Sample records for h-mode edge extrapolation

  1. BOUT++ Simulations of Edge Turbulence in Alcator C-Mod's EDA H-Mode (United States)

    Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Hughes, J. W.; Labombard, B.; Snyder, P. B.; Xu, X. Q.


    Energy confinement in tokamaks is believed to be strongly controlled by plasma transport in the pedestal. The pedestal of Alcator C-Mod's Enhanced Dα (EDA) H-mode (ν* > 1) is regulated by a quasi-coherent mode (QCM), an edge fluctuation believed to reduce particle confinement and allow steady-state H-mode operation. ELITE calculations indicate that EDA H-modes sit well below the ideal peeling-ballooning instability threshold, in contrast with ELMy H-modes. Here, we use a 3-field reduced MHD model in BOUT++ to study the effects of nonideal and nonlinear physics on EDA H-modes. In particular, incorporation of realistic pedestal resistivity is found to drive resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) and increase linear growth rates above the corresponding ideal rates. These RBMs may ultimately be responsible for constraining the EDA pedestal gradient. However, recent high-fidelity mirror Langmuir probe measurements indicate that the QCM is an electron drift-Alfvén wave - not a RBM. Inclusion of the parallel pressure gradient term in the 3-field reduced MHD Ohm's law and various higher field fluid models are implemented in an effort to capture this drift wave-like response. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDoE under awards DE-FG02-94-ER54235, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NNSA SSGF.

  2. H-mode achievement and edge features in RFX-mod tokamak operation (United States)

    Spolaore, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Marrelli, L.; Carraro, L.; Franz, P.; Spagnolo, S.; Zaniol, B.; Zuin, M.; Cordaro, L.; Dal Bello, S.; De Masi, G.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Grando, L.; Grenfell, G.; Innocente, P.; Kudlacek, O.; Marchiori, G.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Paccagnella, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Puiatti, M. E.; Recchia, M.; Scarin, P.; Taliercio, C.; Vianello, N.; Zanotto, L.


    The RFX-mod experiment is a fusion device designed to operate as a reversed field pinch (RFP), with a major radius R = 2 m and a minor radius a = 0.459 m. Its high versatility recently allowed operating it also as an ohmic tokamak, allowing comparative studies between the two configurations in the same device. The device is equipped with a state of the art MHD mode feedback control system providing a magnetic boundary effective control, by applying resonant or non-resonant magnetic perturbations (MP), both in RFP and in tokamak configurations. In the fusion community the application of MPs is widely studied as a promising tool to limit the impact of plasma filaments and ELMs (edge localized modes) on plasma facing components. An important new research line is the exploitation of the RFX-mod active control system for ELM mitigation studies. As a first step in this direction, this paper presents the most recent achievements in term of RFX-mod tokamak explored scenarios, which allowed the first investigation of the ohmic and edge biasing induced H-mode. The production of D-shaped tokamak discharges and the design and deployment of an insertable polarized electrode were accomplished. Reproducible H-mode phases were obtained with insertable electrode negative biasing in single null discharges, representing an unexplored scenario with this technique. Important modifications of the edge plasma density and flow properties are observed. During the achieved H-mode ELM-like electromagnetic composite filamentary structures are observed. They are characterized by clear vorticity and parallel current density patterns.

  3. Edge simulations in ELMy H-mode discharges of EAST tokamak (United States)

    Xia, T. Y.; Huang, Y. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Wu, Y. B.; Wang, L.; Zheng, Z.; Liu, J. B.; Zang, Q.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhao, D.


    Simulations of ELM crash followed by a coherent mode, leading to transient divertor heat flux on EAST are achieved by the six-field two-fluid model in BOUT + + . Three EAST ELMy H-mode discharges with different pedestal structure, geometry and plasma current Ip are studied. The ELM-driven crash of the profiles in pedestal is reproduced, and the footprints of ELM filaments on targets are comparable with the measurements from divertor probes. A coherent mode is also found in the edge region in all the simulations after the ELM crash. The frequency and poloidal wave number are in the range of the edge coherent mode (ECM) on EAST. The magnetic fluctuations of the mode are smaller than the electric field fluctuations. The detailed comparisons between simulated mode structures with measurements will be reported. Statistical analysis on the simulated turbulent fluctuations shows that both the turbulent and blobby electron anomalous transport can pump the pedestal energy out into SOL, and then flow to divertors. The similar trend of the heat flux width with Ip is obtained in the simulations. The effects of the SOL current driven by LHW on ELMs will be discussed in this paper. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. It was supported by the China NSF 11405215 and 11675217.

  4. Phase Contrast Imaging Measurements of Edge Turbulence Across an H-mode Transition (United States)

    Rost, J. C.; Marinoni, A.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.


    The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic on DIII-D provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations. Analysis of previous PCI data taken during QH mode plasmas has revealed turbulence with short radial wavelengths and high frequencies which is generated by the well in the radial electric field Er. Application of these results allows us to study the rapid evolution in turbulence at an L-H transition. The dominant effect of the L-H transition on turbulence is a 70% drop in fluctuation amplitude. However high frequency fluctuations are seen to arise on the same time scale as the L-H transition (i.e. a few ms). Interpretation of the 2d spectrum S (k , f) of the PCI data of the line-integrated fluctuation, especially the Doppler shift and the ratio S (kpci / S (-kpci) , indicates that the high frequency fluctuations are located on the inner edge of the Er well. There is in addition a region of turbulence the PCI detects which is located outside the minimum of the Er well. This ongoing work will provide quantitative information on the evolution of the Er well at high time resolution across the L-H transition, important to understanding the interaction between turbulence and flow shear at the H-mode transition. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Configuration and Heating Power Dependence of Edge Parameters and H-mode Dynamics in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Bush; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J. Boedo; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S. Kubota; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R.J. Maqueda; S.A. Sabbagh; V.A. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; J.B. Wilgen; S.J. Zweben; W.M. Davis; D.A. Gates; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; D. Mastrovito; S. Medley; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S.J. Paul; Y-K.M. Peng; R. Raman; P.G. Roney; A.L. Roquemore; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; G. Taylor; the NSTX Team


    Edge parameters play a critical role in H-mode (high-confinement mode) access, which is a key component of plasma discharge optimization in present-day toroidal confinement experiments and the design of next-generation devices. Because the edge magnetic topology of a spherical torus (ST) differs from a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, H-modes in STs exhibit important differences compared with tokamaks. The dependence of the NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) edge plasma on heating power, including the L-H transition requirements and the occurrence of edge-localized modes (ELMs), and on divertor configuration is quantified. Comparisons between good L-modes (low-confinement modes) and H-modes show greater differences in the ion channel than the electron channel. The threshold power for the H-mode transition in NSTX is generally above the predictions of a recent ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) scaling. Correlations of transition and ELM phenomena with turbulent fluctuations revealed by Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and reflectometry are observed. In both single-null and double-null divertor discharges, the density peaks off-axis, sometimes developing prominent ''ears'' which can be sustained for many energy confinement times, tau subscript ''E'', in the absence of ELMs. A wide variety of ELM behavior is observed, and ELM characteristics depend on configuration and fueling.

  6. Access to a New Plasma Edge State with High Density and Pressures using Quiescent H-mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Wayne M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez Durance (France); McKee, G. R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Nazikian, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    A path to a new high performance regime has been discovered in tokamaks that could improve the attractiveness of a fusion reactor. Experiments on DIII-D using a quiescent H-mode edge have navigated a valley of improved edge peeling-ballooning stability that opens up with strong plasma shaping at high density, leading to a doubling of the edge pressure over standard edge localized mode (ELM)ing H-mode at these parameters. The thermal energy confinement time increases both as a result of the increased pedestal height and improvements in the core transport and reduced low-k turbulence. Calculations of the pedestal height and width as a function of density using constraints imposed by peeling-ballooning and kinetic-ballooning theory are in quantitative agreement with the measurements.

  7. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.


    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciproc......An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond......-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ∼8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows...

  8. EDGE2D-EIRENE modelling of near SOL E r: possible impact on the H-mode power threshold (United States)

    Chankin, A. V.; Delabie, E.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Maggi, C. F.; Meyer, H.; Contributors, JET


    Recent EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of JET plasmas showed a significant difference between radial electric field (E r) profiles across the separatrix in two divertor configurations, with the outer strike point on the horizontal target (HT) and vertical target (VT) (Chankin et al 2016 Nucl. Mater. Energy, doi: 10.1016/j.nme.2016.10.004). Under conditions (input power, plasma density) where the HT plasma went into the H-mode, a large positive E r spike in the near scrape-off layer (SOL) was seen in the code output, leading to a very large E × B shear across the separatrix over a narrow region of a fraction of a cm width. No such E r feature was obtained in the code solution for the VT configuration, where the H-mode power threshold was found to be twice as high as in the HT configuration. It was hypothesised that the large E × B shear across the separatrix in the HT configuration could be responsible for the turbulence suppression leading to an earlier (at lower input power) L-H transition compared to the VT configuration. In the present work these ideas are extended to cover some other experimental observations on the H-mode power threshold variation with parameters which typically are not included in the multi-machine H-mode power threshold scalings, namely: ion mass dependence (isotope H-D-T exchange), dependence on the ion ∇B drift direction, and dependence on the wall material composition (ITER-like wall versus carbon wall in JET). In all these cases EDGE2D-EIRENE modelling shows larger positive E r spikes in the near SOL under conditions where the H-mode power threshold is lower, at least in the HT configuration.

  9. Effect of progressively increasing lithium conditioning on edge transport and stability in high triangularity NSTX H-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R., E-mail: [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, R.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Boyle, D.P. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)


    A sequence of H-mode discharges with increasing levels of pre-discharge lithium evaporation (‘dose’) was conducted in high triangularity and elongation boundary shape in NSTX. Energy confinement increased, and recycling decreased with increasing lithium dose, similar to a previous lithium dose scan in medium triangularity and elongation plasmas. Data-constrained SOLPS interpretive modeling quantified the edge transport change: the electron particle diffusivity decreased by 10–30x. The electron thermal diffusivity decreased by 4x just inside the top of the pedestal, but increased by up to 5x very near the separatrix. These results provide a baseline expectation for lithium benefits in NSTX-U, which is optimized for a boundary shape similar to the one in this experiment.

  10. Short wavelength turbulence generated by shear in the quiescent H-mode edge on DIII–D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Dorris, J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)


    A region of turbulence with large radial wavenumber (k{sub r}ρ{sub s}>1) is found in the high-shear portion of the plasma edge in Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) on DIII–D using the Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic. At its peak outside the minimum of the E{sub r} well, the turbulence exhibits large amplitude n{sup ~}/n∼40%, with large radial wavenumber |k{sup ¯}{sub r}/k{sup ¯}{sub θ}|∼11 and short radial correlation length L{sub r}/ρ{sub i}∼0.2. The turbulence inside the E{sub r} well minimum is characterized by the opposite sign in radial wavenumber from that of turbulence outside the minimum, consistent with the expected effects of velocity shear. The PCI diagnostic provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations, so data are taken during a scan of plasma position at constant parameters to allow the PCI to sample a range in k{sub r}/k{sub θ}. Analysis of the Doppler shift and plasma geometry allows the turbulence to be localized to a narrow region 3 mm inside the last closed flux surface, outside the minimum of the E{sub r} well. The turbulence amplitude and radial wavenumber and correlation length are determined by fitting the PCI results with a simple non-isotropic turbulence model with two regions of turbulence. These PCI observations, made in QH-mode, are qualitatively similar to those made in standard edge localized modes (ELM)-free H-mode and between ELMs, suggesting a similar role for large k{sub r} turbulence there.

  11. Short wavelength turbulence generated by shear in the quiescent H-mode edge on DIII-D (United States)

    Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Dorris, J.; Burrell, K. H.


    A region of turbulence with large radial wavenumber (krρs>1) is found in the high-shear portion of the plasma edge in Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) on DIII-D using the Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic. At its peak outside the minimum of the Er well, the turbulence exhibits large amplitude n ˜/n˜40%, with large radial wavenumber |k¯r/k¯θ|˜11 and short radial correlation length Lr/ρi˜0.2. The turbulence inside the Er well minimum is characterized by the opposite sign in radial wavenumber from that of turbulence outside the minimum, consistent with the expected effects of velocity shear. The PCI diagnostic provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations, so data are taken during a scan of plasma position at constant parameters to allow the PCI to sample a range in kr/kθ. Analysis of the Doppler shift and plasma geometry allows the turbulence to be localized to a narrow region 3 mm inside the last closed flux surface, outside the minimum of the Er well. The turbulence amplitude and radial wavenumber and correlation length are determined by fitting the PCI results with a simple non-isotropic turbulence model with two regions of turbulence. These PCI observations, made in QH-mode, are qualitatively similar to those made in standard edge localized modes (ELM)-free H-mode and between ELMs, suggesting a similar role for large kr turbulence there.

  12. Enhanced Confinement Scenarios Without Large Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks: Control, Performance, and Extrapolability Issues for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R [PPPL


    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) typically accompany good H-mode confinement in fusion devices, but can present problems for plasma facing components because of high transient heat loads. Here the range of techniques for ELM control deployed in fusion devices is reviewed. The two baseline strategies in the ITER baseline design are emphasized: rapid ELM triggering and peak heat flux control via pellet injection, and the use of magnetic perturbations to suppress or mitigate ELMs. While both of these techniques are moderately well developed, with reasonable physical bases for projecting to ITER, differing observations between multiple devices are also discussed to highlight the needed community R & D. In addition, recent progress in ELM-free regimes, namely Quiescent H-mode, I-mode, and Enhanced Pedestal H-mode is reviewed, and open questions for extrapolability are discussed. Finally progress and outstanding issues in alternate ELM control techniques are reviewed: supersonic molecular beam injection, edge electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating and/or current drive, controlled periodic jogs of the vertical centroid position, ELM pace-making via periodic magnetic perturbations, ELM elimination with lithium wall conditioning, and naturally occurring small ELM regimes.

  13. Initial Characterization of L-mode and H-mode Edge Turbulence in NSTX-U using Beam Emission Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kriete, David; Fonck, Raymond; McKee, George; Smith, David


    Turbulence in L-mode and H-mode plasmas in NSTX-U has been measured using the upgraded 2D BES system. Plasma discharges exhibit a broadband turbulence spectrum up to 150 kHz. In addition, a broadband feature centered at 100 kHz is observed in the early, low density L-mode phase of a discharge with high neutral beam heating, but not in the late, high density L-mode phase of a discharge with low neutral beam heating. Normalized density fluctuation power reduces after the L-H transition by a factor of 10 in the outer edge region, and 5 in the inner edge region. More detailed characterization results, including correlation lengths, decorrelation times, and flow dynamics across the L-H transition, will be presented. Due to discontinuation of the photodiode currently used in BES detectors, the capacitances of several modern, PIN photodiodes have been measured to assess their suitability for BES measurements. The BES preamplifier board layout has been redesigned to test each of the potential replacement diodes. The redesign also enables automated fabrication and assembly of the preamplifiers, simplifying future expansions to the BES system. Finally, the design specifications of a survey spectrometer for impurity measurements with BES detectors will be discussed. This work is supported by US DOE Award Numbers DE-SC0001288 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Edge-aware spatial-frequency extrapolation for consecutive block loss. (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Dengcheng; Wang, Bing; Li, Kangda; Tang, Hainie


    To improve the spatial error concealment (SEC) for consecutive block loss, an edge-aware spatial-frequency extrapolation (ESFE) algorithm and its edge-guided parametric model are proposed by selectively incorporating the Hough-based edge synthesis into the frequency-based extrapolation architecture. The dominant edges that cross the missing blocks are firstly identified by the Canny detector, and then the robust Hough transformation is utilized to systematically connect these discontinuous edges. During the generation of edge-guided parametric model, the synthesized edges are utilized to divide the missing blocks into the structure-preserving regions, and thus the residual error is reliably reduced. By successively minimizing the weighted residual error and updating the parametric model, the known samples are approximated by a set of basis functions which are distributed in a region containing both known and unknown samples. Compared with other state-of-the-art SEC algorithms, experimental results show that the proposed ESFE algorithm can achieve better reconstruction quality for consecutive block loss while keeping relatively moderate computational complexity.

  15. Two-Dimensional Visualization of Growth and Burst of the Edge-Localized Filaments in KSTAR H-Mode Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C.W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Donne, A. J. H.; Lee, J. H.


    The filamentary nature and dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) in the KSTAR high-confinement mode plasmas have been visualized in 2D via electron cyclotron emission imaging. The ELM filaments rotating with a net poloidal velocity are observed to evolve in three distinctive stages: initial linear

  16. Measurements of the edge current evolution and comparison with neoclassical calculations during MAST H-modes using motional Stark effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, M. F. M.; Citrin, J.; Saarelma, S.; Temple, D.; Conway, N. J.; Kirk, A.; Meyer, H.; Michael, C. A.


    Edge localized modes (ELMs), that are present in most tokamak H-(high confinement) modes, can cause significant damage to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Controlling ELMs is considered necessary and hence it is vital to understand the underlying physics. The stability of ELMs is

  17. Bifurcation of quiescent H-mode to a wide pedestal regime in DIII-D and advances in the understanding of edge harmonic oscillations (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Burrell, K. H.; Osborne, T. H.; Barada, K.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rost, J. C.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Yan, Z.; The DIII-D Team


    New experimental studies and modelling of the coherent edge harmonic oscillation (EHO), which regulates the conventional Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) edge, validate the proposed hypothesis of edge rotational shear in destabilizing the low-n kink-peeling mode as the additional drive mechanism for the EHO. The observed minimum edge E  ×  B shear required for the EHO decreases linearly with pedestal collisionality ν \\text{e}\\ast , which is favorable for operating QH-mode in machines with low collisionality and low rotation such as ITER. In addition, the QH-mode regime in DIII-D has recently been found to bifurcate into a new ‘wide-pedestal’ state at low torque in double-null shaped plasmas, characterized by increased pedestal height, width and thermal energy confinement (Burrell 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 056103, Chen 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 022007). This potentially provides an alternate path for achieving high performance ELM-stable operation at low torque, in addition to the low-torque QH-mode sustained with applied 3D fields. Multi-branch low-k and intermediate-k turbulences are observed in the ‘wide-pedestal’. New experiments support the hypothesis that the decreased edge E  ×  B shear enables destabilization of broadband turbulence, which relaxes edge pressure gradients, improves peeling-ballooning stability and allows a wider and thus higher pedestal. The ability to accurately predict the critical E  ×  B shear for EHO and maintain high performance QH-mode at low torque is an essential requirement for projecting QH-mode operation to ITER and future machines.

  18. UF-CHERS Measurements of Ion Temperature and Toroidal Rotation Fluctuations Associated with the Edge Harmonic Oscillation in Quiescent H-mode Plasmas (United States)

    Truong, D. D.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Grierson, B. A.


    The UF-CHERS (Ultra Fast CHarge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy) diagnostic at DIII-D measures local, long-wavelength ion temperature and toroidal velocity fluctuations at turbulence-relevant spatiotemporal scales from emission of the CVI n=8 ->7 transition. During Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) plasmas, which offer ELM-free improved confinement, UF-CHERS measurements observed coherent, low frequency (fo 10kHz) pedestal oscillations in Ti and vtor at the Edge Harmonic Oscillation (EHO) frequency while several modes between 35-75 kHz are suppressed when the EHO appears. Although broadband ion temperature and density fluctuations were reduced by the EHO, the toroidal rotation showed increased fluctuation amplitude. Investigating ion temperature and toroidal fluctuations associated with the EHO may provide insights into the saturated instability driving the EHO. Supported by DOE Grants DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and NSF GRFP Grant DGE-1256259.

  19. Power requirements for superior H-mode confinement on Alcator C-Mod: experiments in support of ITER (United States)

    Hughes, J. W.; Loarte, A.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Brunner, D.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Ma, Y.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S. J.


    Power requirements for maintaining sufficiently high confinement (i.e. normalized energy confinement time H98 >= 1) in H-mode and its relation to H-mode threshold power scaling, Pth, are of critical importance to ITER. In order to better characterize these power requirements, recent experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have investigated H-mode properties, including the edge pedestal and global confinement, over a range of input powers near and above Pth. In addition, we have examined the compatibility of impurity seeding with high performance operation, and the influence of plasma radiation and its spatial distribution on performance. Experiments were performed at 5.4 T at ITER relevant densities, utilizing bulk metal plasma facing surfaces and an ion cyclotron range of frequency waves for auxiliary heating. Input power was scanned both in stationary enhanced Dα (EDA) H-modes with no large edge localized modes (ELMs) and in ELMy H-modes in order to relate the resulting pedestal and confinement to the amount of power flowing into the scrape-off layer, Pnet, and also to the divertor targets. In both EDA and ELMy H-mode, energy confinement is generally good, with H98 near unity. As Pnet is reduced to levels approaching that in L-mode, pedestal temperature diminishes significantly and normalized confinement time drops. By seeding with low-Z impurities, such as Ne and N2, high total radiated power fractions are possible, along with substantial reductions in divertor heat flux (>4×), all while maintaining H98 ~ 1. When the power radiated from the confined versus unconfined plasma is examined, pedestal and confinement properties are clearly seen to be an increasing function of Pnet, helping to unify the results with those from unseeded H-modes. This provides increased confidence that the power flow across the separatrix is the correct physics basis for ITER extrapolation. The experiments show that Pnet/Pth of one or greater is likely to lead to H98 >= 1 operation


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An analytic model, derived from coupled continuity equations for the electron and neutral deuterium densities, is consistent with many features of edge electron density profiles in the DIII-D tokamak. For an assumed constant particle diffusion coefficient, the model shows that particle transport and neutral fueling produce electron and neutral density profiles that have the same characteristic scale lengths at the plasma edge. For systematic variations of density in H-mode discharges, the model predicts that the width of the electron density transport barrier decreases and the maximum gradient increases, as observed in the experiments. The widths computed from the model agree quantitatively with the experimental widths for conditions in which the model is valid. These results support models of transport barrier formation in which the H-mode particle barrier is driven by the edge particle flux and the width of the barrier is approximately the neutral penetration length.

  1. The quasi-coherent signature of enhanced D{sub {alpha}} H-mode in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, J.A.; LaBombard, B.; Greenwald, M.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; Lin, Y.; Mazurenko, A.; Porkolab, M. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    The steady-state H-mode regime found at moderate to high density in Alcator C-Mod, known as enhanced D{sub {alpha}} (EDA) H-mode, appears to be maintained by a continuous quasi-coherent (QC) mode in the steep edge gradient region. Large amplitude density and magnetic fluctuations with typical frequencies of about 100 kHz are driven by the QC mode. These fluctuations are measured in the steep edge gradient region by inserting a fast-scanning probe containing two poloidally separated Langmuir probes and a poloidal field pick-up coil. As the probe approaches the plasma edge, clear magnetic fluctuations were measured within about 2 cm of the last-closed flux surface (LCFS). The mode amplitude falls off rapidly with distance from the plasma centre with an exponential decay length of k{sub r} approx. 1.5 cm{sup -1}, measured 10 cm above the outboard midplane. The root-mean-square amplitude of the fluctuation extrapolated to the LCFS was B-tilde{sub {theta}} approx. 5 G. The density fluctuations, on the other hand, were visible on the Langmuir probe only when it was within a few millimetres of the LCFS. The potential and density fluctuations were sufficiently in phase to enhance particle transport at the QC mode frequency. These results show that the QC signature of the EDA H-mode is an electromagnetic mode that appears to be responsible for the enhanced particle transport in the plasma edge. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  2. Fluctuations during JET discharges with H-mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malacarne, M.; Cripwell, P.; Duperrex, P.A.; Edwards, A.W.; Gill, R.D.; Granetz, R.S.; Simonet, F.; Snipes, J.; Weller, A.


    The appearance and disappearance of H-mode behaviour in JET Tokamak discharges is associated with characteristic instabilities detected by edge magnetic probes, arrays of soft X-ray diodes and reflectometry: edge disruptive-like modes are observed before L-H transitions whereas H-L transitions are accompanied by large bursts of broad-band activity. Other observed fluctuations, shown to be resonant in the central region of the discharge, are not affected by the transitions. The importance of edge fluctuations and induced transport of a magnetic separatrix configuration is thus emphasised.

  3. Plasma autobiasing during Ohmic H-mode in the STOR-M tokamak (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.


    Application of a short current pulse on a nominal Ohmic discharge in the STOR-M tokamak (Saskatchewan Torus-Modified) [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3277 (1992)] triggers the Ohmic H-mode characterized by reduced Hα radiation, increased electron density, and reduced edge density/magnetic fluctuations. Measurements of plasma floating potential at the plasma edge and in the scrape-off layer indicate that the Ohmic H-mode is accompanied by negative plasma autobiasing, which leads to a steeper radial electric field profile at the edge. Since the duration of the current pulse (≤20 kA, 100 μsec) is shorter than the resistive skin time (≂1 msec), preferential edge heating is expected, which is believed to be responsible for changes in the edge discharge condition favorable for inducing the Ohmic H-mode. The electron density profile becomes steeper at the edge during the H-mode, and clear formation of a density pedestal has been seen. The evolution of the density profile suggests the presence of particle pinch. An improved confinement phase (ICP) is induced by external negative electrode biasing. The ICP reveals some similarities as compared to the current pulse induced H-mode. It is found that the electrostatic modes are dominant in the scrape-off layer while electromagnetic modes dominate in the plasma edge during the normal Ohmic discharges.

  4. Plasma auto-biasing during Ohmic H-mode in the STOR-M tokamak (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.


    Application of a short current pulse on a nominal Ohmic discharge in the STOR-M tokamak triggers the Ohmic H-mode characterized by reduced H sub alpha radiation, increased electron density, and reduced edge density/magnetic fluctuations. Measurements of plasma floating potential at the plasma edge and in the scrape-off layer indicate that the Ohmic H-mode is accompanied by negative plasma autobiasing which leads to a steeper radial electric field profile at the edge. Since the duration of the current pulse is shorter than the resistive skin time of about 1 ms, preferential edge heating is expected, which is believed to be responsible for changes in the edge discharge condition favorable for inducing the Ohmic H-mode. The electron density profile becomes steeper at the edge during the H-mode, and clear formation of a density pedestal has been seen. The evolution of the density profile suggests the presence of particle pinch. It is found that the electrostatic modes are dominant in the scrape-off layer while electromagnetic modes dominate in the main plasma. A similar H-mode is induced by external negative electrode biasing.

  5. Recent results of H-mode confinement study in JT-60U (April-September, 1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Improvement in the performance of energy confinement is one of the most important issues to realize thermonuclear fusion reactors. The H-mode is one of excellent improved confinement modes. From the view point of steady-state operation, the ELMy H-mode is considered to be a principal operation mode in ITER. For the engineering design of the ITER, there still remain issues to be clarified on the H-mode characteristics. These issues are required to be studied on the present tokamaks as ITER physics research needs. In order to satisfy the above request, experiments of the H-mode confinement have been carried out on JT-60U. Recent results of H-mode confinement study in JT-60U during April to September, 1995 are summarized in the present report. The scaling of high T{sub i} H-mode confinement is described in section 2. The time behaviour of transport properties are shown in sections 3 and 4. Result of the non-dimensional transport experiment is presented in section 5. The H-mode transition is investigated in sections 6, 7, 8 and 9; threshold power scaling, parametric study on edge local quantities, effect of edge neutrals, and H-L back transition. The onset condition of ELMs is studied in section 10. (author).

  6. Improved H mode with flat central q profile on EAST (United States)

    Liu, Haiqing; Yang, Yao; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Long; Qian, Jinping; Gong, Xianzu; Wan, Baonian; Ding, Weixing; Brower, David Lyn; EAST Team


    High betaN ( 1.8) plasma with good confinement (H98y2 1.1) on EAST tokamak has been reported recently. These ELMy H-mode plasmas with Bt = 1.6T, Ip = 400 kA and q95 4.5 were heated by lower hybrid wave and neutral beam injection. The internal transport barrier (ITB) and edge transport barrier (ETB) are both observed with m/n =1/1 fishbone, which were identified to clamp central q at values close to unity. Implying an improved H-mode with flat central q profile and absence of sawteeth, like other devices. Accurate q profile, key profile for developing scenarios aim at high performance H mode, were derived by Polarimeter-interferometer (POINT) measurement as constraint. Base on the optimized current profile, better confinement (H98y2 1.4) with an electron ITB was obtained also with flat central q profile and absence of sawteeth at high betaP ( 2) regime with Bt = 2.5T, Ip = 400 kA. Both high betaN regime and high betaP regime H mode, are characterized by a stationary flat central q profile q0 >=1, but typically close to 1, absence of sawteeth, H98(y,2) >1 and simultaneously, with ITB. This work is supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China with Contract No. 2014GB106002 and partly supported by the US D.O.E. contract DESC0010469.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    High confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, et al., Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987) Vol. I, p. 159] this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation which is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 seconds or >25 energy confinement times {tau}{sub E}), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved {beta}{sub N} H{sub 89} = 7 for up to 5 times the {tau}{sub E} of 150 ms. The {beta}{sub N} H{sub 89} values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in standard ELMing H-mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H-mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  8. Quiescent Double Barrier H-Mode Plasmas in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H; Austin, M E; Brennan, D P; DeBoo, J C; Doyle, E J; Fenzi, C; Fuchs, C; Gohil, P; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Lao, L L; Luce, T C; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Moyer, R A; Petty, C C; Porkolab, M; Rettig, C L; Rhodes, T L; Rost, J C; Stallard, B W; Strait, E J; Synakowski, E J; Wade, M R; Watkins, J G; West, W P


    High confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation which is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 seconds or >25 energy confinement times {tau}{sub E}), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved {beta}{sub N} H89 = 7 for up to 5 times the {tau}{sub E} of 150 ms. The {beta}{sub N} H89 values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in standard ELMing H-mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H-mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  9. Hybrid H-mode scenario with nitrogen seeding and type III ELMs in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, Y.; Joffrin, E.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Andrew, Y.; Arnoux, G.; Beurskens, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Buttery, R.; Coffey, I.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Hacquin, S.; Hobirk, J.; Huber, A.; Imbeaux, F.; Jachmich, S.; Kempenaars, M.; Litaudon, X.; Leggate, H.; Loarer, T.; Maddison, G.; Rachlew, E.; Rapp, J.; Sauter, O.; Savchkov, A.; Telesca, G.; Widdowson, A.; Zastrow, K. D.; Zimmermann, O.


    The performance of the 'hybrid' H-mode regime (long pulse operation with high neutron fluency) has been extensively investigated in JET during the 2005-2007 experimental campaign up to normalized pressure beta(N) = 3, toroidal magnetic field B-t = 1.7T, with type I ELMs plasma edge

  10. Castellated tungsten plasma-facing components exposed to H-mode plasma in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.-H., E-mail: [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, HanYang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Accelerator and Nuclear Fusion Physics and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.-H.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, H.T.; Bang, E.-N.; Son, S.H.; Kim, H.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Heat load on the misaligned leading edges are studied by COMSOL analysis and infrared (IR) measurements in KSTAR. • 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} of heat flux has been deposited on the blocks during the inter-ELM (edge localized mode) phase in H-mode plasmas. • 1 mm leading edge under 3 MW/m{sup 2} reaches the recrystallization point within 2 s and will be melted within 30 s. • Shaped blocks show much better thermal response meaning that shaping of blocks enhances the heat load handling capability. • A simple COMSOL analysis describes qualitatively heat load patterns on the tungsten blocks of different shapes. - Abstract: Heat load on the misaligned leading edges of tungsten castellated blocks based on tungsten (W), oxygen-free high conductive copper (OFHC-Cu), and copper-chrome-zirconium (CuCrZr) alloy are studied by COMSOL analysis and infrared (IR) measurements in KSTAR. IR measurements show that 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} of heat flux has been deposited on the blocks during the inter-ELM (edge localized mode) phase in H-mode plasmas. COMSOL analysis indicates that the temperature of 1 mm leading edge in KSTAR under 3 MW/m{sup 2} would reach the recrystallization temperature within 2 s and will be melted within 30 s during a long pulse H-mode shot. Rounded and double chamfered blocks show much better thermal response meaning that shaping of divertor block enhances the heat load handling capability. It seems that a simple COMSOL analysis describes heat load patterns on the tungsten blocks of different shapes qualitatively well. Therefore, simple analysis would be useful to make a quick prediction on heat load patterns of blocks with arbitrary shapes.

