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Sample records for h1 variant-specific lysine

  1. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...

  2. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    be developed from a holistic and strategically anchored point of view. Another assumption is that this is a challenge for many industrial companies. Even though the literature presents many considerations on general issues covering new information technology, little work is found on the business perspectives...... are discussed. A list of structural variables and solution components has been created. These are related to four design aspects in the holistic system design covering the aspects of process design, selection of resources (such as hardware, software and humans), the design of information structures...... solution elements and structural variables to be used in the design of variant specification systems. The thesis presents a “top-down” procedure to be used to develop variant specification systems from a strategically anchored and holistic point of view. A methodology and related task variables...

  3. Identification of variant-specific surface proteins in Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropolo, Andrea S; Saura, Alicia; Carranza, Pedro G; Lujan, Hugo D

    2005-08-01

    Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation, a process that might allow the parasite to evade the host's immune response and adapt to different environments. Here we show that Giardia muris, a related species that naturally infects rodents, possesses multiple variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) and expresses VSPs on its surface, suggesting that it undergoes antigenic variation similar to that of G. lamblia.

  4. Identification of Variant-Specific Surface Proteins in Giardia muris Trophozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Ropolo, Andrea S.; Saura, Alicia; Carranza, Pedro G.; Lujan, Hugo D.

    2005-01-01

    Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation, a process that might allow the parasite to evade the host's immune response and adapt to different environments. Here we show that Giardia muris, a related species that naturally infects rodents, possesses multiple variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) and expresses VSPs on its surface, suggesting that it undergoes antigenic variation similar to that of G. lamblia.

  5. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzika, G.

    1992-11-01

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  6. Ascidian Sperm Lysin System

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi, Sawada; Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University

    2002-01-01

    Fertilization is a precisely controlled process involving many gamete molecules in sperm binding to and penetration through the extracellular matrix of the egg. After sperm bind to the extracellular matrix (vitelline coat), they undergo the acrosome reaction which exposes and partially releases a lytic agent called "lysin" to digest the vitelline coat for the sperm penetration. The vitelline coat sperm lysin is generally a protease in deuterostomes. The molecular mechanism of the actual degra...

  7. H1 at HERA Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H1 is one of the two large detectors installed at HERA, the first electron-proton accelerator, located at DESY in Hamburg. The H1 collaboration regroups physicists from 32institutes of 11countries all over the world.

  8. Lysine analoga; bereiding en enzymatische hydrolyse van peptide derivaten van lysine en lysine analoga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesser, Godefridus Ignatius

    1961-01-01

    De synthese van enkele structuuranaloga van lysine wordt beschreven. Aangetoond wordt dat zij lysine in substraten voor trypsine, cathepsine B en papaine kan vervangen. Daar de structuur van de analoga O-(Beta-aminoaethyl)serine en S-(Beta-aminoaethyl) cysteine die van lysine dicht nadert, wordt

  9. Expanding lysine industry: industrial biomanufacturing of lysine and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Chen, Peng; Song, Andong; Wang, Dan; Wang, Qinhong

    2018-04-13

    L-Lysine is widely used as a nutrition supplement in feed, food, and beverage industries as well as a chemical intermediate. At present, great efforts are made to further decrease the cost of lysine to make it more competitive in the markets. Furthermore, lysine also shows potential as a feedstock to produce other high-value chemicals for active pharmaceutical ingredients, drugs, or materials. In this review, the current biomanufacturing of lysine is first presented. Second, the production of novel derivatives from lysine is discussed. Some chemicals like L-pipecolic acid, cadaverine, and 5-aminovalerate already have been obtained at a lab scale. Others like 6-aminocaproic acid, valerolactam, and caprolactam could be produced through a biological and chemical coupling pathway or be synthesized by a hypothetical pathway. This review demonstrates an active and expansive lysine industry, and these green biomanufacturing strategies could also be applied to enhance the competitiveness of other amino acid industry.

  10. H1 in RSA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.

    1993-01-01

    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  11. H1 antihistamines and driving

    OpenAIRE

    Florin-Dan, Popescu

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion, Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and...

  12. H1 antihistamines and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin Dan

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion. Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and visual evoked potentials), experimental simulated driving (driving simulators) and real driving studies (the Highway Driving Test, with the evaluation of the Standard Deviation Lateral Position, and the Car Following Test, with the measurement of the Brake Reaction Time) must be discussed in order to classify a H1 antihistamine as a true non-sedating one.

  13. Histone H4 Lysine 20 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine; Schotta, Gunnar; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2013-01-01

    of histones have emerged as key regulators of genomic integrity. Intense research during the past few years has revealed histone H4 lysine 20 methylation (H4K20me) as critically important for the biological processes that ensure genome integrity, such as DNA damage repair, DNA replication and chromatin...... compaction. The distinct H4K20 methylation states are mediated by SET8/PR-Set7 that catalyses monomethylation of H4K20, whereas SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 enzymes mediate further H4K20 methylation to H4K20me2 and H4K20me3. Disruption of these H4K20-specific histone methyltransferases leads to genomic...

  14. Catabolism of lysine by mixed rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ryoji; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    Metabolites arising from the catabolism of lysine by the mixed rumen bacteria were chromatographically examined by using radioactive lysine. After 6 hr incubation, 241 nmole/ml of lysine was decomposed to give ether-soluble substances and CO 2 by the bacteria and 90 nmole/ml of lysine was incorporated unchanged into the bacteria. delta-Aminovalerate, cadaverine or pipecolate did not seem to be produced from lysine even after incubation of the bacteria with addition of those three amino compounds to trap besides lysine and radioactive lysine. Most of the ether-soluble substances produced from radioactive lysine was volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Fractionation of VFAs revealed that the peaks of butyric and acetic acids coincided with the strong radioactive peaks. Small amounts of radioactivities were detected in propionic acid peak and a peak assumed to be caproic acid. The rumen bacteria appeared to decompose much larger amounts of lysine than the rumen ciliate protozoa did. (auth.)

  15. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  16. Lysine: Participation in life, production and biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.H.; Hameed, A.

    2002-01-01

    Lysine plays a vital role in life. Its demands increase worldwide. It is in the interest of students to advertise the supreme importance of its productions. In this report, the mechanism and the biosynthetic pathway of lysine in corynebacterium glutamicum is illustrated, in a simple and ready understandable way. These will pave the way of lysine production. (author)

  17. In vitro evaluation of digestive and endolysosomal enzymes to cleave CML-modified Ara h 1 peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensory, biological, chemical, and immunological characteristics of foods can be modified non-enzymatically during processing. Notably, these modifications may modulate the allergenic potency of food allergens, such as the Ara h 1 peanut allergen. Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) modification is a p...

  18. Syntheses and modulations in the chromatin contents of histones H1/sup o/ and H1 during G1 and S phases in Chinese hamsters cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Tobey, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Flow cytometry, conventional autoradiography, and autoradiography employing high concentrations of high specific activity [ 3 H]thymidine indicate that (1) treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (line CHO) cells with butyrate truly blocks cells in G 1 and (2) cells blocked in G 1 by isoleucine deprivation remain blocked in G 1 when they are released into complete medium containing butyrate. Measurements of H1/sup o/ content relative to core histones and H1/sup o/:H1 ratios indicate that H1/sup o/ is enhanced somewhat in G 1 cells arrested by isoleucine deprivation; however, (1) treatment with butyrate greatly increases the H1/sup o/ content in G 1 -blocked cells, and (2) the enhancement is very sensitive to butyrate concentration. Measurements of relative histone contents in the isolated chromatin of synchronized cultures also suggest that the acid-soluble content of histone H1 (relative to core histones) becomes greatly depleted in the isolated chromatin when synchronized cells are blocked in early S phase by sequential use of isoleucine deprivation and hydroxyurea blockade. We also have measured [ 3 H]lysine incorporation, various protein ratios, and relative rates of deposition of newly synthesized H1/sup o/, H1, and H4 onto chromatin during G 1 and S in the absence of butyrate. The results suggest a dynamic picture of chromatin organization in which (1) newly synthesized histone H1/sup o/ binds to chromatin during traverse of G 1 and S phases and (2) histone H1 dissociates from (or becomes loosely bound to) chromatin during prolonged early S-phase block with hydroxyurea

  19. HE4 Transcription- and Splice Variants-Specific Expression in Endometrial Cancer and Correlation with Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wen Jiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the HE4 variant-specific expression patterns in various normal tissues as well as in normal and malignant endometrial tissues. The relationships between mRNA variants and age, body weight, or survival are analyzed. ICAT-labeled normal and endometrial cancer (EC tissues were analyzed with multidimensional liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of HE4 mRNA variants were measured by real-time PCR. Mean mRNA levels were compared among 16 normal endometrial samples, 14 grade 1 and 14 grade 3 endometrioid EC, 15 papillary serous EC, and 14 normal human tissue samples. The relationship between levels of HE4 variants and EC patient characteristics was analyzed with the use of Pearson correlation test. We found that, although all five HE4 mRNA variants are detectable in normal tissue samples, their expression is highly tissue-specific, with epididymis, trachea, breast and endometrium containing the highest levels. HE4-V0, -V1, and -V3 are the most abundant variants in both normal and malignant tissues. All variants are significantly increased in both endometrioid and papillary serous EC, with higher levels observed in grade 3 endometrioid EC. In the EC group, HE4-V1, -V3, and -V4 levels inversely correlate with EC patient survival, whereas HE4-V0 levels positively correlate with age. HE4 variants exhibit tissue-specific expression, suggesting that each variant may exert distinct functions in normal and malignant cells. HE4 levels appear to correlate with EC patient survival in a variant-specific manner. When using HE4 as a biomarker for EC management, the effects of age should be considered.

  20. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  1. G1- and S-phase syntheses of histones H1 and H1o in mitotically selected CHO cells: utilization of high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Thayer, M.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Gurley, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have employed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to investigate the syntheses of histones H1 and H1o as synchronized cells traverse from mitosis to S phase. Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized by mitotic selection, and, at appropriate times, they were pulse labeled for 1 h with [ 3 H]lysine. Histones H1 and H1o were extracted by blending radiolabeled and carrier cells directly in 0.83 M HC1O 4 ; the total HC1O 4 -soluble, Cl 3 CCO 2 H-precipitable proteins were then separated by a modification of an HPLC system employing three mu Bondapak reversed-phase columns. These procedures (1) produce minimally perturbed populations of synchronized proliferating cells and (2) maximize the recovery of radiolabeled histones during isolation and analysis. Measurements of rates of synthesis indicate that the rate of H1 synthesis increases as cells traverse from early to mid G1; as cells enter S phase, the rate of H1 synthesis increases an additional congruent to 22-fold and is proportional to the number of S-phase cells. In contrast to H1, the rate of H1o synthesis is nearly constant throughout G1. As cells progress into S phase, the rate of H1o synthesis increases so that it also appears to be proportional to the number of S-phase cells. Except for the first 1-2 h after mitotic selection, these results are similar to those obtained when cells are synchronized in G1 with the isoleucine deprivation procedure

  2. Allelic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 entails variant-specific red cell surface epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Vigan-Womas

    Full Text Available The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α(1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α(1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquisition of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as

  3. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  4. Suv39h1 Protects from Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of ischemic events. Suv39h1 is a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the methylation of histone 3 lysine 9, which is associated with the suppression of inflammatory genes in diabetes. However, the role of Suv39h1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury under diabetic condition has not been evaluated. Methods: To generate diabetic model, male SD rats were fed with 60% fat diet followed by intraperitoneal injection with 40mg/kg streptozotocin. Adenovirus encoding Suv39h1 gene was used for Suv39h1 overexpression. Each rat received injections of adenovirus at five myocardial sites. Three days after gene transfection, each rat was subjected to left main coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 30 min ischemia and reperfusion for 4 h, the rats were euthanized for real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemical staining, and morphometric analysis. Results: Delivery of Ad-Suv39h1 into the hearts of diabetic rats could markedly increase Suv39h1 expression. Up-regulation of Suv39h1 significantly reduced infarct size and tissue damage after I/R injury, which was associated with protection from apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and reduction of inflammatory response. In addition, compared with injury group, Ad-Suv39h1 led to a decreased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase family and its down-steam transcriptional factor NF-κB. Conclusion: Overexpression of Suv39h1 results in the de-activation of proinflammatory pathways and reduced apoptosis and myocardial injury. Therefore, Suv39h1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce I/R injury under diabetic condition.

  5. The symbiotic star H1-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Optical and infrared spectrophotometry is presented of the high-excitation emission-line star H1-36. The presence of a variable M giant is established: H1-36 may therefore be classified as a symbiotic star. The observations are interpreted in terms of the usual binary model for symbiotic stars, namely that an unseen star is heated by accretion of gas from its companion M giant. (author)

  6. Homologous histamine H1 receptor desensitization results in reduction of H1 receptor agonist efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, R; Smit, M J; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of the guinea-pig intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle to histamine caused homologous desensitization of the H1 receptor, which led to reduced H1 receptor-mediated production of [3H]inositol phosphates as well as to reduced H1 agonist-induced contractions. [3H]Mepyramine binding

  7. Microbial production of lysine from sustainable feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Grishkova, Maria; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Lysine is produced in a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum. And even though production strains have been improved for decades, there is still room for further optimization.......Lysine is produced in a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum. And even though production strains have been improved for decades, there is still room for further optimization....

  8. PENILAIAN PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LYSINE PADA NASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Tarwotjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh penambahan lysine pada mutu protein nasi dilakukan pada tikus putih dengan mengukur Protein Efficiency Ratio. Nasi dan Nasi dengan sayur beserta laukpauk, seperti dikonsumsi oleh kebanyakan keluarga di Indonesia, yang berasnya lebih dulu ditambahi butiran premix berisi lysine, thiamine dan riboflavin ternaya menghasilkan Protein Efficiency Ratio lebih tinggi dari pada yang tidak ditambahi.

  9. Optimization of lysine metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jakob Vang

    ,000,000 tons. The aim of this project is to optimize the yield of lysine in C. glutamicum using metabolic engineering strategies. According to a genome scale model of C. glutamicum, theoretically there is much room for increasing the lysine yield (Kjeldsen and Nielsen 2009). Lysine synthesis requires NADPH......Commercial pig and poultry production use the essential amino acid lysine as a feed additive with the purpose of optimizing the feed utilization. Lysine is produced by a fermentation process involving either Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli. The global annual production is around 1...... the project intends to eliminate. PGI catalyzes the conversion of alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate just downstream of the branch in the glycolysis, but it also catalyzes the reverse reaction. It is unknown whether up- or down-regulation of the pgi is required to increase the flux through...

  10. The H1 Data Preservation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D M; Steder, M

    2012-01-01

    The H1 data preservation project was started in 2009 as part of the global data preservation initiative in high-energy physics, DPHEP. In order to retain the full potential for future improvements, the H1 Collaboration aims for level 4 of the DPHEP recommendations, which requires the full simulation and reconstruction chain as well as the data to be preserved for future analysis. A major goal of the H1 project is therefore to provide secure, long-lived and validated access to the H1 data and analysis software, which is realised in collaboration with DESY-IT using virtualisation techniques. By implementing such a system, it is hoped that the lifetime of the unique ep collision data from HERA will be extended, providing the possibility for novel analysis in the future. The preservation of the data and software is performed alongside a consolidation programme of digital and non-digital documentation, some of which dates back to the early 1980s. A new organisational model of the H1 Collaboration, reflecting the change to the long term phase, is to be adopted in July 2012.

  11. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  12. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  13. Antiallergic effects of H1-receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, F M; Naclerio, R M

    2000-01-01

    The primary mechanism of antihistamine action in the treatment of allergic diseases is believed to be competitive antagonism of histamine binding to cellular receptors (specifically, the H1-receptors), which are present on nerve endings, smooth muscles, and glandular cells. This notion is supported by the fact that structurally unrelated drugs antagonize the H1-receptor and provide clinical benefit. However, H1-receptor antagonism may not be their sole mechanism of action in treating allergic rhinitis. On the basis of in vitro and animal experiments, drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists have long been recognized to have additional pharmacological properties. Most first-generation H1-antihistamines have anticholinergic, sedative, local anaesthetic, and anti-5-HT effects, which might favourably affect the symptoms of the allergic response but also contribute to side-effects. These additional properties are not uniformly distributed among drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists. Azatadine, for example, inhibits in vitro IgE-mediated histamine and leukotriene (LT) release from mast cells and basophils. In human challenge models, terfenadine, azatadine, and loratadine reduce IgE-mediated histamine release. Cetirizine reduces eosinophilic infiltration at the site of antigen challenge in the skin, but not the nose. In a nasal antigen challenge model, cetirizine pretreatment did not affect the levels of histamine and prostaglandin D2 recovered in postchallenge lavages, whereas the levels of albumin, N-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME) esterase activity, and LTs were reduced. Terfenadine, cetirizine, and loratadine blocked allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In view of the complexity of the pathophysiology of allergy, a number of H1 antagonists with additional properties are currently under development for allergic diseases. Mizolastine, a new H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to have additional actions that should help reduce the

  14. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearu...

  15. Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Maillard reaction can occur during processing of pet foods. During this reaction, the e-amino group of lysine reacts with reducing sugars to become unavailable for metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the reactive lysine (RL; the remaining available lysine) to total lysine

  16. The H1 silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitzl, D.; Behnke, O.; Biddulph, M.; Boesiger, K.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Gassner, J.; Haynes, W.J..; Horisberger, R.; Kausch, M.; Lindstroem, M.; Niggli, H.; Noyes, G.; Pollet, P.; Steiner, S.; Streuli, S.; Szeker, K.; Truoel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of the H1 silicon vertex detector is described. It consists of two cylindrical layers of double-sided, double-metal silicon sensors read out by a custom designed analog pipeline chip. The analog signals are transmitted by optical fibres to a custom-designed ADC board and are reduced on PowerPC processors. Details of the design and construction are given and performance figures from the first data-taking periods are presented

  17. Symbiotic star H1-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that H1-36 should be classified as a symbiotic star rather than a planetary nebula. Evidence of a cool giant now exists and the high-excitation emission-line spectrum resembles the spectra of many symbiotic stars. The optical spectrum, radio spectrum, high spectral index of +0.9 and computed mass-loss rate are among the features discussed.

  18. The symbiotic star H1-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that H1-36 should be classified as a symbiotic star rather than a planetary nebula. Evidence of a cool giant now exists and the high-excitation emission-line spectrum resembles the spectra of many symbiotic stars. The optical spectrum, radio spectrum, high spectral index of +0.9 and computed mass-loss rate are among the features discussed

  19. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  20. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  1. Deregulation of histone lysine methyltransferases contributes to oncogenic transformation of human bronchoepithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoda Satoshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in the processing of the genetic information in carcinogenesis result from stable genetic mutations or epigenetic modifications. It is becoming clear that nucleosomal histones are central to proper gene expression and that aberrant DNA methylation of genes and histone methylation plays important roles in tumor progression. To date, several histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs have been identified and histone lysine methylation is now considered to be a critical regulator of transcription. However, still relatively little is known about the role of HKMTs in tumorigenesis. Results We observed differential HKMT expression in a lung cancer model in which normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells expressing telomerase, SV40 large T antigen, and Ras were immortal, formed colonies in soft agar, and expressed specific HKMTs for H3 lysine 9 and 27 residues but not for H3 lysine 4 residue. Modifications in the H3 tails affect the binding of proteins to the histone tails and regulate protein function and the position of lysine methylation marks a gene to be either activated or repressed. In the present study, suppression by siRNA of HKMTs (EZH2, G9A, SETDB1 and SUV39H1 that are over-expressed in immortalized and transformed cells lead to reduced cell proliferation and much less anchorage-independent colony growth. We also found that the suppression of H3-K9, G9A and SUV39H1 induced apoptosis and the suppression of H3-K27, EZH2 caused G1 arrest. Conclusion Our results indicate the potential of these HKMTs in addition to the other targets for epigenetics such as DNMTs and HDACs to be interesting therapeutic targets.

  2. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein gro...

  3. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Xu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. PMID:27457126

  4. Photoperiod-H1 (Ppd-H1) Controls Leaf Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Benedikt; Tavakol, Elahe; Verderio, Gabriele; Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rossini, Laura; von Korff, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Leaf size is a major determinant of plant photosynthetic activity and biomass; however, it is poorly understood how leaf size is genetically controlled in cereal crop plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). We conducted a genome-wide association scan for flowering time, leaf width, and leaf length in a diverse panel of European winter cultivars grown in the field and genotyped with a single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The genome-wide association scan identified PHOTOPERIOD-H1 (Ppd-H1) as a candidate gene underlying the major quantitative trait loci for flowering time and leaf size in the barley population. Microscopic phenotyping of three independent introgression lines confirmed the effect of Ppd-H1 on leaf size. Differences in the duration of leaf growth and consequent variation in leaf cell number were responsible for the leaf size differences between the Ppd-H1 variants. The Ppd-H1-dependent induction of the BARLEY MADS BOX genes BM3 and BM8 in the leaf correlated with reductions in leaf size and leaf number. Our results indicate that leaf size is controlled by the Ppd-H1- and photoperiod-dependent progression of plant development. The coordination of leaf growth with flowering may be part of a reproductive strategy to optimize resource allocation to the developing inflorescences and seeds. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological significance of lysine mono-, di- and trimethylation on histone and non-histone proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Burgos, L.

    2006-01-01

    Histones are the proteins that compact DNA into the repeating unit of chromatin known as the nucleosome. The N-termini of histones are subject to a series of post-translational modifications, one of which is methylation. This modification is termed 'epigenetic' because it extends the information encoded in the genome. Lysines can be mono-, di- or tri-methylated at different positions on histones H1, H3 and H4. In order to study the biological role of histone lysine methylation, antibodies were generated against mono-, di- and trimethylated H3-K9 and H3-27. Indeed, different chromatin domains in the mouse nucleus are enriched in distinct forms of histone lysine methylation, such as pericentric heterochromatin and the inactive X chromosome. Interestingly, heterochromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana is enriched in the mono- and di-, but not the trimethylated form of H3-K9. Furthermore, there exists a hierarchy of epigenetic modifications in which H3-K9 trimethylation is found to be upstream of DNA methylation on mouse major satellites. Histone lysine methylation is also involved in gene regulation upon development. One example is the chicken 61538;-globin locus, a region of facultative chromatin that undergoes a loss of di- and trimethylated H3-K27 in mature red blood cells, concomitant with expression of the 61538;-globin genes. SET-domain proteins are enzymes that methylate histones, but some of them are also able to methylate non-histone substrates. In particular, p53 is methylated by Set9 on lysine 372, G9a and Glp-1 on lysine 373 and by Smyd2 on lysine 370. Smyd2 transcript levels are greatly increased upon irradiation and dimethylated p53-370 specifically binds to 53BP1, a protein involved in recognizing DNA double-stranded breaks upon ionizing radiation. These results argue for a novel role of p53-K370 methylation in the biology of DNA damage. In summary, lysine methylation is a post-translational modification that can occur both on histone and non-histone proteins

  6. H1-antihistamines in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Antihistamines may be used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, upper respiratory infections, urticaria/angioedema, atopic dermatitis, and, rarely, as adjunctive treatment for anaphylaxis, during pregnancy. Because these illnesses may affect maternal comfort and safety as well as threaten the fetus directly (anaphylaxis) or indirectly, they often require therapy during pregnancy. Based on the information available to date, in this chapter we have attempted to provide rational guidelines for the gestational use of H1-receptor antagonists in a manner that will lead to the optimal well-being of both the mother and her infant. As more information becomes available, the recommendations herein may require modification. Although this chapter has dealt specifically with gestational management, a case can be made for considering this information when making therapeutic decisions in all women of childbearing potential. First, most pregnancies are unplanned, and the peak period of fetal vulnerability to drug-induced teratogenesis begins the day a woman's period is due. Second, during gestation, substantial alterations in a previously successful but not optimal-for-pregnancy chronic therapeutic regimen may be psychologically threatening to the patient and may lead to either uncontrolled disease or unanticipated side effects. Thus, pregnancy-appropriate regimens should ideally be discussed with all women of childbearing age as part of the informed therapeutic decision-making process.

  7. Efficient Production of Enantiopure d-Lysine from l-Lysine by a Two-Enzyme Cascade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbial production of d-lysine has been of great interest as a medicinal raw material. Here, a two-step process for d-lysine production from l-lysine by the successive microbial racemization and asymmetric degradation with lysine racemase and decarboxylase was developed. The whole-cell activities of engineered Escherichia coli expressing racemases from the strains Proteus mirabilis (LYR and Lactobacillus paracasei (AAR were first investigated comparatively. When the strain BL21-LYR with higher racemization activity was employed, l-lysine was rapidly racemized to give dl-lysine, and the d-lysine yield was approximately 48% after 0.5 h. Next, l-lysine was selectively catabolized to generate cadaverine by lysine decarboxylase. The comparative analysis of the decarboxylation activities of resting whole cells, permeabilized cells, and crude enzyme revealed that the crude enzyme was the best biocatalyst for enantiopure d-lysine production. The reaction temperature, pH, metal ion additive, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate content of this two-step production process were subsequently optimized. Under optimal conditions, 750.7 mmol/L d-lysine was finally obtained from 1710 mmol/L l-lysine after 1 h of racemization reaction and 0.5 h of decarboxylation reaction. d-lysine yield could reach 48.8% with enantiomeric excess (ee ≥ 99%.

  8. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  9. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Generic and sequence-variant specific molecular assays for the detection of the highly variable Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Pearson, Michael N

    2013-04-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is an economically important virus, which is found in all grapevine growing regions worldwide. Its accurate detection in nursery and field samples is of high importance for certification schemes and disease management programmes. To reduce false negatives that can be caused by sequence variability, a new universal primer pair was designed against a divergent sequence data set, targeting the open reading frame 4 (heat shock protein 70 homologue gene), and optimised for conventional one-step RT-PCR and one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assays. In addition, primer pairs for the simultaneous detection of specific GLRaV-3 variants from groups 1, 2, 6 (specifically NZ-1) and the outlier NZ2 variant, and the generic detection of variants from groups 1 to 5 were designed and optimised as a conventional one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay using the plant nad5 gene as an internal control (i.e. one-step hexaplex RT-PCR). Results showed that the generic and variant specific assays detected in vitro RNA transcripts from a range of 1×10(1)-1×10(8) copies of amplicon per μl diluted in healthy total RNA from Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, the assays were employed effectively to screen 157 germplasm and 159 commercial field samples. Thus results demonstrate that the GLRaV-3 generic and variant-specific assays are prospective tools that will be beneficial for certification schemes and disease management programmes, as well as biological and epidemiological studies of the divergent GLRaV-3 populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lysine Deacetylases and Regulated Glycolysis in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Cheng, Catherine Youting; Das Gupta, Kaustav; Singhal, Amit; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    Regulated cellular metabolism has emerged as a fundamental process controlling macrophage functions, but there is still much to uncover about the precise signaling mechanisms involved. Lysine acetylation regulates the activity, stability, and/or localization of metabolic enzymes, as well as inflammatory responses, in macrophages. Two protein families, the classical zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the NAD-dependent HDACs (sirtuins, SIRTs), mediate lysine deacetylation. We describe here mechanisms by which classical HDACs and SIRTs directly regulate specific glycolytic enzymes, as well as evidence that links these protein deacetylases to the regulation of glycolysis-related genes. In these contexts, we discuss HDACs and SIRTs as key control points for regulating immunometabolism and inflammatory outputs from macrophages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Histone Lysine Methylation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hoon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of several lysine residues of histones is a crucial mechanism for relatively long-term regulation of genomic activity. Recent molecular biological studies have demonstrated that the function of histone methylation is more diverse and complex than previously thought. Moreover, studies using newly available genomics techniques, such as exome sequencing, have identified an increasing number of histone lysine methylation-related genes as intellectual disability-associated genes, which highlights the importance of accurate control of histone methylation during neurogenesis. However, given the functional diversity and complexity of histone methylation within the cell, the study of the molecular basis of histone methylation-related neurodevelopmental disorders is currently still in its infancy. Here, we review the latest studies that revealed the pathological implications of alterations in histone methylation status in the context of various neurodevelopmental disorders and propose possible therapeutic application of epigenetic compounds regulating histone methylation status for the treatment of these diseases.

  13. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  14. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  15. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs

  16. Luminosity measurement in H1; Mesure de la luminosite pour l'experience H1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisson, T

    2006-10-15

    At HERA, luminosity is determined on-line and bunch by bunch by measuring the Bremsstrahlung spectrum from e-p collisions. The Hl collaboration has built a completely new luminosity system in order to sustain the harsh running conditions after the fourfold luminosity increase. Namely, the higher synchrotron radiation doses and the increased event pile-up have governed the design of the two major components, a radiation resistant quartz-fibre electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a fast read-out electronic with on-line energy histogram loading at a rate of 500 kHz. The group was in charge of the electronic and the on-line data analysis of the new luminosity system. In this thesis, I present analysis tools and methods to improve the precision of the luminosity measurement. The energy scale and acceptance calculation methods set out in this thesis permit these values to be determined every four minutes, to an accuracy of 0.5 parts per thousand for the energy scale and 2 parts per thousand for the acceptance. From these results, the degree of accuracy obtained on the luminosity measurement is between 6.5 and 9.5 parts per thousand. These results are currently undergoing validation, with the aim of becoming the standard H1 method. I also studied quasi-elastic Compton events to cross-check the luminosity measurement using the 2003- 2004 and 2005 data. Indeed, this process has a well calculable cross section and a clear experimental signature. The leptonic final state consists of a coplanar e-gamma system, both observable in the central H1 detector. (author)

  17. Efficacy and tolerance of lysine clonixinate versus paracetamol/codeine following inguinal hernioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, A R; Di Girolamo, G; Martí, M L

    1998-01-01

    In this study lysine clonixinate, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent with selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase in in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic studies, was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy clinical study versus paracetamol/codeine, in 151 patients with pain following inguinal hernioplasty. Patients were treated with one 125 mg tablet of lysine clonixinate or paracetamol/codeine (500 mg + 30 mg) administered at fixed doses every 4 h during 2 days. Controls were carried out 1, 2 and 4 h after the first intake of day 1 and day 2. Each control included assessment of pain at rest, when coughing, sitting and upon moderate pressure. Both treatment groups (lysine clonixinate, 77 patients and paracetamol/codeine, 74 patients) were comparable in terms of demographic and baseline pain intensities. Spontaneous pain was reduced significantly in both treatment groups from the 1st-h control. The following values were recorded in the lysine clonixinate group during day 1: baseline: 6.86 +/- 1.24; 1st h: 4.49 +/- 1.77; 2nd h: 2.96 +/- 1.74; 4th h: 2.23 +/- 1.51. The following values for the same group during day 2 were: predose: 1.70 +/- 1.64; 1st h: 1.16 +/- 1.17; 2nd h: 0.78 +/- 1.06; 4th h: 0.63 +/- 1.05. The paracetamol/codeine group revealed the following values: day 1: baseline: 6.72 +/- 1.22; 1st h: 4.57 +/- 1.72; 2nd h: 2.97 +/- 1.68; 4th h: 2.47 +/- 1.68 and day 2: predose: 2.02 +/- 1.57; 1st h: 1.32 +/- 1.23; 2nd h: 0.82 +/- 0.99; 4th h: 0.66 +/- 0.89. Reduction of pain induced by coughing, sitting and pressure showed similar behavior patterns. No significant differences between both treatment groups were encountered in terms of analgesic efficacy. Incidence of adverse effects was significantly higher in the paracetamol/codeine group (X2: p lysine clonixinate group four out of 77 patients showed side effects but these did not require treatment discontinuation.

  18. Molecular and structural insight into lysine selection on substrate and ubiquitin lysine 48 by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suryadinata, Randy; Holien, Jessica K; Yang, George

    2013-01-01

    , the mechanisms of lysine selection are not clearly understood. The positioning of lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site and residues proximal to lysines are critical in their selection. We investigated determinants of lysine specificity of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, toward substrate and Ub lysines....... Evaluation of the relative importance of different residues positioned -2, -1, +1 and +2 toward ubiquitination of its substrate, Sic1, on lysine 50 showed that charged residues in the -1 and -2 positions negatively impact on ubiquitination. Modeling suggests that charged residues at these positions alter...... the native salt-bridge interactions in Ub and Cdc34, resulting in misplacement of Sic1 lysine 50 in the Cdc34 catalytic cleft. During polyubiquitination, Cdc34 showed a strong preference for Ub lysine 48 (K48), with lower activity towards lysine 11 (K11) and lysine 63 (K63). Mutating the -2, -1, +1 and +2...

  19. Molecular evolution of the lysine biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A M; Leguina, J I; Lazcano, A

    2002-10-01

    Among the different biosynthetic pathways found in extant organisms, lysine biosynthesis is peculiar because it has two different anabolic routes. One is the diaminopimelic acid pathway (DAP), and the other over the a-aminoadipic acid route (AAA). A variant of the AAA route that includes some enzymes involved in arginine and leucine biosyntheses has been recently reported in Thermus thermophilus (Nishida et al. 1999). Here we describe the results of a detailed genomic analysis of each of the sequences involved in the two lysine anabolic routes, as well as of genes from other routes related to them. No evidence was found of an evolutionary relationship between the DAP and AAA enzymes. Our results suggest that the DAP pathway is related to arginine metabolism, since the lysC, asd, dapC, dapE, and lysA genes from lysine biosynthesis are related to the argB, argC, argD, argE, and speAC genes, respectively, whose products catalyze different steps in arginine metabolism. This work supports previous reports on the relationship between AAA gene products and some enzymes involved in leucine biosynthesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Irvin and Bhattacharjee 1998; Miyazaki et al. 2001). Here we discuss the significance of the recent finding that several genes involved in the arginine (Arg) and leucine (Leu) biosynthesis participate in a new alternative route of the AAA pathway (Miyazaki et al. 2001). Our results demonstrate a clear relationship between the DAP and Arg routes, and between the AAA and Leu pathways.

  20. [Effect of the lysine guanidination on proteomic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Mao, Jiawei; Pan, Yanbo; Liu, Zhongshan; Liu, Zheyi; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-04-01

    The guanidination of lysine side chain was paid great attention in recent years. It plays an important role in qualitative and quantitative proteomics. In this study, based on the results of separated peptides extracted from HeLa cells before and after the guanidination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the effect of the guanidination of three different kinds of peptides was systematically analyzed. It was found that the selectivity of the guanidination of the lysine side chain was as high as 96.8%. The ratio of identified peptides with lysine at C-term to all peptides increased from 51.7% to 57.3% and more new peptides were identified, while the ratio of peptides with lysine in the middle or without lysine changed little. Further study on the ratio of b and y ions indicated that there were more y ions of peptides with lysine at C-term after the guanidination. The results proved that the selective conversion of lysine to homoarginine by the guanidination could increase the sensitivity and selectivity of mass spectrum. The increased basicity and ability to sequester proton of lysine produced more y ions fragmentation information, which contributed to more identified peptides. It concluded that the lysine guanidination can improve the coverage of proteomic analysis.

  1. Histone h1 depletion impairs embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhe; Cooke, Marissa; Panjwani, Shiraj; Cao, Kaixiang; Krauth, Beth; Ho, Po-Yi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Berhe, Dawit T; Pan, Chenyi; McDevitt, Todd C; Fan, Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are known to possess a relatively open chromatin structure; yet, despite efforts to characterize the chromatin signatures of ESCs, the role of chromatin compaction in stem cell fate and function remains elusive. Linker histone H1 is important for higher-order chromatin folding and is essential for mammalian embryogenesis. To investigate the role of H1 and chromatin compaction in stem cell pluripotency and differentiation, we examine the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that are depleted of multiple H1 subtypes. H1c/H1d/H1e triple null ESCs are more resistant to spontaneous differentiation in adherent monolayer culture upon removal of leukemia inhibitory factor. Similarly, the majority of the triple-H1 null embryoid bodies (EBs) lack morphological structures representing the three germ layers and retain gene expression signatures characteristic of undifferentiated ESCs. Furthermore, upon neural differentiation of EBs, triple-H1 null cell cultures are deficient in neurite outgrowth and lack efficient activation of neural markers. Finally, we discover that triple-H1 null embryos and EBs fail to fully repress the expression of the pluripotency genes in comparison with wild-type controls and that H1 depletion impairs DNA methylation and changes of histone marks at promoter regions necessary for efficiently silencing pluripotency gene Oct4 during stem cell differentiation and embryogenesis. In summary, we demonstrate that H1 plays a critical role in pluripotent stem cell differentiation, and our results suggest that H1 and chromatin compaction may mediate pluripotent stem cell differentiation through epigenetic repression of the pluripotency genes.

  2. Role of L-lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase in catabolism of lysine as a nitrogen source for Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, J J; Winston, M K; Bhattacharjee, J K

    1983-01-01

    Wild-type and saccharopine dehydrogenaseless mutant strains of Rhodotorula glutinis grew in minimal medium containing lysine as the sole nitrogen source and simultaneously accumulated, in the culture supernatant, large amounts of a product identified as alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde. The saccharopine dehydrogenase and pipecolic acid oxidase levels remained unchanged in wild-type cells grown in the presence of ammonium or lysine as the nitrogen source. Lysine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity was demonstrated in ammonium-grown cells. This activity was depressed in cells grown in the presence of lysine as the sole source of nitrogen. PMID:6408065

  3. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  4. Histone HIST1H1C/H1.2 regulates autophagy in the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Qing; Wan, Danyang; Sun, Yue; Wang, Lin; Chen, Hong; Liu, Chengyu; Petersen, Robert B; Li, Jianshuang; Xue, Weili; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2017-05-04

    Autophagy plays critical and complex roles in many human diseases, including diabetes and its complications. However, the role of autophagy in the development of diabetic retinopathy remains uncertain. Core histone modifications have been reported involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, but little is known about the histone variants. Here, we observed increased autophagy and histone HIST1H1C/H1.2, an important variant of the linker histone H1, in the retinas of type 1 diabetic rodents. Overexpression of histone HIST1H1C upregulates SIRT1 and HDAC1 to maintain the deacetylation status of H4K16, leads to upregulation of ATG proteins, then promotes autophagy in cultured retinal cell line. Histone HIST1H1C overexpression also promotes inflammation and cell toxicity in vitro. Knockdown of histone HIST1H1C reduces both the basal and stresses (including high glucose)-induced autophagy, and inhibits high glucose induced inflammation and cell toxicity. Importantly, AAV-mediated histone HIST1H1C overexpression in the retinas leads to increased autophagy, inflammation, glial activation and neuron loss, similar to the pathological changes identified in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, knockdown of histone Hist1h1c by siRNA in the retinas of diabetic mice significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced autophagy, inflammation, glial activation and neuron loss. These results indicate that histone HIST1H1C may offer a novel therapeutic target for preventing diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Regulation of Cellular Dynamics and Chromosomal Binding Site Preference of Linker Histones H1.0 and H1.X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Abe, Mayumi; Hisaoka, Miharu; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-11-01

    Linker histones play important roles in the genomic organization of mammalian cells. Of the linker histone variants, H1.X shows the most dynamic behavior in the nucleus. Recent research has suggested that the linker histone variants H1.X and H1.0 have different chromosomal binding site preferences. However, it remains unclear how the dynamics and binding site preferences of linker histones are determined. Here, we biochemically demonstrated that the DNA/nucleosome and histone chaperone binding activities of H1.X are significantly lower than those of other linker histones. This explains why H1.X moves more rapidly than other linker histones in vivo Domain swapping between H1.0 and H1.X suggests that the globular domain (GD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) of H1.X independently contribute to the dynamic behavior of H1.X. Our results also suggest that the N-terminal domain (NTD), GD, and CTD cooperatively determine the preferential binding sites, and the contribution of each domain for this determination is different depending on the target genes. We also found that linker histones accumulate in the nucleoli when the nucleosome binding activities of the GDs are weak. Our results contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of dynamic behaviors, binding site selection, and localization of linker histones. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Zhanjiang, China ...

  8. (H1N1) Influenza in Saurashtra, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mexico in April, 2009,[1] and then in United States (US).[2,3]. This was originally ... duration of hospital stay of such patients was 2‑32 days. All admitted A (H1N1) .... Because of limited resources, only 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus was tested ...

  9. Histone H1(0) mapping using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousson, S; Gorka, C; Gilly, C; Lawrence, J J

    1989-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to ox liver histone H1 degree were produced and characterized. Two sets of mice were immunized either with pure H1(0) or with an H1(0)-yeast tRNA complex. Eleven hybridomas of various clonal origin were selected. Typing of the antibodies indicated that all but three IgM belonged to the IgG1 class and contained kappa light chains. Immunoblotting experiments using peptides derived from H1(0) or H5 treated by various proteolytic agents (trypsin, N-bromosuccinimide, cyanogen bromide, acetic acid), revealed that nine of the mAb reacted with the globular part of H1(0). More advanced characterization of the antigenic determinants allowed us to determine distinct regions within this globular part which are involved in the antigenic recognition. The peptopes could be subdivided into two groups. Three mAb bound to residues 24-27 and were specific for H1(0). Six mAb bound to residues 27-30 and were specific for H1(0) except one of them which strongly cross-reacted with H5 and GH5. Two mAb reacted with the entire histone H1(0) but failed to react with any of the peptides, suggesting that the corresponding epitope is a conformational antigenic determinant. In order to confirm the localization of the two distinct regions which are involved in the antigenic recognition, a synthetic decapeptide corresponding to the beginning of human H1(0) globular part (from residue 19 to residue 28) was synthesized. Inhibition experiments of the reaction between H1(0) and the various IgG1 mAb by increasing amounts of peptide-bovine serum albumin conjugates were then performed.

  10. The growing landscape of lysine acetylation links metabolism and cell signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Chuna Ram; Weinert, Brian Tate; Nishida, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a conserved protein post-translational modification that links acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism and cellular signalling. Recent advances in the identification and quantification of lysine acetylation by mass spectrometry have increased our understanding of lysine acetylation...

  11. Digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelar de Oliveira Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase.

  12. Chemical mechanisms of histone lysine and arginine modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Brian C.; Denu, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone lysine and arginine residues are subject to a wide array of post-translational modifications including methylation, citrullination, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The combinatorial action of these modifications regulates critical DNA processes including replication, repair, and transcription. In addition, enzymes that modify histone lysine and arginine residues have been correlated with a variety of human diseases including arthritis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, an...

  13. Bioavailability of lysine in heat-treated foods and feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McArtney Rutherfurd, S.

    2010-01-01

    During the processing of foodstuffs, lysine can react with other compounds present to form nutritionally unavailable derivatives, the most common example of which are Maillard products. Maillard products can cause serious problems when determining the available lysine content of processed foods or

  14. Quantification of Nε-(2-Furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML), Nε-(Carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL) and total lysine through stable isotope dilution assay and tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fiore, A.; Wiltafsky, M.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The control of Maillard reaction (MR) is a key point to ensure processed foods quality. Due to the presence of a primary amino group on its side chain, lysine is particularly prone to chemical modifications with the formation of Amadori products (AP), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML),

  15. Threonine and lysine requirements for maintenance in chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maintenance requirement for threonine and lysine were estimated in two different experiments by measuring the nitrogen balance of adult male cockerels. Measured amounts of a diet first-limiting in threonine or lysine were fed by intubation each day for 4 d to give a range of intakes (unbalanced series) of from 0 to 239 ...

  16. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium ...

  17. Reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccines protect pigs against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and H1N2 swine influenza virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianzhong; Guo, Jing; Xin, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2011-09-28

    Influenza A (H1N1) virus has caused human influenza outbreaks in a worldwide pandemic since April 2009. Pigs have been found to be susceptible to this influenza virus under experimental and natural conditions, raising concern about their potential role in the pandemic spread of the virus. In this study, we generated a high-growth reassortant virus (SC/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel H1N1 isolate, A/Sichuan/1/2009 (SC/09), and six internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, by genetic reassortment. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this reassortant virus were evaluated at different doses in a challenge model using a homologous SC/09 or heterologous A/Swine/Guangdong/1/06(H1N2) virus (GD/06). Two doses of SC/PR8 virus vaccine elicited high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies specific for the 2009 H1N1 virus and conferred complete protection against challenge with either SC/09 or GD/06 virus, with reduced lung lesions and viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with non-vaccinated control animals. These results indicated for the first time that a high-growth SC/PR8 reassortant H1N1 virus exhibits properties that are desirable to be a promising vaccine candidate for use in swine in the event of a pandemic H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 3284 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... concerning the collection of data about H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) [SGA/DFA PY-10-13] and H-1B... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Comment Request for Information Collection for the H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) and the H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (JIAC) Grant Programs, New...

