/H2O2法处理乙草胺废水的研究%Treatment of acetochlor wastewater by UV/ferrioxalate/H2O2

    程丽华; 张树艳; 黄君礼



  8. Effect of H2O2 in the Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollutant%H2O2对生物法治理石油烃类污染物的影响

    霍丹群; 姚伟静; 肖灵玲; 侯长军


    针对钻井泥浆中的石油烃类污染物,利用实验室分离筛选出的高效石油烃降解菌株,深入研究H2O2对石油烃生物降解的影响.研究表明:H2O2的适宜一次加入浓度为200 mg/L;菌株生长处于停滞期和对数期时,每8hr和2hr向含油泥浆中加入H2O2为最佳;加入H2O2的钻井泥浆中,石油类污染物的的降解率从38.1%提高到83.1%.H2O2的深度氧化和供氧的双重作用对泥浆中石油烃类污染物的生物降解起到明显促进作用.

  9. Thermal Neutron Diffraction from the Liquids N2 and O2

    Pedersen, K. Schou; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Carneiro, Kim


    Using a double axis crystal spectrometer, we have determined the structure factor S (kappa) of the liquids N2 and O2 up to a maximum wavevector kappam=11 Å−1. We derive the parameters characterizing the first nearest neighbor shell and find that the intramolecular bond length is well determined...

  10. Influence of O-2 and N-2 on the conductivity of carbon nanotube networks

    Mowbray, Duncan; Morgan, C.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    We have performed experiments on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks and compared with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to identify the microscopic origin of the observed sensitivity of the network conductivity to physisorbed O-2 and N-2. Previous DFT calculations of the trans......We have performed experiments on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks and compared with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to identify the microscopic origin of the observed sensitivity of the network conductivity to physisorbed O-2 and N-2. Previous DFT calculations...... of the transmission function for isolated pristine SWNTs have found physisorbed molecules have little influence on their conductivity. However, by calculating the four-terminal transmission function of crossed SWNT junctions, we show that physisorbed O-2 and N-2 do affect the junction's conductance. This may...... be understood as an increase in tunneling probability due to hopping via molecular orbitals. We find the effect is substantially larger for O-2 than for N-2, and for semiconducting rather than metallic SWNTs junctions, in agreement with experiment....

  11. Toxicity assessment of textile effluents treated by advanced oxidative process (UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2) in the species Artemia salina L.

    Garcia, Juliana Carla; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoly; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Ambrósio, Elizangela; Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio


    Textile industry wastes raise a great concern due to their strong coloration and toxicity. The objective of the present work was to characterize the degradation and mineralization of textile effluents by advanced oxidative processes using either TiO(2) or TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and to monitor the toxicity of the products formed during 6-h irradiation in relation to that of the in natura effluent. The results demonstrated that the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association was more efficient in the mineralization of textile effluents than TiO(2), with high mineralized ion concentrations (NH (4) (+) , NO (3) (-) , and SO (4) (2-) ) and significantly decreased organic matter ratios (represented by the chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon). The toxicity of the degradation products after 4-h irradiation to Artemia salina L. was not significant (below 10 %). However, the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association produced more toxicity under irradiation than the TiO(2) system, which was attributed to the increased presence of oxidants in the first group. Comparatively, the photogenerated products of both TiO(2) and the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association were less toxic than the in natura effluent.

  12. Employing UV/H2O2 process for degradation of 2,4-Diaminotoluene in synthetic wastewater

    Javad Hosseini


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Toluene-2, 4-diamine (TDA is a famous carcinogenic aromatic amine that is mostly employed as an intermediate in the production of dyes and toluene diisocyanate. In this study, degradation and mineralization of TDA were investigated by UV/H2O2 process. Materials & Methods: This study is an experimental investigation on a laboratory scale. The study performed on synthetic wastewater that holds TDA. The influence of different operating variables such as the initial dosage of H2O2 and TDA, additive salts and pH was investigated. The optimization of variables was done by one factor at a time method. Results: The results specify that the degradation efficiency relies on the H2O2 and TDA concentrations, so that reduces as the initial concentrations of TDA are improved, but, it enhances with increasing the extent of H2O2 until an optimum value and then decreases to some extent. The reaction rate significantly reduced with an increase in initial pH value in alkaline solution, which means hydroxide ions could inhibit the degradation of TDA. The removal time was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of TDA. The optimal conditions were obtained at pH of 7, initial concentration of pollutant and hydrogen peroxide at  M and  M, respectively. At optimum condition, the removal of TDA and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was 97.6 and 43.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this work show that separate UV radiation and H2O2 oxidation process can hardly degrade TDA from contaminated water and the UV/H2O2 process can be employed for complete degradation of TDA. The removal of TDA in UV/H2O2 process follows the pseudo-first order kinetics and the first order rate constants ( 35.7 and half-life of reaction (    were determined.

  13. Design of H2-O2 space shuttle APU. Volume 1: APU design

    Harris, E.


    The H2-O2 space shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) program is a NASA-Lewis effort aimed at hardware demonstration of the technology required for potential use on the space shuttle. It has been shown that a hydrogen-oxygen power unit (APU) system is an attractive alternate to the space shuttle baseline hydrazine APU system for minimum weight. It has the capability for meeting many of the heat sink requirements for the space shuttle vehicle, thereby reducing the amount of expendable evaporants required for cooling in the baseline APU. Volume 1 of this report covers preliminary design and analysis of the current reference system and detail design of the test version of this reference system. Combustor test results are also included. Volume 2 contains the results of the analysis of an initial version of the reference system and the computer printouts of system performance. The APU consists of subsystems for propellant feed and conditioning, turbopower, and control. Propellant feed and conditioning contains all heat exchangers, valves, and the combustor. The turbopower subsystem contains a two-stage partial-admission pressure-modulated, 400-hp, 63,000-rpm turbine, a 0-to 4-g lubrication system, and a gearbox with output pads for two hydraulic pumps and an alternator (alternator not included on test unit). The electronic control functions include regulation of speed and system temperatures; and start-and-stop sequences, overspeed (rpm) and temperature limits, failsafe provisions, and automatic shutdown provisions.

  14. Inactivation of adenovirus using low-dose UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation.

    Bounty, Sarah; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Linden, Karl G


    Adenovirus has consistently been observed to be the most resistant known pathogen to disinfection by ultraviolet light. This has had an impact on regulations set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding the use of UV disinfection for virus inactivation in groundwater and surface water. In this study, enhancement of UV inactivation of adenovirus was evaluated when hydrogen peroxide was added to create an advanced oxidation process (AOP). While 4 log reduction of adenovirus was determined to require a UV dose (UV fluence) of about 200 mJ/cm(2) from a low pressure (LP) UV source (emitting at 253.7 nm), addition of 10 mg/L H(2)O(2) achieved 4 log inactivation at a dose of 120 mJ/cm(2). DNA damage was assessed using a novel nested PCR approach, and similar levels of DNA damage between the two different treatments were noted, suggesting the AOP enhancement in inactivation was not due to additional DNA damage. Hydroxyl radicals produced in the advanced oxidation process are likely able to damage parts of the virus not targeted by LPUV, such as attachment proteins, enhancing the UV-induced inactivation. The AOP-enhanced inactivation potential was modeled in three natural waters. This research sheds light on the inactivation mechanisms of viruses with ultraviolet light and in the presence of hydroxyl radicals and provides a practical means to enhance inactivation of this UV-resistant virus.

  15. Surface loss rate of H and N radicals in H2/N2 plasma etching process

    Moon, Chang Sung; Takeda, Keigo; Hayashi, Toshio; Takashima, Seigo; Sekine, Makoto; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hori, Masaru


    As ULSI devices are down to nano-scale size, there have been many efforts to develop low dielectric constant (low-k) materials and establish the plasma etching technology. Especially, the interaction between the plasma and the surface has an enormous influence on characterizing the etching process. However, the reactions in contact with solid surface such as substrate and wall are very complicated and moreover, at present, there are many interactions unknown and they are not fully understood yet. In this study, surface loss probabilities of H, N radicals on stainless steel and organic low-k film surfaces are investigated by vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) technique. The changes of H, N radical densities are quantitatively measured in H2/N2 plasma afterglow and the loss rates on each surface are evaluated. It is expected that the development of plasma etching process can be advanced by understanding the reaction of radicals with the surface during organic low-k etching process.

  16. Orbital responses to methyl sites in CnH2n+2 (n=1-6)

    Yang Ze-Jin; Cheng Xin-Lu; Zhu Zheng-He; Yang Xiang-Dong


    Orbital responses to methyl sites in CnH2n+2 (n =1-6) are studied by B3LYP/TZVP based on the most stable geometries using the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method.Vertical ionization energies are produced using the SAOP/et-pVQZ model for the complete valence space.The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) investigations indicate the pelectron profiles in methane,ethane,propane,and n-butane.By increasing the number of carbon-carbon bonds in lower momentum regions,the s,p-hybridized orbitals are built and display strong exchange and correlation interactions in lower momentum space (P (≤) 0.50 a.u.).Meanwhile,the relative intensities of the isomers in lower momentum space show the strong bonding number dependence of the carbon-carbon bonds,meaning that more electrons have contributed to orbital construction.The study of representative valence orbital momentum distribution further confirms that the structural changes lead to evident electronic rearrangement over the whole valence space.An analysis based on the isomers reveals that the valence orbitals are isomer-dependent and the valence ionization energy experiences an apparent shift in the inner valence space.However,such shifts are greatly reduced in the outer valence space.Meanwhile,the opposite energy shift trend is found in the intermediate valence space.

  17. Study of DC Circuit Breaker of H2-N2 Mixture Gas for High Voltage

    Shiba, Yuji; Morishita, Yukinaga; Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Mizoguchi, Hitoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    Global warming caused by CO2 etc. is a field where the concern is very high. Especially, automobile emissions are problem for it. Therefore, the hybrid car is widely development and used recently. Hybrid car used electric power and gasoline. So, the car reduces CO2. Hybrid car has engine and motor. To rotate the motor, hybrid car has battery. This battery is large capacity. Therefore, the relay should interrupt high DC current for the switch of the motor and the engine. So, hybrid car used hydrogen gas filling relay We studied interruption test for the research of a basic characteristic of hydrogen gas. DC current has not current zero point. So, it is necessary to make the current zero by high arc voltage and forcible current zero point. The loss coefficient and arc voltage of hydrogen is high. Therefore, we studied interruption test for used high arc voltage. We studied interruption test and dielectric breakdown test of air, pure Hydrogen, and Hydrogen- nitrogen mixture gas. As a result, we realized H2-N2(80%-20%) is the best gas.

  18. Method for measuring changes in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio by a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector

    Tohjima, Yasunori


    We present a method for measuring changes in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio based on data from a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). In this method, O2 and N2 in an air sample are separated on a column filled with molecular sieve 5A with H2 carrier gas. Since the separated O2 includes Ar, which has a retention time similar to that of O2, the (O2+Ar)/N2 ratio is actually measured. The change in the measured (O2+Ar)/N2 ratio can be easily converted to that in the O2/N2 ratio with a very small error based on the fact that the atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio is almost constant. The improvements to achieve the high-precision measurement include stabilization of the pressure at the GC column head and at the outlets of the TCD and the sample loop. Additionally, the precision is improved statistically by repeating alternate analyses of sample and a reference gas. The standard deviation of the replicate cycles of reference and sample analyses is about 18 per meg (corresponding to 3.8 parts per million (ppm) O2 in air). This means that the standard error is about 7 per meg (1.5 ppm O2 in air) for seven cycles of alternate analyses, which takes about 70 min. The response of this method is likely to have a 2% nonlinearity. Ambient air samples are collected under pressure in glass flasks equipped with two stopcocks sealed by Viton O-rings at both ends. Pressure depletion in the flask during the O2/N2 measurement does not cause any detectable change in the O2/N2 ratio, but the O2/N2 ratio in the flask was found to gradually decrease during the storage period. We also present preliminary results from air samples collected at Hateruma Island (latitude 24°03'N, longitude 123°49') from July 1997 through March 1999. The observed O2/N2 ratios clearly show a seasonal variation, increasing in spring and summer and decreasing in autumn and winter.