  11. A stationary long-pulse ELM-absent H-mode regime in EAST (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Guo, H. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Yang, Q. Q.; Wang, H. Q.; Zhang, W.; Xia, T. Y.; Zhang, T.; Li, Y. Y.; Wang, T. F.; Zang, Q.; Hu, Y. J.; Wu, G. J.; Zhang, L.; Hao, B. L.; Wang, L.; Li, Y. L.; Wu, X. Q.; Chen, L.; Lan, H.; Wang, Y. F.; Xu, J. C.; Hu, G. H.; Ding, S. Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, N.; Li, J.; The EAST Team


    A stationary edge-localized mode (ELM)-absent H-mode regime, with an electrostatic edge coherent mode (ECM) which resides in the pedestal region, has been achieved in the EAST tokamak recently. This regime allows the operation of a nearly fully noninductive long pulse (>15 s), exhibiting a relatively high pedestal and good global energy confinement with {{H}98,y2} near 1.2, and excellent impurity control. Furthermore, this regime is mostly obtained with a 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) or counter-current neutral beam injection (NBI), plus electron cyclotron resonance heating, and an extensive lithium wall coating. This stationary ELM-absent H-mode regime transits to a stationary small ELM H-mode regime, and upon additional heating power from the 2.45 GHz LHCD, an ion cyclotron resonant frequency or co-current NBI is applied (under 4.6 GHz LHCD heating background). A slight change of the plasma configuration also makes the small ELMs reappear. The experimental observations suggest that a long-pulse ELM-absent regime can be induced by the ECM, which exhibits strong electrostatic fluctuations and may provide a channel for continuous particle (especially impurities) and heat exhaust across the pedestal. The ECM exists in the collisionality of ν e*   =  2.5-4 and the pressure gradient |\

  12. Analysis of the H-mode density limit in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak using bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernert, Matthias


    The high confinement mode (H-mode) is the operational scenario foreseen for ITER, DEMO and future fusion power plants. At high densities, which are favourable in order to maximize the fusion power, a back transition from the H-mode to the low confinement mode (L-mode) is observed. This H-mode density limit (HDL) occurs at densities on the order of, but below, the Greenwald density. In this thesis, the HDL is revisited in the fully tungsten walled ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG). In AUG discharges, four distinct operational phases were identified in the approach towards the HDL. First, there is a stable H-mode, where the plasma density increases at steady confinement, followed by a degrading H-mode, where the core electron density is fixed and the confinement, expressed as the energy confinement time, reduces. In the third phase, the breakdown of the H-mode and transition to the L-mode, the overall electron density is fixed and the confinement decreases further, leading, finally, to an L-mode, where the density increases again at a steady confinement at typical L-mode values until the disruptive Greenwald limit is reached. These four phases are reproducible, quasi-stable plasma regimes and provide a framework in which the HDL can be further analysed. Radiation losses and several other mechanisms, that were proposed as explanations for the HDL, are ruled out for the current set of AUG experiments with tungsten walls. In addition, a threshold of the radial electric field or of the power flux into the divertor appears to be responsible for the final transition back to L-mode, however, it does not determine the onset of the HDL. The observation of the four phases is explained by the combination of two mechanisms: a fueling limit due to an outward shift of the ionization profile and an additional energy loss channel, which decreases the confinement. The latter is most likely created by an increased radial convective transport at the edge of the plasma. It is shown that the

  13. H-mode pedestal and threshold studies over an expanded operating space on Alcator C-Moda) (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Biewer, T.; Cziegler, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lin, Y.; McDermott, R.; Rice, J. E.; Rowan, W. L.; Snipes, J. A.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M.; Wukitch, S.


    This paper reports on studies of the edge transport barrier and transition threshold of the high confinement (H) mode of operation on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)], over a wide range of toroidal field (2.6-7.86T) and plasma current (0.4-1.7MA). The H-mode power threshold and edge temperature at the transition increase with field. Barrier widths, pressure limits, and confinement are nearly independent of field at constant current, but the operational space at high B shifts toward higher temperature and lower density and collisionality. Experiments with reversed field and current show that scrape-off-layer flows in the high-field side depend primarily on configuration. In configurations with the B ×∇B drift away from the active X-point, these flows lead to more countercurrent core rotation, which apparently contributes to higher H-mode thresholds. In the unfavorable case, edge temperature thresholds are higher, and slow evolution of profiles indicates a reduction in thermal transport prior to the transition in particle confinement. Pedestal temperatures in this case are also higher than in the favorable configuration. Both high-field and reversed-field results suggest that parameters at the L-H transition are influencing the evolution and parameters of the H-mode pedestal.

  14. Characteristics of the First H-mode Discharges in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; and Synakowski, E.J.


    We report observations of the first low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transitions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The H-mode energy confinement time increased over reference L-mode discharges transiently by 100-300%, as high as {approximately}150 ms. This confinement time is {approximately}1.8-2.3 times higher than predicted by a multi-machine ELM-free H-mode scaling. This achievement extends the H-mode window of fusion devices down to a record low aspect ratio (R/a) {approximately} 1.3, challenging both confinement and L-H power thresholds scalings based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks.

  15. Study on H-mode access at low density with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall coatings on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.G.


    The first high-confinement mode (H-mode) with type-III edge localized modes at an H factor of HIPB98(y,2) ~ 1 has been obtained with about 1 MW lower hybrid wave power on the EAST superconducting tokamak. The first H-mode plasma appeared after wall conditioning by lithium (Li) evaporation before...... plasma breakdown and the real-time injection of fine Li powder into the plasma edge. The threshold power for H-mode access follows the international tokamak scaling even in the low density range and a threshold in density has been identified. With increasing accumulation of deposited Li the H......, which is considered the main mechanism for the H-mode power threshold reduction by the Li wall coatings....

  16. Divertor heat flux simulations in ELMy H-mode discharges of EAST (United States)

    Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Wu, Y. B.; Huang, Y. Q.; Wang, L.; Zheng, Z.; Liu, J. B.; Zang, Q.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhao, D.; EAST Team


    This paper presents heat flux simulations for the ELMy H-mode on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) using a six-field two-fluid model in BOUT++. Three EAST ELMy H-mode discharges with different plasma currents I p and geometries are studied. The trend of the scrape-off layer width λq with I p is reproduced by the simulation. The simulated width is only half of that derived from the EAST scaling law, but agrees well with the international multi-machine scaling law. Note that there is no radio-frequency (RF) heating scheme in the simulations, and RF heating can change the boundary topology and increase the flux expansion. Anomalous electron transport is found to contribute to the divertor heat fluxes. A coherent mode is found in the edge region in simulations. The frequency and poloidal wave number kθ are in the range of the edge coherent mode in EAST. The magnetic fluctuations of the mode are smaller than the electric field fluctuations. Statistical analysis of the type of turbulence shows that the turbulence transport type (blobby or turbulent) does not influence the heat flux width scaling. The two-point model differs from the simulation results but the drift-based model shows good agreement with simulations.

  17. H-mode plasmas at very low aspect ratio on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment (United States)

    Thome, K. E.; Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Kriete, D. M.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.


    H-mode is obtained at A˜ 1.2 in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via Ohmic heating, high-field-side fueling, and low edge recycling in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. These H-mode plasmas show the formation of edge current and pressure pedestals and a doubling of the energy confinement time to {{H}98y,2}˜ 1 . The L-H power threshold {{P}\\text{LH}} increases with density, and there is no {{P}\\text{LH}} minimum observed in the attainable density space. The power threshold is equivalent in limited and diverted plasmas, consistent with the FM3 model. However, the measured {{P}\\text{LH}} is ˜ 15 × higher than that predicted by conventional International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) scalings, and {{P}\\text{LH}}/{{P}\\text{ITPA08}} increases as A\\to 1 . Small ELMs are present at low input power {{P}\\text{IN}}˜ {{P}\\text{LH}} , with toroidal mode number n≤slant 4 . At {{P}\\text{IN}}\\gg {{P}\\text{LH}} , they transition to large ELMs with intermediate 5. The dominant-n component of a large ELM grows exponentially, while other components evolve nonlinearly and can damp prior to the crash. Direct measurements of the current profile in the pedestal region show that both ELM types exhibit a generation of a current-hole, followed by a pedestal recovery. Large ELMs are shown to further expel a current-carrying filament. Small ELM suppression via injection of low levels of helical current into the edge plasma region is also indicated.

  18. Characteristics of EGAMs in EAST tokamak under ICRF H-mode (United States)

    di Liu, Ah; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiao Hui; Hu, Jian Qiang; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Xie, Jing Lin; Yu, Chang Xuan; Liu, Wan Dong


    Doppler reflectometer is common plasma diagnostic used in magnetic confinement devices to measure density fluctuations and poloidal flow velocity. Two set of Doppler reflectometer (Q-band & V-band)were installed on EAST tokamak for the first time. A coherence mode with frequency of 20˜50kHz was observed both on Doppler reflectometer and magnetic coils during ICRF H-mode on EAST. It appeared as zero-symmetric peaks in the spectrum of Doppler backscattering phase signal, implying that the density fluctuation has a standing wave structure with frequency not changing with the plasma rotation. The toroidal mode number is zero according to the magnetic coils. This feather was not observed on ECE and soft-X signals and there isn't obvious relationship between the mode appearance and the neutrons and hard-X signals. Unlike the usual Geodesic Acoustic modes (GAM) in the edge plasma under L-mode, it was found that the mode only appeared in the core regime under H-mode through the ray-tracing code. The mode is suspected to be the energetic ion induced GAM.

  19. High Power Fast Wave Coupling and Heating in H-mode Plasmas on DIII-D (United States)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Buttery, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Porkolab, M.; Diem, S.; Kaufman, M.; Ryan, P. M.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.


    Up to 2.5 MW of fast wave (FW) heating power has been coupled to the core of ELMing H-mode discharges with βN<=2.5 in conjunction with 3-7 MW of neutral beam injection and 2.6 MW of electron cyclotron heating. Core FW heating efficiency has been found experimentally to approach 100% in the Advanced Inductive regime, consistent with the excellent absorption predicted by ray-tracing models in this high βe regime. Low antenna loading (high rf voltages) characteristic of such regimes makes increasing the FW power challenging. A study of techniques to enhance FW antenna loading has been carried out in DIII-D, with emphasis on maintenance of good confinement. The loading is in absolute agreement with modeling when edge density profiles measured with reflectometry are used in the model. Recent work extending the range of H-mode regimes to which FW heating has been applied and on increasing the FW power coupled to those regimes is described.

  20. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II


    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  1. Overview of long pulse H-mode operation on EAST (United States)

    Gong, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Wan, B.; Li, J.; Qian, J.; Li, E.; Liu, F.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, M.; Xu, H.; EAST Team


    The EAST research program aims to demonstrate steady-state long-pulse high-performance H-mode operations with ITER-like poloidal configuration and RF-dominated heating schemes. In the recent experimental campaign, a long pulse fully non-inductive H-mode discharge lasting over 100 seconds using the upper ITER-like tungsten divertor has been achieved in EAST. This scenario used only RF heating and current drive, but also benefitted from an integrated control of the wall conditioning, plasma configuration, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, impurity management and superconducting coils safety. Maintaining effective coupling of multiple RF heating and current drive sources on EAST is a critical ingredient. This long pulse discharge had good energy confinement, H98,y2 1.1-1.2, and all of the plasma parameters reach a true steady-state. Power balance indicates that the confinement improvement is due partly to a significantly reduced core electron transport inside minor radius rho<0.4. This work was supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China Contract No. 2015GB10200 and the US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-SC0010685.

  2. One-dimensional modelling of limit-cycle oscillation and H-mode power scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xingquan; Xu, Guosheng; Wan, Baonian


    To understand the connection between the dynamics of microscopic turbulence and the macroscale power scaling in the L-I-H transition in magnetically confined plasmas, a new time-dependent, one-dimensional (in radius) model has been developed. The model investigates the radial force balance equation...... at the edge region of the plasma and applies the quenching effect of turbulence via the E x B flow shear rate exceeding the shear suppression threshold. By slightly ramping up the heating power, the spatio-temporal evolution of turbulence intensity, density and pressure profiles, poloidal flow and E x B flow...... and the turbulence intensity depending on which oscillation of the diamagnetic flow or poloidal flow is dominant. Specifically, by including the effects of boundary conditions of density and temperature, the model results in a linear dependence of the H-mode access power on the density and magnetic field...

  3. Advancing the Physics Basis of Quiescent H-mode through Exploration of ITER Relevant Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, W. M. [PPPL; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Fenstermacher, M. E. [LLNL; Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics; Grierson, B. A. [PPPL; Loarte, A. [ITER; McKee, G. R. [U of Wisc, Madison; Nazikian, R. [PPPL; Snyder, B. P. [General Atomics


    Recent experiments on DIII-D have overcome a long-standing limitation in accessing quiescent H-mode (QH-mode), a high confinement state of the plasma that does not exhibit the explosive instabilities associated with edge localized modes (ELMs). In the past, QH-mode was associated with low density operation, but has now been extended to high normalized densities compatible with operation envisioned for ITER. Through the use of strong shaping, QH-mode plasmas have been maintained at high densities, both absolute (ηe ≈ 7 × 1019 m—3) and normalized Greenwald fraction (ηe/ηG > 0:7) . In these plasmas, the pedestal can evolve to very high pressures and current as the density is increased. Calculations of the pedestal height and width from the EPED model are quantitatively consistent with the experimental observed evolution with density. The comparison of the dependence of the maximum density threshold for QH-mode with plasma shape help validate the underlying theoretical peeling-ballooning models describing ELM stability. High density QH-mode operation with strong shaping has allowed stable access to a previously predicted regime of very high pedestal dubbed \\Super H-mode". In general, QH-mode is found to achieve ELM-stable operation while maintaining adequate impurity exhaust, due to the enhanced impurity transport from an edge harmonic oscillation, thought to be a saturated kink- peeling mode driven by rotation shear. In addition, the impurity confinement time is not affected by rotation, even though the energy confinement time and measured E Χ B shear is observed to increase at low toroidal rotation. Together with demonstrations of high beta, high confinement and low q95 for many energy confinement times, these results suggest QH-mode as a potentially attractive operating scenario for ITER's Q=10 mission.

  4. First observation of a new zonal-flow cycle state in the H-mode transport barrier of the experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.


    A new turbulence-flow cycle state has been discovered after the formation of a transport barrier in the H-mode plasma edge during a quiescent phase on the EAST superconducting tokamak. Zonal-flow modulation of high-frequency-broadband (0.05-1MHz) turbulence was observed in the steep-gradient regi...

  5. Comparisons of small ELM H-Mode regimes on the Alcator C-Mod and JFT-2M tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, A E [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Kamiya, K [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-city, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Oyama, N [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Basse, N [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Biewer, T [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Edlund, E [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Hughes, J W [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Lin, L [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Porkolab, M [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Rowan, W [Fusion Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Snipes, J [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Terry, J [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States); Wolfe, S M [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge MA, 02139 (United States)


    Comparisons of H-mode regimes were carried out on the Alcator C-Mod and JFT-2M tokamaks. Shapes were matched apart from aspect ratio, which is lower on C-Mod. The high recycling steady H-mode on JFT-2M and enhanced D-alpha (EDA) regime on C-Mod, both of which feature very small or no ELMs, are found to have similar access conditions in q{sub 95} - {nu}* space, occurring for pedestal collisionality {nu}* > 1. Differences in edge fluctuations were found, with lower frequencies but higher mode numbers on C-Mod. In both tokamaks an attractive regime with small ELMs on top of an enhanced D{sub {alpha}} baseline was obtained at moderate {nu}* and higher pressure. The JFT-2M shape favoured the appearance of ELMs on C-Mod and also resulted in the appearance of a lower frequency component of the quasicoherent mode during EDA.

  6. The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011) The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011) (United States)

    Saibene, G.


    The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, held in Lady Margaret Hall College in Oxford in October 2011 continues the tradition of bi-annual international meetings dedicated to the study of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. The first meeting of this series took place in S Diego (CA, US) in 1987, and since then scientists in the fusion community studying the formation and effects of transport barriers in plasmas have been meeting at this small workshop to discuss progress, new experimental evidence and related theoretical studies. The first workshops were strongly focussed on the characterization and understanding of the H-mode plasma, discovered in ASDEX in 1982. Tokamaks throughout the entire world were able to reproduce the H-mode transition in the following few years and since then the H-mode has been recognised as a pervasive physics feature of toroidally confined plasmas. Increased physics understanding of the H-mode transition and of the properties of H-mode plasmas, together with extensive development of diagnostic capabilities for the plasma edge, led to the development of edge transport barrier studies and theory. The H-mode Workshop reflected this extension in interest, with more and more contributions discussing the phenomenology of edge transport barriers and instabilities (ELMs), L-H transition and edge transport barrier formation theory. In the last 15 years, in response to the development of fusion plasma studies, the scientific scope of the workshop has been broadened to include experimental and theoretical studies of both edge and internal transport barriers, including formation and sustainment of transport barriers for different transport channels (energy, particle and momentum). The 13th H-mode Workshop was organized around six leading topics, and, as customary for this workshop, a lead speaker was selected for each topic to present to the audience the state-of-the-art, new understanding and open issues, as well

  7. ELMs and the H-mode Pedestal in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Maingi; S.A. Sabbagh; C.E. Bush; E.D. Fredrickson; J.E. Menard; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J.A. Boedo; D.A. Gates; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; D. Mueller; R. Raman; A.L. Roquemore; V.A. Soukhanovskii; T. Stevenson


    We report on the behavior of ELMs in NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX. It is observed that the size of Type I ELMs, characterized by the change in plasma energy, decreases with increasing density, as observed at conventional aspect ratio. It is also observed that the Type I ELM size decreases as the plasma equilibrium is shifted from a symmetric double-null toward a lower single-null configuration. Type III ELMs have also been observed in NSTX, as well as a high-performance regime with small ELMs which we designate Type V. These Type V ELMs are consistent with high bootstrap current operation and density approaching Greenwald scaling. The Type V ELMs are characterized by an intermittent n=1 MHD mode rotating counter to the plasma current. Without active pumping, the density rises continuously through the Type V phase. However, efficient in-vessel pumping should allow density control, based on particle containment time estimates.

  8. Cosmological extrapolation of MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V


    Regime of MOND, which is used in astronomy to describe the gravitating systems of island type without the need to postulate the existence of a hypothetical dark matter, is generalized to the case of homogeneous distribution of usual matter by introducing a linear dependence of the critical acceleration on the size of region under consideration. We show that such the extrapolation of MOND in cosmology is consistent with both the observed dependence of brightness on the redshift for type Ia supernovae and the parameters of large-scale structure of Universe in the evolution, that is determined by the presence of a cosmological constant, the ordinary matter of baryons and electrons as well as the photon and neutrino radiation without any dark matter.

  9. Modelling of transitions between L- and H-mode in JET high plasma current plasmas and application to ITER scenarios including tungsten behaviour (United States)

    Koechl, F.; Loarte, A.; Parail, V.; Belo, P.; Brix, M.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Koskela, T.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Polevoi, A. R.; Romanelli, M.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Eich, T.; Contributors, JET


    The dynamics for the transition from L-mode to a stationary high Q DT H-mode regime in ITER is expected to be qualitatively different to present experiments. Differences may be caused by a low fuelling efficiency of recycling neutrals, that influence the post transition plasma density evolution on the one hand. On the other hand, the effect of the plasma density evolution itself both on the alpha heating power and the edge power flow required to sustain the H-mode confinement itself needs to be considered. This paper presents results of modelling studies of the transition to stationary high Q DT H-mode regime in ITER with the JINTRAC suite of codes, which include optimisation of the plasma density evolution to ensure a robust achievement of high Q DT regimes in ITER on the one hand and the avoidance of tungsten accumulation in this transient phase on the other hand. As a first step, the JINTRAC integrated models have been validated in fully predictive simulations (excluding core momentum transport which is prescribed) against core, pedestal and divertor plasma measurements in JET C-wall experiments for the transition from L-mode to stationary H-mode in partially ITER relevant conditions (highest achievable current and power, H 98,y ~ 1.0, low collisionality, comparable evolution in P net/P L-H, but different ρ *, T i/T e, Mach number and plasma composition compared to ITER expectations). The selection of transport models (core: NCLASS  +  Bohm/gyroBohm in L-mode/GLF23 in H-mode) was determined by a trade-off between model complexity and efficiency. Good agreement between code predictions and measured plasma parameters is obtained if anomalous heat and particle transport in the edge transport barrier are assumed to be reduced at different rates with increasing edge power flow normalised to the H-mode threshold; in particular the increase in edge plasma density is dominated by this edge transport reduction as the calculated neutral influx across the

  10. Predictions of H-mode performance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R. V.; Andre, R.; Bateman, G.; Halpern, F.; Kessel, C. E.; Kritz, A.; McCune, D.


    Time-dependent integrated predictive modeling is carried out using the PTRANSP code to predict fusion power and parameters such as alpha particle density and pressure in ITER H-mode plasmas. Auxiliary heating by negative ion neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron heating of He3 minority ions are modeled, and the GLF23 transport model is used in the prediction of the evolution of plasma temperature profiles. Effects of beam steering, beam torque, plasma rotation, beam current drive, pedestal temperatures, sawtooth oscillations, magnetic diffusion, and accumulation of He ash are treated self-consistently. Variations in assumptions associated with physics uncertainties for standard base-line DT H-mode plasmas (with Ip=15 MA, BTF=5.3 T, and Greenwald fraction=0.86) lead to a range of predictions for DT fusion power PDT and quasi-steady state fusion QDT (≡ PDT/Paux). Typical predictions assuming Paux = 50-53 MW yield PDT = 250- 720 MW and QDT = 5 - 14. In some cases where Paux is ramped down or shut off after initial flat-top conditions, quasi-steady QDT can be considerably higher, even infinite. Adverse physics assumptions such as existence of an inward pinch of the helium ash and an ash recycling coefficient approaching unity lead to very low values for PDT. Alternative scenarios with different heating and reduced performance regimes are also considered including plasmas with only H or D isotopes, DT plasmas with toroidal field reduced 10 or 20%, and discharges with reduced beam voltage. In full-performance D-only discharges, tritium burn-up is predicted to generate central tritium densities up to 1016/m3 and DT neutron rates up to 5×1016/s, compared with the DD neutron rates of 6×1017/s. Predictions with the toroidal field reduced 10 or 20% below the planned 5.3 T and keeping the same q98, Greenwald fraction, and Βη indicate that the fusion yield PDT and QDT will be lower by about a factor of two (scaling as B3.5).

  11. The H-mode power threshold in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, D.F.H.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Campbell, D.J.; Cordey, J.G.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Gormezano, C.; Hawkes, N.; Horton, L.; Jones, T.T.C.; Lomas, P.J.; Lowry, C.; Righi, E.; Rimini, F.G.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Sips, G.; Stork, D.; Thomas, P.; Thomsen, K.; Tubbing, B.J.D.; Von Hellermann, M.; Ward, D.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking


    New H-mode threshold data over a range of toroidal field and density values have been obtained from the present campaign. The scaling with n{sub e} B{sub t} is almost identical with that of the 91/92 period for the same discharge conditions. The scaling with toroidal field alone gives somewhat higher thresholds than the older data. The 1991/2 database shows a scaling of P{sub th} (power threshold) with n{sub e} B{sub t} which is approximately linear and agrees well with that observed on other tokamaks. For NBI and carbon target tiles the threshold power is a factor of two higher with the ion {Nu}B drift away from the target compared with the value found with the drift towards the target. The combination of ICRH and beryllium tiles appears to be beneficial for reducing P{sub th}. The power threshold is largely insensitive to plasma current, X-point height and distance between the last closed flux surface and the limiter, at least for values greater than 2 cm. (authors). 3 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Study of density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas on JFT-2M by microwave reflectometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment


    We propose the model which can explain the runaway phase. The model takes account of the scattered wave which is caused by the density fluctuation near the cut-off layer. We should take a new approach instead of the conventional phase measurement in order to derive the information of the density fluctuation from the data with the runaway phase. The complex spectrum and the rotary spectrum analyses are useful tools to analyze such data. The density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas is discussed by using this new approach. We have observed that the reduction of the density fluctuation is localized in the edge region where the sheared electric field is produced. The fluctuations in the range of frequency lower than 100 kHz are mainly reduced. Two interesting features have been observed. One is the detection of the coherent mode around 100 kHz in H-mode. This mode appears about 10 ms after L to H transition. The timing corresponds to the formation of a steep density and temperature gradient in the edge region. The other is the enhancement of the fluctuations with the frequency higher than 300 kHz in H-mode in contrast to the reduction of the fluctuations with the frequency lower than 100 kHz. The Doppler shift is observed in the complex auto-power spectrum of the reflected wave when the plasma is actively moved. We have confirmed that the movement of the plasma is appropriately measured by using the low pass filter. The reflectometer can be used to measure the density profile by using a low pass filter even when the runaway phase phenomenon occurs. (author). 150 refs.

  13. ELM Size & ν⊥ e ~ 0 Location During RMP H-mode Plasmas in DIII-D (United States)

    Fenstermacher, M. E.; Moyer, R. A.; Osborne, T. H.


    Previous studies, examined the correlation between vacuum island overlap region width and edge localized mode (ELM) size during n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in DIII-D. For rotating H-mode plasmas it was proposed, that the resonant perturbation components would be screened by plasma response except at locations with the sum of the electron diamagnetic and E × B velocities, ν⊥ e = 0 . One hypothesis for the mechanism of RMP ELM suppression is that the pedestal width is prevented from expanding to the peeling-ballooning instability boundary by plasma modes at a location where vacuum RMP fields penetrate. This would suggest that the ν⊥ e = 0 location would be closer to the plasma edge during ELM suppression than during ELM mitigation. This paper will examine the degree of correlation between ν⊥ e = 0 location and ELM size during RMP H-mode plasmas including those from the previous studies. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin


    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of hybrid and baseline ELMy H-mode confinement in JET with the carbon wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Challis, C.; Osborne, T.; Snyder, P. B.; Alper, B.; Angioni, C.; Bourdelle, C.; Buratti, P.; Crisanti, F.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Groebner, R.; Hobirk, J.; Jenkins, I.; Joffrin, E.; Leyland, M. J.; Lomas, P.; Mantica, P.; McDonald, D.; Nunes, I.; Rimini, F.; Saarelma, S.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; P. de Vries,; Zarzoso, D.


    The confinement in JET baseline type I ELMy H-mode plasmas is compared to that in so-called hybrid H-modes in a database study of 112 plasmas in JET with the carbon fibre composite (CFC) wall. The baseline plasmas typically have beta(Nu) similar to 1.5-2, H-98 similar to 1, whereas the hybrid

  16. Local theory of extrapolation methods (United States)

    Kulikov, Gennady


    In this paper we discuss the theory of one-step extrapolation methods applied both to ordinary differential equations and to index 1 semi-explicit differential-algebraic systems. The theoretical background of this numerical technique is the asymptotic global error expansion of numerical solutions obtained from general one-step methods. It was discovered independently by Henrici, Gragg and Stetter in 1962, 1964 and 1965, respectively. This expansion is also used in most global error estimation strategies as well. However, the asymptotic expansion of the global error of one-step methods is difficult to observe in practice. Therefore we give another substantiation of extrapolation technique that is based on the usual local error expansion in a Taylor series. We show that the Richardson extrapolation can be utilized successfully to explain how extrapolation methods perform. Additionally, we prove that the Aitken-Neville algorithm works for any one-step method of an arbitrary order s, under suitable smoothness.

  17. Full-f Neoclassical Simulations toward a Predictive Model for H-mode Pedestal Ion Energy, Particle and Momentum Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, D. J. [PPPL; Boedo, J. A. [University of California San Diego; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Chang, C. S. [PPPL; Canik, J. M. [ORNL; deGrassie, J. S. [General Atomics; Gerhardt, S. P. [PPPL; Grierson, B. A. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Maingi, Rajesh [PPPL; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics


    Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with the intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.

  18. Differences in the H-mode pedestal width of temperature and density (United States)

    Schneider, P. A.; Wolfrum, E.; Groebner, R. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Dunne, M. G.; Ferron, J. R.; Günter, S.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Snyder, P. B.; Zohm, H.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the DIII-D Team; EFDA Contributors, JET


    A pedestal database was built using data from type-I ELMy H-modes of ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. ELM synchronized pedestal data were analysed with the two-line method. The two-line method is a bilinear fit which shows better reproducibility of pedestal parameters than a modified hyperbolic tangent fit. This was tested with simulated and experimental data. The influence of the equilibrium reconstruction on pedestal parameters was investigated with sophisticated reconstructions from CLISTE and EFIT including edge kinetic profiles. No systematic deviation between the codes could be observed. The flux coordinate system is influenced by machine size, poloidal field and plasma shape. This will change the representation of the width in different coordinates, in particular, the two normalized coordinates ΨN and r/a show a very different dependence on the plasma shape. The scalings derived for the pedestal width, Δ, of all machines suggest a different scaling for the electron temperature and the electron density. Both cases show similar dependence with machine size, poloidal magnetic field and pedestal electron temperature and density. The influence of ion temperature and toroidal magnetic field is different on each of \\Delta_{T_\\rme} and \\Delta_{n_\\rme} . In dimensionless form the density pedestal width in ΨN scales with \\rho^{0.6}_{i\\star} , the temperature pedestal width with \\beta_p,ped^{0.5} . Both widths also show a strong correlation with the plasma shape. The shape dependence originates from the coordinate transformation and is not visible in real space. The presented scalings predict that in ITER the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal.

  19. Extrapolation methods theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C


    This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat

  20. Outward particle transport by coherent mode in the H-mode pedestal in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Han, X.; Gao, X.; Liu, H. Q.; Shi, T. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, Y.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, Z. X.; Qu, H.; Xiang, H. M.; Geng, K. N.; Wang, Y. M.; Wen, F.; Zhang, S. B.; Ling, B. L.; the EAST Team


    A coherent mode (CM) in the edge pedestal region has been observed on different fluctuation quantities, including density fluctuation, electron temperature fluctuation and magnetic fluctuation in H mode plasma on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak. Measurements at different poloidal positions show that the local poloidal wavenumber is smallest at the outboard midplane and will increase with poloidal angle. This poloidal asymmetry is consistent with the flute-like assumption (i.e. k// ˜ 0) from which the toroidal mode number of the mode has been estimated as between 12 and 17. It was further found that the density fluctuation amplitude of the CM also demonstrated poloidal asymmetry. The appearance of a CM can clearly decrease or even stop the increase in the edge density, while the disappearance of a CM will lead to an increase in the pedestal density and density gradient. Statistical analysis showed there was a trend that as the CM mode amplitude increased, the rate of increase of the edge density decreased and the particle flux (Γdiv) onto the divertor plate increased. The CM sometimes showed burst behavior, and these bursts led bursts on Γdiv with a time of about 230 μs, which is close to the time for particle flow from the outer midplane to the divertor targets along the scrape-off layer magnetic field line. This evidence showed that the CM had an effect on the outward transport of particles.

  1. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (United States)

    Takizuka, Tomonori


    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  2. E- to H-mode Transition in Inductively Coupled Xenon Discharge Lamp (United States)

    Nazri, Ahmad; Inui, Shuji; Motomura, Hideki; Jinno, Masafumi; Aono, Masaharu

    In this paper the phenomena of mode transition and hysteresis in xenon ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) discharge are studied. Xenon has been used as an alternative for mercury since there are environmental issues related to mercury. The transition from E-mode (electrostatic mode) discharge to H-mode (electromagnetic mode) discharge in a xenon cylindrical tube was investigated. RF energy at 13.56 MHz was induced to the tube through matching network. In this study, all the transitions occurred at a certain threshold input power which is a function of the xenon pressure. Hysteresis was observed as the input power was varied from 1 to 100 W. When the input power is increased the discharge starts in E-mode changes into H-mode, whereas when the input power is decreased the H-mode turns into the E-mode or there is a sudden switch-off as the function of the gas pressures. Mode transition is determined by sudden and huge change of luminance. H-mode is characterized by a much higher luminance and plasma density. Luminance and optical emission spectra were recorded. At high pressure more power is required to transform the discharge mode compared to low pressure. Continuum visible emission was obtained only in H-mode. At H-mode, many ionic and atomic spectrum are observed compared to E-mode. With high luminance and continuum visible emission that obtained from H-mode xenon ICP discharge, xenon is one of the most suitable alternatives in developing mercury-free light sources.

  3. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N


    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  4. Generation of Non-Inductive H-Mode Plasmas with 30 MHz Fast Wave Heating in NSTX-U (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J. C.; Mueller, D.; Perkins, R. J.; Poli, F. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Raman, R.


    A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility based on a spherical tokamak must generate the plasma current (Ip) with little or no central solenoid field. The NSTX-U non-inductive (NI) plasma research program is addressing this goal by developing NI start-up, ramp-up and sustainment scenarios separately. 4 MW of 30 MHz fast wave power is predicted to ramp Ip to 400 kA, a level sufficient to avoid significant shine-through of 90 keV ions from neutral beam injection. In 2010, experiments in NSTX demonstrated that 1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power could generate an Ip = 300 kA H-mode discharge with a NI Ip fraction, fNI, around 0.7 at the maximum axial toroidal field (BT(0)) in NSTX of 0.55 T. NSTX-U is a major upgrade of NSTX that will eventually allow the generation of plasmas with BT(0) up to 1 T. Full wave simulations of 30 MHz HHFW heating in NSTX-U predict reduced FW power loss in the plasma edge as BT(0) is increased. HHFW experiments this year aim to couple 3 - 4 MW of 30 MHz HHFW power into an Ip = 250 - 350 kA plasma with BT(0) up to 0.75 T to generate a fNI = 1 H-mode plasma. These experiments should benefit from the improved fast wave coupling predicted at higher BT(0) in NSTX-U. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. The role of MHD instabilities in the improved H-mode scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaws, Asher


    Recently a regime of tokamak operation has been discovered, dubbed the improved H-mode scenario, which simultaneously achieves increased energy confinement and stability with respect to standard H-mode discharges. It has been suggested that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities play some role in establishing this regime. In this thesis MHD instabilities were identified, characterised, and catalogued into a database of improved H-mode discharges in order to statistically examine their behaviour. The onset conditions of MHD instabilities were compared to existing models based on previous H-mode studies. Slight differences were found, most notably a reduced {beta}{sub N} onset threshold for the frequently interrupted regime for neoclassical tearing modes (NTM). This reduced threshold is due to the relatively low magnetic shear of the improved H-mode regime. This study also provided a first-time estimate for the seed island size of spontaneous onset NTMs, a phenomenon characteristic of the improved H-mode scenario. Energy confinement investigations found that, although the NTM impact on confinement follows the same model applicable to other operating regimes, the improved H-mode regime acts to mitigate the impact of NTMs by limiting the saturated island sizes for NTMs with toroidal mode number n {>=} 2. Surprisingly, although a significant loss in energy confinement is observed during the sawtooth envelope, it has been found that discharges containing fishbones and low frequency sawteeth achieve higher energy confinement than those without. This suggests that fishbone and sawtooth reconnection may indeed play a role in establishing the high confinement regime. It was found that the time evolution of the central magnetic shear consistently locks in the presence of sawtooth and fishbone reconnection. Presumably this is due to the periodic redistribution of the central plasma current, an effect which is believed to help establish and maintain the characteristic current

  6. Highly radiating type-III ELMy H-mode with low plasma core pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; M.R. de Baar,; Fundamenski, W.; Brix, M.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Nunes, I.; van Rooij, G. J.; Stamp, M.; Telesca, G.; Zagorski, R.