  19. Influenza A (H1N1) organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrego, Alfons; Pajares, Virginia; Mola, Anna; Lerma, Enrique; Franquet, Tomás

    2010-04-27

    In November 2009, countries around the world reported confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1, including over 6000 deaths. No peak in activity has been seen. The most common causes of death are pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with organising pneumonia associated with influenza A (H1N1) infection confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. Organising pneumonia should also be considered as a possible complication of influenza A (H1N1) infection, given that these patients can benefit from early diagnosis and appropriate specific management.

  20. Novel 1H-1,2,3-, 2H-1,2,3-, 1H-1,2,4- and 4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives: a patent review (2008 - 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor F; da Rocha, David R; da Silva, Fernando C; Ferreira, Patrícia G; Boechat, Núbia A; Magalhães, Jorge L

    2013-03-01

    The triazoles represent a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds of great importance for the preparation of new drugs with diverse biological activities because they may present several structural variations with the same numbers of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Due to the success of various triazoles that entered the pharmaceutical market and are still being used in medicines, many companies and research groups have shown interest in developing new methods of synthesis and biological evaluation of potential uses for these compounds. In this review, the authors explored aspects of patents for the 1H-1,2,3-, 2H-1,2,3-, 1H-1,2,4- and 4H-1,2,4-triazole families, including prototypes being considered in clinical studies between 2008 and 2011. The triazoles have been studied for over a century as an important class of heterocyclic compounds and still attract considerable attention due to their broad range of biological activities. More recently, there has been considerable interest in the development of novel triazoles with anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral and antiviral properties and activity against several neglected diseases. This review emphasizes recent perspective and advances in the therapeutically active 1H-1,2,3-, 2H-1,2,3-, 1H-1,2,4- and 4H-1,2,4-triazole derivative patents between 2008 and 2011, covering the development of new chemical entities and new pharmaceuticals. Many studies have focused on these compounds as target structures and evaluated them in several biological targets. The preparation of 1H-1,2,3-, 2H-1,2,3-, 1H-1,2,4- and 4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives brings to light several issues. There is a need to find new, more efficient preparations for these triazoles that take into consideration current issues in green chemistry, energy saving and sustainability. New diseases are discovered and new viruses and bacteria continue to challenge mankind, so it is imperative to find new prototypes for these

  1. Production, purification, crystallization and structure determination of H-1 Parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    The production, purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of H-1 Parvovirus, a gene-therapy vector, are reported. Crystals of H-1 Parvovirus (H-1PV), an antitumor gene-delivery vector, were obtained for DNA-containing capsids and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 255.4, b = 350.4, c = 271.6 Å, β = 90.34°. The unit cell contained two capsids, with one capsid per crystallographic asymmetric unit. The H-1PV structure has been determined by molecular replacement and is currently being refined

  2. H-1NF: Australian national fusion plasma research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, B.D.; Borg, G.G.; Dewar, R.L.; Howard, J.; Gardner, H.J.; Rudakov, D.L.; Sharp, L.E.; Shats, M.G.; Warr, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The H-1 heliac is a helical axis stellarator of moderate size and novel, flexible configuration. Since commissioning, H-1 has operated in quasi-continuous mode at low magnetic field. For higher fields ≤1T an ECRH heating system (28GHz, 200kW) has been installed under a collaborative agreement between ANU and NIFS. H-1 has recently been promoted to national facility status (H-1NF), which will include upgrades of the rf and ech heating systems to megawatt powers, and power supply and diagnostic and data system enhancements. This facilitates collaborative research locally (through the Australian Fusion Research Group consortium) and internationally. Results of a number of basic experiments in quasi-continuous mode are presented. (author)

  3. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  4. Measurement of electric fields in the H-1NF heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of laser induced fluorescence techniques which can be used to measure internal plasma electric fields. It is planned to use a technique based on Stark mixing of energy levels in a supersonic beam containing metastable helium atoms to measure radial electric fields in H-1NF. Enhanced values of radial electric field are associated with improved confinement modes in H-1NF and other magnetically confined plasmas

  5. Data logging and online reconstruction in H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, P.; Gerhards, R.; Kruener-Marquis, U.; Olsson, J.E.; Szkutnik, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1992, the H1 detector at the HERA electron proton collider at DESY came into operation. The high bunch crossing rate and, correspondingly, the large data volumes are placing demanding requirements on the data logging and event reconstruction. Both tasks are performed on an SGI Challenge series computer. This note reviews the development and the experience with the data logging and online reconstruction in H1

  6. Fusion plasma physics research on the H-1 national facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Australia has a highly leveraged fusion plasma research program centred on the H-1 National Facility device at the ANU. H-1 is a heliac, a novel helical axis stellarator that was experimentally pioneered in Australia, but has a close correlation with the worldwide research program on toroidal confinement of fusion grade plasma. Experiments are conducted on H-1 by university researchers from the Australian Fusion Research Group (comprising groups from the ANU, the Universities of Sydney, Western Sydney, Canberra, New England, and Central Queensland University) under the aegis of AINSE; the scientists also collaborate with fusion researchers from Japan and the US. Recent experiments on H-1 have focused on improved confinement modes that can be accessed at very low powers in H-1, but allow the study of fundamental physics effects seen on much larger machines at higher powers. H-1 is now being upgraded in magnetic field and heating power, and will be able to confine hotter plasmas beginning in 1999, offering greatly enhanced research opportunities for Australian plasma scientists and engineers, with substantial spillover of ideas from fusion research into other areas of applied physics and engineering

  7. Germline-specific H1 variants: the "sexy" linker histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Montero, Salvador; Carbonell, Albert; Azorín, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    The eukaryotic genome is packed into chromatin, a nucleoprotein complex mainly formed by the interaction of DNA with the abundant basic histone proteins. The fundamental structural and functional subunit of chromatin is the nucleosome core particle, which is composed by 146 bp of DNA wrapped around an octameric protein complex formed by two copies of each core histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. In addition, although not an intrinsic component of the nucleosome core particle, linker histone H1 directly interacts with it in a monomeric form. Histone H1 binds nucleosomes near the exit/entry sites of linker DNA, determines nucleosome repeat length and stabilizes higher-order organization of nucleosomes into the ∼30 nm chromatin fiber. In comparison to core histones, histone H1 is less well conserved through evolution. Furthermore, histone H1 composition in metazoans is generally complex with most species containing multiple variants that play redundant as well as specific functions. In this regard, a characteristic feature is the presence of specific H1 variants that replace somatic H1s in the germline and during early embryogenesis. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about their structural and functional properties.

  8. Molecular treatment of the ion-pair formation reaction in H(1s) + H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borondo, F.; Martin, F.; Yaez, M.

    1987-01-01

    All the available theoretical calculations of the cross section for the ion-pair formation reaction H(1s)+H(1s)→H + H - (1s 2 ) have been performed using methods that are only valid at high collision energies. They get good agreement with the experiments for impact energies greater than 25 keV, but fail completely at smaller energies. In this work we report the cross section for this reaction at impact energies less than 10 keV, calculated in the framework of the impact-parameter approximation and using the molecular method with a common translation factor

  9. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongqiao; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Huang, Ying; Fu, Xiaoming; Wang, Zeneng; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown. In initial studies we observed that traditional acid- or base-catalyzed protein hydrolysis methods previously employed to measure tissue 2-AAA can artificially generate protein-bound 2-AAA from an alternative potential lysine oxidative product, lysine nitrile (LysCN). Using a validated protease-based digestion method coupled with stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS, we now report protein bound 2-AAA and LysCN are both formed by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system of leukocytes. At low molar ratio of oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine moiety, 2-AAA is formed via an initial N ε -monochloramine intermediate, which ultimately produces the more stable 2-AAA end-product via sequential generation of transient imine and semialdehyde intermediates. At higher oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine amine ratios, protein-bound LysCN is formed via initial generation of a lysine N ε -dichloramine intermediate. In studies employing MPO knockout mice and an acute inflammation model, we show that both free and protein-bound 2-AAA, and in lower yield, protein-bound LysCN, are formed by MPO in vivo during inflammation. Finally, both 2-AAA and to lesser extent LysCN are shown to be enriched in human aortic atherosclerotic plaque, a tissue known to harbor multiple MPO-catalyzed protein oxidation products. Collectively, these results show that MPO-mediated oxidation of protein lysyl

  10. Biotinylation of lysine method identifies acetylated histone H3 lysine 79 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a substrate for Sir2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Poonam; Swatkoski, Stephen; Fiedler, Katherine L; Boeke, Jef D; Cotter, Robert J; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2012-04-17

    Although the biological roles of many members of the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases have been well characterized, a broader understanding of their role in biology is limited by the challenges in identifying new substrates. We present here an in vitro method that combines biotinylation and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify substrates deacetylated by sirtuins. The method permits labeling of deacetylated residues with amine-reactive biotin on the ε-nitrogen of lysine. The biotin can be utilized to purify the substrate and identify the deacetylated lysine by MS. The biotinyl-lysine method was used to compare deacetylation of chemically acetylated histones by the yeast sirtuins, Sir2 and Hst2. Intriguingly, Sir2 preferentially deacetylates histone H3 lysine 79 as compared to Hst2. Although acetylation of K79 was not previously reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate that a minor population of this residue is indeed acetylated in vivo and show that Sir2, and not Hst2, regulates the acetylation state of H3 lysine 79. The in vitro biotinyl-lysine method combined with chemical acetylation made it possible to identify this previously unknown, low-abundance histone acetyl modification in vivo. This method has further potential to identify novel sirtuin deacetylation substrates in whole cell extracts, enabling large-scale screens for new deacetylase substrates.

  11. Ion chemistry of 1H-1,2,3-triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichino, Takatoshi; Andrews, Django H; Rathbone, G Jeffery; Misaizu, Fuminori; Calvi, Ryan M D; Wren, Scott W; Kato, Shuji; Bierbaum, Veronica M; Lineberger, W Carl

    2008-01-17

    A combination of experimental methods, photoelectron-imaging spectroscopy, flowing afterglow-photoelectron spectroscopy and the flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube technique, and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of density functional theory (DFT) have been employed to study the mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxide ion (HO-) with 1H-1,2,3-triazole. Four different product ion species have been identified experimentally, and the DFT calculations suggest that deprotonation by HO- at all sites of the triazole takes place to yield these products. Deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the N1-H site gives the major product ion, the 1,2,3-triazolide ion. The 335 nm photoelectron-imaging spectrum of the ion has been measured. The electron affinity (EA) of the 1,2,3-triazolyl radical has been determined to be 3.447 +/- 0.004 eV. This EA and the gas-phase acidity of 2H-1,2,3-triazole are combined in a negative ion thermochemical cycle to determine the N-H bond dissociation energy of 2H-1,2,3-triazole to be 112.2 +/- 0.6 kcal mol-1. The 363.8 nm photoelectron spectroscopic measurements have identified the other three product ions. Deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the C5 position initiates fragmentation of the ring structure to yield a minor product, the ketenimine anion. Another minor product, the iminodiazomethyl anion, is generated by deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the C4 position, followed by N1-N2 bond fission. Formation of the other minor product, the 2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ide ion, can be rationalized by initial deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the N1-H site and subsequent proton exchanges within the ion-molecule complex. The EA of the 2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl radical is 1.865 +/- 0.004 eV.

  12. Effect of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine yield in Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine accumulation in Bacillus strains were investigated. Biotin enhanced lysine production in all the Bacillus strains, while folic acid and riboflavin stimulated lysine yields in Bacillus megaterium SP 86 only. All bivalent metals stimulated lysine accumulation in B. megaterium ...

  13. Effect of low protein diets and lysine supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ajit

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... 3Division of Livestock Product Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar – 243 ... Key words: Carcass trait, low protein, lysine, meat quality, pigs. ... functional activities, reproduction and disease resistance.

  14. H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Treatment and Prevention of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewar, Suresh; Mirdha, Dashrath; Rewar, Prahlad

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza is a respiratory infection common to pigs worldwide caused by type A influenza viruses, principally subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Swine influenza viruses also can cause moderate to severe illness in humans and affect persons of all age groups. People in close contact with swine are at especially high risk. Until recently, epidemiological study of influenza was limited to resource-rich countries. The World Health Organization declared an H1N1 pandemic on June 11, 2009, after more than 70 countries reported 30,000 cases of H1N1 infection. In 2015, incidence of swine influenza increased substantially to reach a 5-year high. In India in 2015, 10,000 cases of swine influenza were reported with 774 deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend real-time polymerase chain reaction as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Antiviral drugs are the mainstay of clinical treatment of swine influenza and can make the illness milder and enable the patient to feel better faster. Antiviral drugs are most effective when they are started within the first 48 hours after the clinical signs begin, although they also may be used in severe or high-risk cases first seen after this time. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu, Genentech) or zanamivir (Relenza, GlaxoSmithKline). Prevention of swine influenza has 3 components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans. Because of limited treatment options, high risk for secondary infection, and frequent need for intensive care of individuals with H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high-risk populations and public education are critical to control of swine influenza out breaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ß-Lysine discrimination by lysyl-tRNA synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilreath, Marla S; Roy, Hervé; Bullwinkle, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    guided by the PoxA structure. A233S LysRS behaved as wild type with a-lysine, while the G469A and A233S/G469A variants decreased stable a-lysyl-adenylate formation. A233S LysRS recognized ß-lysine better than wildtype, suggesting a role for this residue in discriminating a- and ß-amino acids. Both...

  18. Lower and upper chromatic numbers for BSTSs(2h - 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Buratti

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In [Discrete Math. 174, (1997 247-259] an infinite class of STSs(2h - 1 was found with the upper chromatic number not(χ=h. We prove that in this class, for all STSs(2h - 1 with h<10, the lower chromatic number coincides with the upper chromatic number, i.e. χ=not(χ=h and moreover, there exists a infinite sub-class of STSs with χ=not(χ=h for any value of h.

  19. Narcolepsy: Association with H1N1 Infection and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between H1N1 influenza infection and vaccinations. This article reviews the various studies, and suggests the biological mechanisms explaining why and how H1N1 influenza infection or vaccine stimulates the autoimmune response, thereby resulting in narcolepsy. Among the vaccines, the effect of Pandemrix was scrutinized more than other vaccines, due to its higher association with an increase of narcolepsy onset. The consequences of using other vaccines which contain same or different adjuvants as Pandemrix, were also analyzed.

  20. Systematic analysis of the lysine acetylome in Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianyi; Ye, Zhicang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Peng, Xiaojun; Wen, Liangyou; Zhao, Fukun

    2014-07-03

    Lysine acetylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspect of cells, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Vibrio parahemolyticus, a model marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of bacterial seafood-borne illness. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in this bacterium through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Overall, we identified 1413 lysine acetylation sites in 656 proteins, which account for 13.6% of the total proteins in the cells; this is the highest ratio of acetyl proteins that has so far been identified in bacteria. The bioinformatics analysis of the acetylome showed that the acetylated proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular functions and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. More specifically, proteins related to protein biosynthesis and carbon metabolism are the preferential targets of lysine acetylation. Moreover, two types of acetylation motifs, a lysine or arginine at the +4/+5 positions and a tyrosine, histidine, or phenylalanine at the +1/+2 positions, were revealed from the analysis of the acetylome. Additionally, protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a wide range of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. This study provides a significant beginning for the in-depth exploration of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.

  1. Maintenance requirement and deposition efficiency of lysine in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Speroni Ceron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the maintenance requirement and the deposition efficiency of lysine in growing pigs. It was used the incomplete changeover experimental design, with replicates over time. Twelve castrated pigs with average body weight (BW of 52±2 kg were kept in metabolism crates with a controlled temperature of 22ºC. The diets were formulated to supply 30, 50, 60, and 70% of the expected requirements of standardized lysine, and provided at 2.6 times the energy requirements for maintenance. The trial lasted 24 days and was divided into two periods of 12 days: seven days for animal adaptation to the diet and five days for sample collection. The increasing content of lysine in the diet did not affect dry matter intake of the pigs. The amount of nitrogen excreted was 47% of the nitrogen intake, of which 35% was excreted through feces and 65% through urine. The estimated endogenous losses of lysine were 36.4 mg kg-1 BW0.75. The maintenance requirement of lysine for pigs weighing around 50 kg is 40.4 mg kg-1 BW0.75, and the deposition efficiency of lysine is 90%.

  2. Lysine clonixinate in minor dental surgery: double-blind randomized parallel study versus paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M L; De los Santos, A R; Di Girolamo, G; Gil, M; Manero, E O; Fraga, C

    1993-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC), an effective and well tolerated non-morphinic analgesic whose mechanism of action is basically due to the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase, was assessed with a double-blind randomized dummy design versus paracetamol (P) on 200 patients suffering from pain after minor dental surgery. Patients received according to their needs 1 or 2 tablets of 125 mg lysine clonixinate or 500 mg paracetamol every 8 h during 48 h or until pain relief. Both groups, each composed of 100 patients, were comparable in terms of demographic conditions (t test), initial symptoms (chi-square test), characteristics of the extracted dental pieces, surgical complications and wound treatment (chi-square test). Pain intensity scores and daily average intake of tablets (3.4/day) documented in the patients' diary revealed no statistically significant differences between the two treatments (chi-square test). It was found that spontaneous pain measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) decreased significantly in both treatment groups at the 24-h control examination. The following values were observed in the LC group: baseline 4.38 +/- 1.7; 24-h * 1.20 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.36 +/- 1.2. In the P group the values were: baseline 4.28 +/- 1.6; 24-h * 1.11 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.30 +/- 0.7 (*p < 0.05). Other variables like facial swelling and night pain, evaluated on a score from 0 to 4 and symptom presence or absence respectively, showed a similar response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The data acquisition system for the HERA H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, W.J.

    1990-06-01

    The HERA ep collider will set new challenges for the acquisition of data from large particle physics experiments. Short bunch-crossing times combined with high data rates imply sophisticated designs based on current technology. This paper describes how a multi-microprocessor system is being used at the H1 experiment. (author)

  4. The H^{-1}-norm of tubular neighbourhoods of curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, van Y.; Peletier, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the H^{-1}-norm of the function 1 on tubular neighbourhoods of curves in R^2. We take the limit of small thickness epsilon, and we prove two different asymptotic results. The first is an asymptotic development for a fixed curve in the limit epsilon to 0, containing contributions from the

  5. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.

  6. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  7. Charge transfer in H2+-H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Macias, A.; Mendez, L.; Rabadan, I.; Riera, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present an ab initio study of H 2 + +H(1s) collisions at H 2 + impact energies between 0.4 and 50keV. Cross sections are obtained within the sudden approximation for rotation and vibration of the diatomic molecule. We have found that anisotropy effects are crucial to correctly describe this system in this energy range

  8. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt...

  9. Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    Dr. George Nelson, a CDC medical officer, discusses the relationship between pneumococcal pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  10. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  11. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1997-01-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  12. Topological dispositions of lysine α380 and lysine γ486 in the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    The locations have been determined, with respect to the plasma membrane, of lysine α380 and lysine γ486 in the α subunit and the γ subunit, respectively, of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. Immunoadsorbents were constructed that recognize the carboxy terminus of the peptide GVKYIAE released by proteolytic digestion from positions 378-384 in the amino acid sequence of the α subunit of the acetylcholine receptor and the carboxy terminus of the peptide KYVP released by proteolytic digestion from positions 486-489 in the amino acid sequence of the γ subunit. They were used to isolate these peptides from proteolytic digests of polypeptides from the acetylcholine receptor. Sealed vesicles containing the native acetylcholine receptor were labeled with pyridoxal phosphate and sodium [ 3 H]-borohydride. The effect of saponin on the incorporation of pyridoxamine phosphate into lysine α380 and lysine γ486 from the acetylcholine receptor in these vesicles was assessed with the immunoadsorbents. The conclusions that follow from these results are that lysine α380 is on the inside surface of a vesicle and lysine γ486 is on the outside surface. Because a majority (85%) of the total binding sites for α-bungarotoxin bind the toxin in the absence of saponin, the majority of the vesicles are right side out with the inside of the vesicle corresponding to the cytoplasmic surface and the outside of the vesicle corresponding to the extracytoplasmic, synaptic surface. Because lysine α380 and lysine γ486 lie on opposite sides of the membrane, a membrane-spanning segment must be located between the two positions occupied by these two amino acids in the common sequence of a polypeptide of the acetylcholine receptor

  13. Global Analysis of Protein Lysine Succinylation Profiles and Their Overlap with Lysine Acetylation in the Marine Bacterium Vibrio parahemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianyi; Chen, Ran; Li, Chuchu; Li, Weiyan; Ye, Zhicang

    2015-10-02

    Protein lysine acylation, including acetylation and succinylation, has been found to be a major post-translational modification (PTM) and is associated with the regulation of cellular processes that are widespread in bacteria. Vibrio parahemolyticus is a model marine bacterium that causes seafood-borne illness in humans worldwide. The lysine acetylation of V. parahemolyticus has been extensively characterized in our previous work, and here, we report the first global analysis of lysine succinylation and the overlap between the two types of acylation in this bacterium. Using high-accuracy nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with affinity purification, we identified 1931 lysine succinylated peptides matched on 642 proteins, with the quantity of the succinyl-proteins accounting for 13.3% of the total proteins in cells. Bioinformatics analysis results showed that these succinylated proteins are involved in almost every cellular process, particularly in protein biosynthesis and metabolism, and are distributed in diverse subcellular compartments. Moreover, several sequence motifs were identified, including succinyl-lysine flanked by a lysine or arginine residue at the -8, -7, or +7 position and without these residues at the -1 or +2 position, and these motifs differ from those found in other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, a total of 517 succinyl-lysine sites (26.7%) on 288 proteins (44.9%) were also found to be acetylated, suggesting extensive overlap between succinylation and acetylation in this bacterium. This systematic analysis provides a promising starting point for further investigations of the physiologic and pathogenic roles of lysine succinylation and acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.

  14. Identification of swine H1N2/pandemic H1N1 reassortant influenza virus in pigs, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Khatri, Mahesh; Wang, Leyi; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2012-07-06

    In October and November 2010, novel H1N2 reassortant influenza viruses were identified from pigs showing mild respiratory signs that included cough and depression. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel H1N2 reassortants possesses HA and NA genes derived from recent H1N2 swine isolates similar to those isolated from Midwest. Compared to the majority of reported reassortants, both viruses preserved human-like host restrictive and putative antigenic sites in their HA and NA genes. The four internal genes, PB2, PB1, PA, and NS were similar to the contemporary swine triple reassortant viruses' internal genes (TRIG). Interestingly, NP and M genes of the novel reassortants were derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1. The NP and M proteins of the two isolates demonstrated one (E16G) and four (G34A, D53E, I109T, and V313I) amino acid changes in the M2 and NP proteins, respectively. Similar amino acid changes were also noticed upon incorporation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 NP in other reassortant viruses reported in the U.S. Thus the role of those amino acids in relation to host adaptation need to be further investigated. The reassortments of pandemic H1N1 with swine influenza viruses and the potential of interspecies transmission of these reassortants from swine to other species including human indicate the importance of systematic surveillance of swine population to determine the origin, the prevalence of similar reassortants in the U.S. and their impact on both swine production and public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular treatment of the ion-pair formation reaction in H(1s) + H(1s) collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borondo, F.; Martin, F.; Yaez, M.

    1987-01-01

    All the available theoretical calculations of the cross section for the ion-pair formation reaction H(1s)+H(1s)..-->..H/sup +/H/sup -/(1s/sup 2/) have been performed using methods that are only valid at high collision energies. They get good agreement with the experiments for impact energies greater than 25 keV, but fail completely at smaller energies. In this work we report the cross section for this reaction at impact energies less than 10 keV, calculated in the framework of the impact-parameter approximation and using the molecular method with a common translation factor.

  16. Structural Characterization of Amadori Rearrangement Product of Glucosylated Nα-Acetyl-Lysine by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction is a nonenzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acid moieties, which is known as one of the most important modifications in food science. It is essential to characterize the structure of Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs formed in the early stage of Maillard reaction. In the present study, the Nα-acetyl-lysine-glucose model had been successfully set up to produce ARP, Nα-acetyl-lysine-glucose. After HPLC purification, ARP had been identified by ESI-MS with intense [M+H]+ ion at 351 m/z and the purity of ARP was confirmed to be over 90% by the relative intensity of [M+H]+ ion. Further structural characterization of the ARP was accomplished by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, including 1D 1H NMR and 13C NMR, the distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT-135 and 2D 1H-1H and 13C-1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY and 2D nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY. The complexity of 1D 1H NMR and 13C NMR was observed due to the presence of isomers in glucose moiety of ARP. However, DEPT-135 and 2D NMR techniques provided more structural information to assign the 1H and 13C resonances of ARP. 2D NOESY had successfully confirmed the glycosylated site between 10-N in Nα-acetyl-lysine and 7′-C in glucose.

  17. Imaging MOSS tomographic system for H-1NF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, F.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    A tomographic diagnostic utilising the Modulated Optical Solid-State spectrometer (MOSS) is planned for the H-1NF stellarator at the ANU. It is designed to create two-dimensional temperature or velocity maps of a poloidal cross-section of the high temperature plasma of H-1NF. The introduction of the MOSS spectrometers has enabled the development of several diagnostics to be used on the H-1NF stellerator. The MOSS spectrometer allows calculations of the plasma temperature and bulk velocity based on a line-integrated measurement of light emitted from electronic transitions within the plasma. A tomographic system utilising a rotatable multi-view ring apparatus and spatial multiplexing through a MOSS spectrometer is currently being developed. The ring apparatus is placed inside the H-1NF vessel and encircles the plasma. Multiple line-of-sight views collect light through a poloidal cross-section of the plasma and the emitted light is coupled into large core optical fibres. The transmitted light, via the optical fibre bundle, is then imaged through a large aperture MOSS spectrometer and onto another optical fibre array. Each fibre is then fed into a photomultiplier tube for signal detection. Characterisation of the properties of the lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) crystal used for modulation in the MOSS spectrometer is being undertaken to account for ray divergence in the imaging system. Tomographic techniques enable the construction of a temperature or velocity map of the poloidal cross-section. Rotating the ring apparatus to a new viewing position for the next pulse of plasma should allow an accurate picture to be built up based on the reproducibility of the plasma pulses. It is expected that initial testing of the system will begin in May when H-1NF begins operations at 0.5 Telsa field strength

  18. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophorou, Maria A; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune...... and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel...... PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic...

  19. Data storage and data access at H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhards, R.; Kleinwort, C.; Kruener-Marquis, U.; Niebergall, F.

    1996-01-01

    The electron proton collider HERA at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg and the H1 experiment are now in successful operation for more than three years. The H1 experiment is logging data at an average rate of 500KB/s which results in a yearly raw data volume of several Terabytes. The data are reconstructed with a delay of only a few hours, also yielding several Terabytes of reconstructed data after physics oriented event classification. Physics analysis is performed on a SGI Challenge computer, equipped with about 500 GB of disk and, since a couple of months, direct access to a Storage Tek ACS 4400 silo. The disk space is mainly devoted to store the reconstructed data in very compressed format (typically 5 to 10 KB per event). This allows for very efficient and fast physics analysis. Monte Carlo data, on the other hand, are kept in the ACS silo and staged to disk on demand. (author)

  20. The readout system of the new H1 silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Henschel, H.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.W.; Joensson, L.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Wagener, M.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Niggli, H.; Pitzl, D.

    1995-03-01

    The H1 detector at HERA at DESY undergoes presently a major upgrade. In this context silicon strip detectors have been installed at beginning of 1995. The high bunch crossing frequency of HERA (10.4 MHz) demands a novel readout architecture which includes pipelining, signal processing and data reduction at a very early stage. The front end readout is hierarchically organized. The detector elements are read out by the APC chip which contains an analog pipeline and performs first background subtraction. Up to five readout chips are controlled by a Decoder Chip. The readout processor module (OnSiRoC) operates the detectors, controls the Decoder Chips and performs a first level data reduction. The paper describes the readout architecture of the H1 Silicon Detectors and performance data of the complete readout chain. (orig.)

  1. Ten years of Object-Oriented analysis on H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycock, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the H1 Collaboration decided to embrace the object-oriented paradigm and completely redesign its data analysis model and data storage format. The event data model, based on the ROOT framework, consists of three layers - tracks and calorimeter clusters, identified particles and finally event summary data - with a singleton class providing unified access. This original solution was then augmented with a fourth layer containing user-defined objects. This contribution will summarise the history of the solutions used, from modifications to the original design, to the evolution of the high-level end-user analysis object framework which is used by H1 today. Several important issues are addressed - the portability of expert knowledge to increase the efficiency of data analysis, the flexibility of the framework to incorporate new analyses, the performance and ease of use, and lessons learned for future projects.

  2. Results from the H1 experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasny, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the H1 collaboration at HERA from the analysis of the data collected in 1992 - the first year of HERA operation are presented. Measurements of the total photoproduction cross-section and the inclusive jet cross-section in γp scattering, the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) and the jet rates in deep inelastic ep scattering, and results of direct searches for leptoquarks are discussed. (author) 37 refs., 6 figs

  3. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.

  4. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-29

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.  Created: 3/29/2010 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/29/2010.

  5. Contextualizing ethics: ventilators, H1N1 and marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Nie, Jason X; Rossiter, Kate; Sahni, Sachin; Upshur, Ross E G

    2010-01-01

    If the H1N1 pandemic worsens, there may not be enough ventilated beds to care for all persons with respiratory failure. To date, researchers who explicitly discuss the ethics of intensive care unit admission and the allocation of ventilators during an influenza pandemic have based criteria predominantly on the principles of utility and efficiency, that is, promoting actions that maximize the greatest good for the greatest number of people. However, haphazardly applying utility and efficiency potentially disadvantages marginalized populations who might be at increased risk of severe reactions to H1N1. In Canada, Aboriginals represent 3% of Canadians, yet 11% of H1N1 cases requiring hospitalization involve Aboriginal persons. Aboriginal persons suffer from high rates of obesity due to socio-economic inequalities. Obesity is also a risk factor for severe H1N1 reactions. Yet, since obesity is found to increase the duration of stay in ventilated beds and a long stay is not considered an optimal use of ventilators, applying the principles of utility and efficiency may magnify existing social inequalities. Although promoting utility and efficiency is important, other ethical principles, such as equity and need, require thoughtful consideration and implementation. Furthermore, since public resources are being used to address a public health hazard, the viewpoints of the public, and specifically stakeholders who will be disproportionately affected, should inform decision-makers. Finally, giving attention to the needs and rights of marginalized populations means that ventilators should not be allocated based on criteria that exacerbate the social injustices faced by these groups of people.

  6. The H1 calorimetry: Performance and upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, K.

    1995-04-01

    The energies of particles are measured in the H1 detector with four different calorimeters. Their designs, which are optimized for their particular requirements, are briefly described. Their performance is characterized in terms of their operational stability, the precision of their energy scale and their trigger functionality. The most important among the four calorimeters is the large liquid argon calorimeter and therefore most emphasis is given to the description of this component. (orig.)

  7. The H1 SPACAL time-to-digital converter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.; Landon, M.; Thompson, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a pipelined 1,400-channel Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) system for the H1 Scintillating Fiber Calorimeter, which will soon be installed in the H1 experiment at DESY. The main task of the TDC system is to determine the time of arrival of energy depositions, and send this information from bunch crossings that satisfy the event trigger into the H1 data acquisition system. In addition, the TDC system must monitor the timing trigger, which vetoes bunch crossings that contain too much background energy. Products of the interaction are separated from background on the basis of their different times of arrival with respect to the bunch crossing clock. For this monitoring the TDC system uses automatic on-board histogramming hardware that produces a family of histograms for each of 1,400 channels. The TDC function is performed by the TMC1004 ASIC. The system digitizes over a range of 32ns per bunch crossing with 1ns bins and a precision of 1ns. Because of the way the TMC1004 is designed, it is possible to vary the size of the bins between 0.6ns and 3ns by trading off measurement range for bin size. The system occupies two 9U VME crates

  8. Quantification of Nε-(2-Furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML), Nε-(Carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL) and total lysine through stable isotope dilution assay and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Fiore, Alberto; Wiltafsky, Markus; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2015-12-01

    The control of Maillard reaction (MR) is a key point to ensure processed foods quality. Due to the presence of a primary amino group on its side chain, lysine is particularly prone to chemical modifications with the formation of Amadori products (AP), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML), Nε-(Carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL). A new analytical strategy was proposed which allowed to simultaneously quantify lysine, CML, CEL and the Nε-(2-Furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine), the indirect marker of AP. The procedure is based on stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It showed high sensitivity and good reproducibility and repeatability in different foods. The limit of detection and the RSD% were lower than 5 ppb and below 8%, respectively. Results obtained with the new procedure not only improved the knowledge about the reliability of thermal treatment markers, but also defined new insights in the relationship between Maillard reaction products and their precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of sulfur analogue of lysine on bacterial protein biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidehiko; Soda, Kenji.

    1976-01-01

    S-(beta-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine, a sulfur analogue of lysine inhibited strongly growth of Escherichia coli A-19, and weakly that of Corynebacterium sp. isolated from soil, but did not inhibit growth of Aerobacter aerogenes. In Corynebacterium sp. the inhibitory effect was markedly enhanced in the presence of L-threonine. The inhibition of growth by S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine was rapidly reversed by the addition of L-lysine. S-(beta-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine inhibited protein synthesis and the activity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli and A. aerogenes. All the other lysine analogues tested inhibited the activity of enzyme, but S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine derivatives, S-(beta-N-acetyl-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine and S-(beta-aminoethyl)-alpha-N-acetyl-L-cysteine were not effective. (auth.)

  10. Small molecule inhibitors of bromodomain-acetyl-lysine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael; Measures, Angelina R; Measures, Angelina M; Wilson, Brian G; Cortopassi, Wilian A; Alexander, Rikki; Höss, Matthias; Hewings, David S; Rooney, Timothy P C; Paton, Robert S; Conway, Stuart J

    2015-01-16

    Bromodomains are protein modules that bind to acetylated lysine residues. Their interaction with histone proteins suggests that they function as "readers" of histone lysine acetylation, a component of the proposed "histone code". Bromodomain-containing proteins are often found as components of larger protein complexes with roles in fundamental cellular process including transcription. The publication of two potent ligands for the BET bromodomains in 2010 demonstrated that small molecules can inhibit the bromodomain-acetyl-lysine protein-protein interaction. These molecules display strong phenotypic effects in a number of cell lines and affect a range of cancers in vivo. This work stimulated intense interest in developing further ligands for the BET bromodomains and the design of ligands for non-BET bromodomains. Here we review the recent progress in the field with particular attention paid to ligand design, the assays employed in early ligand discovery, and the use of computational approaches to inform ligand design.

  11. Pulmonary function in patients with pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Koppe

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The influenza A (H1N1 was responsible for the 2009 pandemic, especially with severe pulmonary complications. Objective: To describe characteristics of patients in a university hospital in Curitiba - PR with laboratory diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1 and its post hospital discharge in the 2009 lung function pandemic. Methodology: A retrospective observational study. It was used as a data source the institution Epidemiology Service (SEPIH and spirometry tests of patients who were admitted in 2009, 18 years without lung disease associated and non-pregnant. Descriptive statistics were used and applied Fisher's exact test for relationship between comorbidity and spirometry tests. Results: There were 84 confirmed cases, of these 11 were eligible for the study with a mean age of 44.27 years (± 9.63 and 63.63% males. 54.54% of the 11 patients had comorbidities associated with systemic arterial hypertension (54.54%, diabetes (18.18% and late postoperative period of kidney transplantation (18.18% were the most frequent. Most patients (81.81% had BMI ≥ 25kg / m². The Spirometry test was performed approximately 40.09 (± 15.27 days after discharge, of these, 5 had restrictive pattern and all had abnormal chest radiograph results. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of Spirometry and comorbidities (p=0.24. Conclusions: The group evaluated in this research did not show a direct relationship between Spirometry and comorbidities, but changes in Spirometry in some patients after hospital discharge stood out, suggesting changes in lung function due to influenza A (H1N1.

  12. The H1 forward proton spectrometer at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, P. van; Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V.; Bartel, W.; List, B.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Schroeder, V.; Wilksen, T.; Buesser, F.W.; Geske, K.; Karschnik, O.; Niebergall, F.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; Staa, R. van; Wittek, C.; Dau, D.; Newton, D.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Lebedev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Baehr, J.; Harder, U.; Hiller, K.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Nahnhauer, R.

    2000-01-01

    The forward proton spectrometer is part of the H1 detector at the HERA collider. Protons with energies above 500 GeV and polar angles below 1 mrad can be detected by this spectrometer. The main detector components are scintillating fiber detectors read out by position-sensitive photo-multipliers. These detectors are housed in the so-called Roman Pots which allow them to be moved close to the circulating proton beam. Four Roman Pot stations are located at distances between 60 and 90 m from the interaction point

  13. The H1 forward proton spectrometer at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, P. van; Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V.; Bartel, W.; List, B.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Schroeder, V.; Wilksen, T.; Buesser, F.W.; Geske, K.; Karschnik, O.; Niebergall, F.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; Staa, R. van; Wittek, C.; Dau, D.; Newton, D.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Lebedev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Baehr, J.; Harder, U.; Hiller, K. E-mail: hiller@ifh.de; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Nahnhauer, R

    2000-05-21

    The forward proton spectrometer is part of the H1 detector at the HERA collider. Protons with energies above 500 GeV and polar angles below 1 mrad can be detected by this spectrometer. The main detector components are scintillating fiber detectors read out by position-sensitive photo-multipliers. These detectors are housed in the so-called Roman Pots which allow them to be moved close to the circulating proton beam. Four Roman Pot stations are located at distances between 60 and 90 m from the interaction point.

  14. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  15. Structural aspects of the solvation shell of lysine and acetylated lysine: A Car-Parrinello and classical molecular dynamics investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, V.; Raugei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification, which modulates the affinity of protein-protein and/or protein-DNA complexes. Its crucial role as a switch in signaling pathways highlights the relevance of charged chemical groups in determining the interactions between water and biomolecules. A great effort has been recently devoted to assess the reliability of classical molecular dynamics simulations in describing the solvation properties of charged moieties. In the spirit of these investigations, we performed classical and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations on lysine and acetylated-lysine in aqueous solution. A comparative analysis between the two computational schemes is presented with a focus on the first solvation shell of the charged groups. An accurate structural analysis unveils subtle, yet statistically significant, differences which are discussed in connection to the significant electronic density charge transfer occurring between the solute and the surrounding water molecules.

  16. The H1 lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appuhn, R.D.; Arndt, C.; Barrelet, E.

    1996-08-01

    The backward region of the H1 detector has been upgraded in order to provide improved measurement of the scattered electron in deep inelastic scattering events. The centerpiece of the upgrade is a high-resolution lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter. The main design goals of the calorimeter are: good coverage of the region close to the beam pipe, high angular resolution and energy resolution of better than 2% for 30 GeV electrons. The calorimeter should be capable of providing coarse hadronic energy measurement and precise time information to suppress out-of-time background events at the first trigger level. It must be compact due to space restrictions. These requirements were fulfilled by constructing two separate calorimeter sections. The inner electromagnetic section is made of 0.5 mm scintillating plastic fibres embedded in a lead matrix. Its lead-to-fibre ratio is 2.3:1 by volume. The outer hadronic section consists of 1.0 mm diameter fibres with a lead-to-fibre ratio of 3.4:1. The mechanical construction of the new calorimeter and its assembly in the H1 detector are described. (orig.)

  17. The H1 lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appuhn, R.-D.; Arndt, C.; Barrelet, E.

    1997-01-01

    The backward region of the H1 detector has been upgraded in order to provide improved measurement of the scattered electron in deep inelastic scattering events. The centerpiece of the upgrade is a high-resolution lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter. The main design goals of the calorimeter are: good coverage of the region close to the beam pipe, high angular resolution and energy resolution of better than 2% for 30 GeV electrons. The calorimeter should be capable of providing coarse hadronic energy measurement and precise time information to suppress out-of-time background events at the first trigger level. It must be compact due to space restrictions. These requirements were fulfilled by constructing two separate calorimeter sections. The inner electromagnetic section is made of 0.5 mm scintillating plastic fibres embedded in a lead matrix. Its lead-to-fibre ratio is 2.3:1 by volume. The outer hadronic section consists of 1.0 mm diameter fibres with a lead-to-fibre ratio of 3.4:1. The mechanical construction of the new calorimeter and its assembly in the H1 detector are described. (orig.)

  18. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-01-01

    Background The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. Findings The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decrease...

  19. About a significance of the avian linker histone (H1) polymorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60

    structural disorder may specify histone H1 interaction with both DNA and partnering proteins through ... from the studies conducted on mammalian model, including the human H1 variants. However ..... Thus, the disparate layout of histone H1.

  20. Therapeutic use of chimeric bacteriophage (phage) lysins in staphylococcal endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Phage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases that are produced at the end of the phage lytic cycle to digest the host bacterial cell wall, facilitating the release of mature phage progeny. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chimeric phage lysins against cli...

  1. protein, tryptophan and lysine contents in quality protien maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    From the human nutrition view point, lysine is the ... latitude and 79.3°E longitude and at an altitude of ... transferred to boiling tubes. ... mixtures were heated until the color changes to ... water was added into the digestion tube carefully.

  2. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  3. Predicting post-translational lysine acetylation using support vector machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; Ren, Shubin; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry to identify 3600 lysine acetylation sites on 1750 human proteins covering most of the previously annotated sites and providing the most comprehensive acetylome so far. This dataset should provide an excellent source to train support vector machines (SVMs) allowing the high accuracy in silico...

  4. Effect of Low Protein-Methionine-and-Lysine-Supplemented Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing low CP diets with methionine and lysine on broiler performance, carcass measure and their immune response against Infectious Bursa Disease (IBD) virus. In Experiment 1, ten diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control diet) contained 23.0% CP and ...

  5. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  6. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  7. Effect of low protein diets and lysine supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was to assess the effect of feeding low protein diet with or without supplemental lysine to meet NRC (1998) requirement on growth performance, carcass trait, meat composition, and meat quality of pigs. An experiment of 126 days was conducted on 21 crossbred Landrace pigs (average weight 11.72 ...

  8. Lysine-Grafted MCM-41 Silica as an Antibacterial Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, María F; Garcia-Uriostegui, Lorena; Rodríguez, Ofelia; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Salinas, Antonio J; Toriz, Guillermo; Vallet-Regí, María; Delgado, Ezequiel

    2017-09-26

    This paper proposes a facile strategy for the zwitterionization of bioceramics that is based on the direct incorporation of l-lysine amino acid via the ε-amino group onto mesoporous MCM-41 materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies of lysine-grafted MCM-41 (MCM-LYS) simultaneously showed bands at 3080 and 1540 cm -1 and bands at 1625 and 1415 cm -1 corresponding to -NH 3+ /COO - pairs, which demonstrate the incorporation of the amino acid on the material surface keeping its zwitterionic character. Both elemental and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of grafted lysine was 8 wt. % based on the bioceramic total weight. Moreover, MCM-LYS exhibited a reduction of adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in 33% and 50%, respectively at physiological pH, as compared with pristine MCM-41. Biofilm studies onto surfaces showed that lysine functionalization elicited a reduction of the area covered by S. aureus biofilm from 42% to only 5% (88%). This research shows a simple and effective approach to chemically modify bioceramics using single amino acids that provides zwitterionic functionality, which is useful to develop new biomaterials that are able to resist bacterial adhesion.

  9. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  10. Lysine-Grafted MCM-41 Silica as an Antibacterial Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Villegas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a facile strategy for the zwitterionization of bioceramics that is based on the direct incorporation of l-lysine amino acid via the ε-amino group onto mesoporous MCM-41 materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR studies of lysine-grafted MCM-41 (MCM-LYS simultaneously showed bands at 3080 and 1540 cm−1 and bands at 1625 and 1415 cm−1 corresponding to -NH3+/COO− pairs, which demonstrate the incorporation of the amino acid on the material surface keeping its zwitterionic character. Both elemental and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of grafted lysine was 8 wt. % based on the bioceramic total weight. Moreover, MCM-LYS exhibited a reduction of adhesion of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in 33% and 50%, respectively at physiological pH, as compared with pristine MCM-41. Biofilm studies onto surfaces showed that lysine functionalization elicited a reduction of the area covered by S. aureus biofilm from 42% to only 5% (88%. This research shows a simple and effective approach to chemically modify bioceramics using single amino acids that provides zwitterionic functionality, which is useful to develop new biomaterials that are able to resist bacterial adhesion.