  19. LED and low level laser therapy association in tooth bleaching using a novel low concentration H2O2/N-doped TiO2 bleaching agent

    Bezerra Dias, Hércules; Teixeira Carrera, Emanuelle; Freitas Bortolatto, Janaína; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo; Nara de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra


    Since low concentration bleaching agents containing N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced as an alternative to conventional agents, it is important to verify their efficacy and the hypersensitivity effect in clinical practice. Six volunteer patients were evaluated for color change and hypersensitivity after bleaching using 35% H2O2 (one session of two 12 min applications) and 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 (one session of three 12 min applications) and after low level laser therapy application (LLLT) (780 nm, 40 mW, 10, 10 s). Based on this case study, the nanobleaching agent provided better or similar aesthetic results than the conventional agent under high concentration, and its association with LLLT satisfactorily decreased the hypersensitivity. The 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 agent could be used instead of conventional in-office bleaching agents under high concentrations to fulfill the rising patient demand for aesthetics.

  20. Synthesis, Structure and Characterization of Two-dimensional Network Copper Complex [ Cu3 (nta) 2(azpy) 2(H2O)2]· 6H2O

    LI,Bao-Long(李宝龙); XU,Yan(徐艳); LIU,Qi(刘琦); WANG,Hua-Qin(王化勤); XU,Zheng(徐正)


    The copper(Ⅱ) complex [Cu3(nta)2(azpy)2(H2O)2] @6H2O(nta= nitrilotriacetate, azpy= 4,4'-azobispyridine) has been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray analysis reveals that there are two kinds of copper(Ⅱ) coordination environments.Cu(1) has a distorted square plane symmetry and Cu(2) has a distorted octahedral symmetry. Cu(1)is linked to Cu(2)through nta and bound to Cu(1C) by azpy, and Cu(2) islinked to Cu(2A) through azpy, which extends to two-dimensional network with large rhombus 1.2 nm× 1.7 nm.

  1. 水质对UV/H2O2降解LAS的影响及机理%Effect and Mechanism of Water Quality on Degradation of LAS by UV/H2O2 Combination Process

    潘晶; 于龙; 张阳; 王艳


    研究了UV/H2O2工艺对LAS的去除效果以及水的pH、浊度对LAS降解的影响和机理. 结果表明: UV/H2O2工艺可以有效的去除水中LAS, 光降解过程符合一级反应动力学模型;在H2O2投加量为8 mg·L-1,14 W低压汞灯照射下, LAS在蒸馏水中光降解速率常数为0.018 1 min-1;在酸性条件下,有利于LAS光降解;浊度大于6NTU时,光降解速率常数迅速下降.

  2. Degradation of ciprofloxacin by UV/H2O2 process%UV/H2O2工艺降解环丙沙星的研究

    袁芳; 胡春; 李礼


    The degradation of ciprofloxacin in UV/H2O2 process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system.The influence of initial pH values,H2O2 concentration and water quality was discussed;the degradation products of ciprofloxacin were also analyzed.Results show that ciprofloxacin displays a pH-dependent degradation and the neutral condition is more favorable.Reaction rates increased with the increasing of H2O2 concentration,and the optimal H2O2/ciprofloxacin molar ratio at which the highest reaction rate constant is reached is 2 000.In UV direct photolysis,degradation rates of ciprofloxacin in natural water are higher than those in ultrapure water;while in UV/H2O2 process,the degradation rates in natural water are lower than those in ultrapure water.Moreover,several degradation products such as propanedioic acid,glycerin,1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid,and some aliphatic acids etc.forming in the degradation of ciprofloxacin in UV/H2O2 process are identified by GC-MS.%采用UV/H2O2工艺去除水体中的喹诺酮类抗生素环丙沙星(CIP)。考察了溶液pH值、H2O2投加量以及水体基质对环丙沙星降解效率的影响,分析了降解产物的生成情况。研究表明,环丙沙星的降解符合拟一级反应动力学模型。降解速率受溶液pH值的影响,酸性及中性条件,有利于环丙沙星的降解。H2O2投加量的增大,使得降解速率逐渐增大,但速率增幅逐渐变缓;最佳H2O2/环丙沙星摩尔比为2 000。实际水体中存在的NOM、NO3-,促进了单独UV作用下,环丙沙星的降解。水体中的.OH焠灭剂,抑制了UV/H2O2联合作用下,环丙沙星的降解;实际水体中的光解速率常数低于超纯水中的光解速率常数。GC-MS分析表明,UV/H2O2工艺,使环丙沙星氧化降解生成氨基乙酸、丙二酸、丙三醇和对苯二甲酸等小分子有机物。

  3. Putative role of the malate valve enzyme NADP-malate dehydrogenase in H2O2 signalling in Arabidopsis.

    Heyno, Eiri; Innocenti, Gilles; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja


    In photosynthetic organisms, sudden changes in light intensity perturb the photosynthetic electron flow and lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. At the same time, thioredoxins can sense the redox state of the chloroplast. According to our hypothesis, thioredoxins and related thiol reactive molecules downregulate the activity of H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, and thereby allow a transient oxidative burst that triggers the expression of H2O2 responsive genes. It has been shown recently that upon light stress, catalase activity was reversibly inhibited in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in correlation with a transient increase in the level of H2O2. Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the NADP-malate dehydrogenase have lost the reversible inactivation of catalase activity and the increase in H2O2 levels when exposed to high light. The mutants were slightly affected in growth and accumulated higher levels of NADPH in the chloroplast than the wild-type. We propose that the malate valve plays an essential role in the regulation of catalase activity and the accumulation of a H2O2 signal by transmitting the redox state of the chloroplast to other cell compartments.

  4. Influence of electrical parameters on H2O2 generation in DBD non-thermal reactor with water mist

    Xu, Di; Xiao, Zehua; Hao, Chunjing; Qiu, Jian; Liu, Kefu


    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor is introduced to generate H2O2 by non-thermal plasma with a mixture of oxygen and water mist produced by an ultrasonic atomizer. The results of our experiment show that the energy yield and concentration of the generated H2O2 in the pulsed discharge are much higher than that in AC discharge, due to its high energy efficiency and low heating effect. Micron-sized liquid droplets produced by an ultrasonic atomizer in water mist have large specific surface area, which greatly reduces mass transfer resistance between hydroxyl radicals and water liquids, leading to higher energy yield and H2O2 concentration than in our previous research. The influence of applied voltage, discharge frequency, and environmental temperature on the generated H2O2 is discussed in detail from the viewpoint of the DBD mechanism. The H2O2 concentration of 30 mg l-1, with the energy yield of 2 g kW-1h-1 is obtained by pulsed discharge in our research.

  5. Cucumber hypocotyls respond to cutin monomers via both an inducible and a constitutive H(2)O(2)-generating system

    Kauss; Fauth; Merten; Jeblick


    Hypocotyls from etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) seedlings were gently abraded at their surface to allow permeation of elicitors. Segments from freshly abraded hypocotyls were only barely competent for H(2)O(2) elicitation with fungal elicitor or hydroxy fatty acids (classical cutin monomers). However, elicitation competence developed subsequent to abrasion, reaching an optimum after about 4 h. This process was potentiated in seedlings displaying acquired resistance to Colletotrichum lagenarium due to root pretreatment with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid or a benzothiadiazole. Induction of competence depended on protein synthesis and could be effected not only by surface abrasion, but also by fungal spore germination on the epidermal surface or by rotating the seedlings in buffer. Inhibitor studies indicated that the inducible mechanism for H(2)O(2) production involves protein phosphorylation, Ca(2+) influx, and NAD(P)H oxidase. In contrast, a novel cucumber cutin monomer, dodecan-1-ol, also elicited H(2)O(2) in freshly abraded hypocotyls without previous competence induction. This finding suggests the presence of an additional H(2)O(2)-generating system that is constitutive. It is insensitive to inhibitors and has, in addition, a different specificity for alkanols. Thus, dodecan-1-ol might initiate defense before the inducible H(2)O(2)-generating system becomes effective.

  6. Tumor cells have decreased ability to metabolize H2O2: Implications for pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy

    Claire M. Doskey


    Full Text Available Ascorbate (AscH− functions as a versatile reducing agent. At pharmacological doses (P-AscH−; [plasma AscH−] ≥≈20 mM, achievable through intravenous delivery, oxidation of P-AscH− can produce a high flux of H2O2 in tumors. Catalase is the major enzyme for detoxifying high concentrations of H2O2. We hypothesize that sensitivity of tumor cells to P-AscH− compared to normal cells is due to their lower capacity to metabolize H2O2. Rate constants for removal of H2O2 (kcell and catalase activities were determined for 15 tumor and 10 normal cell lines of various tissue types. A differential in the capacity of cells to remove H2O2 was revealed, with the average kcell for normal cells being twice that of tumor cells. The ED50 (50% clonogenic survival of P-AscH− correlated directly with kcell and catalase activity. Catalase activity could present a promising indicator of which tumors may respond to P-AscH−.

  7. Effect of coagulation on treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate by UVC/H2O2.

    Umar, Muhammad; Roddick, Felicity; Fan, Linhua


    Disposal of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) is a growing concern due to potential health and ecological risks. Alum coagulation was investigated as pre-treatment for the UVC/H2O2 treatment of two high salinity ROC samples (ROC A and B) of comparable organic and inorganic content. Coagulation removed a greater fraction of the organic content for ROC B (29%) than ROC A (16%) which correlated well with the reductions of colour and A254. Although the total reductions after 60 min UVC/H2O2 treatment with and without coagulation were comparable, large differences in the trends of reduction were observed which were attributed to the different nature of the organic content (humic-like) of the samples as indicated by the LC-OCD analyses and different initial (5% and 16%) biodegradability. Coagulation and UVC/H2O2 treatment preferentially removed humic-like compounds which resulted in low reaction rates after UVC/H2O2 treatment of the coagulated samples. The improvement in biodegradability was greater (2-3-fold) during UVC/H2O2 treatment of the pre-treated samples than without pre-treatment. The target DOC residual (≤ 15 mg/L) was obtained after 30 and 20 min irradiation of pre-treated ROC A and ROC B with downstream biological treatment, corresponding to reductions of 55% and 62%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizae improve low temperature tolerance in cucumber via alterations in H2O2 accumulation and ATPase activity.

    Liu, Airong; Chen, Shuangchen; Chang, Rui; Liu, Dilin; Chen, Haoran; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Lin, Xiaomin; He, Chaoxing


    The combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and low temperature (LT) on cucumber plants were investigated with respect to biomass production, H2O2 accumulation, NADPH oxidase, ATPase activity and related gene expression. Mycorrhizal colonization ratio was gradually increased after AMF-inoculation. However, LT significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization ability and mycorrhizal dependency. Regardless of temperature, the total fresh and dry mass, and root activity of AMF-inoculated plants were significantly higher than that of the non-AMF control. The H2O2 accumulation in AMF-inoculated roots was decreased by 42.44% compared with the control under LT. H2O2 predominantly accumulated on the cell walls of apoplast but was hardly detectable in the cytosol or organelles of roots. Again, NADPH oxidase activity involved in H2O2 production was significantly reduced by AMF inoculation under LT. AMF-inoculation remarkably increased the activities of P-type H(+)-ATPase, P-Ca(2+)-ATPase, V-type H(+)-ATPase, total ATPase activity, ATP concentration and plasma membrane protein content in the roots under LT. Additionally, ATP concentration and expression of plasma membrane ATPase genes were increased by AMF-inoculation. These results indicate that NADPH oxidase and ATPase might play an important role in AMF-mediated tolerance to chilling stress, thereby maintaining a lower H2O2 accumulation in the roots of cucumber.

  9. [Degradation of Organic Sunscreens 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone by UV/ H2O2 Process: Kinetics and Factors].