    The impurity seeded type-III ELMy H-mode is proposed as an integrated ITER scenario. At JET this scenario has been demonstrated up to plasma currents of 3 MA with nitrogen as seeding gas. Detached divertor operation is achieved with significantly reduced steady state and transient heat fluxes. By

  7. Radiative type-III ELMy H-mode in all-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Neu, R.; Eich, T.; Fischer, R.; Herrmann, A.; Potzel, S.; van Rooij, G. J.; Zielinski, J. J.; ASDEX Upgrade team,


    The type-III ELMy H-mode might be the solution for an integrated ITER operation scenario fulfilling the fusion power amplification factor (output fusion power to input heating power) of Q = 10 with simultaneous acceptable steady-state and transient power loads to the plasma-facing components. This

  8. Ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport in JET H-modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisen, H.; Camenen, Y.; Salmi, A.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Maslov, M.; Tala, T.; Beurskens, M.; Giroud, C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,


    A broad survey of the experimental database of neutral beam heated baseline H-modes and hybrid scenarios in the JET tokamak has established the ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport mechanisms in rotating plasmas. As a result of their presence, the normalized angular frequency gradient R

  9. Momentum transport studies in JET H-mode discharges with an enhanced toroidal field ripple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, P. C.; Versloot, T. W.; Salmi, A.; Hua, M. D.; Howell, D. H.; Giroud, C.; Parail, V.; Saibene, G.; Tala, T.


    In this study, enhancement of the toroidal field (TF) ripple has been used as a tool in order to reveal the impact of the momentum pinch on the rotation profiles in H-mode JET discharges. The analysis showed that flatter rotation profiles were obtained in discharges with a high TF ripple, attributed


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.

  11. Deuterium charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from the top of the pedestal to the scrape off layer in H-mode plasmas (United States)

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Stagner, L.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Ashourvan, A.; Pablant, N. A.


    Recent completion of the thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 614] enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the edge, providing high resolution measurements of the pedestal and steep gradient edge region of H-mode plasmas. The complexities of the Dα spectrum require fitting with a comprehensive model, as well as using iterative collisional radiative modeling to determine the underlying thermal deuterium ion properties. Large differences in the structure and magnitude of impurity (C6+) and main-ion (D+) toroidal rotation profiles are seen in the H-mode pedestal. Additionally the D+ temperature can be half the value of the C6+ temperature at the separatrix and shows more of a pedestal structure. Typically only the impurity properties are measured and the main-ion properties are either assumed to be the same, or inferred using neoclassical models, which require validation in the steep gradient region. These measured differences have implications for transport model validation, intrinsic rotation studies, pedestal stability, and the boundary conditions for scrape off layer and plasma material interactions studies.

  12. Reduced turbulence and H-mode confinement in L-mode negative triangularity discharges on DIII-D (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Austin, M. E.; Walker, M. L.; Hyatt, A. W.; Petty, C. C.; Thome, K. H.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; Sung, C.; Sauter, O.; DIII-D Team; MIT-PSFC Collaboration


    DIII-D has produced inner-wall limited plasmas with an L-mode edge at negative triangularity characterized by confinement and fluctuation levels comparable to those in H-mode plasmas at positive triangularity. On TCV, similar plasmas at low collisionality and with pure electron heating showedimproved energy confinement, as compared to matched discharges at positive triangularity, due to modifications to the toroidal precession drift of trapped electrons. The recent DIII-D experiment used both ECH and NBI heating, thus exploring a more reactor relevant regime where Te Ti. Compared to matched positive triangularity discharges, the intensity of density and temperaturefluctuations is reduced at negative triangularity both in ECH and in NBI dominated phases. Preliminary TGLF runs indicate the discharges are dominated by TEM modes. More detailed analysis will explore the role of the toroidal precession drift in this new regime. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. A study on the density shoulder formation in the SOL of H-mode plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carralero


    Full Text Available The term “shoulder formation” refers to an increase of the density decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL observed in many tokamaks during L-mode operation when a density threshold is reached. Recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG and JET have shown that the shoulder forms when the divertor collisionality in the divertor electrically disconnects filaments from the wall. This leads to a transition from the sheath limited to the inertial regime and to an enhancement of radial particle transport, in good agreement with analytical models. In the present work, the validity of such a mechanism is investigated in the more reactor-relevant H-mode regime. For this, a cold divertor H-mode scenario is developed in AUG using different levels of D puffing and N seeding, in which inter-ELM filaments and SOL density profiles are measured. The basic relation between filament size and divertor collisionality is still valid in H-mode plasmas, albeit an additional condition related to the gas fueling rate has been found for the formation of the shoulder.

  14. Reciprocating Probe Measurements of L-H Transition in LHCD H-mode on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liu; Guosheng, Xu; Huiqian, Wang


    -H-L transitions were observed during a single shot when the applied LHW power was marginal to the threshold. The floating potential (Vf) had negative spikes corresponding with the Dα signal, and Er oscillation evolved into several intermittent negative spikes just before the L-H transition. In some shots......As the power available in the initial phase of the ITER operation will be limited, accessing the high confinement mode (H-mode) with low heating power will be a critical issue. In the recent experiment on EAST, the H-mode was obtained for the first time with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) wave...... that the power loss P loss was comparable during the L-H transition, by comparing the adjacent L-mode and H-mode discharge. The Dα emission, Te and ne decreased rapidly in the time scale of about 1 ms, and the radial electric field Er turned positive in this process near the last closed flux surface. Multiple L...

  15. Impact of perturbative, non-axisymmetric impurity fueling on Alcator C-Mod H-modes (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Lore, J. D.; Terry, J.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Mumgaard, R.; Pitts, R. A.


    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod have been performed to investigate the impact of toroidally localized impurity injection on H-mode exhaust scenarios. Results help to inform sub-divertor gas injector designs, in particular that of the ITER machine, for which this work was primarily undertaken. In repeated EDA H-modes, the amount of N2 injected into the private flux region was scanned up to levels which strongly impacted normalized energy confinement, H98, and led to an H/L back-transition. Repeated scans increased the toroidal peaking of the gas injection, reducing from five equally spaced locations to a single toroidal and poloidal injector. Results show the impact on the pedestal and core plasma is similar between all cases as long as the total gas injection rate is held constant. An influence on toroidally localized impurity spectroscopy is shown, demonstrating a complication in using such data in interpreting experiments and supporting boundary modeling in cases where there are localized extrinsic or intrinsic impurity sources. These results, along with prior work in this area on Alcator C-Mod, form a comprehensive set of L-mode and H-mode data to be used for validation of 3D boundary physics codes.

  16. Edge Minority Heating Experiment in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben; J.L. Terry; P. Bonoli; R. Budny; C.S. Chang; C. Fiore; G. Schilling; S. Wukitch; J. Hughes; Y. Lin; R. Perkins; M. Porkolab; the Alcator C-Mod Team


    An attempt was made to control global plasma confinement in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak by applying ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) power to the plasma edge in order to deliberately create a minority ion tail loss. In theory, an edge fast ion loss could modify the edge electric field and so stabilize the edge turbulence, which might then reduce the H-mode power threshold or improve the H-mode barrier. However, the experimental result was that edge minority heating resulted in no improvement in the edge plasma parameters or global stored energy, at least at power levels of radio-frequency power is less than or equal to 5.5 MW. A preliminary analysis of these results is presented and some ideas for improvement are discussed.

  17. Study on divertor particle and heat fluxes from electric probe measurements during ELMy H-modes in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, Jun-Gyo, E-mail: [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heung-Su [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Min-Keun; Chung, Kyu-Sun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Suk-Ho [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The characteristics of the particle and heat fluxes were investigated during ELMs in H-modes under the LSN configuration in the KSTAR tokamak.. • There was relation between the ELM amplitude and the ELM frequency as ΔW{sub ELM}/W{sub TOT} ∝ 1/f{sub ELM} in the range of f{sub ELM} ≤ 200 Hz. • The trends of the peak amplitude of the divertor flux near the OSP during ELMs due to the ELM mitigation and the plasma shaping were investigated. • The ELMs were mitigated by MP field, SMBI and ECH. The ELM mitigations due to the MP field and the SMBI were stronger than one due to the ECH. • Finally, the particle flux, evaluated at the far scrape-off layer (SOL) region, was estimated to less than 1% of the divertor particle flux. - Abstract: The characteristics of the divertor particle and heat fluxes are investigated during ELM bursts in ELMy H-mode plasmas with the lower single null (LSN) configuration in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The particle and heat fluxes are evaluated from the electric probe measurements at the divertor region. It is found that the peak amplitude of the divertor flux during an ELM burst obtained near the outer strike point (OSP) decreases up to about 20% as the ELM frequency increases by a factor of ∼6.5 due to the ELM mitigation and the plasma shaping, which is similar to the trend of the amplitude versus the frequency of the ELM observed in other tokamaks. The ELMs are mitigated by using several methods as magnetic perturbation (MP) field, supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at the edge region. In addition, the particle flux, evaluated at the far scrape-off layer (SOL) region, is less than 1% of the divertor particle flux. In this work, results from the experimental investigations of particle and heat fluxes during ELM bursts from the electric probe measurements at the divertor and far SOL regions are presented.

  18. Builtin vs. auxiliary detection of extrapolation risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,


    A key assumption in supervised machine learning is that future data will be similar to historical data. This assumption is often false in real world applications, and as a result, prediction models often return predictions that are extrapolations. We compare four approaches to estimating extrapolation risk for machine learning predictions. Two builtin methods use information available from the classification model to decide if the model would be extrapolating for an input data point. The other two build auxiliary models to supplement the classification model and explicitly model extrapolation risk. Experiments with synthetic and real data sets show that the auxiliary models are more reliable risk detectors. To best safeguard against extrapolating predictions, however, we recommend combining builtin and auxiliary diagnostics.

  19. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  20. Pedestal properties of H-modes with negative triangularity using the EPED-CH model (United States)

    Merle, A.; Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu


    The EPED model has been designed to predict the pedestal height and width from a minimal set of parameters and using the stability of the pedestal region for global MHD peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes as well as local kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs). This approach has been validated for type-I ELMy H-modes and quiescent H-modes (QH) but can also be used for other types of H-modes where it usually sets an upper limit on the achievable pedestal height. Using the recently developed EPED-like model called EPED-CH and based on the equilibrium codes CHEASE and CAXE and the MHD stability code KINX, we investigate in this work the effect of negative triangularity on the pedestal structure. Our simulation results confirm the experimental results from TCV where a reduction of the pedestal height was observed when going from positive to negative top triangularity. This was interpreted as a degradation of the peeling-ballooning stability due to the closed access to the second stability region for ballooning modes in the case of negative triangularity. This effect is further enhanced by the coupling to the KBM stability criterion in EPED simulations. The novel concept of the negative triangularity tokamak (a DEMO-sized machine) is also investigated. Again a strong reduction of the pedestal height and width is observed going from positive to negative triangularity for up-down symmetric equilibria. The pedestal height is also reduced going to more up-down asymmetric cases. The beneficial effect of the global β value on the pedestal height, which is linked to the second stability access, is strongly reduced for negative triangularity.

  1. VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties in previous and present JET configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Bures, M.; Christiansen, J.P.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Fishpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.D.; Lomas, P.J.; Marcus, F.B.; Sartori, R.; Schunke, B.; Smeulders, P.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking


    In JET VH modes, there is a distinct confinement transition following the cessation of ELMs, observed in a wide variety of tokamak operating conditions, using both NBI and ICRF heating methods. Important factors which influence VH mode accessibility such as magnetic configuration and vessel conditions have been identified. The new JET pumped divertor configuration has much improved plasma shaping control and power and particle exhaust capability and should permit exploitation of plasmas with VH confinement properties over an even wider range of operating regimes, particularly at high plasma current; first H-modes have been obtained in the 1994 JET operating period and initial results are reported. (authors). 7 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Novel Feature of H-Mode Induced by CT Injection on STOR-M Tokamak (United States)

    Sen, S.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.


    A novel feature of the H-mode induced by compact torus injection on STOR-M tokamak is observed. There is almost no change in the radial electric-field profiles during and after the L-H transition. The usual hypothesis of the E X B shear stabilization mechanism is therefore unlikely to play a role in this transition. A new mechanism of the stabilization of microinstabilities by parallel flow is suggested as the plausible cause for the transition to this improved regime.

  3. Particle and power deposition on divertor targets in EAST H-mode plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.


    ELMs were chosen for analysis in order to reduce the uncertainty resulting from the influence of fast electrons on Langmuir triple-probe evaluation during ELMs. The power deposition obtained from Langmuir triple probes was consistent with that from the divertor infra-red camera during an ELM-free...... significantly broadening the SOL width and plasma-wetted area on the divertor target in both LHCD and LHCD + ICRH H-modes, thus posing a great challenge for the next-step high-power, long-pulse operation in EAST. Increasing the divertor-wetted area was also observed to reduce the peak heat flux and particle...

  4. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac (United States)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.


    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  5. Dependence of various SOL widths on plasma current and density in NSTX H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J; Maingi, R; Boedo, J; Soukhanovskii, V A


    The dependence of various SOL widths on the line-averaged density ({ovr n}{sub e}) and plasma current (l{sub p}) for the quiescent H-mode plasmas with Type-V ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was investigated. It is found that the heat flux SOL width ({lambda}{sub q}), measured by the IR camera, is virtually insensitive to {ovr n}{sub e} and has a strong negative dependence on l{sub p}. This insensitivity of {lambda}{sub q} to {ovr n}{sub e} is consistent with the scaling law from JET H-mode plasmas that shows a very weak dependence on the upstream density. The electron temperature, ion saturation current density, electron density, and electron pressure decay lengths ({lambda}{sub Te}, {lambda}{sub jsat}, {lambda}{sub ne}, and {lambda}{sub pe}, respectively) measured by the probe showed that {lambda}{sub Te} and {lambda}{sub jsat} have strong negative dependence on l{sub p}, whereas {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} revealed only a little or no dependence. The dependence of {lambda}{sub Te} on l{sub p} is consistent with the scaling law in the literature while {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} dependence shows a different trend.

  6. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif


    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  7. Stability and Accuracy of Exponential Extrapolation Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asma A. Elbeleze; Bachok M. Taib


    The stability of a numerical methods is important consideration that must be considered when solving ODEs, where Since the extrapolation methods are best away to get a high-accuracy solution of ODEs...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OAK A271 ROLE OF NEUTRALS IN CORE FUELING AND PEDESTAL STRUCTURE IN H-MODE DIII-D DISCHARGES. The 2-D fluid code UEDGE was used to analyze DIII-D experiments to determine the role of neutrals in core fueling, core impurities, and also the H-mode pedestal structure. The authors compared the effects of divertor closure on the fueling rate and impurity density of high-triangularity, H-mode plasmas. UEDGE simulations indicate that the decrease in both deuterium core fueling ({approx} 15%-20%) and core carbon density ({approx} 15%-30%) with the closed divertor compared to the open divertor configuration is due to greater divertor screening of neutrals. They also compared UEDGE results with a simple analytic model of the H-mode pedestal structure. The model predicts both the width and gradient of the transport barrier in n{sub e} as a function of the pedestal density. The more sophisticated UEDGE simulations of H-mode discharges corroborate the simple analytic model, which is consistent with the hypothesis that fueling processes play a role in H-mode transport barrier formation.

  9. Discovery of Stationary Operation of Quiescent H-mode Plasmas with Net-Zero NBI Torque and High Energy Confinement on DIII-D (United States)

    Burrell, Keith


    Experiments this summer in DIII-D have used edge turbulence control to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved outstanding tokamak performance, well above the H98 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98 =1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers ExB rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant betan =1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with improved pedestal conditions is highly significant for future burning plasma devices, since operation without ELMs at low rotation and good confinement is key for fusion energy production. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Surrogate endpoint analysis: an exercise in extrapolation. (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S


    Surrogate endpoints offer the hope of smaller or shorter cancer trials. It is, however, important to realize they come at the cost of an unverifiable extrapolation that could lead to misleading conclusions. With cancer prevention, the focus is on hypothesis testing in small surrogate endpoint trials before deciding whether to proceed to a large prevention trial. However, it is not generally appreciated that a small surrogate endpoint trial is highly sensitive to a deviation from the key Prentice criterion needed for the hypothesis-testing extrapolation. With cancer treatment, the focus is on estimation using historical trials with both surrogate and true endpoints to predict treatment effect based on the surrogate endpoint in a new trial. Successively leaving out one historical trial and computing the predicted treatment effect in the left-out trial yields a standard error multiplier that summarizes the increased uncertainty in estimation extrapolation. If this increased uncertainty is acceptable, three additional extrapolation issues (biological mechanism, treatment following observation of the surrogate endpoint, and side effects following observation of the surrogate endpoint) need to be considered. In summary, when using surrogate endpoint analyses, an appreciation of the problems of extrapolation is crucial.

  11. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin


    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  12. Comparison of MHD simulation codes for understanding nonlinear ELMs dynamics in KSTAR H-mode plasma (United States)

    Kim, M.; Lee, J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Xu, X.; Jardin, S. C.; Becoulet, M.


    KSTAR electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems have contributed to understanding the fundamental physics of ELMs by high-quality 2D and quasi-3D images of ELMs. However, in the highly nonlinear phase of ELM dynamics, the interpretation of ECE signals becomes complicated intrinsically. Theoretical and numerical approaches are necessary to enhance the understanding of ELM physics. Well-established MHD codes (BOUT + + , JOREK, and M3D-C1) are introduced for comparative study with the observations. The nonlinear solutions are obtained using the same equilibrium of the KSTAR H-mode plasma. Each code shows the partial difference in mode evolution, probably, due to the difference in optimized operation window of initial conditions. The nonlinear simulation results show that low- n (n < 5) modes becomes dominant close to pedestal collapse. The mode evolution in the simulations qualitatively matches with the recent ECEI observation just before ELM-crash, or excitation of non-modal solitary perturbation (typically, n = 1) which is highly localized in poloidal and toroidal. Regardless of differences in details, qualitative similarity can provide inspiration to understand the triggering of ELM-crash. This work is supported by NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865.

  13. Modification of argon impurity transport by electron cyclotron heating in KSTAR H-mode plasmas (United States)

    Hong, Joohwan; Henderson, S. S.; Kim, Kimin; Seon, C. R.; Song, Inwoo; Lee, H. Y.; Jang, Juhyeok; Park, Jae Sun; Lee, S. G.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Seung Hun; Hong, Suk-Ho; Choe, Wonho


    Experiments with a small amount of Ar gas injection as a trace impurity were conducted in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) H-mode plasma ({{B}\\text{T}}   =  2.8 T, {{I}\\text{P}}   =  0.6 MA, and {{P}\\text{NBI}}   =  4.0 MW). 170 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) at 600 and 800 kW was focused along the mid-plane with a fixed major radial position of R   =  1.66 m. The emissivity of the Ar16+ (3.949 {\\mathring{\\text{A}}} ) and Ar15+ (353.860 {\\mathring{\\text{A}}} ) spectral lines were measured by x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS) and a vacuum UV (VUV) spectrometer, respectively. ECH reduces the peak Ar15+ emission and increases the Ar16+ emission, an effect largest with 800 kW. The ADAS-SANCO impurity transport code was used to evaluate the Ar transport coefficients. It was found that the inward convective velocity found in the plasma core without ECH was decreased with ECH, while diffusion remained approximately constant resulting in a less-peaked Ar density profile. Theoretical results from the NEO code suggest that neoclassical transport is not responsible for the change in transport, while the microstability analysis using GKW predicts a dominant ITG mode during both ECH and non-ECH plasmas.

  14. Dynamics and stability of divertor detachment in H-mode plasmas on JET (United States)

    Field, A. R.; Balboa, I.; Drewelow, P.; Flanagan, J.; Guillemaut, C.; Harrison, J. R.; Huber, A.; Huber, V.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G.; Meigs, A.; Schmitz, J.; Stamp, M.; Walkden, N.; contributors, JET


    The dynamics and stability of divertor detachment in {{{N}}}2 seeded, type-I, ELMy H-mode plasmas with dominant NBI heating in the JET ITER-like wall device is studied by means of an integrated analysis of diagnostic data from several systems, classifying data relative to the ELM times. It is thereby possible to study the response of the detachment evolution to the control parameters (SOL input power, upstream density and impurity fraction) prevailing during the inter-ELM periods and the effect of ELMs on the detached divertor. A relatively comprehensive overview is achieved, including the interaction with the targets at various stages of the ELM cycle, the role of ELMs in affecting the detachment process and the overall performance of the scenario. The results are consistent with previous studies in devices with an ITER-like, metal wall, with the important advance of distinguishing data from intra- and inter-ELM periods. Operation without significant degradation of the core confinement can be sustained in the presence of strong radiation from the x-point region (MARFE).

  15. Modeling of argon seeding in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasma with SOLPS5.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Y. Xiang


    Full Text Available SOLPS modeling of Ar seeding in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasma shows that the divertor compression of Ar increases with the seeding rate when the inner divertor is detached and the outer divertor is attached. This results from the redistribution of the Ar density as the inner divertor detaches. During the detachment of the inner divertor, the parallel friction and thermal forces on Ar increase in the inner divertor and decrease in the outer divertor. The net force of the two directs Ar from the low field side to the high field side of the plasma along the field line. The net force is found to be stronger after the detachment of the inner divertor in the simulation. Although the divertor compression of Ar increases, the ratio of radiated power by Ar inside the divertor over that inside the separatrix does not increase after the detachment. This is because the radiation efficiency, i.e. the radiated per Ar particle on average decreases with the seeding rate in the divertor and increases inside the separatrix. The radiation efficiency in the simulation is determined by the characteristic cooling curve of Ar and the transport effects.

  16. Array aperture extrapolation using sparse reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Huizing, A.G.


    In this paper we present some preliminary results on antenna array extrapolation for Direction Of Arrival (DOA) estimation using Sparse Reconstruction (SR). The objective of this study is to establish wether it is possible to achieve with an array of a given physical length the performance (in terms

  17. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong


    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wave-field extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media, because of its dispersion and artifact free, as well as highly accurate, solutions of the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number of inverse FFT required per time extrapolation step, and thus, a lower rank admits faster extrapolations. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its low rank representation.Thus,we obtain more accurate wave-fields using lower rank representation, and thus cheaper extrapolations. The optimization operation to define the low rank representation depends only on the velocity model, and this is done only once, and valid for a full reverse time migration (many shots) or one iteration of full waveform inversion. Applications on the BP model yielded superior results than those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, the solutions were free of the shear wave artifacts, and does not require that eta>0.

  18. Term structure extrapolation and asymptotic forward rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, J.; Vellekoop, M.H.


    We investigate different inter- and extrapolation methods for term structures under different constraints in order to generate market-consistent estimates which describe the asymptotic behavior of forward rates. Our starting point is the method proposed by Smith and Wilson, which is used by the

  19. Efficient and stable extrapolation of prestack wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong


    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields in time, nevertheless, is a big challenge because the radicand can be negative, thus reduce to a complex phase velocity, which will make the rank of the mixed domain matrix very high. Using the vertical offset between the sources and receivers, we introduce a method for deriving the DSR formulation, which gives us the opportunity to derive approximations for the mixed domain operator. The method extrapolates prestack wavefields by combining all data into one wave extrapolation procedure, allowing both upgoing and downgoing wavefields since the extrapolation is done in time, and doesn’t have the v(z) assumption in the offset axis of the media. Thus, the imaging condition is imposed by taking the zero-time and zero-offset slice from the multi-dimensional prestack wavefield. Unlike reverse time migration (RTM), no crosscorrelation is needed and we also have access to the subsurface offset information, which is important for migration velocity analysis. Numerical examples show the capability of this approach in dealing with complex velocity models and can provide a better quality image compared to RTM more efficiently.

  20. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...

  1. Extrapolation Method for System Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Faber, Michael Havbro


    The present paper presents a new scheme for probability integral solution for system reliability analysis, which takes basis in the approaches by Naess et al. (2009) and Bucher (2009). The idea is to evaluate the probability integral by extrapolation, based on a sequence of MC approximations of i...

  2. Effect of ELMs on rotation and momentum confinement in H-mode discharges in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versloot, T.W.; de Vries, P.C.; Giroud, C.


    The loss of plasma toroidal angular momentum and thermal energy by edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied in JET. The analysis shows a consistently larger drop in momentum in comparison with the energy loss associated with the ELMs. This difference originates from the large reduction...... in angular frequency at the plasma edge, observed to penetrate into the plasma up to r/a ~ 0.65 during large type-I ELMs. As a result, the time averaged angular frequency is lowered near the top of the pedestal with increasing ELM frequency, resulting in a significant drop in thermal Mach number at the edge....... An increase in profile peaking of ion temperature and angular frequency is observed. At the same time the plasma confinement is reduced while the ratio of confinement times (Rτ = τE/τ) increases noticeably with ELM frequency. This change could be explained by the relatively larger ELM induced losses...

  3. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team


    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  4. Momentum losses by charge exchange with neutral particles in H-mode discharges at JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Giroud, C.; Brix, M.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Lomas, P. J.; Moulton, D.; Mullane, M. O.; Nunes, I. M.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Zastrow, K. D.


    The effect of a neutral density background on the toroidal angular momentum and kinetic energy profiles has been investigated in JET. Under equivalent conditions but with increasing gas fuelling during the flat top phase, it has been observed that both the edge rotation and temperature decrease. The

  5. On L to H-mode transitions of the tokamak and entropy reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastović Danilo


    Full Text Available In an ideal case, it is assumed that the models for tokamak and stellarator plasma behaviour lead to the theory of invariant manifolds by Rastović [Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 2007]. But, at the present state of knowledge a more realistic concept for describing L to H transitions and edge localized modes is the reduction of entropy and appropriate methods.

  6. Metal impurity transport control in JET H-mode plasmas with central ion cyclotron radiofrequency power injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valisa, M.; Carraro, L.; Predebon, I.


    The scan of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) power has been used to systematically study the pump out effect of central electron heating on impurities such as Ni and Mo in H-mode low collisionality discharges in JET. The transport parameters of Ni and Mo have been measured by introducing a t...

  7. Chiral extrapolations for nucleon electric charge radii

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J M M; Young, R D


    Lattice simulations for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon yield insights into the internal structure of hadrons. The logarithmic divergence of the charge radius in the chiral limit poses an interesting challenge in achieving reliable predictions from finite-volume lattice simulations. Recent results near the physical pion mass are examined in order to confront the issue of how the chiral regime is approached. The electric charge radius of the nucleon presents a forum for achieving consistent finite-volume corrections. Newly-developed techniques within the framework of chiral effective field theory are used to achieve a robust extrapolation of the electric charge radius to the physical pion mass, and to infinite volume. The chiral extrapolations exhibit considerable finite-volume dependence; lattice box sizes of L > 7 fm are required in order to achieve a direct lattice simulation result within 2% of the infinite-volume value at the physical point. Predictions of the volume-dependence are provide...

  8. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Fomel, Sergey


    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.


    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  10. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.

  11. Beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeulders, P.; Hender, T.C.; Huysmans, G.; Marcus, F.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Alper, B.; Balet, B.; Bures, M.; Deliyanakis, N.; Esch, H. de; Fshpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Jones, T.T.C.; Ketner, W.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.; Lomas, P.; O`Brien, D.; Sadler, G.; Stok, D.; Stubberfield, P.; Thomas, P.; Thomen, K.; Wesson, J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico


    In Hot-ion H- and VH-modes, the highest achieved beta was about 10% below the Troyon value in the best case of discharge 26087. The operational space of the high beta discharges obtained before March 1992 has been explored as function of the parameters H{sub ITER89P}, {beta}{sub n}, q{sub 95}, I{sub p}. Also, a limiting envelope on the fusion reactivity as a function of the average plasma pressure and beta has been observed with R{sub DD} related to {beta}{sub {phi}}{sup 2}.B{sub {phi}}{sup 4}. MHD stability analysis shows that the JET VH modes at the edge are in the second region for ballooning mode stability. The dependence of ballooning stability and the n=1 external kink on the edge current density is analyzed. (authors). 6 figs., 6 refs.

  12. On extrapolation blowups in the scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Alberto


    Full Text Available Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the problem of comparison of results in various scales of spaces.

  13. Possible influence of near SOL plasma on the H-mode power threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Chankina


    Full Text Available A strong effect of divertor configuration on the threshold power for the L-H transition (PLH was observed in recent JET experiments in the new ITER-like Wall (ILW [1–3]. Following a series of EDGE2D-EIRENE code simulations with Be impurity and drifts a possible mechanism for the PLH variation with the divertor geometry is proposed. Both experiment and code simulations show that in the configuration with lower neutral recycling near the outer strike point (OSP, electron temperature (Te peaks near the OSP prior to the L-H transition, while in the configuration with higher OSP recycling Te peaks further out in the scrape-off layer (SOL and the plasma stays in the L-mode at the same input power. Code results show large positive radial electric field (Er in the near SOL under lower recycling conditions leading to a large E×B shear across the separatrix which may trigger earlier (at lower input power edge turbulence suppression and lower PLH. Suppressed Te‘s at OSP in configurations with strike points on vertical targets (VT were observed earlier and explained by a geometrical effect of neutral recycling near this particular position, whereas in configurations with strike points on horizontal targets (HT the OSP appears to be more open for neutrals (see e.g. review paper [4].

  14. Dynamical Evolution of Pedestal Parameters in ELMy H-mode in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A; Kubota, S; Sontag, A; Osborne, T; Podesta, M; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B P; Menard, J


    Characterizations of the pedestal parameter dynamics throughout the edge localized modes(ELM) cycles are performed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]). A clear buildup of the pedestal height is observed between ELMs for three di erent plasma currents, which tends to saturate prior to the onset of ELM at low and medium plasma current. Similarly, the pedestal width increases with no clear evidence of saturation during an ELM cycle. The maximum pedestal gradient increases as a function of plasma current, reaches a nominal value after the ELM crash, and remains constant until the end of the ELM cycle. The pedestal height just prior to the onset of ELM is shown to increase quadratically with plasma current. The pedestal width Δ is proportional to the square-root of the poloidal Β at the top of the pedestal. Coherent density uctuations strongly increasing at the plasma edge are observed to be maximum after the ELM crash and to decay during the rest of the ELM cycle. Finally, the pedestal parameters evolution during the ELM cycle as well as the scaling with Ip of the pedestal pressure prior to the onset ELM are found to be qualitatively consistent with the peeling ballooning theory.

  15. Edge Bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in a genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance

  16. Application of the H-Mode, a Design and Interaction Concept for Highly Automated Vehicles, to Aircraft (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Flemisch, Frank O.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.


    Driven by increased safety, efficiency, and airspace capacity, automation is playing an increasing role in aircraft operations. As aircraft become increasingly able to autonomously respond to a range of situations with performance surpassing human operators, we are compelled to look for new methods that help us understand their use and guide their design using new forms of automation and interaction. We propose a novel design metaphor to aid the conceptualization, design, and operation of highly-automated aircraft. Design metaphors transfer meaning from common experiences to less familiar applications or functions. A notable example is the "Desktop metaphor" for manipulating files on a computer. This paper describes a metaphor for highly automated vehicles known as the H-metaphor and a specific embodiment of the metaphor known as the H-mode as applied to aircraft. The fundamentals of the H-metaphor are reviewed followed by an overview of an exploratory usability study investigating human-automation interaction issues for a simple H-mode implementation. The envisioned application of the H-mode concept to aircraft is then described as are two planned evaluations.

  17. Mid-Field Sonic Boom Extrapolation Methodology (United States)

    Cheung, Samson; Davis, Sanford; Tu, Eugene


    In the design cycle of low-boom airplanes, sonic boom prediction must be accurate and efficient. The classical linear method, Whitham's F-function theory, has been widely applied to predict sonic boom signatures. However, linear theory fails to capture the nonlinear effects created by large civil transport. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used successfully to predict sonic boom signals at the near and mid fields. Nevertheless, it is computationally expansive in airplane design runs. In the present study, the method of characteristics is used to predict sonic boom signals in an efficient fashion. The governing equations are the axisymmetric Euler's equations with constant enthalpy. Since the method solves Euler's equations, it captures more nonlinear effects than the classical Whitham's F-function technique. Furthermore, the method of characteristics is an efficient marching scheme for initial value problems. In this study, we will first review the current CFD extrapolation technique and the work previously done in sonic boom extrapolation. Then, we will introduce the governing equations and the method of characteristics. Finally, we will show that the present method yields the same accurate results as previous CFD techniques, but with higher efficiency.

  18. Extrapolating Solar Dynamo Models Throughout the Heliosphere (United States)

    Cox, B. T.; Miesch, M. S.; Augustson, K.; Featherstone, N. A.