  11. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  12. Lysine-vasopressin analogues with glycoconjugates in position 8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcinkowska, A.; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Grzonka, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2006), s. 759-766 ISSN 0137- 5083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : glycoconjugates * glycopeptides * lysine-vasopressin analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  13. Optimization of lysine production in Corynebacteriumglutamicum ATCC15032 by Response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Haghi

    2017-03-01

    Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, the proposed culture media by response surface methodology causes 1400 times increase in the lysine production compared with M9 culture media and methionine had an important role in the production of lysine, probably by inhibiting the other metabolic pathway which has common metabolic precursor with lysine production metabolic pathway.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  15. Experiences at HERA with the H1 data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    The recently commissioned HERA collider provides a significant pointer to the problems that have to be surmounted in data acquisition systems at the next generation of hadron machines. With bunch crossings, between 30 GeV electrons and 820 GeV protons, 96 nanoseconds apart, the H1 experiment illustrates the application of sophisticated pipelining solutions in the readout of several hundred thousand electronic channels. A modular, multiprocessor design structure emphasis the architectural concepts necessary to cope with large data throughput and yet remain flexible enough to exploit ongoing technological advances in both hardware and software. The range of techniques implemented will be surveyed, covering various digitisation solutions at the front-end through to embedded microprocessor arrays in standard busses controlled by graphics-based stations executing object- orientated code. The experiences gained in developing such a system are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    SaskPower's H1N1 pandemic preparedness and business continuity plan was designed to prepare SaskPower employees for elevated levels of absenteeism during a potential pandemic. Emergency management and business continuity will be facilitated if critical duties and essential services are maintained without interruption. A layered approach was used to develop a range of response measures designed to meet a range of possible pandemic threats. The plan identified essential activities, tasks and functions and outlined methods of mitigating supply disruptions and possible shortages. Methods of minimizing illness in employees were discussed, as well as methods of maintaining a safe and secure work environment. The measures were developed in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) 6 phases of pandemic alert. The plan was also designed to be read by SaskPower's key suppliers in order to ensure their pandemic readiness. 5 tabs.

  17. Results from the H1 experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, A. de

    1994-01-01

    New results from the H1 experiment at HERA on photoproduction, deep inelastic scattering and search for exotic particles are presented. Clear evidence is found for hard scattering in photoproduction interactions. Jets have been observed and used to examine the x γ distribution, indicating the need for a gluonic component in the photon. Hadronic final states and jet cross sections have been measured in deep inelastic scattering. A class of deep inelastic events with diffractive characteristics has been observed. The proton structure function F 2 (x, Q 2 ) has been measured in the new Bjorken-x region 10 -4 -2 and is found to rise with decreasing x. New limits for leptoquarks, squarks and excited electrons have been deduced. (orig.)

  18. Technicon H*1 Hematology System: Optical Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, G. M.; Tycko, D. H.; Groner, W.

    1988-06-01

    The Technicon H*1 systemTM is a clinical laboratory flow cytometer which performs a complete hematology profile, providing quantitative information on the various types of cells in a blood sample. A light-scattering method, using a HeNe laser, determines in a single flow channel the red cell count, platelet count, and the distributions of red cell volume, red cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelet volume. To accomplish this the scattered light from each red cell in the sample is measured in real time at two angular intervals. The cell volume and the hemoglobin concentration within the cell are derived from these two measurements. Severe accuracy and precision specifications are placed on the medically important red cell count (RBC) and the mean red cell volume (MCV). From the point of view of optical system design, the dominant factor is the requirement that RBC and MCV have precision and accuracy of the order of 2%. Signal-to-noise and scattering-angle definition requirements dictated the choice of a HeNe laser light source. The optics includes an illumination system for producing a sharply defined, uniformly illuminated scattering region and a detection system which must accurately define the accepted scattering angles. In previous cytometric methods for determining MCV only a single quantity was measured for each cell. Such methods cannot disentangle the independent effects of cell size and hemoglobin concentration on the measurement, thus compromising MCV accuracy. The present double-angle scattering method overcomes this accuracy problem. The H*1 red cell method, the supporting optical design and data demonstrating that the use of this technique eliminates interference between the observed red cell indices are presented.

  19. Ophthalmic antihistamines and H1-H4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Laurie; Bielory, Leonard; Rudner, Shara

    2012-10-01

    Antihistamines exert pharmacologic effects by binding to four histamine receptors (H1-H4) at different affinities, producing variable effects depending on the receptor they predominantly bind to. This review's purpose is to determine the relative potency of antihistamines by comparing their binding affinities to these receptors. Studies on binding affinities of antihistamines to histamine receptors were reviewed and the dissociation constant for inhibitor binding (Ki) analyzed to determine the most and least potent antihistamine for each receptor. We retrieved the binding affinities for nineteen antihistamines. For H1 receptors, pyrilamine exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 0.8 nM), and thioperamide the lowest (Ki = 280, 000 nM). For H2 receptors, ranitidine exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 187 nM), and olopatadine the lowest (Ki = 100 ,000 nM). For the recently discovered H3 and H4 receptors, thioperamide exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 1.1 nM), and olopatadine exhibited the lowest (Ki = 79 ,400 nM), to H3. Data on binding affinities to the H4 receptor exist for: ketotifen, pheniramine, ranitidine, cimetidine and thioperamide. Of these, thioperamide exhibited the highest affinity (Ki = 27 nM), whereas cimetidine and ranitidine exhibited the lowest affinity (Ki = >10, 000 nM) for H4 receptors. This review summarizes the relative potency of antihistamines based on their binding affinities to the four histamine receptors. Although data on binding affinities of antihistamines to the H4 receptor are sparse, it is apparent that further research on these histamine subtypes may open new venues for more direct treatment with a higher therapeutic efficacy on allergic disorders including those affecting the ocular surface.

  20. The biology of lysine acetylation integrates transcriptional programming and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Shiraz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biochemical landscape of lysine acetylation has expanded from a small number of proteins in the nucleus to a multitude of proteins in the cytoplasm. Since the first report confirming acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 by a lysine acetyltransferase (KAT, there has been a surge in the identification of new, non-histone targets of KATs. Added to the known substrates of KATs are metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, molecular chaperones, ribosomal proteins and nuclear import factors. Emerging studies demonstrate that no fewer than 2000 proteins in any particular cell type may undergo lysine acetylation. As described in this review, our analyses of cellular acetylated proteins using DAVID 6.7 bioinformatics resources have facilitated organization of acetylated proteins into functional clusters integral to cell signaling, the stress response, proteolysis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neuronal development. In addition, these clusters also depict association of acetylated proteins with human diseases. These findings not only support lysine acetylation as a widespread cellular phenomenon, but also impel questions to clarify the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms governing target selectivity by KATs. Present challenges are to understand the molecular basis for the overlapping roles of KAT-containing co-activators, to differentiate between global versus dynamic acetylation marks, and to elucidate the physiological roles of acetylated proteins in biochemical pathways. In addition to discussing the cellular 'acetylome', a focus of this work is to present the widespread and dynamic nature of lysine acetylation and highlight the nexus that exists between epigenetic-directed transcriptional regulation and metabolism.

  1. La influenza A (H1N1: estado actual del conocimiento Influenza A (H1N1 virus: current information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita González Valdés

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó la bibliografía actualizada sobre el tema a partir de los principales buscadores, y reuniones internacionales realizadas sobre la pandemia de la influenza A (H1N1. Se tratan los aspectos relacionados con la historia, la aparición de la pandemia, la biología de la enfermedad, la epidemiología, el cuadro clínico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico y la prevención. La gripe A (H1N1 es una pandemia causada por una variante nueva del virus de la Influenza A que ha sufrido cambios antigénicos en la hemaglutinina y la neuraminidasa. Esto hace que la población sea altamente vulnerable a la infección y produce una sobrecarga temporal enorme a los servicios de salud. El virus se trasmite como otros virus Influenza. Su letalidad es similar a la de la influenza estacional, pero puede incrementarse en personas con factores de riesgo y en adultos jóvenes sanos. El asma y el embarazo parecen ser condiciones de base importantes para incrementar la severidad de la infección. Puede existir cierta protección por inmunidad cruzada con cepas que circularon en el pasado. El espectro clínico va desde personas asintomáticas hasta las formas graves que requieren internación en cuidados intensivos, con rápido deterioro hasta llegar a la insuficiencia respiratoria en un plazo de 24 horas. La vacunación durante la pandemia no parece ser suficientemente efectiva. Son necesarios antivirales (oseltamivir y zanamivir, y las medidas preventivas higiénico-sanitarias son muy eficaces.An updated review using the main search motors and international meetings already celebrated related to Influenza A H1N1 pandemics. Items related to the history, the appearance of the pandemics, the biology of the disease, its epidemiology, clinics, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Grippe A H1N1 is a pandemic caused by a new variant of the Influenza A virus that has suffered antigenic changes in haemaglutinin and neuraminidase. This turns populations more susceptible to

  2. Identification of Human H1N2 and Human-Swine Reassortant H1N2 and H1N1 Influenza A Viruses among Pigs in Ontario, Canada (2003 to 2005)†

    OpenAIRE

    Karasin, Alexander I.; Carman, Suzanne; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, three novel genotypes of H1 influenza viruses have been recovered from Canadian pigs, including a wholly human H1N2 virus and human-swine reassortants. These isolates demonstrate that human-lineage H1N2 viruses are infectious for pigs and that viruses with a human PB1/swine PA/swine PB2 polymerase complex can replicate in pigs.

  3. Physics from the first year of H1 at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    In this report the author summarizes the results from the H1 experiment at HERA, using the data from the first year of running, 1992, when an integrated luminosity of 25 nb{sup {minus}1} has been recorded. These results include photoproduction, the measurement of the deep inelastic scattering, both for neutral current reactions and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Apart from the measurement of a moderate rise in the total photoproduction cross section, clear evidence is seen for hard interactions in single particle spectra and jet production, requiring a {open_quotes}resolved{close_quotes} photon as expected in QCD. The investigation of the global properties of hadronic final states in deep inelastic scattering demonstrates the need for further improvement of present QCD models. Evidence is found for a class of events with diffractive characteristics, exhibiting a large gap of hadronic energy flow about the proton direction. The proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}) has been measured for neutral current events for Bjorken x in the range 10{sup {minus}4} - 10{sup {minus}2} and Q{sup 2} > 5 GeV{sup 2}, showing a steep rise towards small x. Furthermore, using 1993 data, a measurement of the cross section for charged current events is presented, clearly demonstrating, for the first time, the propagator effect of the W boson. Finally, new limits on leptoquarks, leptogluons, and excited electrons have been determined.

  4. Data acquisition system realization for H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Buono, L.

    1989-06-01

    The acquisition and trigger system for H1 liquid argon calorimeter deals with severe constraints which have to be taken into account. We describe the system which results from these constraints, emphasizing the solutions adopted to meet the specificities of the detector and the difficult experimental conditions at HERA: high physical background (10 4-5 Hz), physics and background events pile up (10%), large crossing frequency of proton and electron bunches (10.4 MHz). Next, we present a detailed description of the acquisition and online control scheme used during the calorimetry tests in SPS beam, at CERN. This test system, prefiguring the final one (which will start to work at the end of 1989), includes a fast frontal processor CAB (taking charge of the electronics read out and sequencing, and furthermore producing simple histograms). The CAB is controlled by a Micro Vax computer which realizes the user interface, allowing a quick visualisation and verification of the acquired data, these functions being performed in multitasking environment [fr

  5. Physics from the first year of H1 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesling, C.

    1994-08-01

    In this report we summarize the results from the H1 experiment at HERA, using the data from the first year of running, 1992, where an integrated luminosity of 25 nb -1 has been recorded. These results include photoproduction, the measurement of the deep inelastic scattering, both for neutral current reactions, and the search for physics beyond the standard model. Apart from the measurement of a moderate rise in the total photoproduction cross section, clear evidence is seen for hard interactions in single particle spectra and jet production, requiring a ''resolved'' photon as expected is QCD. The investigation of the global properties of hadronic final states in deep inelastic scattering demonstrates the need for further improvement of present QCD models. Evidence is found for a class of events with diffractive characteristics, exhibiting a large gap of hadronic energy flow about the proton direction. The proton structure function F 2 p (x,Q 2 ) has been measured for neutral current events for Bjorken x in the range 10 -4 - 10 -2 and Q 2 > 5 GeV 2 , showing a steep rise towards small x. Furthermore, using 1993 data, a measurement of the cross section for charged current events is presented, clearly demonstrating, for the first time, the propagator effect of the W boson. Finally, new limits on leptoquarks, leptogluons, and excited electrons have been determined. (orig.)

  6. Recent results from the H1 collaboration at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltesse, J.

    1994-01-01

    New results from the H1 experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA are reported. Evidence for hard scattering in gamma diffraction in photoproduction events is presented. The hadronic final state in low x deep inelastic scattering (DIS) events has been analyzed. Transverse energy flow and cross section for production of jets at high x j are compared to the expectations of present Monte Carlo programs and to analytical calculations based on the BFKL evolution equation. DIS interactions with no hadronic energy flow in a large interval of rapidity around the incident proton direction are presented. The data are compared to models based on deep inelastic pomeron scattering or on MVD contributions. Measured cross sections for the production of multijet in DIS events at HERA are used to provide a preliminary measurement of the strong coupling constant alpha s , together with the first direct measurement of the gluon density in the proton. The cross section of the charged current process e - p → ν e + hadrons is measured. The effects of the W propagator term is visible for the first time. New limits on leptoquarks, leptogluons, Squarks from R-parity violating supersymmetry and on excited leptons are given. (author). 20 figs., 34 refs

  7. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for differential diagnosis of 2009 pandemic H1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pdmH1N1) is genetically related to North American swine H1 influenza viruses and unrelated to human seasonal H1 viruses. Currently, specific diagnosis of pdmH1N1 relies on RT-PCR. In order to develop an assay that does not rely in amplification of the viral...

  8. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-09-24

    The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decreased. Both the H1N1 and H1N2 infected pigs lacked gross lesions at PID 2, but they showed moderate to severe pneumonia on PID 4, 7 and 14. The pigs infected with H1N1 had significant scores of gross and histopathological lesions when compared with the other pigs infected with H1N2, H3N2, and mock at PID 14. Mean SIV antigen-positive scores were rarely detected for pigs infected with H1N2 and H3N2 from PID 7, whereas a significantly increased amount of viral antigens were found in the bronchioles and alveolar epithelium of the H1N1infected pigs at PID 14. We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains.

  9. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  10. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Grgić

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1pdm09. One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA, polymerase A (PA and non-structural (NS genes closely related to A(H1N1pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA, matrix (M, polymerase B1 (PB1, polymerase B2 (PB2, and nucleoprotein (NP genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2. The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  11. In vitro reassortment between endemic H1N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine influenza viruses generates attenuated viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available The pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza virus was first reported in humans in the spring of 2009 and soon thereafter was identified in numerous species, including swine. Reassortant viruses, presumably arising from the co-infection of pH1N1 and endemic swine influenza virus (SIV, were subsequently identified from diagnostic samples collected from swine. In this study, co-infection of swine testicle (ST cells with swine-derived endemic H1N2 (MN745 and pH1N1 (MN432 yielded two reassortant H1N2 viruses (R1 and R2, both possessing a matrix gene derived from pH1N1. In ST cells, the reassortant viruses had growth kinetics similar to the parental H1N2 virus and reached titers approximately 2 log(10 TCID(50/mL higher than the pH1N1 virus, while in A549 cells these viruses had similar growth kinetics. Intranasal challenge of pigs with H1N2, pH1N1, R1 or R2 found that all viruses were capable of infecting and transmitting between direct contact pigs as measured by real time reverse transcription PCR of nasal swabs. Lung samples were also PCR-positive for all challenge groups and influenza-associated microscopic lesions were detected by histology. Interestingly, infectious virus was detected in lung samples for pigs challenged with the parental H1N2 and pH1N1 at levels significantly higher than either reassortant virus despite similar levels of viral RNA. Results of our experiment suggested that the reassortant viruses generated through in vitro cell culture system were attenuated without gaining any selective growth advantage in pigs over the parental lineages. Thus, reassortant influenza viruses described in this study may provide a good system to study genetic basis of the attenuation and its mechanism.

  12. PLMD: An updated data resource of protein lysine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haodong; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lin, Shaofeng; Deng, Wankun; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Yu

    2017-05-20

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring at protein lysine residues, or protein lysine modifications (PLMs), play critical roles in regulating biological processes. Due to the explosive expansion of the amount of PLM substrates and the discovery of novel PLM types, here we greatly updated our previous studies, and presented a much more integrative resource of protein lysine modification database (PLMD). In PLMD, we totally collected and integrated 284,780 modification events in 53,501 proteins across 176 eukaryotes and prokaryotes for up to 20 types of PLMs, including ubiquitination, acetylation, sumoylation, methylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, glycation, formylation, hydroxylation, butyrylation, propionylation, crotonylation, pupylation, neddylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, phosphoglycerylation, carboxylation, lipoylation and biotinylation. Using the data set, a motif-based analysis was performed for each PLM type, and the results demonstrated that different PLM types preferentially recognize distinct sequence motifs for the modifications. Moreover, various PLMs synergistically orchestrate specific cellular biological processes by mutual crosstalks with each other, and we totally found 65,297 PLM events involved in 90 types of PLM co-occurrences on the same lysine residues. Finally, various options were provided for accessing the data, while original references and other annotations were also present for each PLM substrate. Taken together, we anticipated the PLMD database can serve as a useful resource for further researches of PLMs. PLMD 3.0 was implemented in PHP + MySQL and freely available at http://plmd.biocuckoo.org. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetylation site specificities of lysine deacetylase inhibitors in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölz, Christian; Weinert, Brian Tate; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2015-01-01

    Lysine deacetylases inhibitors (KDACIs) are used in basic research, and many are being investigated in clinical trials for treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, their specificities in cells are incompletely characterized. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain acety......1-α, providing a possible mechanistic explanation of its adverse, pro-inflammatory effects. Our results offer a systems view of KDACI specificities, providing a framework for studying function of acetylation and deacetylases....

  14. Seroprevalence of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs in seven European countries in 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Labarque, Geoffrey; Lenihan, Patrick; Maldonado, Jaime; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pensaert, Maurice; Pospisil, Zdenek; Koch, Guus

    2008-05-01

    Avian-like H1N1 and human-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been considered widespread among pigs in Western Europe since the 1980s, and a novel H1N2 reassortant with a human-like H1 emerged in the mid 1990s. This study, which was part of the EC-funded 'European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs 1', aimed to determine the seroprevalence of the H1N2 virus in different European regions and to compare the relative prevalences of each SIV between regions. Laboratories from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Poland and Spain participated in an international serosurvey. A total of 4190 sow sera from 651 farms were collected in 2002-2003 and examined in haemagglutination inhibition tests against H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. In Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain seroprevalence rates to each of the three SIV subtypes were high (> or =30% of the sows seropositive) to very high (> or =50%), except for a lower H1N2 seroprevalence rate in Italy (13.8%). Most sows in these countries with high pig populations had antibodies to two or three subtypes. In Ireland, the Czech Republic and Poland, where swine farming is less intensive, H1N1 was the dominant subtype (8.0-11.7% seropositives) and H1N2 and H3N2 antibodies were rare (0-4.2% seropositives). Thus, SIV of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 subtype are enzootic in swine producing regions of Western Europe. In Central Europe, SIV activity is low and the circulation of H3N2 and H1N2 remains to be confirmed. The evolution and epidemiology of SIV throughout Europe is being further monitored through a second 'European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs'.

  15. Seroprevalence of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs in seven European countries in 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeth, K.; Brown, I.H.; Durrwald, R.; Foni, E.; Labarque, G.; Lenihan, P.; Maldonado, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pensaert, M.; Pospisil, Z.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Avian-like H1N1 and human-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been considered widespread among pigs in Western Europe since the 1980s, and a novel H1N2 reassortant with a human-like H1 emerged in the mid 1990s. This study, which was part of the EC-funded 'European Surveillance

  16. Novel reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus derived from A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolated from swine, Japan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miho; Takayama, Ikuyo; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mika; Ishioka, Taisei; Yokota, Yoko; Kimura, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Masato; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-12-01

    We isolated a novel influenza virus A(H1N2) strain from a pig on January 13, 2012, in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain was a novel type of double-reassortant virus derived from the swine influenza virus strains H1N1pdm09 and H1N2, which were prevalent in Gunma at that time.

  17. Regioselectivity in the Thermal Rearrangement of Unsymmetrical 4-Methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles to 1-Methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per H.J. Carlsen

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of 4-methyl-3,5-diaryl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles to the corresponding 1-methyl-3,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles showed regioselectivity comparable to that observed for the alkylation of 3,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles. This lends support to a proposed mechanism for the rearrangement that involves consecutive nucleophilic displacements steps.

  18. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  19. Characterization of a newly emerged genetic cluster of H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Amy L; Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M; Gramer, Marie R; Richt, Juergen A; Janke, Bruce H

    2009-10-01

    H1 influenza A viruses that were distinct from the classical swine H1 lineage were identified in pigs in Canada in 2003–2004; antigenic and genetic characterization identified the hemagglutinin (HA) as human H1 lineage. The viruses identified in Canadian pigs were human lineage in entirety or double (human–swine) reassortants. Here, we report the whole genome sequence analysis of four human-like H1 viruses isolated from U.S. swine in 2005 and 2007. All four isolates were characterized as triple reassortants with an internal gene constellation similar to contemporary U.S. swine influenza virus (SIV), with HA and neuraminidase (NA) most similar to human influenza virus lineages. A 2007 human-like H1N1 was evaluated in a pathogenesis and transmission model and compared to a 2004 reassortant H1N1 SIV isolate with swine lineage HA and NA. The 2007 isolate induced disease typical of influenza virus and was transmitted to contact pigs; however, the kinetics and magnitude differed from the 2004 H1N1 SIV. This study indicates that the human-like H1 SIV can efficiently replicate and transmit in the swine host and now co-circulates with contemporary SIVs as a distinct genetic cluster of H1 SIV.

  20. Methodical investigations on the determination of metabolic lysine requirements in broiler chickens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Nguyen Thi Nhan; Wilke, A.

    1987-01-01

    For the estimation of lysine requirement 128 male broiler chickens were used at an age of 7 to 21 days posthatching. They received a lysine-deficient diet composed of wheat and wheat gluten. To this basal diet L-lysine-HCL was supplemented successively resulting in 8 lysine levels ranging from 5.8 to 23.3 g lysine per kg dry matter (DM) (2.2 to 8.7 g lysine per 16 g N). At the end of the two-week feeding period of the experimental diets 14 C-lysine was injected intravenously 1.5 and 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal. During the following 4 hours the exretion of CO 2 and 14 CO 2 was measured. The highest daily gain of 21.5 g was observed in animals fed 13.3 g lysine-kg DM. Lysine concentrations exceeding 18.3 g/kg DM depressed body weight gain. The CO 2 excretion was not influenced by lysine intake. 14 CO 2 excretion was low with diets low in lysine content and increased 3 to 4 times with diets meeting the lysine requirement. Based on measurements 1.5 to 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal the saturation value for lysine was reached at 13.3 g/kg DM. This value was lowered (10.8 g/kg DM), however, if the estimation was carried out 5.5 to 9.5 hours after feed withdrawal. These results suggest a higher metabolic lysine requirement during the earlier period after feed intake. Both, reduced weight gain and non linearity in 14 CO 2 excretion in diets exceeding a lysine content of 18.3 g/kg DM indicate a limited capacity of the organism to degrade excessive lysine. According to the results a lysine requirement betwen 10.8 and 13.3 g/kg DM (27% CP and 660 EFU/sub hen//kg DM) was estimated for broiler chickens 3 weeks posthatching. (author)

  1. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A. Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs. This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related diseases. Antigenic characteristics of glycated lysine residues in proteins together with the presence of serum autoantibodies to the glycated lysine products and lysine-rich proteins in diabetes and arthritis patients indicates that these modified lysine residues may be a novel biomarker for protein glycation in aging and age-related diseases.

  2. Conformational Studies of ε- CBz- L- Lysine and L- Valine Block Copolypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational studies of ε-CBz-L-lysine and L-valine block copoylpeptides using x- ray diffraction and CD spectra are described. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both side of the valine are ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks. The conformation of the copolypeptides changes with increases in the chain length of ε- CBz-L- lysine blocks. When length of ε- CBZ- L- lysine blocks is 9, the block copolypeptide has exclusive beta sheet structure. With the increase in chain length of ε-CBz-L-lysine blocks from 9 to 14, the block copolypeptide shows presence of both alpha helix and beta sheet components. With further increase in chain length of ε- CBz- L- lysine blocks, the beta sheet component disappears and block copolypeptides exhibits exclusive α -helix conformation.

  3. 20 CFR 655.705 - What Federal agencies are involved in the H-1B and H-1B1 programs, and what are the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b Visas in Specialty Occupations and as Fashion Models, and... whether the individual is a fashion model of distinguished merit and ability, and whether the... § 655.700(d)(4). Each employer seeking an H-1B nonimmigrant in a specialty occupation or as a fashion...

  4. Antigenic variation of H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses in Japan and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Nguyen, Tung; Ngo, Long Thanh; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Uchida, Yuko; Pham, Vu Phong; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Kasuo, Shizuko; Shimada, Shinichi; Yamashita, Yasutaka; Goto, Kaoru; Kubo, Hideyuki; Le, Vu Tri; Van Vo, Hung; Do, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsuu, Aya; Saito, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    The antigenicity of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin is responsible for vaccine efficacy in protecting pigs against swine influenza virus (SIV) infection. However, the antigenicity of SIV strains currently circulating in Japan and Vietnam has not been well characterized. We examined the antigenicity of classical H1 SIVs, pandemic A(H1N1)2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) viruses, and seasonal human-lineage SIVs isolated in Japan and Vietnam. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was used to determine antigenic differences that differentiate the recent Japanese H1N2 and H3N2 SIVs from the H1N1 and H3N2 domestic vaccine strains. Minor antigenic variation between pig A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was evident by HI assay using 13 mAbs raised against homologous virus. A Vietnamese H1N2 SIV, whose H1 gene originated from a human strain in the mid-2000s, reacted poorly with post-infection ferret serum against human vaccine strains from 2000-2010. These results provide useful information for selection of optimal strains for SIV vaccine production.

  5. H1DS: A new web-based data access system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretty, D.G., E-mail: david.pretty@anu.edu.au; Blackwell, B.D.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • We present H1DS, a new RESTful web service for accessing fusion data. • We examine the scalability and extensibility of H1DS. • We present a fast and user friendly web browser client for the H1DS web service. • A summary relational database is presented as an application of the H1DS API. - Abstract: A new data access system, H1DS, has been developed and deployed for the H-1 Heliac at the Australian Plasma Fusion Research Facility. The data system provides access to fusion data via a RESTful web service. With the URL acting as the API to the data system, H1DS provides a scalable and extensible framework which is intuitive to new users, and allows access from any internet connected device. The H1DS framework, originally designed to work with MDSplus, has a modular design which can be extended to provide access to alternative data storage systems.

  6. H1DS: A new web-based data access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretty, D.G.; Blackwell, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present H1DS, a new RESTful web service for accessing fusion data. • We examine the scalability and extensibility of H1DS. • We present a fast and user friendly web browser client for the H1DS web service. • A summary relational database is presented as an application of the H1DS API. - Abstract: A new data access system, H1DS, has been developed and deployed for the H-1 Heliac at the Australian Plasma Fusion Research Facility. The data system provides access to fusion data via a RESTful web service. With the URL acting as the API to the data system, H1DS provides a scalable and extensible framework which is intuitive to new users, and allows access from any internet connected device. The H1DS framework, originally designed to work with MDSplus, has a modular design which can be extended to provide access to alternative data storage systems

  7. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Zhang, Peng-Chao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Pan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Hui-Li; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2009-08-21

    As pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses, they have been proposed to be intermediate hosts or mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this study, we reported avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was closely to avian-like H1N1 viruses and seemed to be derived from the European swine H1N1 viruses, which was for the first time reported in China; and the two H1N2 viruses (A/swine/Shanghai/1/07 and A/swine/Guangxi/13/06) were novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses containing genes from the classical swine (HA, NP, M and NS), human (NA and PB1) and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages, which indicted that the reassortment among human, avian, and swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in China and resulted in the generation of new viruses. The isolation of avian-like H1N1 influenza virus originated from the European swine H1N1 viruses, especially the emergence of two novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs serve as intermediate hosts or "mixing vessels", and swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.

  8. Novel α-Oxoamide Advanced-Glycation Endproducts within the N6-Carboxymethyl Lysine and N6-Carboxyethyl Lysine Reaction Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldensperger, Tim; Jost, Tobias; Zipprich, Alexander; Glomb, Marcus A

    2018-02-28

    The highly reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal are major precursors of posttranslational protein modifications in vivo. Model incubations of N 2 -t-Boc-lysine and either glyoxal or methylglyoxal were used to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the N 6 -carboxymethyl lysine and N 6 -carboxyethyl lysine reaction cascades. After independent synthesis of the authentic reference standards, we were able to detect N 6 -glyoxylyl lysine and N 6 -pyruvoyl lysine for the first time by HPLC-MS 2 analyses. These two novel amide advanced-glycation endproducts were exclusively formed under aerated conditions, suggesting that they were potent markers for oxidative stress. Analogous to the well-known Strecker degradation pathway, leading from amino acids to Strecker acids, the oxidation of an enaminol intermediate is suggested to be the key mechanistic step. A highly sensitive workup for the determination of AGEs in tissues was developed. In support of our hypothesis, the levels of N 6 -glyoxylyl lysine and N 6 -pyruvoyl lysine in rat livers indeed correlated with liver cirrhosis and aging.

  9. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Beyond Histones: New Substrate Proteins of Lysine Deacetylases in Arabidopsis Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Füßl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reversible acetylation of lysine residues is catalyzed by the antagonistic action of lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases, which can be considered as master regulators of their substrate proteins. Lysine deacetylases, historically referred to as histone deacetylases, have profound functions in regulating stress defenses and development in plants. Lysine acetylation of the N-terminal histone tails promotes gene transcription and decondensation of chromatin, rendering the DNA more accessible to the transcription machinery. In plants, the classical lysine deacetylases from the RPD3/HDA1-family have thus far mainly been studied in the context of their deacetylating activities on histones, and their versatility in molecular activities is still largely unexplored. Here we discuss the potential impact of lysine acetylation on the recently identified nuclear substrate proteins of lysine deacetylases from the Arabidopsis RPD3/HDA1-family. Among the deacetylase substrate proteins, many interesting candidates involved in nuclear protein import, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling have been identified. These candidate proteins represent key starting points for unraveling new molecular functions of the Arabidopsis lysine deacetylases. Site-directed engineering of lysine acetylation sites on these target proteins might even represent a new approach for optimizing plant growth under climate change conditions.

  11. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(h)-1 - Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance. 1.1402(h)-1 Section 1.1402(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(h)-1... 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only for...

  13. 26 CFR 1.643(h)-1 - Distributions by certain foreign trusts through intermediaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intermediaries. 1.643(h)-1 Section 1.643(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(h)-1... section, FT is deemed to have distributed XYZ stock with a value of 85X to C on December 1, 2001. (h...

  14. 76 FR 62455 - Announcement of Updated Funding Availability for H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... 10-13] Announcement of Updated Funding Availability for H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants AGENCY... the availability of $240 million for the H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants to be awarded through a... additional applicants to apply for the H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants competition that will close on...

  15. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  16. Antigenic and genetic evolution of contemporary swine H1 influenza viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajao, Daniela S; Anderson, Tavis K; Kitikoon, Pravina; Stratton, Jered; Lewis, Nicola S; Vincent, Amy L

    2018-05-01

    Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses representing clusters H1-α (1A.1), H1-β (1A.2), H1pdm (1A.3.3.2), H1-γ (1A.3.3.3), H1-δ1 (1B.2.2), and H1-δ2 (1B.2.1) currently circulating in pigs in the United States. The δ1-viruses diversified into two new genetic clades, H1-δ1a (1B.2.2.1) and H1-δ1b (1B.2.2.2), which were also antigenically distinct from the earlier H1-δ1-viruses. Further characterization revealed that a few key amino acid changes were associated with antigenic divergence in these groups. The continued genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary H1 viruses might lead to loss of vaccine cross-protection that could lead to significant economic impact to the swine industry, and represents a challenge to public health initiatives that attempt to minimize swine-to-human IAV transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CR9H-1RUPH [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CR9H-1RUPH 1CR9 1RUP H H KVKLQQSGAELVRSGASVKLSCTASGFNIKDY-YIQWVK...ine> TYR CA 299 TRP CA 347 1RUP... H 1RUPH YCAGLLWYDGGAGS...2550649642944336 1 1RUP H 1RUPH GYINY-SGFTS

  18. Solution Thermodynamics of Lysine Clonixinate in Some Ethanol + Water Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Daniel R.; Martínez, Fleming; Gutiérrez, Rahumir A.

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of lysine clonixinate (LysClon) in several ethanol + water mixtures was determined at 293.15 to 313.15 K. The thermodynamic functions, Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution and of mixing were obtained from these solubility data by using the van’t Hoff and Gibbs equations. In general this drug exhibit good solubility and the greatest value was obtained in the mixture 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol. A non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was observed from ...

  19. High-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of lysine demethylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Molly; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Lysine demethylases (KDMs) are epigenetic regulators whose dysfunction is implicated in the pathology of many human diseases including various types of cancer, inflammation and X-linked intellectual disability. Particular demethylases have been identified as promising therapeutic targets, and tremendous efforts are being devoted toward developing suitable small-molecule inhibitors for clinical and research use. Several High-throughput screening strategies have been developed to screen for small-molecule inhibitors of KDMs, each with advantages and disadvantages in terms of time, cost, effort, reliability and sensitivity. In this Special Report, we review and evaluate the High-throughput screening methods utilized for discovery of novel small-molecule KDM inhibitors.

  20. Epigenetics and autism spectrum disorder: A report of an autism case with mutation in H1 linker histone HIST1H1e and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffney, Lara J; Valdez, Purnima; Tremblay, Martine W; Cao, Xinyu; Montgomery, Sarah; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2018-04-27

    Genetic mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in epigenetic machinery have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, and other disorders. H1 histone linker protein, the basic component in nucleosome packaging and chromatin organization, has not been implicated in human disease until recently. We report a de novo deleterious mutation of histone cluster 1 H1 family member e (HIST1H1E; c.435dupC; p.Thr146Hisfs*50), encoding H1 histone linker protein H1.4, in a 10-year-old boy with autism and intellectual disability diagnosed through clinical whole exome sequencing. The c.435dupC at the 3' end of the mRNA leads to a frameshift and truncation of the positive charge in the carboxy-terminus of the protein. An expression study demonstrates the mutation leads to reduced protein expression, supporting haploinsufficiency of HIST1H1E protein and loss of function as an underlying mechanism of dysfunction in the brain. Taken together with other recent cases with mutations of HIST1H1E in intellectual disability, the evidence supporting the link to causality in disease is strong. Our finding implicates the deficiency of H1 linker histone protein in autism. The systematic review of candidate genes implicated in ASD revealed that 42 of 215 (19.5%) genes are directly involved in epigenetic regulations and the majority of these genes belong to histone writers, readers, and erasers. While the mechanism of how haploinsufficiency of HIST1H1E causes autism is entirely unknown, our report underscores the importance of further study of the function of this protein and other histone linker proteins in brain development. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Dao, Trong Tuan; Tung, Bui Thanh

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1/09 virus) was identified and considered a strong candidate for a novel influenza pandemic. As part of an ongoing anti-influenza screening programme on natural products, eight oligostilbenes were isolated as active principles from the methanol extract...... of Vitis amurensis. This manuscript reports the isolation, structural elucidation, and anti-viral activities of eight compounds on various neuraminidases from influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed in 293T cells...

  2. Identification of reassortant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Korean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Jun; Kim, Hye Kwon; Rho, Semi; Nguyen, Giap Van; Song, Daesub; Kang, Bo Kyu; Moon, Hyung Jun; Yeom, Min Joo; Park, Bong Kyun

    2012-05-01

    Since the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in April 2009, novel reassortant strains have been identified throughout the world. This paper describes the detection and isolation of reassortant strains associated with human pandemic influenza H1N1 and swine influenza H1N2 (SIV) viruses in swine populations in South Korea. Two influenza H1N2 reassortants were detected, and subtyped by PCR. The strains were isolated using Madin- Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis for genetic diversity. They consisted of human, avian, and swine virus genes that were originated from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H1N2 SIV previously isolated in North America. This identification of reassortment events in swine farms raises concern that reassortant strains may continuously circulate within swine populations, calling for the further study and surveillance of pandemic H1N1 among swine.

  3. Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutmou, Kristin S; Schuller, Anthony P; Brunelle, Julie L; Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Djuranovic, Sergej; Green, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially impact protein synthesis: insertion of iterated AAA codons into an ORF diminishes protein expression more than insertion of synonymous AAG codons. Kinetic studies in E. coli reveal that differential protein production results from pausing on consecutive AAA-lysines followed by ribosome sliding on homopolymeric A sequence. Translation in a cell-free expression system demonstrates that diminished output from AAA-codon-containing reporters results from premature translation termination on out of frame stop codons following ribosome sliding. In eukaryotes, these premature termination events target the mRNAs for Nonsense-Mediated-Decay (NMD). The finding that ribosomes slide on homopolymeric A sequences explains bioinformatic analyses indicating that consecutive AAA codons are under-represented in gene-coding sequences. Ribosome ‘sliding’ represents an unexpected type of ribosome movement possible during translation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05534.001 PMID:25695637

  4. Selection and Characterization of a Lysine Yielding Mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum - a Soil Isolate from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib-ur-Rehman§٭, Abdul Hameed and Safia Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-lysine is the second limiting amino acid for poultry and supplemented in broiler feed for optimal performance. Lysine can be produced by inducing mutation in glutamate producing bacteria. The study was conducted to enhance lysine production from a local strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The bacterium was mutated by exposure to UV. Mutants resistant to s-2-aminoethyle L-cystein (AEC and showing auxotrophy for L-homoserine were screened for lysine production qualitatively and quantitatively. A mutant showing highest production of lysine (8.2 mg/mL was selected for optimization of physical and nutritional parameters for maximum production of lysine in shake flask. An initial pH 7.6, 30˚C temperature, 300 rpm and 60 h incubation time were the optimized values of physical requirements. Cane molasses and corn starch hydrolysate were required at 15% (w/v in the fermentation media which provided around 9% total sugars to produce maximum lysine (17 to 18 mg/mL. When amonium sulphate was used at 3.5% (w/v level in molasses or corn starch hydrolysate based fermentation media, production of lysine slightly increased above 18 mg/mL. It is concluded that industrial by products like cane molasses, corn steep liquor, and corn starch hydrolysate can be used as carbon and organic nitrogen sources in fermentation medium for scale up process of lysine production and this lysine enriched broth may be used in broiler feed later. However, more potent lysine producing mutant and additional in vivo trials would be required to commercialize this product.

  5. Histone H1x is highly expressed in human neuroendocrine cells and tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warneboldt, Julia; Haller, Florian; Horstmann, Olaf; Danner, Bernhard C; Füzesi, László; Doenecke, Detlef; Happel, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Histone H1x is a ubiquitously expressed member of the H1 histone family. H1 histones, also called linker histones, stabilize compact, higher order structures of chromatin. In addition to their role as structural proteins, they actively regulate gene expression and participate in chromatin-based processes like DNA replication and repair. The epigenetic contribution of H1 histones to these mechanisms makes it conceivable that they also take part in malignant transformation. Based on results of a Blast data base search which revealed an accumulation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of H1x in libraries from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), we evaluated the expression of H1x in NETs from lung and the gastrointestinal tract using immunohistochemisty. Relative protein and mRNA levels of H1x were analysed by Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Since several reports describe a change of the expression level of the replacement subtype H1.0 during tumourigenesis, the analysis of this subtype was included in this study. We found an increased expression of H1x but not of H1.0 in NET tissues in comparison to corresponding normal tissues. Even though the analysed NETs were heterogenous regarding their grade of malignancy, all except one showed a considerably higher protein amount of H1x compared with corresponding non-neoplastic tissue. Furthermore, double-labelling of H1x and chromogranin A in sections of pancreas and small intestine revealed that H1x is highly expressed in neuroendocrine cells of these tissues. We conclude that the high expression of histone H1x in NETs is probably due to the abundance of this protein in the cells from which these tumours originate

  6. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öberg, Christine; Belikov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, ΔN-hH1.4, were compared. ► Both histones bind to chromatin, however, ΔN-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. ► Interaction of ΔN-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. ► N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain (ΔN-hH1.4). The ΔN-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that ΔN-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  7. Effect of priming with H1N1 influenza viruses of variable antigenic distances on challenge with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher D; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice N; Wei, Chih-Jen; Nabel, Gary J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2012-08-01

    Compared to seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus caused greater morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. People over 60 years of age showed a higher prevalence of cross-reactive pH1N1 antibodies, suggesting that they were previously exposed to an influenza virus or vaccine that was antigenically related to the pH1N1 virus. To define the basis for this cross-reactivity, ferrets were infected with H1N1 viruses of variable antigenic distance that circulated during different decades from the 1930s (Alaska/35), 1940s (Fort Monmouth/47), 1950s (Fort Warren/50), and 1990s (New Caledonia/99) and challenged with 2009 pH1N1 virus 6 weeks later. Ferrets primed with the homologous CA/09 or New Jersey/76 (NJ/76) virus served as a positive control, while the negative control was an influenza B virus that should not cross-protect against influenza A virus infection. Significant protection against challenge virus replication in the respiratory tract was observed in ferrets primed with AK/35, FM/47, and NJ/76; FW/50-primed ferrets showed reduced protection, and NC/99-primed ferrets were not protected. The hemagglutinins (HAs) of AK/35, FM/47, and FW/50 differ in the presence of glycosylation sites. We found that the loss of protective efficacy observed with FW/50 was associated with the presence of a specific glycosylation site. Our results suggest that changes in the HA occurred between 1947 and 1950, such that prior infection could no longer protect against 2009 pH1N1 infection. This provides a mechanistic understanding of the nature of serological cross-protection observed in people over 60 years of age during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

  8. Differential affinity of mammalian histone H1 somatic subtypes for DNA and chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Xavier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is involved in the formation and maintenance of chromatin higher order structure. H1 has multiple isoforms; the subtypes differ in timing of expression, extent of phosphorylation and turnover rate. In vertebrates, the amino acid substitution rates differ among subtypes by almost one order of magnitude, suggesting that each subtype might have acquired a unique function. We have devised a competitive assay to estimate the relative binding affinities of histone H1 mammalian somatic subtypes H1a-e and H1° for long chromatin fragments (30–35 nucleosomes in physiological salt (0.14 M NaCl at constant stoichiometry. Results The H1 complement of native chromatin was perturbed by adding an additional amount of one of the subtypes. A certain amount of SAR (scaffold-associated region DNA was present in the mixture to avoid precipitation of chromatin by excess H1. SAR DNA also provided a set of reference relative affinities, which were needed to estimate the relative affinities of the subtypes for chromatin from the distribution of the subtypes between the SAR and the chromatin. The amounts of chromatin, SAR and additional H1 were adjusted so as to keep the stoichiometry of perturbed chromatin similar to that of native chromatin. H1 molecules freely exchanged between the chromatin and SAR binding sites. In conditions of free exchange, H1a was the subtype of lowest affinity, H1b and H1c had intermediate affinities and H1d, H1e and H1° the highest affinities. Subtype affinities for chromatin differed by up to 19-fold. The relative affinities of the subtypes for chromatin were equivalent to those estimated for a SAR DNA fragment and a pUC19 fragment of similar length. Avian H5 had an affinity ~12-fold higher than H1e for both DNA and chromatin. Conclusion H1 subtypes freely exchange in vitro between chromatin binding sites in physiological salt (0.14 M NaCl. The large differences in relative affinity of the H1 subtypes for

  9. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  10. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on N ε -carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and N ε -carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810–0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage. - Highlights: • The effect of irradiation on CML and CEL formation in meat products is investigated. • CML and CEL contents in irradiated meat products exhibit a higher growth rate than non-irradiated samples. • PUFAs oxidation induced by irradiation promotes CML and CEL formation. • Lipid oxidation pathways are an important pathway for CML and CEL accumulation in irradiated samples during storage.