    Feng, Xin-xin; Du, Er-deng; Guo, Ying-qing; Li, Hua-jie; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Fang


    Organic sunscreens continue to enter the environment through people's daily consumption, and become a kind of emerging contaminants. The photochemical degradation of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) in water by UV/H2O2 process was investigated. Several factors, including the initial BP-3 concentration, H2O2 concentration, UV light intensity, coexisting cations and anions, humic acid and tert-butyl alcohol, were also discussed. The results showed that BP-3 degradation rate constant decreased with increasing initial BP-3 concentration, while increased with increasing H2O2 dosage and UV intensity. Coexisting anions could reduce the degradation rate, while coexisting ferric ions could stimulate the production of OH through Fenton-like reaction, further significantly accelerated BP-3 degradation process. The BP-3 degradation would be inhibited by humic acid or tert-butyl alcohol. The electrical energy per order (E(Eo)) values were also calculated to evaluate the cost of BP-3 degradation by UV/H2O2 process. The addition of ferric ions significantly reduced the value of E(Eo). The investigation of processing parameter could provide a reference for the practical engineering applications of benzophenone compounds removal by UV/H2O2 process.

  10. Advanced oxidation removal of hypophosphite by O3/H2O2 combined with sequential Fe(II) catalytic process.

    Zhao, Zilong; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Chen, Guanhan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Zekun; Gao, Yaguang; Zhou, Beili


    Elimination of hypophosphite (HP) was studied as an example of nickel plating effluents treatment by O3/H2O2 and sequential Fe(II) catalytic oxidation process. Performance assessment performed with artificial HP solution by varying initial pH and employing various oxidation processes clearly showed that the O3/H2O2─Fe(II) two-step oxidation process possessed the highest removal efficiency when operating under the same conditions. The effects of O3 dosing, H2O2 concentration, Fe(II) addition and Fe(II) feeding time on the removal efficiency of HP were further evaluated in terms of apparent kinetic rate constant. Under improved conditions (initial HP concentration of 50 mg L(-1), 75 mg L(-1) O3, 1 mL L(-1) H2O2, 150 mg L(-1) Fe(II) and pH 7.0), standard discharge (oxidation treatment favored the improvement of phosphorus removal due to the formation of more metal hydroxides. Moreover, as a comparison with lab-scale Fenton approach, the O3/H2O2─Fe(II) oxidation process had more competitive advantages with respect to applicable pH range, removal efficiency, sludge production as well as economic costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. H2O2-induced Leaf Cell Death and the Crosstalk of Reactive Nitric/Oxygen Species([F])

    Yiqin Wang; Aihong Lin; Gary J.Loake; Chengcai Chu


    In plants,the chloroplast is the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing site under high light stress.Catalase (CAT),which decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),is one of the controlling enzymes that maintains leaf redox homeostasis.The catalase mutants with reduced leaf catalase activity from different plant species exhibit an H2O2-induced leaf cell death phenotype.This phenotype was differently affected by light intensity or photoperiod,which may be caused by plant species,leaf redox status or growth conditions.In the rice CAT mutant nitric oxide excess 1 (noe1),higher H2O2 levels induced the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and higher S-nitrosothiol (SNO) levels,suggesting that NO acts as an important endogenous mediator in H2O2-induced leaf cell death.As a free radical,NO could also react with other intracellular and extracellular targets and form a series of related molecules,collectively called reactive nitrogen species (RNS).Recent studies have revealed that both RNS and ROS are important partners in plant leaf cell death.Here,we summarize the recent progress on H2O2-induced leaf cell death and the crosstalk of RNS and ROS signals in the plant hypersensitive response (HR),leaf senescence,and other forms of leaf cell death triggered by diverse environmental conditions.

  12. Decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye by AOPs using bleach wastewater as source of H2O2


    This research was focused on the investigation of the efficacy of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, ozonation and UV/H2O2)for decolorization of reactive azo dye (Blue CL-BR) using bleach wastewater as possible source of H2O2. All the experiments were performed on the laboratory scale set-up. Thc results showed that colour removal efficiencies by UV or bleach (H2O2) alone were not so efficient. Fenton process with bleach wastewater was found to be the most effective at process conditions such as pH of 3 and H2O2/Fe2+ratio of 24:1, resulting in 64% colour removal. Almost complete colour removal, i.e., 99% and 95% were achieved by UV/H2O2 and UV/bleach wastewater in 30 and 60 min, respectively. Ozonation proved an efficient method for decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye at alkaline pH. It was possible to achieve 98% colour removal with 30 min of ozonation at pH 9. The colour removal of dye was found to follow first order kinetics.

  13. Simultaneous photoinduced generation of Fe(2+) and H2O2 in rivers: An indicator for photo-Fenton reaction.

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Sakugawa, Hiroshi


    The photo-Fenton reaction is a key source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO) that is produced by the reaction of simultaneous photo-induced generation of Fe(2)(+)-dissolved organic matter (DOM) with H2O2 in sunlit surface waters as well as in the treatment of organic pollutants in the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Concentrations of both H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM were dependent on time and total solar intensity flux, and their levels were highest in the diurnal samples collected at noon compared with the samples collected during the period before sunrise and after sunset. H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM concentrations during monthly readings were also found higher in comparison with the diurnal samples, shortly before sunrise or after sunset. A π-electron bonding system is formed between Fe and the functional groups in DOM (Fe-DOM), through electron donation from the functional groups of DOM to an empty d-orbital of Fe. The π-electron is loosely bound and is highly susceptible to a rapid excitation upon light exposure that will provide better understanding of the formation of aqueous electrons, superoxide radical anions, H2O2 and finally, photo-Fenton reactions, too. Our results imply that simultaneous generation of H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM upon sunlight exposure during the daytime is most likely to be the key photo-Fenton reaction pathway, taking place in surface waters.

  14. Scale-Up Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide from H2/O2 with Multiple Parallel DBD Tubes

    ZHAO Jianli; ZHOU Juncheng; SU Ji; GUO Hongchen; WANG Xiangsheng; GONG Weimin


    The scale-up synthesis of H202 from H2/O2 via a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)under ambient conditions was studied. A plasma reactor consisting of multiple parallel DBD tubes was designed to scale up the H2O2 synthesis. The number of tubes had no significant effect on the discharge mode, and no decay occurred in H2O2 selectivity during the scale-up process.These advantages made this technology more stable and efficient. The reactor's energy efficiency increased with the number of tubes and reached 136 g H2O2/kWh in the four-tube reaction. The total energy efficiency was limited by the extremely low energy transfer efficiency of power supply,and might be enhanced by optimizing the impedance matching between the power supply and the reactor load. As a result, an assembly of multiple DBD tubes may provide a viable route for the scale-up synthesis of H2O2 by a non-equilibrium plasma.

  15. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma.

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos


    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs' antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2(-) and NO3(-) can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2(-), but not NO3(-), acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2(-) in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2(-) and NO3(-) in solution.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of the citrus flavanones against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Hwang, Sam-Long; Yen, Gow-Chin


    The citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin are known to exhibit antioxidant activities and could traverse the blood-brain barrier. H2O2 formation induces cellular oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, protective effects of pretreatments (6 h) with hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin (0.8, 4, 20, and 50 microM) on H2O2-induced (400 microM, 16 h) neurotoxicity in PC12 cells were evaluated. The results showed that hesperetin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, at all test concentrations, significantly ( p neohesperidin-treated cells) and the increase of caspase-3 activity in H2O2-induced PC12 cells. Meanwhile, hesperidin and hesperetin attenuated decreases of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and decreased DNA damage in H2O2-induced PC12 cells. These results first demonstrate that the citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin, even at physiological concentrations, have neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. These dietary antioxidants are potential candidates for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. H2O2 mediates the regulation of ABA catabolism and GA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seed dormancy and germination.

    Liu, Yinggao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Rui; Chen, Moxian; Zhang, Jianhua


    H(2)O(2) is known as a signal molecule in plant cells, but its role in the regulation of aqbscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism and hormonal balance is not yet clear. In this study it was found that H(2)O(2) affected the regulation of ABA catabolism and GA biosynthesis during seed imbibition and thus exerted control over seed dormancy and germination. As seen by quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), H(2)O(2) up-regulated ABA catabolism genes (e.g. CYP707A genes), resulting in a decreased ABA content during imbibition. This action required the participation of nitric oxide (NO), another signal molecule. At the same time, H(2)O(2) also up-regulated GA biosynthesis, as shown by QRT-PCR. When an ABA catabolism mutant, cyp707a2, and an overexpressing plant, CYP707A2-OE, were tested, ABA content was negatively correlated with GA biosynthesis. Exogenously applied GA was able to over-ride the inhibition of germination at low concentrations of ABA, but had no obvious effect when ABA concentrations were high. It is concluded that H(2)O(2) mediates the up-regulation of ABA catabolism, probably through an NO signal, and also promotes GA biosynthesis. High concentrations of ABA inhibit GA biosynthesis but a balance of these two hormones can jointly control the dormancy and germination of Arabidopsis seeds.

  18. Expression of ROS-responsive genes and transcription factors after metabolic formation of H2O2 in chloroplasts

    Salma eBalazadeh


    Full Text Available Glycolate oxidase (GO catalyses the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate, thereby consuming O2 and producing H2O2. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing GO in the chloroplasts (GO plants were used to assess the expressional behaviour of reactive oxygen species (ROS-responsive genes and transcription factors (TFs after metabolic induction of H2O2 formation in chloroplasts. In this organelle, GO uses the glycolate derived from the oxygenase activity of RubisCO. Here, to identify genes responding to an abrupt production of H2O2 in chloroplasts we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to test the expression of 187 ROS-responsive genes and 1,880 TFs after transferring GO and wild-type plants grown at high CO2 levels to ambient CO2 concentration. Our data revealed coordinated expression changes of genes of specific functional networks 0.5 h after metabolic induction of H2O2 production in GO plants, including the induction of indole glucosinolate and camalexin biosynthesis genes. Comparative analysis using available microarray data suggests that signals for the induction of these genes through H2O2 may originate in the chloroplast. The TF profiling indicated an upregulation in GO plants of a group of genes involved in the regulation of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Moreover, the upregulation of expression of TF and TF-interacting proteins affecting development (e.g., cell division, stem branching, flowering time, flower development would impact growth and reproductive capacity, resulting in altered development under conditions that promote the formation of H2O2.

  19. Expression of ROS-responsive genes and transcription factors after metabolic formation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts.

    Balazadeh, Salma; Jaspert, Nils; Arif, Muhammad; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Maurino, Veronica G


    Glycolate oxidase (GO) catalyses the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate, thereby consuming O(2) and producing H(2)O(2). In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing GO in the chloroplasts (GO plants) were used to assess the expressional behavior of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive genes and transcription factors (TFs) after metabolic induction of H(2)O(2) formation in chloroplasts. In this organelle, GO uses the glycolate derived from the oxygenase activity of RubisCO. Here, to identify genes responding to an abrupt production of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to test the expression of 187 ROS-responsive genes and 1880 TFs after transferring GO and wild-type (WT) plants grown at high CO(2) levels to ambient CO(2) concentration. Our data revealed coordinated expression changes of genes of specific functional networks 0.5 h after metabolic induction of H(2)O(2) production in GO plants, including the induction of indole glucosinolate and camalexin biosynthesis genes. Comparative analysis using available microarray data suggests that signals for the induction of these genes through H(2)O(2) may originate in the chloroplast. The TF profiling indicated an up-regulation in GO plants of a group of genes involved in the regulation of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Moreover, the upregulation of expression of TF and TF-interacting proteins affecting development (e.g., cell division, stem branching, flowering time, flower development) would impact growth and reproductive capacity, resulting in altered development under conditions that promote the formation of H(2)O(2).

  20. H2O2 and/or TiO2 photocatalysis under UV irradiation for the removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and their antibiotic resistance genes.

    Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Kai; Hou, Song; Wan, Li; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiaodong; Chen, Shuyi; Xu, Jian


    Inactivating antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and removing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are very important to prevent their spread into the environment. Previous efforts have been taken to eliminate ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution and sludges, however, few satisfying results have been obtained. This study investigated whether photocatalysis by TiO2 was able to reduce the two ARGs, mecA and ampC, within the host ARB, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. The addition of H2O2 and matrix effect on the removal of ARB and ARGs were also studied. TiO2 thin films showed great effect on both ARB inactivation and ARGs removal. Approximately 4.5-5.0 and 5.5-5.8 log ARB reductions were achieved by TiO2 under 6 and 12mJ/cm(2) UV254 fluence dose, respectively. For ARGs, 5.8 log mecA reduction and 4.7 log ampC reduction were achieved under 120mJ/cm(2) UV254 fluence dose in the presence of TiO2. Increasing dosage of H2O2 enhanced the removal efficiencies of ARB and ARGs. The results also demonstrated that photocatalysis by TiO2 was capable of removing both intracellular and extracellular forms of ARGs. This study provided a potential alternative method for the removal of ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution.