    There are multiple theories that aim to explain the behavior of the solar dynamo, and their associated models have been fiercely contested. The two prevailing theories investigated in this project are the Convective Dynamo model that arises from the pure solving of the magnetohydrodynamic equations, as well as the Babcock-Leighton model that relies on sunspot dissipation and reconnection. Recently, the supercomputer simulations CASH and BASH have formed models of the behavior of the Convective and Babcock-Leighton models, respectively, in the convective zone of the sun. These models show the behavior of the models within the sun, while much less is known about the effects these models may have further away from the solar surface. The goal of this work is to investigate any fundamental differences between the Convective and Babcock-Leighton models of the solar dynamo outside of the sun and extending into the solar system via the use of potential field source surface extrapolations implemented via python code that operates on data from CASH and BASH. The use of real solar data to visualize supergranular flow data in the BASH model is also used to learn more about the behavior of the Babcock-Leighton Dynamo. From the process of these extrapolations it has been determined that the Babcock-Leighton model, as represented by BASH, maintains complex magnetic fields much further into the heliosphere before reverting into a basic dipole field, providing 3D visualisations of the models distant from the sun.

  19. Electron transport in the plasma edge with rotating resonant magnetic perturbations at the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoschus, Henning


    Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic perturbations can be used as a tool to control the edge plasma parameters in magnetically confined plasmas in high confinement mode (''H-mode'') to suppress edge instabilities inherent to this regime, the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). In this work, the impact of rotating 3D resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields on the edge plasma structure characterized by electron density and temperature fields is investigated. We study a low confinement (L-mode) edge plasma (r/a>0.9) with high resistivity (edge electron collisionality {nu}{sup *}{sub e}>4) at the TEXTOR tokamak. The plasma structure in the plasma edge is measured by a set of high resolution diagnostics: a fast CCD camera ({delta}t=20 {mu}s) is set up in order to visualize the plasma structure in terms of electron density variations. A supersonic helium beam diagnostic is established as standard diagnostic at TEXTOR to measure electron density n{sub e} and temperature T{sub e} with high spatial ({delta}r=2 mm) and temporal resolution ({delta}t=20 {mu}s). The measured plasma structure is compared to modeling results from the fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A sequence of five new observations is discussed: (1) Imaging of electron density variations in the plasma edge shows that a fast rotating RMP field imposes an edge plasma structure, which rotates with the external RMP rotation frequency of vertical stroke {nu}{sub RMP} vertical stroke =1 kHz. (2) Measurements of the electron density and temperature provide strong experimental evidence that in the far edge a rotating 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) exists with helical exhaust channels to the plasma wall components. (3) Radially inward, the plasma structure at the next rational flux surface is found to depend on the relative rotation between external RMP field and intrinsic plasma rotation. For low relative rotation the plasma structure is dominated by a particle and energy loss

  20. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, Arnold H. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rafiq, Tariq [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    were computed and found to be large in the vicinity of the staircase-step structures. Large values of skewness and kurtosis can be explained by a temporary opening and closing of the structure which allows turbulence intensity events to propagate. The staircase patterns may reduce the ion heat transport and a manipulation of these patterns may be used to optimize heat transport in tokamaks. An additional objective of the research in support of the Edge Physics Simulation initiative has been to improve the understanding of scrape-off layer thermal transport. In planning experiments and designing future tokamaks, it is important to understand the physical effects that contribute to divertor heat-load fluxes. The research accomplished will contribute to developing new models for the scrape-off layer region. The XGC0 code was used to compute the heat fluxes and the heat-load width in the outer divertor plates of C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks. It was observed that the width of the XGC0 neoclassical heat-load was approximately inversely proportional to the total plasma current. Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal region of five Alcator C-Mod discharges, representing a collisionality scan, was analyzed. The understanding of anomalous transport in the pedestal region is important for the development of a comprehensive model for the H-mode pedestal slope. It was found that the electron thermal anomalous diffusivities at the pedestal top increase with the electron collisionality. This dependence can point to the DRIBM as the modes that drive the anomalous transport in the plasma edge of highly collisional discharges. The effects of plasma shaping on the H-mode pedestal structure was also investigated. The differences in the predicted H-mode pedestal width and height for the DIII-D discharges with different elongation and triangularities were discussed. For the discharges with higher elongation, it was found that the gradients of the plasma profiles in the H-mode pedestal

  1. Extrapolation methods for dynamic partial differential equations (United States)

    Turkel, E.


    Several extrapolation procedures are presented for increasing the order of accuracy in time for evolutionary partial differential equations. These formulas are based on finite difference schemes in both the spatial and temporal directions. On practical grounds the methods are restricted to schemes that are fourth order in time and either second, fourth or sixth order in space. For hyperbolic problems the second order in space methods are not useful while the fourth order methods offer no advantage over the Kreiss-Oliger method unless very fine meshes are used. Advantages are first achieved using sixth order methods in space coupled with fourth order accuracy in time. Computational results are presented confirming the analytic discussions.

  2. Extrapolated stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta methods (United States)

    Martín-Vaquero, J.; Kleefeld, B.


    Extrapolated Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta methods (ESERK) are proposed to solve multi-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In such methods it is necessary to evaluate the function nt times per step, but the stability region is O (nt2). Hence, the computational cost is O (nt) times lower than for a traditional explicit algorithm. In that way stiff problems can be integrated by the use of simple explicit evaluations in which case implicit methods usually had to be used. Therefore, they are especially well-suited for the method of lines (MOL) discretizations of parabolic nonlinear multi-dimensional PDEs. In this work, first s-stages first-order methods with extended stability along the negative real axis are obtained. They have slightly shorter stability regions than other traditional first-order stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms (also called Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes). Later, they are used to derive nt-stages second- and fourth-order schemes using Richardson extrapolation. The stability regions of these fourth-order codes include the interval [ - 0.01nt2, 0 ] (nt being the number of total functions evaluations), which are shorter than stability regions of ROCK4 methods, for example. However, the new algorithms neither suffer from propagation of errors (as other Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes as ROCK4 or DUMKA) nor internal instabilities. Additionally, many other types of higher-order (and also lower-order) methods can be obtained easily in a similar way. These methods also allow adaptation of the length step with no extra cost. Hence, the stability domain is adapted precisely to the spectrum of the problem at the current time of integration in an optimal way, i.e., with minimal number of additional stages. We compare the new techniques with other well-known algorithms with good results in very stiff diffusion or reaction-diffusion multi-dimensional nonlinear equations.

  3. Understanding ECH density pump-out in DIII-D H-mode plasmas (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mordijck, S.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.; McKee, G. R.; Austin, M. E.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Smith, S. P.


    In this paper, we show that the often observed ‘density pump-out’ with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) (Angioni et al 2004 Nucl. Fusion 44 827, 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 124017), at low density and/or collisionality is the result of an increase in turbulence drive at the plasma edge (Angioni et al 2004 Nucl. Fusion 44 827, 2005 Phys. Plasmas 12 040701, Mordijck et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 43 113025). Prior results were limited to comparison of steady-state conditions, before and after the ECH was applied, and thus failed to capture the dynamics of the density pump-out. In this paper, we find, similar to prior results, that when the plasma reaches a new equilibrium after ECH is applied, gyro-kinetic simulations indicate that the plasma has transitioned from the ion temperature gradient (ITG) to a trapped electron mode (TEM) regime around mid-radius. However, this transition from ITG to TEM only occures in the core after 100 ms. The pump-out on the other hand, starts immediately and is strongest around ρ ∼ 0.8 . Linear gyrokinetic simulations with TGLF show that there is an increase in turbulence drive simultaneously with the density pump-out and the doppler backscattering (DBS) measures an instant increase in density fluctuations at the same radial location. On the other hand, around mid-radius the DBS measures no increase in density fluctuations. All these calculations along with experimental measurements show that the density pump-out is not the result of a change in turbulence type (i.e. not caused by a change from ITG to TEM), but the result of a change in turbulence drive (an increase in linear growth rates), which is later followed by the ITG to TEM transition. This highlights the need for studying not just the equilibrium conditions after a transition, but also the time-dependent changes.

  4. Features of the repetition frequency of edge localized modes in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, M.; Xiao, C.; Xu, G.S.


    This paper presents the features of the edge localized modes (ELMs) observed in the 2010 experimental campaign on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The first high-confinement mode (H-mode) at an H-factor of HIPB98(y, 2)~1 has been obtained with about 1 MW lower hybrid wave...

  5. Characterization and scaling of the tokamak edge transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Philip Adrian


    The high confinement regime (H-mode) in a tokamak plasma displays a remarkable edge region. On a small spatial scale of 1-2 cm the properties of the plasma change significantly. Certain parameters vary 1-2 orders of magnitude in this region, called the pedestal. Currently, there is no complete understanding of how the pedestal forms or how it is sustained. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the pedestal and provide scalings towards larger machines, like ITER and DEMO. A pedestal database was built with data from different tokamaks: ASDEX Upgrade, DIIID and JET. The pedestal was characterized with the same method for all three machines. This gives the maximum value, gradient and width of the pedestal in n{sub e}, T{sub e} and T{sub i}. These quantities were analysed along with quantities derived from them, such as the pressure or the confinement time. For this purpose two parameter sets were used: normalized parameters (pressure {beta}, time {nu}{sub *}, length {rho}{sub *}, shape f{sub q}) and machine parameters (size a, magnetic field B{sub t}, plasma current I{sub p}, heating P). All results are dependent on the choice of the coordinate system: normalized poloidal flux {Psi}{sub N} and real space r/a. The most significant result, which was obtained with both parameter sets, shows a different scaling of the pedestal width for the electron temperature and the electron density. The presented scalings predict that in ITER and DEMO the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. The pedestal top scaling for the pressure reveals differences between the electron and the ion pressure. In extrapolations this results in values for T{sub e,ped} of 4 keV (ITER) and 10 keV (DEMO), but significantly lower values for the ion temperature. A two-term method was applied to use the pedestal pressure to determine the pedestal contribution to the global confinement time {tau}{sub E}. The dependencies in the

  6. Edge Detection, (United States)


    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  7. An Heuristic Drift-Based Model of the Power Scrape-Off Width in H-Mode Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston


    An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall mass flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlüter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of 2aρp/R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Härm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in an heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in remarkable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.

  8. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri


    was originally introduced to enhance indoor qualities including light and view. Throughout the paper, it is argued that these ecological motives have grown to architectural and urban dimensions. The paper analyzes the characteristics and potentials of these dimensions and their interconnections. The paper...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... contribution to the street atmosphere and its effect on urban life. Bay balcony has been a common architectural element in Copenhagen’s residential buildings, since the end of the twenties. It is a domestic border with an architectural thickness combining window, door, windowsill and balcony. The bay balcony...

  9. Stability of ideal and non-ideal edge localized infernal mode (United States)

    Dong, G. Q.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, S.; Zhang, N.; Yu, D. L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z. R.


    Stability of a special class of the infernal mode, i.e., the one which is localized near the plasma edge, is numerically investigated for a toroidal plasma, using the single fluid code MARS-F [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] and magneto-hydrodynamic-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)]. Unlike the peeling-ballooning instabilities, which are thought to be responsible for the onset of type-I edge localized modes, the edge localized infernal mode may be responsible for accessing certain quiescent H-mode regimes in tokamak discharges. The finite plasma pressure near the plasma edge drives this instability. The local flattening of the safety factor near a rational surface at the plasma edge region, due to the large bootstrap current contribution in H-mode plasmas, is a necessary condition for the mode instability. It is found that the plasma toroidal flow shear in the pedestal region, as well as the plasma resistivity, further destabilizes the edge localized infernal mode. The drift kinetic effects from thermal particles, on the other hand, partially stabilize the mode. The flow shear and the drift kinetic effects also modify the symmetry of the mode spectrum, by enlarging the unstable domain towards higher local qmin value. No substantial modification of the mode eigen-structure is observed by the plasma flow, resistivity, or the kinetic effects. These results can be relevant to understanding physics of certain quiescent H-mode regimes.

  10. 40 CFR 86.435-78 - Extrapolated emission values. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extrapolated emission values. 86.435-78 Section 86.435-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.435-78 Extrapolated emission values...

  11. Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations of an Alcator C-Mod, ELM-y H-mode plasma (United States)

    Howard, N. T.; Holland, C.; White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, P.; Candy, J.; Creely, A. J.


    High fidelity, multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations capable of capturing both ion ({k}θ {ρ }s∼ { O }(1.0)) and electron-scale ({k}θ {ρ }e∼ { O }(1.0)) turbulence were performed in the core of an Alcator C-Mod ELM-y H-mode discharge which exhibits reactor-relevant characteristics. These simulations, performed with all experimental inputs and realistic ion to electron mass ratio ({({m}i/{m}e)}1/2=60.0) provide insight into the physics fidelity that may be needed for accurate simulation of the core of fusion reactor discharges. Three multi-scale simulations and series of separate ion and electron-scale simulations performed using the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) are presented. As with earlier multi-scale results in L-mode conditions (Howard et al 2016 Nucl. Fusion 56 014004), both ion and multi-scale simulations results are compared with experimentally inferred ion and electron heat fluxes, as well as the measured values of electron incremental thermal diffusivities—indicative of the experimental electron temperature profile stiffness. Consistent with the L-mode results, cross-scale coupling is found to play an important role in the simulation of these H-mode conditions. Extremely stiff ion-scale transport is observed in these high-performance conditions which is shown to likely play and important role in the reproduction of measurements of perturbative transport. These results provide important insight into the role of multi-scale plasma turbulence in the core of reactor-relevant plasmas and establish important constraints on the the fidelity of models needed for predictive simulations.

  12. Mapping soils in two watersheds using legacy data and extrapolation for similar surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Procópio Pelegrino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Existing soil maps (legacy data associated with digital mapping techniques are alternatives to obtain information at lower costs, however, tests are required to do it more efficiently. This study had as objectives to compare different methods to extract information from detailed scale soil maps using decision trees for mapping soil classes at two watersheds in Minas Gerais, validate these maps in the field and use the best method to extrapolate information to larger areas, also validating these maps of larger areas. Detailed soil maps of Vista Bela creek (VBW and Marcela creek (MCW watersheds were used as source of information. Seven methods to extract information from maps were compared: the whole polygon, eliminating 20 and 40 m from the polygon boundaries, and with buffers around the sampled points with radii of 25 m, 50 m, 75 m, and 100 m. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART algorithm was employed to create decision trees and enable creation of soil maps. Accuracy was assessed through overall accuracy and kappa index. The best method was used to extrapolate information to larger areas and maps were validated. The best methods for VCW and MCW were, respectively, eliminating 20 m from polygon edges and buffer of 25 m of radii from points. Maps for larger areas were obtained using these methods. Removing uncertainty areas from legacy soil maps contribute to better modeling and prediction of soil classes. Information generated in this work allowed for validated extrapolation of soil maps for regions surrounding the watersheds.

  13. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: the scientific basis for extrapolation. (United States)

    Schellekens, Huub; Lietzan, Erika; Faccin, Freddy; Venema, Jaap


    Biosimilars are biologic products that receive authorization based on an abbreviated regulatory application containing comparative quality and nonclinical and clinical data that demonstrate similarity to a licensed biologic product. Extrapolation of safety and efficacy has emerged as an important way to simplify biosimilar development. Regulatory authorities have generally reached the consensus that extrapolation of similarity from one indication to other approved indications of the reference product can be permitted if it is scientifically justified. Recently, the first biosimilar, biosimilar infliximab (Remsima/Inflectra) to the innovator monoclonal antibody infliximab (Remicade), was approved in the European Union, Canada and South Korea; the USA subsequently approved its first biosimilar, a less complex molecule (filgrastim-sndz). Based on two clinical trials of biosimilar infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, the European Medicines Agency allowed extrapolation to all eight approved indications for innovator infliximab, whereas Health Canada did not permit extrapolation to the indications for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. These differing decisions on extrapolation of indications for biosimilar infliximab highlight important unanswered regulatory and scientific questions. Here, we propose substantive scientific considerations for indication extrapolation. The preclinical and clinical criteria that are currently required to merit indication extrapolation have not been rigorously evaluated.

  14. Multiparameter extrapolation and deflation methods for solving equation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Hughes Hallett


    Full Text Available Most models in economics and the applied sciences are solved by first order iterative techniques, usually those based on the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. This paper examines the convergence of multiparameter extrapolations (accelerations of first order iterations, as an improved approximation to the Newton method for solving arbitrary nonlinear equation systems. It generalises my earlier results on single parameter extrapolations. Richardson's generalised method and the deflation method for detecting successive solutions in nonlinear equation systems are also presented as multiparameter extrapolations of first order iterations. New convergence results are obtained for those methods.

  15. Role of E  ×  B on in-out divertor asymmetry in high recycling/partial detachment regimes under L-mode and H-mode conditions (United States)

    Du, Hailong; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Liang; Bonnin, Xavier; Wang, Huiqian; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen


    The role of the E  ×  B electric drift on background plasma and carbon impurity in-out divertor asymmetry was estimated under L-mode and H-mode conditions in the high recycling regime and partial detachment regime by using the edge plasma code SOLPS5.1. It was found that the poloidal electric drift E r  ×  B also may play a dominant role during H-mode discharge in high recycling regime, instead of the radial electric drift E θ   ×  B. Moreover, it also was found that during H-mode with partial detachment both components can play simultaneously a crucial role in inducing the in-out asymmetry. Their synergistic effect can make the asymmetry much more obvious than that with either of them separately. However, E θ   ×  B in partial detachment during L-mode can play a main role in inducing in-out asymmetry, rather than E r  ×  B. Besides, the role of E  ×  B components on carbon (C) impurity in-out asymmetry was also addressed. Simulation results reveal that E r  ×  B or E θ   ×  B individually have a very small effect on C impurity ions in-out asymmetry, especially E θ   ×  B, while their synergistic effect makes the impurity ions exhibit a much more remarkable in-out asymmetry. Moreover, it was found that the E r  ×  B and E θ   ×  B drift flows in the private flux region could play a crucial role in inducing C impurity in-out asymmetry, rather than the parallel flow or electric drift flow in the upstream SOL region when only considering E  ×  B.

  16. Extrapolating demography with climate, proximity and phylogeny: approach with caution. (United States)

    Coutts, Shaun R; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Csergő, Anna M; Buckley, Yvonne M


    Plant population responses are key to understanding the effects of threats such as climate change and invasions. However, we lack demographic data for most species, and the data we have are often geographically aggregated. We determined to what extent existing data can be extrapolated to predict population performance across larger sets of species and spatial areas. We used 550 matrix models, across 210 species, sourced from the COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database, to model how climate, geographic proximity and phylogeny predicted population performance. Models including only geographic proximity and phylogeny explained 5-40% of the variation in four key metrics of population performance. However, there was poor extrapolation between species and extrapolation was limited to geographic scales smaller than those at which landscape scale threats typically occur. Thus, demographic information should only be extrapolated with caution. Capturing demography at scales relevant to landscape level threats will require more geographically extensive sampling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies : The scientific basis for extrapolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Huub; Lietzan, Erika; Faccin, Freddy; Venema, Jaap


    Introduction: Biosimilars are biologic products that receive authorization based on an abbreviated regulatory application containing comparative quality and nonclinical and clinical data that demonstrate similarity to a licensed biologic product. Extrapolation of safety and efficacy has emerged as

  18. Electron heat transport in EAST steady-state H-mode discharges with a weak electron internal transport barrier (United States)

    Du, H.; Ding, S.; Chen, J.; Wang, Y.; Lian, H.; Liu, H.; Zang, Q.; Lyu, B.; Duan, Y.; Xu, G.; Qian, J.; Gong, X.


    The global confinement (H98) increases with the internal inductance (1.0 1.2) in the recent steady-state H-mode discharges, which exhibit a weak electron ITB started at ρ = 0.4 in EAST. After turning off ECRH, the stored energy decreases by 30% in 2.5 s. Calculations suggest that both the lower hybrid electron heating and driven current move from the core to large radii after turning off ECRH. Power balance analysis show that the LH deposition profile shift from just inside the ITB to outside the ITB after ECRH termination appears to be responsible for the marked drop in stored energy. The slow stored energy decrease is believed to be connected to the long plasma current profile relaxation time. Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate increasing low-k instability growth rate from small to large radii, which is consistent with the reduced diffusivity within the ITB. The calculations also show that the CTEM dominate within the ITB, ETG modes grow rapidly outside this region, and that ITG modes dominate near the pedestal top. Work supported by the NNSF of China #11575248.

  19. Compatibility of separatrix density scaling for divertor detachment with H-mode pedestal operation in DIII-D (United States)

    Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Stangeby, P. C.


    The midplane separatrix density is characterized in response to variations in upstream parallel heat flux density and central density through deuterium gas injection. The midplane density is determined from a high spatial resolution Thomson scattering diagnostic at the midplane with power balance analysis to determine the separatrix location. The heat flux density is varied by scans of three parameters, auxiliary heating, toroidal field with fixed plasma current, and plasma current with fixed safety factor, q 95. The separatrix density just before divertor detachment onset is found to scale consistent with the two-point model when radiative dissipation is taken into account. The ratio of separatrix to pedestal density, n e,sep/n e,ped varies from  ⩽30% to  ⩾60% over the dataset, helping to resolve the conflicting scaling of core plasma density limit and divertor detachment onset. The scaling of the separatrix density at detachment onset is combined with H-mode power threshold scaling to obtain a scaling ratio of minimum n e,sep/n e,ped expected in future devices.

  20. Observations of highly sheared turbulence in the H-mode pedestal using Phase Contrast Imaging on DIII-D (United States)

    Rost, J. C.; Marinoni, A.; Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.


    Highly sheared turbulence with short radial correlation lengths has been measured near the top of the H-mode pedestal, in addition to the previously measured highly-sheared turbulence measured in the Er well. Turbulence in regions of large velocity shear is characterized by radial correlation lengths shorter than the poloidal wavelength (L 200 kHz). The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic on DIII-D is ideally suited to measuring this density turbulence due to the measurement geometry and high frequency bandwidth. Radial localization is achieved by optical filtering, varying the ExB profile, and shifting the plasma position. Reconfiguration of the Er well, such as at the L-H transition or the transition to wide pedestal QH-mode, shows a near-instantaneous change (t < 1 ms) to the sheared turbulence in the Er well ( 1 cm inside the separatrix). In contrast, the sheared turbulence near the top of the pedestal ( 2 cm inside the separatrix) varies over times scales of tens of ms, consistent with pedestal evolution. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  1. Integrated core–SOL–divertor modelling for ITER including impurity: effect of tungsten on fusion performance in H-mode and hybrid scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagorski, R.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kochl, F.; Belo, da Silva Ares; Fable, E.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Polevoi, A. R.; Telesca, G.; JET Contributors,


    The compatibility of two operational constraints—operation above the L–H power threshold and at low power to divertor—is examined for ITER long pulse H-mode and hybrid scenarios in integrated core–scrape off layer (SOL)–divertor modelling including impurities (intrinsic Be, He, W and seeded Ne). The

  2. Towards cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles: H-Mode and Conduct-by-Wire. (United States)

    Flemisch, Frank Ole; Bengler, Klaus; Bubb, Heiner; Winner, Hermann; Bruder, Ralph


    This article provides a general ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control for vehicles with an emphasis on the cooperation between a human and a highly automated vehicle. In the twenty-first century, mobility and automation technologies are increasingly fused. In the sky, highly automated aircraft are flying with a high safety record. On the ground, a variety of driver assistance systems are being developed, and highly automated vehicles with increasingly autonomous capabilities are becoming possible. Human-centred automation has paved the way for a better cooperation between automation and humans. How can these highly automated systems be structured so that they can be easily understood, how will they cooperate with the human? The presented research was conducted using the methods of iterative build-up and refinement of framework by triangulation, i.e. by instantiating and testing the framework with at least two derived concepts and prototypes. This article sketches a general, conceptual ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles, two concepts derived from the framework, prototypes and pilot data. Cooperation is exemplified in a list of aspects and related to levels of the driving task. With the concept 'Conduct-by-Wire', cooperation happens mainly on the guidance level, where the driver can delegate manoeuvres to the automation with a specialised manoeuvre interface. With H-Mode, a haptic-multimodal interaction with highly automated vehicles based on the H(orse)-Metaphor, cooperation is mainly done on guidance and control with a haptically active interface. Cooperativeness should be a key aspect for future human-automation systems. Especially for highly automated vehicles, cooperative guidance and control is a research direction with already promising concepts and prototypes that should be further explored. The application of the presented approach is every human-machine system that moves and includes high

  3. Parametric dependencies of the experimental tungsten transport coefficients in ICRH and ECRH assisted ASDEX Upgrade H-modes (United States)

    Sertoli, M.; Angioni, C.; Odstrcil, T.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Eurofusion MST1 Team


    The profiles of the W transport coefficients have been experimentally calculated for a large database of identical ASDEX Upgrade H-mode discharges where only the radio-frequency (RF) power characteristics have been varied [Angioni et al., Nucl. Fusion 57, 056015 (2017)]. Central ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the minority heating scheme has been compared with central and off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), using both localized and broad heat deposition profiles. The transport coefficients have been calculated applying the gradient-flux relation to the evolution of the intrinsic W density in-between sawtooth cycles as measured using the soft X-ray diagnostic. For both ICRH and ECRH, the major player in reducing the central W density peaking is found to be the reduction of inward pinch and, in the case of ECRH, the rise of an outward convection. The impurity convection increases, from negative to positive, almost linearly with RF-power, while no appreciable changes are observed in the diffusion coefficient, which remains roughly at neoclassical levels independent of RF power or background plasma conditions. The ratio vW/DW is consistent with the equilibrium ∇ n W / n W prior to the sawtooth crash, corroborating the separate estimates of diffusion and convection. These experimental findings are slightly different from previous results obtained analysing the evolution of impurity injections over many sawtooth cycles. Modelling performed using the drift-kinetic code NEO and the gyro-kinetic code GKW (assuming axisymmetry) overestimates the diffusion coefficient and underestimates the experimental positive convection. This is a further indication that magneto-hydrodynamic/neoclassical models accounting for 3D effects may be needed to characterize impurity transport in sawtoothing tokamak plasmas.

  4. Improved mass extrapolations by the Garvey-Kelson relations (United States)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Jiang, H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.


    In this paper we extrapolate binding energies by using the Garvey-Kelson (GK) mass relations, in each of which four binding energies are replaced by two-neutron separation energies, two-proton separation energies, α decay energies and (or) double-β decay energies. Prior to the extrapolation, these separation energies are obtained by using the ‘1{{n}}-1{{p}}’ relations suggested in a previous work (Phys. Rev. C 90 064304). To reduce large uncertainties of experimental data used in the extrapolation, we perform uncertainty analysis and replace a few experimental data with theoretical values having smaller uncertainties. In comparison with the root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of the extrapolation from the AME1995 (or AME2003) to the AME2012 by using the original GK relations, the RMSD of the extrapolation from the above modified database by using our approach is reduced by 339 (or 57) keV. At last we tabulate our predicted values of unknown binding energies based on the AME2012 in the Supplemental Material of this paper.

  5. Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, M.; Ruede, U. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz-Zwickau (Germany)


    The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.

  6. Extrapolation Technique Pitfalls in Asymmetry Measurements at Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Colletti, Katrina; Toback, David; Wilson, Jonathan S


    Asymmetry measurements are common in collider experiments and can sensitively probe particle properties. Typically, data can only be measured in a finite region covered by the detector, so an extrapolation from the visible asymmetry to the inclusive asymmetry is necessary. Often a constant multiplicative factor is more than adequate for the extrapolation and this factor can be readily determined using simulation methods. However, there is a potential, avoidable pitfall involved in the determination of this factor when the asymmetry in the simulated data sample is small. We find that to obtain a reliable estimate of the extrapolation factor, the number of simulated events required rises as the inverse square of the simulated asymmetry; this can mean that an unexpectedly large sample size is required when determining its value.

  7. Chiral Extrapolation of Lattice Data for Heavy Meson Hyperfine Splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.-H. Guo; P.C. Tandy; A.W. Thomas


    We investigate the chiral extrapolation of the lattice data for the light-heavy meson hyperfine splittings D*-D and B*-B to the physical region for the light quark mass. The chiral loop corrections providing non-analytic behavior in m{sub {pi}} are consistent with chiral perturbation theory for heavy mesons. Since chiral loop corrections tend to decrease the already too low splittings obtained from linear extrapolation, we investigate two models to guide the form of the analytic background behavior: the constituent quark potential model, and the covariant model of QCD based on the ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The extrapolated hyperfine splittings remain clearly below the experimental values even allowing for the model dependence in the description of the analytic background.

  8. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang


    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  9. Functional differential equations with unbounded delay in extrapolation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Adimy


    Full Text Available We study the existence, regularity and stability of solutions for nonlinear partial neutral functional differential equations with unbounded delay and a Hille-Yosida operator on a Banach space X. We consider two nonlinear perturbations: the first one is a function taking its values in X and the second one is a function belonging to a space larger than X, an extrapolated space. We use the extrapolation techniques to prove the existence and regularity of solutions and we establish a linearization principle for the stability of the equilibria of our equation.

  10. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.


    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  11. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an approx...

  12. Structure and motion of edge turbulence in the National Spherical Torus Experiment and Alcator C-Moda) (United States)

    Zweben, S. J.; Maqueda, R. J.; Terry, J. L.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D.; Russell, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; LeBlanc, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D. P.; Williams, K. M.; Bush, C. E.; Maingi, R.; Grulke, O.; Sabbagh, S. A.; White, A. E.


    In this paper we compare the structure and motion of edge turbulence observed in L-mode vs. H-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 45, A335 (2003)]. The radial and poloidal correlation lengths are not significantly different between the L-mode and the H-mode in the cases examined. The poloidal velocity fluctuations are lower and the radial profiles of the poloidal turbulence velocity are somewhat flatter in the H-mode compared with the L-mode plasmas. These results are compared with similar measurements Alcator C-Mod [E. Marmar, B. Bai, R. L. Boivin et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1610 (2003)], and with theoretical models.

  13. Proposition of Improved Methodology in Creep Life Extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To design SFRs for a 60-year operation, it is desirable to have the experimental creep-rupture data for Gr. 91 steel close to 20 y, or at least rupture lives significantly higher than 10{sup 5} h. This requirement arises from the fact that, for the creep design, a factor of 3 times for extrapolation is considered to be appropriate. However, obtaining experimental data close to 20 y would be expensive and also take considerable time. Therefore, reliable creep life extrapolation techniques become necessary for a safe design life of 60 y. In addition, it is appropriate to obtain experimental longterm creep-rupture data in the range 10{sup 5} ∼ 2x10{sup 5} h to improve the reliability of extrapolation. In the present investigation, a new function of a hyperbolic sine ('sinh') form for a master curve in time-temperature parameter (TTP) methods, was proposed to accurately extrapolate the long-term creep rupture stress of Gr. 91 steel. Constant values used for each parametric equation were optimized on the basis of the creep rupture data. Average stress values predicted for up to 60 y were evaluated and compared with those of French Nuclear Design Code, RCC-MRx. The results showed that the master curve of the 'sinh' function was a wider acceptance with good flexibility in the low stress ranges beyond the experimental data. It was clarified clarified that the 'sinh' function was reasonable in creep life extrapolation compared with polynomial forms, which have been used conventionally until now.

  14. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  15. Heat flux pattern in detached L-modes and ELM mitigated H-modes with rotating magnetic perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade (United States)

    Brida, D.; Lunt, T.; Wischmeier, M.; Bernert, M.; Carralero, D.; Faitsch, M.; Feng, Y.; Sehmer, T.; Sieglin, B.; Suttrop, W.; Wolfrum, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The MST1 Team


    For the first time divertor heat and particle fluxes in high-recycling and detached deuterium L- and H-mode plasmas with rotating magnetic perturbations (MPs) have been measured systematically in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. The capability to rotate the MP field in AUG enabled us to obtain full two-dimensional profiles of the fluxes from measurements with the divertor triple Langmuir probes. As the divertor detached it was found that the initially non-axisymmetric heat flux became increasingly axisymmetric. In particular no ‘burn-through’ of the lobes was observed in the detached divertor in H-mode. Furthermore, the measurements were compared with simulations of the transport code EMC3-EIRENE as well as a simplified model based on field line tracing.

  16. Nanoindentation near the edge (United States)

    J.E. Jakes; C.R. Frihart; J.F. Beecher; R.J. Moon; P.J. Resto; Z.H. Melgarejo; O.M. Saurez; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa; D.S. Stone


    Whenever a nanoindent is placed near an edge, such as the free edge of the specimen or heterophase interface intersecting the surface, the elastic discontinuity associated with the edge produces artifacts in the load-depth data. Unless properly handled in the data analysis, the artifacts can produce spurious results that obscure any real trends in properties as...

  17. Analysis of edge stability for models of heat flux width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Makowski


    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of the ne, Te, and Ti profiles in the vicinity of the separatrix of ELMing H-mode discharges have been used to examine plasma stability at the extreme edge of the plasma and assess stability dependent models of the heat flux width. The results are strongly contrary to the critical gradient model, which posits that a ballooning instability determines a gradient scale length related to the heat flux width. The results of this analysis are not sensitive to the choice of location to evaluate stability. Significantly, it is also found that the results are completely consistent with the heuristic drift model for the heat flux width. Here the edge pressure gradient scales with plasma density and is proportional to the pressure gradient inferred from the equilibrium in accordance with the predictions of that theory.

  18. Analytic stability criteria for edge MHD oscillations in high performance ELM free tokamak regimes (United States)

    Brunetti, D.; Graves, J. P.; Lazzaro, E.; Mariani, A.; Nowak, S.; Cooper, W. A.; Wahlberg, C.


    A new dispersion relation, and associated stability criteria, is derived for low-n external kink and infernal modes, and is applied to modelling the stability properties of quiescent H-mode like regimes. The analysis, performed in toroidal geometry with large edge pressure gradients associated with a local flattening of the safety factor, includes a pedestal, sheared toroidal rotation and a vacuum region separating the plasma from an ideal metallic wall. The external kink-infernal modes found here exhibit similarities with experimentally observed edge harmonic oscillations.