  11. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine in tea and the factors affecting their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ye; He, Jialiang; Li, Fengli; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Shikang; Qin, Fang; Zeng, Maomao; Chen, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The levels of N ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) in 99 tea samples from 14 geographic regions, including 44 green, 7 oolong, 41 black, and 7 dark teas were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CML and CEL contents varied from 11.0 to 1701μg/g tea and 4.6 to 133μg/g tea, respectively. Dark tea presented the highest levels of CML and CEL, whereas green and oolong teas presented the lowest levels. Five kinds of catechins in the tea were also analyzed, and spearman's correlation coefficients showed that all the catechins negatively correlated with CML and CEL. The results suggested that withering, fermentation and pile fermentation may facilitate the formation of CML and CEL. Catechins might inhibit the formation of CML and CEL, but their inhibitory effects may be affected by tea processing. The results of this study are useful for the production of healthier tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a

  13. Widespread occurrence of lysine methylation in Plasmodium falciparum proteins at asexual blood stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Saini, Ekta; Kaushik, Abhinav; Mohmmed, Asif; Gupta, Dinesh; Malhotra, Pawan

    2016-10-20

    Post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications play a major role in Plasmodium life cycle regulation. Lysine methylation of histone proteins is well documented in several organisms, however in recent years lysine methylation of proteins outside histone code is emerging out as an important post-translational modification (PTM). In the present study we have performed global analysis of lysine methylation of proteins in asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum development. We immunoprecipitated stage specific Plasmodium lysates using anti-methyl lysine specific antibodies that immunostained the asexual blood stage parasites. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 570 lysine methylated proteins at three different blood stages were identified. Analysis of the peptide sequences identified 605 methylated sites within 422 proteins. Functional classification of the methylated proteins revealed that the proteins are mainly involved in nucleotide metabolic processes, chromatin organization, transport, homeostatic processes and protein folding. The motif analysis of the methylated lysine peptides reveals novel motifs. Many of the identified lysine methylated proteins are also interacting partners/substrates of PfSET domain proteins as revealed by STRING database analysis. Our findings suggest that the protein methylation at lysine residues is widespread in Plasmodium and plays an important regulatory role in diverse set of the parasite pathways.

  14. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation in the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating diverse cellular processes. Trichinella spiralis is a foodborne parasite with a considerable socio-economic impact. However, to date, little is known regarding the role of lysine acetylation in this parasitic nematode. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in T. spiralis. In total, 3872 lysine modification sites were identified in 1592 proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with the results of previous studies, a large number of the acetylated proteins appear to be involved in metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 29 acetylated proteins were associated with phagocytosis, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in this process. Among the identified proteins, 15 putative acetylation motifs were detected. The presence of serine downstream of the lysine acetylation site was commonly observed in the regions surrounding the sites. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis revealed that various interactions are regulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of the acetylome of T. spiralis and provide an important resource for further explorations of the role of lysine acetylation in this foodborne pathogen.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on Mycoplasma bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobia...

  16. Effect of Selected Plant Extracts and D- and L-Lysine on the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.; Oosterhout, J.F.X.

    2014-01-01

    We tested extracts from Fructus mume, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Moringa oleifera as well as L-lysine and D-Lysine as curative measures to rapidly suppress the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIVA-CYA 43. We tested these compounds under similar conditions to facilitate comparisons. We

  17. Structural Basis of Histone Demethylase KDM6B Histone 3 Lysine 27 Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sarah E; Olsen, Lars; Gajhede, Michael

    2018-01-01

    KDM subfamily 6 enzymes KDM6A and KDM6B specifically catalyze demethylation of di- and trimethylated lysine on histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3/2) and play an important role in repression of developmental genes. Despite identical amino acid sequence in the immediate surroundings of H3K9me3/2 (ARKS...

  18. An Update on Lysine Deacylases Targeting the Expanding “Acylome”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam

    2013-01-01

    Lysine e-amino acetylation has long been recognized as an epigenetically relevant post-translational modification of multiple residues in histone proteins. However, it has become clear that lysine acetylation is not restricted to histones, and therefore, it may be involved in the regulation of a ...

  19. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  20. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 in north Africa: an early holocene arrival from Iberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ottoni

    Full Text Available The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61% of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000-9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages.

  1. Extensive Lysine Methylation in Hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea: Potential Implications for Protein Stability and Recombinant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Botting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukarya and bacteria, lysine methylation is relatively rare and is catalysed by sequence-specific lysine methyltransferases that typically have only a single-protein target. Using RNA polymerase purified from the thermophilic crenarchaeum Sulfolobus solfataricus, we identified 21 methyllysines distributed across 9 subunits of the enzyme. The modified lysines were predominantly in α-helices and showed no conserved sequence context. A limited survey of the Thermoproteus tenax proteome revealed widespread modification with 52 methyllysines in 30 different proteins. These observations suggest the presence of an unusual lysine methyltransferase with relaxed specificity in the crenarchaea. Since lysine methylation is known to enhance protein thermostability, this may be an adaptation to a thermophilic lifestyle. The implications of this modification for studies and applications of recombinant crenarchaeal enzymes are discussed.

  2. Histone H1 heterogeneity in the midge, Chironomus thummi. Structural comparison of the H1 variants in an organism where their intrachromosomal localization is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Fender, S; Grossbach, U

    1988-09-01

    1. Seven subfractions of histone H1 have been isolated and purified from larvae of Chironomus thummi (Diptera). They have been denominated I-1, II-1, II-2, II-3, III-1, III-2, and III-3, according to the order of migration in two steps of preparative electrophoresis. 2. The amino acid compositions are similar to those of other H1 histones. Subfractions I-1 and II-1 were found to contain one methionine and two tyrosine residues, II-2 contained two methionine and three tyrosine residues, and III-1 one methionine and three tyrosine residues. The other subfractions contained one or two methionine and two or three tyrosine residues. For subfractions I-1 and II-1 a chain length of about 252 amino acids was estimated. 3. Peptide pattern analyses after chemical cleavage at the methionine and tyrosine residues, and enzymatic cleavage with thrombin and chymotrypsin, respectively, showed that all subfractions have different individual primary structures. A comparison of peptide sizes and of the positions in the peptide patterns of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies was made to check whether some of the subfractions could arise by proteolytic degradation of others. This possibility can be excluded for five of the subfractions and is very improbable for the two others. Treatment of C. thummi H1 with alkaline phosphatase did not change the pattern of subfractions, while the phosphorylated subfraction of histone H2A disappeared after this treatment. Most and very probably all subfractions are thus H1 sequence variants. 4. Inbred strains and individual larvae of C. thummi were found to comprise all seven variants. The H1 heterogeneity can therefore not be due to allelic polymorphism. Salivary gland nuclei were found to contain variant I-1 and at least some of the other variants. 5. H1 from Drosophila melanogaster and from calf thymus were used as reference molecules in all cleavage experiments and yielded the peptide patterns expected from the sequence. The comparison

  3. Histones H10a and H10b are the same as CHO histones H1(III) and H1(IV):new features of H10 phosphorylation during the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Becker, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two histone H1 fractions [H1(I) and H1(II) and two histone H1 0 fractions (H1 0 a and H1 0 b) have been isolated from butyrate-treated Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells by guanidine hydrochloride gradient chromatography on Bio-Rex 70 ion-exchange resin. The fractions have been identified by electrophoresis and amino acid analyses. Electrophoretic analysis of cyanogen bromide treated H1 0 in long acid-urea-polyacrylamide gels suggests that H1 0 a and H1 0 b differ, at least, within the 20-30 residue fragment(s) removed by the cyanogen bromide clevage. Shallow-gradient Bio-Rex 70 chromatography indicates that histones H1 0 a and H1 0 b are the same as the respective CHO histones, H1(III) and H1(IV). This identification and the phosphate incorporation data of Gurley et al. (1975) reveal new features about H1 0 phosphorylation: (1) following release from G 1 arrest, H1 0 a and H1 0 b become phosphorylated in late G 1 prior to DNA synthesis; (2) H1 0 a and H1 0 b are phosphorylated at similar rates throughout the cell cycle. These and other data demonstrate that histone H1 0 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle dependent fashion which mimics that of histone H1

  4. The H1 linker histones: multifunctional proteins beyond the nucleosomal core particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergeth, Sonja P; Schneider, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The linker histone H1 family members are a key component of chromatin and bind to the nucleosomal core particle around the DNA entry and exit sites. H1 can stabilize both nucleosome structure and higher-order chromatin architecture. In general, H1 molecules consist of a central globular domain with more flexible tail regions at both their N- and C-terminal ends. The existence of multiple H1 subtypes and a large variety of posttranslational modifications brings about a considerable degree of complexity and makes studying this protein family challenging. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the function of linker histones and their subtypes beyond their role as merely structural chromatin components. We summarize current findings on the role of H1 in heterochromatin formation, transcriptional regulation and embryogenesis with a focus on H1 subtypes and their specific modifications. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Thermodynamical study of interaction of histone H1 chromosomal protein and mitoxantrone anticancer drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafargholizadeh, Naser; Zargar, Seyed Jalal; Safarian, Shahrokh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time, our results show mitoxantrone anticancer drug binds to histone H1, via hydrophobic, hydrogen, van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. ► Binding of mitoxantrone molecules to histone H1 is positive cooperative. ► Histone H1 may be considered as a new target for mitoxantrone at the chromatin level. - Using ultraviolet spectroscopy technique, we have investigated the interaction of anticancer drug, mitoxantrone with calf thymus histone H1 chromosomal protein in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at temperatures 300 and 310 K. UV spectroscopy results show interactions between mitoxantrone and histone H1 with a positive cooperative binding process which was confirmed by Scatchard plot. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that histone H1 can be considered as a target for mitoxantrone binding at the chromatin level.

  6. Characteristics of atopic children with pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection: pandemic H1N1 influenza reveals 'occult' asthma of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Hirano, Reiji; Hashimoto, Kunio; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Shirabe, Komei; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    The number of human cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection has increased in Japan since April 2009, as it has worldwide. This virus is widespread in the Yamaguchi prefecture in western Japan, where most infected children exhibited respiratory symptoms. Bronchial asthma is thought to be one of the risk factors that exacerbate respiratory symptoms of pandemic H1N1-infected patients, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. We retrospectively investigated the records of 33 children with pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection who were admitted to our hospital between October and December 2009 and analyzed their clinical features. The percentage of children with asthma attack, with or without abnormal findings on chest radiographs (pneumonia, atelectasis, etc.), caused by pandemic H1N1 influenza infection was significantly higher than that of children with asthma attack and 2008-2009 seasonal influenza infection. Of the 33 children in our study, 22 (66.7%) experienced an asthma attack. Among these children, 20 (90.9%) did not receive long-term management for bronchial asthma, whereas 7 (31.8%) were not diagnosed with bronchial asthma and had experienced their first asthma attack. However, the severity of the attack did not correlate with the severity of the pulmonary complications of pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection. The pandemic H1N1 influenza virus greatly increases the risk of lower respiratory tract complications such as asthma attack, pneumonia, and atelectasis, when compared to the seasonal influenza virus. Furthermore, our results suggest that pandemic H1N1 influenza viral infection can easily induce a severe asthma attack, pneumonia, and atelectasis in atopic children without any history of either an asthma attack or asthma treatment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Comparative analyses of pandemic H1N1 and seasonal H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B infections depict distinct clinical pictures in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S H Huang

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B infections are a worldwide health concern to both humans and animals. High genetic evolution rates of the influenza virus allow the constant emergence of new strains and cause illness variation. Since human influenza infections are often complicated by secondary factors such as age and underlying medical conditions, strain or subtype specific clinical features are difficult to assess. Here we infected ferrets with 13 currently circulating influenza strains (including strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 [H1N1pdm] and seasonal A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B viruses. The clinical parameters were measured daily for 14 days in stable environmental conditions to compare clinical characteristics. We found that H1N1pdm strains had a more severe physiological impact than all season strains where pandemic A/California/07/2009 was the most clinically pathogenic pandemic strain. The most serious illness among seasonal A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 groups was caused by A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/Perth/16/2009, respectively. Among the 13 studied strains, B/Hubei-Wujiagang/158/2009 presented the mildest clinical symptoms. We have also discovered that disease severity (by clinical illness and histopathology correlated with influenza specific antibody response but not viral replication in the upper respiratory tract. H1N1pdm induced the highest and most rapid antibody response followed by seasonal A/H3N2, seasonal A/H1N1 and seasonal influenza B (with B/Hubei-Wujiagang/158/2009 inducing the weakest response. Our study is the first to compare the clinical features of multiple circulating influenza strains in ferrets. These findings will help to characterize the clinical pictures of specific influenza strains as well as give insights into the development and administration of appropriate influenza therapeutics.

  8. Classical and semi-classical treatments of Li3+, Ne10++H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J

    2004-01-01

    We perform molecular close-coupling and impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations of total and partial cross sections for capture and ionization in collisions of highly charged ions on H(1s). We first consider Li 3+ +H(1s) as a benchmark to ascertain the complementarity of the methods, and then Ne 10+ +H(1s), which has been scarcely studied up to now, and has recently become of interest for fusion plasma research

  9. Identification of catechols as histone-lysine demethylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders L; Kristensen, Line H; Stephansen, Karen B

    2012-01-01

    Identification of inhibitors of histone-lysine demethylase (HDM) enzymes is important because of their involvement in the development of cancer. An ELISA-based assay was developed for identification of inhibitors of the HDM KDM4C in a natural products library. Based on one of the hits with affinity...... in the low µM range (1, a catechol), a subset of structurally related compounds was selected and tested against a panel of HDMs. In this subset, two inhibitors (2 and 10) had comparable affinities towards KDM4C and KDM6A but no effect on PHF8. One inhibitor restored H3K9me3 levels in KDM4C transfected U2-OS...

  10. Histone lysine demethylases as targets for anticancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Agger, Karl; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the genes controlling the epigenetic programmes that are required for maintaining chromatin structure and cell identity include genes that drive human cancer. This observation has led to an increased awareness of chromatin-associated proteins as potentially...... interesting drug targets. The successful introduction of DNA methylation and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of specific subtypes of cancer has paved the way for the use of epigenetic therapy. Here, we highlight key biological findings demonstrating the roles of members of the histone...... lysine demethylase class of enzymes in the development of cancers, discuss the potential and challenges of therapeutically targeting them, and highlight emerging small-molecule inhibitors of these enzymes....

  11. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    OpenAIRE

    Renström Lena HM; Isaksson Mats; Berg Mikael; Zohari Siamak; Widén Frederik; Metreveli Giorgi; Bálint Ádám; Wallgren Per; Belák Sándor; Segall Thomas; Kiss István

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority o...

  12. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  13. A reverse genetic analysis of human Influenza A virus H1N2

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Reassortment between influenza A viruses of different subtypes rarely appears. Even in a community where H1N1 and H3N2 viruses co-circulate, reassortment to produce persistent viruses of mixed gene segments does not readily occur. H1N2 viruses, that circulated between 2001-2003 were considered to have arisen through the reassortment of the two human influenza subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Due to the fact they make such a rare appearance, H1N2 viruses used to have new characteristics compared to the...

  14. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Ravert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1 immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population.

  15. Histone H1 phosphorylation is associated with transcription by RNA polymerases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yupeng; John, Sam; Pesavento, James J.; Schultz-Norton, Jennifer R.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Baek, Sonjoon; Nardulli, Ann M.; Hager, Gordon L.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2010-01-01

    Histone H1 phosphorylation affects chromatin condensation and function, but little is known about how specific phosphorylations impact the function of H1 variants in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we show that specific sites in H1.2 and H1.4 of human cells are phosphorylated only during mitosis or during both mitosis and interphase. Antisera generated to individual H1.2/H1.4 interphase phosphorylations reveal that they are distributed throughout nuclei and enriched in nucleoli. Moreover, interphase phosphorylated H1.4 is enriched at active 45S preribosomal RNA gene promoters and is rapidly induced at steroid hormone response elements by hormone treatment. Our results imply that site-specific interphase H1 phosphorylation facilitates transcription by RNA polymerases I and II and has an unanticipated function in ribosome biogenesis and control of cell growth. Differences in the numbers, structure, and locations of interphase phosphorylation sites may contribute to the functional diversity of H1 variants. PMID:20439994

  16. Nutritional plans of digestible lysine for growing-finishing gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cipriano Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate nutritional plans of digestible lysine (DLys for growing-finishing gilts. Eighty gilts with 63 days of age and an initial weight of 24.2±1.52 kg were distributed in a completely randomized block design, with five nutritional plans of DLys (9-8-7, 10-9-8, 11-10-9, 12-11-10, and 13-12-11 g/kg, from 63 to 103, 104 to 133, and 134 to 153 days of age, respectively and eight replicates. Pigs were housed in pairs and fed their respective diets ad libitum throughout the experimental period (90 days. To monitor the animal development along the experiment at 103 and 133 days, gilts were weighed and subjected to analysis of ultrasound for evaluation of loin depth (longissimus dorsi and backfat thickness. At the end of the experiment (153 days of age the animals were weighed, and after slaughter carcasses were evaluated individually using a typifying pistol to evaluate the percentage and the content of carcass meat, loin depth and backfat thickness. From 63 to 133 days, there was no effect of the nutritional plans on daily feed intake, performance, or backfat thickness; however the loin depth was greater in the gilts that received plans with high levels of DLys (12-11; 13-12 g/kg compared with the plan with the lowest level (8-7 g/kg. For the entire period (63 to 153 days, no influence of the nutritional plans was observed on the daily feed intake, performance variables, or carcass characteristics. A nutritional plan containing 9-8-7 g/kg of digestible lysine fed from 63 to 103, 104 to 133 and 134 to 153 days, respectively, meets the requirements for performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing gilts.

  17. Effect of feeding three lysine to energy diets on growth, body composition and age at puberty in replacement gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White×Landrace gilts (n =641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, ...

  18. Prior infection of chickens with H1N1 or H1N2 avian influenza elicits partial heterologous protection against highly pathogenic H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Charles; Berhane, Yohannes; Pasick, John; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary; Kobasa, Darwyn; Babiuk, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need to have vaccines that can protect against emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Commonly used influenza vaccines are killed whole virus that protect against homologous and not heterologous virus. Using chickens we have explored the possibility of using live low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A/goose/AB/223/2005 H1N1 or A/WBS/MB/325/2006 H1N2 to induce immunity against heterologous highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/chicken/Vietnam/14/2005 H5N1. H1N1 and H1N2 replicated in chickens but did not cause clinical disease. Following infection, chickens developed nucleoprotein and H1 specific antibodies, and reduced H5N1 plaque size in vitro in the absence of H5 neutralizing antibodies at 21 days post infection (DPI). In addition, heterologous cell mediated immunity (CMI) was demonstrated by antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in PBMCs re-stimulated with H5N1 antigen. Following H5N1 challenge of both pre-infected and naïve controls chickens housed together, all naïve chickens developed acute disease and died while H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens had reduced clinical disease and 70-80% survived. H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens were also challenged with H5N1 and naïve chickens placed in the same room one day later. All pre-infected birds were protected from H5N1 challenge but shed infectious virus to naïve contact chickens. However, disease onset, severity and mortality was reduced and delayed in the naïve contacts compared to directly inoculated naïve controls. These results indicate that prior infection with LPAI virus can generate heterologous protection against HPAI H5N1 in the absence of specific H5 antibody.

  19. Prior infection of chickens with H1N1 or H1N2 avian influenza elicits partial heterologous protection against highly pathogenic H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nfon

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to have vaccines that can protect against emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Commonly used influenza vaccines are killed whole virus that protect against homologous and not heterologous virus. Using chickens we have explored the possibility of using live low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI A/goose/AB/223/2005 H1N1 or A/WBS/MB/325/2006 H1N2 to induce immunity against heterologous highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A/chicken/Vietnam/14/2005 H5N1. H1N1 and H1N2 replicated in chickens but did not cause clinical disease. Following infection, chickens developed nucleoprotein and H1 specific antibodies, and reduced H5N1 plaque size in vitro in the absence of H5 neutralizing antibodies at 21 days post infection (DPI. In addition, heterologous cell mediated immunity (CMI was demonstrated by antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in PBMCs re-stimulated with H5N1 antigen. Following H5N1 challenge of both pre-infected and naïve controls chickens housed together, all naïve chickens developed acute disease and died while H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens had reduced clinical disease and 70-80% survived. H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens were also challenged with H5N1 and naïve chickens placed in the same room one day later. All pre-infected birds were protected from H5N1 challenge but shed infectious virus to naïve contact chickens. However, disease onset, severity and mortality was reduced and delayed in the naïve contacts compared to directly inoculated naïve controls. These results indicate that prior infection with LPAI virus can generate heterologous protection against HPAI H5N1 in the absence of specific H5 antibody.

  20. Appearance of reassortant European avian-origin H1 influenza A viruses of swine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, N; Nguyen, P T; Le, V T; Nguyen, T N; To, T L; Nguyen, T D; Pham, V P; Vo, H V; Le, Q V T; Do, H T; Nguyen, D T; Uchida, Y; Saito, T

    2018-03-06

    Three subtypes-H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2-of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs-S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S that contained avian-origin H1 and human-like N2 genes, and were particularly closely related to those of IAVs-S circulating in the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark. In addition, the internal genes of these Vietnamese isolates were derived from human A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, suggesting that the Vietnamese H1N2 IAVs-S are reassortants between European H1N2 IAVs-S and human A(H1N1)pdm09v. The appearance of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S in Vietnam marks their first transmission outside Europe. Our results and statistical analyses of the number of live pigs imported into Vietnam suggest that the European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S may have been introduced into Vietnam with their hosts through international trade. These findings highlight the importance of quarantining imported pigs to impede the introduction of new IAVs-S. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Predictors of H1N1 influenza in the emergency department: proposition for a modified H1N1 case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, H; Drescher, M; Prattes, J; Tovilo, K; Kessler, H H; Vander, K; Seeber, K; Palfner, M; Raggam, R B; Avian, A; Krause, R; Hoenigl, M

    2014-02-01

    Reliable and rapid diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 is essential to initiate appropriate antiviral therapy and preventive measures. We analysed the differences in clinical presentation and laboratory parameters between emergency department patients with PCR-confirmed H1N1 influenza infection (n = 199) and those with PCR-negative influenza-like illness (ILI; n = 252). Cough, wheezing, leucopenia, eosinopenia and a lower C-reactive protein remained significant predictors of H1N1 influenza. Proposed combinations of clinical symptoms with simple laboratory parameters (e.g. reported or measured fever and either cough or leucocytes definitions that use clinical criteria alone. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  2. Supply of neuraminidase inhibitors related to reduced influenza A (H1N1) mortality during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paula E; Rambachan, Aksharananda; Hubbard, Roderick J; Li, Jiabai; Meyer, Alison E; Stephens, Peter; Mounts, Anthony W; Rolfes, Melissa A; Penn, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    The influenza A (H1N1) pandemic swept across the globe from April 2009 to August 2010 affecting millions. Many WHO Member States relied on antiviral drugs, specifically neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir and zanamivir, to treat influenza patients in critical condition. Such drugs have been found to be effective in reducing severity and duration of influenza illness, and likely reduced morbidity during the pandemic. However, it is less clear whether NAIs used during the pandemic reduced H1N1 mortality. Country-level data on supply of oseltamivir and zanamivir were used to predict H1N1 mortality (per 100,000 people) from July 2009 to August 2010 in forty-two WHO Member States. Poisson regression was used to model the association between NAI supply and H1N1 mortality, with adjustment for economic, demographic, and health-related confounders. After adjustment for potential confounders, each 10% increase in kilograms of oseltamivir, per 100,000 people, was associated with a 1.6% reduction in H1N1 mortality over the pandemic period (relative rate (RR) = 0.84 per log increase in oseltamivir supply). While the supply of zanamivir was considerably less than that of oseltamivir in each Member State, each 10% increase in kilogram of active zanamivir, per 100,000, was associated with a 0.3% reduction in H1N1 mortality (RR = 0.97 per log increase). While there are limitations to the ecologic nature of these data, this analysis offers evidence of a protective relationship between antiviral drug supply and influenza mortality and supports a role for influenza antiviral use in future pandemics.

  3. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition.

  4. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper nanoclusters as probes for turn-on fluorescence sensing of L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Qiao, Juan; Zhang, Shufeng; Qi, Li

    2018-05-15

    Herein, a unique protocol based on copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) probe for turn-on fluorescence sensing of L-lysine was developed. The fluorescent CuNCs with ovalbumin as the stabilizer was prepared by a simple, one-step and green method. When 370 nm was used as the excitation wavelength, the resultant CuNCs exhibited a pale blue fluorescence with the maximum emission at 440 nm. Interestingly, existence of L-lysine evoked the obvious fluorescence intensity increase of CuNCs. The detection limit of the proposed method for L-lysine was 5.5 μM, with a good linear range from 10.0 μM to 1.0 mM (r 2 = 0.999). Moreover, the possible mechanism for enhanced fluorescence intensity of CuNCs by addition of L-lysine was explored and discussed briefly. Further, the as-prepared fluorescent CuNCs was successfully applied in detection of L-lysine in urine. Our results demonstrated that L-lysine could be monitored by the probe, providing new path for construction of CuNCs as fluorescent probes and showing great potential in quantification of L-lysine in real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  7. Outcomes of Oseltamivir Treatment for H1N1 Infection During Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Akdemir

    2011-04-01

    CONCLUSION: In this retrospective, study, we found that, H1N1 infection during pregnancy has a good prognosis and without complication for maternal health. Although oseltamivir therapy is safe in pregnant women, it can be associated with cardiac structural cardiac malformations in H1N1 infected pregnancy newborns

  8. Digested Ara h 1 Loses Sensitizing Capacity When Separated into Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Rigby, Neil M.

    2012-01-01

    The major peanut allergen Ara h 1 is an easily digestible protein under physiological conditions. The present study revealed that pepsin digestion products of Ara h 1 retained the sensitizing potential in a Brown Norway rat model, while this sensitizing capacity was lost by separating the digest...

  9. Novel reassortant of swine influenza H1N2 virus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Roland; Motzke, Susann; Krumbholz, Andi; Wutzler, Peter; Herwig, Volker; Dürrwald, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses arose after multiple reassortment steps involving a porcine influenza virus with avian-influenza-like internal segments and human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses in 1994. In Germany, H1N2 swine influenza viruses first appeared in 2000. Two German H1N2 swine influenza virus strains isolated from pigs with clinical symptoms of influenza are described. They were characterized by the neutralization test, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and complete sequencing of the viral genomes. The data demonstrate that these viruses represent a novel H1N2 reassortant. The viruses showed limited neutralization by sera raised against heterologous A/sw/Bakum/1,832/00-like H1N2 viruses. Sera pools from recovered pigs showed a considerably lower HI reaction, indicative of diagnostic difficulties in using the HI test to detect these viruses with A/sw/Bakum/1,832/00-like H1N2 antigens. Genome sequencing revealed the novel combination of the human-like HAH1 gene of European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses and the NAN2 gene of European porcine H3N2 viruses.

  10. A historical perspective of influenza A(H1N2) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase with limited person-to-person transmission. During 2012 in the United States, an A(H1N2)v virus was transmitted to humans from swine. During the same year, Australia recorded its first H1N2 subtype infection among swine. The A(H3N2)v and A(H1N2)v viruses contained the matrix protein from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, raising the possibility of increased transmissibility among humans and underscoring the potential for influenza pandemics of novel swine-origin viruses. We report on the differing histories of A(H1N2) viruses among humans and animals.

  11. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal Ram; Shakya, Geeta; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Prakash Kc, Khagendra; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Dhungana, Guna Raj

    2011-03-23

    The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3%) were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3%) were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53%) were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type. The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type.

  12. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  13. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Danish pigs: Diagnosis and lack of surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, L. P.; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1v) of likely swine origin emerged in the human population globally. The first case in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009 and presently almost all countries with pig production have reported cases. The emergence of a new influenza subtype...

  14. Safety of pandemic H1N1 vaccines in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor); S. de Bie (Sandra); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic several pandemic H1N1 vaccines were licensed using fast track procedures, with relatively limited data on the safety in children and adolescents. Different extensive safety monitoring efforts were put in place to ensure timely detection of

  15. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, Ayesha; Norton, Katherine; Rooker, Serena; Dee, Stephen; Olsen, Leeanne; Tan, Chor Ee; Paull, Sharon; Allen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities. PMID:20031050

  16. Function and coding in the blowfly H1 neuron during naturalistic optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Schwerdtfeger, G.; Egelhaaf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli, reconstructed from measured eye movements of flying blowflies, were replayed on a panoramic stimulus device. The directional movement-sensitive H1 neuron was recorded from blowflies watching these stimuli. The response of the H1 neuron is dominated by the response to fast

  17. Application of independent component analysis to H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging exams of brain tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo de Edelenyi, F.; Simonetti, A.W.; Postma, G.; Huo, R.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The low spatial resolution of clinical H-1 MRSI leads to partial volume effects. To overcome this problem, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) on a set of H-1 MRSI exams of brain turnours. With this method, tissue types that yield statistically independent spectra can be separated. Up to

  18. Role of H1 linker histones in mammalian development and stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chenyi; Fan, Yuhong

    2016-03-01

    H1 linker histones are key chromatin architectural proteins facilitating the formation of higher order chromatin structures. The H1 family constitutes the most heterogeneous group of histone proteins, with eleven non-allelic H1 variants in mammals. H1 variants differ in their biochemical properties and exhibit significant sequence divergence from one another, yet most of them are highly conserved during evolution from mouse to human. H1 variants are differentially regulated during development and their cellular compositions undergo dramatic changes in embryogenesis, gametogenesis, tissue maturation and cellular differentiation. As a group, H1 histones are essential for mouse development and proper stem cell differentiation. Here we summarize our current knowledge on the expression and functions of H1 variants in mammalian development and stem cell differentiation. Their diversity, sequence conservation, complex expression and distinct functions suggest that H1s mediate chromatin reprogramming and contribute to the large variations and complexity of chromatin structure and gene expression in the mammalian genome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 69539 - Removal of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses AGENCY: Employment and Training... registered nurses under the H-1A visa program. These subparts became obsolete after the authorizing statute... nonimmigrant classification exclusively for the temporary admission and employment of registered nurses, which...

  20. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tes. Fig. 1. The prevalence of seasonal and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A at RCWMCH and ... Full approval for the study was obtained from the Human Research ... respiratory virus infection, had not received prophylactic oseltamivir,.

  1. Age as Risk Factor for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabanch, Jeannette; Nájera, Manuel; González, Claudia; Guerrero, Andrea; Olea, Andrea; Fasce, Rodrigo; Morales, Cecilia; Vega, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 affected Chile during the winter of 2009. The hospitalization rate was 0.56% overall and 3.47% for persons >60 years of age at risk for severe disease and death independent of concurrent conditions. Age >60 years was the major risk factor for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009. PMID:21762580

  2. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sirjana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6% were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3% were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3% were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53% were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type. Conclusion The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type.

  3. Primer retention owing to the absence of RNase H1 is catastrophic for mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J Bradley; Akman, Gokhan; Wood, Stuart R; Sakhuja, Kiran; Cerritelli, Susana M; Moss, Chloe; Bowmaker, Mark R; Jacobs, Howard T; Crouch, Robert J; Holt, Ian J

    2015-07-28

    Encoding ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, and its function is essential for mitochondrial DNA maintenance in the developing mouse. Here we define the role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication. Analysis of replicating mitochondrial DNA in embryonic fibroblasts lacking RNase H1 reveals retention of three primers in the major noncoding region (NCR) and one at the prominent lagging-strand initiation site termed Ori-L. Primer retention does not lead immediately to depletion, as the persistent RNA is fully incorporated in mitochondrial DNA. However, the retained primers present an obstacle to the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ in subsequent rounds of replication and lead to the catastrophic generation of a double-strand break at the origin when the resulting gapped molecules are copied. Hence, the essential role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication is the removal of primers at the origin of replication.

  4. The tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor-P with (R)-ß-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Hervé; Zou, S Betty; Bullwinkle, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    The lysyl-tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor P (EF-P) with a-lysine at low efficiency. Cell-free extracts containing non-a-lysine substrates of PoxA modified EF-P with a change in mass consistent with addition of ß-lysine, a substrate also predicted by genomic analyses. EF......-P was efficiently functionally modified with (R)-ß-lysine but not (S)-ß-lysine or genetically encoded a-amino acids, indicating that PoxA has evolved an activity orthogonal to that of the canonical aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases....

  5. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Chuna Ram; Kumar, Chanchal; Gnad, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of proteins and plays a key role in regulating gene expression. Technological limitations have so far prevented a global analysis of lysine acetylation's cellular roles. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify 3600......, cell cycle, splicing, nuclear transport, and actin nucleation. Acetylation impaired phosphorylation-dependent interactions of 14-3-3 and regulated the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. Our data demonstrate that the regulatory scope of lysine acetylation is broad and comparable with that of other...

  6. Proteomic investigations of lysine acetylation identify diverse substrates of mitochondrial deacetylase sirt3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sol, E-ri Maria; Wagner, Sebastian A; Weinert, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that is dynamically regulated by the activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases. The human and mouse genomes encode 18 different lysine deacetylases (KDACs) which are key regulators of many cellular processes. Identifying substrates...... of KDACs and pinpointing the regulated acetylation sites on target proteins may provide important information about the molecular basis of their functions. Here we apply quantitative proteomics to identify endogenous substrates of the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) by comparing site...... by modulating acetylation on diverse substrates. The experimental strategy described here is generic and can be applied to identify endogenous substrates of other lysine deacetylases....

  7. Regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) by dynamic lysine methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, Magnus E; Małecki, Jędrzej; Falnes, Pål Ø

    2018-01-01

    Lysine methylation is a frequent post-translational protein modification, which has been intensively studied in the case of histone proteins. Lysine methylations are also found on many non-histone proteins, and one prominent example is eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A). Besides its...... essential role in the protein synthesis machinery, a number of non-canonical functions have also been described for eEF1A, such as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the promotion of viral replication. The functional significance of the extensive lysine methylations on eEF1A, as well as the identity...

  8. (R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has......-(β)-lysyl-EF-P showed 30% increased puromycin reactivity but no differences in dipeptide synthesis rates when compared with the β-lysylated form. Unlike disruption of the other genes required for EF-P modification, deletion of yfcM had no phenotypic consequences in Salmonella. Taken together, our findings indicate...

  9. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-02

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76).

  10. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renström Lena HM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority of the European H1N2 swine influenza viruses described so far possess haemagglutinin (HA of the human-like H1N2 SIV viruses and the neuraminidase (NA of either the European H1N2 or H3N2 SIV-like viruses. The Swedish isolate has an avian-like SIV HA and a H3N2 SIV-like NA, which is phylogenetically more closely related to H3N2 SIV NAs from isolates collected in the early '80s than to the NA of H3N2 origin of the H1N2 viruses isolated during the last decade, as depicted by some German strains, indicative of independent acquisition of the NA genes for these two types of reassortants. The internal genes proved to be entirely of avian-like SIV H1N1 origin. The prevalence of this SIV variant in pig populations needs to be determined, as well as the suitability of the routinely used laboratory reagents to analyze this strain. The description of this H1N2 SIV adds further information to influenza epidemiology and supports the necessity of surveillance for influenza viruses in pigs.

  11. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Adám; Metreveli, Giorgi; Widén, Frederik; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael; Isaksson, Mats; Renström, Lena Hm; Wallgren, Per; Belák, Sándor; Segall, Thomas; Kiss, István

    2009-10-28

    The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority of the European H1N2 swine influenza viruses described so far possess haemagglutinin (HA) of the human-like H1N2 SIV viruses and the neuraminidase (NA) of either the European H1N2 or H3N2 SIV-like viruses. The Swedish isolate has an avian-like SIV HA and a H3N2 SIV-like NA, which is phylogenetically more closely related to H3N2 SIV NAs from isolates collected in the early '80s than to the NA of H3N2 origin of the H1N2 viruses isolated during the last decade, as depicted by some German strains, indicative of independent acquisition of the NA genes for these two types of reassortants. The internal genes proved to be entirely of avian-like SIV H1N1 origin. The prevalence of this SIV variant in pig populations needs to be determined, as well as the suitability of the routinely used laboratory reagents to analyze this strain.The description of this H1N2 SIV adds further information to influenza epidemiology and supports the necessity of surveillance for influenza viruses in pigs.

  12. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Fashion Models, and Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b1 and E-3 Visas in... occupations or certain fashion models from any country, the INA, as amended, provides as follows: (1... work in a “specialty occupation” or as a fashion model of distinguished merit and ability in the United...

  13. Molecular characterization of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses isolated from turkeys and pathogenicity of a human pH1N1 isolate in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Yohannes; Ojkic, Davor; Neufeld, James; Leith, Marsha; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Kehler, Helen; Ferencz, Arpad; Wojcinski, Helen; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Suderman, Matthew; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren; Pasick, John

    2010-12-01

    Suspected human-to-animal transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus has been reported in several animal species, including pigs, dogs, cats, ferrets, and turkeys. In this study we describe the genetic characterization of pH1N1 viruses isolated from breeder turkeys that was associated with a progressive drop in egg production. Sequence analysis of all eight gene segments from three viruses isolated from this outbreak demonstrated homology with other human and swine pH1N1 isolates. The susceptibility of turkeys to a human pH1N1 isolate was further evaluated experimentally. The 50% turkey infectious dose (TID50) for the human isolate A/Mexico/LnDRE/4487/2009 was determined by inoculating groups of 8-10-week-old turkeys with serial 10-fold dilutions of virus by oronasal and cloacal routes. We estimated the TID50 to be between 1 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) TCID50. The pathogenesis of pH1N1 in oronasally or cloacally inoculated juvenile turkeys was also examined. None of the turkeys exhibited clinical signs, and no significant difference in virus shedding or seroconversion was observed between the two inoculation groups. More than 50% of the turkeys in both oronasal and cloacal groups shed virus beginning at 2 days postinoculation (dpi). All birds that actively shed virus seroconverted by 14 dpi. Virus antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the cecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius in two of the birds that were infected by the cloacal route. Virus transmission to naive contact turkeys was at best doubtful. This report provides additional evidence that pH1N1 can cross the species barrier and cause disease outbreaks in domestic turkeys. However, it appears that the reproductive status of the host as well as environmental factors such as concurrent infections, stress, the presence or absence of litter, and stocking density may also contribute to efficient infection and transmission of this agent.

  14. The Global Acetylome of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae V52 Reveals Lysine Acetylation of Major Transcriptional Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Lezyk, Mateusz Jakub

    2018-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine...... acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination...... in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes....

  15. Multiplex RT-PCR assay for differentiating European swine influenza virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Moreno, Ana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Merenda, Marianna; Foni, Emanuela

    2012-09-01

    In Europe, three major swine influenza viral (SIV) subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) have been isolated in pigs. Developing a test that is able to detect and identify the subtype of the circulating strain rapidly during an outbreak of respiratory disease in the pig population is of essential importance. This study describes two multiplex RT-PCRs which distinguish the haemagglutinin (HA) gene and the neuraminidase (NA) gene of the three major subtypes of SIV circulating in Europe. The HA PCR was able to identify the lineage (avian or human) of the HA of H1 subtypes. The analytical sensitivity of the test, considered to be unique, was assessed using three reference viruses. The detection limit corresponded to 1×10(-1) TCID(50)/200μl for avian-like H1N1, 1×10(0) TCID(50)/200μl for human-like H1N2 and 1×10(1) TCID(50)/200μl for H3N2 SIV. The multiplex RT-PCR was first carried out on a collection of 70 isolated viruses showing 100% specificity and then on clinical samples, from which viruses had previously been isolated, resulting in an 89% positive specificity of the viral subtype. Finally, the test was able to identify the viral subtype correctly in 56% of influenza A positive samples, from which SIV had not been isolated previously. It was also possible to identify mixed viral infections and the circulation of a reassortant strain before performing genomic studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and Phase Behavior of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b- Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide- co-Acrylamide-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Spasojević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine and poly(N- isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine copolymers was accomplished by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and ring opening polymerization (ROP. For this purpose, a di-functional initiator with protected amino group was successfully synthetized. The ATRP of N-isopropylacrylamide yielded narrowly dispersed polymers with consistent high yields (~80%. Lower yields (~50% were observed when narrowly dispersed random copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylamide where synthesized. Amino-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylamide were successfully used as macroinitiators for ROP of N6-carbobenzoxy-L- lysine N-carboxyanhydride. The thermal behavior of the homopolymers and copolymers in aqueous solutions was studied by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR.

  17. [Isolation and identification of Mn oxidizing bacterium Aminobacter sp. H1 and its oxidation mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Jiang, Li-Ying; Chen, Jian-Meng; He, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Shao-Dan; Jiang, Yi-Feng

    2014-04-01

    A bacterium with high manganese oxidizing activity was isolated from a biological manganese removal filter and named as H1. Based on its characteristics and the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain H1 belonged to the genus Aminobacter sp. and its manganese oxidizing ability had never been reported. In this paper, the microbiologic properties of the strain H1, the manganese oxidation mechanisms and characteristics of biogenic manganese oxides were investigated. The results showed that the maximal tolerant Mn concentration of strain H1 was 50 mmol x L(-1), and Mn(II) could be completely removed by strain H1 when the concentration was lower than 10 mmol x L(-1). Strain H1 could oxidize Mn2+ by both the production of manganese oxidizing activity factor and alkaline metabolites during growth, which were synthesized in the cell and then secreted into extracellular culture medium. During the oxidation process, the intermediate of soluble Mn(III) was detected. SEM showed that the biogenic manganese oxides were amorphous and poorly-crystalline, and it closely combined with bacteria. The components of the biogenic manganese oxides produced by strain H1 were identified as MnCO3, MnOOH, Mn3O4 and MnO2 by XRD, XPS and SEM-EDX.

  18. Immunotherapeutic Potential of Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus: Hints of Glioblastoma Microenvironment Conversion towards Immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Assia L; Barf, Milena; Geletneky, Karsten; Unterberg, Andreas; Rommelaere, Jean

    2017-12-15

    Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors, is characterized by highly immunosuppressive microenvironment. This contributes to glioblastoma resistance to standard treatment modalities and allows tumor growth and recurrence. Several immune-targeted approaches have been recently developed and are currently under preclinical and clinical investigation. Oncolytic viruses, including the autonomous protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV), show great promise as novel immunotherapeutic tools. In a first phase I/IIa clinical trial (ParvOryx01), H-1PV was safe and well tolerated when locally or systemically administered to recurrent glioblastoma patients. The virus was able to cross the blood-brain (tumor) barrier after intravenous infusion. Importantly, H-1PV treatment of glioblastoma patients was associated with immunogenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor infiltration with activated cytotoxic T cells, induction of cathepsin B and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAM), and accumulation of activated TAM in cluster of differentiation (CD) 40 ligand (CD40L)-positive glioblastoma regions was detected. These are the first-in-human observations of H-1PV capacity to switch the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment towards immunogenicity. Based on this pilot study, we present a tentative model of H-1PV-mediated modulation of glioblastoma microenvironment and propose a combinatorial therapeutic approach taking advantage of H-1PV-induced microglia/macrophage activation for further (pre)clinical testing.

  19. Dynamic behavior of histone H1 microinjected into HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.H.; Kuehl, L.; Rechsteiner, M.