    张乃东; 郑威; 黄君礼



  2. PE燃料热解过程对H2O2-PE固液发动机点火的影响%Influence of PE fuel pyrolysis on ignition of H2O2-PE hybrid rocket motor

    孙得川; 杜新; 汪亮



  3. Zeolite NaY-mediated oxidation of dyes with H2O2: unique heterogeneous non-transition metal center cleavage of H2O2 under visible light irradiation

    LIU; LiLi; MA; WanHong; SONG; WenJing; CHEN; ChunCheng; LIN; Jun; ZHAO; JinCai; QIAN; XinHua; ZHANG; ShiBo


    This study investigated the visible-light catalysis mediated by zeolite NaY on the oxidation of dyes with H2O2. The results demonstrated that zeolite NaY acts as a sink for the electron from the photo-excited dye in the heterogeneous catalysis. Furthermore, the electron can effectively activate H2O2 to produce ·OH radical that is a powerful oxidant for the oxidation of dye at room temperature. The effects of the framework topology, Si/Al ratio, and exchangeable cation of the zeolite on the oxidation of various dyes were also shown.

  4. Physiological Responses of Grass Pea Root to Oxidative Stress Induced by H2O2%山黧豆根系对H2O2诱导氧化胁迫的生理应答

    蒋景龙; 李丽; 徐皓; 赵桦; 昝丽霞


    以水培7d苗龄的山黧豆幼苗为材料,向水培溶液中施加不同浓度H2O2处理山黧豆幼苗24 h,分析山黧豆根系受氧化胁迫的程度与抗氧化系统的应答特征,以揭示山黧豆对氧化胁迫的耐受机制.结果显示:(1)随外源H2O2处理浓度的不断增加,山黧豆幼苗侧根的数目无显著变化,而其根的鲜重则显著降低.(2)同时,根系组织的内源H2O2染色范围和程度显著增高,但根尖区域始终保持较低水平的H2O2;相反,O2-染色范围和程度明显减少,根尖区域却始终保持较高水平的O2-.(3)同期根系抗坏血酸(ASC)含量及过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)与抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)的活性均表现出了先升高后降低的趋势,而超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)一直表现为持续上升的趋势.研究表明,在外源H2O2胁迫条件下,山黧豆根系Oi的积累可能与其生长和活力呈正相关,而根系H2O2的积累则与其受氧化胁迫程度呈正相关;低浓度的H2O2处理可以提高山黧豆抗氧化系统对体内活性氧的清除能力.

  5. Formation of Nanodroplets in N2/H2O/SO2 under Irradiation of Fast Proton Beams

    Nakai, Youchi; Shigeoka, Tomita; Funada, Shuhei

    of the droplet growth in thebinary nucleation process of water and H2SO4.We have performed irradiation of proton beam on the gas mixture of N2/H2O/SO2 andAir/H2O/SO2. The reduction of SO2 concentration by beam irradiation was monitored usingan SO2 meter and the size distributions of generated droplets were...... measured with adifferential mobility analyzer. We found that the mass yield of generated droplets showedlinear dependence on the amount of SO2 oxidation. This behavior is different from binarynucleation theory of water and H2SO4. The difference might indicates importance ofconsidering the droplet formation...

  6. Experimental and model comparisons of H_2O_2 assisted UV photodegradation of Microcystin-LR in simulated drinking water

    Lei LI; Nai-yun GAO; Yang DENG; Juan-juan YAO; Ke-jia ZHANG; Hai-jun LI; Di-di YIN; Hua-se OU; Jian-wei GUO


    The degradation of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water by hydrogen peroxide assisted ultraviolet (UV/H_2O_2) process was investigated in this paper. The UV/H_2O_2 process appeared to be effective in removal of the MC-LR. MC-LR decomposition was primarily ascribed to production of strong and nonselective oxidant-hydroxyl radicals within the system. The intensity of UV radiation, initial concentration of MC-LR, MC-LR purity, dosages of H_2O_2, the initial solution pH, and anions present in water, to some extent, influenced the degradation rate of MC-LR. A modified pseudo-first-order kinetic model was developed to predict the removal efficiency under different experimental conditions.

  7. A H2O2 Biosensor Based on Immobilization of HorseradishPeroxidase in a Gelatine Network Matrix

    Jun-Jie Zhu


    Full Text Available A simple and promising H2O2 biosensor has been developed by successfulentrapment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in a gelatine matrix which was cross-linkedwith formaldehyde. The large microscopic surface area and porous morphology of thegelatine matrix lead to high enzyme loading and the enzyme entrapped in this matrix canretain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogenperoxide (H2O2. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 2.5×10-5 to2.5×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-6 M based on S / N = 3. This biosensorpossessed very good reproducibility.

  8. 微电解-H2O2工艺对TDA废水的预处理研究

    刘徽; 王三反; 张文慧


    通过对比微电解法、Fenton法以及微电解-H2O2法三种工艺,试验确定采用微电解-H2O2工艺对TDA废水进行预处理,并得出工艺的最佳工作条件:铁炭比为1:1,pH为4~5,HRT为70~80 min,H2O2的用量为0.3 mL/L.出水TDA浓度能够满足后续生物处理系统的要求,保证系统的出水达到<污水综合排放标准(GB 8978-1996)一级排放标准.

  9. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Water during UV/H2O2 Treatment: Role of Sulphate and Bicarbonate Ions

    Am Fadaei


    Full Text Available The photodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides, malathian and diazinon, by sulfate radicals and bicarbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. The effect of the operational parameters such as pH, salt concentration, water type, H2O2 concentration and initial concentration of pesticides was studied. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC–MS was used for analyses of pesticides. When salt effect was studied, it was found that sodium bicarbonate was the most powerful inhibitor used, while sodium sulfate was the weakest one. The highest degradation in UV/H2O2 process for malathion was found in alkaline condition and for diazinon in acidic condition. The photodegradation in all waters used in this work exhibited first order kinetics. Photodegradation rate in distilled water was higher than real water. The degradation of pesticides increased with increasing of H2O2 concentration.

  10. Giardia duodenalis: Number and Fluorescence Reduction Caused by the Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV)

    Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guadagnini, Regiane Aparecida; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano


    This study evaluated the effect of peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (H2O2/UV), which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP), on Giardia duodenalis cysts. The cysts were inoculated in synthetic and surface water using a concentration of 12 g H2O2 L−1 and a UV dose (λ = 254 nm) of 5,480 mJcm−2. The aqueous solutions were concentrated using membrane filtration, and the organisms were observed using a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The AOP was effective in reducing the number of G. duodenalis cysts in synthetic and surface water and was most effective in reducing the fluorescence of the cyst walls that were present in the surface water. The AOP showed a higher deleterious potential for G. duodenalis cysts than either peroxidation (H2O2) or photolysis (UV) processes alone. PMID:27379301

  11. Investigation of voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay based on new system of ODA-H2O2-HRP

    焦奎; 张书圣; 韦璐


    A voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay based on a new system of ODA-H2O2-HRP has first been developed and used in the detection of HRP and labelled HRP. By this method, the enzyme-catalyzing reaction of H2O2 oxidizing odianisidine (ODA) couples the electrode-reduction reaction of the oxidizing product of odianisidine, which produces a sensitive polarographic wave at potential of -0.56V (SCE) in Britton-Robinson buffer solution. In using this polarographic wave, a detection limit to HRP is 3.7×10-12g/mL and a linear range 1.0×10-11-2.0×10-9g/mL. And the mechanisms of the coupling reaction and the process of electro-reduction in the ODA-H2O2-HRP voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay system have also been carefully studied.

  12. Promoting effect of TiO2 on the catalytic performance of Pt-Au/TiO2(x)-CeO2 for the co-oxidation of CO and H2 at room temperature

    Hong, Xiaowei; Sun, Ye; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Zhiming


    In the present study the promoting effect of TiO2 on the catalytic performance of Pt-Au/TiO2(x)-CeO2 catalysts for the co-oxidation of CO and H2 at room temperature has been investigated. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 to Pt-Au/CeO2 catalyst enhances the activity for the co-oxidation of CO and H2, and Pt-Au/TiO2 (10%)-CeO2 catalyst was the most active catalyst. A series of characterization methods were used to elucidate the promoting effect of TiO2. It was found that the introduction of TiO2 to Pt-Au/CeO2 led to the increase of Ce3+ and Au+ species, both of which played important roles in the co-oxidation of CO and H2. Moreover, a possible mechanism of the simultaneous removal of CO and H2 has been proposed.

  13. Hydroxylation of Benzene to Phenol by H2O2 over an Inorganic-Organic Dual Modified Heteropolyacid☆

    Li Jing; Fumin Zhang; Yijun Zhong; Weidong Zhu


    Various catalysts, including the heteropolyacid (HPA) H4PMo11VO40, its cesium salts, and inorganic–organic dual modified HPA catalyst, were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nu-clear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), N2 adsorption, acid–base titration, electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques as wel as elemental analysis. These prepared catalysts were used in the hydroxyl-ation of benzene to phenol by H2O2 as oxidant. The inorganic–organic dual modified HPA Cs2.5(MIMPS)1.5 PMo11VO40, prepared by partially exchanging Cs+with protons in H4PMo11VO40 and followed by the immobili-zation of 3-(1-methylimidazolium-3-yl)propane-1-sulfonate (MIMPS), led to a liquid–solid biphasic catalysis system in the hydroxylation, which showed the best catalytic performance in terms of reusability and catalytic activity. The high reusability of Cs2.5(MIMPS)1.5PMo11VO40 in the heterogeneous hydroxylation was probably due to its high resistance in leaching of bulk HPA into the reaction medium. The slightly enhanced catalytic activ-ity for the catalyst was due to the acid sites available from MIMPS beneficial to the hydroxylation.

  14. Manganese ions enhance mitochondrial H2O2 emission from Krebs cycle oxidoreductases by inducing permeability transition.

    Bonke, Erik; Siebels, Ilka; Zwicker, Klaus; Dröse, Stefan


    Manganese-induced toxicity has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We could recently show in mechanistic studies that Mn(2+) ions induce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production from the ubiquinone binding site of mitochondrial complex II (IIQ) and generally enhance H2O2 formation by accelerating the rate of superoxide dismutation. The present study with intact mitochondria reveals that manganese additionally enhances H2O2 emission by inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). In mitochondria fed by NADH-generating substrates, the combination of Mn(2+) and different respiratory chain inhibitors led to a dynamically increasing H2O2emission which was sensitive to the mPT inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) as well as Ru-360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Under these conditions, flavin-containing enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix, e.g. the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase (OGDH), were major sources of ROS. With succinate as substrate, Mn(2+) stimulated ROS production mainly at complex II, whereby the applied succinate concentration had a marked effect on the tendency for mPT. Also Ca(2+) increased the rate of H2O2 emission by mPT, while no direct effect on ROS-production of complex II was observed. The present study reveals a complex scenario through which manganese affects mitochondrial H2O2 emission: stimulating its production from distinct sites (e.g. site IIQ), accelerating superoxide dismutation and enhancing the emission via mPT which also leads to the loss of soluble components of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems and favors the ROS production from flavin-containing oxidoreductases of the Krebs cycle.

  15. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon

    Soulard, P.; Tremblay, B.


    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  16. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B


    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polymer eight-coordinate (enH2)[YIII(pdta)(H2O)](2)·10H2O as well as the interaction of [YIII(pdta)(H2O)]2(2-) with BSA.