  19. Extrapolation techniques applied to matrix methods in neutron diffusion problems (United States)

    Mccready, Robert R


    A general matrix method is developed for the solution of characteristic-value problems of the type arising in many physical applications. The scheme employed is essentially that of Gauss and Seidel with appropriate modifications needed to make it applicable to characteristic-value problems. An iterative procedure produces a sequence of estimates to the answer; and extrapolation techniques, based upon previous behavior of iterants, are utilized in speeding convergence. Theoretically sound limits are placed on the magnitude of the extrapolation that may be tolerated. This matrix method is applied to the problem of finding criticality and neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor with control rods. The two-dimensional finite-difference approximation to the two-group neutron-diffusion equations is treated. Results for this example are indicated.

  20. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick


    , an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over......In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process...... threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results...

  1. Outlier robustness for wind turbine extrapolated extreme loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Verelst, David Robert


    simulation is demonstrated and compared with published results. Further effects of varying wind inflow angles and shear exponent is brought out. Parametric fitting techniques that consider all extreme loads including ‘outliers’ are proposed, and the physical reasons that result in isolated high extreme loads...... dependencies is utilized to estimate a probability for the largest extreme load to occur at a specific mean wind speed. This inherently weights extreme loads that occur frequently within mean wind speed bins higher than isolated occurrences of extreme loads. Primarily, the results for the blade root out......-of-plane loads are presented here as those extrapolated loads have shown wide variability in literature, but the method can be generalized to any other component load. The convergence of the 1 year extrapolated extreme blade root out-of-plane load with the number of turbulent wind samples used in the loads...

  2. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process...... an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over...... threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results...

  3. Wind Velocity Vertical Extrapolation by Extended Power Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Şen


    Full Text Available Wind energy gains more attention day by day as one of the clean renewable energy resources. We predicted wind speed vertical extrapolation by using extended power law. In this study, an extended vertical wind velocity extrapolation formulation is derived on the basis of perturbation theory by considering power law and Weibull wind speed probability distribution function. In the proposed methodology not only the mean values of the wind speeds at different elevations but also their standard deviations and the cross-correlation coefficient between different elevations are taken into consideration. The application of the presented methodology is performed for wind speed measurements at Karaburun/Istanbul, Turkey. At this location, hourly wind speed measurements are available for three different heights above the earth surface.

  4. Magnetic X-points, edge localized modes, and stochasticitya) (United States)

    Sugiyama, L. E.; Strauss, H. R.


    Edge localized modes (ELMs) near the boundary of a high temperature, magnetically confined toroidal plasma represent a new type of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma instability that grows through a coherent plasma interaction with part of a chaotic magnetic field. Under perturbation, the freely moving magnetic boundary surface with an X-point splits into two different limiting asymptotic surfaces (manifolds), similar to the behavior of a hyperbolic saddle point in Hamiltonian dynamics. Numerical simulation using the extended MHD code M3D shows that field-aligned plasma instabilities, such as ballooning modes, can couple to the "unstable" manifold that forms helical, field-following lobes around the original surface. Large type I ELMs proceed in stages. Initially, a rapidly growing ballooning outburst involves the entire outboard side. Large plasma fingers grow well off the midplane, while low density regions penetrate deeply into the plasma. The magnetic field becomes superficially stochastic. A secondary inboard edge instability causes inboard plasma loss. The plasma gradually relaxes back toward axisymmetry, with diminishing cycles of edge instability. Poloidal rotation of the interior and edge plasma may be driven. The magnetic tangle constrains the early nonlinear ballooning, but may encourage the later inward penetration. Equilibrium toroidal rotation and two-fluid diamagnetic drifts have relatively small effects on a strong MHD instability. Intrinsic magnetic stochasticity may help explain the wide range of experimentally observed ELMs and ELM-free behavior in fusion plasmas, as well as properties of the H-mode and plasma edge.

  5. Line-of-sight extrapolation noise in dust polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poh, Jason; Dodelson, Scott


    The B-modes of polarization at frequencies ranging from 50-1000 GHz are produced by Galactic dust, lensing of primordial E-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by intervening large scale structure, and possibly by primordial B-modes in the CMB imprinted by gravitational waves produced during inflation. The conventional method used to separate the dust component of the signal is to assume that the signal at high frequencies (e.g., 350 GHz) is due solely to dust and then extrapolate the signal down to lower frequency (e.g., 150 GHz) using the measured scaling of the polarized dust signal amplitude with frequency. For typical Galactic thermal dust temperatures of about 20K, these frequencies are not fully in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit. Therefore, deviations in the dust cloud temperatures from cloud to cloud will lead to different scaling factors for clouds of different temperatures. Hence, when multiple clouds of different temperatures and polarization angles contribute to the integrated line-of-sight polarization signal, the relative contribution of individual clouds to the integrated signal can change between frequencies. This can cause the integrated signal to be decorrelated in both amplitude and direction when extrapolating in frequency. Here we carry out a Monte Carlo analysis on the impact of this line-of-sight extrapolation noise, enabling us to quantify its effect. Using results from the Planck experiment, we find that this effect is small, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current uncertainties. However, line-of-sight extrapolation noise may be a significant source of uncertainty in future low-noise primordial B-mode experiments. Scaling from Planck results, we find that accounting for this uncertainty becomes potentially important when experiments are sensitive to primordial B-mode signals with amplitude r < 0.0015 .

  6. Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez Jacome, Wilson


    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the

  7. The extrapolation problem and how population modeling can help. (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Calow, Peter; Sibly, Richard M


    We argue that population modeling can add value to ecological risk assessment by reducing uncertainty when extrapolating from ecotoxicological observations to relevant ecological effects. We review other methods of extrapolation, ranging from application factors to species sensitivity distributions to suborganismal (biomarker and "-omics") responses to quantitative structure-activity relationships and model ecosystems, drawing attention to the limitations of each. We suggest a simple classification of population models and critically examine each model in an extrapolation context. We conclude that population models have the potential for adding value to ecological risk assessment by incorporating better understanding of the links between individual responses and population size and structure and by incorporating greater levels of ecological complexity. A number of issues, however, need to be addressed before such models are likely to become more widely used. In a science context, these involve challenges in parameterization, questions about appropriate levels of complexity, issues concerning how specific or general the models need to be, and the extent to which interactions through competition and trophic relationships can be easily incorporated.

  8. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin


    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  10. Efficient extrapolation methods for electro- and magnetoquasistatic field simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clemens


    Full Text Available In magneto- and electroquasi-static time domain simulations with implicit time stepping schemes the iterative solvers applied to the large sparse (non-linear systems of equations are observed to converge faster if more accurate start solutions are available. Different extrapolation techniques for such new time step solutions are compared in combination with the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Simple extrapolation schemes based on Taylor series expansion are used as well as schemes derived especially for multi-stage implicit Runge-Kutta time stepping methods. With several initial guesses available, a new subspace projection extrapolation technique is proven to produce an optimal initial value vector. Numerical tests show the resulting improvements in terms of computational efficiency for several test problems. In quasistatischen elektromagnetischen Zeitbereichsimulationen mit impliziten Zeitschrittverfahren zeigt sich, dass die iterativen Lösungsverfahren für die großen dünnbesetzten (nicht-linearen Gleichungssysteme schneller konvergieren, wenn genauere Startlösungen vorgegeben werden. Verschiedene Extrapolationstechniken werden für jeweils neue Zeitschrittlösungen in Verbindung mit dem präkonditionierten Konjugierte Gradientenverfahren vorgestellt. Einfache Extrapolationsverfahren basierend auf Taylorreihenentwicklungen werden ebenso benutzt wie speziell für mehrstufige implizite Runge-Kutta-Verfahren entwickelte Verfahren. Sind verschiedene Startlösungen verfügbar, so erlaubt ein neues Unterraum-Projektion- Extrapolationsverfahren die Konstruktion eines optimalen neuen Startvektors. Numerische Tests zeigen die aus diesen Verfahren resultierenden Verbesserungen der numerischen Effizienz.

  11. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  12. Statistically extrapolated nowcasting of summertime precipitation over the Eastern Alps (United States)

    Chen, Min; Bica, Benedikt; Tüchler, Lukas; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong


    This paper presents a new multiple linear regression (MLR) approach to updating the hourly, extrapolated precipitation forecasts generated by the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system for the Eastern Alps. The generalized form of the model approximates the updated precipitation forecast as a linear response to combinations of predictors selected through a backward elimination algorithm from a pool of predictors. The predictors comprise the raw output of the extrapolated precipitation forecast, the latest radar observations, the convective analysis, and the precipitation analysis. For every MLR model, bias and distribution correction procedures are designed to further correct the systematic regression errors. Applications of the MLR models to a verification dataset containing two months of qualified samples, and to one-month gridded data, are performed and evaluated. Generally, MLR yields slight, but definite, improvements in the intensity accuracy of forecasts during the late evening to morning period, and significantly improves the forecasts for large thresholds. The structure-amplitude-location scores, used to evaluate the performance of the MLR approach, based on its simulation of morphological features, indicate that MLR typically reduces the overestimation of amplitudes and generates similar horizontal structures in precipitation patterns and slightly degraded location forecasts, when compared with the extrapolated nowcasting.

  13. The Shoelace Antenna: Measurements of Driven Transport and Prospects for Active Edge Control (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore; Labombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Terry, J. L.; Baek, S. G.; Ennever, P.; Edlund, E.; Han, W.; Burke, W. M.; Wolfe, S. M.; Irby, J. H.; Hughes, J. W.; Fitzgerald, E. W.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Pierson, S. Z.; Porkolab, M.; Vieira, R. F.; Wukitch, S. J.; Alcator C-Mod Team


    The Shoelace antenna was built to drive edge fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, matching the wavenumber (k = 1.5/cm) and frequency (50< f<200 kHz) of the Quasi-Coherent Mode (QCM). This fluctuation is responsible for regulating transport across the plasma boundary in the steady-state, ELM-free Enhanced D α(EDA) H-mode; the goal of the Shoelace antenna is to regulate edge transport actively via the same mechanism. Initial experiments demonstrated that the antenna drove a resonant response in the edge plasma in steady-state EDA and transient, non-ELMy H-modes, but transport measurements were unavailable. In 2016, the Shoelace antenna was relocated to enable direct measurements of driven transport by a reciprocating Mirror Langmuir Probe, while also making available gas puff imaging and reflectometer data to provide radial localization of the driven fluctuation. This talk will describe these measurements, and compare them to those of the intrinsic QCM in the context of assessing the feasibility of achieving active control of edge transport using direct coupling to edge modes. This work is supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Gyrokinetic Studies of Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effect on Microturbulence in DIII-D H-Mode Pedestal (United States)

    Holod, Ihor; Lin, Zhihong; Taimourzadeh, Sam; Nazikian, Raffi; Spong, Donald; Wingen, Andreas


    Vacuum Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) applied to otherwise axisymmetric plasmas for the purpose of ELM mitigation produce in general a combination of non resonant effects preserving closed flux surfaces (kink response) and resonant effects that introduce magnetic islands. The effect of the plasma kink response on the stability and transport of edge turbulence is studied using the gyrokinetic code GTC for a DIII-D discharge with applied n=2 vacuum RMP. Three reference equilibria were modeled using VMEC code, based on DIII-D shot 158103: axisymmetric (no RMP) equilibrium, n=2 RMP, and artificially amplified RMPx10 equilibria. Gyrokinetic simulations reveal no increase of growth rates for electrostatic driftwave instability and electromagnetic kinetic-ballooning mode in the presence of the RMP. The effect of RMP on zonal flow damping is found to be insufficient to modify turbulent transport. Therefore, the plasma kink response to the RMP cannot account for the change in the turbulence level seen in experiments with suppressed ELMs. These results demonstrate that other physics must be controlling the transition in confinement responsible for ELM suppression. Work is supported by General Atomics subcontract 4500055243, U.S. DOE Grant DE-SC0010416 and DE-SC0013804, and by General Atomics collaboration agreement under DOE Grant DE-FG03-94ER54271.

  15. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)


    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  16. A Statistical Analysis of the Scaling Laws for the Confinement Time Distinguishing between Core and Edge (United States)

    Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.

    The H mode of confinement in Tokamaks is characterized by a thin region of high gradients, located at the edge of the plasma and called the Edge Transport Barrier. Even if various theoretical models have been proposed for the interpretation of the edge physics, the main empirical scaling laws of the plasma confinement time are expressed in terms of global plasma parameters and they do not discriminate between the edge and core regions. Moreover all the scaling laws are assumed to be power law monomials. In the present paper, a new methodology is proposed to investigate the validity of both assumptions. The approach is based on Symbolic Regression via Genetic Programming and allows first the extraction of the most statistically reliable models from the available experimental data in the ITPA database. Non linear fitting is then applied to the mathematical expressions found by Symbolic regression. The obtained scaling laws are compared with the traditional scalings in power law form.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Wiegelmann, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Moore, Ronald L., E-mail: [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812-9900 (United States)


    Magnetic reconnection is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering solar eruptive events, but direct observation of this rapid process has been a challenge. In this Letter, using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation technique, we present a visualization of field line connectivity changes resulting from tether-cutting reconnection over about 30 minutes during the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Evidence for the tether-cutting reconnection was first collected through multiwavelength observations and then by analysis of the field lines traced from positions of four conspicuous flare 1700 Å footpoints observed at the event onset. Right before the flare, the four footpoints are located very close to the regions of local maxima of the magnetic twist index. In particular, the field lines from the inner two footpoints form two strongly twisted flux bundles (up to ∼1.2 turns), which shear past each other and reach out close to the outer two footpoints, respectively. Immediately after the flare, the twist index of regions around the footpoints diminishes greatly and the above field lines become low-lying and less twisted (≲0.6 turns), overarched by loops linking the two flare ribbons formed later. About 10% of the flux (∼3 × 10{sup 19} Mx) from the inner footpoints undergoes a footpoint exchange. This portion of flux originates from the edge regions of the inner footpoints that are brightened first. These rapid changes of magnetic field connectivity inferred from the NLFFF extrapolation are consistent with the tether-cutting magnetic reconnection model.

  18. The Mistral base case to validate kinetic and fluid turbulence transport codes of the edge and SOL plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dif-Pradalier, G., E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Gunn, J. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Ciraolo, G. [M2P2, UMR 6181-CNRS, 38 Rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille (France); Chang, C.S. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, N.Y. University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Chiavassa, G. [M2P2, UMR 6181-CNRS, 38 Rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille (France); Diamond, P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fedorczak, N. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph., E-mail: [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Isoardi, L. [M2P2, UMR 6181-CNRS, 38 Rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille (France); Kocan, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Ku, S. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, N.Y. University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Serre, E. [M2P2, UMR 6181-CNRS, 38 Rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13451 Marseille (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)


    Experimental data from the Tore Supra experiments are extrapolated in the SOL and edge to investigate the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The linear analysis indicates that a large part of the SOL is rather unstable. The effort is part of the set-up of the Mistral base case that is organised to validate the codes and address new issues on turbulent edges, including the comparison of kinetic and fluid modelling in the edge plasma.

  19. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates. (United States)

    Buckler, Denny R; Mayer, Foster L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Asfaw, Amha


    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  20. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models (United States)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.


    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  1. Time-Dependent Simulations of Fast-Wave Heated High-Non-Inductive-Fraction H-Mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (United States)

    Taylor, Gary; Bertelli, Nicola; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Hosea, Joel C.; Mueller, Dennis; Perkins, Rory J.; Poli, Francesca M.; Wilson, James R.; Raman, Roger


    30 MHz fast-wave heating may be an effective tool for non-inductively ramping low-current plasmas to a level suitable for initiating up to 12 MW of neutral beam injection on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). Previously on NSTX 30 MHz fast wave heating was shown to efficiently and rapidly heat electrons; at the NSTX maximum axial toroidal magnetic field (BT(0)) of 0.55 T, 1.4 MW of 30 MHz heating increased the central electron temperature from 0.2 to 2 keV in 30 ms and generated an H-mode plasma with a non-inductive fraction (fNI) ˜ 0.7 at a plasma current (Ip) of 300 kA. NSTX-U will operate at BT(0) up to 1 T, with up to 4 MW of 30 MHz power (Prf). Predictive TRANSP free boundary transport simulations, using the TORIC full wave spectral code to calculate the fast-wave heating and current drive, have been run for NSTX-U Ip = 300 kA H-mode plasmas. Favorable scaling of fNI with 30 MHz heating power is predicted, with fNI ≥ 1 for Prf ≥ 2 MW.

  2. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)


    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  3. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues. (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilek, Michael; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve; Larsson, Carl-Magnus


    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors > individual to population > ecosystem structure to function.

  4. Application of the backward extrapolation method to pulsed neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry


    Particle detectors operated in pulse mode are subjected to the dead-time effect. When the average of the detector counts is constant over time, correcting for the dead-time effect is simple and can be accomplished by analytical formulas. However, when the average of the detector counts changes over time it is more difficult to take into account the dead-time effect. When a subcritical nuclear assembly is driven by a pulsed neutron source, simple analytical formulas cannot be applied to the measured detector counts to correct for the dead-time effect because of the sharp change of the detector counts over time. This work addresses this issue by using the backward extrapolation method. The latter can be applied not only to a continuous (e.g. californium) external neutron source but also to a pulsed external neutron source (e.g. by a particle accelerator) driving a subcritical nuclear assembly. The backward extrapolation method allows to obtain from the measured detector counts both the dead-time value and the real detector counts.

  5. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  6. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.


    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  7. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph


    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  8. COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE): A new approach for high definition vascular imaging from low resolution data. (United States)

    Song, Yang; Hamtaei, Ehsan; Sethi, Sean K; Yang, Guang; Xie, Haibin; Mark Haacke, E


    To introduce a new approach to reconstruct high definition vascular images using COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE) and evaluate its capability in estimating vessel area and stenosis. CODE is based on the constraint that the full width half maximum of a vessel can be accurately estimated and, since it represents the best estimate for the width of the object, higher k-space data can be generated from this information. To demonstrate the potential of extracting high definition vessel edges using low resolution data, both simulated and human data were analyzed to better visualize the vessels and to quantify both area and stenosis measurements. The results from CODE using one-fourth of the fully sampled k-space data were compared with a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction approach using the same total amount of data but spread out between the center of k-space and the outer portions of the original k-space to accelerate data acquisition by a factor of four. For a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such as 16 (8), we found that objects as small as 3 voxels in the 25% under-sampled data (6 voxels when zero-filled) could be used for CODE and CS and provide an estimate of area with an error 200 (30) times faster for CODE compared to CS in the simulated (human) data. CODE was capable of producing sharp sub-voxel edges and accurately estimating stenosis to within 5% for clinically relevant studies of vessels with a width of at least 3pixels in the low resolution images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Motion Extrapolation in Amphibian Prey Capture. (United States)

    Borghuis, Bart G; Leonardo, Anthony


    Sensorimotor delays decouple behaviors from the events that drive them. The brain compensates for these delays with predictive mechanisms, but the efficacy and timescale over which these mechanisms operate remain poorly understood. Here, we assess how prediction is used to compensate for prey movement that occurs during visuomotor processing. We obtained high-speed video records of freely moving, tongue-projecting salamanders catching walking prey, emulating natural foraging conditions. We found that tongue projections were preceded by a rapid head turn lasting ∼ 130 ms. This motor lag, combined with the ∼ 100 ms phototransduction delay at photopic light levels, gave a ∼ 230 ms visuomotor response delay during which prey typically moved approximately one body length. Tongue projections, however, did not significantly lag prey position but were highly accurate instead. Angular errors in tongue projection accuracy were consistent with a linear extrapolation model that predicted prey position at the time of tongue contact using the average prey motion during a ∼ 175 ms period one visual latency before the head movement. The model explained successful strikes where the tongue hit the fly, and unsuccessful strikes where the fly turned and the tongue hit a phantom location consistent with the fly's earlier trajectory. The model parameters, obtained from the data, agree with the temporal integration and latency of retinal responses proposed to contribute to motion extrapolation. These results show that the salamander predicts future prey position and that prediction significantly improves prey capture success over a broad range of prey speeds and light levels. Neural processing delays cause actions to lag behind the events that elicit them. To cope with these delays, the brain predicts what will happen in the future. While neural circuits in the retina and beyond have been suggested to participate in such predictions, few behaviors have been explored sufficiently

  10. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris


    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  11. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  12. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N


    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  13. Nuclear lattice simulations using symmetry-sign extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany); Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Rupak, Gautam [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State, MS (United States)


    Projection Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Chiral Effective Field Theory suffer from sign oscillations to a varying degree dependent on the number of protons and neutrons. Hence, such studies have hitherto been concentrated on nuclei with equal numbers of protons and neutrons, and especially on the alpha nuclei where the sign oscillations are smallest. Here, we introduce the ''symmetry-sign extrapolation'' method, which allows us to use the approximate Wigner SU(4) symmetry of the nuclear interaction to systematically extend the Projection Monte Carlo calculations to nuclear systems where the sign problem is severe. We benchmark this method by calculating the ground-state energies of the {sup 12}C, {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Be nuclei, and discuss its potential for studies of neutron-rich halo nuclei and asymmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  14. The Edge supersonic transport (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian


    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  15. Prediction of Pressure and Temperature Gradients in the Tokamak Plasma Edge (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.


    An extended plasma fluid theory that takes into account kinetic ion orbit loss and electromagnetic forces in the continuity, momentum and energy balances, as well as atomic physics and radiation, has been used to reveal the explicit dependence of the temperature and pressure gradients in the tokamak edge plasma on these various factors. Combining the ion radial momentum balance and the Ohm's Law expression for Er reveals the dependence of the radial ion pressure gradient on VxB forces driven by radial particle fluxes, which depend on ion orbit loss, and other factors. The strong temperature gradients measured in the H-mode edge pedestal could certainly be associated with radiative and atomic physics edge cooling effects and the strong reduction in ion and energy fluxes due to ion orbit loss, as well as to the possible reductions in thermal diffusivities that is usually assumed to be the cause. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  16. Stabilizing effects of resistivity on low-n edge localized modes in NSTX

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Maingi, Rajesh


    The stabilizing effects of enhanced edge resistivity on the low-n edge localized modes (ELMs) are reported for the first time in the context of ELM suppression in H-mode discharge due to Lithium-conditioning in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Here n is the toroidal mode number. Linear stability analysis of the corresponding experimental equilibrium suggests that the change in the equilibrium plasma density profile alone due to Lithium-conditioning may be insufficient for a complete suppression of ELMs. The enhanced resistivity due to the increased effective electric charge number Z eff after Lithium-conditioning can account for additional stabi- lization effect necessary for full ELM suppression. Remarkably, such a stabilizing effect of enhanced edge resistivity on the low-n ELMs only exists when two-fluid effects are considered in the MHD model.

  17. Modulating toroidal flow stabilization of edge localized modes with plasma density

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Shikui; Banerjee, Debabrata


    Recent EAST experiments have demonstrated mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) with toroidal rotation flow in higher collisionality regime, suggesting potential roles of plasma density. In this work, the effects of plasma density on the toroidal flow stabilization of the high-$n$ edge localized modes have been extensively studied in linear calculations for a circular-shaped limiter H-mode tokamak, using the extended MHD code NIMROD. In the single MHD model, toroidal flow has a weak stabilizing effects on the high-$n$ modes. Such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced with the increase in plasma density. Furthermore, our calculations show that the enhanced stabilization of high-$n$ modes from toroidal flow with higher edge plasma density persists in the 2-fluid MHD model. These findings may explain the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation in higher collisionality regime due to the enhancement of plasma density obtained in recent EAST experiments.

  18. Reconstruction from truncated projections using mixed extrapolations of exponential and quadratic functions. (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Xintie


    In computer tomography (CT), truncated projections are produced due to scanning large objects with a detector that is limited in width. Applying filtered back-projection(FBP) method directly to truncated projections, the reconstructed image will contain truncation artifacts - bright rings on the boundary of region of interest (ROI). Extrapolation algorithms can be used to reduce the truncation artifacts; however extrapolations are usually double the length of the projection data; resulting in an increased calculation time. This paper introduces mixed extrapolation, which is a combination of exponential and quadratic extrapolation. It is proven that doubling the length of the projection data for the mixed extrapolation can be avoided. The projections were extrapolated according to the boundary values and their derivatives. The algorithm achieves equivalence to the extrapolation approach with negligible increased calculation time. Supplementary functions are introduced in order to simplify the calculations. These functions can be calculated prior to extrapolation process, hence the calculation time is significantly reduced. The calculation times are compared between fast extrapolation introduced in this paper and normal extrapolation with doubling the length of projection data.

  19. EdgeCentric: Anomaly Detection in Edge-Attributed Networks


    Shah, Neil; Beutel, Alex; Hooi, Bryan; Akoglu, Leman; Gunnemann, Stephan; Makhija, Disha; Kumar, Mohit; Faloutsos, Christos


    Given a network with attributed edges, how can we identify anomalous behavior? Networks with edge attributes are commonplace in the real world. For example, edges in e-commerce networks often indicate how users rated products and services in terms of number of stars, and edges in online social and phonecall networks contain temporal information about when friendships were formed and when users communicated with each other -- in such cases, edge attributes capture information about how the adj...

  20. An Efficient Compensation Method for Limited-View Photoacoustic Imaging Reconstruction Based on Gerchberg–Papoulis Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang


    Full Text Available The reconstruction for limited-view scanning, though often the case in practice, has remained a difficult issue for photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The incompleteness of sampling data will cause serious artifacts and fuzziness in those missing views and it will heavily affect the quality of the image. To solve the problem of limited-view PAI, a compensation method based on the Gerchberg–Papoulis (GP extrapolation is applied into PAI. Based on the known data, missing detectors elements are estimated and the image in the missing views is then compensated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. To accelerate the convergence speed of the algorithm, the total variation (TV-based iterative algorithm is incorporated into the GP extrapolation-based FFT-utilized compensation method (TV-GPEF. The effective variable splitting and Barzilai–Borwein based method is adopted to solve the optimization problem. Simulations and in vitro experiments for both limited-angle circular scanning and straight-line scanning are conducted to validate the proposed algorithm. Results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly suppress the artifacts caused by the missing views and enhance the edges and the details of the image. It can be indicated that the proposed TV-GPEF algorithm is efficient for limited-view PAI.

  1. Linear instabilities near the DIII-D edge simulated in fluid models (United States)

    Bass, Eric; Holland, Christopher


    The linear instability spectrum is reported near the DIII-D edge (within the separatrix) for L-mode and H-mode shots using the new eigenvalue solver FluTES (Fluid Toroidal Eigenvalue Solver). FluTES circumvents difficulties with convergence to clean linear eigenmodes (required for diagnosis of nonlinear simulations in codes such as BOUT++) often encountered with fluid initial-value solvers. FluTES is well-verified in analytic cases and against a BOUT++/ELITE benchmark toroidal case. We report results for both a 3-field, one-fluid model (the well-known ``elm-pb'' model) and a 5-field, two-fluid model. For the peeling-ballooning-dominated H-mode, the two solutions are qualitatively the same. In the driftwave-dominated L-mode edge, only the two-fluid solution gives robust instabilities which occur primarily at n > 50 . FluTES is optimized for this regime (near-flutelike limit, toroidally spectral). Cross-separatrix, coupled fluid and drift instabilities may play a role in explaining the gyrokinetic L-mode edge transport shortfall. Extension of FluTES into the open-field-line region is underway. Prepared by UCSD under Contract Number DE-FG02-06ER54871.

  2. Global 3D Braginskii simulations of the tokamak edge region of IWL discharges (United States)

    Francisquez, M.; Zhu, B.; Rogers, B. N.


    A study of plasma turbulence and profile evolution in conditions of low (L-mode) and high (H-mode) confinement at the edge of an axisymmetric, nested circular flux-surface approximation to an inner wall limited (IWL) Alcator C-Mod discharge is presented, using numerical simulations with the global drift-ballooning (GDB) code. GDB solves drift-reduced Braginskii two-fluid equations for electromagnetic low-frequency turbulence in a 3D annulus centered on the last closed flux-surface (LCFS). Three simulations that investigate the conditions of a reference L-mode, a high density, and a high temperature (or H-mode-like) shot were performed using realistic parameters. L-mode transport appears to be largely driven by drift resistive ballooning structures. Its pressure profile exhibits a near-SOL breakpoint that Mirror Langmuir Probes (MLP) detect in C-Mod. The high density simulation sees an increase in the size of convective cells and enhanced turbulent transport, while H-mode conditions develop improved confinement, balanced E × B and ion diamagnetic drifts in the closed-flux region, and spontaneous generation of temperature pedestal with a density pedestal remaining absent. A statistical characterization of the turbulence both in the SOL and the closed-flux region is presented.

  3. Full waveform inversion with extrapolated low frequency data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yunyue Elita


    The availability of low frequency data is an important factor in the success of full waveform inversion (FWI) in the acoustic regime. The low frequencies help determine the kinematically relevant, low-wavenumber components of the velocity model, which are in turn needed to avoid convergence of FWI to spurious local minima. However, acquiring data below 2 or 3 Hz from the field is a challenging and expensive task. In this paper we explore the possibility of synthesizing the low frequencies computationally from high-frequency data, and use the resulting prediction of the missing data to seed the frequency sweep of FWI. As a signal processing problem, bandwidth extension is a very nonlinear and delicate operation. It requires a high-level interpretation of bandlimited seismic records into individual events, each of which is extrapolable to a lower (or higher) frequency band from the non-dispersive nature of the wave propagation model. We propose to use the phase tracking method for the event separation task. The...

  4. Impact ejecta dynamics in an atmosphere - Experimental results and extrapolations (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.


    It is noted that the impacts of 0.635-cm aluminum projectiles at 6 km/sec into fine pumice dust, at 1 atm, generate a ball of ionized gas behind an expanding curtain of upward moving ejecta. The gas ball forms a toroid which dissolves as it is driven along the interior of the ejecta curtain, by contrast to near-surface explosions in which a fireball envelops early-time crater growth. High frame rate Schlieren photographs show that the atmosphere at the base of the ejecta curtain is initially turbulent, but later forms a vortex. These experiments suggest that although small size ejecta may be decelerated by air drag, they are not simply lofted and suspended but become incorporated in an ejecta cloud that is controlled by air flow which is produced by the response of the atmosphere to the impact. The extrapolation of these results to large body impacts on the earth suggests such contrasts with laboratory experiments as a large quantity of impact-generated vapor, the supersonic advance of the ejecta curtain, the lessened effect of air drag due to the tenuous upper atmosphere, and the role of secondary cratering.

  5. Delayed inhibition of an anticipatory action during motion extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riek Stephan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous visual information is important for movement initiation in a variety of motor tasks. However, even in the absence of visual information people are able to initiate their responses by using motion extrapolation processes. Initiation of actions based on these cognitive processes, however, can demand more attentional resources than that required in situations in which visual information is uninterrupted. In the experiment reported we sought to determine whether the absence of visual information would affect the latency to inhibit an anticipatory action. Methods The participants performed an anticipatory timing task where they were instructed to move in synchrony with the arrival of a moving object at a determined contact point. On 50% of the trials, a stop sign appeared on the screen and it served as a signal for the participants to halt their movements. They performed the anticipatory task under two different viewing conditions: Full-View (uninterrupted and Occluded-View (occlusion of the last 500 ms prior to the arrival at the contact point. Results The results indicated that the absence of visual information prolonged the latency to suppress the anticipatory movement. Conclusion We suggest that the absence of visual information requires additional cortical processing that creates competing demand for neural resources. Reduced neural resources potentially causes increased reaction time to the inhibitory input or increased time estimation variability, which in combination would account for prolonged latency.

  6. Time-domain incident-field extrapolation technique based on the singularity-expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaasen, J.J.


    In this report, a method presented to extrapolate measurements from Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) assessments directly in the time domain. This method is based on a time-domain extrapolation function which is obtained from the Singularity Expansion Method representation of the measured incident field of the NEMP simulator. Once the time-domain extrapolation function is determined, the responses recorded during an assessment can be extrapolated simply by convolving them with the time domain extrapolation function. It is found that to obtain useful extrapolated responses, the incident field measurements needs to be made minimum phase; otherwise unbounded results can be obtained. Results obtained with this technique are presented, using data from actual assessments.

  7. Uncertainty in vertical extrapolation of wind statistics: shear-exponent and WAsP/EWA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.

    for uncertainties inherent in determination of (wind) shear exponents, and subsequent vertical extrapolation of wind speeds. The report further outlines application of the theory and results of Kelly & Troen (2014-6) for gauging the uncertainty inherent in use of the European Wind Atlas (EWA) / WAsP method......This report provides formulations for estimation of uncertainties involved in vertical extrapolation of winds, as well as the total uncertainty incurred when winds observed at one height are extrapolated to turbine hub height for wind resource assessment. This includes new derivations....../푧obs); for larger extrapolations, WAsP-based extrapolation leads to smaller estimated uncertainties than the shear-extrapolation method.A primary motivation for—and part of—this work is the creation of a standard for uncertainty estimation and reporting, which is known as the IEC61400-15. The author is actively...

  8. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.


    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions.