    1986-01-01

    Histone H1 was purified from bovine thymus and radiolabeled with tritium by reductive methylation or with 125 I using chloramine-T. Red blood cell-mediated microinjection was then used to introduce the labeled H1 molecules into HeLa cells synchronized in S phase. The injected H1 molecules rapidly entered HeLa nuclei, and a number of tests indicate that their association with chromatin was equivalent to that of endogenous histone H1. The injected molecules copurified with HeLa cell nucleosomes, exhibited a half-life of ∼100h, and were hyperphosphorylated at mitosis. When injected HeLa cells were fused with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts < 10% of the labeled H1 molecules migrated to mouse nuclei during the next 48 h. Despite their slow rate of migration between nuclei, the injected H1 molecules were evenly distributed on mouse and human genomes soon after mitosis of HeLa-3T3 heterokaryons. These results suggest that although most histone H1 molecules are stably associated with interphase chromatin, they undergo extensive redistribution after mitosis

  20. Characterization of monomeric DNA-binding protein Histone H1 in Leishmania braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, Emma; González, Gloria; Cruz, Teresa; Osuna, Antonio; Hernández, Mariano; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-08-01

    Histone H1 in Leishmania presents relevant differences compared to higher eukaryote counterparts, such as the lack of a DNA-binding central globular domain. Despite that, it is apparently fully functional since its differential expression levels have been related to changes in chromatin condensation and infectivity, among other features. The localization and the aggregation state of L. braziliensis H1 has been determined by immunolocalization, mass spectrometry, cross-linking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Analysis of H1 sequences from the Leishmania Genome Database revealed that our protein is included in a very divergent group of histones H1 that is present only in L. braziliensis. An antibody raised against recombinant L. braziliensis H1 recognized specifically that protein by immunoblot in L. braziliensis extracts, but not in other Leishmania species, a consequence of the sequence divergences observed among Leishmania species. Mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro DNA-binding experiments have also proven that L. braziliensis H1 is monomeric in solution, but oligomerizes upon binding to DNA. Finally, despite the lack of a globular domain, L. braziliensis H1 is able to form complexes with DNA in vitro, with higher affinity for supercoiled compared to linear DNA.

  1. Characterization of a Novel Alginate Lyase from Marine Bacterium Vibrio furnissii H1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate lyases show great potential for industrial and medicinal applications, especially as an attractive biocatalyst for the production of oligosaccharides with special bioactivities. A novel alginate lyase, AlyH1, from the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii H1, which has been newly isolated from rotten seaweed, was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme showed the specific activity of 2.40 U/mg. Its molecular mass was 35.8 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH were 40 °C and pH 7.5, respectively. AlyH1 maintained stability at neutral pH (7.0–8.0 and temperatures below 30 °C. Metal ions Na+, Mg2+, and K+ increased the activity of the enzyme. With sodium alginate as the substrate, the Km and Vmax values of AlyH1 were 2.28 mg/mL and 2.81 U/mg, respectively. AlyH1 exhibited activities towards both polyguluronate and polymannuronate, and preferentially degraded polyguluronate. Products prepared from sodium alginate by AlyH1 were displayed to be di-, tri-, and tetra-alginate oligosaccharides. A partial amino acid sequence (190 aa of AlyH1 analysis suggested that AlyH1 was an alginate lyase of polysaccharide lyase family 7. The sequence showed less than 77% identity to the reported alginate lyases. These data demonstrated that AlyH1 could be as a novel and potential candidate in application of alginate oligosaccharides production with low polymerization degrees.

  2. Evolutionary trends of A(H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin since 1918.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pandemic (H1N1 2009 is spreading to numerous countries and causing many human deaths. Although the symptoms in humans are mild at present, fears are that further mutations in the virus could lead to a potentially more dangerous outbreak in subsequent months. As the primary immunity-eliciting antigen, hemagglutinin (HA is the major agent for host-driven antigenic drift in A(H3N2 virus. However, whether and how the evolution of HA is influenced by existing immunity is poorly understood for A(H1N1. Here, by analyzing hundreds of A(H1N1 HA sequences since 1918, we show the first evidence that host selections are indeed present in A(H1N1 HAs. Among a subgroup of human A(H1N1 HAs between 1918 approximately 2008, we found strong diversifying (positive selection at HA(1 156 and 190. We also analyzed the evolutionary trends at HA(1 190 and 225 that are critical determinants for receptor-binding specificity of A(H1N1 HA. Different A(H1N1 viruses appeared to favor one of these two sites in host-driven antigenic drift: epidemic A(H1N1 HAs favor HA(1 190 while the 1918 pandemic and swine HAs favor HA(1 225. Thus, our results highlight the urgency to understand the interplay between antigenic drift and receptor binding in HA evolution, and provide molecular signatures for monitoring future antigenically drifted 2009 pandemic and seasonal A(H1N1 influenza viruses.

  3. The Neurological Manifestations of H1N1 Influenza Infection; Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization declared pandemic phase of human infection with novel influenza A (H1N1 in April 2009. There are very few reports about the neurological complications of H1N1 virus infection in the literature. Occasionally, these complications are severe and even fatal in some individuals. The aims of this study were to report neurological complaints and/or complications associated with H1N1 virus infection. Methods: The medical files of all patients with H1N1 influenza infection admitted to a specified hospital in the city of Shiraz, Iran from October through November 2009 were reviewed. More information about the patients were obtained by phone calls to the patients or their care givers. All patients had confirmed H1N1 virus infection with real-time PCR assay. Results: Fifty-five patients with H1N1 infection were studied. Twenty-three patients had neurological signs and/or symptoms. Mild neurological complaints may be reported in up to 42% of patients infected by H1N1 virus. Severe neurological complications occurred in 9% of the patients. The most common neurological manifestations were headache, numbness and paresthesia, drowsiness and coma. One patient had a Guillain-Barre syndrome-like illness, and died in a few days. Another patient had focal status epilepticus and encephalopathy. Conclusions: The H1N1 infection seems to have been quite mild with a self-limited course in much of the world, yet there appears to be a subset, which is severely affected. We recommend performing diagnostic tests for H1N1influenza virus in all patients with respiratory illness and neurological signs/symptoms. We also recommend initiating treatment with appropriate antiviral drugs as soon as possible in those with any significant neurological presentation accompanied with respiratory illness and flu-like symptoms

  4. Energy and lysine requirements and balances of sows during transition and lactation: A factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    components (including uterus wall, placenta and membrane fluids) and maintenance were estimated. It was estimated that maintenance, additional heat loss, colostrum production, fetal growth, mammary growth and uterine components accounted for 66.8%, 19.3%, 7.2%, 5.0%, 1.3% and 0.5% of total ME requirements......, respectively, in the last 12 days of gestation. Oxidation/transamination, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production, maintenance and uterine components were estimated to account for 29.5%, 22.7%, 16.8%, 16.1%, 10.4% and 4.5% of total SID lysine requirements, respectively, in the last 12 days...... of gestation. After parturition, ME and SID lysine requirements increased daily until peak lactation (day 17). At peak lactation, 95% and 72% of total required SID lysine and ME, respectively, were associated with milk production (including oxidation). Relative to day 104 of gestation, ME and SID lysine...

  5. Global profiling of lysine reactivity and ligandability in the human proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Stephan M.; Backus, Keriann M.; Lazear, Michael R.; Forli, Stefano; Correia, Bruno E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2017-12-01

    Nucleophilic amino acids make important contributions to protein function, including performing key roles in catalysis and serving as sites for post-translational modification. Electrophilic groups that target amino-acid nucleophiles have been used to create covalent ligands and drugs, but have, so far, been mainly limited to cysteine and serine. Here, we report a chemical proteomic platform for the global and quantitative analysis of lysine residues in native biological systems. We have quantified, in total, more than 9,000 lysines in human cell proteomes and have identified several hundred residues with heightened reactivity that are enriched at protein functional sites and can frequently be targeted by electrophilic small molecules. We have also discovered lysine-reactive fragment electrophiles that inhibit enzymes by active site and allosteric mechanisms, as well as disrupt protein-protein interactions in transcriptional regulatory complexes, emphasizing the broad potential and diverse functional consequences of liganding lysine residues throughout the human proteome.

  6. Global profiling of lysine reactivity and ligandability in the human proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Stephan M; Backus, Keriann M; Lazear, Michael R; Forli, Stefano; Correia, Bruno E; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2017-12-01

    Nucleophilic amino acids make important contributions to protein function, including performing key roles in catalysis and serving as sites for post-translational modification. Electrophilic groups that target amino-acid nucleophiles have been used to create covalent ligands and drugs, but have, so far, been mainly limited to cysteine and serine. Here, we report a chemical proteomic platform for the global and quantitative analysis of lysine residues in native biological systems. We have quantified, in total, more than 9,000 lysines in human cell proteomes and have identified several hundred residues with heightened reactivity that are enriched at protein functional sites and can frequently be targeted by electrophilic small molecules. We have also discovered lysine-reactive fragment electrophiles that inhibit enzymes by active site and allosteric mechanisms, as well as disrupt protein-protein interactions in transcriptional regulatory complexes, emphasizing the broad potential and diverse functional consequences of liganding lysine residues throughout the human proteome.

  7. Hospitalizations Associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Asthmatic Children in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshio Katsunuma; Takehiko Matsui; Tsutomu Iwata; Mitsuhiko Nambu; Naomi Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 [pdm (H1N1) 2009] spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Japan. Since it was suggested early that asthma is a risk factor for an increased severity of the infection, the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) organized a working group for countermeasures, and investigated asthmatic children admitted to the hospitals for pdm (H1N1) 2009 infection. Methods: An appeal was made on the ho...

  8. A Historical Perspective of Influenza A(H1N2) Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Komadina, Naomi; McVernon, Jodie; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and transition to pandemic status of the influenza A(H1N1)A(H1N1)pdm09) virus in 2009 illustrated the potential for previously circulating human viruses to re-emerge in humans and cause a pandemic after decades of circulating among animals. Within a short time of the initial emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, novel reassortants were isolated from swine. In late 2011, a variant (v) H3N2 subtype was isolated from humans, and by 2012, the number of persons infected began to increase ...

  9. Three-decade epidemiological analysis of Escherichia coli O15:K52:H1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bente; Scheutz, Flemming; Menard, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The successful Escherichia coli O15:K52:H1 clonal group provides a case study for the emergence of multiresistant clonal groups of Enterobacteriaceae generally. Accordingly, we tested the hypotheses that, over time, the O15:K52:H1 clonal group has become increasingly (i) virulent and (ii) resistant...... to antibiotics. One hundred archived international E. coli O15:K52:[H1] clinical isolates from 100 unique patients (1975 to 2006) were characterized for diverse phenotypic and molecular traits. All 100 isolates derived from phylogenetic group D and, presumptively, sequence type ST393. They uniformly carried...

  10. West syndrome associated with administration of a histamine H1 antagonist, oxatomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Isagai, Takeo; Seki, Yoshitaka; Ohya, Takashi; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2004-01-01

    We report a 4-month-old female infant who developed West syndrome eleven days after administration of a histamine H1 antagonist, oxatomide, for atopic dermatitis. It has been reported that some histamine H1 antagonists induce seizures in epileptic patients. The age, the interval between oxatomide administration, and the onset of West syndrome and its clinical course were similar to two previously reported 3-month-old infants with West syndrome associated with ketotifen administration. We should be cautious in using the histamine H1 antagonists, oxatomide and ketotifen, in young infants because such agents could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of lysine clonixinate in children in postoperative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martin, G; Cattan, C; Zuñiga, S

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 2 doses of intravenous lysine clonixinate (4 and 6 mg x kg-1) were studied in 10 children (age 4-10 years) under postoperative care. A single dose of the drug was injected in a forearm vein. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 3 hours. Serum clonixin concentrations (expressed as clonixin) were analyzed using a high pressure liquid chromatography method. Pharmacokinetic values were estimated by a nonlinear computer program. The distribution volume was similar in both groups of children (1.288 +/- 0.829 1 and 1. 139 +/- 0.667 1, respectively). There were no differences between the values of total plasma clearance and the administered doses (0.026 +/- 0.017 ml x min-1 and 0.017 +/- 0.008 ml x min-1, t = 1.07, p = 0.76). The elimination half-life was longer in children who received 6 mg x kg-1 (44.26 +/- 6.34 min vs 38.63 +/- 10.93 min) but this difference was not statistically significant (t = 0.99, p < 0.34). The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated in these children were different from those found by other authors in adults and experimental animals.

  12. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Nadeem A.; Moinuddin,; Ali, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related dise...

  13. DNA Damage-Induced Acetylation of Lysine 3016 of ATM Activates ATM Kinase Activity▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yingli; Xu, Ye; Roy, Kanaklata; Price, Brendan D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATM protein kinase is essential for cells to repair and survive genotoxic events. The activation of ATM's kinase activity involves acetylation of ATM by the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase. In this study, systematic mutagenesis of lysine residues was used to identify regulatory ATM acetylation sites. The results identify a single acetylation site at lysine 3016, which is located in the highly conserved C-terminal FATC domain adjacent to the kinase domain. Antibodies specific for acetyl-ly...

  14. Effects of single oral doses of lysine clonixinate and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet functions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, D; Muhs, A; Bertram, L; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1996-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate is an analgesic drug with a so far unknown mechanism of action. We have determined its effect on platelet cyclooxygenase in man. Biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)B2 and prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha in clotting whole blood ex vivo as well as collagen-induced platelet aggregation measured before and at various time points after oral administration of 125 mg lysine clonixinate were compared to results obtained with 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). While biosynthesis of both TXB2 and PGF2 alpha measured radioimmunologically was inhibited significantly 2.5 h, but not 6 h, after administration of lysine clonixinate, inhibition by ASA was much greater and still highly significant after 48 h. Similarly, collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma was inhibited for a longer period and to a greater extent after administration of ASA than after lysine clonixinate. Our results indicate that lysine clonixinate is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor of moderate potency. It remains to be investigated whether mechanisms other than inhibition of cyclooxygenase contribute to the analgesic activity of lysine clonixinate.

  15. Flux through the tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase pathway is dispensable for L-lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Reid, C A; McCormick, M M; Sinskey, A J; Stephanopoulos, G

    1999-03-01

    The N-succinyl-LL-diaminopimelate desuccinylase gene (dapE) in the four-step succinylase branch of the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum was disrupted via marker-exchange mutagenesis to create a mutant strain that uses only the one-step meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase branch to overproduce lysine. This mutant strain grew and utilized glucose from minimal medium at the same rate as the parental strain. In addition, the dapE- strain produced lysine at the same rate as its parent strain. Transformation of the parental and dapE- strains with the amplified meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase gene (ddh) on a plasmid did not affect lysine production in either strain, despite an eightfold amplification of the activity of the enzyme. These results indicate that the four-step succinylase pathway is dispensable for lysine overproduction in shake-flask culture. In addition, the one-step meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase pathway does not limit lysine flux in Corynebacterium under these conditions.

  16. CPLA 1.0: an integrated database of protein lysine acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zexian; Cao, Jun; Gao, Xinjiao; Zhou, Yanhong; Wen, Longping; Yang, Xiangjiao; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2011-01-01

    As a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) discovered decades ago, protein lysine acetylation was known for its regulation of transcription through the modification of histones. Recent studies discovered that lysine acetylation targets broad substrates and especially plays an essential role in cellular metabolic regulation. Although acetylation is comparable with other major PTMs such as phosphorylation, an integrated resource still remains to be developed. In this work, we presented the compendium of protein lysine acetylation (CPLA) database for lysine acetylated substrates with their sites. From the scientific literature, we manually collected 7151 experimentally identified acetylation sites in 3311 targets. We statistically studied the regulatory roles of lysine acetylation by analyzing the Gene Ontology (GO) and InterPro annotations. Combined with protein-protein interaction information, we systematically discovered a potential human lysine acetylation network (HLAN) among histone acetyltransferases (HATs), substrates and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In particular, there are 1862 triplet relationships of HAT-substrate-HDAC retrieved from the HLAN, at least 13 of which were previously experimentally verified. The online services of CPLA database was implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript, while the local packages were developed in JAVA 1.5 (J2SE 5.0). The CPLA database is freely available for all users at: http://cpla.biocuckoo.org.

  17. Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific 3 H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of 3 H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor

  18. Systematic Analysis of the Functions of Lysine Acetylation in the Regulation of Tat Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao He

    Full Text Available The Tat protein of HIV-1 has several well-known properties, such as nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, transactivation of transcription, interaction with tubulin, regulation of mitotic progression, and induction of apoptosis. Previous studies have identified a couple of lysine residues in Tat that are essential for its functions. In order to analyze the functions of all the lysine residues in Tat, we mutated them individually to alanine, glutamine, and arginine. Through systematic analysis of the lysine mutants, we discovered several previously unidentified characteristics of Tat. We found that lysine acetylation could modulate the subcellular localization of Tat, in addition to the regulation of its transactivation activity. Our data also revealed that lysine mutations had distinct effects on microtubule assembly and Tat binding to bromodomain proteins. By correlation analysis, we further found that the effects of Tat on apoptosis and mitotic progression were not entirely attributed to its effect on microtubule assembly. Our findings suggest that Tat may regulate diverse cellular activities through binding to different proteins and that the acetylation of distinct lysine residues in Tat may modulate its interaction with various partners.

  19. Use of acetimidation in the NMR identification of neurophysin lysine protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardana, V.; Breslow, E.

    1986-01-01

    Acetimidation of the two lysine residues of neurophysin (NP) results in localized changes in the proton magnetic resonance spectrum, allowing identification of lysine side-chain resonances. Neither peptide-binding nor protein self-association appeared to be significantly altered by acetimidation. Additionally, no significant effect of either peptide-binding or self-association on lysine epsilon-CH 2 protons was seen. However, dimerization-induced NMR changes in the 1.6-1.8 ppm region, associated with lysine β,γ,σ protons, were altered in the acetimidated protein. In particular, while the spectrum of the acetimidated NP monomer was almost identical to that of the native protein, a shoulder at 1.72 ppm in the native protein dimer was shifted upfield in the modified dimer. Additionally the direction of NMR shifts in the 1.6-1.8 ppm region normally associated with peptide binding to the NP dimer appeared to be reversed in the acetimidated protein. Binding-induced and dimerization-induced changes in all other regions of the spectrum were identical in the native and modified proteins. These results suggest that one or both NP lysine residues may be near the dimer subunit interface and indicate an effect of peptide-binding on lysine side-chain environment

  20. Self-degradation of tissue adhesive based on oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Naoki; Sugai, Hajime; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2014-11-26

    We have developed a low-toxicity bioadhesive based on oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine. Here, we report that the mechanical properties and degradation of this novel hydrogel bioadhesive can be controlled by changing the extent of oxidation of the dextran and the type or concentration of the anhydride species in the acylated poly-L-lysine. The dynamic moduli of the hydrogels can be controlled from 120 Pa to 20 kPa, suggesting that they would have mechanical compatibility with various tissues, and could have applications as tissue adhesives. Development of the hydrogel color from clear to brown indicates that the reaction between the dextran aldehyde groups and the poly-L-lysine amino groups may be induced by a Maillard reaction via Schiff base formation. Degradation of the aldehyde dextran may begin by reaction of the amino groups in the poly-L-lysine. The gel degradation can be ascribed to degradation of the aldehyde dextran in the hydrogel, although the aldehyde dextran itself is relatively stable in water. The oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine, and the degraded hydrogel showed low cytotoxicities. These findings indicate that a hydrogel consisting of oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine has low toxicity and a well-controlled degradation rate, and has potential clinical applications as a bioadhesive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION REACTIVE LYSINE IN HEAT-TREATED FOODS AND FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is an essential amino acid, which is limited in foods of plant origin, especially in cereals. The heat-treatment of products containing proteins and reducing sugars results in formation of Maillard reactions during which the cross-linkages among epsilon amino groups (ε-NH2 and reducing sugars are created. Thus the protein-carbohydrate complex is formed. This complex contains an unreactive (unavailable lysine, which is bound to reducing sugars and is not available in body. Hereby, the nutritive value of feeds and foods decreases. When a standard analytical method for analyses of amino acids is used, in products containing protein-carbohydrate complexes, it is not possible to analyze the content of reactive (available and unreactive (unavailable lysine, but only the content of total lysine. Therefore, when the standard amino acid analysis is used, the content of lysine in heat-treated feeds and foods is overestimated. In order to avoid this, some methods for determination of reactive lysine were developed. Among the best known, the homoarginine and furosine methods are included. Using these methods, in evaluation of nutritive value of feeds and foods, is of great importance because they allow to determine the extent of proteins, which were damaged during the heat treatment and thus we obtain information on objective nutritional protein quality of the product.

  2. trans-2-Phenyl-4-thiophenoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Pal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-catalyzed cyclocondensation of cinnamaldehyde and thiophenol yields rapidly trans-2-phenyl-4-thiophenoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran in excellent yield with very high diastereoselectivity.

  3. MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansol; Habas, Raymond; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2004-06-11

    During embryogenesis, differentiation of skeletal muscle is regulated by transcription factors that include members of the Msx homeoprotein family. By investigating Msx1 function in repression of myogenic gene expression, we identified a physical interaction between Msx1 and H1b, a specific isoform of mouse histone H1. We found that Msx1 and H1b bind to a key regulatory element of MyoD, a central regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, where they induce repressed chromatin. Moreover, Msx1 and H1b cooperate to inhibit muscle differentiation in cell culture and in Xenopus animal caps. Our findings define a previously unknown function for "linker" histones in gene-specific transcriptional regulation.

  4. H1N1 infection in emergency surgery: A cautionary tale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 has spread rapidly since its first report in Mexico in March 2009. This is the first influenza pandemic in over 40 years and it atypically affects previously healthy young adults, with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The medical literature has been inundated with reports of H1N1 infection, the majority found in critical care and internal medicine journals with a relative paucity in the surgical literature. Despite this, it remains an important entity that can impact greatly on acute surgical emergencies. We present a case of previously healthy 31-year-old male who underwent open appendectomy. His post-operative recovery was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to H1N1 infection. This case report highlights the impact that H1N1 virus can have on acute surgical emergencies and how it can complicate the post-operative course.

  5. Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

  6. 20 CFR 655.736 - What are H-1B-dependent employers and willful violators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Fashion Models, and Requirements for Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b1 and E-3 Visas in... not include bona fide consultants and independent contractors. For purposes of this section, the...

  7. Ethnic differences in susceptibilities to A(H1N1) flu: An epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... ... Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004, Jiangsu, .... countries including Mexico, the country of the A (H1N1) outbreak origin. The ... precious resources used more effectively for specific.

  8. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-1 - Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estate or trust. 1.642(h)-1 Section 1.642(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....642(h)-1 Unused loss carryovers on termination of an estate or trust. (a) If, on the final termination...(h)(1) to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust. See § 1.641(b)-3 for...

  9. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus (pH1N1 with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1.Stored serum samples (n = 2,379 collected during 2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and the weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody (HI titer ≥40 was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1 among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%; unvaccinated: 17.1%. Among unvaccinated participants, those aged 6-15 years (32.9% and 16-24 years (30.3% had higher seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25-59 years (10.7% and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001. Children in kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively. We estimated that 207.7 million individuals (15.9% experienced pH1N1 infection in China.The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  10. Eviction of linker histone H1 by NAP-family histone chaperones enhances activated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Giebler, Holli A; Isaacson, Marisa K; Nyborg, Jennifer K

    2015-01-01

    In the Metazoan nucleus, core histones assemble the genomic DNA to form nucleosome arrays, which are further compacted into dense chromatin structures by the linker histone H1. The extraordinary density of chromatin creates an obstacle for accessing the genetic information. Regulation of chromatin dynamics is therefore critical to cellular homeostasis, and histone chaperones serve as prominent players in these processes. In the current study, we examined the role of specific histone chaperones in negotiating the inherently repressive chromatin structure during transcriptional activation. Using a model promoter, we demonstrate that the human nucleosome assembly protein family members hNap1 and SET/Taf1β stimulate transcription in vitro during pre-initiation complex formation, prior to elongation. This stimulatory effect is dependent upon the presence of activators, p300, and Acetyl-CoA. We show that transcription from our chromatin template is strongly repressed by H1, and that both histone chaperones enhance RNA synthesis by overcoming H1-induced repression. Importantly, both hNap1 and SET/Taf1β directly bind H1, and function to enhance transcription by evicting the linker histone from chromatin reconstituted with H1. In vivo studies demonstrate that SET/Taf1β, but not hNap1, strongly stimulates activated transcription from the chromosomally-integrated model promoter, consistent with the observation that SET/Taf1β is nuclear, whereas hNap1 is primarily cytoplasmic. Together, these observations indicate that SET/Taf1β may serve as a critical regulator of H1 dynamics and gene activation in vivo. These studies uncover a novel function for SET that mechanistically couples transcriptional derepression with H1 dynamics. Furthermore, they underscore the significance of chaperone-dependent H1 displacement as an essential early step in the transition of a promoter from a dense chromatin state into one that is permissive to transcription factor binding and robust

  11. H1 Grid production tool for large scale Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobodzinski, B; Wissing, Ch [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Bystritskaya, E; Vorobiew, M [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karbach, T M [University of Dortmund (Germany); Mitsyn, S [JINR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mudrinic, M, E-mail: bogdan.lobodzinski@desy.d [VINS, Belgrad (Serbia)

    2010-04-01

    The H1 Collaboration at HERA has entered the period of high precision analyses based on the final data sample. These analyses require a massive production of simulated Monte Carlo (MC) events. The H1 MC framework (H1MC) is a software for mass MC production on the LCG Grid infrastructure and on a local batch system created by H1 Collaboration. The aim of the tool is a full automatisation of the MC production workflow including management of the MC jobs on the Grid down to copying of the resulting files from the Grid to the H1 mass storage tape device. The H1 MC framework has modular structure, delegating a specific task to each module, including task specific to the H1 experiment: Automatic building of steer and input files, simulation of the H1 detector, reconstruction of particle tracks and post processing calculation. Each module provides data or functionality needed by other modules via a local database. The Grid jobs created for detector simulation and reconstruction from generated MC input files are fully independent and fault-tolerant for 32 and 64-bit LCG Grid architecture and in Grid running state they can be continuously monitored using Relational Grid Monitoring Architecture (R-GMA) service. To monitor the full production chain and detect potential problems, regular checks of the job state are performed using the local database and the Service Availability Monitoring (SAM) framework. The improved stability of the system has resulted in a dramatic increase in the production rate, which exceeded two billion MC events in 2008.

  12. Mutational analysis of the antagonist-binding site of the histamine H(1) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, K; Laak, A M; Smit, M J; Kühne, R; Timmerman, H; Leurs, R

    1999-10-15

    We combined in a previously derived three-dimensional model of the histamine H(1) receptor (Ter Laak, A. M., Timmerman, H., Leurs, H., Nederkoorn, P. H. J., Smit, M. J., and Donne-Op den Kelder, G. M. (1995) J. Comp. Aid. Mol. Design. 9, 319-330) a pharmacophore for the H(1) antagonist binding site (Ter Laak, A. M., Venhorst, J., Timmerman, H., and Donné-Op de Kelder, G. M. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 38, 3351-3360) with the known interacting amino acid residue Asp(116) (in transmembrane domain III) of the H(1) receptor and verified the predicted receptor-ligand interactions by site-directed mutagenesis. This resulted in the identification of the aromatic amino acids Trp(167), Phe(433), and Phe(436) in transmembrane domains IV and VI of the H(1) receptor as probable interaction points for the trans-aromatic ring of the H(1) antagonists. Subsequently, a specific interaction of carboxylate moieties of two therapeutically important, zwitterionic H(1) antagonists with Lys(200) in transmembrane domain V was predicted. A Lys(200) --> Ala mutation results in a 50- (acrivastine) to 8-fold (d-cetirizine) loss of affinity of these zwitterionic antagonists. In contrast, the affinities of structural analogs of acrivastine and cetirizine lacking the carboxylate group, triprolidine and meclozine, respectively, are unaffected by the Lys(200) --> Ala mutation. These data strongly suggest that Lys(200), unique for the H(1) receptor, acts as a specific anchor point for these "second generation" H(1) antagonists.

  13. In vitro H1-receptor antagonist activity of methanolic extract of tuber of Stephania glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Khan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, methanolic extract of tuber of Stephania glabra was evaluated for H1-bloker activity by employing in vitro screening models of guinea pig ileum and goat tracheal chain preparation. Goat isolated trachea and guinea pig ileum contracted to histamine in a dose-dependent manner while chlorpheniramine blocked this effect. The methanolic extract produced significant dose-dependent H1-receptor antagonist activity by blocking histamine-induced contraction.

  14. Obstetricians and the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccination effort: implications for future pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Wortley, Pascale M

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to describe the experiences of obstetricians during the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccination campaign in order to identify possible improvements for future pandemic situations. We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of a national random sample of 4,000 obstetricians, fielded in Summer 2010. Survey items included availability, recommendation, and patient acceptance of H1N1 vaccine; prioritization of H1N1 vaccine when supply was limited; problems with H1N1 vaccination; and likelihood of providing vaccine during a future influenza pandemic. Response rate was 66 %. Obstetricians strongly recommended H1N1 vaccine during the second (85 %) and third (86 %) trimesters, and less often during the first trimester (71 %) or the immediate postpartum period (76 %); patient preferences followed a similar pattern. H1N1 vaccine was typically available in outpatient obstetrics clinics (80 %). Overall vaccine supply was a major problem for 30 % of obstetricians, but few rated lack of thimerosal-free vaccine as a major problem (12 %). Over half of obstetricians had no major problems with the H1N1 vaccine campaign. Based on this experience, 74 % would be "very likely" and 12 % "likely" to provide vaccine in the event of a future influenza pandemic. Most obstetricians strongly recommended H1N1 vaccine, had few logistical problems beyond limited vaccine supply, and are willing to vaccinate in a future pandemic. Addressing concerns about first-trimester vaccination, developing guidance for prioritization of vaccine in the event of severe supply constraints, and continued facilitation of the logistical aspects of vaccination should be emphasized in future influenza pandemics.

  15. Nodal-dependent mesendoderm specification requires the combinatorial activities of FoxH1 and Eomesodermin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Slagle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mesendoderm specification requires the Nodal signaling pathway and its transcriptional effector FoxH1. However, loss of FoxH1 in several species does not reliably cause the full range of loss-of-Nodal phenotypes, indicating that Nodal signals through additional transcription factors during early development. We investigated the FoxH1-dependent and -independent roles of Nodal signaling during mesendoderm patterning using a novel recessive zebrafish FoxH1 mutation called midway, which produces a C-terminally truncated FoxH1 protein lacking the Smad-interaction domain but retaining DNA-binding capability. Using a combination of gel shift assays, Nodal overexpression experiments, and genetic epistasis analyses, we demonstrate that midway more accurately represents a complete loss of FoxH1-dependent Nodal signaling than the existing zebrafish FoxH1 mutant schmalspur. Maternal-zygotic midway mutants lack notochords, in agreement with FoxH1 loss in other organisms, but retain near wild-type expression of markers of endoderm and various nonaxial mesoderm fates, including paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and blood precursors. We found that the activity of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin accounts for specification of these tissues in midway embryos. Inhibition of Eomesodermin in midway mutants severely reduces the specification of these tissues and effectively phenocopies the defects seen upon complete loss of Nodal signaling. Our results indicate that the specific combinations of transcription factors available for signal transduction play critical and separable roles in determining Nodal pathway output during mesendoderm patterning. Our findings also offer novel insights into the co-evolution of the Nodal signaling pathway, the notochord specification program, and the chordate branch of the deuterostome family of animals.

  16. Are Portable Stereophotogrammetric Devices Reliable in Facial Imaging? A Validation Study of VECTRA H1 Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, Daniele; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Cappella, Annalisa; Dolci, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2018-01-31

    Modern 3-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems represent a crucial technologic development in facial anatomy because of their accuracy and precision. The recently introduced portable devices can improve facial databases by increasing the number of applications. In the present study, the VECTRA H1 portable stereophotogrammetric device was validated to verify its applicability to 3D facial analysis. Fifty volunteers underwent 4 facial scans using portable VECTRA H1 and static VECTRA M3 devices (2 for each instrument). Repeatability of linear, angular, surface area, and volume measurements was verified within the device and between devices using the Bland-Altman test and the calculation of absolute and relative technical errors of measurement (TEM and rTEM, respectively). In addition, the 2 scans obtained by the same device and the 2 scans obtained by different devices were registered and superimposed to calculate the root mean square (RMS; point-to-point) distance between the 2 surfaces. Most linear, angular, and surface area measurements had high repeatability in M3 versus M3, H1 versus H1, and M3 versus H1 comparisons (range, 82.2 to 98.7%; TEM range, 0.3 to 2.0 mm, 0.4° to 1.8°; rTEM range, 0.2 to 3.1%). In contrast, volumes and RMS distances showed evident differences in M3 versus M3 and H1 versus H1 comparisons and reached the maximum when scans from the 2 different devices were compared. The portable VECTRA H1 device proved reliable for assessing linear measurements, angles, and surface areas; conversely, the influence of involuntary facial movements on volumes and RMS distances was more important compared with the static device. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution and adaptation of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducatez MF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariette F Ducatez, Thomas P Fabrizio, Richard J WebbyDepartment of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus [A(H1N1pdm09] has provided the public health community with many challenges, but also the scientific community with an opportunity to monitor closely its evolution through the processes of drift and shift. To date, and despite having circulated in humans for nearly two years, little antigenic variation has been observed in the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. However, as the A(H1N1pdm09 virus continues to circulate and the immunologic pressure within the human population increases, future antigenic change is almost a certainty. Several coinfections of A(H1N1pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1 or A(H3N2 viruses have been observed, but no reassortant viruses have been described in humans, suggesting a lack of fitness of reassortant viruses or a lack of opportunities for interaction of different viral lineages. In contrast, multiple reassortment events have been detected in swine populations between A(H1N1 pdm09 and other endemic swine viruses. Somewhat surprisingly, many of the well characterized influenza virus virulence markers appear to have limited impact on the phenotype of the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses when they have been introduced into mutant viruses in laboratory settings. As such, it is unclear what the evolutionary path of the pandemic virus will be, but the monitoring of any changes in the circulating viruses will remain a global public and animal health priority.Keywords: influenza, pandemic, evolution, adaptation

  18. Kompliceret influenza A (H1N1) hos gravid i andet trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersboell, Anne Schjoedt; Hesselvig, Anne Brun; Hedegaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman at 25 weeks of gestation was admitted to hospital due to bilateral pneumonia with increasing hypoxia. She was tested positive for influenza A (H1N1) and successfully treated with oral oseltamivir. Nine days after the admission pathological umbilical flows were recorded...... and an emergency caesarean was performed at 26 weeks + 2 days of gestation. The neonatal period was uncomplicated. Influenza A (H1N1) is especially dangerous in pregnant women and vaccination is important....

  19. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Young Kyoon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign.

  20. Extracellular vesicles shed by melanoma cells contain a modified form of H1.0 linker histone and H1.0 mRNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Puleo, Veronica; Colletta, Oriana; Fricano, Anna; Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are now recognized as a fundamental way for cell-to-cell horizontal transfer of properties, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Most of EV-mediated cross-talk among cells depend on the exchange of proteins, and nucleic acids, among which mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs such as different species of miRNAs. Cancer cells, in particular, use EVs to discard molecules which could be dangerous to them (for example differentiation-inducing proteins such as histone H1.0, or antitumor drugs), to transfer molecules which, after entering the surrounding cells, are able to transform their phenotype, and even to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance. Herein we report that melanoma cells not only secrete EVs which contain a modified form of H1.0 histone, but also transport the corresponding mRNA. Given the already known role in tumorigenesis of some RNA binding proteins (RBPs), we also searched for proteins of this class in EVs. This study revealed the presence in A375 melanoma cells of at least three RBPs, with apparent MW of about 65, 45 and 38 kDa, which are able to bind H1.0 mRNA. Moreover, we purified one of these proteins, which by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was identified as the already known transcription factor MYEF2.

  1. Signature of an h1 state in the J/ψ→ηh1→ηK⁎0K¯⁎0 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Albaladejo, M.; Oset, E.

    2014-01-01

    The BES data on the J/ψ→ηK ⁎0 K ¯⁎0 reaction show a clear enhancement in the K ⁎0 K ¯⁎0 mass distribution close to the threshold of this channel. Such an enhancement is usually a signature of an L=0 resonance around threshold, which in this case would correspond to an h 1 state with quantum numbers I G (J PC )=0 − (1 +− ). A state around 1800MeV results from the interaction of the K ⁎ K ¯⁎ using the local hidden gauge approach. We show that the peak observed in J/ψ→ηK ⁎0 K ¯⁎0 naturally comes from the creation of this h 1 state with mass and width around 1830MeV and 110MeV, respectively. A second analysis, model independent, corroborates the first result, confirming the relationship of the enhancement in the invariant mass spectrum with the h 1 resonance

  2. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  3. O-Methylisourea Can React with the α-Amino Group of Lysine: Implications for the Analysis of Reactive Lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Tetske G; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Sforza, Stefano; Bikker, Paul; van der Poel, Antonius F B; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-02-01

    The specificity of O-methylisourea (OMIU) to bind to the ε-amino group of Lys, an important supposition for the OMIU-reactive Lys analysis of foods, feeds, ingredients, and digesta, was investigated. Crystalline l-Lys incubated under standard conditions with OMIU resulted in low homoarginine recoveries. The reaction of OMIU with the α-amino group of Lys was confirmed by MS analysis, with double derivatized Lys being identified. None of the changes in reaction conditions (OMIU pH, OMIU to Lys ratio, and reaction time) with crystalline l-Lys resulted in 100% recovery of homoarginine. The average free Lys content in ileal digesta of growing pigs and broilers was found to be 13% of total Lys, which could result in a significant underestimation of the reactive Lys content. The reaction of OMIU with α-amino groups may necessitate analysis of free Lys to accurately quantify reactive lysine in samples containing a large proportion of Lys with a free α-amino group.

  4. Lysine residue 185 of Rad1 is a topological but not a functional counterpart of lysine residue 164 of PCNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek Wit

    Full Text Available Monoubiquitylation of the homotrimeric DNA sliding clamp PCNA at lysine residue 164 (PCNA(K164 is a highly conserved, DNA damage-inducible process that is mediated by the E2/E3 complex Rad6/Rad18. This ubiquitylation event recruits translesion synthesis (TLS polymerases capable of replicating across damaged DNA templates. Besides PCNA, the Rad6/Rad18 complex was recently shown in yeast to ubiquitylate also 9-1-1, a heterotrimeric DNA sliding clamp composed of Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 in a DNA damage-inducible manner. Based on the highly similar crystal structures of PCNA and 9-1-1, K185 of Rad1 (Rad1(K185 was identified as the only topological equivalent of PCNA(K164. To investigate a potential role of posttranslational modifications of Rad1(K185 in DNA damage management, we here generated a mouse model with a conditional deletable Rad1(K185R allele. The Rad1(K185 residue was found to be dispensable for Chk1 activation, DNA damage survival, and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes as well as recruitment of TLS polymerases during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our data indicate that Rad1(K185 is not a functional counterpart of PCNA(K164.

  5. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptor OR10H1 in Human Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lea; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Philippou, Stathis; Eckardt, Josephine; Ubrig, Burkhard; Hoffmann, Michéle J; Tannapfel, Andrea; Kalbe, Benjamin; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many ORs are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer. In this study, we describe that one OR, OR10H1, is predominantly expressed in the human urinary bladder with a notably higher expression at mRNA and protein level in bladder cancer tissues. Interestingly, also significantly higher amounts of OR10H1 transcripts were detectable in the urine of bladder cancer patients than in the urine of control persons. We identified the sandalwood-related compound Sandranol as a specific agonist of OR10H1. This deorphanization allowed the functional characterization of OR10H1 in BFTC905 bladder cancer cells. The effect of receptor activation was morphologically apparent in cell rounding, accompanied by changes in the cytoskeleton detected by β-actin, T-cadherin and β-Catenin staining. In addition, Sandranol treatment significantly diminished cell viability, cell proliferation and migration and induced a limited degree of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G1 fraction. In a concentration-dependent manner, Sandranol application elevated cAMP levels, which was reduced by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and elicited intracellular Ca 2+ concentration increase. Furthermore, activation of OR10H1 enhanced secretion of ATP and serotonin. Our results suggest OR10H1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  6. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptor OR10H1 in Human Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Weber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many ORs are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer. In this study, we describe that one OR, OR10H1, is predominantly expressed in the human urinary bladder with a notably higher expression at mRNA and protein level in bladder cancer tissues. Interestingly, also significantly higher amounts of OR10H1 transcripts were detectable in the urine of bladder cancer patients than in the urine of control persons. We identified the sandalwood-related compound Sandranol as a specific agonist of OR10H1. This deorphanization allowed the functional characterization of OR10H1 in BFTC905 bladder cancer cells. The effect of receptor activation was morphologically apparent in cell rounding, accompanied by changes in the cytoskeleton detected by β-actin, T-cadherin and β-Catenin staining. In addition, Sandranol treatment significantly diminished cell viability, cell proliferation and migration and induced a limited degree of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G1 fraction. In a concentration-dependent manner, Sandranol application elevated cAMP levels, which was reduced by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and elicited intracellular Ca2+ concentration increase. Furthermore, activation of OR10H1 enhanced secretion of ATP and serotonin. Our results suggest OR10H1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  7. Numerical Analysis of an H1-Galerkin Mixed Finite Element Method for Time Fractional Telegraph Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss and analyze an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element (H1-GMFE method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H1-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H1-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L2-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H1-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H1-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.

  8. Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2015-11-16

    Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of

  9. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  10. Lysine clonixinate in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, G; Zmijanovich, R; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Terragno, A

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerance of Lysine Clonixinate (LC), a NSAID with prostaglandin synthesis inhibiting mechanism was studied in 24 patients with primary dysmenorrhea according to a double-blind randomized crossover Placebo (P) controlled design with patients serving as their own controls. Treatment consisted in administering 1 tablet of LC or P q6h as from onset of menstrual pain during 5 days and 6 menstrual cycles. Patients were controlled monthly as from the 5th day of the cycle, rating changes in pain intensity according to a 4-point scale, presence of pain during pre-, post- and menstrual periods; possible intracycle changes, amount of bleeding, tolerance and related total and general signs and symptoms. Intensity of baseline menstrual pain amounted to 2.9. Menstrual, intramenstrual and postmenstrual pains were observed in 19 out of 24, 24/24 and only 2 out of the 24 patients, respectively. Concomitant symptoms consisted in headache (12), mastalgia (14) and discomfort (12). Results were obtained by averaging the data from the treatment periods with each drug. Menstrual pain was reduced from 2.9 +/- 0.7 to 1.9 +/- 0.7 with P administration and to 0.66 +/- 0.4 with the administration of LC, a highly significant difference between treatments (p < 0.0001). Premenstrual pain was reduced nonsignificantly from 0.79% to 0.58% with P administration and significantly to 0.29% with administration of LC (p < 0.001). Intramenstrual pain affecting all patients at baseline was reduced significantly by 9% with P and also significantly by 50% with LC (p < 0.001). No differences were encountered in concomitant symptoms during P treatment periods while the incidence was significantly reduced with LC (p < 0.0001). No changes in cycle duration or amount of bleeding were observed between treatments. No adverse events were reported.

  11. Lysine clonixinate vs. paracetamol/codeine in postepisiotomy pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Santos, A R; Martí, M I; Espinosa, D; Di Girolamo, G; Vinacur, J C; Casadei, A

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the analgesic action of Lysine Clonixinate (LC) vs Paracetamol/Codeine association (PC) in the treatment of postepisiotomy pain in primiparae women: 131 primiparous patients with moderate-to-severe postepisiotomy pain were enrolled in a double blind dummy design study and randomly allocated to either treatment with fixed doses of LC 125 mg or Paracetamol 500 mg+Codeine 30 mg 6 qh during 24 hours. Intensity of spontaneous pain and pain on walking was assessed according to a visual analog scale (VAS) and patient's assessment before receiving treatment and after 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours. Intensity of spontaneous pain was reduced in 24 hours from 4.28 +/- 2.11 to 1.73 +/- 1.46 (P < 0.0001) in the LC group and from 4.78 +/- 2.08 to 1.90 +/- 1.72 in the PC-treated group (p < 0.0001); with no significant differences between treatments. 54% of the patients treated with LC and 55% of those receiving PC showed onset of analgesic action 30 minutes following dose administration. Patient's final global assessment revealed that 95% of LC-treated patients and 96% of the PC group showed total or partial pain relief during the first treatment day. No sleep disturbances were seen during the night in 75% of patients. Only one patient receiving LC showed nausea not requiring treatment discontinuation. It is concluded that both treatments are equally effective to relieve moderate-to-severe postepisiotomy pain.