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bing-Mi; He, Ling-Ling; Xu, Shu-Kun


    The eight-coordinate (enH2)[YIII(pdta)(H2O)](2)·10H2O (en=ethylenediamine and H4pdta=1,3-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) was synthesized, meanwhile its molecular and crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technology. The interaction between [Y(III)(pdta)(H2O)]2(2-) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results indicate that [YIII(pdta)(H2O)]2(2-) quenched effectively the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process with the binding constant (Ka) of the order of 10(4). Meanwhile, the binding and damaging sites to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. Results indicate that the hydrophobic environments around Trp and Tyr residues were all slightly changed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG=-25.20 kJ mol(-1), ΔH=-26.57 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS=-4.58 J mol(-1) K(-1)) showed that the reaction was spontaneous and exothermic. What is more, both ΔH and ΔS were negative values indicated that hydrogen bond and Van der Waals forces were the predominant intermolecular forces between [YIII(pdta)(H2O)]2(2-) and BSA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficiency and mechanism of degradation of alachlor in water by O3/H2O2 catalyst system

    高金胜; 于颖慧; 孙志忠; 马军


    Alachlor is used widely as a herbicide,but is an environmental endocrine disruptor. O3/H2O2 systemis used as catalyst to delve on the degradation efficiency of alachlor. The amount of the catalyst-H2O2 ,the pHvalue of the soluble, the temperature and quality of water sample are changed to investigate the effect of thesefactors on the degradation of alaehlor. The degradation of alachlor is qualitatively analyzed through their GS-MSspectra and the possible mechanism of the degradation of alachlor is discussed as well.

  19. H2O2/UV Photo-Oxidation of Gadung (Dioscorea Hispida Dennst. Starch and its Product Physicochemical Characterization

    Andri Cahyo Kumoro


    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the preparation and physicochemical properties characterization of oxidized gadung starch obtained from oxidation process implementing combined H2O2-UV irradiation. The photo-oxidation process was carried out in a well-mixed slurry reaction system at ambient temperature. The extent of oxidation was determined based on the carboxyl and the carbonyl contents of the oxidized gadung starch. The results show that oxidation process altered the carbonyl and carboxyl contents of the starch. Except the morphology of the starch, the swelling power, solubility and gelatinization temperature of the starch were severely affected by H2O2/UV oxidation process.

  20. Quantum yields for OH production from 193 and 248 nm photolysis of HNO3 and H2O2

    Schiffman, A.; Nelson, D. D., Jr.; Nesbitt, D. J.


    Flash kinetic spectroscopy in a flow tube is used to measure at room temperature the absolute yields for OH production from 193 and 248 nm photolysis of HNO3 and H2O2. The OH radicals are produced by excimer laser photolysis and probed via direct absorption of high resolution tunable IR laser light. The results indicate quantum yields for both precursors at both wavelengths which are less than the maximum possible values of 1 for H2O2. The present measurements are discussed in light of contrasting results suggested from other work.

  1. Quercetin in combating H_2O_2 induced early cell apoptosis and mitochondrial damage to normal human keratinocytes

    WANG Xiao-yan; HE Pei-ying; DU Juan; ZHANG Jian-zhong


    Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of epidermal diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of quercetin on the anti-oxidative response and on mitochondrial protection in cultured normal human keratinocytes. Methods Cultured HaCaT cells were treated with different concentrations of H_2O_2 (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μmol/L) for different periods of time (0.5, 1,2,4 hours) to establish an oxidative stress model. The cultured HaCaT cells were randomly assigned to control, H_2O_2, and quercetin+H_2O_2 groups. For the quercetin groups, the cells were treated with different concentrations of quercetin (0,10, 25, 50 μmol/L) before exposure to H_2O_2. Morphological changes of the cells were observed under an inverted microscope and an electron microscope. The cell viability was detected by the MTT method. The cell apoptosis (AnnexinV/propidium iodide double stain) and mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) changes were detected by flow cytometry. Results An oxidative stress model of HaCaT cells was established under a suitable concentration (250 μmol/L) and treated time of H_2O_2 (2 hours). The cell viability and △ψm decreased in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner while the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in the H_2O_2 groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). The cell viability and △ψm of the quercetin treated group increased (P<0.05) and the percentage of apoptotic cells decreased at concentrations of 1-50 μmol/L quercetin (P<0.01) compared with H_2O_2 treated group. Conclusion Quercetin can relieve the cell damage and apoptosis from H_2O_2 induced injury to HaCaT cells by anti-oxidation and mitochondrial protection.


    Tapia-Huanambal, N.; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Fisicoquímica,Universidad Nacional mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; Kuo, Ch.; Departamento de Química de la Universidad Estatal de Arizona, Templo, AZ 85287-1604. EE.UU.; Lajavardi, M.; Departamento de Química de la Universidad Estatal de Arizona, Templo, AZ 85287-1604. EE.UU.; Lin, Sh.; Departamento de Química de la Universidad Estatal de Arizona, Templo, AZ 85287-1604. EE.UU.


    The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide H2O2, is a simple reaction to study the effect of the magnetic field in chemical reactivity. Hydrogen peroxide when dissolved in water is decomposed into oxygen and water slowly. In the absence of a catalyst, the reaction is extremely slow. We have studied the effect of the magnetic field in the synthesis of Fe3O4 and catalytic decomposition of H2O2 by Fe3O4 also propose a theoretical treatment of the magnetic field effect on chemical reactions. The resu...

  3. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.


    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  4. Inherent variations in CO-H2S-mediated carotid body O2 sensing mediate hypertension and pulmonary edema.

    Peng, Ying-Jie; Makarenko, Vladislav V; Nanduri, Jayasri; Vasavda, Chirag; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Yuan, Guoxiang; Gadalla, Moataz M; Kumar, Ganesh K; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R


    Oxygen (O2) sensing by the carotid body and its chemosensory reflex is critical for homeostatic regulation of breathing and blood pressure. Humans and animals exhibit substantial interindividual variation in this chemosensory reflex response, with profound effects on cardiorespiratory functions. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here, we report that inherent variations in carotid body O2 sensing by carbon monoxide (CO)-sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling contribute to reflex variation in three genetically distinct rat strains. Compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Brown-Norway (BN) rats exhibit impaired carotid body O2 sensing and develop pulmonary edema as a consequence of poor ventilatory adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Spontaneous Hypertensive (SH) rat carotid bodies display inherent hypersensitivity to hypoxia and develop hypertension. BN rat carotid bodies have naturally higher CO and lower H2S levels than SD rat, whereas SH carotid bodies have reduced CO and greater H2S generation. Higher CO levels in BN rats were associated with higher substrate affinity of the enzyme heme oxygenase 2, whereas SH rats present lower substrate affinity and, thus, reduced CO generation. Reducing CO levels in BN rat carotid bodies increased H2S generation, restoring O2 sensing and preventing hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema. Increasing CO levels in SH carotid bodies reduced H2S generation, preventing hypersensitivity to hypoxia and controlling hypertension in SH rats.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity towards degradation and H2 evolution over one dimensional TiO2@MWCNTs heterojunction

    Zhang, Xiao; Cao, Shuang; Wu, Zhijiao; Zhao, Suling; Piao, Lingyu


    With the distinct electronic and optical properties, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are identified as an outstanding catalyst support, which can effectively improve the performance of the TiO2 photocatalysts. Herein, the unique one dimensional TiO2@MWCNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The TiO2 coating layers are extremely uniform and the thickness is adjustable for different nanocomposites. XPS measurements confirm that intimate electronic interactions are existed between MWCNTs and TiO2 via interfacial Tisbnd Osbnd C bond and the photoluminescence intensity of the TiO2@MWCNTs nanocomposites are effectively quenched compared with pure TiO2, suggesting the fast electron transfer rates. The thickness of TiO2 coating layers of the TiO2@MWCNTs nanocomposites plays a significant role in the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB), and photocatalytic H2 evolution from water. Due to the formation of one dimensional heterojunction of TiO2@MWCNTs nanocomposites and the positive synergistic effect between TiO2 and carbon nanotubes, it is found that the photocatalytic activity of the system is significantly improved.

  6. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.


    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using a diffe...... positive and negative ions for the formation of nanosize droplets, which attract each other by Coulomb interactions, enhancing the collision frequency and leading to the formation of the 10 nm droplets.......To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using...... a differential mobility analyzer equipped with a Faraday cup electrometer. Using the proton beam, droplets around 10 nm in diameter were observed for both positively and negatively charged particles, but none were found when the corona discharge was used. This implies the importance of the presence of both...

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property of Sanwich-Type Heteropolyoxometalate Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{Cu(H2O)}3(BiW9O33)2]·42H2O

    XUE, Gang-Lin(薛岗林); WANG, Hu-Lin(王虎林); XIE, Zhi-Hai(谢志海); SHI, Qi-Zhen(史启祯); WANG, Ji-Wu(王继武); WANG, Da-Qi(王大奇)


    The heteropolytungstate Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{Cu(H2O)}3(BiW9O33)2]·42H2O is obtained by the reaction of Na2WO4·2H2O, Bi(NO3)3·5H2O with CuCl2·2H2O at pH≈6. The structure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and elemental analysis. The crystal data and main structure refinement are: a=1.410(3) nm, b=2.338(5) nm, c=3.173(6) nm, β=98.06(4)°, V=10.354(35) nm3, monoclinic crystal system, space group: C2/c, Z=4, R1=0.0471, wR2=0.0642 [I>2σ(I)], R1=0.1371, wR2=0.0868 (all data). [{Na(H2O)2}3{Cu(H2O)}3W9O33)2]9- has D3h symmetry. IR, UV-vis spectra, TG curve and magnetic property of the complex were also discussed. The compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic coupling with J=-8.08 cm-1 and g=2.21.

  8. Ca2+Acts Upstream of H2O2 in Mediating H2S-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis thaliana%Ca2+位于H2O2上游参与H2S诱导的拟南芥气孔关闭过程

    李洪旺; 车永梅; 侯丽霞; 王兰香; 刘香凝; 刘新


    Using Arabidopsis thaliana as material, the effects of Ca2+in hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-induced guard cell movement and its relationship with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated through pharmacological test combined with spectrophotography and confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques. The results showed that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, caused stomatal closure, and this inductive effects were weakened by addition of Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and plasma membrane Ca2+channel blocker nifedipine (Nif), respectively, however, endoplasmic retic-ulum calcium pump blocker thapsigargin (Thaps) had no signiifcant effect on stomatal movement induced by H2S. These observations suggest that Ca2+participates in H2S-induced stomatal closure, [Ca2+]cyt elevation in re-sponse to H2S is mainly due to calcium inlfux across the plasma membrane. In addition, H2S up-regulated the expression of NADPH oxidase genes AtRBOHD, AtRBOHF as well as cell wall peroxidase gene AtPRX34, prompted H2O2 accumulation in leaves and guard cells, while EGTA inhibited these effects of H2S. On the other hand, exogenous CaCl2 promoted the expression of AtRBOHD, AtRBOHF and AtPRX34. Based on above results, it can be concluded that Ca2+ acts upstream of H2O2 in mediating H2S-induced stomatal closure in A. thaliana.%以拟南芥为材料,利用药理学实验,结合分光光度法和激光共聚焦显微技术,研究了Ca2+在硫化氢(H2S)诱导拟南芥气孔关闭过程中的作用及其与过氧化氢(H2O2)的关系。结果表明: H2S诱导气孔关闭, Ca2+螯合剂EGTA和质膜Ca2+通道阻断剂硝苯地平(Nif)能不同程度抑制H2S诱导的气孔关闭,而内质网钙泵阻断剂毒胡萝卜素(Thaps)对H2S的作用无显著影响。由此推测, Ca2+参与调节H2S诱导的拟南芥气孔关闭过程,且胞质中Ca2+来源于胞外Ca2+的内流。另外, H2S诱导拟南芥叶片NADPH氧化酶

  9. Visible photoelectrochemical water splitting into H2 and O2 in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell.