  9. Intrinsic momentum generation by a combined neoclassical and turbulence mechanism in diverted DIII-D plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Choe, W. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kwon, J. M. [National Fusion Research institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Müller, Stefan H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching 85748 (Germany); Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)


    Fluid Reynolds stress from turbulence has usually been considered to be responsible for the anomalous toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasma. Experiment by Müller et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 115001 (2011)], however, reported that neither the observed edge rotation profile nor the inward momentum transport phenomenon at the edge region of an H-mode plasma could be explained by the fluid Reynolds stress measured with reciprocating Langmuir-probe. The full-function gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to explain, for the first time, Müller et al.'s experimental observations. It is discovered that, unlike in the plasma core, the fluid Reynolds stress from turbulence is not sufficient for momentum transport physics in plasma edge. The “turbulent neoclassical” physics arising from the interaction between kinetic neoclassical orbit dynamics and plasma turbulence is key in the tokamak edge region across the plasma pedestal into core.

  10. Extrapolation methods for accelerating unsteady partitioned fluid-structure interaction simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sachs


    Full Text Available The advantages of an unsteady implicit partitioned Fluid-Structure Interaction Scheme are, especially for large time step sizes, accompanied by a high number of inner iterations needed. This work investigates the use of extrapolation techniques in between time steps to obtain a smaller number of inner iterations. In contrast to previous works not only the structural displacement but also the fluid field variables are considered for extrapolation. The different extrapolation approaches are compared within a numerical benchmark.

  11. Comparison of H-mode plasma simulations using toroidal velocity models depending on plasma current density and ion temperature in presence of an ITB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyarit Chatthong


    Full Text Available Two different approaches for predicting plasma toroidal velocity (v are developed and used in self-consistent simulations of H-mode plasmas with the presence of ITB using BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code. In the first approach, the toroidal velocity depends on the plasma current density; while in the second approach the toroidal velocity is directly proportional to the ion temperature. The profile of v is used to calculate the ExB flow shear which is a main mechanism for plasma transport suppression, leading to the ITB formation. In all simulations, the core transport model is a combination of NCLASS neoclassical transport and semi-empirical Mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm model that includes the ITB effects. The boundary condition is set at top of the pedestal and is estimated using a pedestal model based on a combination of magnetic and flow shear stabilization pedestal width scaling and an infinite-n ballooning pressure gradient. Two toroidal velocity models are used to simulate the time evolution of plasma temperature and density profiles of 10 JET discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE is used to compare simulation results of those 10 JET discharges with experimental data. It is found that RMSE of Ti , Te , ne are 28.1%, 31.8%, and 15.0% for the first toroidal velocity model and 25.5%, 30.2%, and 15.1% for the second toroidal velocity model, respectively. Furthermore, this suite of codes is used to predict the ITER performance under standard type I ELMy H-mode. It is found that the simulation yields formation of a narrow ITB near r/a = 0.7 in the simulation using the current density dependent model and a wide ITB from r/a = 0.5 to 0.8 in the simulation using the ion temperature dependent model. The average of central ion temperature, total fusion power output and alpha power are predicted to be 36 keV, 159 MW and 492 MW for the current density dependent model and 49 keV, 218 MW and 786 MW for the ion temperature dependent

  12. Development of room temperature crossbar-H-mode cavities for proton and ion acceleration in the low to medium beta range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clemente


    Full Text Available The crossbar H-mode (CH cavity is an accelerating structure operated in the H_{21(0} mode. The robustness of the crossbar geometry allows one to realize room temperature as well as superconducting linac cavities. The shunt impedance characteristics of this structure are attractive to develop proton and heavy ion linacs in the low and medium beta range. A first room temperature eight-cell prototype has proven the feasibility of the crossbar design in terms of mechanical construction, copper plating, and cooling. An innovative rf coupling concept has been developed where two CH cavities are connected by a two gap E_{010}-mode resonator which, at the same time, provides transverse focusing by a quadrupole triplet. The concept has been applied in the design of the new FAIR proton linac and a scaled model of the second cavity of this injector has been built and tested too. The full scale prototype is now under construction at the University of Frankfurt. In this paper, the room temperature CH cavity development as well as the general layout of the FAIR proton injector (70 MeV, 325 MHz, 70 mA is presented and discussed.

  13. The Effect of Input Torque Ramps on Density Fluctuations Generated in the QH-mode Edge on DIII-D (United States)

    Rost, Chris; Davis, E. M.; Marinoni, A.; Porkolab, M. A.; Burrell, K. H.


    Recent studies of Quiescent H-mode with varied input torque have exhibited two regimes of edge density turbulence, as observed with the Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) density fluctuation diagnostic. The PCI is especially sensitive to turbulence in regions of large velocity shear, as seen in the Er well in the H-mode edge. QH-modes were first discovered in discharges with large input torque from neutral beams. Such plasmas possess a deep Er well inside the separatrix and have highly sheared ion-scale turbulence in the outer portion of the well propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction at 50 % of the largest E × B velocity. As input torque decreases, additional sheared turbulence appears which propagates at 2-3 × the largest E × B velocity, coincident with discontinuous changes in the velocity shear in the Er well and the characteristics of the Edge Harmonic Oscillation. Robust performance is observed to continue throughout these qualitative changes in the QH-mode edge parameters and density turbulence. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Edge domination in grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klostermeyer, William F.; Yeo, Anders


    It has been conjectured that the edge domination number of the m × n grid graph, denoted by γ′(Pm□Pn), is ⌊mn/3⌋, when m,n ≥ 2. Our main result gives support for this conjecture by proving that ⌊mn/3⌋ ≤ -γ′{Pm□Pn) ≤ mn/3 + n/12 + 1, when m,n ≥ 2. We furthermore show that the conjecture holds when...

  15. Off the edge


    Stoneham, Luke


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. Work which takes from elsewhere forms an important thread in European art music. There is a long tradition of music which variously borrows, thieves, pastiches, plagiarises, ironically ‘retakes’, hoaxes, impersonates and appropriates. The music I have written for Off the edge, while seeking to honour and add to this thread, also attempts to zoom in upon and make explicit the idea o...

  16. A Time-domain incident field extrapolation technique based on the singularity expansion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasen, J.J.A.


    In this report, a method is presented to extrapolate measurements from Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) assessments directly in the time domain. This method is based on a time-domain extrapolation function which is obtained from the Singularity Expansion Method representation of the measured

  17. Third-Order Newton-Type Methods Combined with Vector Extrapolation for Solving Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhou


    Full Text Available We present a third-order method for solving the systems of nonlinear equations. This method is a Newton-type scheme with the vector extrapolation. We establish the local and semilocal convergence of this method. Numerical results show that the composite method is more robust and efficient than a number of Newton-type methods with the other vector extrapolations.

  18. Extrapolating human judgments from skip-gram vector representations of word meaning. (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris; Lefsrud, Lianne


    There is a growing body of research in psychology that attempts to extrapolate human lexical judgments from computational models of semantics. This research can be used to help develop comprehensive norm sets for experimental research, it has applications to large-scale statistical modelling of lexical access and has broad value within natural language processing and sentiment analysis. However, the value of extrapolated human judgments has recently been questioned within psychological research. Of primary concern is the fact that extrapolated judgments may not share the same pattern of statistical relationship with lexical and semantic variables as do actual human judgments; often the error component in extrapolated judgments is not psychologically inert, making such judgments problematic to use for psychological research. We present a new methodology for extrapolating human judgments that partially addresses prior concerns of validity. We use this methodology to extrapolate human judgments of valence, arousal, dominance, and concreteness for 78,286 words. We also provide resources for users to extrapolate these human judgments for three million English words and short phrases. Applications for large sets of extrapolated human judgments are demonstrated and discussed.

  19. Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda) (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.


    We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.

  20. The value of remote sensing techniques in supporting effective extrapolation across multiple marine spatial scales. (United States)

    Strong, James Asa; Elliott, Michael


    The reporting of ecological phenomena and environmental status routinely required point observations, collected with traditional sampling approaches to be extrapolated to larger reporting scales. This process encompasses difficulties that can quickly entrain significant errors. Remote sensing techniques offer insights and exceptional spatial coverage for observing the marine environment. This review provides guidance on (i) the structures and discontinuities inherent within the extrapolative process, (ii) how to extrapolate effectively across multiple spatial scales, and (iii) remote sensing techniques and data sets that can facilitate this process. This evaluation illustrates that remote sensing techniques are a critical component in extrapolation and likely to underpin the production of high-quality assessments of ecological phenomena and the regional reporting of environmental status. Ultimately, is it hoped that this guidance will aid the production of robust and consistent extrapolations that also make full use of the techniques and data sets that expedite this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Edge Relaxation and Boundary Continuity. (United States)


    V. Measures of Performance 94 1. Fixed Points, Entropy , and Consistency 94 2. Global Measures of Uncertainty, Drift, and Inconsistency 96 VI...operators have been applied. Marr EMARR763 uses a set of edge detectors of varying size to determine the appropriate width of an edge to be asserted in his...certain edges is a fixed point. The array of probabilities has zero entropy when the probability of each edge in the array is 0 or 1. The closed-loop

  2. Pairs Of Edges As Chords And As Cut-Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Terry A.


    Full Text Available Several authors have studied the graphs for which every edge is a chord of a cycle; among 2-connected graphs, one characterization is that the deletion of one vertex never creates a cut-edge. Two new results: among 3-connected graphs with minimum degree at least 4, every two adjacent edges are chords of a common cycle if and only if deleting two vertices never creates two adjacent cut-edges; among 4-connected graphs, every two edges are always chords of a common cycle.

  3. The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenninger, Ronald


    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal

  4. Slope Edge Deformation and Permafrost Dynamics Along the Arctic Shelf Edge, Beaufort Sea, Canada (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.


    The shelf of the Canadian Beaufort Sea is underlain by relict offshore permafrost that formed in the long intervals of terrestrial exposure during glacial periods. At the shelf edge the permafrost thins rapidly and also warms. This area has a very distinct morphology that we attribute to both the formation and degradation of ice bearing permafrost. Positive relief features include circular to oval shaped topographic mounds, up to 10 m high and ~50 m in diameter which occur at a density of ~6 per km2. Intermixed are circular topographic depressions up to 20 m deep. This topography was investigated using an autonomous underwater vehicle that provides 1 m horizontal resolution bathymetry and chirp profiles, a remotely operated vehicle to document seafloor textures, and sediment cores to sample pore waters. A consistent down-core freshening at rates of 14 to 96 mM Cl- per meter was found in these pore waters near the shelf edge. Downward extrapolation of these trends indicates water with ≤335 mM Cl- should occur at 2.3 to 22.4 m sub-seafloor depths within this shelf edge deformation band. Pore water with 335 mM Cl- or less freezes at -1.4°C. As bottom water temperatures in this area are persistently (<-1.4°C) cold and ground ice was observed in some core samples, we interpret the volume changes associated with mound formation are in part due to pore water freezing. Thermal models (Taylor et al., 2014) predict brackish water along the shelf edge may be sourced in relict permafrost melting under the adjacent continental shelf. Buoyant brackish water is hypothesized to migrate along the base of the relict permafrost, to emerge at the shelf edge and then refreeze when it encounters the colder seafloor. Expansion generated by the formation of ice-bearing permafrost generates the positive relief mounds and ridges. The associated negative relief features may be related to permafrost dynamics also. Permafrost dynamics may have geohazard implications that are unique to the

  5. Towards red-edge positions less sensitive to canopy biophysical parameters for leaf chlorophyll estimation using properties optique spectrales des feuilles (PROSPECT) and scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves (SAILH) simulated data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Atzberger, C.


    Several methods for extracting the chlorophyll sensitive red-edge position (REP) from hyperspectral data are reported in literature. This study is a continuation of a recent paper published as 'A new technique for extracting the red edge position from hyperspectral data: the linear extrapolation

  6. Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm for an accelerated solution of weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesgarani, H; Parmour, P [Department of Mathematics, Shahid Rajaee University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghazadeh, N [Department of Applied Mathematics, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz 53751 71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    In this paper, we apply Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm as acceleration technique for the solution of a weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. In this paper, based on Tao and Yong (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 324 225-37.) the integral equation is solved by Navot's quadrature formula. Also, Tao and Yong (2006) for the first time applied Richardson extrapolation to accelerating convergence for the weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. To our knowledge, this paper may be the first attempt to apply Aitken extrapolation and epsilon algorithm for the weakly singular nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind.

  7. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan


    within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out-of-plane...... bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in more consistent...

  8. Concerning the extrapolation of solar nonlinear force-free magnetic fields (United States)

    Gary, G. Allen


    This paper contains a review and discussion of the mathematical basis of the extrapolation techniques involved in using photospheric vector magnetograms to obtain the coronal field above the surface. The two basic techniques employing the Cauchy initial value problem and the variational techniques are reviewed in terms of the mathematical and practical applications. A short review is presented of the current research on numerical modeling techniques in the area of extrapolating vector magnetograms; specifically, algorithms to extrapolate nonlinear force-free magnetic fields from the photosphere are considered.

  9. Edge-on! (United States)


    Peering at Uranus's Rings as they Swing Edge-on to Earth for the First Time Since their Discovery in 1977 As Uranus coasts through a brief window of time when its rings are edge-on to Earth - a view of the planet we get only once every 42 years - astronomers peering at the rings with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other space or ground-based telescopes are getting an unprecedented view of the fine dust in the system, free from the glare of the bright rocky rings. They may even find a new moon or two. ESO PR Photo 37/07 ESO PR Photo 37/07 The Uranus System "ESO's VLT took data at the precise moment when the rings were edge-on to Earth," said Imke de Pater, of University of California, Berkeley who coordinated the worldwide campaign. She worked with two team members observing in Chile: Daphne Stam of the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands and Markus Hartung of ESO. The observations were done with NACO, one of the adaptive optics instruments installed at the VLT. With adaptive optics, it is possible to obtain images almost free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. It is as if the 8.2-m telescope were observing from space. Observations were also done with the Keck telescope in Hawaii, the Hubble Space Telescope, and at the Palomar Observatory. "Using different telescopes around the world allows us to observe as much of the changes during the ring-plane crossing as possible: when Uranus sets as seen from the VLT, it can still be observed by the Keck," emphasised Stam. Uranus orbits the Sun in 84 years. Twice during a Uranian year, the rings appear edge-on to Earth for a brief period. The rings were discovered in 1977, so this is the first time for a Uranus ring-crossing to be observed from Earth. The advantage of observations at a ring-plane crossing is that it becomes possible to look at the rings from the shadowed or dark side. From that vantage point, the normally bright outer rings grow fainter because their centimetre- to metre-sized rocks obscure

  10. Cheating on the edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin


    Full Text Available We present the results of an individual agent-based model of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Our model examines antibiotic resistance when two strategies exist: "producers"--who secrete a substance that breaks down antibiotics--and nonproducers ("cheats" who do not secrete, or carry the machinery associated with secretion. The model allows for populations of up to 10,000, in which bacteria are affected by their nearest neighbors, and we assume cheaters die when there are no producers in their neighborhood. Each of 10,000 slots on our grid (a torus could be occupied by a producer or a nonproducer, or could (temporarily be unoccupied. The most surprising and dramatic result we uncovered is that when producers and nonproducers coexist at equilibrium, nonproducers are almost always found on the edges of clusters of producers.

  11. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Extrapolation-based approach to optimization with constraints determined by the Robin boundary problem for the Laplace equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; Perunicic, Branislava; Salihbegovic, A; Supic, H; Velagic, J; Sadzak, A


    This paper considers the application of extrapolation techniques in finding approximate solutions of some optimization problems with constraints defined by the Robin boundary problem for the Laplace equation. When applied extrapolation techniques produce very accurate solutions of the boundary

  13. The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)


    The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.

  14. Comparison of Extrapolation and Interpolation Methods for Estimating Daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Liu, X.; Prins, H.H.T.


    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), which are indispensable for simulating plant growth and productivity, are generally very scarce. This study aimed to compare two extrapolation and one interpolation methods for estimating daily PAR reaching the earth surface within the

  15. Files containing only extrapolated orbital metadata, to be read via SDP Toolkit, Binary Format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM1EPHNE is the Terra Near Real Time (NRT) 2-hour spacecraft Extrapolated ephemeris data file in native format. The file name format is the following:...

  16. Extrapolated Orbital data files to be read via SDP toolkit, Binary Format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM1EPHNE is the Terra Near Real Time (NRT) 2-hour spacecraft Extrapolated ephemeris data file in native format. The file name format is the following:...

  17. Design for low dose extrapolation of carcinogenicity data. Technical report No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S C


    Parameters for modelling dose-response relationships in carcinogenesis models were found to be very complicated, especially for distinguishing low dose effects. The author concluded that extrapolation always bears the danger of providing misleading information. (PCS)

  18. The Extrapolation-Accelerated Multilevel Aggregation Method in PageRank Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yuan Pu


    Full Text Available An accelerated multilevel aggregation method is presented for calculating the stationary probability vector of an irreducible stochastic matrix in PageRank computation, where the vector extrapolation method is its accelerator. We show how to periodically combine the extrapolation method together with the multilevel aggregation method on the finest level for speeding up the PageRank computation. Detailed numerical results are given to illustrate the behavior of this method, and comparisons with the typical methods are also made.

  19. New Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculator using VBA programming for numerical differentiations (United States)

    Tay, Kim Gaik; Kek, Sie Long; Abdul-Kahar, Rosmila


    In this paper, we have further improved the limitations of our previous two Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculators for computing differentiations numerically. The new feature in this new Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculator is fully automated up to any level based on the stopping criteria using VBA programming. The new version is more flexible because it is controlled by programming. Furthermore, it reduces computational time and CPU memory.

  20. Issues and current applications of interspecies extrapolation of carcinogenic potency as a component of risk assessment.


    Visek, W. J.


    The Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is conducting this symposium under contract with the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has requested information on the strengths and weaknesses of current interspecies extrapolation methods using metabolic and pharmacokinetic data, identity of data for these methods, bases for choice of extrapolation method and...

  1. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation. (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc


    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  3. Edge Bundling in Information Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong Zhou Panpan Xu Xiaoru Yuan Huamin Qu


    The edge, which can encode relational data in graphs and multidimensional data in parallel coordinates plots, is an important visual primitive for encoding data in information visualization research...

  4. Effects of Density and Impurity on Edge Localized Modes in Tokamaks (United States)

    Zhu, Ping


    Plasma density and impurity concentration are believed to be two of the key elements governing the edge tokamak plasma conditions. Optimal levels of plasma density and impurity concentration in the edge region have been searched for in order to achieve the desired fusion gain and divertor heat/particle load mitigation. However, how plasma density or impurity would affect the edge pedestal stability may have not been well known. Our recent MHD theory modeling and simulations using the NIMROD code have found novel effects of density and impurity on the dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) in tokamaks. First, previous MHD analyses often predict merely a weak stabilizing effect of toroidal flow on ELMs in experimentally relevant regimes. We find that the stabilizing effects on the high- n ELMs from toroidal flow can be significantly enhanced with the increased edge plasma density. Here n denotes the toroidal mode number. Second, the stabilizing effects of the enhanced edge resistivity due to lithium-conditioning on the low- n ELMs in the high confinement (H-mode) discharges in NSTX have been identified. Linear stability analysis of the experimentally constrained equilibrium suggests that the change in the equilibrium plasma density and pressure profiles alone due to lithium-conditioning may not be sufficient for a complete suppression of the low- n ELMs. The enhanced resistivity due to the increased effective electric charge number Zeff after lithium-conditioning provides additional stabilization of the low- n ELMs. These new effects revealed in our theory analyses may help further understand recent ELM experiments and suggest new control schemes for ELM suppression and mitigation in future experiments. They may also pose additional constraints on the optimal levels of plasma density and impurity concentration in the edge region for H-mode tokamak operation. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB

  5. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai


    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  6. Validation of Kinetic-Turbulent-Neoclassical Theory for Edge Intrinsic Rotation in DIII-D Plasmas (United States)

    Ashourvan, Arash


    Recent experiments on DIII-D with low-torque neutral beam injection (NBI) have provided a validation of a new model of momentum generation in a wide range of conditions spanning L- and H-mode with direct ion and electron heating. A challenge in predicting the bulk rotation profile for ITER has been to capture the physics of momentum transport near the separatrix and steep gradient region. A recent theory has presented a model for edge momentum transport which predicts the value and direction of the main-ion intrinsic velocity at the pedestal-top, generated by the passing orbits in the inhomogeneous turbulent field. In this study, this model-predicted velocity is tested on DIII-D for a database of 44 low-torque NBI discharges comprised of bothL- and H-mode plasmas. For moderate NBI powers (PNBInet injected torque through the edge can exceed 1 N.m in the counter-current direction. The theory model has been extended to compute the rotation degradation from this counter-current NBI torque by solving a reduced momentum evolution equation for the edge and found the revised velocity prediction to be in agreement with experiment. Projecting to the ITER baseline scenario, this model predicts a value for the pedestal-top rotation (ρ 0.9) comparable to 4 kRad/s. Using the theory modeled - and now tested - velocity to predict the bulk plasma rotation opens up a path to more confidently projecting the confinement and stability in ITER. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  7. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.


    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  8. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  9. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements (United States)

    Mueller, David S.


    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity profiles from the entire cross section and multiple transects to determine a mean profile for the measurement. The use of an exponent derived from normalized data from the entire cross section is shown to be valid for application of the power velocity distribution law in the computation of the unmeasured discharge in a cross section. Selected statistics are combined with empirically derived criteria to automatically select the appropriate extrapolation methods. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides the user tools to visually evaluate the automatically selected extrapolation methods and manually change them, as necessary. The sensitivity of the total discharge to available extrapolation methods is presented in the GUI. Use of extrap by field hydrographers has demonstrated that extrap is a more accurate and efficient method of determining the appropriate extrapolation methods compared with tools currently (2012) provided in the ADCP manufacturers' software.

  10. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur


    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  11. Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load...... is normally determined by statistical extrapolation of the simulated response during operation according to IEC 61400-1 2005. However, this method assumes that the individual 10 min. time series are independent and that peaks extracted are independent. In the present paper two new methods for loads...... extrapolation are presented. The first method is based on the same assumptions as the existing method but the statistical extrapolation is only performed for a limited number of mean wind speeds where the extreme load is likely to occur. For the second method the mean wind speeds are divided into storms which...

  12. The influence of an extrapolation chamber over the low energy X-ray beam radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanuri de F, M. T.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)


    The extrapolation chambers are detectors whose sensitive volume can be modified by changing the distance between the electrodes and has been widely used for beta particles primary measurement system. In this work, was performed a PTW 23392 extrapolation chamber Monte Carlo simulation, by mean the MCNPX code. Although the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber can be reduced to very small size, their packaging is large enough to modify the radiation field and change the absorbed dose measurements values. Experiments were performed to calculate correction factors for this purpose. The validation of the Monte Carlo model was done by comparing the spectra obtained with a CdTe detector according to the ISO 4037 criteria. Agreements smaller than 5% for half value layers, 10% for spectral resolution and 1% for mean energy, were found. It was verified that the correction factors are dependent of the X-ray beam quality. (Author)

  13. Dynamic mode extrapolation to improve the efficiency of dual time stepping method (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Gang; Ye, Zhengyin


    This work proposes a methodology to improve the computational efficiency of unsteady flow simulations with dual time stepping scheme. The methodology is developed on the combination of dynamic mode extrapolation and dual time stepping scheme. It accelerates the convergence speed of the inner iterations by using dynamic mode extrapolation to provide an initial solution for each physical time step. The validation and verification are demonstrated by three cases, including unsteady flow past a stationary circular cylinder at Re = 200, transonic flow over periodic and non-periodic pitching NACA 0012 airfoil and buffeting flow around NASA(SC)-0714 airfoil. For comparison, Lagrange extrapolation initial condition and natural initial condition are also applied. The results confirm that the proposed methodology is very successful in reducing computational time for both incompressible and transonic unsteady flow.

  14. The optimized expansion based low-rank method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong


    Spectral methods are fast becoming an indispensable tool for wavefield extrapolation, especially in anisotropic media because it tends to be dispersion and artifact free as well as highly accurate when solving the wave equation. However, for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain extrapolation operator efficiently. To solve this problem, we evaluated an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with a low-rank variable separation representation. The rank defines the number of inverse Fourier transforms for each time extrapolation step, and thus, the lower the rank, the faster the extrapolation. The method uses optimization instead of matrix decomposition to find the optimal wavenumbers and velocities needed to approximate the full operator with its explicit low-rank representation. As a result, we obtain lower rank representations compared with the standard low-rank method within reasonable accuracy and thus cheaper extrapolations. Additional bounds set on the range of propagated wavenumbers to adhere to the physical wave limits yield unconditionally stable extrapolations regardless of the time step. An application on the BP model provided superior results compared to those obtained using the decomposition approach. For transversely isotopic media, because we used the pure P-wave dispersion relation, we obtained solutions that were free of the shear wave artifacts, and the algorithm does not require that n > 0. In addition, the required rank for the optimization approach to obtain high accuracy in anisotropic media was lower than that obtained by the decomposition approach, and thus, it was more efficient. A reverse time migration result for the BP tilted transverse isotropy model using this method as a wave propagator demonstrated the ability of the algorithm.

  15. Extrapolation of pre-screening trends: Impact of assumptions on overdiagnosis estimates by mammographic screening. (United States)

    Ripping, T M; Verbeek, A L M; Ten Haaf, K; van Ravesteyn, N T; Broeders, M J M


    Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening is defined as the excess in breast cancer incidence in the presence of screening compared to the incidence in the absence of screening. The latter is often estimated by extrapolating the pre-screening incidence trend. The aim of this theoretical study is to investigate the impact of assumptions in extrapolating the pre-screening incidence trend of invasive breast cancer on the estimated percentage of overdiagnosis. We extracted data on invasive breast cancer incidence and person-years by calendar year (1975-2009) and 5-year age groups (0-85 years) from Dutch databases. Different combinations of assumptions for extrapolating the pre-screening period were investigated, such as variations in the type of regression model, end of the pre-screening period, screened age range, post-screening age range and adjustment for a trend in women overdiagnosis, i.e. excess cancer incidence in the presence of screening as a proportion of the number of screen-detected and interval cancers. Most overdiagnosis percentages are overestimated because of inadequate adjustment for lead time. The overdiagnosis estimates range between -7.1% and 65.1%, with a median of 33.6%. The choice of pre-screening period has the largest influence on the estimated percentage of overdiagnosis: the median estimate is 17.1% for extrapolations using 1975-1986 as the pre-screening period and 44.7% for extrapolations using 1975-1988 as the pre-screening period. The results of this theoretical study most likely cover the true overdiagnosis estimate, which is unknown, and may not necessarily represent the median overdiagnosis estimate. This study shows that overdiagnosis estimates heavily depend on the assumptions made in extrapolating the incidence in the pre-screening period, especially on the choice of the pre-screening period. These limitations should be acknowledged when adopting this approach to estimate overdiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Extrapolation of limited creep data by parallel fitting with data for similar materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, P.S. [ALSTOM Power, Whetstone, Leicester (United Kingdom)


    Extrapolation of creep properties is discussed with special reference to the inclusion of transitions between regions of different dependence. A methodology is described in which expressions allowing for two distinct regions are treated in terms of assumed parallel behaviour for all batches within groups of essentially similar materials. This allows low-stress trends seen for relatively weak materials at practical test times to be combined with high stress data available for strong materials at comparable or shorter times. A practically motivated example is given for NIM115 data extrapolated by data for similar materials including the much weaker NIM90. (orig.)

  17. Benchmarking Tokamak edge modelling codes (United States)

    Contributors To The Efda-Jet Work Programme; Coster, D. P.; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Kirnev, G. S.; Matthews, G.; Spence, J.; Contributors to the EFDA-JET work programme


    Tokamak edge modelling codes are in widespread use to interpret and understand existing experiments, and to make predictions for future machines. Little direct benchmarking has been done between the codes, and the users of the codes have tended to concentrate on different experimental machines. An important validation step is to compare the codes for identical scenarios. In this paper, two of the major edge codes, SOLPS (B2.5-Eirene) and EDGE2D-NIMBUS are benchmarked against each other. A set of boundary conditions, transport coefficients, etc. for a JET plasma were chosen, and the two codes were run on the same grid. Initially, large differences were seen in the resulting plasmas. These differences were traced to differing physics assumptions with respect to the parallel heat flux limits. Once these were switched off in SOLPS, or implemented and switched on in EDGE2D-NIMBUS, the remaining differences were small.

  18. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  19. ELM-free and inter-ELM divertor heat flux broadening induced by edge harmonics oscillation in NSTX (United States)

    Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Zweben, S. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Scotti, F.; Maingi, R.; Park, J.-K.; Canal, G. P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Mclean, A. G.; Wirth, B. D.


    A new n  =  1 dominated edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) has been found in NSTX. The new EHO, rotating toroidally in the counter-current direction and the opposite direction of the neutral beam, was observed during certain inter-ELM and ELM-free periods of H-mode operation. This EHO is associated with a significant broadening of the integral heat flux width ({λ\\operatorname{int}} ) by up to 150%, and a decrease in the divertor peak heat flux by  >60%. An EHO induced filament was also observed by the gas puff imaging diagnostic. The toroidal rotating filaments could change the edge magnetic topology resulting in toroidal rotating strike point splitting and heat flux broadening. Experimental result of the counter current rotation of strike points splitting is consistent with the counter-current EHO.

  20. Domination Edge Lift Critical Trees | Desormeaux | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stract. Let uxv be an induced path with center x in a graph G. The edge lifting of uv off x is defined as the action of removing edges ux and vx from the edge set of G, while adding the edge uv to the edge set of G. We study trees for which every possible edge lift changes the domination number. We show that there are no ...

  1. Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Codrina; Vianello, Nicola; Müller, H.W.


    In ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region were measured simultaneously during ELMy H-mode (high confinement) plasmas and L-mode (low confinement) plasmas and during a transition between the two modes. A special probe was used containing six Langmuir...... probe pins of graphite of which one is protruding radially. In addition, 20 mm behind the front side a triple magnetic pick-up coil is mounted inside the probe head by which temporal variations of the magnetic field in all three directions of space can be detected. The probe pins are arranged...... in such a way that simultaneously the poloidal and radial electric field components, the ion saturation current and the current-voltage characteristic can be registered. During the AUG discharges of 7 s lengths the probe head is inserted two to three times for 100 ms each by the midplane manipulator...

  2. Extrapolating intensified forest inventory data to the surrounding landscape using landsat (United States)

    Evan B. Brooks; John W. Coulston; Valerie A. Thomas; Randolph H. Wynne


    In 2011, a collection of spatially intensified plots was established on three of the Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) sites with the intent of facilitating FIA program objectives for regional extrapolation. Characteristic coefficients from harmonic regression (HR) analysis of associated Landsat stacks are used as inputs into a conditional random forests model to...

  3. Flow Forecasting in Drainage Systems with Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data and Auto Calibration on Flow Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Grum, M.; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    in a small urban catchment has been developed. The forecast is based on application of radar rainfall data, which by a correlation based technique, is extrapolated with a lead time up to two hours. The runoff forecast in the drainage system is based on a fully distributed MOUSE model which is auto...

  4. Monte Carlo analysis: error of extrapolated thermal conductivity from molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In this short report, we give an analysis of the extrapolated thermal conductivity of UO2 from earlier molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [1]. Because almost all material properties are functions of temperature, e.g. fission gas release, the fuel thermal conductivity is the most important parameter from a model sensitivity perspective [2]. Thus, it is useful to perform such analysis.

  5. The 'extrapolated center of mass' concept suggests a simple control of balance in walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, At L.

    Next to position x and velocity v of the whole body center of mass (CoM) the 'extrapolated center of mass' (XcoM) can be introduced: zeta = x + v/omega(0), where omega(0) is a constant related to stature. Based on the inverted pendulum model of balance, the XcoM enables to formulate the requirements

  6. A least square extrapolation method for improving solution accuracy of PDE computations

    CERN Document Server

    Garbey, M


    Richardson extrapolation (RE) is based on a very simple and elegant mathematical idea that has been successful in several areas of numerical analysis such as quadrature or time integration of ODEs. In theory, RE can be used also on PDE approximations when the convergence order of a discrete solution is clearly known. But in practice, the order of a numerical method often depends on space location and is not accurately satisfied on different levels of grids used in the extrapolation formula. We propose in this paper a more robust and numerically efficient method based on the idea of finding automatically the order of a method as the solution of a least square minimization problem on the residual. We introduce a two-level and three-level least square extrapolation method that works on nonmatching embedded grid solutions via spline interpolation. Our least square extrapolation method is a post-processing of data produced by existing PDE codes, that is easy to implement and can be a better tool than RE for code v...

  7. Accurate Conformational Energy Differences of Carbohydrates: A Complete Basis Set Extrapolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Csonka, G. I.; Kaminský, Jakub


    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2011), s. 988-997 ISSN 1549-9618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : MP2 * basis set extrapolation * saccharides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.215, year: 2011

  8. Source-receiver two-way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding-reflector modelling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Most modern seismic imaging methods separate input data into parts (shot gathers). We develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield forward or backward in time. This approach has the potential for generating accurate images free of artiefacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high-order partial differential equations in the source-receiver time domain. The fourth-order nature of the extrapolation in time leads to four solutions, two of which correspond to the incoming and outgoing P-waves and reduce to the zero-offset exploding-reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. A challenge for implementing two-way time extrapolation is an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation. Using spectral methods based on the low-rank approximation of the propagation symbol, we extrapolate only the desired solutions in an accurate and efficient manner with reduced dispersion artiefacts. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach.

  9. Spatial Estimation of Accelerated Stimuli Is Based on a Linear Extrapolation of First-Order Information. (United States)

    Bennett, Simon J; Benguigui, Nicolas


    We examined spatial estimation of accelerating objects (-8, -4, 0, +4, or +8 deg/s(2)) during occlusion (600, 1,000 ms) in a spatial prediction motion task. Multiple logistic regression indicated spatial estimation was influenced by these factors such that participants estimated objects with positive acceleration to reappear behind less often than those with negative acceleration, and particularly after the longer occlusion. Individual-participant logistic regressions indicated spatial estimation was better predicted by a first-order extrapolation of the occluded object motion based on pre-occlusion velocity rather than a second-order extrapolation that took account of object acceleration. We suggest a general principle of extrapolation is involved in prediction motion tasks whereby there is a contraction of the variable of interest (i.e., displacement in spatial prediction motion and time in temporal prediction motion). Such an approach to extrapolation could be advantageous as it would offer participants better opportunity to correct for an initial estimation error.