  12. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Raymond; Khan, Babar K; Raz, Assaf; Rotolo, Jimmy A; Wittekind, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC 90 ) value of ≤0.25 μg/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes , and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC 90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 μg/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 promotes triple negative breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Xiaoyan; Zhou, Julie Xia; Calvet, James P; Godwin, Andrew K; Jensen, Roy A; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-02-27

    We identified SMYD2, a SMYD (SET and MYND domain) family protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a novel breast cancer oncogene. SMYD2 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer cell lines and in breast tumor tissues. Silencing of SMYD2 by RNAi in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines or inhibition of SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. SMYD2 executes this activity via methylation and activation of its novel non-histone substrates, including STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased TNBC cell proliferation and survival. There are cross-talk and synergistic effects among SMYD2, STAT3, and NF-κB in TNBC cells, in that STAT3 can contribute to the modification of NF-κB p65 subunit post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, whereas the p65 subunit of NF-κB can also contribute to the modification of STAT3 post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, leading to methylation and activation of STAT3 and p65 in these cells. The expression of SMYD2 can be upregulated by IL-6-STAT3 and TNFα-NF-κB signaling, which integrates epigenetic regulation to inflammation in TNBC development. In addition, we have identified a novel SMYD2 transcriptional target gene, PTPN13, which links SMYD2 to other known breast cancer associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling via PTPN13 mediated phosphorylation.

  14. The emerging role of histone lysine demethylases in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crea Francesco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early prostate cancer (PCa is generally treatable and associated with good prognosis. After a variable time, PCa evolves into a highly metastatic and treatment-refractory disease: castration-resistant PCa (CRPC. Currently, few prognostic factors are available to predict the emergence of CRPC, and no curative option is available. Epigenetic gene regulation has been shown to trigger PCa metastasis and androgen-independence. Most epigenetic studies have focused on DNA and histone methyltransferases. While DNA methylation leads to gene silencing, histone methylation can trigger gene activation or inactivation, depending on the target amino acid residues and the extent of methylation (me1, me2, or me3. Interestingly, some histone modifiers are essential for PCa tumor-initiating cell (TIC self-renewal. TICs are considered the seeds responsible for metastatic spreading and androgen-independence. Histone Lysine Demethylases (KDMs are a novel class of epigenetic enzymes which can remove both repressive and activating histone marks. KDMs are currently grouped into 7 major classes, each one targeting a specific methylation site. Since their discovery, KDM expression has been found to be deregulated in several neoplasms. In PCa, KDMs may act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes, depending on their gene regulatory function. For example, KDM1A and KDM4C are essential for PCa androgen-dependent proliferation, while PHF8 is involved in PCa migration and invasion. Interestingly, the possibility of pharmacologically targeting KDMs has been demonstrated. In the present paper, we summarize the emerging role of KDMs in regulating the metastatic potential and androgen-dependence of PCa. In addition, we speculate on the possible interaction between KDMs and other epigenetic effectors relevant for PCa TICs. Finally, we explore the role of KDMs as novel prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. We believe that studies on histone demethylation may add a

  15. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Schuch, Raymond

    2017-05-02

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC90) value of <= 0.25 mu g/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 mu g/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component.

  16. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Schuch, Raymond; Khan, Babar Khalid; Raz, Assaf; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Wittekind, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC90) value of <= 0.25 mu g/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 mu g/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component.

  17. Amorphous Silica-Promoted Lysine Dimerization: a Thermodynamic Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Nishiuchi, Kumiko; Nishii, Akari; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played a crucial role in the abiotic polymerization of amino acids that preceded the origin of life. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where the prebiotic process took place on the primitive Earth, because the amino acid-mineral interaction and its dependence on environmental conditions have yet to be understood adequately. Here we examined experimentally the adsorption of L-lysine (Lys) and its dimer (LysLys) on amorphous silica over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, adsorbate concentration, and the solid/water ratio, and determined the reaction stoichiometries and the equilibrium constants based on the extended triple-layer model (ETLM). The retrieved ETLM parameters were then used, in combination with the equilibrium constant for the peptide bond formation in bulk water, to calculate the Lys-LysLys equilibrium in the presence of amorphous silica under various aqueous conditions. Results showed that the silica surface favors Lys dimerization, and the influence varies greatly with changing environmental parameters. At slightly alkaline pH (pH 9) in the presence of a dilute NaCl (1 mM), the thermodynamically attainable LysLys from 0.1 mM Lys reached a concentration around 50 times larger than that calculated without silica. Because of the versatility of the ETLM, which has been applied to describe a wide variety of biomolecule-mineral interactions, future experiments with the reported methodology are expected to provide a significant constraint on the plausible geological settings for the condensation of monomers to polymers, and the subsequent chemical evolution of life.

  18. Characterization of Agronomy, Grain Physicochemical Quality, and Nutritional Property of High-Lysine 35R Transgenic Rice with Simultaneous Modification of Lysine Biosynthesis and Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingqing; Wu, Hongyu; Li, Qianfeng; Duan, Ruxu; Zhang, Changquan; Sun, Samuel Saiming; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2017-05-31

    Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice. We previously constructed a series of transgenic rice lines to enhance lysine biosynthesis (35S), down-regulate its catabolism (Ri), or simultaneously achieve both metabolic effects (35R). In this study, nine transgenic lines, three from each group, were selected for both field and animal feeding trials. The results showed that the transgene(s) caused no obvious effects on field performance and main agronomic traits. Mature seeds of transgenic line 35R-17 contained 48-60-fold more free lysine than in wild type and had slightly lower apparent amylose content and softer gel consistency. Moreover, a 35-day feeding experiment showed that the body weight gain, food efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio of rats fed the 35R-17 transgenic rice diet were improved when compared with those fed wild-type rice diet. These data will be useful for further evaluation and potential commercialization of 35R high-lysine transgenic rice.

  19. Genomic characterization of H1N2 swine influenza viruses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Chiapponi, Chiara; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Sozzi, Enrica; Foni, Emanuela; Barbieri, Ilaria; Zanoni, Maria Grazia; Faccini, Silvia; Lelli, Davide; Cordioli, Paolo

    2012-05-04

    Three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) are currently diffused worldwide in pigs. The H1N2 subtype was detected for the first time in Italian pigs in 1998. To investigate the genetic characteristics and the molecular evolution of this subtype in Italy, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences of 26 strains isolated from 1998 to 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of HA and NA genes showed differences between the older (1998-2003) and the more recent strains (2003-2010). The older isolates were closely related to the established European H1N2 lineage, whereas the more recent isolates possessed a different NA deriving from recent human H3N2 viruses. Two other reassortant H1N2 strains have been detected: A/sw/It/22530/02 has the HA gene that is closely related to H1N1 viruses; A/sw/It/58769/10 is an uncommon strain with an HA that is closely related to H1N1 and an NA similar to H3N2 SIVs. Amino acid analysis revealed interesting features: a deletion of two amino acids (146-147) in the HA gene of the recent isolates and two strains isolated in 1998; the presence of the uncommon aa change (N66S), in the PB1-F2 protein in strains isolated from 2009 to 2010, which is said to have contributed to the increased virulence. These results demonstrate the importance of pigs as mixing vessels for animal and human influenza and show the presence and establishment of reassortant strains involving human viruses in pigs in Italy. These findings also highlighted different genomic characteristics of the NA gene the recent Italian strains compared to circulating European viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Abundance of intrinsic structural disorder in the histone H1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The intrinsically disordered proteins consist of partially structured regions linked to the unstructured stretches, which consequently form the transient and dynamic conformational ensembles. They undergo disorder to order transition upon binding their partners. Intrinsic disorder is attributed to histones H1, perceived as assemblers of chromatin structure and the regulators of DNA and proteins activity. In this work, the comparison of intrinsic disorder abundance in the histone H1 subtypes was performed both by the analysis of their amino acid composition and by the prediction of disordered stretches, as well as by identifying molecular recognition features (MoRFs) and ANCHOR protein binding regions (APBR) that are responsible for recognition and binding. Both human and model organisms-animals, plants, fungi and protists-have H1 histone subtypes with the properties typical of disordered state. They possess a significantly higher content of hydrophilic and charged amino acid residues, arranged in the long regions, covering over half of the whole amino acid residues in chain. Almost complete disorder corresponds to histone H1 terminal domains, including MoRFs and ANCHOR. Those motifs were also identified in a more ordered histone H1 globular domain. Compared to the control (globular and fibrous) proteins, H1 histones demonstrate the increased folding rate and a higher proportion of low-complexity segments. The results of this work indicate that intrinsic disorder is an inherent structural property of histone H1 subtypes and it is essential for establishing a protein conformation which defines functional outcomes affecting on DNA- and/or partner protein-dependent cell processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase 1 study of pandemic H1 DNA vaccine in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Crank

    Full Text Available A novel, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus was detected worldwide in April 2009, and the World Health Organization (WHO declared a global pandemic that June. DNA vaccine priming improves responses to inactivated influenza vaccines. We describe the rapid production and clinical evaluation of a DNA vaccine encoding the hemagglutinin protein of the 2009 pandemic A/California/04/2009(H1N1 influenza virus, accomplished nearly two months faster than production of A/California/07/2009(H1N1 licensed monovalent inactivated vaccine (MIV.20 subjects received three H1 DNA vaccinations (4 mg intramuscularly with Biojector at 4-week intervals. Eighteen subjects received an optional boost when the licensed H1N1 MIV became available. The interval between the third H1 DNA injection and MIV boost was 3-17 weeks. Vaccine safety was assessed by clinical observation, laboratory parameters, and 7-day solicited reactogenicity. Antibody responses were assessed by ELISA, HAI and neutralization assays, and T cell responses by ELISpot and flow cytometry.Vaccinations were safe and well-tolerated. As evaluated by HAI, 6/20 developed positive responses at 4 weeks after third DNA injection and 13/18 at 4 weeks after MIV boost. Similar results were detected in neutralization assays. T cell responses were detected after DNA and MIV. The antibody responses were significantly amplified by the MIV boost, however, the boost did not increased T cell responses induced by DNA vaccine.H1 DNA vaccine was produced quickly, was well-tolerated, and had modest immunogenicity as a single agent. Other HA DNA prime-MIV boost regimens utilizing one DNA prime vaccination and longer boost intervals have shown significant immunogenicity. Rapid and large-scale production of HA DNA vaccines has the potential to contribute to an efficient response against future influenza pandemics.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00973895.

  2. Clinical profile and outcome of critically ill pregnant females with H1N1 influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Shastri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Record based review of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic suggests that pregnant women are at higher risk for hospitalization and death due to H1N1 Influenza. Aims To study the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill pregnant females admitted in intensive care unit (ICU with real-time recombinant polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR proven positive H1N1 cases. Methods A retrospective record-review based study was conducted at Sir SayajiRao General Hospital (SSGH and Medical College, Vadodara on data of confirmed rRT-PCR H1N1 pregnant females admitted during the pandemics of 2010and 2015. Demographics, clinical profile and laboratory investigations were recorded and outcomes (survived or expired were analysed. Results There were a total of 20 H1N1 positive pregnant females requiring ICU admission. With equal demographic distribution among rural and urban population, cough and fever were the most common presenting complaints. 65 per cent were in third trimester, the subgroup which also had the highest mortality. Mean days from onset until presentation was 5.05 days. 12 (60 per cent patients’ required invasive mode of ventilation and all died. Average hospital stay was 7 days. Foetus had favourable outcome in patients who recovered from H1N1 acute illness. Conclusion Pregnant females in our study had 60 per cent mortality. Thus, awareness, early diagnosis and treatment should be provided to them. Guidelines, policy changes and government protocols are required specifically for pregnant females with H1N1 Influenza A infection. Our study was an observational study and comparisons with non-pregnant females were not done, conclusions applicable to entire pregnant population was not derived.

  3. Lessons learned from H1N1 epidemic: The role of mass media in informing physicians

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    Jaleh Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preparedness and response at the time of pandemic range from writing programs to conducting procedures as well as informing the target population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of general practitioners in Tehran, at the time of H1N1 pan-demic. It also aimed to identify the main sources used for gathering information at each alert level. Methods: Two telephone surveys were conducted with a 4 month interval, at the beginning of H1N1 pandemic alert level 5 and 6, on 90 and 100 general practitioners, respectively. The knowledge of these physicians on the symptoms of H1N1 flu, the transmission methods, the preventative measures, and existing treatments along with the sources used for gathering information were assessed. Results: While mass media was the main source of gathering informa-tion in the H1N1 pandemic alert level 5, more professional sources were used at the H1N1 pandemic alert level 6. Despite the acceptable improvement noted in the knowledge of the physicians during the two phases of the study, their understanding of the disease was believed to be less than the expected level based on H1N1 pandemic alert level. Conclusions: The routine use of mass media as one of the main sources of information gathering at the two stages of the study points out its importance in providing physicians with the required informa-tion at the time of H1N1 pandemic. Using adequate, up-to-date, but non-specialized media can fill the gap in information gathering, re-quired for fighting pandemic.

  4. The Preventive Effect of L-Lysine on Lysozyme Glycation in Type 2 Diabetes

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    Hossein Mirmiranpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysozyme is a bactericidal enzyme whose structure and functions change in diabetes. Chemical chaperones are small molecules including polyamines (e.g. spermine, amino acids (e.g. L-lysine and polyols (e.g. glycerol. They can improve protein conformation in several stressful conditions such as glycation. In this study, the authors aimed to observe the effect of L-lysine as a chemical chaperone on structure and function of glycated lysozyme. In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of L-lysine on lysozyme glycation were investigated. Lysozyme was incubated with glucose and/or L-lysine, followed by an investigation of its structure by electrophoresis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy and also assessment of its bactericidal activity against M. lysodeikticus. In the clinical trial, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were randomly divided into two groups of 25 (test and control. All patients received metformin and glibenclamide for a three months period. The test group was supplemented with 3 g/day of L-lysine. The quantity and activity of lysozyme and other parameters were then measured. Among the test group, L-lysine was found to reduce the advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the sera of patients with T2DM and in vitro condition. This chemical chaperone reversed the alteration in lysozyme structure and function due to glycation and resulted in increased lysozyme activity. Structure and function of glycated lysozyme are significantly improved by l-lysine; therefore it can be considered an effective therapeutic supplementation in T2DM, decreasing the risk of infection in these patients.

  5. Inactivation of influenza A virus H1N1 by disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyo; Bae, Jung Eun; Kim, In Seop

    2010-06-01

    Because any patient, health care worker, or visitor is capable of transmitting influenza to susceptible persons within hospitals, hospital-acquired influenza has been a clinical concern. Disinfection and cleaning of medical equipment, surgical instruments, and hospital environment are important measures to prevent transmission of influenza virus from hospitals to individuals. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of disinfection processes, which can be easily operated at hospitals, in inactivating influenza A virus H1N1 (H1N1). The effects of 0.1 mol/L NaOH, 70% ethanol, 70% 1-propanol, solvent/detergent (S/D) using 0.3% tri (n-butyl)-phosphate and 1.0% Triton X-100, heat, and ethylene oxide (EO) treatments in inactivating H1N1 were determined. Inactivation of H1N1 was kinetically determined by the treatment of disinfectants to virus solution. Also, a surface test method, which involved drying an amount of virus on a surface and then applying the inactivation methods for 1 minute of contact time, was used to determine the virucidal activity. H1N1 was completely inactivated to undetectable levels in 1 minute of 70% ethanol, 70% 1-propanol, and solvent/detergent treatments in the surface tests as well as in the suspension tests. H1N1 was completely inactivated in 1 minute of 0.1 mol/L NaOH treatment in the suspension tests and also effectively inactivated in the surface tests with the log reduction factor of 3.7. H1N1 was inactivated to undetectable levels within 5 minutes, 2.5 minutes, and 1 minute of heat treatment at 70, 80, and 90 degrees C, respectively in the suspension tests. Also, H1N1 was completely inactivated by EO treatment in the surface tests. Common disinfectants, heat, and EO tested in this study were effective at inactivating H1N1. These results would be helpful in implementing effective disinfecting measures to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Copyright 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc

  6. Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, Nicolás; Karlsson, Erik A; Jimenez-Bluhm, Pedro; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Kaplan, Bryan; Marvin, Shauna; Cortez, Valerie; Freiden, Pamela; Beck, Melinda A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo and transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Antigenically, it was distinct from other swine viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition analysis suggested that antibody titers to the swine Chilean H1N2 virus were decreased in persons born after 1990. Further studies are needed to characterize the potential risk to humans, as well as the ecology of influenza in swine in South America.

  7. New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus in a Young Man with H1N1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report a case of refractory status epilepticus (SE as an unusual early manifestation of H1N1 influenza infection. Introduction. H1N1 neurological complications have been reported and consist mainly of seizures or encephalopathy occurring in children. However, we only found a single report of an adult developing complex partial SE with H1N1 infection. Case Report. A 21-year-old previously healthy man was brought to the emergency room (ER after a witnessed generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS. He was fully alert and afebrile upon ER arrival, but a second GTCS prompted treatment with Lorazepam and Fosphenytoin. The initial EEG showed diffuse slowing, but a repeat one requested as the patient failed to regain consciousness revealed recurrent focal seizures of independent bihemispheric origin, fulfilling the criteria for nonconvulsive SE. Chest X-ray, followed by chest CT scan, showed a left upper lobe consolidation. H1N1 infection was confirmed with PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage material. Despite aggressive treatment with Midazolam, Propofol, and multiple high dose antiepileptic drugs, the electrographic seizures recurred at every attempt to reduce the intravenous sedative drugs. The patient died two weeks after his initial presentation. Conclusion. H1N1 should be added to the list of rare causes of refractory SE, regardless of the patient’s age.

  8. Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5-10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established

  10. Binding of histone H1 to DNA is differentially modulated by redox state of HMGB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Polanská

    Full Text Available HMGB1 is an architectural protein in chromatin, acting also as a signaling molecule outside the cell. Recent reports from several laboratories provided evidence that a number of both the intracellular and extracellular functions of HMGB1 may depend on redox-sensitive cysteine residues of the protein. In this study we demonstrate that redox state of HMGB1 can significantly modulate the ability of the protein to bind and bend DNA, as well as to promote DNA end-joining. We also report a high affinity binding of histone H1 to hemicatenated DNA loops and DNA minicircles. Finally, we show that reduced HMGB1 can readily displace histone H1 from DNA, while oxidized HMGB1 has limited capacity for H1 displacement. Our results suggested a novel mechanism for the HMGB1-mediated modulation of histone H1 binding to DNA. Possible biological consequences of linker histones H1 replacement by HMGB1 for the functioning of chromatin are discussed.

  11. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-15

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established.

  12. Effect of different levels of lysine in the diet of broilers on the metabolism of /sup 35/S-methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanchev, Kh; Venkov, T; Dzharova, M [Akademiya na Selskostopanskite Nauki, Sofia-Kostinbrod (Bulgaria). Inst. po Zhivotnovydstvo

    1974-01-01

    The lack of balance of the ration with respect to lysine leads to a decrease in the rate of incorporation of /sup 35/S-methionine in the liver, pancreas, kidney and femoral muscle. Most intensive protein synthesis in the liver of chickens is observed in the group receiving ration balanced with respect to lysine while in the case of a deficiency or excess of lysine the protein biosynthesis drops. The deficiency or excess of lysine leads to an increase in the excretion rate and decreases the assimilability of radioactive methionine in the chickens organisms. (INIS)

  13. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  14. Effect of varying dietary concentrations of lysine on growth performance of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogoju, S; Nahashon, S N; Donkor, J; Kimathi, B; Johnson, D; Khwatenge, C; Bowden-Taylor, T

    2017-05-01

    Lysine is the second limiting essential amino acid in poultry nutrition after methionine. Understanding the lysine requirement of poultry is necessary in guiding formulation of least cost diets that effectively meet the nutritional needs of individual birds. The lysine requirement of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl (PGGF) is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the appropriate lysine levels required for optimal growth attributes of the PGGF. In a 12-week study, 512 one-day-old Pearl Grey guinea keets were weighed individually and randomly assigned to electrically heated battery brooders. Each battery contained 12 compartments housing 15 birds each. Eight diets fed to the experimental birds consisted of corn-soybean meal and contained 0.80 to 1.22 digestible lysine in 0.06% increments. Feed and water were provided at free choice and the diets were replicated twice. Experimental diets contained 3,100 Kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet and 23% crude protein (CP), 3,150 ME Kcal ME/kg diet and 21% CP, and 3,100 ME/kg and 17% CP, at zero to 4, 5 to 10, and 11 to 12 weeks of age (WOA), respectively. Birds were provided water ad libitum and a 23:1 and 8:16-hr (light:dark) regimen at zero to 8 and 9 to 12 WOA, respectively. Birds were weighed weekly, and body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversions were determined. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS (2002) with dietary lysine as treatment effect. Females responded better to diets containing 1.04 and 0.8% lysine from hatch to 4 and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Males responded better to diets containing 1.10 and 0.8% lysine at hatch to 4 WOA and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that PGGF females and males be fed diets containing 1.04 and 1.10%, respectively, at hatch to 4 WOA and 0.80% lysine at 5 to 12 WOA. The diets should be supplied in phases. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Mongrelised genetics of H1N1 virus: A bird′s eyeview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 influenza, also known as "novel H1N1 virus" has led to a "global outcry." This virus is more virulent when compared with other seasonal flu viruses. Virulence may change as the adaptive mutation gene increases within the virus. A study at the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain as they showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction when compared with adults aged 18-64 years, who showed a cross-reactive antibody reaction of 6-9% and older adults with 33% immunity. This review article depicts H1N1 virus, its virulence with genetic evolution potential and preventive protocol for the dental professionals. This would allow us to comprehend the changes in the disease process and contribute in its prevention as "prevention is better than cure."

  16. A reference genome and methylome for the Plasmodium knowlesi A1-H.1 line

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest Diez

    2017-12-16

    Plasmodium knowlesi, a common parasite of macaques, is recognized as a significant cause of human malaria in Malaysia. The P. knowlesi A1H1 line has been adapted to continuous culture in human erythrocytes, successfully providing an in vitro model to study the parasite. We have assembled a reference genome for the PkA1-H.1 line using PacBio long read combined with Illumina short read sequence data. Compared with the H-strain reference, the new reference has improved genome coverage and a novel description of methylation sites. The PkA1-H.1 reference will enhance the capabilities of the in vitro model to improve the understanding of P. knowlesi infection in humans.

  17. Examination of human brain tumors in situ with image-localized H-1 MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, P.R.; Segebarth, C.; Baleriaux, D.; Den Hollander, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Human brain tumors were examined in situ by combined imaging and H-1 MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Water-suppressed localized H-1 MR spectra obtained from the brains of normal volunteers show resonances from lactate, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, and choline. Several patients suffering from different brain tumors were examined, showing spectral changes in the region of 0.5-1.5 ppm; spectral editing showed that these changes were not due to lactic acid, but to lipid signals. The NAA signal was decreased in the tumors as compared with normal brain. This study shows that H-1 MR spectroscopy can monitor submillimolar changes in chemical composition of human brain tumors in situ

  18. Measurement and QCD Interpretation of the Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering Cross Section by H1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron proton collisions are a straightforward tool to study the QCD dynamics between quarks and gluons in the proton. A recent measurement and QCD analysis of the deep inelastic scattering cross section by the H1 experiment at HERA are presented. In a NLO QCD analysis of H1 structure function data, the gluon distribution in the proton is extracted to typically 3% experimental accuracy at low Bjorken x.. In a combined analysis of H1 and high precision µp data by the CERN muon experiment BCDMS, the gluon distribution at low x and the strong coupling constant as were for the first time extracted simultaneously.The strong coupling constant is determined with about 1% experimental accuracy, and QCD at NLO is confirmed over 5 orders of magnitude of Bjorken x at a new level of precision.

  19. Geophysical investigation of the 116-H-1 liquid waste disposal trench, 100-HR-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.

    1996-04-01

    A geophysical investigation and data integration were conducted for the 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, which is located in the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench is also known as the 107-H Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, the 107-H Rupture Effluent Trench, and the 107-H Trench (Deford and Einan 1995). The trench was primarily used to hold effluent from the 107-H Retention Basin that had become radioactive from contact with ruptured fuel elements. The effluent may include debris from the ruptured fuel elements (Koop 1964). The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench was also used to hold water and sludge from the 107-H Retention Basin during the basin's deactivation in 1965

  20. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  1. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  2. A reference genome and methylome for the Plasmodium knowlesi A1-H.1 line

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest Diez; de Sessions, Paola Florez; Moon, Robert W.; Grainger, Munira; Holder, Anthony A; Blackman, Michael J.; Roper, Cally; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Pain, Arnab; Sutherland, Colin J.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi, a common parasite of macaques, is recognized as a significant cause of human malaria in Malaysia. The P. knowlesi A1H1 line has been adapted to continuous culture in human erythrocytes, successfully providing an in vitro model to study the parasite. We have assembled a reference genome for the PkA1-H.1 line using PacBio long read combined with Illumina short read sequence data. Compared with the H-strain reference, the new reference has improved genome coverage and a novel description of methylation sites. The PkA1-H.1 reference will enhance the capabilities of the in vitro model to improve the understanding of P. knowlesi infection in humans.

  3. Effect of exogenous CNT on kinetics of 3H-lysine in haerbin white rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dengke; Zan Linsen; Liu Yongfeng

    2007-01-01

    Haerbin White rabbits was used as testimonial and trace kinetics and radioimmunoassay and other techniques were used to study the distribution, transportation and metabolism of 3 H-Lysine in the animal. The metabolic kinetics of 3 H-Lysine could be described by the follows equation: (Y-circumflex) (t) =983.6281e -0.021935t + 1773.9999e -0.083932t - 983.6281e -0.432590t - 0773.9999e -0.050399t + 300.2820. Experimental results showed that 3 H-Lysine was accumulated mainly in kidney, heart, liver, spleen and muscle in check group; accumulated mainly in muscle, stomach, liver, heart and genitalia in cAMP treated group; accumulated in bladder, muscle, lung and intestine in cGMP treated group; and accumulated mainly in muscle, bladder, genitalia an fat in cAMP + cGMP treated group, respectively. The distribution of 3 H-Lysine was of evidently variations being treated with exogenous CNT. The results indicated that the distribution, transportation and metabolism of 3 H-Lysine were significantly affected by exogenous CNT in the Haerbin White rabbit. (authors)

  4. Detection of DNA and poly-l-lysine using CVD graphene-channel FET biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakatkar, Aniket; Craighead, H G; Abhilash, T S; Alba, R De; Parpia, J M

    2015-01-01

    A graphene channel field-effect biosensor is demonstrated for detecting the binding of double-stranded DNA and poly-l-lysine. Sensors consist of chemical vapor deposition graphene transferred using a clean, etchant-free transfer method. The presence of DNA and poly-l-lysine are detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor. A readily measured shift in the Dirac voltage (the voltage at which the graphene’s resistance peaks) is observed after the graphene channel is exposed to solutions containing DNA or poly-l-lysine. The ‘Dirac voltage shift’ is attributed to the binding/unbinding of charged molecules on the graphene surface. The polarity of the response changes to positive direction with poly-l-lysine and negative direction with DNA. This response results in detection limits of 8 pM for 48.5 kbp DNA and 11 pM for poly-l-lysine. The biosensors are easy to fabricate, reusable and are promising as sensors of a wide variety of charged biomolecules. (paper)

  5. Critical lysine residues of Klf4 required for protein stabilization and degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Kim, So-Ra; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Baek, Kwang-Hyun, E-mail: baek@cha.ac.kr

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Klf4 undergoes the 26S proteasomal degradation by ubiquitination on its multiple lysine residues. • Essential Klf4 ubiquitination sites are accumulated between 190–263 amino acids. • A mutation of lysine at 232 on Klf4 elongates protein turnover. • Klf4 mutants dramatically suppress p53 expression both under normal and UV irradiated conditions. - Abstract: The transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) plays a crucial role in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). As the ubiquitination and degradation of the Klf4 protein have been suggested to play an important role in its function, the identification of specific lysine sites that are responsible for protein degradation is of prime interest to improve protein stability and function. However, the molecular mechanism regulating proteasomal degradation of the Klf4 is poorly understood. In this study, both the analysis of Klf4 ubiquitination sites using several Klf4 deletion fragments and bioinformatics predictions showed that the lysine sites which are signaling for Klf4 protein degradation lie in its N-terminal domain (aa 1–296). The results also showed that Lys32, 52, 232, and 252 of Klf4 are responsible for the proteolysis of the Klf4 protein. These results suggest that Klf4 undergoes proteasomal degradation and that these lysine residues are critical for Klf4 ubiquitination.

  6. Studies of lysine cyclodeaminase from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis: Insights into the complex transition NAD+ state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hanxiao; Wang, Jing; Shi, Ting; Zhao, Yilei; Wang, Xin; Ouyang, Pingkai; Chen, Kequan

    2018-01-01

    Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes the piperidine ring formation in macrolide-pipecolate natural products metabolic pathways from a lysine substrate through a combination of cyclization and deamination. This enzyme belongs to a unique enzyme class, which uses NAD + as the catalytic prosthetic group instead of as the co-substrate. To understand the molecular details of NAD + functions in lysine cyclodeaminase, we have determined four ternary crystal structure complexes of LCD-NAD + with pipecolic acid (LCD-PA), lysine (LCD-LYS), and an intermediate (LCD-INT) as ligands at 2.26-, 2.00-, 2.17- and 1.80 Å resolutions, respectively. By combining computational studies, a NAD + -mediated "gate keeper" function involving NAD + /NADH and Arg49 that control the binding and entry of the ligand lysine was revealed, confirming the critical roles of NAD + in the substrate access process. Further, in the gate opening form, a substrate delivery tunnel between ε-carboxyl moiety of Glu264 and the α-carboxyl moiety of Asp236 was observed through a comparison of four structure complexes. The LCD structure details including NAD + -mediated "gate keeper" and substrate tunnel may assist in the exploration the NAD + function in this unique enzyme class, and in regulation of macrolide-pipecolate natural product synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial activity of a newly developed peptide-modified lysin against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eYang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1–8 (KWKLFKKI with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied. PlyA showed good and broad antibacterial activities against logarithmic phase A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, but much reduced activities against the cells in stationary phase. Addition of outer membrane permeabilizers (EDTA and citric acid could enhance the antibacterial activity of PlyA against stationary phase cells. Finally, no antibacterial activity of PlyA could be observed in some bio-matrices, such as culture media, milk, and sera. In conclusion, we reported here a novel peptide-modified lysin with significant antibacterial activity against both logarithmic (without OMPs and stationary phase (with OMPs A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa cells in buffer, but further optimization is needed to achieve broad activity in diverse bio-matrices.

  8. SucStruct: Prediction of succinylated lysine residues by using structural properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Michaelson, Jacob; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2017-06-15

    Post-Translational Modification (PTM) is a biological reaction which contributes to diversify the proteome. Despite many modifications with important roles in cellular activity, lysine succinylation has recently emerged as an important PTM mark. It alters the chemical structure of lysines, leading to remarkable changes in the structure and function of proteins. In contrast to the huge amount of proteins being sequenced in the post-genome era, the experimental detection of succinylated residues remains expensive, inefficient and time-consuming. Therefore, the development of computational tools for accurately predicting succinylated lysines is an urgent necessity. To date, several approaches have been proposed but their sensitivity has been reportedly poor. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes structural features of amino acids to improve lysine succinylation prediction. Succinylated and non-succinylated lysines were first retrieved from 670 proteins and characteristics such as accessible surface area, backbone torsion angles and local structure conformations were incorporated. We used the k-nearest neighbors cleaning treatment for dealing with class imbalance and designed a pruned decision tree for classification. Our predictor, referred to as SucStruct (Succinylation using Structural features), proved to significantly improve performance when compared to previous predictors, with sensitivity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient equal to 0.7334-0.7946, 0.7444-0.7608 and 0.4884-0.5240, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of Digestible Lysine Requirements of Japanese Quail during the Starter Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashoori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the estimation of digestible lysine requirements of Japanese quail during the 7-21d period. Graduation level of L-lysine.HCL were added to the basal diet at the expense of corn starch to create different levels of digestible lysine ranged from 0.75 to 1.35% of diet. Growth performance and carcass composition were evaluated during the experiment. The results showed that incremental levels of digestible lysine significantly affected the body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed intake (FI, breast meat yield (BMY and thigh meat yield (TMY. Either linear broken- line or quadratic broken line model were used to get break points of digestible lysine as a requirement. Based on linear broken line analysis, the break points for FCR and BMY were 0.99 and 1.04 % of diet, respectively. Using the quadratic broken-line model, the estimated Lys requirements for BWG, FCR, and BMY were 1.11, 1.04, and 1.15% of diet, respectively. The results showed that the Lys needs for optimum BMY was higher than BWG and FCR.

  10. Effect of Selected Plant Extracts and D- and L-Lysine on the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Lürling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested extracts from Fructus mume, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Moringa oleifera as well as L-lysine and D-Lysine as curative measures to rapidly suppress the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIVA-CYA 43. We tested these compounds under similar conditions to facilitate comparisons. We hypothesized that for each compound, relatively low concentrations—i.e., 5–50 mg L−1, would reduce M. aeruginosa biomass. At these low concentrations, only L-lysine caused a decline in M. aeruginosa biomass at ≥4.3 mg L−1. F. mume extract was effective to do so at high concentrations, i.e., at ≥240 mg L−1, but the others were virtually non-effective. Low pH caused by organic acids is a probable explanation for the effect of F. mume extract. No complete wipe-outs of the experimental population were achieved as Photosystem II efficiency showed a recovery after six days. L-lysine may be effective at low concentrations—meaning low material costs. However, the effect of L-lysine seems relatively short-lived. Overall, the results of our study did not support the use of the tested plant extracts and amino-acid as promising candidates for curative application in M. aeruginosa bloom control.

  11. Purification and properties of fructosyl lysine oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum S-1F4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Yoshida, N; Isogai, A; Tani, Y; Kato, N

    1995-03-01

    Fructosyl lysine oxidase (FLOD) was examined for its use in the enzymatic measurement of the level of glycated albumin in blood serum. To isolate microorganisms having such an enzyme activity, we used N epsilon-fructosyl N alpha-Z-lysine (epsilon-FL) as a sole nitrogen source in the enrichment culture medium. The isolated fungus, strain S-1F4, showed a high FLOD activity in the cell-free extract and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. FLOD was purified to an apparent homogeneity on SDS-PAGE. The molecular mass of the subunit was 50 kDa on SDS-PAGE and seemed to exist in a monomeric form. The enzyme had an absorption spectrum characteristic of a flavoprotein and the flavin was found to be covalently bound to the enzyme. The enzyme acted against N epsilon-fructosyl N alpha-Z-lysine and N alpha-fructosyl N epsilon-Z-lysine and showed specificity for fructosyl lysine residues.

  12. Effect of the novel influenza A (H1N1 virus in the human immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pandemic by the novel H1N1 virus has created the need to study any probable effects of that infection in the immune system of the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood was sampled within the first two days of the presentation of signs of infection from 10 healthy volunteers; from 18 cases of flu-like syndrome; and from 31 cases of infection by H1N1 confirmed by reverse RT-PCR. Absolute counts of subtypes of monocytes and of lymphocytes were determined after staining with monoclonal antibodies and analysis by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from patients and stimulated with various bacterial stimuli. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (FN-alpha and of IFN-gamma were estimated in supernatants by an enzyme immunoassay. Infection by H1N1 was accompanied by an increase of monocytes. PBMCs of patients evoked strong cytokine production after stimulation with most of bacterial stimuli. Defective cytokine responses were shown in response to stimulation with phytohemagglutin and with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adaptive immune responses of H1N1-infected patients were characterized by decreases of CD4-lymphocytes and of B-lymphocytes and by increase of T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infection by the H1N1 virus is accompanied by a characteristic impairment of the innate immune responses characterized by defective cytokine responses to S.pneumoniae. Alterations of the adaptive immune responses are predominated by increase of Tregs. These findings signify a predisposition for pneumococcal infections after infection by H1N1 influenza.

  13. Effect of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in the human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Raftogiannis, Maria; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Baziaka, Fotini; Koutoukas, Pantelis; Savva, Athina; Kanni, Theodora; Georgitsi, Marianna; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Tsaganos, Thomas; Pelekanos, Nikolaos; Athanassia, Sofia; Galani, Labrini; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Kavatha, Dimitra; Kontopidou, Flora; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Poulakou, Garyfallia; Sakka, Vissaria; Panagopoulos, Periklis; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kanellakopoulou, Kyriaki; Giamarellou, Helen

    2009-12-23

    The pandemic by the novel H1N1 virus has created the need to study any probable effects of that infection in the immune system of the host. Blood was sampled within the first two days of the presentation of signs of infection from 10 healthy volunteers; from 18 cases of flu-like syndrome; and from 31 cases of infection by H1N1 confirmed by reverse RT-PCR. Absolute counts of subtypes of monocytes and of lymphocytes were determined after staining with monoclonal antibodies and analysis by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from patients and stimulated with various bacterial stimuli. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (FN)-alpha and of IFN-gamma were estimated in supernatants by an enzyme immunoassay. Infection by H1N1 was accompanied by an increase of monocytes. PBMCs of patients evoked strong cytokine production after stimulation with most of bacterial stimuli. Defective cytokine responses were shown in response to stimulation with phytohemagglutin and with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adaptive immune responses of H1N1-infected patients were characterized by decreases of CD4-lymphocytes and of B-lymphocytes and by increase of T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs). Infection by the H1N1 virus is accompanied by a characteristic impairment of the innate immune responses characterized by defective cytokine responses to S.pneumoniae. Alterations of the adaptive immune responses are predominated by increase of Tregs. These findings signify a predisposition for pneumococcal infections after infection by H1N1 influenza.

  14. Sensitive and selective magnetoimmunosensing platform for determination of the food allergen Ara h 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, V. Ruiz-Valdepeñas; Campuzano, S.; Pellicanò, A.; Torrente-Rodríguez, R.M.; Reviejo, A.J.; Cosio, M.S.; Pingarrón, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for Ara h 1 determination. • Sensitive and selective detection of Ara h 1 in 2 h. • LOD of 6.3 ng mL −1 . • Determinations in food extracts and saliva. • Potential applicability in food safety and consumer protection. - Abstract: A highly sensitive disposable amperometric immunosensor based on the use of magnetic beads (MBs) is described for determination of Ara h 1, the major peanut allergen, in only 2 h. The approach uses a sandwich configuration involving selective capture and biotinylated detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified MBs (HOOC-MBs). The MBs bearing the immunoconjugates are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and the affinity reactions are monitored amperometrically at −0.20 V (vs a Ag pseudo-reference electrode) in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and upon addition of H 2 O 2 as the enzyme substrate. The developed immunosensor exhibits a wide range of linearity between 20.8 and 1000.0 ng mL −1 Ara h 1, a detection limit of 6.3 ng mL −1 , a great selectivity, a good reproducibility with a RSD of 6.3% for six different immunosensors and a useful lifetime of 25 days. The usefulness of the immunosensor was demonstrated by determining Ara h 1 in different matrices (food extracts and saliva). The results correlated properly with those provided by a commercial ELISA method offering a reliable and promising analytical screening tool in the development of user-friendly devices for on-site determination of Ara h 1

  15. Neuronal Antibodies in Children with or without Narcolepsy following H1N1-AS03 Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Thebault

    Full Text Available Type 1 narcolepsy is caused by deficiency of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin. An autoimmune basis is suspected, but no specific antibodies, either causative or as biomarkers, have been identified. However, the AS03 adjuvanted split virion H1N1 (H1N1-AS03 vaccine, created to protect against the 2009 Pandemic, has been implicated as a trigger of narcolepsy particularly in children. Sera and CSFs from 13 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated patients (12 children, 1 young adult with type 1 narcolepsy were tested for autoantibodies to known neuronal antigens including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2, both associated with encephalopathies that include disordered sleep, to rodent brain tissue including the lateral hypothalamus, and to live hippocampal neurons in culture. When sufficient sample was available, CSF levels of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH were measured. Sera from 44 H1N1-ASO3-vaccinated children without narcolepsy were also examined. None of these patients' CSFs or sera was positive for NMDAR or CASPR2 antibodies or binding to neurons; 4/13 sera bound to orexin-neurons in rat brain tissue, but also to other neurons. MCH levels were a marginally raised (n = 8; p = 0.054 in orexin-deficient narcolepsy patients compared with orexin-normal children (n = 6. In the 44 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated healthy children, there was no rise in total IgG levels or in CASPR2 or NMDAR antibodies three weeks following vaccination. In conclusion, there were no narcolepsy-specific autoantibodies identified in type 1 narcolepsy sera or CSFs, and no evidence for a general increase in immune reactivity following H1N1-AS03 vaccination in the healthy children. Antibodies to other neuronal specific membrane targets, with their potential for directing use of immunotherapies, are still an important goal for future research.

  16. Neuronal Antibodies in Children with or without Narcolepsy following H1N1-AS03 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Simon; Waters, Patrick; Snape, Matthew D; Cottrell, Dominic; Darin, Niklas; Hallböök, Tove; Huutoniemi, Anne; Partinen, Markku; Pollard, Andrew J; Vincent, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is caused by deficiency of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin. An autoimmune basis is suspected, but no specific antibodies, either causative or as biomarkers, have been identified. However, the AS03 adjuvanted split virion H1N1 (H1N1-AS03) vaccine, created to protect against the 2009 Pandemic, has been implicated as a trigger of narcolepsy particularly in children. Sera and CSFs from 13 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated patients (12 children, 1 young adult) with type 1 narcolepsy were tested for autoantibodies to known neuronal antigens including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), both associated with encephalopathies that include disordered sleep, to rodent brain tissue including the lateral hypothalamus, and to live hippocampal neurons in culture. When sufficient sample was available, CSF levels of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were measured. Sera from 44 H1N1-ASO3-vaccinated children without narcolepsy were also examined. None of these patients' CSFs or sera was positive for NMDAR or CASPR2 antibodies or binding to neurons; 4/13 sera bound to orexin-neurons in rat brain tissue, but also to other neurons. MCH levels were a marginally raised (n = 8; p = 0.054) in orexin-deficient narcolepsy patients compared with orexin-normal children (n = 6). In the 44 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated healthy children, there was no rise in total IgG levels or in CASPR2 or NMDAR antibodies three weeks following vaccination. In conclusion, there were no narcolepsy-specific autoantibodies identified in type 1 narcolepsy sera or CSFs, and no evidence for a general increase in immune reactivity following H1N1-AS03 vaccination in the healthy children. Antibodies to other neuronal specific membrane targets, with their potential for directing use of immunotherapies, are still an important goal for future research.

  17. Household transmission of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Behnaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objectives: The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus is a public health challenge. Notably, laboratory-confirmed cases do not represent the age group most susceptible to infection. To characterize the age distribution of all cases of H1N1 influenza, we studied the personal contacts of confirmed cases to identify the age group at the highest risk. Methods: We investigated the family members of 162 laboratory-confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 in Yazd, Iran. Family members were retrospectively asked whether they had ≥2 respiratory symptoms within 7 days of the last contact with the associated index cases. The ages and symptoms of the patients as well as the interval between diagnosis and the onset of symptoms among household contacts were determined using a questionnaire. Results: We identified 596 family members of index cases, 83 (13.9% of whom developed acute respiratory illness. No acute respiratory illness was found in 104 families (64%; however, there were 2 cases in 15 families (9.3% and ≥3 cases in 4 families (24%. Household contacts from 5 to 18 years old were more susceptible to acute respiratory illness than those who were ≥51 years old (RR = 3.174, 95% CI 1.313–7.675 P-value = 0.01. Conclusion: Individuals ≤18 years old were most susceptible to infection by the H1N1 virus. Therefore, in low-income populations, prevention of the spread of H1N1 to this age group should be emphasized. Keywords: Household transmission, 2009 Influenza A (H1N1 virus

  18. [Study on genetic instability of nm23H1 gene in Chinese with original gallbladder tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai Ying; Zhang, Guo Qiang; Li, Ji Cheng

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of locus D17S396 on chromosome 17 and their influence on the expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder tumors, which may provide experimental basis for the tumor occurrence and metastasis. Techniques such as DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), ordinary silver stain were used to study MSI and LOH of locus D17S396. Envision immunohistochemistry and Leica-Qwin computer imaging techniques were used to assess the expression of gene nm23H1. In our experiment, the frequency of genetic instability of malignant gallbladder tumors was 42.55%, which was higher than that of gallbladder adenomas, while there were no genetic instability occurred in chronic cholecystitis tissue. The frequency of LOH seemed higher with the deteriorism of gallbladder tumor. Among 47 gallbladder carcinomas, the frequency of LOH and MSI were different between different differentiation cases (P gallbladder carcinoma, gallbladder adenoma and chronic cholecystitis tissue were different (P gallbladder carcinomas, the positive frequency of nm23H1 protein in LOH positive group was lower than that of LOH negative group (P gallbladder tumor. Both MSI and LOH of nm23H1 gene controlled the development of gallbladder tumor independently in different paths. MSI may be an early stage molecule marker of gallbladder carcinoma. LOH may be molecule marker for the deteriorism of gallbladder tissue, which could inhibit the expression of nm23H1 in local tissue of gallbladder carcinoma and endow it with high aggressive and poor prognosis. Increasing the amount of nm23H1 protein expression could effectively restrain gallbladder carcinoma metastasis and improve prognosis of patients.