    Alibabaei, Leila; Sherman, Benjamin D; Norris, Michael R; Brennaman, M Kyle; Meyer, Thomas J


    A hybrid strategy for solar water splitting is exploited here based on a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) with a mesoporous SnO2/TiO2 core/shell nanostructured electrode derivatized with a surface-bound Ru(II) polypyridyl-based chromophore-catalyst assembly. The assembly, [(4,4'-(PO3H2)2bpy)2Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-bimpy)Ru(tpy)(OH2)](4+) ([Ru(a) (II)-Ru(b) (II)-OH2](4+), combines both a light absorber and a water oxidation catalyst in a single molecule. It was attached to the TiO2 shell by phosphonate-surface oxide binding. The oxide-bound assembly was further stabilized on the surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of either Al2O3 or TiO2 overlayers. Illumination of the resulting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)|SnO2/TiO2|-[Ru(a) (II)-Ru(b) (II)-OH2](4+)(Al2O3 or TiO2) photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cells with a Pt cathode and a small applied bias resulted in visible-light water splitting as shown by direct measurements of both evolved H2 and O2. The performance of the resulting DSPECs varies with shell thickness and the nature and extent of the oxide overlayer. Use of the SnO2/TiO2 core/shell compared with nanoITO/TiO2 with the same assembly results in photocurrent enhancements of ∼ 5. Systematic variations in shell thickness and ALD overlayer lead to photocurrent densities as high as 1.97 mA/cm(2) with 445-nm, ∼ 90-mW/cm(2) illumination in a phosphate buffer at pH 7.

  10. Kinetics of Epoxidation of Propylene with H2O2 in Isopropanol%异丙醇溶剂中H2O2法制环氧丙烷动力学

    陈晓晖; 谭蔚; 米镇涛; 王春艳; 许锡恩


    研究了异丙醇作为溶剂时,TS-1催化丙烯H2O2环氧化反应过程主副反应动力学,分析了丙烯压力、温度等因素对反应的影响,发现当温度低于40oC、丙烯压力为0.3 MPa时,环氧丙烷的收率达到75%,可以采用异丙醇法制H-2O2与丙烯环氧化集成.%The epoxidation of propylene with H2O2 in isopropanol under mild conditions over TS-1 molecular sieve was studied, the primary and side reaction kinetics was discussed, and the effects of temperature, pressure and other factors on reactions were analyzed. It was found that when pressure of propylene was 0.3 MPa and temperature below 40oC, the yield of propylene oxide was up to 75%, and the integration of propylene epoxidation with manufacture of H2O2 via isopropanol was possible.

  11. Kinetics of epoxidation of propylene with H2O2 in isopropanol%异丙醇溶剂中丙烯用H2O2环氧化动力学研究

    陈晓晖; 郭红宇; 米镇涛; 王春艳; 许锡恩


      The epoxidation of propylene with H2O2 in isopropanol under mild conditions over TS-1 was studied, the primary and side reaction kinetics were discussed, and the influence of temperature and pressure and other factors on the reaction was analyzed, it was found that when pressure of propylene was 0.3MPa, temperature below 40°C, catalyst content was 1%, the yield of propylene oxide was up to 75%, the main by-product is acetone ,and the integration of propylene epoxidation with manufacture of H2O2 by using isopropanol was possible.%  本文研究了异丙醇作为溶剂时,TS-1催化丙烯H2O2环氧化反应过程主副反应动力学,分析了丙烯压力、温度等因素对反应的影响,发现当温度低于40°C,丙烯压力为0.3MPa,催化剂浓度为1%时,环氧丙烷的收率达到75%,主要副产物是丙酮,可以采用异丙醇法制H2O2与丙烯环氧化集成.

  12. Abatement of Polychoro-1,3-butadienes in Aqueous Solution by Ozone, UV Photolysis, and Advanced Oxidation Processes (O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2).

    Lee, Minju; Merle, Tony; Rentsch, Daniel; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs


    The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (kO3) (50% at specific ozone doses of 0.5 gO3/gDOC to ∼100% at ≥1.0 gO3/gDOC) were achieved for tetra-CBDs followed by (Z)-1,1,2,3,4-penta-CBD and hexa-CBD. This is consistent with the magnitude of the determined kO3 and k(•)OH. The formation of bromate, a potentially carcinogenic ozonation byproduct, could be significantly reduced by addition of H2O2. For a typical UV disinfection dose (400 J/m(2)), various extents of phototransformations (10-90%) could be achieved. However, the efficient formation of photoisomers from CBDs with E/Z configuration must be taken into account because of their potential residual toxicity. Under UV-C(254 nm) photolysis conditions, no significant effect of H2O2 addition on CBDs abatement was observed due to an efficient direct phototransformation of CBDs.

  13. 硫化氢对H2O2损伤PC12细胞的保护作用%Protective Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on H2O2-Induced Damage in PC12 Cells

    杨丝丝; 姜志胜; 唐小卿


    目的 探讨硫化氢对氧化应激损伤PC12细胞的保护作用.方法 以H2O2损伤PC12细胞为氧化应激损伤的模型,甲氮甲唑蓝法检测细胞增殖状况;Hoechst荧光染色观察细胞形态和核形态;碘化丙啶染色、流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡.结果 硫化氢可明显减少H2O2诱导的PC12细胞核呈浓染致密的固缩形态或颗粒状荧光的细胞数;200和400 μmol/L硫化氢均可降低200和400 μmol/L H2 O2作用24 h后对PC12细胞生长的抑制率,明显抑制200和400 μmol/L H2O2作用24 h后对PC12细胞凋亡的诱导作用.结论 硫化氢对氧化应激损伤PC12细胞具有保护作用.

  14. Catalytic decomposition of CH4 over Ni-Al2O3-SiO2 catalysts:Influence of pretreatment conditions for the production of H2

    Jangam Ashok; Gangadhara Raju; Padigapati Shiva Reddy; Machiraju Subrahmanyam; Akula Venugopal


    This article reports the production of COx free hydrogen and carbon nanofibers by the catalytic decomposition of methane over Ni-Al2O3-SiO2 catalysts. The influence of reaction temperature, pretreatment temperature, and effect of reductive pretreatment on the decomposition of methane activity is investigated. The physico-chemical characteristics of fresh and deactivated samples were characterized using BET-SA, XRD, TPR, SEM/TEM, CHNS analyses and correlated with the methane decomposition results obtained. The Ni-Al-Si (4 : 0.5 : 1.5) catalyst reduced with hydrazine hydrate produced better H2 yields of ca. 1815 mol H2/mol Ni than the catalyst reduced with 5% H2/N2.

  15. Research on Separation of H2 and N2 Mixed Gas with Ionic liquid Membrane%离子液膜法分离H2N2混合气体研究



    Two kinds of ionic liquid, 1-butyl 3-sold four fluoboric acid methyl imidazole salt ([BMIM]BF4) and 1-butyl 3-methyl imidazole six fluoride phosphate ([BMIM] PF6), were selected, and the ion exchange method was used to create two kinds of ionic liquid 1-butyl 3-methyl imidazole formate ([BMIM] HCOO) and 1-butyl 3-methyl imidazole acetate ([BMIM]CH3COO). Combined the advantages of ionic liquid and membrane separation, polyvinylidene fluoride, polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile membrane was chose to make ionic liquid supported liquid membrane by impregnation method. Compared the separation coefficient on different temperature of every kind of ionic liquid membrane for H2/N2 separation, it was found that the separation abilities of [BMIM] HCOO polysulfone membrane and polyacrylonitrile membrane were more bigger. The temperature conditions significantly affected the separation effect:at 30℃[BMIM]BF4 type poly-cvinylidene fluoride membrane, [BMIM]HCOO polysulfone membrane had the strong ability of H2/N2 separation, N2 could be separated off H2. 30℃in [BMIM]BF4 type polysulfone membrane separation N2/H2 ability was strong, H2 could be separated off N2.%选取2种市售离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑四氟硼酸盐([BMIM]BF4)与1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑六氟磷酸盐([BMIM]PF6),另采用离子交换法合成出2种离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑甲酸盐([BMIM]HCOO)与1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑乙酸盐([BMIM]CH3COO)。将离子液体与膜分离法优点相结合,选取聚偏氟乙烯膜、聚砜膜和聚丙烯腈膜并用浸渍法制备离子液体支撑液膜。比较不同温度下不同类型离子液膜对H2/N2的分离系数发现,[BMIM]HCOO型聚砜膜和聚丙烯腈膜对H2/N2分离系数较大。温度条件显著影响分离效果:30℃时[BMIM]BF4型聚偏氟乙烯膜、[BMIM]HCOO型聚砜膜分离H2/N2能力较强,可分离掉N2获得H2;30℃时[BMIM]BF4型聚砜膜分离N2/H2能力较强,可分离掉H2获得N2

  16. A novel iron-containing polyoxometalate heterogeneous photocatalyst for efficient 4-chlorophennol degradation by H2O2 at neutral pH

    Zhai, Qian; Zhang, Lizhong; Zhao, Xiufeng; Chen, Han; Yin, Dongju; Li, Jianhui


    An iron-containing polyoxometalate (FeШLysSiW) was synthesized from ferric chloride (FeIII), lysine (Lys) and silicotungstic acid (SiW), and characterized using ICP-AES, TG, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, XRD and SEM. The chemical formula of FeШLysSiW was determined as [Fe(H2O)5(C6H14N2O2)]HSiW12O40·8H2O, with Keggin-structured SiW12O404- heteropolyanion and lysine moiety. As a heterogeneous catalyst, the as prepared FeШLysSiW showed good performance in the degradation of 4-chlorophenol by H2O2 in both the dark and irradiated systems. Under the conditions of 4-chlorophenol 100 mg/L, FeШLysSiW 1.0 g/L, H2O2 20 mmol/L and pH 6.5, 4-chlorophenol could be completely degraded in ca. 40 min in the dark and ca. 15 min upon irradiation. Prolonging the reaction time to 3 h, the TOC removal reached to ca. 71.3% in the dark and ca. 98.8% under irradiation. The catalytic activity of FeШLysSiW stems from synergetic effect of ferric iron and SiW12O404- in the catalyst, corresponding to Fenton-like catalysis and photocatalysis, respectively. The enhanced degradation of 4-CP under irradiation is due to the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP through the Fenton-like and photocatalytic processes. The high catalytic activity of FeШLysSiW is also strongly related to the chemisorption of H2O2 on FeШLysSiW surface by hydrogen bonding, which promotes both the Fenton-like and photocatalytic processes.

  17. Electronic structure, chemical bond and thermal stability of hydrogen absorber Li2MgN2H2

    WANG Qiang; CHEN YunGui; WU ChaoLing; TAO MingDa; GAI JingGang


    The lowest total energy crystal structure of Li2MgN2H2 was identified by the first principle calculation with RPBE exchange-correlation function. Furthermore, the fine structure parameters of this crystal structure were calculated with PBE and PW91 exchange-correlation function. In a further step, the density of states, electron density, charge density difference on (0 0 1) plane and heat of formation of Li2MgN2H2 hydrogenation were computed with PW91 exchange-correlation function. Consequently, the electronic structures and chemical bonds in this compound were analyzed and discussed, and then the thermodynamic character of Li2MgN2H2 for hydrogen storage was evacuated.

  18. Wavelength-dependent UV photodesorption of pure N2 and O2 ices

    Fayolle, Edith C; Romanzin, Claire; Poderoso, Hugo A M; Philippe, Laurent; Michaut, Xavier; Jeseck, Pascal; Linnartz, Harold; Öberg, Karin I; Fillion, Jean-Hugues


    Ultraviolet photodesorption of molecules from icy interstellar grains can explain observations of cold gas in regions where thermal desorption is negligible. This non-thermal desorption mechanism should be especially important where UV fluxes are high. N2 and O2 are expected to play key roles in astrochemical reaction networks, both in the solid state and in the gas phase. Measurements of the wavelength-dependent photodesorption rates of these two infrared-inactive molecules provide astronomical and physical-chemical insights into the conditions required for their photodesorption. Tunable radiation from the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron in the astrophysically relevant 7 to 13.6 eV range is used to irradiate pure N2 and O2 thin ice films. Photodesorption of molecules is monitored through quadrupole mass spectrometry. Absolute rates are calculated by using the well-calibrated CO photodesorption rates. Strategic N2 and O2 isotopolog mixtures are used to investigate the importance of dissociation upon...

  19. O2 Emission toward Orion H2 Peak 1 and the Role of FUV-illuminated C-shocks

    Melnick, Gary J.; Kaufman, Michael J.