  10. Extrapolation of pre-screening trends: Impact of assumptions on overdiagnosis estimates by mammographic screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Haaf, K. Ten; Ravesteyn, N.T. van; Broeders, M.J.M.


    BACKGROUND: Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening is defined as the excess in breast cancer incidence in the presence of screening compared to the incidence in the absence of screening. The latter is often estimated by extrapolating the pre-screening incidence trend. The aim of this theoretical

  11. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide. (United States)

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian


    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  12. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Zontone, Federico; Fink, Hans-Werner


    We demonstrate enhancement in resolution of a noncrystalline object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction pattern by extrapolating the measured diffraction intensities beyond the detector area. The experimental record contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. The extrapolation is done by applying an iterative routine. The optimal parameters for implementing the iterative routine, including initial padding distribution and an object support, are studied. Extrapolation results in resolution enhancement and better matching between the recovered and experimental amplitudes in the Fourier domain. The limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  13. Nowcasting of deep convective clouds and heavy precipitation: Comparison study between NWP model simulation and extrapolation (United States)

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr


    An evaluation of convective cloud forecasts performed with the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model COSMO and extrapolation of cloud fields is presented using observed data derived from the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The present study focuses on the nowcasting range (1-5 h) for five severe convective storms in their developing stage that occurred during the warm season in the years 2012-2013. Radar reflectivity and extrapolated radar reflectivity data were assimilated for at least 6 h depending on the time of occurrence of convection. Synthetic satellite imageries were calculated using radiative transfer model RTTOV v10.2, which was implemented into the COSMO model. NWP model simulations of IR10.8 μm and WV06.2 μm brightness temperatures (BTs) with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km were interpolated into the satellite projection and objectively verified against observations using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CORR) and Fractions Skill Score (FSS) values. Naturally, the extrapolation of cloud fields yielded an approximately 25% lower RMSE, 20% higher CORR and 15% higher FSS at the beginning of the second forecasted hour compared to the NWP model forecasts. On the other hand, comparable scores were observed for the third hour, whereas the NWP forecasts outperformed the extrapolation by 10% for RMSE, 15% for CORR and up to 15% for FSS during the fourth forecasted hour and 15% for RMSE, 27% for CORR and up to 15% for FSS during the fifth forecasted hour. The analysis was completed by a verification of the precipitation forecasts yielding approximately 8% higher RMSE, 15% higher CORR and up to 45% higher FSS when the NWP model simulation is used compared to the extrapolation for the first hour. Both the methods yielded unsatisfactory level of precipitation forecast accuracy from the fourth forecasted hour onward.

  14. Projecting species’ vulnerability to climate change: Which uncertainty sources matter most and extrapolate best? (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Sofaer, Helen R.; Skagen, Susan K.; Ray, Andrea J.; Noon, Barry R


    Species distribution models (SDMs) are commonly used to assess potential climate change impacts on biodiversity, but several critical methodological decisions are often made arbitrarily. We compare variability arising from these decisions to the uncertainty in future climate change itself. We also test whether certain choices offer improved skill for extrapolating to a changed climate and whether internal cross-validation skill indicates extrapolative skill. We compared projected vulnerability for 29 wetland-dependent bird species breeding in the climatically dynamic Prairie Pothole Region, USA. For each species we built 1,080 SDMs to represent a unique combination of: future climate, class of climate covariates, collinearity level, and thresholding procedure. We examined the variation in projected vulnerability attributed to each uncertainty source. To assess extrapolation skill under a changed climate, we compared model predictions with observations from historic drought years. Uncertainty in projected vulnerability was substantial, and the largest source was that of future climate change. Large uncertainty was also attributed to climate covariate class with hydrological covariates projecting half the range loss of bioclimatic covariates or other summaries of temperature and precipitation. We found that choices based on performance in cross-validation improved skill in extrapolation. Qualitative rankings were also highly uncertain. Given uncertainty in projected vulnerability and resulting uncertainty in rankings used for conservation prioritization, a number of considerations appear critical for using bioclimatic SDMs to inform climate change mitigation strategies. Our results emphasize explicitly selecting climate summaries that most closely represent processes likely to underlie ecological response to climate change. For example, hydrological covariates projected substantially reduced vulnerability, highlighting the importance of considering whether water

  15. SU-D-204-02: BED Consistent Extrapolation of Mean Dose Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, Z; Bortfeld, T; Hong, T; Wolfgang, J; Unkelbach, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: The safe use of radiotherapy requires the knowledge of tolerable organ doses. For experimental fractionation schemes (e.g. hypofractionation) these are typically extrapolated from traditional fractionation schedules using the Biologically Effective Dose (BED) model. This work demonstrates that using the mean dose in the standard BED equation may overestimate tolerances, potentially leading to unsafe treatments. Instead, extrapolation of mean dose tolerances should take the spatial dose distribution into account. Methods: A formula has been derived to extrapolate mean physical dose constraints such that they are mean BED equivalent. This formula constitutes a modified BED equation where the influence of the spatial dose distribution is summarized in a single parameter, the dose shape factor. To quantify effects we analyzed 14 liver cancer patients previously treated with proton therapy in 5 or 15 fractions, for whom also photon IMRT plans were available. Results: Our work has two main implications. First, in typical clinical plans the dose distribution can have significant effects. When mean dose tolerances are extrapolated from standard fractionation towards hypofractionation they can be overestimated by 10–15%. Second, the shape difference between photon and proton dose distributions can cause 30–40% differences in mean physical dose for plans having the same mean BED. The combined effect when extrapolating proton doses to mean BED equivalent photon doses in traditional 35 fraction regimens resulted in up to 7–8 Gy higher doses than when applying the standard BED formula. This can potentially lead to unsafe treatments (in 1 of the 14 analyzed plans the liver mean dose was above its 32 Gy tolerance). Conclusion: The shape effect should be accounted for to avoid unsafe overestimation of mean dose tolerances, particularly when estimating constraints for hypofractionated regimens. In addition, tolerances established for a given treatment modality cannot

  16. Evaluation of extrapolation methods for actual state expenditures on health care in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Banin


    Full Text Available Forecasting methods, extrapolation ones in particular, are used in health care for medical, biological and clinical research. The author, using accessible internet space, has not met a single publication devoted to extrapolation of financial parameters of health care activities. This determined the relevance of the material presented in the article: based on health care financing dynamics in Russia in 2000–2010 the author examined possibility of application of basic perspective extrapolation methods - moving average, exponential smoothing and least squares. It is hypothesized that all three methods can equally forecast actual public expenditures on health care in medium term in Russia’s current financial and economic conditions. The study result was evaluated in two time periods: within the studied interval and a five-year period. It was found that within the study period all methods have an average relative extrapolation error of 3–5%, which means high precision of the forecast. The study shown a specific feature of the least squares method which were gradually accumulating results so their economic interpretation became possible only in the end of the studied period. That is why the extrapolating results obtained by least squares method are not applicable in an entire study period and rather have a theoretical value. Beyond the study period, however, this feature was found to be the most corresponding to the real situation. It was the least squares method that proved to be the most appropriate for economic interpretation of the forecast results of actual public expenditures on health care. The hypothesis was not confirmed, the author received three differently directed results, while each method had independent significance and its application depended on evaluation study objectives and real social, economic and financial situation in Russian health care system.

  17. Projecting species' vulnerability to climate change: Which uncertainty sources matter most and extrapolate best? (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Sofaer, Helen R; Skagen, Susan K; Ray, Andrea J; Noon, Barry R


    Species distribution models (SDMs) are commonly used to assess potential climate change impacts on biodiversity, but several critical methodological decisions are often made arbitrarily. We compare variability arising from these decisions to the uncertainty in future climate change itself. We also test whether certain choices offer improved skill for extrapolating to a changed climate and whether internal cross-validation skill indicates extrapolative skill. We compared projected vulnerability for 29 wetland-dependent bird species breeding in the climatically dynamic Prairie Pothole Region, USA. For each species we built 1,080 SDMs to represent a unique combination of: future climate, class of climate covariates, collinearity level, and thresholding procedure. We examined the variation in projected vulnerability attributed to each uncertainty source. To assess extrapolation skill under a changed climate, we compared model predictions with observations from historic drought years. Uncertainty in projected vulnerability was substantial, and the largest source was that of future climate change. Large uncertainty was also attributed to climate covariate class with hydrological covariates projecting half the range loss of bioclimatic covariates or other summaries of temperature and precipitation. We found that choices based on performance in cross-validation improved skill in extrapolation. Qualitative rankings were also highly uncertain. Given uncertainty in projected vulnerability and resulting uncertainty in rankings used for conservation prioritization, a number of considerations appear critical for using bioclimatic SDMs to inform climate change mitigation strategies. Our results emphasize explicitly selecting climate summaries that most closely represent processes likely to underlie ecological response to climate change. For example, hydrological covariates projected substantially reduced vulnerability, highlighting the importance of considering whether water

  18. On the edge: haptic discrimination of edge sharpness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy L Skinner

    Full Text Available The increasing ubiquity of haptic displays (e.g., smart phones and tablets necessitates a better understanding of the perceptual capabilities of the human haptic system. Haptic displays will soon be capable of locally deforming to create simple 3D shapes. This study investigated the sensitivity of our haptic system to a fundamental component of shapes: edges. A novel set of eight high quality shape stimuli with test edges that varied in sharpness were fabricated in a 3D printer. In a two alternative, forced choice task, blindfolded participants were presented with two of these shapes side by side (one the reference, the other selected randomly from the remaining set of seven and after actively exploring the test edge of each shape with the tip of their index finger, reported which shape had the sharper edge. We used a model selection approach to fit optimal psychometric functions to performance data, and from these obtained just noticeable differences and Weber fractions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task with four different references. With sharpness defined as the angle at which one surface meets the horizontal plane, the four JNDs closely followed Weber's Law, giving a Weber fraction of 0.11. Comparisons to previously reported Weber fractions from other haptic manipulations (e.g. amplitude of vibration suggests we are sufficiently sensitive to changes in edge sharpness for this to be of potential utility in the design of future haptic displays. In Experiment 2, two groups of participants performed the task with a single reference but different exploration strategies; one was limited to a single touch, the other unconstrained and free to explore as they wished. As predicted, the JND in the free exploration condition was lower than that in the single touch condition, indicating exploration strategy affects sensitivity to edge sharpness.

  19. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin


    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  20. An empirical comparison of low-dose extrapolation from points of departure (PoD) compared to extrapolations based upon methods that account for model uncertainty. (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew W; Bailer, A John


    Experiments with relatively high doses are often used to predict risks at appreciably lower doses. A point of departure (PoD) can be calculated as the dose associated with a specified moderate response level that is often in the range of experimental doses considered. A linear extrapolation to lower doses often follows. An alternative to the PoD method is to develop a model that accounts for the model uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and to use this model to estimate the risk at low doses. Two such approaches that account for model uncertainty are model averaging (MA) and semi-parametric methods. We use these methods, along with the PoD approach in the context of a large animal (40,000+ animal) bioassay that exhibited sub-linearity. When models are fit to high dose data and risks at low doses are predicted, the methods that account for model uncertainty produce dose estimates associated with an excess risk that are closer to the observed risk than the PoD linearization. This comparison provides empirical support to accompany previous simulation studies that suggest methods that incorporate model uncertainty provide viable, and arguably preferred, alternatives to linear extrapolation from a PoD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner


    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  2. Finding edges in noisy scenes (United States)

    Machuca, R.; Gilbert, A. L.


    Edge detection in the presence of noise is a well-known problem. This paper examines an applications-motivated approach for solving the problem using novel techniques and presents a method developed by the authors that performs well on a large class of targets. ROC curves are used to compare this method with other well-known edge detection operators, with favorable results. A theoretical argument is presented that favors LMMSE filtering over median filtering in extremely noisy scenes. Simulated results of the research are presented.

  3. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Nobles, Dylan L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Postak, Lori [Quanex IG Systems, Inc., Cambridge OH 43725 USA; Calderon, Jose Alonzo [First Solar, Inc., Perrysburg OH 43551 USA


    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate the ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.

  4. Edge enhanced morphology for infrared image analysis (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Liu, Haonan


    Edge information is one of the critical information for infrared images. Morphological operators have been widely used for infrared image analysis. However, the edge information in infrared image is weak and the morphological operators could not well utilize the edge information of infrared images. To strengthen the edge information in morphological operators, the edge enhanced morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are given and analyzed. Secondly, the pseudo operators which are derived from the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are defined. Finally, the applications for infrared image analysis are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed edge enhanced morphological operators. The proposed edge enhanced morphological operators are useful for the applications related to edge features, which could be extended to wide area of applications.

  5. Improving In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation by Incorporating Toxicokinetic Measurements: A Case Study of Lindane-Induced Neurotoxicity (United States)

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicit...

  6. An Efficient Method of Reweighting and Reconstructing Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation Data for Extrapolation to Different Temperature and Density Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu


    This paper introduces an efficient technique to generate new molecular simulation Markov chains for different temperature and density conditions, which allow for rapid extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages at a range of temperatures and densities different from the original conditions where a single simulation is conducted. Obtained information from the original simulation are reweighted and even reconstructed in order to extrapolate our knowledge to the new conditions. Our technique allows not only the extrapolation to a new temperature or density, but also the double extrapolation to both new temperature and density. The method was implemented for Lennard-Jones fluid with structureless particles in single-gas phase region. Extrapolation behaviors as functions of extrapolation ranges were studied. Limits of extrapolation ranges showed a remarkable capability especially along isochors where only reweighting is required. Various factors that could affect the limits of extrapolation ranges were investigated and compared. In particular, these limits were shown to be sensitive to the number of particles used and starting point where the simulation was originally conducted.

  7. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    teaching and understanding physics. The simplest problem in diffraction – light pass- ing a straight edge – did not receive a rigorous solution till Sommerfeld's .... the English and. French nations. Around the same time, Young in England gave a dif- ferent formulation in which the original wave falling on the screen travels ...

  8. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Morpho (?) phono (?) logical fuzzy edges: The case of {-/}/{-/U/} semantic (?) contrast in Shona. K. G. Mkangwanwi. Abstract. (ZAMBEZIA: Journal of Humanities of the Univ of Zimbabwe, 2000 27(1): 47-54). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. On the Edge of Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line


    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Malian migrants and migration brokers in Mali, Algeria, Morocco, and France, this article investigates life in exile on the edge of Europe. Zooming in on the experiences of interlocutors in Morocco and Algeria, the article will explore the experiential...

  10. Communication: Predicting virial coefficients and alchemical transformations by extrapolating Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulations (United States)

    Hatch, Harold W.; Jiao, Sally; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.


    Virial coefficients are predicted over a large range of both temperatures and model parameter values (i.e., alchemical transformation) from an individual Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulation by statistical mechanical extrapolation with minimal increase in computational cost. With this extrapolation method, a Mayer-sampling Monte Carlo simulation of the SPC/E (extended simple point charge) water model quantitatively predicted the second virial coefficient as a continuous function spanning over four orders of magnitude in value and over three orders of magnitude in temperature with less than a 2% deviation. In addition, the same simulation predicted the second virial coefficient if the site charges were scaled by a constant factor, from an increase of 40% down to zero charge. This method is also shown to perform well for the third virial coefficient and the exponential parameter for a Lennard-Jones fluid.

  11. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  12. The immunogenicity of biosimilar infliximab: can we extrapolate the data across indications? (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Shomron; Heap, Graham A; Ahmad, Tariq; Kim, HoUng; Kwon, TaekSang; Chowers, Yehuda


    Biopharmaceuticals or 'biologics' have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases. However, some patients generate an immune response to such drugs, potentially limiting clinical efficacy and safety. Infliximab (Remicade(®)) is a monoclonal antibody used to treat several immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. A biosimilar of infliximab, CT-P13 (Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)), has recently been approved in Europe for all indications in which infliximab is approved. Approval of CT-P13 was based in part on extrapolation of clinical trial data from two indications (rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) to all other indications, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review discusses the validity of extrapolating immunogenicity data across indications - a process adopted by the EMA as part of their biosimilar approval process - with a focus on CT-P13.

  13. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent


    Whipping can contribute to increased fatigue and extreme loading of container ships, and guidelines have been made available by the leading class societies. Reports concerning the hogging collapse of MSC Napoli and MOL Comfort suggest that whipping contributed. The accidents happened in moderate ....... This paper considers various extrapolation methods to investigate the uncertainty in the extrapolation methods and to see if all methods confirm that the moderate storms are dimensioning.......Whipping can contribute to increased fatigue and extreme loading of container ships, and guidelines have been made available by the leading class societies. Reports concerning the hogging collapse of MSC Napoli and MOL Comfort suggest that whipping contributed. The accidents happened in moderate...

  14. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail:; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas


    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  15. Usage of Empirical-Statical-Dynamical (ESD method for data extrapolation in Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafirovski Zlatko


    Full Text Available This article describes a methodology that shows how it is possible to integrate all these approaches in a problem for extrapolation of the parameters for hydrotechical tunnels. During the design process for tunnels in hydrotechics, one of the main problems is how to extrapolate the deformability and shear strentgh rock mass parameters from the zone of testing to the whole area (volume of interes for interaction analyses between structure abd natural environments. Computers development in recent decades has contributed to the development of numerical calculation method in rock mechanics which enabled new and wider possibilities of stress and deformation calculation. This had significantly stimulated the development of rock mechanics and tunneling as scientific and technical discipline as well as the wider application of research results into practice.

  16. Performance of a prototype of an extrapolation minichamber in various radiation beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares CRCN-CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1, 50740-540 Recife, PE (Brazil); E-mail:; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    An extrapolation minichamber was developed for measuring doses from weakly penetrating types of radiation. The chamber was tested at the radiotherapeutic dose level in a beam from a {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y check source, in a beam from a plane {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y ophthalmic applicator, and in several reference beams from an X-ray tube. Saturation, ion collection efficiency, stabilization time, extrapolation curves, linearity of chamber response vs. air kerma rate, and dependences of the response on the energy and irradiation angle were characterized. The results are satisfactory; they show that the chamber can be used in the dosimetry of {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y beta particles and low-energy X-ray beams.

  17. Source‐receiver two‐way wave extrapolation for prestack exploding‐reflector modeling and migration

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    While most of the modern seismic imaging methods perform imaging by separating input data into parts (shot gathers), we develop a formulation that is able to incorporate all available data at once while numerically propagating the recorded multidimensional wavefield backward in time. While computationally extensive, this approach has the potential of generating accurate images, free of artifacts associated with conventional approaches. We derive novel high‐order partial differential equations in source‐receiver‐time domain. The fourth order nature of the extrapolation in time has four solutions two of which correspond to the ingoing and outgoing P‐waves and reduces to the zero‐offset exploding‐reflector solutions when the source coincides with the receiver. Using asymptotic approximations, we develop an approach to extrapolating the full prestack wavefield forward or backward in time.

  18. Scanning Electron Microscopy: Extrapolation of 3D Data from SEM Micrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas KAREIVA


    Full Text Available n this manuscript we suggest a three-dimensional reconstruction technique to fully characterize structural performance of solid materials. The described technique extrapolates, measures and interprets the 3-dimensional data which is extracted from SEM images, obtained from different angles. Further, finer results were achieved by extrapolating of spatial data from three or more sample images using visual reconstruction software applications. Gold particles, silicon wafers and dendrites were selected as model materials for the spatial 3D surface reconstruction. For comparison and proof-of-concept, stereoscopy technique was also included into the research.DOI:

  19. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla


    , the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global...... and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other......, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating...

  20. -Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HyunYoung


    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  1. Extrapolating a hierarchy of building block systems towards future neural network organisms. (United States)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G


    Is it possible to predict future life forms? In this paper it is argued that the answer to this question may well be positive. As a basis for predictions a rationale is used that is derived from historical data, e.g. from a hierarchical classification that ranks all building block systems, that have evolved so far. This classification is based on specific emergent properties that allow stepwise transitions, from low level building blocks to higher level ones. This paper shows how this hierarchy can be used for predicting future life forms. The extrapolations suggest several future neural network organisms. Major aspects of the structures of these organisms are predicted. The results can be considered of fundamental importance for several reasons. Firstly, assuming that the operator hierarchy is a proper basis for predictions, the result yields insight into the structure of future organisms. Secondly, the predictions are not extrapolations of presently observed trends, but are fully integrated with all historical system transitions in evolution. Thirdly, the extrapolations suggest the structures of intelligences that, one day, will possess more powerful brains than human beings. This study ends with a discussion of possibilities for falsification of the present theory, the implications of the present predictions in relation to recent developments in artificial intelligence and the philosophical implications of the role of humanity in evolution with regard to the creation of future neural network organisms.

  2. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira


    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  3. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system (United States)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson


    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  4. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for valnemulin in rats and extrapolation to pigs. (United States)

    Yuan, L G; Luo, X Y; Zhu, L X; Wang, R; Liu, Y H


    A flow-limited, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting the plasma and tissue concentrations of valnemulin after a single oral administration to rats was developed, and then the data were extrapolated to pigs so as to predict withdrawal interval in edible tissues. Blood/tissue pharmacokinetic data and blood/tissue partition coefficients for valnemulin in rats and pigs were collected experimentally. Absorption, distribution and elimination of the drug were characterized by a set of mass-balance equations. Model simulations were achieved using a commercially available software program. The rat PBPK model better predicted plasma and tissue concentrations. The correlation coefficients of the predicted and experimentally determined values for plasma, liver, kidney, lung and muscle were 0.96, 0.94, 0.96, 0.91 and 0.91, respectively. The rat model parameters were extrapolated to pigs to estimate valnemulin residue withdrawal interval in edible tissues. Correlation (R(2) ) between predicted and observed liver, kidney and muscle were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.99, respectively. Based on liver tissue residue profiles, the pig model estimated a withdrawal interval of 10 h under a multiple oral dosing schedule (5.0 mg/kg, twice daily for 7.5 days). PBPK models, such as this one, provide evidence of the usefulness in interspecies PK data extrapolation over a range of dosing scenarios and can be used to predict withdrawal interval in pigs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A comparison of statistical methods for low dose extrapolation utilizing time-to-tumor data. (United States)

    Krewski, D; Crump, K S; Farmer, J; Gaylor, D W; Howe, R; Portier, C; Salsburg, D; Sielken, R L; Van Ryzin, J


    The assessment of health risks due to low levels of exposure to potential environmental hazards based on the results of toxicological experiments necessarily involves extrapolation of results obtained at relatively high doses to the low dose region of interest. In this paper, different statistical extrapolation procedures which take into account both time-to-response and the presence of competing risks are compared using a large simulated data base. The study was designed to cover a range of plausible dose response models as well as to assess the effects of competing risks, background response, latency and experimental design on the performance of the different extrapolation procedures. It was found that point estimates of risk in the low dose region may differ from the actual risk by a factor of 1000 or more in certain situations, even when precise information on the time of occurrence of the particular lesion of interest is available. Although linearized upper confidence limits on risk can be highly conservative when the underlying dose response curve is sublinear in the low dose region, they were found not to exceed the actual risk in the low dose region by more than a factor of 10 in those cases where the underlying dose response curve was linear at low doses.

  6. Extrapolation of extreme response for different mooring line systems of floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sterndorff, Martin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto the stru......Mooring systems for floating wave energy converters (WECs) are a major cost driver. Failure of mooring systems often occurs due to extreme loads. This paper introduces an extrapolation method for extreme response which accounts for the control system of a WEC that controls the loads onto...... the structure and the harvested power of the device as well as the fact that extreme loads may occur during operation and not at extreme wave states when the device is in storm protection mode. The extrapolation method is based on shortterm load time series and applied to a case study where up-scaled surge load...... for the hawser as well as at the different mooring lines. Furthermore, the extreme load impact given failure of one mooring line is assessed and compared with extreme loads given no system failure....

  7. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations (United States)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  8. A review of methods of extrapolating tidal model predictions to long term siltation effects in estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Sites which have prospects for tidal power generation almost invariably have large expanses of potentially mobile sand banks, mud shoals and intertidal sand or mud flats. The construction and operation of a tidal power plant alters the tidal regime and hence the pattern of sediment transport within the sphere of influence of the engineering works. At present, there is no generally accepted method of predicting the long term effects of a major tidal power barrage on the equilibrium distribution of sediment in a large wide estuary. Detailed multi-dimension mathematical models are criticised because they appear only to predict the immediate impact of the proposed engineering works on the sediment regime. The largely empirical regime technique is commonly used to predict changes in the cross-sectional area of the estuary. However, there is a less widely used, but much more powerful, technique whereby the results from short term predictions are extrapolated in an interactive process to predict long term siltation. There are no established, tested theories or standard methods for extrapolating results from short term siltation models. For this reason this review is based on an analysis of a number of case studies, which represent the only readily available source of experience with the problem. The case studies do not relate to tidal barrage projects, but they do illustrate and demonstrate the basic principles and problems associated with the extrapolation of short term predictions. (author).

  9. Sustained suppression of type-I edge-localized modes with dominantly n = 2 magnetic fields in DIII-D (United States)

    Lanctot, M. J.; Buttery, R. J.; de Grassie, J. S.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; Haskey, S. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T. H.; Orlov, D. M.; Snyder, P. B.; Wade, M. R.; the DIII-D Team


    Type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) have been suppressed in DIII-D (Luxon et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 1813) H-mode discharges with a H98Y2 confinement factor near 1.0 using magnetic perturbations (MPs) with dominant toroidal mode number n = 2. This expands access to the ELM-suppressed regime, which was previously attainable in DIII-D only with n = 3 fields. ELM suppression is obtained with two rows of internal coils for 1.8 s with normalized beta of 1.9 and average triangularity of 0.53, corresponding to a scaled version of ITER scenario 2 at an ITER relevant electron collisionality of 0.2. The applied field reduces the pedestal pressure and edge current via the density without degrading the edge thermal transport barrier. ELITE calculations find that the resulting profiles are stable to intermediate-n peeling-ballooning modes. ELM suppression is found within different ranges of q95 depending on the coil configuration used to generate the MP. The edge safety factors associated with suppression do not correspond to those that maximize the pitch-resonant components of the applied vacuum field. Instead, ELM suppression is correlated with an increase in the amplification of kink-resonant components of the calculated ideal MHD plasma response field.

  10. Observation of a new turbulence-driven limit-cycle state in H-modes with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.


    The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall conditioning by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L–H transition, a small-amplitude, low...... correlated with each other, with nearly no phase differences poloidally and toroidally, and finite phase difference radially, thus providing strong evidence for zonal flows. The growth, saturation and disappearance of the zonal flows are strongly correlated with those of the high-frequency turbulence....... And the measurements demonstrate that the energy gain of zonal flows is of the same order as the energy loss of turbulence. This strongly suggests the interactions between zonal flows and high-frequency turbulences at the pedestal during the limit-cycle state....

  11. Edge imaging in intense beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal


    Full Text Available The appearance of rings of charge observed near the edge of beams from high-perveance guns is described with a simple ray tracing technique inspired by the particle-core model. We illustrate the technique, which has no analog in light optics, with examples from experiments employing solenoid focusing of an electron beam. The rings of charge result from the combined effects of external focusing and space-charge forces acting on paraxial fringe particles with relatively large initial transverse velocities. The model is independent of the physical mechanisms responsible for the fringe particles. Furthermore, the focal length for edge imaging in a uniform focusing channel is derived using a linearized trajectory equation for the motion of fringe particles. Counterintuitively, the focal length decreases as the beam current increases.

  12. Scattering by an axisymmetric edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  13. Edge Simulation Laboratory Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dorf, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dorr, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In 2010 The Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) embarked upon the plan laid out in the renewal proposal submitted in December 2009. This proposal called for initially parallel efforts addressing the physics of the closed-flux-surface pedestal region, using existing computational tools (GYRO, BOUT++) and analytic modeling, and physics of the scrape-off layer via development of the new edge gyrokinetic code COGENT. Progress in the former area is described in a series of monthly progress reports prepared by General Atomics; these are attached as a set of appendices (describing work done in the month prior to the indicated date). Progress in the latter area, as well as associated theoretical development, is described.

  14. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail:; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico [The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)


    Coherent diffraction imaging is a high-resolution imaging technique whose potential can be greatly enhanced by applying the extrapolation method presented here. We demonstrate the enhancement in resolution of a non-periodical object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction record which contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. A diffraction pattern is extrapolated beyond the detector area and as a result, the object is reconstructed at an enhanced resolution and better agreement with experimental amplitudes is achieved. The optimal parameters for the iterative routine and the limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  15. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  16. Neural extrapolation of motion for a ball rolling down an inclined plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara La Scaleia

    Full Text Available It is known that humans tend to misjudge the kinematics of a target rolling down an inclined plane. Because visuomotor responses are often more accurate and less prone to perceptual illusions than cognitive judgments, we asked the question of how rolling motion is extrapolated for manual interception or drawing tasks. In three experiments a ball rolled down an incline with kinematics that differed as a function of the starting position (4 different positions and slope (30°, 45° or 60°. In Experiment 1, participants had to punch the ball as it fell off the incline. In Experiment 2, the ball rolled down the incline but was stopped at the end; participants were asked to imagine that the ball kept moving and to punch it. In Experiment 3, the ball rolled down the incline and was stopped at the end; participants were asked to draw with the hand in air the trajectory that would be described by the ball if it kept moving. We found that performance was most accurate when motion of the ball was visible until interception and haptic feedback of hand-ball contact was available (Experiment 1. However, even when participants punched an imaginary moving ball (Experiment 2 or drew in air the imaginary trajectory (Experiment 3, they were able to extrapolate to some extent global aspects of the target motion, including its path, speed and arrival time. We argue that the path and kinematics of a ball rolling down an incline can be extrapolated surprisingly well by the brain using both visual information and internal models of target motion.

  17. Evaluation of edge detectors using average risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand


    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is

  18. Edge Transfer Lithography Using Alkanethiol Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, R.B.A.; Titulaer, Bram J.F.; Peeters, Emiel; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Reinhoudt, David; Poelsema, Bene


    Edge lithographic patterning techniques are based on the utilization of the edges of micrometer-sized template features for the reproduction of submicrometer structures. Edge transfer lithography (ETL) permits local surface modification in a single step by depositing self-assembled monolayers onto a

  19. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  20. Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results. (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro


    We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental

  1. Making the most of what we have: application of extrapolation approaches in wildlife transfer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Barnett, Catherine L.; Wells, Claire [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Brown, Justin E.; Hosseini, Ali [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Willey, Neil [Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)


    Radiological environmental protection models need to predict the transfer of many radionuclides to a large number of organisms. There has been considerable development of transfer (predominantly concentration ratio) databases over the last decade. However, in reality it is unlikely we will ever have empirical data for all the species-radionuclide combinations which may need to be included in assessments. To provide default values for a number of existing models/frameworks various extrapolation approaches have been suggested (e.g. using data for a similar organism or element). This paper presents recent developments in two such extrapolation approaches, namely phylogeny and allometry. An evaluation of how extrapolation approaches have performed and the potential application of Bayesian statistics to make best use of available data will also be given. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we initially analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites to investigate if phylogenetic variation in transfer could be identified. The REML analysis generated an estimated mean value for each species on a common scale after taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we tested the hypothesis that the REML model outputs could be used to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in other species from the results of a species which had been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 lakes. Although initially investigated as an extrapolation approach the output of this work is a potential alternative to the highly site dependent concentration ratio model. We are currently applying this approach to a wider range of organism types and different ecosystems. An initial analysis of these results will be presented. The application of allometric, or mass

  2. Study of an extrapolation chamber in a standard diagnostic radiology beam by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedovato, Uly Pita; Silva, Rayre Janaina Vieira; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana Paula, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)


    In this work, we studied the influence of the components of an extrapolation ionization chamber in its response. This study was undertaken using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code, and the standard diagnostic radiology quality for direct beams (RQR5). Using tally F6 and 2.1 x 10{sup 9} simulated histories, the results showed that the chamber design and material not alter significantly the energy deposited in its sensitive volume. The collecting electrode and support board were the components with more influence on the chamber response. (author)

  3. Resolution enhancement in digital holography by self-extrapolation of holograms. (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner


    It is generally believed that the resolution in digital holography is limited by the size of the captured holographic record. Here, we present a method to circumvent this limit by self-extrapolating experimental holograms beyond the area that is actually captured. This is done by first padding the surroundings of the hologram and then conducting an iterative reconstruction procedure. The wavefront beyond the experimentally detected area is thus retrieved and the hologram reconstruction shows enhanced resolution. To demonstrate the power of this concept, we apply it to simulated as well as experimental holograms.

  4. Extracting critical exponents for sequences of numerical data via series extrapolation techniques. (United States)

    Cöster, Kris; Schmidt, Kai Phillip


    We describe a generic scheme to extract critical exponents of quantum lattice models from sequences of numerical data, which is, for example, relevant for nonperturbative linked-cluster expansions or nonperturbative variants of continuous unitary transformations. The fundamental idea behind our approach is a reformulation of the numerical data sequences as a series expansion in a pseudoparameter. This allows us to utilize standard series expansion extrapolation techniques to extract critical properties such as critical points and critical exponents. The approach is illustrated for the deconfinement transition of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain.