  19. Sensitive and selective magnetoimmunosensing platform for determination of the food allergen Ara h 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, V. Ruiz-Valdepeñas, E-mail: victor_lega90@hotmail.com [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Campuzano, S., E-mail: susanacr@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pellicanò, A., E-mail: alessandro.pellicano@unimi.it [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DEFENS), University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Torrente-Rodríguez, R.M., E-mail: rebeca.magnolia@gmail.com [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Reviejo, A.J., E-mail: reviejo@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cosio, M.S., E-mail: stella.cosio@unimi.it [Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DEFENS), University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pingarrón, J.M., E-mail: pingarro@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-23

    Highlights: • First amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for Ara h 1 determination. • Sensitive and selective detection of Ara h 1 in 2 h. • LOD of 6.3 ng mL{sup −1}. • Determinations in food extracts and saliva. • Potential applicability in food safety and consumer protection. - Abstract: A highly sensitive disposable amperometric immunosensor based on the use of magnetic beads (MBs) is described for determination of Ara h 1, the major peanut allergen, in only 2 h. The approach uses a sandwich configuration involving selective capture and biotinylated detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified MBs (HOOC-MBs). The MBs bearing the immunoconjugates are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and the affinity reactions are monitored amperometrically at −0.20 V (vs a Ag pseudo-reference electrode) in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and upon addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the enzyme substrate. The developed immunosensor exhibits a wide range of linearity between 20.8 and 1000.0 ng mL{sup −1} Ara h 1, a detection limit of 6.3 ng mL{sup −1}, a great selectivity, a good reproducibility with a RSD of 6.3% for six different immunosensors and a useful lifetime of 25 days. The usefulness of the immunosensor was demonstrated by determining Ara h 1 in different matrices (food extracts and saliva). The results correlated properly with those provided by a commercial ELISA method offering a reliable and promising analytical screening tool in the development of user-friendly devices for on-site determination of Ara h 1.

  20. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection during pregnancy in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, Angsumita; Rathore, Swati; Peter, John V; Moorthy, Mahesh; Lionel, Jessie

    2011-04-01

    To assess the clinical profile of pregnant/puerperal women from a semi-urban Indian population who were infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus (P[H1N1]2009v) and to evaluate their outcome. In a cross-sectional study, 566 women (79 pregnant/puerperal, 487 nonpregnant) who presented to a tertiary care hospital with influenza-like illness were tested for P(H1N1)2009v by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes measures were the maternal mortality and the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). Twenty (25%) pregnant/puerperal and 144 (30%) nonpregnant women tested positive for P(H1N1)2009v, with 5 pregnant and 3 postpartum women requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). P(H1N1)2009v-related mortality was higher in pregnant than nonpregnant women (25% versus 8%; P=0.04). In the pregnant/puerperal cohort, factors associated with death included delayed presentation (median 6days versus 1.5days in survivors; P=0.007), need for ICU admission (P=0.004), need for ventilation (P=0.001), and renal failure (P=0.001). The PMR was 55.5/1000 births compared with 33.5/1000 births in the hospital overall during the study period. In a low-income country, P(H1N1)2009v infection in pregnancy is associated with considerable mortality. Delayed presentation to a tertiary care center, lack of awareness, and restricted access to treatment might have contributed to the high mortality. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How Does Influenza A (H1N1 Infection Proceed in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Civriz Bozdağ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical course of H1N1 infection in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT patients is contraversial. We report three AHSCT patients who were infected with Influenza A/H1N1 infection. All of the patients were diagnosed with different hematological diagnosis and were at different stages of transplantation.All of them were treated with oseltamivir,zanamivir was switched with oseltamivir in one patient. All of the three patients were survived without any complication. Swine flu, can display with different courses and progress with bacterial or other viral infections in immunsupressed patients.

  2. Beam tests and calibration of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Ban, J.; Barrelet, E.

    1994-03-01

    Results are presented on the energy calibration of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter modules with electrons from a test beam in the energy range of 3.7 GeV to 80 GeV. The method to determine the calibration for the H1 experiment from these measurements by the use of detailed simulations is described. Various systematic checks of this calibration are given. The calorimeter response is uniform in space within ±1% and linear with energy within ±1%. An average energy resolution of about 11.5%/√(E[GeV]) is achieved. (orig.)

  3. Histamine H1 receptors are expressed in mouse and frog semicircular canal sensory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Laura; Tritto, Simona; Perin, Paola; Laforenza, Umberto; Gastaldi, Giulia; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Gianpiero; Valli, Stefano; Masetto, Sergio; Valli, Paolo

    2008-03-05

    Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. Their site and mechanism of action, however, are still poorly understood. To increase our knowledge of the histaminergic system in the vestibular organs, we have investigated the expression of H1 and H3 histamine receptors in the frog and mouse semicircular canal sensory epithelia. Analysis was performed by mRNA reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry experiments. Our data show that both frog and mouse vestibular epithelia express H1 receptors. Conversely no clear evidence for H3 receptors expression was found.

  4. Treating Clinical Depression with Repetitive Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using the Brainsway H1-coil

    OpenAIRE

    Feifel, David; Pappas, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging non-pharmacological approach to treating many brain-based disorders. rTMS uses electromagnetic coils to stimulate areas of the brain non-invasively. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) with the Brainsway H1-coil system specifically is a type of rTMS indicated for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are resistant to medication. The unique H1-coil design of this device is able to stimulate neuron...

  5. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  6. Clinical characteristics of acute encephalopathies associated with influenza H1N1-2009 in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yashihiro; Tsuji, Megumi; Sameshima, Kiyoko; Wada, Takahito; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Hayashi, Takuya; Aida, Noriko; Osaka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We report 12 cases of acute encephalopathy associated with influenza H1N1-2009 treated according to Japanese guideline (2009). In all 12 cases, electroencephalogram presented diffuse or localized high-amplitude slow waves. Brain CT and MRI showed abnormalities in 4 and 6 cases, respectively. We used hypothermia therapy for 5 patients. One patient showed impairment in short term memory, while the rest of the patients showed no sequelae. These 12 cases presented here suggest the early recognition and therapy according to the newly proposed guideline may reduce severe sequelae and mortality by acute encephalopathy associated with influenza H1N1-2009. (author)

  7. The Influenza Virus and the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 APR 2016 1. Your paper, entitled The Influenza Virus and the 2009 HlNl Outbreak presented at...L TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED The Influenza Virus and the 2009 H1N1 Outbreak 2. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? DYES [g] NO FUNDING SOURCE: I I...336:!. ~~ 2 C-; MARKE. COON. :vtajor. USAF Acting Chic!’. Civil I.aw The Influenza Virus and the 2009 H 1 N 1 Outbreak Thomas. F. Gibbons, Ph.D

  8. Extraction and LC determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineros, I; Ballesteros, P; Lastres, J L

    2002-02-01

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-buffer phosphate pH 3.3. Detection was UV absorbance at 252 nm. The precision and accurately of the method were excellent. The established linearity range was 5-60 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.999). Microemulsions samples were dispersed with chloroform and extracted lysine clonixinate salt with water. This easy method employing chloroformic extraction has been done three times. The recovery of lysine clonixinate salt from spiked placebo and microemulsion were >90% over the linear range.

  9. The course of protein synthesis during grain filling in normal and high lysine barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.; Andersen, B.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the course of protein synthesis during grain filling in Bomi and the high lysine barleys Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56 showed that the four salt-soluble proteins, protein Z, β-amylase and the chymotrypsin inhibitors CI-1 and CI-2, are synthesized in greater amounts earlier in the high lysine lines than in Bomi. On the other hand, the hordeins are synthesized in greater amounts earlier during grain filling in Bomi than in Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56. There is no indication of a significant reduction of total protein synthesis in the high lysine lines compared with the standard lines Bomi and Pirrka. Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56 are very similar in protein composition in that they have a lower hordein content and higher levels, particularly of β-amylase and the chymotrypsin inhibitors, than Bomi. (author)

  10. [Expression of the genes for lysine biosynthesis of Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, T N; Okunev, O V; Aleksieva, Z M; Maliuta, S S

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid plasmids pLRS33 and pLRB4 containing Bac. subtilis genes coding lysin biosynthesis were subjected to genetical analysis. It is shown that after pLRS33- and pLRB4- transformation of E. coli strains, auxotrophic relative to lysin and diaminopimelic acid, there occurs complementation of dapA, dapB, dapC, dapD, dapE, lysA mutations by plasmid pLRS33 and of dapC, dapB, lysA mutations by plasmid pLRB4. The plasmids are studied for their influence on the level of lysin and its precurror synthesis in E. coli strains.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Diaminopimelic Acid- and Lysine-Requiring Mutants of Escherichia coli1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Ahmad I.; Taylor, Austin L.

    1971-01-01

    Several diaminopimelic acid (DAP)- and lysine-requiring mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated and studied by genetic, physiological, and biochemical means. The genes concerned with DAP-lysine synthesis map at several different sites on the E. coli chromosome and, therefore, do not constitute a single operon. Three separate loci affecting DAP synthesis are located in the 0 to 2.5 min region of the genetic map. The order of the loci in this region is thr-dapB-pyrA-ara-leu-pan-dapC-tonA-dapD. Two additional DAP genes map in the region between min 47 and 48, with the gene order being gua-dapA-dapE-ctr. The lys locus at min 55 determines the synthesis of the enzyme DAP decarboxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of DAP into lysine. The order of the genes in this region is serA-lysA-thyA. PMID:4926684

  12. Genetic analysis of diaminopimelic acid- and lysine-requiring mutants of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, A I; Taylor, A L

    1971-03-01

    Several diaminopimelic acid (DAP)- and lysine-requiring mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated and studied by genetic, physiological, and biochemical means. The genes concerned with DAP-lysine synthesis map at several different sites on the E. coli chromosome and, therefore, do not constitute a single operon. Three separate loci affecting DAP synthesis are located in the 0 to 2.5 min region of the genetic map. The order of the loci in this region is thr-dapB-pyrA-ara-leu-pan-dapC-tonA-dapD. Two additional DAP genes map in the region between min 47 and 48, with the gene order being gua-dapA-dapE-ctr. The lys locus at min 55 determines the synthesis of the enzyme DAP decarboxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of DAP into lysine. The order of the genes in this region is serA-lysA-thyA.

  13. Insight into the collagen assembly in the presence of lysine and glutamic acid: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinhua; Dan, Nianhua [Key Laboratory for Leather Chemistry and Engineering of the Education Ministry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Dan, Weihua, E-mail: danweihua_scu@126.com [Key Laboratory for Leather Chemistry and Engineering of the Education Ministry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of two different charged amino acids in collagen chains, lysine and glutamic acid, on the fibrillogenesis process of collagen molecules. The turbidity, zeta potential, and fiber diameter analysis suggest that introducing the positively charged lysine into collagen might improve the sizes or amounts of the self-assembled collagen fibrils significantly. Conversely, the negatively charged glutamic acid might restrict the self-assembly of collagen building blocks into a higher order structure. Meanwhile, the optimal fibrillogenesis condition is achieved when the concentration of lysine reaches to 1 mM. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis indicates that compared to pure collagen fibrils, the reconstructed collagen-lysine co-fibrils exhibit a higher degree of inter-fiber entanglements with more straight and longer fibrils. Noted that the specific D-period patterns of the reconstructed collagen fibrils could be clearly discernible and the width of D-banding increases steadily after introducing lysine. Besides, the kinetic and thermodynamic collagen self-assembly analysis confirms that the rate constants of both the first and second assembly phase decrease after introducing lysine, and lysine could promote the process of collagen fibrillogenesis obeying the laws of thermodynamics. - Highlights: • The effects of two different charged amino acids in collagen chains on the collagen fibrillogenesis were evaluated. • The positively charged lysine could improve the sizes or amounts of self-assembled collagen fibrils. • The width of D-banding of the collagen-lysine co-fibrils increased steadily after introducing lysine. • The optimal fibrillogenesis was achieved when the concentration of lysine reached to 1 mM. • The kinetic and thermodynamic collagen self-assembly were both analyzed.

  14. 2-[1-(1-Naphthyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S. Schubert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C17H12N4, the angle between the naphthalene and 1H-1,2,3-triazole ring systems is 71.02 (4° and that between the pyridine and triazole rings is 8.30 (9°.

  15. A diagnostic for 2D density profiles in Heliac H-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Sharp, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A novel multi-view scanning interferometer is described. An air turbine driven scanning rotating grating wheel is used to produce ∼ 30 distinct spatial channels in four equi-spaced views of the H-1 plasma. The interferometer signals, derived from just three detectors, are multiplexed in time with a resolution of ∼ 1 ms. 7 refs., 3 figs

  16. Factores genéticos en casos graves de gripe (H1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Calafell i Majó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La pandemia de gripe (H1N1 2009 generó una serie de cuestiones, entre las cuales estuvo que entre un 25 y un 30% de los casos graves de gripe no presentaron ningún factor de riesgo obvio. Hipotetizamos que un elemento que puede contribuir a la respuesta son factores de riesgo gené ticos del huésped involucrados en la mala progresió n de la enfermedad. Varios indicios nos llevaron a esta hipótesis: estudios de agregación familiar en islandeses y mormones de Utah muestran una cierta heredabilidad de la mortalidad por gripe; se conocen casi 300 genes humanos necesarios para la replicació n del virus de la gripe; y los pacientes más graves de gripe (H1N12009 mostraron una desregulació n del sistema inmune adaptativo. Estamos abordando este problema mediante un diseñ o caso-control (casos hospitalizados de gripe (H1N12009 confirmados contra casos ambulatorios, tambié n confirmados para (H1N12009, en el que se genotiparán más de un milló n de polimorfismos de cambios de nucleó tido (SNPs y de variació n de número de copia (CNVs en casos y controles.

  17. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus incursion into Africa: countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus incursion into Africa: countries, hosts and ... features are important for planning control measures between countries and to ... in humans, infections in pigs earlier reported in America, Europe and Asia were ...

  18. Transmission of Hemagglutinin D222G Mutant Strain of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Marzia; Spagnolo, Domenico; De Marco, Maria A.; Calzoletti, Laura; Zanetti, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Roberto; Tanzi, Maria L.; Cassone, Antonio; Rezza, Giovanni; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain carrying the D222G mutation was identified in a severely ill man and was transmitted to a household contact. Only mild illness developed in the contact, despite his obesity and diabetes. The isolated virus reacted fully with an antiserum against the pandemic vaccine strain. PMID:20409386

  19. IgE epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify IgE specific epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1, and to compare epitope patterns between humans and rats. MethodsSera from five peanut allergic patients and five Brown Norway rats were used...... to identify intact and digested Ara h 1-specific IgE epitopes by competitive immunoscreening of a phage-displayed random hepta-mer peptide library using polyclonal IgE from the individual sera. The resulting peptide sequences were mapped on the surface of a three-dimensional structure of the Ara h 1 molecule...... to mimic epitopes using a computer-based algorithm. ResultsPatients as well as rats were shown to have individual IgE epitope patterns. All epitope mimics were conformational and found to cluster into three different areas of the Ara h 1 molecule. Five epitope motifs were identified by patient IgE, which...

  20. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...

  1. The Influenza A(H1N1)v Pandemic : An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a small exploratory System Dynamics model related to the dynamics of the 2009 flu pandemic, also known as the Mexican flu, swine flu, or A(H1N1)v. The model was developed in May 2009 in order to quickly foster understanding about the possible dynamics of this new flu variant and

  2. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2-8) ...

  3. Genetic Characterization of Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic 2009 Virus Isolates from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi; Kothari, Sweta; Shinde, Pramod; Meharunkar, Rhuta; Warke, Rajas; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2017-08-01

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first detected in India in May 2009 which subsequently became endemic in many parts of the country. Influenza A viruses have the ability to evade the immune response through its ability of antigenic variations. The study aims to characterize influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 viruses circulating in Mumbai during the pandemic and post-pandemic period. Nasopharyngeal swabs positive for influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 viruses were inoculated on Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line for virus isolation. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 isolates was conducted to understand the evolution and genetic diversity of the strains. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the HA gene of Mumbai isolates when compared to A/California/07/2009-vaccine strain revealed 14 specific amino acid differences located at the antigenic sites. Amino acid variations in HA and NA gene resulted in changes in the N-linked glycosylation motif which may lead to immune evasion. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed their evolutionary position with vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 but had undergone changes gradually. The findings in the present study confirm genetic variability of influenza viruses and highlight the importance of continuous surveillance during influenza outbreaks.

  4. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by

  5. Track finding and fitting in the H1 Forward Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Maxfield, S.J.; Patel, G.D.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Skillicorn, I.O.

    1995-07-01

    The tracking environment in the H1 Forward Tracker Detector, where the hit multiplicity from proton fragments is high, is parituclarly hostile. The techniques and software which have been developed for pattern recognition and Kalman fitting of charged particle tracks in this region are described in detail. (orig.)

  6. Labelling of MoAb with 153SmH1ETA: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, G.; De, F.; Ramirez, M.; Pedraza-Lopez, M.; Tendilla, J.I.; Melendez-Alafort, L.; Murphy, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    A method to label MoAb with Sm-153 using 1,5,9,13-tetraazacyclohexadecane N,N',N'',N''' tetraacetic acid (H 4 ETA) as a bifunctional chelator was developed. H 4 ETA and SmH 1 ETA were synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by IR spectroscopy, TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), SEM (Scattering Electronic Microscopy), EDAX (Elemental Dispersion Analysis by X-rays) and EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) at 6 K. The 153 SmH 1 ETAMoAb was prepared by a simple incubation of the MoAb ior cea1, and the 153 SmH 1 ETA complex at neutral pH and at room temperature for 24 h. The specific activity of the labelled antibody was 111 MBq/mg (3 mCi/mg). Sm-153(III) is commercially available with specific activities up to 318.2 GBq/mg. Therefore, under the conditions described above 153 SmH 1 ETA labelled MoAb could be obtained with specific activity up to 1.14 GBq/mg (30.7 mCi/mg). (author)

  7. Learning from Successful School-based Vaccination Clinics during 2009 pH1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar; O'Connell, Katherine; Stoto, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign was the largest in US history. State health departments received vaccines from the federal government and sent them to local health departments (LHDs) who were responsible for getting vaccines to the public. Many LHD's used school-based clinics to ensure children were the first to receive limited…

  8. Antivirals Use During the Pandemic H1N1 2009 Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-23

    Charisma Atkins, CDC public health analyst, discusses antiviral use during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic flu outbreak.  Created: 1/23/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/23/2012.

  9. 75 FR 10395 - Attestation Applications by Facilities Temporarily Employing H-1C Nonimmigrant Foreign Workers as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... collectively bargained wage rates, the IFR stipulated that the State Workforce Agency (SWA) shall determine the... accorded flexibility to address prevailing wage rates across diverse professional occupations that are not... workforce through the H-1C program would protect U.S. workers from any negative effect on wages or terms and...

  10. Influenza Virus A (H1N1) in Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

    OpenAIRE

    Nofs, Sally; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Thomas, Kathy V.; Toplon, David; Rouse, Dawn; Kennedy, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    In February 2007, an outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a group of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) at the Nashville Zoo. Isolates from 2 affected animals were identified in March 2007 as a type A influenza virus related to human influenza subtype H1N1.

  11. Influenza virus A (H1N1) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofs, Sally; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Thomas, Kathy V; Toplon, David; Rouse, Dawn; Kennedy, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    In February 2007, an outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a group of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) at the Nashville Zoo. Isolates from 2 affected animals were identified in March 2007 as a type A influenza virus related to human influenza subtype H1N1.

  12. Risk factors for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Renata T C; Skalinski, Lacita M; Igansi, Cristine N; de Souza, Libia R O; Iser, Betine P M; Reis, Priscilleyne O; Barros, Eliana N C; Macário, Eduardo M; Bercini, Marilina A; Ranieri, Tani M S; Araújo, Wildo N

    2011-08-01

    To identify risk factors for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we obtained data for 157 hospitalized patients with confirmed cases of this disease. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes and class III obesity were associated with death. These findings helped define priority vaccination groups in Brazil.

  13. Pedestal formation during L-H transitions in H-1 heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punzmann, H.; Shats, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present experimental results on the spatial structure of the particle transport during spontaneous confinement bifurcations in H-1 heliac. We performed parameter scans in both L- and H-modes to investigate the relation between the particle flux and the density gradient. (orig.)

  14. Novel mutations expand the clinical spectrum of DYNC1H1-associated spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scoto, Mariacristina; Rossor, Alexander M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Cirak, Sebahattin; Calissano, Mattia; Robb, Stephanie; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Martínez Arroyo, Amaia; Rodriguez Sanz, Aida; Mansour, Sahar; Fallon, Penny; Hadjikoumi, Irene; Klein, Andrea; Yang, Michele; de Visser, Marianne; Overweg-Plandsoen, W. C. G. Truus; Baas, Frank; Taylor, J. Paul; Benatar, Michael; Connolly, Anne M.; Al-Lozi, Muhammad T.; Nixon, John; de Goede, Christian G. E. L.; Foley, A. Reghan; Mcwilliam, Catherine; Pitt, Matthew; Sewry, Caroline; Phadke, Rahul; Hafezparast, Majid; Chong, W. K. Kling; Mercuri, Eugenio; Baloh, Robert H.; Reilly, Mary M.; Muntoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    To expand the clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant congenital spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) due to mutations in the dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1) gene. Patients with a phenotype suggestive of a motor, non-length-dependent neuronopathy

  15. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak at Camp for Children with Hematologic and Oncologic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cori; Maurtua-Neumann, Paola; Myint, Myo Thwin; Drury, Stacy S.

    2011-01-01

    An outbreak of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 occurred among campers and staff at a summer camp attended by children with hematologic and oncologic conditions. The overall attack rate was 36% and was highest among children and adolescents (43%), persons with cancer (48%), and persons with sickle cell disease (82%). PMID:21192861

  16. Quantitative analysis of chemically modified starches by H-1-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.A.; Lammers, G; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative H-1-NMR method for the determination of the Molar Substitution (MS) of acetylated and hydroxypropylated starches was developed and tested for MS ranging from 0.09 to 0.5. Results were checked using the Johnson method and a titration method for hydroxypropylated and acetylated starch,

  17. H1 contributions to the workshop on deep inelastic scattering and QCD, Paris'95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, A. de; Jung, H.; Phillips, J.P.; Zomer, F.

    1995-08-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Forward jets in deep inelastic scattering at HERA, diffractive interactions, rapidity gap events at HERA and the structure of the pomeron, new results on the proton structure function from H1, extraction of the gluon density at low-x from F 2 proton data

  18. Effect of paramagnetic manganese cations on H-1 MRS of the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Holm, David Alberg; Søgaard, L. V.

    2008-01-01

    Manganese cations (Mn2+) call be used as all intracellular contrast agent for structural, functional and neural pathway imaging applications. However, at high concentrations, Mn2+ is neurotoxic and play influence the concentration of H-1 MR-detectable metabolites. Furthermore, the paramagnetic Mn...

  19. Classical and semiclassical treatments of highly charged ions + H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Illescas, C.; Mendez, L.; Pons, B.; Riera, A.; Suarez, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present impact-parameter classical trajectory Monte-Carlo and molecular close-coupling calculations for total and partial cross sections for Ne 10+ , Ar 18 + H(1s) collisions, which have recently became of interest in fusion plasma research

  20. Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia: radiograph and CT features of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hua; Duan Xiaomin; Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin; Sun Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the imaging features on chest radiograph and CT in children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. Methods: The imaging data of chest radiograph and CT in six children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay was retrospectively analysis. All patients had chest radiograph at first examination and 4 of them re-examed. One children took CT. Results: All cases showed thick lung markings with varied degrees of pulmonary infiltration and interstitial changes on chest radiograph. Among them, 3 cases showed bilateral pulmonary infiltration and 3 cases showed infiltration in left lung; enlarged hilar was observed in 3 cases. The imaging findings of the pneumonia changed quickly during the follow-up accompanied with the improvement of clinical symptoms. The only one chest CT examination showed bilateral infiltration, multiple ground-glass opacities, small subpleural nodulars, right pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy of lung hila and mediastinum. Conclusions: Chest radiograph and CT revealed certain typical imaging features in the children with influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. However, the final diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 pneumonia still should be made based on epidemiology and laboratory examination. (authors)

  1. Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N12009 in Yemen - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kohlani Abdulhakeem

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the influenza season of 2007-08, oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1 viruses emerged in several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. Despite substantial prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses, few data are available on the clinical profile of subjects infected with these viruses. Objectives: to describe the first oseltamivir-resistant (H1N1 influenza virus pandemic 2009 from the Eastern Mediterranean Region including Yemen and to determine the evidence by clinical presentation of children infected with these oseltamivir - resistant viruses. Methodology History, physical examination and laboratory investigations including Complete Blood Count, chest x-ray, blood cultures, CSF examination, LFTs, RFTs, blood for sugar, H1N1 test and oseltamivir resistance test. Results Nasal swabs indicated positivity on both H1N1 test and the RNP gene (Human R Nase P gene that serves as internal positive control for Human RNA. Both clinical specimens presented the mutation S31N in the M2 gene associated with resistance to adamantanes and H274Y in NA gene associated with resistance to oseltamivir. This was the first diagnosed case of resistance to oseltamivir in Yemen and also it is the first reported case of oseltamivir resistance virus in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Conclusion The pattern of resistance found in the oseltamivir resistant isolate collected from Yemen is the same as has been reported elsewhere in other WHO regions. Clinical description and outcomes are not different from what is described elsewhere.

  2. Design of multiligand inhibitors for the swine flu H1N1 neuraminidase binding site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan MM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Manoj M Narayanan,1,2 Chandrasekhar B Nair,2 Shilpa K Sanjeeva,2 PV Subba Rao,2 Phani K Pullela,1,2 Colin J Barrow11Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 2Bigtec Pvt Ltd, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, IndiaAbstract: Viral neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir and zanamivir prevent early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. These drugs are effective for the treatment of a variety of influenza subtypes, including swine flu (H1N1. The binding site for these drugs is well established and they were designed based on computational docking studies. We show here that some common natural products have moderate inhibitory activity for H1N1 neuraminidase under docking studies. Significantly, docking studies using AutoDock for biligand and triligand forms of these compounds (camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate linked via methylene bridges indicate that they may bind in combination with high affinity to the H1N1 neuraminidase active site. These results also indicate that chemically linked biligands and triligands of these natural products could provide a new class of drug leads for the prevention and treatment of influenza. This study also highlights the need for a multiligand docking algorithm to understand better the mode of action of natural products, wherein multiple active ingredients are present.Keywords: neuraminidase, influenza, H1N1, multiligand, binding energy, molecular docking, virus

  3. H-1 chemical shift imaging characterization of human brain tumor and edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Oudkerk, M

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of metabolites in human brain tumor, peritumoral edema, and unaffected brain tissue were assessed from point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) H-1 chemical shift imaging results at different repetition times (TR = 1500 and 5000 ms; T1: n = 19) and

  4. Effect of lysine clonixinate on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russmann, S; Dilger, K; Trenk, D; Nagyivanyi, P; Jähnchen, E

    2001-11-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug lysine clonixinate ([2-(3-chloro-o-toluidino)nicotinic acid]-L-lysinate, CAS 55837-30-4) on the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenprocoumon (4-hydroxy-3-(1-phenylpropyl)-coumarin, CAS 435-97-2) was investigated in an open, randomised, two-fold, cross-over study in 12 healthy male volunteers. These subjects received a single dose of 18 mg phenprocoumon without or with concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate (125 mg five times a day for 3 days before and 13 days after ingestion of a single dose of phenprocoumon). Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenprocoumon following oral administration were: CL/f: 0.779 +/- 0.157 ml/min, half-life of elimination: 147.2 +/- 19.9 h; free fraction in serum: 0.51 +/- 0.20%. These parameters were not significantly altered by concomitant treatment with lysine clonixinate. Prothrombin time increased from 13.3 +/- 1.3 s (at time 0) to 17.7 +/- 2.7 s following phenprocoumon and from 13.3 +/- 1.2 s to 18.0 +/- 2.2 s following combined administration. Prothrombin time returned to the pretreatment values 240 h after administration of phenprocoumon. The integrated effect (AUEC0-288 h) was identical following both treatments (4.303 +/- 461 and 4.303 +/- 312 s x h for phenprocoumon alone and phenprocoumon with lysine clonixinate, respectively). Thus, lysine clonixinate administered in therapeutic doses does not affect the pharmacokinetics and anticoagulant activity of phenproxoumon.

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on the lysine content of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedekne-Lazar, M.

    1979-01-01

    It has been proved by studies on the physiological effect of ionizing irradiation that in plant metabolism important changes take place. From the endosperm of seven-day-old seedlings 14 C-L-Lysine is transported faster to organs, especially to shoots and its incorporation into protein is also more intensive. The animation of the growth of roots and shoots can be observed on 14-day-old plants grown in water culture. In sand culture a surplus in dry weight can be experienced after 56 days for maize, under the influence of 100 rad. Two soybean varieties (Merit, Clay) responded different to irradiation. The dry weight of the Merit variety was increased significantly by 500 and 1000 rad, whereas that of the Clay variety decreased or did not change significantly. The lysine content of plants changes in the function of growth. In the case of the two maize varieties (Szegedi sarga, KSC 360) treatments with 1000 and 5000 rad resulted in an essential surplus of the total lysine content (46.25 and 31.21%, respectively). The total lysine content of the Merit variety has been increased by about 23.9% and 20.92%, respectively. 5000 rad treatment resulted in a negative correlation (-0.77) in the shoots. The total lysine content of the Clay plants was lower than that of the control. Under the influence of 500 and 1000 rad treatments the total lysine content of the shoots of the Merit variety grown in fields increased to a lesser extent (16.82 and 3.19 respectively) than that of plants grown in a climate room. (author)

  6. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  7. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Azizi

    Full Text Available Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates

  8. Characterisation of the first enzymes committed to lysine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D W Griffin

    Full Text Available In plants, the lysine biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for both the development of herbicides and increasing the nutritional value of crops given that lysine is a limiting amino acid in cereals. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS and dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR catalyse the first two committed steps of lysine biosynthesis. Here, we carry out for the first time a comprehensive characterisation of the structure and activity of both DHDPS and DHDPR from Arabidopsis thaliana. The A. thaliana DHDPS enzyme (At-DHDPS2 has similar activity to the bacterial form of the enzyme, but is more strongly allosterically inhibited by (S-lysine. Structural studies of At-DHDPS2 show (S-lysine bound at a cleft between two monomers, highlighting the allosteric site; however, unlike previous studies, binding is not accompanied by conformational changes, suggesting that binding may cause changes in protein dynamics rather than large conformation changes. DHDPR from A. thaliana (At-DHDPR2 has similar specificity for both NADH and NADPH during catalysis, and has tighter binding of substrate than has previously been reported. While all known bacterial DHDPR enzymes have a tetrameric structure, analytical ultracentrifugation, and scattering data unequivocally show that At-DHDPR2 exists as a dimer in solution. The exact arrangement of the dimeric protein is as yet unknown, but ab initio modelling of x-ray scattering data is consistent with an elongated structure in solution, which does not correspond to any of the possible dimeric pairings observed in the X-ray crystal structure of DHDPR from other organisms. This increased knowledge of the structure and function of plant lysine biosynthetic enzymes will aid future work aimed at improving primary production.

  9. Desensitization to inhaled aztreonam lysine in an allergic patient with cystic fibrosis using a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Ditouras, Joanna; Montejo, Jenny

    2012-10-01

    To report the successful desensitization of a highly allergic patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to inhaled aztreonam lysine using the novel approach of intravenous desensitization followed by full-dose inhaled therapy without any adverse reactions. A 19-year-old woman with CF had persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive cultures and a history of type I hypersensitivity reactions to multiple medications, including aztreonam and tobramycin (intravenous and inhaled). To start therapy with an inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotic on a chronic basis, she underwent rapid desensitization to intravenous aztreonam followed by initiation of inhaled aztreonam lysine. Following intravenous desensitization with aztreonam, there was no adverse reaction or decline in lung function noted with inhaled aztreonam lysine and the chronic therapy was continued at home, with a modified regimen to maintain desensitization. Aztreonam lysine has been used for treatment of patients with CF with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Previous allergic reaction to intravenous aztreonam is considered a contraindication for use of aztreonam lysine. Our patient had a history of hives and facial swelling following administration of intravenous aztreonam (type I hypersensitivity reaction) as well as hypersensitivity to tobramycin. Rapid desensitization can be done for drugs that mediate a type I hypersensitivity reaction, with mast cells and basophils being the cellular targets. There are a few case reports of desensitization to inhaled antibiotics such as tobramycin and colistin, but desensitization to aztreonam lysine has not previously been reported. Desensitization of a patient with CF who is allergic to intravenous aztreonam was successfully accomplished with the novel approach of rapid intravenous desensitization followed by inhaled therapy. As inhaled antibiotics are being increasingly used for patients with CF, this novel strategy can be used for desensitizing allergic patients with CF to

  10. Anti-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus potential of catechin and gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Huey-Ling; Huang, Chao-Chun; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Pei-Lin; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2018-05-01

    The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread worldwide and infected a large proportion of the human population. Discovery of new and effective drugs for the treatment of influenza is a crucial issue for the global medical community. According to our previous study, TSL-1, a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toonasinensis, has demonstrated antiviral activities against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) through the down-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokine to prevent viral attachment. The aim of the present study was to identify the active compounds in TSL-1 which exert anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus effects. XTT assay was used to detect the cell viability. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effect on the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus was analyzed by observing plaque formation, qRT-PCR, neuraminidase activity, and immunofluorescence staining of influenza A-specific glycoprotein. Both catechin and gallic acid were found to be potent inhibitors in terms of influenza virus mRNA replication and MDCK plaque formation. Additionally, both compounds inhibited neuraminidase activities and viral glycoprotein. The 50% effective inhibition concentration (EC 50 ) of catechin and gallic acid for the influenza A (H1N1) virus were 18.4 μg/mL and 2.6 μg/mL, respectively; whereas the 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC 50 ) of catechin and gallic acid were >100 μg/mL and 22.1 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the selectivity indexes (SI) of catechin and gallic acid were >5.6 and 22.1, respectively. The present study demonstrates that catechin might be a safe reagent for long-term use to prevent influenza A (H1N1) virus infection; whereas gallic acid might be a sensitive reagent to inhibit influenza virus infection. We conclude that these two phyto-chemicals in TSL-1 are responsible for exerting anti-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  11. Calculating the potential for within-flight transmission of influenza A (H1N1

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    Blower Sally

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearly air travel, by transporting infectious individuals from one geographic location to another, significantly affects the rate of spread of influenza A (H1N1. However, the possibility of within-flight transmission of H1N1 has not been evaluated; although it is known that smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, SARS and seasonal influenza can be transmitted during commercial flights. Here we present the first quantitative risk assessment to assess the potential for within-flight transmission of H1N1. Methods We model airborne transmission of infectious viral particles of H1N1 within a Boeing 747 using methodology from the field of quantitative microbial risk assessment. Results The risk of catching H1N1 will essentially be confined to passengers travelling in the same cabin as the source case. Not surprisingly, we find that the longer the flight the greater the number of infections that can be expected. We calculate that H1N1, even during long flights, poses a low to moderate within-flight transmission risk if the source case travels First Class. Specifically, 0-1 infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 1-3 during an 11 hour flight and 2-5 during a 17 hour flight. However, within-flight transmission could be significant, particularly during long flights, if the source case travels in Economy Class. Specifically, two to five infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 5-10 during an 11 hour flight and 7-17 during a 17 hour flight. If the aircraft is only partially loaded, under certain conditions more infections could occur in First Class than in Economy Class. During a 17 hour flight, a greater number of infections would occur in First Class than in Economy if the First Class Cabin is fully occupied, but Economy class is less than 30% full. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the potential utility of air travel restrictions on controlling influenza pandemics in the winter of 2009/2010. They show travel by one

  12. Positive Selection on Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Wenfu

    2011-04-21

    Abstract Background Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both HA and NA genes have evolved into five distinct clusters, with further analyses indicating that the pandemic 2009 strains have experienced the strongest positive selection. We also found evidence of strong selection acting on the seasonal human H1N1 isolates. However, swine viruses from North America and Eurasia were under weak positive selection, while there was no significant evidence of positive selection acting on the avian isolates. A site-by-site analysis revealed that the positively selected sites were located in both of the cleaved products of HA (HA1 and HA2), as well as NA. In addition, the pandemic 2009 strains were subject to differential selection pressures compared to seasonal human, North American swine and Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses. Conclusions Most of these positively and\\/or differentially selected sites were situated in the B-cell and\\/or T-cell antigenic regions, suggesting that selection at these sites might be responsible for the antigenic variation of the viruses. Moreover, some sites were also associated with glycosylation and receptor-binding ability. Thus, selection at these positions might have helped the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses to adapt to the new hosts after they were introduced from pigs to humans. Positive selection on position 274 of NA protein, associated with drug resistance, might account for the prevalence of drug-resistant variants of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses, but there was no evidence that positive selection was responsible for the spread of the drug resistance of the pandemic H1N1 strains.

  13. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Alicia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ≤18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved

  14. Genetic characterization of the influenza A pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus isolates from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha A Potdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Influenza A pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus appeared in India in May 2009 and thereafter outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from many parts of the country. Continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of the virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country in relation to global diversification and to track the mutations that may affect the behavior of the virus. METHODS: H1N1pdm viruses were isolated from both recovered and fatal cases representing major cities and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of six concatenated whole genomes and the hemagglutinin (HA gene of seven more isolates from May-September 2009 was performed with reference to 685 whole genomes of global isolates available as of November 24, 2009. Molecular characterization of all the 8 segments was carried out for known pathogenic markers. RESULTS: The first isolate of May 2009 belonged to clade 5. Although clade 7 was the dominant H1N1pdm lineage in India, both clades 6 and 7 were found to be co-circulating. The neuraminidase of all the Indian isolates possessed H275, the marker for sensitivity to the neuraminidase inhibitor Oseltamivir. Some of the mutations in HA are at or in the vicinity of antigenic sites and may therefore be of possible antigenic significance. Among these a D222G mutation in the HA receptor binding domain was found in two of the eight Indian isolates obtained from fatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the 13 Indian isolates grouped in the globally most widely circulating H1N1pdm clade 7. Further, correlations of the mutations specific to clade 7 Indian isolates to viral fitness and adaptability in the country remains to be understood. The D222G mutation in HA from isolates of fatal cases needs to be studied for pathogenicity.

  15. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  16. Structural Characterization of H-1 Parvovirus: Comparison of Infectious Virions to Empty Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) packaging H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV), which is being developed as an antitumor gene delivery vector, has been determined for wild-type (wt) virions and noninfectious (empty) capsids to 2.7- and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure consists of an α-helix and an eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel with large loop regions between the strands. The β-barrel and loops form the capsid core and surface, respectively. In the wt structure, 600 nucleotides are ordered in an interior DNA binding pocket of the capsid. This accounts for ∼12% of the H-1PV genome. The wt structure is identical to the empty capsid structure, except for side chain conformation variations at the nucleotide binding pocket. Comparison of the H-1PV nucleotides to those observed in canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice, two members of the genus Parvovirus, showed both similarity in structure and analogous interactions. This observation suggests a functional role, such as in capsid stability and/or ssDNA genome recognition for encapsulation. The VP structure differs from those of other parvoviruses in surface loop regions that control receptor binding, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and antibody recognition, including VP sequences reported to determine tumor cell tropism for oncotropic rodent parvoviruses. These structures of H-1PV provide insight into structural features that dictate capsid stabilization following genome packaging and three-dimensional information applicable for rational design of tumor-targeted recombinant gene delivery vectors. PMID:23449783

  17. Serosurveillance for pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infection in domestic elephants, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Paungpin

    Full Text Available The present study conducted serosurveillance for the presence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus (H1N1pdm virus in archival serum samples collected between 2009 and 2013 from 317 domestic elephants living in 19 provinces situated in various parts of Thailand. To obtain the most accurate data, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI assay was employed as the screening test; and sera with HI antibody titers ≥20 were further confirmed by other methods, including cytopathic effect/hemagglutination based-microneutralization (microNT and Western blot (WB assays using H1N1pdm matrix 1 (M1 or hemagglutinin (HA recombinant protein as the test antigen. Conclusively, the appropriate assays using HI in conjunction with WB assays for HA antibody revealed an overall seropositive rate of 8.5% (27 of 317. The prevalence of antibody to H1N1pdm virus was 2% (4/172 in 2009, 32% (17/53 in 2010, 9% (2/22 in 2011, 12% (1/8 in 2012, and 5% (3/62 in 2013. Notably, these positive serum samples were collected from elephants living in 7 tourist provinces of Thailand. The highest seropositive rate was obtained from elephants in Phuket, a popular tourist beach city. Young elephants had higher seropositive rate than older elephants. The source of H1N1pdm viral infection in these elephants was not explored, but most likely came from close contact with the infected mahouts or from the infected tourists who engaged in activities such as elephant riding and feeding. Nevertheless, it could not be excluded that elephant-to-elephant transmission did occur.

  18. Dynamic gene expression analysis in a H1N1 influenza virus mouse pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanyan; Gao, Yingjie; Shi, Yujing; Cui, Xiaolan

    2017-06-01

    H1N1, a major pathogenic subtype of influenza A virus, causes a respiratory infection in humans and livestock that can range from a mild infection to more severe pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Understanding the dynamic changes in the genome and the related functional changes induced by H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to elucidating the pathogenesis of this virus and thereby determining strategies to prevent future outbreaks. In this study, we filtered the significantly expressed genes in mouse pneumonia using mRNA microarray analysis. Using STC analysis, seven significant gene clusters were revealed, and using STC-GO analysis, we explored the significant functions of these seven gene clusters. The results revealed GOs related to H1N1 virus-induced inflammatory and immune functions, including innate immune response, inflammatory response, specific immune response, and cellular response to interferon-beta. Furthermore, the dynamic regulation relationships of the key genes in mouse pneumonia were revealed by dynamic gene network analysis, and the most important genes were filtered, including Dhx58, Cxcl10, Cxcl11, Zbp1, Ifit1, Ifih1, Trim25, Mx2, Oas2, Cd274, Irgm1, and Irf7. These results suggested that during mouse pneumonia, changes in the expression of gene clusters and the complex interactions among genes lead to significant changes in function. Dynamic gene expression analysis revealed key genes that performed important functions. These results are a prelude to advancements in mouse H1N1 influenza virus infection biology, as well as the use of mice as a model organism for human H1N1 influenza virus infection studies.