    Molecular oxygen (O2) has been the target of ground-based and space-borne searches for decades. Of the thousands of lines of sight surveyed, only those toward Rho Ophiuchus and Orion H2 Peak 1 have yielded detections of any statistical significance. The detection of the O2 NJ = 33-12 and 54-34 lines at 487.249 GHz and 773.840 GHz, respectively, toward Rho Ophiuchus has been attributed to a short-lived peak in the time-dependent, cold-cloud O2 abundance, while the detection of the O2 NJ = 33-12, 54-34 lines, plus the 76-56 line at 1120.715 GHz, toward Orion has been ascribed to time-dependent preshock physical and chemical evolution and low-velocity (12 km s-1) non-dissociative C-type shocks, both of which are fully shielded from far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation, plus a postshock region that is exposed to an FUV field. We report a re-interpretation of the Orion O2 detection based on new C-type shock models that fully incorporate the significant effects the presence of even a weak FUV field can have on the preshock gas, shock structure, and postshock chemistry. In particular, we show that a family of solutions exists, depending on the FUV intensity, that reproduces both the observed O2 intensities and O2 line ratios. The solution in closest agreement with the shock parameters inferred for H2 Peak 1 from other gas tracers assumes a 23 km s-1 shock impacting gas with a preshock density of 8 × 104 cm-3 and {G}{o} = 1, substantially different from that inferred for the fully shielded shock case. As pointed out previously, the similarity between the LSR velocity of all three O2 lines (≈ 11 km s-1) and recently measured H2O 532-441 maser emission at 620.701 GHz toward H2 Peak 1 suggests that the O2 emission arises behind the same shocks responsible for the maser emission, though the O2 emission is almost certainly more extended than the localized high-density maser spots. Since maser emission arises along lines of sight of low-velocity gradient, indicating shock motion

  20. Pretreatment of tannery wastewater by UV/Fe-EDTA/H2O2 process under alkaline conditions%碱性条件下UV/Fe-EDTA/H2O2预处理皮革废水

    周作明; 董梅霞; 李天鹏; 荆国华


    采用UV/Fe-EDTA/H2O2体系预处理皮革废水,考察了初始pH、反应时间、H2O2和Fe-EDTA投量对COD去除率的影响,测定了处理过程中B/C变化,同时与UV/Fenton法进行了比较.结果表明:UV/Fenton法的最佳工艺条件为FeSO425 mmol/L、H2O2 300mmol/L、pH=5.加入EDTA后,反应的最佳初始pH碱移,UV/Fe-EDTA/H2O2体系于pH为8.0时,反应10 min COD去除率可达51.9%,而pH为5.0时UV/Fenton体系处理10 min后COD去除率仅37.90%.对比降解效果.UV单独作用效果不理想,60 min后COD去除率仅25%.引入UV后,Fenton法处理效果提高,60 min后COD去除率由37.0%提高至59.3%,加入EDTA后最终COD去除率与UV/Fenton法接近.经光照处理的废水B/C呈先降后升趋势,经UV/Fenton处理后,原水B/C由0.3提高至0.35,经UV/Fe-EDTA/H2O2处理的废水最终B/C略有降低.

  1. Improve Acidic H2O2bleaching with Molybdate for Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp%钼酸盐对桉木 KP 浆 H2O2 漂白的改善效果

    赵建; 石淑兰; 胡惠仁; 范兴刚


    研究了钼酸盐对桉木硫酸盐氧漂浆酸性 H2O2 漂白的改善效果,探讨了各种影响因素(钼酸盐用量、漂液 pH 值、H2O2 用量、氧强化的碱抽提和洗涤方式)对酸性 H2O2 漂白结果的影响。结果表明:添加少量的钼酸盐能有效地促进酸性 H2O2 的脱木素反应,提高脱木素效率,增加纸浆的白度。当钼酸盐用量为 01% 时,脱木素程度比单纯的 H2O2 漂段提高 278%,白度增加 43%(ISO),而粘度的损失不大。%In this paper,effect of various conditions(molybdate charge,PH,peroxide charge,reinforced-alkali-extraction with oxygen,and washing method) on bleaching results in the activated acidic hydrogen peroxide bleaching with molybdate for eucalyptus kraft pulp is investigated. The results indicated that adding molybdate to the acidic hydrogen peroxide bleaching stage improved delignification degree and increased ISO brightness of bleached pulp(for example,with 0.1% molybdate charge,delignification degree and pulp brightness could be increased 27.8% and 4.3 points respectively)but had little effect on the pulp viscosity.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions from the leaves and petals of dandelion in human plasma treated with H2O2 and H2O2/Fe.

    Jędrejek, Dariusz; Kontek, Bogdan; Lis, Bernadetta; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata


    Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) is a widespread perennial of the Asteraceae family. Dandelion is a rich source of different bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, vitamin and minerals. However, the content of phenolics in tested extracts by various authors was not always well described. Dandelion is also a commonly available food with a long history of human use and as such poses little risk of harm. In this study, we focused on four different phenolic fractions from leaves and petals of dandelion, which might be of great interest. The objective was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the phenolic fractions from dandelion leaves and petals in vitro. Effects of four different phenolic fractions from dandelion leaves and petals on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) in human plasma were studied in vitro. Their antioxidant properties against human plasma protein carbonylation and oxidation of protein thiols induced by a strong biological oxidant - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals) were also examined. The tested fractions of dandelion (0.5-50 μg/mL; the incubation time - 30 min) inhibited plasma lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. However, their antioxidant properties were not concentration-dependent. All tested samples also inhibited plasma protein carbonylation and oxidation of thiol groups in plasma proteins stimulated by oxidants (H2O2 and OH(∙)). The obtained results suggest that four tested dandelion fractions, especially phenolic fractions from petals which are recognized as better than leaves source of flavonoids, may be a new and promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant activity beneficial for diseases-associated with oxidative stress, and with changes of hemostasis.

  3. Understanding the mechanisms of interfacial reactions during TiO2 layer growth on RuO2 by atomic layer deposition with O2 plasma or H2O as oxygen source

    Chaker, A.; Szkutnik, P. D.; Pointet, J.; Gonon, P.; Vallée, C.; Bsiesy, A.


    In this paper, TiO2 layers grown on RuO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis (dimethyla-mino) titanium (TDMAT) and either oxygen plasma or H2O as oxygen source were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and depth-resolved X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The main objective is to investigate the surface chemical reactions mechanisms and their influence on the TiO2 film properties. The experimental results using XRD show that ALD deposition using H2O leads to anatase TiO2 whereas a rutile TiO2 is obtained when oxygen-plasma is used as oxygen source. Depth-resolved XPS analysis allows to determine the reaction mechanisms at the RuO2 substrate surface after growth of thin TiO2 layers. Indeed, the XPS analysis shows that when H2O assisted ALD process is used, intermediate Ti2O3 layer is obtained and RuO2 is reduced into Ru as evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. In this case, there is no possibility to re-oxidize the Ru surface into RuO2 due to the weak oxidation character of H2O and an anatase TiO2 layer is therefore grown on Ti2O3. In contrast, when oxygen plasma is used in the ALD process, its strong oxidation character leads to the re-oxidation of the partially reduced RuO2 following the first Ti deposition step. Consequently, the RuO2 surface is regenerated, allowing the growth of rutile TiO2. A surface chemical reaction scheme is proposed that well accounts for the observed experimental results.

  4. Characterization of the SiO2 film deposited by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD with TEOS/N2/O2

    Meysam Zarchi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine how certain parameters like temperature, pressure, and gas composition affect the characteristics of SiO2 film by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD. We used of low temperature and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP for various with gas mixtures of TEOS/N2/O2 at a given RF power and dc bias voltage. For the gas mixture with 40 sccm of N2 in TEOS, 100 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm of N2, and 500 sccm of O2, transparent and scratch-resistant SiO2 could be deposited with a deposition rate of 30 nm/min when RF power of 500 W and a dc-bias voltage of 350V were applied. The characteristics of the deposited SiO2, such as the composition, the binding energy, etc. were compared with the SiO2 deposited by using thermal CVD and evaporation. It was found that the SiO2 deposited by PECVD with TEOS/N2/O2 exhibited properties typical of SiO2 deposited applying thermal CVD and evaporation. The surface roughness of the 100 nm-thick SiO2 deposited by PECVD was similar to that of the substrate.

  5. Photochemical degradation of atrazine in UV and UV/H2O2 process: pathways and toxic effects of products.

    Choi, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Daekeun; Lee, Tae-Jin


    The degradation of atrazine in aqueous solution by UV or UV/H2O2 processes, and the toxic effects of the degradation products were explored. The mineralization of atrazine was not observed in the UV irradiation process, resulting in the production of hydroxyatrazine (OIET) as the final product. In the UV/H2O2 process, the final product was ammeline (OAAT), which was obtained by two different pathways of reaction: dechlorination followed by hydroxylation, and the de-alkylation of atrazine. The by-products of the reaction of dechlorination followed by hydroxylation were OIET and hydroxydeethyl atrazine (OIAT), and those of de-alkylation were deisopropyl atrazine (CEAT), deethyl atrazine (CIAT), and deethyldeisopropyl atrazine (CAAT). OIAT and OAAT appeared to be quite stable in the degradation of atrazine by the UV/H2O2 process. In a toxicity test using Daphnia magna, the acute toxic unit (TUa) was less than 1 of TUa (100/EC50, %) in the UV/H2O2 process after 30 min of reaction time, while 1.2 to 1.3 of TUa was observed in the UV process. The TUa values of atrazine and the degradation products have the following decreasing order: OIET> Atrazine> CEAT≈CIAT> CAAT. OIAT and OAAT did not show any toxic effects.

  6. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells

    Leila Safaeian


    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs under oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 . Cells were incubated with H 2 O 2 (0.5 mM, 2 h after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 µg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 µg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H 2 O 2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity , this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  7. A kinetic model of Ti(Ⅳ)-catalyzed H2O2/O3 process in aqueous solution

    Shaoping Tong; Shuqin Zhao; Xiaofei Lan; Chunan Ma


    To well describe the Ti(Ⅳ)-catalyzed H2O2/O3 reaction in aqueous solution,a kinetic model was established based on its mechanism.This model was then validated by the experiments of acetic acid degradation in aqueous solution.It was found that the correlation coefficient of fittings was higher than 0.970.Three key operating factors affecting organic degradation in the Ti(Ⅳ)-catalyzed H2O2/O3 process were studied,including Ti(Ⅳ) concentration,dissolved ozone concentration and initial H2O2 concentration.Furthermore,some experiments were conducted to determine the rate constant for dissolved ozone decomposition initiated by Ti2O52+.The rate constant measured is almost in accord with the data analyzed by this kinetic model.The goodness of fittings demonstrated that this model could well describe the kinetics of the Ti(Ⅳ)-catalyzed H2O2/O3 reaction mathematically and chemically.Therefore,this kinetic model can provide some useful information to optimize the parameters in ozonation of water containing certain pollutants.

  8. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells.

    Safaeian, Leila; Sajjadi, Seyyed Ebrahim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Montazeri, Hossein; Samani, Fariba


    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Cells were incubated with H2O2 (0.5 mM, 2 h) after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 μg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 μg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H2O2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity, this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  9. Lunar soft landing with minimum-mass propulsion system using H2O2/kerosene bipropellant rocket system

    Moon, Yongjun; Kwon, Sejin


    Minimum-mass propulsion specifications using a H2O2/kerosene bipropellant rocket system for a small lunar lander were derived. A multivariable optimization was conducted with propulsion specifications and propellant consumptions obtained by solving optimal control problems for a lunar soft landing. In this paper, the optimal specifications, trajectory, and mass budget are presented.

  10. H2O2 in time marine troposphere and seawater of the Atlantic Ocean (48 deg N - 63 deg S)

    Weller, Rolf; Schrems, Otto


    Concentrations of H2O2 in gas phase and seawater have been measured in pristine regions of the Atlantic Ocean during the RV Polarstern expedition ANT X-1 from 11/15/91 to 01/02/02. A broad maximum of gaseous H2O2 mixing ratio in the troposphere was found between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricornus with peak values around 1.8 ppbv. The observed ratio of organic peroxides/total amount of peroxides was 0.2-0.35, in contrast to the remarkably lower ratio of 0.05-0.10 measured in the continental troposphere by other groups. In the Atlantic surface seawater the H2O2 concentrations were determined to be around 0.1 micromol/L, decreasing with increasing water depth to a value below the detection limit at approximately 100 m. We observed low H2O2 concentrations (about 0.03 micromol/L) in surface water in coastal shelf regions and in the partly ice covered Weddell Sea.

  11. Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process

    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometr...

  12. A New Method for the Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles and the Application to Construction of H2O2 Biosensor

    Juan ZHANG; Sheng Yi ZHANG; Jing Juan XU; Hong Yuan CHEN


    The well-distributed, stable selenium nanoparticles (10 nm) with good adhesive ability and biocompatibility were successfully synthesized by using the template of chitosan cross-linked with glutaradehyde. The resulting selenium nanoparticles were used as a new carrier for horseradish peroxidase to construct H2O2 biosensors with good performances.

  13. Protective effects of veskamide, enferamide, becatamide, and oretamide on H2O2-induced apoptosis of PC-12 cells

    Veskamide, enferamide, becatamide, and oretamide are phenolic amides whose analogues are found in plants. In this study, the four amides were prepared by chemical synthesis and their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells were investigated. The syntheses were relatively si...

  14. First measurements of H2O2 and organic peroxide surface fluces by the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

    Valverde-Canossa, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Rappenglück, B.; Steinbrecher, R.; Klemm, O.; Schuster, G.; Moortgat, G.K.


    The relaxed eddy-accumulation (REA) technique was specially adapted to a high-performance liquid chromatographer (enzymatic method) and scrubbing coils to measure concentrations and fluxes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides with a carbon chain C4, of which only methylhydroperoxide (MH

  15. Efficient removal of dyes in water using chitosan microsphere supported cobalt (II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine with H2O2.

    Shen, Chensi; Song, Shufang; Zang, Lili; Kang, Xiaodong; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Liusong


    A new efficient catalyst, CoTSPc@chitosan, was developed by immobilizing water soluble cobalt (II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine onto adsorbent chitosan microspheres covalently for the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of C. I. Acid Red 73 with H(2)O(2). The result indicated that the COD removal and discoloration of C. I. Acid Red 73 made 55 and 95% respectively in the presence of CoTSPc@chitosan with H(2)O(2) in 4h. In addition, CoTSPc@chitosan-H(2)O(2) system could proceed efficiently in a relatively wide pH range and remain high catalytic activity after 6 reuse cycles. Furthermore, the adsorption study of CoTSPc@chitosan confirmed that chitosan was an outstanding support which contributed a lot to the removal reaction. In conclusion, the combination of adsorption process and catalytic oxidation made the CoTSPc@chitosan-H(2)O(2) system achieve a simple, efficiently and environmentally friendly water treatment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An efficient and mild carboxylation of multiwall carbon nanotubes using H2O2 in the presence of heteropolyacid

    M.Z. Kassaee; H. Zandi; J. Akbari; E. Motamedi


    A clean,fast,and facile oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by H2O2/heteropolyacid (H3PW12O40) gave highly carboxylated MWCNTs under mild conditions,at a conveniently accessible temperature.After an easy workup,the product was characterized by SEM,XRD,and FY-IR.

  17. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    Kamilla M. S. Hansen


    Full Text Available Continuous exposure of aquatic life to estrogenic chemicals via wastewater treatment plant effluents has in recent years received considerable attention due to the high sensitivity of oviparous animals to disturbances of estrogen-controlled physiology. The removal efficiency by direct UV and the UV/H2O2 treatment was investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals, and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through setup. The effect of different concentrations of H2O2 and different UV doses was investigated for all compounds in an effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Removal effectiveness increased with H2O2 concentration until 60 mg/L. The treatment effectiveness was reported as the electrical energy consumed per unit volume of water treated required for 90% removal of the investigated compound. It was found that the removal of all the compounds was dependent on the UV dose for both treatment methods. The required energy for 90% removal of the compounds was between 28 kWh/m3 (butylparaben and 1.2 kWh/m3 (estrone for the UV treatment. In comparison, the UV/H2O2 treatment required between 8.7 kWh/m3 for bisphenol A and benzophenone-7 and 1.8 kWh/m3 for ethinylestradiol.

  18. Improving Methane Production through Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung by H2O2 Pretreatment



    Full Text Available In this study an effect of acidic pre-treatment on the CS (Canola Straw and BD (Buffalo Dung by anaerobic co-digestion was investigated. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide is a mainly accustomed reagent, used as a bleaching agent in the different industries such as paper and wood. In the present study, it was used as a pre-treatment chemical at varying concentrations in batch reactors. The co-digestion of CS and BD was carried out in SAMPTS (Semi-Automatic Methane Potential Test System at mesophilic (37±1oC conditions. The CS was pretreated in glass bottles with different concentrations of the H2O2 for seven days. The inoculum used in the present study was an effluent of the CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which was treating BD at mesophilic conditions. The specific methane production from the codigestion of canola straw and BD, by the pre-treatment of H2O2 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% were 530.8, 544.5, and 510.3 NmL CH4 g/VS, respectively. The significant reduction in the volatile solids of CS was observed at the optimum pre-treatment of 1.0% H2O2.

  19. [Effect of beryllium on chemical elements of cell membrane and H2O2 production of Streptococcus oralis].

    Liu, Jin-song; Fan, Zhen; Ma, Jian-feng; Gao, Ning


    To evaluate the effect of beryllium (Be(2+)) on chemical elements of cell membrane and H2O2 production of Streptococcus oralis (S.oralis), thus to explore the microbiologic mechanisms of periodontal diseases which may occur after prosthodontic treatment. S.oralis was put into artificial saliva with different Be(2+) concentration (5mg/L, 10mg/L, 20mg/L and 40mg/L) and anaerobic cultured for 24 hours. The amount of chemical elements in the membrane of S.oralis were tested with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the H(2)O(2) produced by S.oralis was detected with ABTS-HRP. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA using SPSS 11.0 software package. The amount of calcium in the cell membrane of beryllium treated S. oralis decreased, while the amount of phosphorus increased. Natrium increased with the increase of Be(2+) in the culture, but changed contrarily when S. oralis was treated with 20mg/L Be(2+). H(2)O(2) produced by S. oralis reduced when the concentration of Be(2+) was at 40mg/L(Pchemical elements in cell membrane and H(2)O(2) production of S. oralis, which may result in a disturbance in the microecologic balance of subgingival microbes after proshodontic treatments and eventually contribute to periodontal diseases.

  20. H2O2 in plant peroxisomes: an in vivo analysis uncovers a Ca2+-dependent scavenging system

    Costa, Alex; Drago, Ilaria; Behera, Smrutisanjita; Zottini, Michela; Pizzo, Paola; Schroeder, Julian I; Pozzan, Tullio; Schiavo, Fiorella Lo


    Summary Oxidative stress is a major challenge for all cells living in an oxygen-based world. Among reactive oxygen species, H2O2, is a well known toxic molecule and, nowadays, considered a specific component of several signalling pathways. In order to gain insight into the roles played by H2O2 in plant cells, it is necessary to have a reliable, specific and non-invasive methodology for its in vivo detection. Hence, the genetically-encoded H2O2 sensor HyPer was expressed in plant cells in different subcellular compartments such as cytoplasm and peroxisomes. Moreover, with the use of the new GFP-based Cameleon Ca2+ indicator, D3cpv-KVK-SKL, targeted to peroxisomes, we demonstrated that the induction of cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase is followed by Ca2+ rise in the peroxisomal lumen. The analyses of HyPer fluorescence ratios were performed in leaf peroxisomes of tobacco and pre- and post-bolting Arabidopsis plants. These analyses allowed us to demonstrate that an intraperoxisomal Ca2+ rise in vivo stimulates catalase activity, increasing peroxisomal H2O2 scavenging efficiency. PMID:20230493

  1. Interaction between H2O, N2, CO, NO, NO2 and N2O molecules and a defective WSe2 monolayer.

    Ma, Dongwei; Ma, Benyuan; Lu, Zhiwen; He, Chaozheng; Tang, Yanan; Lu, Zhansheng; Yang, Zongxian


    In this study, the interaction between gas molecules, including H2O, N2, CO, NO, NO2 and N2O, and a WSe2 monolayer containing an Se vacancy (denoted as VSe) has been theoretically studied. Theoretical results show that H2O and N2 molecules are highly prone to be physisorbed on the VSe surface. The presence of the Se vacancy can significantly enhance the sensing ability of the WSe2 monolayer toward H2O and N2 molecules. In contrast, CO and NO molecules highly prefer to be molecularly chemisorbed on the VSe surface with the non-oxygen atom occupying the Se vacancy site. Furthermore, the exposed O atoms of the molecularly chemisorbed CO or NO can react with additional CO or NO molecules, to produce C-doped or N-doped WSe2 monolayers. The calculated energies suggest that the filling of the CO or NO molecule and the removal of the exposed O atom are both energetically and dynamically favorable. Electronic structure calculations show that the WSe2 monolayers are p-doped by the CO and NO molecules, as well as the C and N atoms. However, only the NO molecule and N atom doped WSe2 monolayers exhibit significantly improved electronic structures compared with VSe. The NO2 and N2O molecules will dissociate directly to form an O-doped WSe2 monolayer, for which the defect levels due to the Se vacancy can be completely removed. The calculated energies suggest that although the dissociation processes for NO2 and N2O molecules are highly exothermic, the N2O dissociation may need to operate at an elevated temperature compared with room temperature, due to its large energy barrier of ∼1 eV.

  2. Comparative evaluation of iodoacids removal by UV/persulfate and UV/H2O2 processes.

    Xiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Kok-Yong; Webster, Richard D; Lim, Teik-Thye


    To develop a cost-effective method for post-formation mitigation of iodinated disinfection by-products, degradation of iodoacids by UV, UV/PS (persulfate), and UV/H2O2 was extensively investigated in this study. UV direct photolysis of 4 iodoacids followed first-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 2.43 × 10(-4)-3.02 × 10(-3) cm(2) kJ(-1). The derived quantum yields (Ф254) of the 4 iodoacids range from 0.13 to 0.34, respectively. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was subsequently established and applied to predict the direct photolysis rates of 6 other structurally similar iodoacids whose standards are commercially unavailable. At a UV dose of 140 mJ cm(-2) which is typically applied for disinfection of drinking water, the removal percentages of 4 iodoacids were only between 3.35% and 34.7%. Thus, ICH2CO2H (IAA), the most photo-recalcitrant species, was selected as the target compound for removal in the UV/PS and UV/H2O2 processes. The IAA degradation rates decreased with increasing pH from 3 to 11 in both processes. Humic acid (HA) and HCO3(-) had inhibitory effects on IAA degradation in both processes. Cl(-) adversely affected the IAA degradation in the UV/PS process but had no effect in the UV/H2O2 process. Generally, in the deionized (DI) water, surface water, treated drinking water, and secondary effluent, UV/PS process is more effective than UV/H2O2 process for IAA removal, based on the same molar ratio of oxidant: IAA. SO4(-) generated in the UV/PS process yields a greater mineralization of IAA than HO in the UV/H2O2 process. IO3(-) was the predominant end-product in the UV/PS process, while I(-) was the major end-product in the UV/H2O2 process. The respective contributions of UV, HO, and SO4(-) for IAA removal in the UV/PS process were 7.8%, 14.7%, and 77.5%, respectively, at a specific condition (1.5 μM IAA, 60 μM oxidant, and pH 7). Compared to UV/H2O2 process, UV/PS was also observed as more cost

  3. Chemical synthesis and characterization of hydrous tin oxide (SnO2:H2O) thin films

    S N Pusawale; P R Deshmukh; C D Lokhande


    In the present investigation, we report chemical synthesis of hydrous tin oxide (SnO2:H2O) thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature (∼300 K). The films are characterized for their structural and surface morphological properties. The formation of nanocrystalline SnO2 with porous and agglomerated particle morphology is revealed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirmed the formation of Sn–O phase and hydrous nature of the deposited film. Static water contact angle studies showed the hydrophilic nature of SnO2:H