  19. Molecular evolution of H1N1 swine influenza in Guangdong, China, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengkai; Huang, Junming; Bu, Dexin; Yu, Zhiqing; Fu, Xinliang; Ji, Chihai; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-06-01

    Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, the genotypes including a minimum of 4 pdm/09-origin internal genes have become prevalent in China in recent years. A total of 2966 swine serum samples were used to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, and the results showed that the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/101/16 (32.2% in 2016, 32.1% in 2017) were significantly higher than the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/52/17 (18.0% in 2016, 16.7% in 2017). Our study showed that the three reassortant genotypes of H1N1 SIV currently circulating in China are stable, but H1N1pdm09 poses challenges to human health by the introduction of internal genes into these reassortant genotypes. Strengthening SIV surveillance is therefore critical for SIV control and minimizing its potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety of pandemic H1N1 vaccines in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnans, Leonoor; de Bie, Sandra; Dieleman, Jeanne; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2011-10-06

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic several pandemic H1N1 vaccines were licensed using fast track procedures, with relatively limited data on the safety in children and adolescents. Different extensive safety monitoring efforts were put in place to ensure timely detection of adverse events following immunization. These combined efforts have generated large amounts of data on the safety of the different pandemic H1N1 vaccines, also in children and adolescents. In this overview we shortly summarize the safety experience with seasonal influenza vaccines as a background and focus on the clinical and post marketing safety data of the pandemic H1N1 vaccines in children. We identified 25 different clinical studies including 10,505 children and adolescents, both healthy and with underlying medical conditions, between the ages of 6 months and 23 years. In addition, large monitoring efforts have resulted in large amounts of data, with almost 13,000 individual case reports in children and adolescents to the WHO. However, the diversity in methods and data presentation in clinical study publications and publications of spontaneous reports hampered the analysis of safety of the different vaccines. As a result, relatively little has been learned on the comparative safety of these pandemic H1N1 vaccines - particularly in children. It should be a collective effort to give added value to the enormous work going into the individual studies by adhering to available guidelines for the collection, analysis, and presentation of vaccine safety data in clinical studies and to guidance for the clinical investigation of medicinal products in the pediatric population. Importantly the pandemic has brought us the beginning of an infrastructure for collaborative vaccine safety studies in the EU, USA and globally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not become...

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-1 Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence... attempting to influence legislation, (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is...

  3. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  4. Lysine demethylase inhibition protects pancreatic β cells from apoptosis and improves β-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Marie Balslev; Andersson, Jan Legaard; Bacos, Karl

    2018-01-01

    ) protects β cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis and reduces type 1 diabetes incidence in animals. We hypothesized that also lysine demethylases (KDMs) regulate β-cell fate in response to inflammatory stress. Expression of the demethylase Kdm6B was upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines suggesting......Transcriptional changes control β-cell survival in response to inflammatory stress. Posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone transcriptional regulators activate or repress gene transcription, but the link to cell-fate signaling is unclear. Inhibition of lysine deacetylases (KDACs...

  5. Aspects of the selection, design and use of high lysine cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munck, L.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the need for and the considerations involved in the breeding of high lysine cereals is presented. Progress in the discovery and exploitation of genotypes with high lysine characters in maize and barley are briefly reviewed. The role and some of the characteristics of the dye-binding capacity (DBC) methods are evaluated along with the ways in which DBC results should be used in combination with other information. Lastly, the changes in attitudes and procedures associated with the acceptance of a product of a new technology such as nutritionally improved cereals is discussed. (author)

  6. Preliminary studies of the toxic effects of non-ionic surfactants derived from lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macián, M; Seguer, J; Infante, M R; Selve, C; Vinardell, M P

    1996-01-08

    The toxic effects of new synthetic monodisperse non-ionic long-chain N alpha, N epsilon-diacyl lysine polyoxyethylene glycol amide compounds with a structural resemblance to natural lecithin phospholipids were studied by the haemolytic method and the test of the chorioallantoic membrane of the hen's egg (HET-CAM). The following compounds were tested: symmetrical N alpha,N epsilon-diacyl lysine homologues (N alpha,N epsilon-dihexanoyl, N alpha,N epsilon-dioctanoyl and N alpha,N epsilon-didecanoyl lysine) with one methyl ether polyoxyethylene glycol chain of different oxyethylene units (dioxyethylene glycol, tetraoxyethylene glycol and hexaoxyethylene glycol) as headgroup; symmetrical N alpha,N epsilon-diacyl lysine homologues with two methyl ether dioxyethylene glycol chains and the asymmetrical N alpha-butanoyl, N epsilon-dodecyl lysine with two hydrophilic methyl ether dioxyethylene glycol chains as headgroup. A commercial (polydisperse) oleoyl polyoxyethylene glycol diethanolamide with an average of eight units of ethylene oxide was used as control. All the synthesized tested compounds appeared to be less haemolytic and less irritant than the control. The synthesized products were studied with regard to their hydrophobic and hydrophilic chains in order to evaluate the influence of their structure on their haemolytic and irritative action. The results of this study show that the acyl chain distribution of these compounds greatly influence toxic effects: the asymmetrical compound N alpha-butanoyl,N epsilon-dodecyl lysine-bis[methyl ether diethylene glycol]amide was found to be the most haemolytic and irritating compound. Among the symmetrical homologues, the shortest-chain compounds N alpha,N epsilon-dihexanoyl lysine methyl ether polyoxyethylene glycol amides present the least haemolytic and irritating activity, independently of the number and length of the hydrophilic methyl ether polyoxyethylene glycol chains. Taking into account their surface activity

  7. Acetyl-Phosphate Is a Critical Determinant of Lysine Acetylation in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2013-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification in bacteria; however, little is known about its origin and regulation. Using the model bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), we found that most acetylation occurred at a low level and accumulated in growth-arrested cells...... acetylate lysine residues in vitro and that AcP levels are correlated with acetylation levels in vivo, suggesting that AcP may acetylate proteins nonenzymatically in cells. These results uncover a critical role for AcP in bacterial acetylation and indicate that most acetylation in E. coli occurs at a low...

  8. Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungjin; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Matsuura, Atsushi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2018-04-30

    L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD + , (ii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida . In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that NAD + is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into NAD + at a late stage of the reaction.

  9. Adsorption of Lysine on Na-Montmorillonite and Competition with Ca(2+): A Combined XRD and ATR-FTIR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanli; Wang, Shengrui; Liu, Jingyang; Xu, Yisheng; Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2016-05-17

    Lysine adsorption at clay/aqueous interfaces plays an important role in the mobility, bioavailability, and degradation of amino acids in the environment. Knowledge of these interfacial interactions facilitates our full understanding of the fate and transport of amino acids. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements were used to explore the dynamic process of lysine adsorption on montmorillonite and the competition with Ca(2+) at the molecular level. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to determine the peak assignments of dissolved lysine in the solution phase. Three surface complexes, including dicationic, cationic, and zwitterionic structures, were observed to attach to the clay edge sites and penetrate the interlayer space. The increased surface coverage and Ca(2+) competition did not affect the interfacial lysine structures at a certain pH, whereas an elevated lysine concentration contributed to zwitterionic-type coordination at pH 10. Moreover, clay dissolution at pH 4 could be inhibited at a higher surface coverage with 5 and 10 mM lysine, whereas the inhibition effect was inconspicuous or undetected at pH 7 and 10. The presence of Ca(2+) not only could remove a part of the adsorbed lysine but also could facilitate the readsorption of dissolved Si(4+) and Al(3+) and surface protonation. Our results provide new insights into the process of lysine adsorption and its effects on montmorillonite surface sites.

  10. The relationship between DNA synthesis and incorporation of (14C) lysine into different histone fractions in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, J.; Kornacka, L.; Wojnarowska, M.; Moscicka, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea on ( 14 C) lysine incorporation into the main four histone fractions in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, was examined in vitro. The radioactivity of lysine-rich histones, especially of histone f1, was preferentially decreased. The smallest decrease was observed for histone f3. The incorporation into other cellular proteins was but slightly affected. (author)

  11. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Amenna, N; Cariolet, R; Simon, G

    2012-05-25

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are widespread in farms and are major pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The aim of this experiment was to compare the pathogenicity of European avian-like swine H1N1 and European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 viruses in naïve pigs and in pigs previously infected with Mhp. Six groups of SPF pigs were inoculated intra-tracheally with either Mhp, or H1N1, or H1N2 or Mhp+H1N1 or Mhp+H1N2, both pathogens being inoculated at 21 days intervals in these two last groups. A mock-infected group was included. Although both SIV strains induced clinical signs when singly inoculated, results indicated that the H1N2 SIV was more pathogenic than the H1N1 virus, with an earlier shedding and a greater spread in lungs. Initial infection with Mhp before SIV inoculation increased flu clinical signs and pathogenesis (hyperthermia, loss of appetite, pneumonia lesions) due to the H1N1 virus but did not modify significantly outcomes of H1N2 infection. Thus, Mhp and SIV H1N1 appeared to act synergistically, whereas Mhp and SIV H1N2 would compete, as H1N2 infection led to the elimination of Mhp in lung diaphragmatic lobes. In conclusion, SIV would be a risk factor for the severity of respiratory disorders when associated with Mhp, depending on the viral subtype involved. This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Humans and ferrets with prior H1N1 influenza virus infections do not exhibit evidence of original antigenic sin after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher D; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice; Boonnak, Kobporn; Treanor, John J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis of original antigenic sin (OAS) states that the imprint established by an individual's first influenza virus infection governs the antibody response thereafter. Subsequent influenza virus infection results in an antibody response against the original infecting virus and an impaired immune response against the newer influenza virus. The purpose of our study was to seek evidence of OAS after infection or vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus in ferrets and humans previously infected with H1N1 viruses with various antigenic distances from the 2009 pH1N1 virus, including viruses from 1935 through 1999. In ferrets, seasonal H1N1 priming did not diminish the antibody response to infection or vaccination with the 2009 pH1N1 virus, nor did it diminish the T-cell response, indicating the absence of OAS in seasonal H1N1 virus-primed ferrets. Analysis of paired samples of human serum taken before and after vaccination with a monovalent inactivated 2009 pH1N1 vaccine showed a significantly greater-fold rise in the titer of antibody against the 2009 pH1N1 virus than against H1N1 viruses that circulated during the childhood of each subject. Thus, prior experience with H1N1 viruses did not result in an impairment of the antibody response against the 2009 pH1N1 vaccine. Our data from ferrets and humans suggest that prior exposure to H1N1 viruses did not impair the immune response against the 2009 pH1N1 virus.

  13. Second generation H1 - antihistamines interaction with food and alcohol-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Palimonka, Krzysztof; Marcinkowska, Monika; Owczarek, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Histamine is a mediator of many physiological processes. It plays an important role in modulating allergy reactions and immune system responses. H1 receptor is a therapeutic target for drugs applied in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticarial, or atopic dermatitis. H1-antihistamines display different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and a potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Drug-food interactions are known to reduce therapeutic effects of the medicine, as well as to induce a potent adverse drug reactions. Considering it all, a systematic review was conducted to investigate the importance of drug-food interaction for H1-antihistamine drugs. As non-sedating second generation H1-antihistamines remain to be drugs of choice in treating allergic conditions, the review has been focused on this particular class of medicines. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence of food-drug and food-alcohol interactions for second generation H1-antihistamine drugs. A systematic literature queries were performed in the following databases: Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science (all from their inception date till October 2016). The queries covered nine specific names of second generation anthistamine drugs, namely bilastine, cetirizine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mizolastine, and rupatadine, in combinations with such terms as "food", "juice", "grapefruit", "fruits", "alcohol", "pharmacokinetics", and "meal". Additional publications were found by checking all the reference lists. Where none data on drug-food interaction could be found within the investigated databases, a specific drug prescribing information was used. 2326 publications were identified with the database queries. Articles were subjected to analysis by reviewing their title, abstract and full text; duplicated papers were removed. Having collected a complete set of data, a critical review was undertaken

  14. Early Outbreak of 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico Prior to Identification of pH1N1 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Ma, Stefan; Velasco Hernandez, Jorge X.; Lee, Vernon J.; Lim, Wei Yen

    2011-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global spread of 2009 influenza A (pH1N1) virus, still very little is known of the early stages of the outbreak in Mexico during the early months of the year, before the virus was identified. Methodology/Main Findings We fit a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to the number of excess laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Mexico and Mexico City during the first 15 weeks in 2009 over the average influenza case number of the previous five baseline years of 2004-2008 during the same period to ascertain the turning point (or the peak incidence) of a wave of early influenza infections, and to estimate the transmissibility of the virus during these early months in terms of its basic reproduction number. The results indicate that there may have been an early epidemic in Mexico City as well as in all of Mexico during February/March. Based on excess influenza cases, the estimated basic reproduction number R0 for the early outbreak was 1.59 (0.55 to 2.62) for Mexico City during weeks 5–9, and 1.25 (0.76, 1.74) for all of Mexico during weeks 5–14. Conclusions We established the existence of an early epidemic in Mexico City and in all of Mexico during February/March utilizing the routine influenza surveillance data, although the location of seeding is unknown. Moreover, estimates of R0 as well as the time of peak incidence (the turning point) for Mexico City and all of Mexico indicate that the early epidemic in Mexico City in February/March had been more transmissible (larger R0) and peaked earlier than the rest of the country. Our conclusion lends support to the possibility that the virus could have already spread to other continents prior to the identification of the virus and the reporting of lab-confirmed pH1N1 cases in North America in April. PMID:21909366

  15. Lysine supplementation in late gestation of gilts: effects on piglet birth weight, and gestational and lactational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Magnabosco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine requirements for gain in maternal body reserves and piglet birth weight, during pregnancy, in contemporary prolific genotypes, are not well established. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine in late pregnancy on piglet birth weight, and on the gestational and lactational performance of gilts. Pregnant gilts were uniformly distributed into two groups and received, from 85 to 110 days of gestation, either of two lysine levels in their diet: Control group - 28g lysine/day (n=136, and Lysine group - 35g lysine/day (n=141. There were no effects (P>0.10 of supplemental lysine on body weight and backfat (BF gain of females or on piglet birth weight. Gilts supplemented with lysine tended to have a lower percentage of stillbirths (P=0.077, reduced within-litter birth weight variation (P=0.094 and a lower percentage of piglets weighing less than 1100g (P=0.082 than in the Control group. During lactation, the performance of sows and litters was also evaluated in a subgroup of sows (n=26/group. There were no differences between the Control and Lysine groups (P>0.10 in voluntary feed intake, body reserve losses (weight and BF, weaning-to-estrus interval of the sows, and litter weaning weight. In conclusion, an increase in lysine (from 28 to 35g/day in late gestation of gilts (85 to 110 days tends to reduce the rate of stillbirths and to improve the uniformity of litter weight at birth, but does not affect the performance of females until farrowing or during subsequent lactation.

  16. Short-Chain Fatty Acids from Periodontal Pathogens Suppress Histone Deacetylases, EZH2, and SUV39H1 To Promote Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolan; Shahir, Abdel-Malek; Sha, Jingfeng; Feng, Zhimin; Eapen, Betty; Nithianantham, Stanley; Das, Biswajit; Karn, Jonathan; Weinberg, Aaron; Bissada, Nabil F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum produce five different short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as metabolic by-products. We detect significantly higher levels of SCFAs in the saliva of patients with severe periodontal disease. The different SCFAs stimulate lytic gene expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) dose dependently and synergistically. SCFAs inhibit class-1/2 histone deacetylases (HDACs) and downregulate expression of silent information regulator-1 (SIRT1). SCFAs also downregulate expression of enhancer of zeste homolog2 (EZH2) and suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog1 (SUV39H1), which are two histone N-lysine methyltransferases (HLMTs). By suppressing the different components of host epigenetic regulatory machinery, SCFAs increase histone acetylation and decrease repressive histone trimethylations to transactivate the viral chromatin. These new findings provide mechanistic support that SCFAs from periodontal pathogens stimulate KSHV replication and infection in the oral cavity and are potential risk factors for development of oral Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). IMPORTANCE About 20% of KS patients develop KS lesions first in the oral cavity, while other patients never develop oral KS. It is not known if the oral microenvironment plays a role in oral KS tumor development. In this work, we demonstrate that a group of metabolic by-products, namely, short-chain fatty acids, from bacteria that cause periodontal disease promote lytic replication of KSHV, the etiological agent associated with KS. These new findings provide mechanistic support that periodontal pathogens create a unique microenvironment in the oral cavity that contributes to KSHV replication and development of oral KS. PMID:24501407

  17. Risk of first-generation H(1)-antihistamines: a GA(2)LEN position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, M K; Maurer, M; Simons, F E R

    2010-01-01

    (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) task force assessed the unwanted side-effects and potential dangers of first-generation H1-antihistamines by reviewing the literature (Medline and Embase) and performing a media audit of US coverage from 1996 to 2008 of accidents and fatal adverse events...... in which these drugs were implicated. RESULTS: First-generation H(1)-antihistamines, all of which are sedating, are generally regarded as safe by laypersons and healthcare professionals because of their long-standing use. However, they reduce rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, impair learning and reduce work...... efficiency. They are implicated in civil aviation, motor vehicle and boating accidents, deaths as a result of accidental or intentional overdosing in infants and young children and suicide in teenagers and adults. Some exhibit cardiotoxicity in overdose. CONCLUSIONS: This review raises the issue of better...

  18. Bilateral Pulmonary Thromboembolism: An Unusual Presentation of Infection with Influenza A (H1N1 Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSwine flue is a highly contagious acute respiratory diseasecaused by a subtype of influenza A virus. Herein we presentthree patients with H1N1 infection complicated with pulmonarythromboembolism. The patients had chest pain and unexplaineddyspnea. Imaging studies showed bilateral hilar predominance.Computed tomographic angiography confirmed bilateral thromboembolism(an unusual presentation of H1N1 infection. We didnot find any predisposing factor including endothelial damage,stasis, or hypercoagulable state in these patients. They did notreceive any medication. After anticoagulation and treatment withoseltamivir, all the patients were discharged in good condition.To the best of our knowledge bilateral pulmonary thromboembolismhas not been reported in English language literature inpatients with swine flu infection. Appropriate diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving in this condition.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 149-153.

  19. THE A (H1N1 INFLUENZA. SYMBOLIC DIMENSIONS OF A PANDEMIC ARTEFACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés G. Seguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to present the symbolic features that are exposed by the concept of artefact in the context of a pandemic alarm, such as the A (H1N1 influenza. The symbolic qualities entailed by the notion of artefact are well-known within the Social Sciences: Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics. The artefact is basically not an object, but an action aimed at designing, simulating or creating a simile by means of material, technological or linguistic structures. The purpose of the present work is to unveil the symbolic dimensions that are activated by the A (H1N1 influenza as a Pandemic Artefact: a the assumption of separating information from matter; b the need for a material support to enable the exchange; c the sociological reflexivity of the artefact and its agency; d the arbitrariness of its social use, that detaches it from the design as intention.

  20. Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Puja R.; Openshaw, Peter J.M.; Gadd, Elaine M.; Lim, Wei Shen; Semple, Malcolm G.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Armstrong, Colin; Bannister, Barbara; Nicholson, Karl G.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% needed escalated care or mechanical ventilation; 8 (27%) of 30 died. Despite national guidelines and standardized infection control procedures, nosocomial transmission remains a problem when influenza is prevalent. Health care workers should be routinely offered influenza vaccine, and vaccination should be prioritized for all patients at high risk. Staff should remain alert to the possibility of influenza in patients with complex clinical problems and be ready to institute antiviral therapy while awaiting diagnosis during influenza outbreaks. PMID:21470446

  1. Measurement of the charm and beauty structure functions using the H1 vertex detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Preda, T.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Zus, R.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Alimujiang, K.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Boer, Y. de; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Janssen, M.E.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nozicka, M.; Olsson, J.E.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Asmone, A.; Stella, B.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Pokorny, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Olivier, B.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Del Degan, M.; Grab, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Sauter, M.; Zimmermann, T.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Dodonov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e - p and e + p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5≤Q 2 ≤2000 GeV 2 and Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002≤x≤0.05. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb -1 . The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions. (orig.)

  2. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Jane B.; Remigio, Cheryl; Milligan, Thomas; Deline, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  3. Inpatient capacity at children's hospitals during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Marion R; Hall, Matthew; Fieldston, Evan S; Hain, Paul D; Simon, Harold K; Brogan, Thomas V; Fagbuyi, Daniel B; Mundorff, Michael B; Shah, Samir S

    2011-09-01

    Quantifying how close hospitals came to exhausting capacity during the outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 can help the health care system plan for more virulent pandemics. This ecologic analysis used emergency department (ED) and inpatient data from 34 US children's hospitals. For the 11-week pandemic (H1N1) 2009 period during fall 2009, inpatient occupancy reached 95%, which was lower than the 101% occupancy during the 2008-09 seasonal influenza period. Fewer than 1 additional admission per 10 inpatient beds would have caused hospitals to reach 100% occupancy. Using parameters based on historical precedent, we built 5 models projecting inpatient occupancy, varying the ED visit numbers and admission rate for influenza-related ED visits. The 5 scenarios projected median occupancy as high as 132% of capacity. The pandemic did not exhaust inpatient bed capacity, but a more virulent pandemic has the potential to push children's hospitals past their maximum inpatient capacity.

  4. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their non specificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease. (author)

  5. Chest X-ray findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min; Guo Wanliang; Wang Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the chest X-ray radiographic findings in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Methods: The chest X-ray radiographs in 67 children with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection were reviewed in this study. The chest radiographs were obtained 3-8 days after the onset of symptoms and for the follow-up. Results: The abnormalities were bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were bilateral patchy consolidation (n=42) with rapid confluence in 10 patients, lobular consolidation (n=7) with interstitial hyperplasia in 1 patient 3 month later, diffuse consolidation (n=11) with interstitial hyperplasia in all patients after 3 month. Conclusion: The predominant chest X-ray radiographic findings are bilateral patchy consolidation and diffuse consolidation with interstitial hyperplasia afterward. (authors)

  6. Measurement of the Charm and Beauty Structure Functions using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, FD; Alexa, C; Alimujiang, K; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Asmone, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D -J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H -U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e-p and e+p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb^-1. The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions.

  7. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson; Zanetti, Glaucia

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their non specificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease. (author)

  8. Commissioning of the SPACAL calorimeter of H1 and analysis of large transverse energy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, P.

    1998-01-01

    The lepton-nucleon scattering experiments take a prominent part in the matter structure study. The H1 experiment (HERA), progressed regularly and the accumulated luminosity allows today the exploration of the phase space limits to the high energies. The H1 detector has been improved: SPACAL the new calorimeter since 1995 is the main part. This thesis presents two parts. The first one deals with the calorimeter performances study, the second one with the events of very high transverse energy. The most depopulated area of the phase space are explored. For these regions it was necessary to improve the theoretical forecasting; analytical calculations have been used. These studies on the extreme processes understanding will be very useful for the high luminosity period of HERA, between 2000 and 2005. This study is a solid base for the researches on new phenomena leading to the existence of a physics upper the standard model. (A.L.B.)

  9. Modelling magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac with the hint code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.S.; Gardner, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Recent progress in the theoretical modelling of the effects of plasma pressure on the growth and change in geometry of magnetic islands in the H-1NF Heliac will be reviewed. The HINT magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium code, which has become a standard workhorse in the stellarator community for problems of this type, has been modified to incorporate an interpolation algorithm which significantly accelerates its convergence. This has enabled the critical evaluation of earlier results, and of some conventional wisdom. In many ways the treatment of magnetic islands in low shear fusion reactors, such as H-1NF, is an ideal case study in computational science - the devil is in the details and the devil is important: the existence or otherwise of island self-healing at reactor pressures could significantly affect the design of future experiments. (author)

  10. Shower library technique for fast simulation of showers in calorimeters of the H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raičević, N.; Glazov, A.; Zhokin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fast simulation of showers in calorimeters is very important for particle physics analysis since shower simulation typically takes significant amount of the simulation time. At the same time, a simulation must reproduce experimental data in the best possible way. In this paper, a fast simulation of showers in two calorimeters of the H1 experiment is presented. High speed and good quality of shower simulation is achieved by using a shower library technique in which the detector response is simulated using a collection of stored showers for different particle types and topologies. The library is created using the GEANT programme. The fast simulation based on shower library is compared to the data collected by the H1 experiment

  11. High levels of glucose induce "metabolic memory" in cardiomyocyte via epigenetic histone H3 lysine 9 methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi-Yong; Geng, Yong-Jian; Liang, Jia-Liang; Zhang, Saidan; Lei, He-Ping; Zhong, Shi-Long; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Lin, Shu-Guang; Li, Yangxin

    2012-09-01

    Diabetic patients continue to develop inflammation and cardiovascular complication even after achieving glycemic control, suggesting a "metabolic memory". Metabolic memory is a major challenge in the treatment of diabetic complication, and the mechanisms underlying metabolic memory are not clear. Recent studies suggest a link between chromatin histone methylation and metabolic memory. In this study, we tested whether histone 3 lysine-9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3), a key epigenetic chromatin marker, was involved in high glucose (HG)-induced inflammation and metabolic memory. Incubating cardiomyocyte cells in HG resulted in increased levels of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mRNA when compared with myocytes incubated in normal culture media, whereas mannitol (osmotic control) has no effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that H3K9me3 levels were significantly decreased at the promoters of IL-6. Immunoblotting demonstrated that protein levels of the H3K9me3 methyltransferase, Suv39h1, were also reduced after HG treatment. HG-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome-c release were reversible. However, the effects of HG on the expression of IL-6 and the levels of H3K9me3 were irreversible after the removal of HG from the culture. These results suggest that HG-induced sustained inflammatory phenotype and epigenetic histone modification, rather than HG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, are main mechanisms responsible for metabolic memory. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that HG increases expression of inflammatory cytokine and decreases the levels of histone-3 methylation at the cytokine promoter, and suggest that modulating histone 3 methylation and inflammatory cytokine expression may be a useful strategy to prevent metabolic memory and cardiomyopathy in diabetic patients.

  12. Impact of histone H4 lysine 20 methylation on 53BP1 responses to chromosomal double strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Hartlerode

    Full Text Available Recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin flanking double strand breaks (DSBs requires γH2AX/MDC1/RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of chromatin and interaction of 53BP1 with histone H4 methylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me. Several histone methyltransferases have been implicated in 53BP1 recruitment, but their quantitative contributions to the 53BP1 response are unclear. We have developed a multi-photon laser (MPL system to target DSBs to subfemtoliter nuclear volumes and used this to mathematically model DSB response kinetics of MDC1 and of 53BP1. In contrast to MDC1, which revealed first order kinetics, the 53BP1 MPL-DSB response is best fitted by a Gompertz growth function. The 53BP1 MPL response shows the expected dependency on MDC1 and RNF8. We determined the impact of altered H4K20 methylation on 53BP1 MPL response kinetics in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs lacking key H4K20 histone methyltransferases. This revealed no major requirement for the known H4K20 dimethylases Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 in 53BP1 recruitment or DSB repair function, but a key role for the H4K20 monomethylase, PR-SET7. The histone methyltransferase MMSET/WHSC1 has recently been implicated in 53BP1 DSB recruitment. We found that WHSC1 homozygous mutant MEFs reveal an alteration in balance of H4K20 methylation patterns; however, 53BP1 DSB responses in these cells appear normal.

  13. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically...... and the infection dynamics compared to an “avian-like” H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. METHODS: Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an “avian-like” H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation...... with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European “avian-like” H1-gene...

  14. Modeling of the influence of humidity on H1N1 flu in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEI, Y.; Tian, H.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009, a heavy Flu hit the whole world. It was caused by the virus H1N1. The influenza first broke out in Mexico in March and the United States in April, 2009. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the H1N1 influenza became pandemic, alert to a warning phase of six. By the end of 2011, 181302 H1N1 cases were reported in mainland China. To improve our understanding on the impact of environmental factors on the disease transmission, we constructed an SIR (Susceptible - Infectious - Recovered) model incorporating environmental factors. It was found that the absolute humidity was a dominant environmental factor. The study interpolated the humidity data monitored with 340 weather stations from 1951 to 2011 in mainland China. First, the break point of the trend for the absolutely humidity was detected by the BFAST (Break For Additive Season and Trend) method. Then, the SIR model with and without the absolutely humidity incorporated in the model was built and tested. Finally, the results with the two scenarios were compared. Results indicate that lower absolutely humidity may promote the transmission of the H1N1 cases. The calculated basic reproductive number ranges from 1.65 to 3.66 with a changing absolute humidity. This is consistent with the former study result with basic reproductive number ranging from 2.03 to 4.18. The average recovery duration was estimated to be 5.7 days. The average duration to get immunity from the influenza is 399.02 days. A risk map is also produced to illustrate the model results.

  15. H1 antihistamines in allergic rhinitis: The molecular pathways of interleukin and toll - like receptor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karunia Fajar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex interaction between inflammatory mediators in allergic rhinitis (AR is determined by the role of genetic polymorphisms, including interleukin (IL and toll-like receptor (TLR genes. This study aimed to discuss the effects of H1-antihistamines on IL and TLR systems. Several ILs involved in AR pathogenesis are: IL-4 (rs2243250, rs1800925, rs1801275, rs2227284, rs2070874, IL-6 (rs1800795, rs1800797, IL-10 (rs1800871, rs1800872, IL-12R (rs438421, IL-13 (rs1800925, rs20541, IL-17 (rs3819024, IL-18 (rs360721, rs360718, rs360717, rs187238, IL-23R (rs7517847, and IL-27 (rs153109, rs17855750. In the IL system, histamines stimulate the IL production in Type 2 helper T (Th2 cells through protein kinase A (PKA, janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway, and the activation of H1-histamine receptor and histidine decarboxylase (HDC genes. On contrary, antihistamines down-regulate the H1-histamine receptor gene expression through the transcription suppression of HDC and IL genes and suppress histamine basal signaling through the inverse agonistic activity. TLRs involved in AR pathogenesis are TLR2 (rs4696480, rs3804099, rs5743708, TLR4 (rs4986790, TLR6 (rs2381289, TLR7 (rs179008, rs5935438, TRL8 (rs2407992, rs5741883, rs17256081, rs4830805, rs3788935, rs178998, and TLR10 (rs11466651. In the TLR system, histamines trigger the TLR expression by stimulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ to up-regulate mast cells and by stimulating receptor-interacting protein (RIP to activate IκB kinase-β. Contrastingly, antihistamines suppress TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-β (TRIF and RIP protein and thus inhibit the expression of TLR. In addition, several studies indicated that H1-antihistamines inhibit the IL and TLR systems indirectly.

  16. Uncertainties of Electron Capture Cross Sections In Be4+ + H(1s) Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez, L.; Illescas, Clara; Jorge, Alba; Errea, L.F.; Rabadán, I.; Suárez, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have considered one-electron systems where the theoretical methods are well established. The use of different computational alternatives enables the accurate evaluation of nl-partial cross sections in a wide range of collision energies. In the presentation we have analyzed the uncertainties of n-partial charge exchange (CX) cross sections in Be 4+ + H(1s) collisions, which are relevant in tokamak plasmas and experimental data are not available.

  17. Production of inositol trisphosphates upon α-adrenergic stimulation in BC3H-1 muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, S.K.; Thompson, B.; Brown, J.H.; Taylor, P.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of α 1 -adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular and results in a paradoxically slower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate. A possible explanation for this discrepancy may be provided by the recent findings of Irvine et al. of additional Ins P3 isomers besides the Ca ++ -mobilizing isomer, Ins 1,4,5-P3. They have eluted and separated the inositol phosphates of BC3H-1 cells with an NH 4 + x HCO 2 - /H 3 PO 4 gradient on a Whatman Partisil 10SAX column using Hewlett-Packard HPLC. Commercial [ 3 H]Ins 1,4,5-P3 and [ 3 H]inositol phosphates from carbachol-stimulated parotid glands were used as standards. Little or no Ins 1,3,4-P3 could be detected in control or phenylephrine-treated BC3H-1 cells. Ins 1,4,5-P3 followed the pattern of agonist stimulation observed previously. As a positive control, Ins P3 isomers were also measured in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic stimulation of 1321N1 cells results in both the rapid accumulation of Ins P3 and Ca ++ mobilization. There is no detectable basal Ins 1,3,4-P3, but carbachol stimulates a rapid production of this compound in 1321N1 cells. Agonist activation also results in a rapid increase in Ins 1,4,5-P3 above basal values. These studies indicate that Ins 1,3,4-P3 does not contribute to the InsP3 signal in BC3H-1 cells and multiple mechanisms may exist for the coupling of receptors to PI turnover

  18. The low noise L1 trigger of the H1 lead/scintillating-fibre electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, F.

    1998-01-01

    The first level trigger performance of the H1 Spacal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented for the 1996 data taking. A newly developed wideband f ≤ 200 MHz preamplification is performed with a negligible noise contribution of 0.4 MeV. A nanosecond resolution calorimetric time-of flight rejects background events by a factor of ∝10 4 . Electron trigger efficiency greater than 99.9% at a threshold energy value of ∝500 MeV is currently achieved. (orig.)

  19. Role of employee benefits in the motivation of employees at H1.cz

    OpenAIRE

    Hrubá, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focusing on an employee benefits system and its functionality. Theoretical part of the thesis specifies the human resources field as a whole, and its particular aspects, considering mainly the employee remuneration and employee benefits system. It also expands on the relationship between motivation, employee benefits and employee remuneration. The established knowledge are used in a practical part of the thesis, which has been carried out in H1 s.r.o. The company is fi...

  20. Mechanical ventilation in patients with most severe forms of influenza a H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pandemic of A H1N1 influenza is noted for its rapid spreading and life-threatening consequences like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which requires mechanical ventilation (MV and intensive therapy (IT. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of mechanical ventilation application in the presence of comorbidities on the outcome of the disease and patients with severe forms of acute influenza caused by A H1N1 virus. Methods. Five patients with acute respiratory failure caused by A H1N1 influenza that required MV were included in the study. Course and outcome of the treatment were monitored in relation to age and sex of the patients, concomitant diseases, time of influenza beginning, a time of admittance in an intensive care unit, a time of an endotracheal intubation and MV beginning, MV duration and occurrence of secondary infections. Results. Three patients were on a very prolonged MV (39, 43 and 20 days, respectively and they all survived. Two patients with a significantly shorter duration of MV (14 and 12 days, respectively died because of a very severe clinical course and concomitant diseases. Unexpectedly, we found a positive correlation between duration of MV and survival although two patients, who were on MV for the longest period of time (43 and 39 days, respectively, developed, as a complication, secondary bacterial pneumonia. Conclusion. Intensive therapy of patients with ARDS due to A H1N1 influenza virus requires MV which should be carried out according to guidelines of international expert forums. That is in accordance with our unexpected observation on negative correlation between duration of MV and fatal outcome. Intensive treatment of these patients, specially MV, can be very prolonged and, therefore, requires specialized teams of anesthesiologists, separate, isolated intensive therapy units and high level of medical staff protection, as was the case in this study, so no member of medical

  1. Community-based measures for mitigating the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyi Tang

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in March-April 2009, very stringent interventions including Fengxiao were implemented to prevent importation of infected cases and decelerate the disease spread in mainland China. The extent to which these measures have been effective remains elusive. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of Fengxiao that may inform policy decisions on improving community-based interventions for management of on-going outbreaks in China, in particular during the Spring Festival in mid-February 2010 when nationwide traveling will be substantially increased. We obtained data on initial laboratory-confirmed cases of H1N1 in the province of Shaanxi and used Markov-chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC simulations to estimate the reproduction number. Given the estimates for the exposed and infectious periods of the novel H1N1 virus, we estimated a mean reproduction number of 1.68 (95% CI 1.45-1.92 and other A/H1N1 epidemiological parameters. Our results based on a spatially stratified population dynamical model show that the early implementation of Fengxiao can delay the epidemic peak significantly and prevent the disease spread to the general population but may also, if not implemented appropriately, cause more severe outbreak within universities/colleges, while late implementation of Fengxiao can achieve nothing more than no implementation. Strengthening local control strategies (quarantine and hygiene precaution is much more effective in mitigating outbreaks and inhibiting the successive waves than implementing Fengxiao. Either strong mobility or high transport-related transmission rate during the Spring Festival holiday will not reverse the ongoing outbreak, but both will result in a large new wave. The findings suggest that Fengxiao and travel precautions should not be relaxed unless strict measures of quarantine, isolation, and hygiene precaution practices are put in place. Integration and prompt implementation of

  2. The H1 backward calorimeter BEMC and its inclusive electron trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, J.; Bauhoff, W.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Claassen, F.; Duhm, H.H.; Eisen, E.; Eschweiler, M.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Gaertner, W.; Gennis, M.; Glazov, A.; Griebel, R.; Guelck, C.; Harning, M.; Hartmann, T.; Hoelzke, U.; Javorek, M.; Kasselmann, H.P.; Krasny, M.W.; Krivan, F.; Krause, H.; Koch, J.; Kuehn, U.; Kurca, T.; Langkau, R.; Lipka, M.; Maracek, R.; Matysek, M.; Meier, K.; Murin, P.; Novak, T.; Olszowska, J.; Peppel, E.; Pichler, C.; Rathje, K.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Scobel, W.; Schirm, N.; Schrader, C.; Schrieber, S.; Seman, M.; Skvaril, P.; Spalek, J.; Wunderlich, R.; Zarbock, D.

    1996-01-01

    A sandwich type lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter with wavelength shifter optical readout has been successfully operated at the DESY ep collider HERA in the H1 detector for three years. The mechanical design of the calorimeter together with the associated electronics and the inclusive electron trigger as well as its performance and stability in test beams and at the ep collider HERA are described in detail. (orig.)

  3. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  4. Screening for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Auckland International Airport, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael J.; Baker, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Entry screening for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 at Auckland International Airport, New Zealand, detected 4 cases, which were later confirmed, among 456,518 passengers arriving April 27–June 22, 2009. On the basis of national influenza surveillance data, which suggest that ≈69 infected travelers passed through the airport, sensitivity for screening was only 5.8%. PMID:22516105

  5. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted.

  6. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  7. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  8. Epidemiology of Travel-associated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in 116 Patients, Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Lim, Poh Lian; Chow, Angela; Barkham, Timothy; Seow, Eillyne; Win, Mar Kyaw; Chua, Arlene; Leo, Yee Sin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, during Singapore?s pandemic influenza plan containment phase, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was introduced into the country through imported cases. To understand how travel patterns affected the initial outbreak, we examined epidemiologic and travel data for the first 116 case-patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, with travel-associated infection. Sixty-one percent and 54% of patients, respectively, met US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Orga...

  9. The Influence of histamine H1-receptor on liver functions in immunized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Shahid, Mohammad; Khan, Haris M; Khan, Rahat Ali; Siddiqui, Mashiatullah; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the functional roles of histamine and histamine H1-receptor agonist and antagonist in the development of liver function impairment in immunized rabbits. The study comprised of six groups containing 18 rabbits each. Group III-VI received histamine (100 μg/kg, s.c.), H1R-agonist (HTMT, 10 μg/kg, s.c.), H1R-antagonist (pheniramine, 10 mg/kg, i.m.), and H1R-antagonist (pheniramine, 10 mg/kg, i.m.) plus histamine (100 μg/kg, s.c.), respectively, b.i.d. for 10 days. Group I (negative control) and group II (positive control) received sterile distilled water intramuscularly b.i.d. for 10 days. Groups II-VI were immunized on day 3 with intravenous injection of SRBC (1 × 10(9) cells/ml). Blood samples were collected on pre-immunization day 0, as well as on days 7-, 14-, 21-, 28-, and 58-post-immunization. Biochemical parameters AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin [total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB), and indirect bilirubin (IB)] were determined. On each experimental day, the mean values of serum enzymes and bilirubin in group I and group II showed no significant changes while in group III, IV, V, and VI, these enzymes and bilirubin levels showed significant changes (p pheniramine, and combination of histamine + pheniramine cause hepatic function impairment in terms of altered serum enzymes and bilirubin levels. The present findings suggest that HTMT causes moderate liver function impairment while others show mild impairment.

  10. H1N1 influenza ('swine 'flu') in the paediatric ICU in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schoub B. Swine flu – implications for South Africa. Communicable Diseases Surveillance. Bulletin 2009;7(3):5-7. 5. Ahrens JO, Morrow BM, Argent AC. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit, South Africa. S Afr J Crit Care 2015;31(1):4-7. 6. Cox CM, Blanton L, Dhara R, ...

  11. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L.; Huber, Steven C.; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence. PMID:23234799

  12. Lysine deacetylase inhibition prevents diabetes by chromatin-independent immunoregulation and beta-cell protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, D.P.; Gysemans, C.; Lundh, M.; Dahllof, M.S.; Noesgaard, D.; Schmidt, S.F.; Mandrup, S; Birkbak, N.; Workman, C.T.; Piemonti, L.; Blaabjerg, L.; Monzani, V.; Fossati, G.; Mascagni, P.; Paraskevas, S.; Aikin, R.A.; Billestrup, N.; Grunnet, L.G.; Dinarello, C.A.; Mathieu, C.; Mandrup-Poulsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is due to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Lysine deacetylase inhibitors (KDACi) protect beta-cells from inflammatory destruction in vitro and are promising immunomodulators. Here we demonstrate that the clinically well-tolerated KDACi vorinostat and givinostat revert diabetes

  13. Lysine requirement of the enterally fed term infant in the first month of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; Hogewind-Schoonenboom, J.E.; de Groof, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Voortman, G.J.; Dorst, K.; Schierbeek, H.; Boehm, G.; Huang, Y.; Chen, C.; van Goudoever, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Infant nutrition has a major impact on child growth and functional development. Low and high intakes of protein or amino acids could have a detrimental effect. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the lysine requirement of enterally fed term neonates by using the

  14. Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2012-01-01

    ,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals...

  15. Ab Initio Calculations of Deuterium Isotope Effects on Chemical Shifts of Salt-Bridged Lysines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Saif; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Williamson, Mike P.

    2011-01-01

    (D), in ammonium and amines decrease as a counterion or water molecule moves closer to the nitrogen. 1Δ15N(D) and 2Δ1H(D) of the NH3+ groups of lysine residues in the B1 domain of protein G have been calculated using truncated side chains and also determined experimentally by NMR. Comparisons show...

  16. Differential Modulation of Cellular Bioenergetics by Poly(L-lysine)s of Different Molecular Weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Arnaldur; Wu, Lin-Ping; Parhamifar, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Poly(L-lysine)s (PLLs), and related derivatives, have received considerable attention as nonviral vectors. High molecular weight PLLs (H-PLLs) are superior transfectants compared with low Mw PLLs (L-PLLs), but suggested to be more cytotoxic. Through a pan-integrated metabolomic approach using Sea...

  17. Tuning a Protein-Labeling Reaction to Achieve Highly Site Selective Lysine Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Grace H; Ou, Weijia; Bursulaya, Badry; DiDonato, Michael; Herath, Ananda; Jin, Yunho; Hao, Xueshi; Loren, Jon; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar; Uno, Tetsuo; Geierstanger, Bernhard H; Cellitti, Susan E

    2018-04-16

    Activated esters are widely used to label proteins at lysine side chains and N termini. These reagents are useful for labeling virtually any protein, but robust reactivity toward primary amines generally precludes site-selective modification. In a unique case, fluorophenyl esters are shown to preferentially label human kappa antibodies at a single lysine (Lys188) within the light-chain constant domain. Neighboring residues His189 and Asp151 contribute to the accelerated rate of labeling at Lys188 relative to the ≈40 other lysine sites. Enriched Lys188 labeling can be enhanced from 50-70 % to >95 % by any of these approaches: lowering reaction temperature, applying flow chemistry, or mutagenesis of specific residues in the surrounding protein environment. Our results demonstrated that activated esters with fluoro-substituted aromatic leaving groups, including a fluoronaphthyl ester, can be generally useful reagents for site-selective lysine labeling of antibodies and other immunoglobulin-type proteins. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Digestible threonine to lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-hundred sixteen white laying hens were used to assess the ideal ratio of digestible threonine:lysine in diets for laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age. Birds were assigned to a randomized block design, with six treatments, six replicates per treatment and six birds per experimental unit. The cage was used as the blocking criterion. Experimental diets contained different digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratios (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90% with 142 g/kg of crude protein. Experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with different contents of L-glutamic acid. Feed intake (g/hen/d, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/d, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen and kg/kg egg, eggshell weight (g, albumen weight (g, yolk weight (g and body weight gain (g were assessed. The maximum egg production was observed at 78% digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio, while the best values of feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg of egg were observed at 77.6% and 75%, respectively. Feed intake, egg mass and egg contents (yolk, albumen and eggshell were not affected by treatments. The estimated digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of Hy-Line W36 laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age is 78%, corresponding to 5.70 g/kg of dietary digestible threonine.

  19. Lysine deacetylases are produced in pancreatic beta cells and are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, M; Christensen, D P; Rasmussen, D N

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-induced beta cell toxicity is abrogated by non-selective inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). The KDAC family consists of 11 members, namely histone deacetylases HDAC1 to HDAC11, but it is not known which KDAC members play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death. The aim...

  20. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600