  5. Resonant Character of Edge Plasma Parameters in Stochastic Boundary Experiments at DIII-D and TEXTOR (United States)

    Schmitz, O.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; West, W. P.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Groth, M.; Lasnier, C. J.; Frerichs, H.; Lehnen, M.; Unterberg, B.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Moyer, R. A.; Watkins, J. G.


    Dependence of electron pressure pe profiles on the edge safety factor during resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is analyzed and compared to heat and particle fluxes. For TEXTOR, a strong reduction of pe and an increase of target fluxes is measured when the inward penetration of the vacuum stochastic layer is maximized. For DIII-D, target heat and particle fluxes follow the 3-D perturbed separatrix due to a stochastic layer of open, perturbed field lines with a minimum penetration to ψN=0.95 in normalized poloidal flux. Experimental measurements show the toroidally spiraling structure of perturbed target plate separatrix lobes depend on q95 and that there is a clear q95 dependent reduction of ne(ψN), Te(ψN) and pe(ψN) which follows the toroidal phase of the RMP field. The measurements provide evidence for pitch resonant edge stochastisation as a mechanism leading to peeling-ballooning stabilized RMP H-modes at DIII-D.

  6. Core Fueling and Edge Particle Flux Analysis in Ohmically and Auxiliary Heated NSTX Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; L. Roquemore; C.H. Skinner; NSTX Research Team


    The Boundary Physics program of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is focusing on optimization of the edge power and particle flows in b * 25% L- and H-mode plasmas of t {approx} 0.8 s duration heated by up to 6 MW of high harmonic fast wave and up to 5 MW of neutral beam injection. Particle balance and core fueling efficiencies of low and high field side gas fueling of L-mode homic and NBI heated plasmas have been compared using an analytical zero dimensional particle balance model and measured ion and neutral fluxes. Gas fueling efficiencies are in the range of 0.05-0.20 and do not depend on discharge magnetic configuration, density or poloidal location of the injector. The particle balance modeling indicates that the addition of HFS fueling results in a reversal of the wall loading rate and higher wall inventories. Initial particle source estimates obtained from neutral pressure and spectroscopic measurements indicate that ion flux into the divertor greatly exceeds midplane ion flux from the main plasma, suggesting that the scrape-off cross-field transport plays a minor role in diverted plasmas. Present analysis provides the basis for detailed fluid modeling of core and edge particle flows and particle confinement properties of NSTX plasmas. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contracts No. DE-AC02-76CH03073, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and W-7405-ENG-36.

  7. Early Vancomycin Concentrations and the Applications of a Pharmacokinetic Extrapolation Method to Recognize Sub-Therapeutic Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santalo, Oscar; Baig, Umima; Poulakos, Mara; Brown, Daniel


    .... Vancomycin troughs were retrospectively reviewed. For troughs ≥10 mg/L and measured >0.5 h early, the true trough was estimated using pharmacokinetic extrapolation methods to identify sub-therapeutic outcomes. Differences...

  8. Application of Two-Parameter Extrapolation for Solution of Boundary-Value Problem on Semi-Axis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhidkov, E P


    A method for refining approximate eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a boundary-value problem on a half-axis is suggested. To solve the problem numerically, one has to solve a problem on a finite segment [0,R] instead of the original problem on the interval [0,\\infty). This replacement leads to eigenvalues' and eigenfunctions' errors. To choose R beforehand for obtaining their required accuracy is often impossible. Thus, one has to resolve the problem on [0,R] with larger R. If there are two eigenvalues or two eigenfunctions that correspond to different segments, the suggested method allows one to improve the accuracy of the eigenvalue and the eigenfunction for the original problem by means of extrapolation along the segment. This approach is similar to Richardson's method. Moreover, a two-parameter extrapolation is described. It is combination of the extrapolation along the segment and Richardson's extrapolation along a discretization step.

  9. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  10. Relationship of edge localized mode burst times with divertor flux loop signal phase in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, S. C., E-mail: [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Dendy, R. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Todd, T. N.; Webster, A. J.; Morris, J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Watkins, N. W. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Centre for the Analysis of Time Series, London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering and Innovation, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Calderon, F. A. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    A phase relationship is identified between sequential edge localized modes (ELMs) occurrence times in a set of H-mode tokamak plasmas to the voltage measured in full flux azimuthal loops in the divertor region. We focus on plasmas in the Joint European Torus where a steady H-mode is sustained over several seconds, during which ELMs are observed in the Be II emission at the divertor. The ELMs analysed arise from intrinsic ELMing, in that there is no deliberate intent to control the ELMing process by external means. We use ELM timings derived from the Be II signal to perform direct time domain analysis of the full flux loop VLD2 and VLD3 signals, which provide a high cadence global measurement proportional to the voltage induced by changes in poloidal magnetic flux. Specifically, we examine how the time interval between pairs of successive ELMs is linked to the time-evolving phase of the full flux loop signals. Each ELM produces a clear early pulse in the full flux loop signals, whose peak time is used to condition our analysis. The arrival time of the following ELM, relative to this pulse, is found to fall into one of two categories: (i) prompt ELMs, which are directly paced by the initial response seen in the flux loop signals; and (ii) all other ELMs, which occur after the initial response of the full flux loop signals has decayed in amplitude. The times at which ELMs in category (ii) occur, relative to the first ELM of the pair, are clustered at times when the instantaneous phase of the full flux loop signal is close to its value at the time of the first ELM.

  11. Accelerating Monte Carlo Molecular Simulations Using Novel Extrapolation Schemes Combined with Fast Database Generation on Massively Parallel Machines

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.


    We introduce an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to extrapolate and interpolate normalized Canonical NVT ensemble averages like pressure and energy for Lennard-Jones (L-J) fluids. Preliminary results show promising applicability in oil and gas modeling, where accurate determination of thermodynamic properties in reservoirs is challenging. The thermodynamic interpolation and thermodynamic extrapolation schemes predict ensemble averages at different thermodynamic conditions from expensively simulated data points. The methods reweight and reconstruct previously generated database values of Markov chains at neighboring temperature and density conditions. To investigate the efficiency of these methods, two databases corresponding to different combinations of normalized density and temperature are generated. One contains 175 Markov chains with 10,000,000 MC cycles each and the other contains 3000 Markov chains with 61,000,000 MC cycles each. For such massive database creation, two algorithms to parallelize the computations have been investigated. The accuracy of the thermodynamic extrapolation scheme is investigated with respect to classical interpolation and extrapolation. Finally, thermodynamic interpolation benefiting from four neighboring Markov chains points is implemented and compared with previous schemes. The thermodynamic interpolation scheme using knowledge from the four neighboring points proves to be more accurate than the thermodynamic extrapolation from the closest point only, while both thermodynamic extrapolation and thermodynamic interpolation are more accurate than the classical interpolation and extrapolation. The investigated extrapolation scheme has great potential in oil and gas reservoir modeling.That is, such a scheme has the potential to speed up the MCMC thermodynamic computation to be comparable with conventional Equation of State approaches in efficiency. In particular, this makes it applicable to large-scale optimization of L

  12. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  13. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JSC; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: CSSM and QCDSF/UKQCD Collaborations


    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q{sup 2} in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}. This quantity decreases with Q{sup 2} in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.


    Franci, D; Grillo, E; Pavoncello, S; Coltellacci, S; Buccella, C; Aureli, T


    The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) system represents the evolution of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System technology. This technology introduces two duplex modes: Frequency Division Duplex and Time Division Duplex (TDD). Despite having experienced a limited expansion in the European countries since the debut of the LTE technology, a renewed commercial interest for LTE TDD technology has recently been shown. Therefore, the development of extrapolation procedures optimised for TDD systems becomes crucial, especially for the regulatory authorities. This article presents an extrapolation method aimed to assess the exposure to LTE TDD sources, based on the detection of the Cell-Specific Reference Signal power level. The method introduces a βTDD parameter intended to quantify the fraction of the LTE TDD frame duration reserved for downlink transmission. The method has been validated by experimental measurements performed on signals generated by both a vector signal generator and a test Base Transceiver Station installed at Linkem S.p.A facility in Rome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. Efficient anisotropic quasi-P wavefield extrapolation using an isotropic low-rank approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    The computational cost of quasi-P wave extrapolation depends on the complexity of the medium, and specifically the anisotropy. Our effective-model method splits the anisotropic dispersion relation into an isotropic background and a correction factor to handle this dependency. The correction term depends on the slope (measured using the gradient) of current wavefields and the anisotropy. As a result, the computational cost is independent of the nature of anisotropy, which makes the extrapolation efficient. A dynamic implementation of this approach decomposes the original pseudo-differential operator into a Laplacian, handled using the low-rank approximation of the spectral operator, plus an angular dependent correction factor applied in the space domain to correct for anisotropy. We analyze the role played by the correction factor and propose a new spherical decomposition of the dispersion relation. The proposed method provides accurate wavefields in phase and more balanced amplitudes than a previous spherical decomposition. Also, it is free of SV-wave artifacts. Applications to a simple homogeneous transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) and a modified Hess VTI model demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The Reverse Time Migration (RTM) applied to a modified BP VTI model reveals that the anisotropic migration using the proposed modeling engine performs better than an isotropic migration.

  16. Video error concealment using block matching and frequency selective extrapolation algorithms (United States)

    P. K., Rajani; Khaparde, Arti


    Error Concealment (EC) is a technique at the decoder side to hide the transmission errors. It is done by analyzing the spatial or temporal information from available video frames. It is very important to recover distorted video because they are used for various applications such as video-telephone, video-conference, TV, DVD, internet video streaming, video games etc .Retransmission-based and resilient-based methods, are also used for error removal. But these methods add delay and redundant data. So error concealment is the best option for error hiding. In this paper, the error concealment methods such as Block Matching error concealment algorithm is compared with Frequency Selective Extrapolation algorithm. Both the works are based on concealment of manually error video frames as input. The parameter used for objective quality measurement was PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and SSIM(Structural Similarity Index). The original video frames along with error video frames are compared with both the Error concealment algorithms. According to simulation results, Frequency Selective Extrapolation is showing better quality measures such as 48% improved PSNR and 94% increased SSIM than Block Matching Algorithm.

  17. Advancing In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolations of Mechanism-Specific Toxicity Data Through Toxicokinetic Modeling. (United States)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Preuss, Thomas G; Hollert, Henner

    International legislation, such as the European REACH regulation (registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals), mandates the assessment of potential risks of an ever-growing number of chemicals to the environment and human health. Although this legislation is considered one of the most important investments in consumer safety ever, the downside is that the current testing strategies within REACH rely on extensive animal testing. To address the ethical conflicts arising from these increased testing requirements, decision-makers, such as the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), are committed to Russel and Burch's 3R principle (i.e., reduction, replacement, refinement) by demanding that animal experiments should be substituted with appropriate alternatives whenever possible. A potential solution of this dilemma might be the application of in vitro bioassays to estimate toxic effects using cells or cellular components instead of whole organisms. Although such assays are particularly useful to assess potential mechanisms of toxic action, scientists require appropriate methods to extrapolate results from the in vitro level to the situation in vivo. Toxicokinetic models are a straightforward means of bridging this gap. The present chapter describes different available options for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of mechanism-specific effects focused on fish species and also reviews the implications of confounding factors during the conduction of in vitro bioassays and their influence on the optimal choice of different dose metrics.

  18. Beamforming regularization matrix and inverse problems applied to sound field measurement and extrapolation using microphone array (United States)

    Gauthier, P.-A.; Camier, C.; Pasco, Y.; Berry, A.; Chambatte, E.; Lapointe, R.; Delalay, M.-A.


    For sound field reproduction using multichannel spatial sound systems such as Wave Field Synthesis and Ambisonics, sound field extrapolation is a useful tool for the measurement, description and characterization of a sound environment to be reproduced in a listening area. In this paper, the inverse problem theory is adapted to sound field extrapolation around a microphone array for further spatial sound and sound environment reproduction. A general review of inverse problem theory and analysis tools is given and used for the comparative evaluation of various microphone array configurations. Classical direct regularization methods such as truncated singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization are recalled. On the basis of the reviewed background, a new regularization method adapted to the problem at hand is introduced. This method involves the use of an a priori beamforming measurement to define a data-dependent discrete smoothing norm for the regularization of the inverse problem. This method which represents the main contribution of this paper shows promising results and opens new research avenues.

  19. The Impacts of Atmospheric Stability on the Accuracy of Wind Speed Extrapolation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer F. Newman


    Full Text Available The building of utility-scale wind farms requires knowledge of the wind speed climatology at hub height (typically 80–100 m. As most wind speed measurements are taken at 10 m above ground level, efforts are being made to relate 10-m measurements to approximate hub-height wind speeds. One common extrapolation method is the power law, which uses a shear parameter to estimate the wind shear between a reference height and hub height. The shear parameter is dependent on atmospheric stability and should ideally be determined independently for different atmospheric stability regimes. In this paper, data from the Oklahoma Mesonet are used to classify atmospheric stability and to develop stability-dependent power law fits for a nearby tall tower. Shear exponents developed from one month of data are applied to data from different seasons to determine the robustness of the power law method. In addition, similarity theory-based methods are investigated as possible alternatives to the power law. Results indicate that the power law method performs better than similarity theory methods, particularly under stable conditions, and can easily be applied to wind speed data from different seasons. In addition, the importance of using co-located near-surface and hub-height wind speed measurements to develop extrapolation fits is highlighted.

  20. Comparison of extreme load extrapolations using measured and calculated loads of a MW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeringa, J.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    Since edition 3 of the standard IEC 61400-1 'Wind Turbines-Part 1; Design requirements' has been issued extreme load extrapolation during normal production is an important part of the wind turbine design and certification. At the ECN test site 'ECN Windturbine Testpark Wieringermeer' (EWTW) five in-line 2.5 MW turbines are used for research purposes. A data base with about 4 years of high quality load and meteorological measurements for a 2.5 MW wind turbine in free stream and wake conditions is available for research. This gives ECN the unique opportunity to compare extreme loads using extreme value statistics based on load simulations and load measurements for both free stream and wake conditions. Extreme load extrapolation will be applied on the flat blade root bending moment and the for aft tower bottom bending moment. Attention will be paid to the selection of the extreme value probability distribution and the amount of data needed.

  1. Determination of the true null electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber for X-ray dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.T.T.; Bastos, F.M.; Silva, T.A. da, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia da Radiacao, Minerais e Materiais


    An accurate determination of the actual null distance is critical for the establishment of primary measurement method for absorbed dose in tissue, since the concept of the true null electrode spacing is used to define the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber. In this paper, a critical analysis of two methodologies for determining the true null electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber was done. Firstly, the ionization current as a function of electrode spacing was measured in ISO 4037 low energy X-ray beams. In the second procedure, a LC Bridge was used to measure the capacitance between the electrodes of a 23392 Böhm model PTW ionization chamber and a reliable relationship between capacitance and relative distance was established. Results showed that the true null spacing values varied from 0.0015 to 0.38 mm. Since capacitance meters with high resolution are not always available in calibration laboratories, the second method showed values with large uncertainties. The first method proved to be highly sensitive to the quality of the X-ray beams used. (author)

  2. Downscaling and extrapolating dynamic seasonal marine forecasts for coastal ocean users (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Hobday, Alistair J.; Little, L. Richard; Spillman, Claire M.


    Marine weather and climate forecasts are essential in planning strategies and activities on a range of temporal and spatial scales. However, seasonal dynamical forecast models, that provide forecasts in monthly scale, often have low offshore resolution and limited information for inshore coastal areas. Hence, there is increasing demand for methods capable of fine scale seasonal forecasts covering coastal waters. Here, we have developed a method to combine observational data with dynamical forecasts from POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia; Australian Bureau of Meteorology) in order to produce seasonal downscaled, corrected forecasts, extrapolated to include inshore regions that POAMA does not cover. We demonstrate the method in forecasting the monthly sea surface temperature anomalies in the Great Australian Bight (GAB) region. The resolution of POAMA in the GAB is approximately 2° × 1° (lon. × lat.) and the resolution of our downscaled forecast is approximately 1° × 0.25°. We use data and model hindcasts for the period 1994-2010 for forecast validation. The predictive performance of our statistical downscaling model improves on the original POAMA forecast. Additionally, this statistical downscaling model extrapolates forecasts to coastal regions not covered by POAMA and its forecasts are probabilistic which allows straightforward assessment of uncertainty in downscaling and prediction. A range of marine users will benefit from access to downscaled and nearshore forecasts at seasonal timescales.

  3. On Extrapolating Past the Range of Observed Data When Making Statistical Predictions in Ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Conn

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly using statistical models to predict animal abundance and occurrence in unsampled locations. The reliability of such predictions depends on a number of factors, including sample size, how far prediction locations are from the observed data, and similarity of predictive covariates in locations where data are gathered to locations where predictions are desired. In this paper, we propose extending Cook's notion of an independent variable hull (IVH, developed originally for application with linear regression models, to generalized regression models as a way to help assess the potential reliability of predictions in unsampled areas. Predictions occurring inside the generalized independent variable hull (gIVH can be regarded as interpolations, while predictions occurring outside the gIVH can be regarded as extrapolations worthy of additional investigation or skepticism. We conduct a simulation study to demonstrate the usefulness of this metric for limiting the scope of spatial inference when conducting model-based abundance estimation from survey counts. In this case, limiting inference to the gIVH substantially reduces bias, especially when survey designs are spatially imbalanced. We also demonstrate the utility of the gIVH in diagnosing problematic extrapolations when estimating the relative abundance of ribbon seals in the Bering Sea as a function of predictive covariates. We suggest that ecologists routinely use diagnostics such as the gIVH to help gauge the reliability of predictions from statistical models (such as generalized linear, generalized additive, and spatio-temporal regression models.

  4. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  5. Image extrapolation for photo stitching using nonlocal patch-based inpainting (United States)

    Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Sherstobitov, A. I.; Semenischev, E. A.; Agaian, S.; Egiazarian, K.


    Image alignment and mosaicing are usually performed on a set of overlapping images, using features in the area of overlap for seamless stitching. In many cases such images have different size and shape. So we need to crop panoramas or to use image extrapolation for them. This paper focuses on novel image inpainting method based on modified exemplar-based technique. The basic idea is to find an example (patch) from an image using local binary patterns, and replacing non-existed (`lost') data with it. We propose to use multiple criteria for a patch similarity search since often in practice existed exemplar-based methods produce unsatisfactory results. The criteria for searching the best matching uses several terms, including Euclidean metric for pixel brightness and Chi-squared histogram matching distance for local binary patterns. A combined use of textural geometric characteristics together with color information allows to get more informative description of the patches. In particular, we show how to apply this strategy for image extrapolation for photo stitching. Several examples considered in this paper show the effectiveness of the proposed approach on several test images.

  6. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  7. Reflections on the knife edge. (United States)

    Murphy, John Patrick Michael; Chabner, Bruce A


    The accompanying article, written by John Murphy, a retired lawyer and lifelong outdoorsman from his beloved Colorado Rockies, draws the striking parallel between his experiences as a mountain climber and as a patient with metastatic melanoma facing the hope and uncertainty of experimental therapy. Both are life-threatening circumstances, demanding courage and hope, and challenging our soul in a way almost unique to human experience. Both involve a conscious choice to move forward into dangerous and uncertain territory, and require a determination to look death (John's "Reaper") in the eye. Many remarkable books and films have been written about such experiences. I recall in particular the 2003 documentary film Touching the Void, about the incredible survival of a mountaineer who returned from a perilous fall in Peru. I highly recommend it to the reader. Another is Laura Hillenbrand's Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption (Random House, 2010), about the survival of a prisoner of war, the celebrated miler Louis Zamperini. Again, unbridled courage and undeniable hope turned futility into future. John Murphy's reflections remind us of the daily heroism of our patients who are holding tight to the lifeline offered by clinical research. Good climbing, John. All of us are with you on that Knife Edge, waiting for our turn to ascend... and hoping to be as courageous as you were then on Capitol Peak and are again now on the Knife Edge of a clinical trial. For our turn will come.

  8. Background Modelling Using Edge-Segment Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemyun Kim


    Full Text Available We propose an edge-segment-based statistical background modelling algorithm to detect the moving edges for the detection of moving objects using a static camera. Traditional pixel intensity-based background modelling algorithms face difficulties in dynamic environments since they cannot handle sudden changes in illumination. They also bring out ghosts when a sudden change occurs in the scene. To cope with this issue, intensity and noise robust edge-based features have emerged. However, existing edge-pixel-based methods suffer from scattered moving edge pixels since they cannot utilize the shape. Moreover, traditional segment-based methods cannot handle edge shape variations and miss moving edges when they come close to the background edges. Unlike traditional approaches, our proposed method builds the background model from ordinary training frames that may contain moving objects. Furthermore, it does not leave any ghosts behind. Moreover, our method uses an automatic threshold for every background edge distribution for matching. This makes our approach robust to illumination change, camera movement and background motion. Experiments show that our method outperforms others and can detect moving edges efficiently despite the above mentioned difficulties.

  9. Extrapolation of a non-linear autoregressive model of pulmonary mechanics. (United States)

    Langdon, Ruby; Docherty, Paul D; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey


    For patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Suboptimal PEEP levels in MV can cause ventilator induced lung injury, which is associated with increased mortality, extended ICU stay, and high cost. The ability to predict the outcome of respiratory mechanics in response to changes in PEEP would thus provide a critical advantage in personalising and improving care. Testing the potentially dangerous high pressures would not be required to assess their impact. A nonlinear autoregressive (NARX) model was used to predict airway pressure in 19 data sets from 10 mechanically ventilated ARDS patients. Patient-specific NARX models were identified from pressure and flow data over one, two, three, or four adjacent PEEP levels in a recruitment manoeuvre. Extrapolation of NARX model elastance functions allowed prediction of patient responses to PEEP changes to higher or lower pressures. NARX model predictions were more successful than those using a well validated first order model (FOM). The most clinically important results were for extrapolation up one PEEP step of 2cmH2O from the highest PEEP in the training data. When the NARX model was trained on one PEEP level, the mean RMS residual for the extrapolation PEEP level was 0.52 (90% CI: 0.47-0.57) cmH2O, compared to 1.50 (90% CI: 1.38-1.62) cmH2O for the FOM. When trained on four PEEP levels, the NARX result was 0.50 (90% CI: 0.42-0.58) cmH2O, and was 1.95 (90% CI: 1.71-2.19) cmH2O for the FOM. The results suggest that a full recruitment manoeuvre may not be required for the NARX model to obtain a useful estimate of the pressure waveform at higher PEEP levels. The methodology could thus allow clinicians to make informed decisions about ventilator PEEP settings while reducing the risk associated with high PEEP, and subsequent high peak airway pressures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Partnership for Edge Physics (EPSI), University of Texas Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Robert [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Carey, Varis [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Michoski, Craig [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Faghihi, Danial [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Simulations of tokamak plasmas require a number of inputs whose values are uncertain. The effects of these input uncertainties on the reliability of model predictions is of great importance when validating predictions by comparison to experimental observations, and when using the predictions for design and operation of devices. However, high fidelity simulation of tokamak plasmas, particular those aimed at characterization of the edge plasma physics, are computationally expensive, so lower cost surrogates are required to enable practical uncertainty estimates. Two surrogate modeling techniques have been explored in the context of tokamak plasma simulations using the XGC family of plasma simulation codes. The first is a response surface surrogate, and the second is an augmented surrogate relying on scenario extrapolation. In addition, to reduce the costs of the XGC simulations, a particle resampling algorithm was developed, which allows marker particle distributions to be adjusted to maintain optimal importance sampling. This means that the total number of particles in and therefore the cost of a simulation can be reduced while maintaining the same accuracy.

  11. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  12. At the edge of intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver


    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with four...... types of voiceless fricatives: /f/, /s/, /ʃ/ and /x/. They were elicited with scripted dialogues in the contexts of terminal falling statement and high rising question intonations. Acoustic analyses show that fricatives concluding the high rising question intonations had higher mean centres of gravity...... (CoGs), larger CoG ranges and higher noise energy levels than fricatives concluding the terminal falling statement intonations. The different spectral-energy patterns are suitable to induce percepts of a high 'aperiodic pitch' at the end of the questions and of a low 'aperiodic pitch' at the end...

  13. Interpolation/extrapolation technique with application to hypervelocity impact of space debris (United States)

    Rule, William K.


    A new technique for the interpolation/extrapolation of engineering data is described. The technique easily allows for the incorporation of additional independent variables, and the most suitable data in the data base is automatically used for each prediction. The technique provides diagnostics for assessing the reliability of the prediction. Two sets of predictions made for known 5-degree-of-freedom, 15-parameter functions using the new technique produced an average coefficient of determination of 0.949. Here, the technique is applied to the prediction of damage to the Space Station from hypervelocity impact of space debris. A new set of impact data is presented for this purpose. Reasonable predictions for bumper damage were obtained, but predictions of pressure wall and multilayer insulation damage were poor.

  14. Quantifying regional changes in terrestrial carbon storage by extrapolation from local ecosystem models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A W


    A general procedure for quantifying regional carbon dynamics by spatial extrapolation of local ecosystem models is presented Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the expected value of one or more local models, explicitly integrating the spatial heterogeneity of variables that influence ecosystem carbon flux and storage. These variables are described by empirically derived probability distributions that are input to the Monte Carlo process. The procedure provides large-scale regional estimates based explicitly on information and understanding acquired at smaller and more accessible scales.Results are presented from an earlier application to seasonal atmosphere-biosphere CO{sub 2} exchange for circumpolar ``subarctic`` latitudes (64{degree}N-90{degree}N). Results suggest that, under certain climatic conditions, these high northern ecosystems could collectively release 0.2 Gt of carbon per year to the atmosphere. I interpret these results with respect to questions about global biospheric sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2} .

  15. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation. (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc


    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  16. A Novel Algorithm for Lifetime Extrapolation, Prediction, and Estimation of Emerging PV Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Cester, Andrea; Madsen, Morten Vesterager


    Accurate determination of the lifetime of novel hybrid and organic solar cells is often rather challenging due to the very dynamic behavior of such cells over time and ageing curves with shapes of varying nature. Therefore, in order to accurately and reproducibly determine the lifetime of photovo......Accurate determination of the lifetime of novel hybrid and organic solar cells is often rather challenging due to the very dynamic behavior of such cells over time and ageing curves with shapes of varying nature. Therefore, in order to accurately and reproducibly determine the lifetime...... of photovoltaic devices with such a behavior, a novel elaboration algorithm is developed, which enables automatic smoothing, filtering, and extrapolation of the real lifetime data and reproducible determination of the lifetime parameters defined in the International Summit on OPV Stability guiding standards...

  17. Vector Extrapolation-Based Acceleration of Regularized Richardson Lucy Image Deblurring (United States)

    Remmele, Steffen; Hesser, Jürgen

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy has become an important tool in biological and medical sciences for imaging thin specimen, even living ones. Due to out-of-focus blurring and noise the acquired images are degraded and thus it is necessary to restore them. One of the most popular methods is an iterative Richardson-Lucy algorithm with total variation regularization. This algorithm while improving the image quality is converging slowly whereas with a constantly increasing amount of image data fast methods are required. In this paper, we present an accelerated version of the algorithm and investigate the achieved speed up. The acceleration method is based on a vector extrapolation technique and avoids a computational intensive evaluation of the underlying cost function. To evaluate the acceleration two synthetic test images are used. The accelerated algorithm reaches an acceptable result within 30% to 40% less computational time.

  18. High-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry of the vinyl, allyl, and vinoxy radicals. (United States)

    Tabor, Daniel P; Harding, Michael E; Ichino, Takatoshi; Stanton, John F


    Enthalpies of formation at both 0 and 298 K were calculated according to the HEAT (High-accuracy Extrapolated Ab initio Thermochemistry) protocol for the title molecules, all of which play important roles in combustion chemistry. At the HEAT345-(Q) level of theory, recommended enthalpies of formation at 0 K are 301.5 ± 1.3, 180.3 ± 1.8, and 23.4 ± 1.5 kJ mol(-1) for vinyl, allyl, and vinoxy, respectively. At 298 K, the corresponding values are 297.3, 168.6, and 16.1 kJ mol(-1), with the same uncertainties. The calculated values for the three radicals are in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental values, but the uncertainties associated with the HEAT values for vinoxy are considerably smaller than those based on experimental studies.

  19. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)


    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  20. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viezzer, Eleonora


    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E{sub r}. The gradients in E{sub r} and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E{sub r} profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He{sup 2+}, B{sup 5+}, C{sup 6+} and Ne{sup 10+}. The resulting E{sub r} profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E{sub r} profile forms a deep

  1. Nonlinear Force-Free Extrapolation of Emerging Flux with a Global Twist and Serpentine Fine Structures (United States)

    Valori, G.; Green, L. M.; Démoulin, P.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Wallace, A.; Baker, D.; Fuhrmann, M.


    We study the flux emergence process in NOAA active region 11024, between 29 June and 7 July 2009, by means of multi-wavelength observations and nonlinear force-free extrapolation. The main aim is to extend previous investigations by combining, as much as possible, high spatial resolution observations to test our present understanding of small-scale (undulatory) flux emergence, whilst putting these small-scale events in the context of the global evolution of the active region. The combination of these techniques allows us to follow the whole process, from the first appearance of the bipolar axial field on the east limb, until the buoyancy instability could set in and raise the main body of the twisted flux tube through the photosphere, forming magnetic tongues and signatures of serpentine field, until the simplification of the magnetic structure into a main bipole by the time the active region reaches the west limb. At the crucial time of the main emergence phase high spatial resolution spectropolarimetric measurements of the photospheric field are employed to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the nonlinear force-free coronal field, which is then used to test the current understanding of flux emergence processes. In particular, knowledge of the coronal connectivity confirms the identity of the magnetic tongues as seen in their photospheric signatures, and it exemplifies how the twisted flux, which is emerging on small scales in the form of a sea-serpent, is subsequently rearranged by reconnection into the large-scale field of the active region. In this way, the multi-wavelength observations combined with a nonlinear force-free extrapolation provide a coherent picture of the emergence process of small-scale magnetic bipoles, which subsequently reconnect to form a large-scale structure in the corona.

  2. Prioritizing abandoned coal mine reclamation projects within the contiguous United States using geographic information system extrapolation. (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Yuri; Reid, Matthew; Mignone, Erica; Voros, Andrew


    Coal mine reclamation projects are very expensive and require coordination of local and federal agencies to identify resources for the most economic way of reclaiming mined land. Location of resources for mine reclamation is a spatial problem. This article presents a methodology that allows the combination of spatial data on resources for the coal mine reclamation and uses GIS analysis to develop a priority list of potential mine reclamation sites within contiguous United States using the method of extrapolation. The extrapolation method in this study was based on the Bark Camp reclamation project. The mine reclamation project at Bark Camp, Pennsylvania, USA, provided an example of the beneficial use of fly ash and dredged material to reclaim 402,600 sq mi of a mine abandoned in the 1980s. Railroads provided transportation of dredged material and fly ash to the site. Therefore, four spatial elements contributed to the reclamation project at Bark Camp: dredged material, abandoned mines, fly ash sources, and railroads. Using spatial distribution of these data in the contiguous United States, it was possible to utilize GIS analysis to prioritize areas where reclamation projects similar to Bark Camp are feasible. GIS analysis identified unique occurrences of all four spatial elements used in the Bark Camp case for each 1 km of the United States territory within 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 km radii from abandoned mines. The results showed the number of abandoned mines for each state and identified their locations. The federal or state governments can use these results in mine reclamation planning.

  3. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon


    is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset. Our......In this paper we present an object detection method that uses edge categorisation in combination with a local multi-modal histogram descriptor, all based on RGB-D data. Our target application is robust detection and pose estimation of known objects. We propose to apply a recently introduced edge...... categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...

  4. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei


    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  5. Topological edge states of bound photon pairs (United States)

    Gorlach, Maxim A.; Poddubny, Alexander N.


    We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. The energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. We link the edge-state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity. Our results offer a route to control quantum entanglement and provide insights into the physics of many-body topological states.

  6. Chiral edge fluctuations of colloidal membranes (United States)

    Jia, Leroy; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir; Pelcovits, Robert; Powers, Thomas

    Using experiments and theory we study chiral fluctuations of the edge of a nearly flat colloidal membrane, consisting of rod-like viruses held together by the depletion interaction. Our measurements show an anomalous peak in the power spectrum around 1 inverse micron. Using an effective theory to describe the liquid crystal degrees of freedom by geometric properties of the edge, such as length, geodesic torsion, and curvature, we calculate the spectrum of out-of-plane edge fluctuations. The peak arises for sufficiently strong chirality, and corresponds to the instability of a flat membrane to a shape with helical, rippled edges.

  7. Selective edge enhancement using anisotropic vortex filter. (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam


    In optical image processing, selective edge enhancement is important when it is preferable to emphasize some edges of an object more than others. We propose a new method for selective edge enhancement of amplitude objects using the anisotropic vortex phase mask by introducing anisotropy in a conventional vortex mask with the help of the sine function. The anisotropy is capable of edge enhancement in the selective region and in the required direction by changing the power and offset angle, respectively, of the sine function.

  8. Edge passivation induced single-edge ferromagnetism of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Ben; Hu, Jingguo, E-mail:; Pan, Jing, E-mail:


    We performed density functional theory study on electronic structure, magnetic properties and stability of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (ZMoS{sub 2}NRs) with and without oxygen (O) passivation. The bare ZMoS{sub 2}NRs are magnetic metal with ferromagnetic edge states, edge passivation decreases their magnetism because of the decrease of edge unsaturated electrons. Obviously, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs greatly depend on edge states. When both edges are passivated by O atoms, ZMoS{sub 2}NRs are nonmagnetic metals. When either edge is passivated by O atoms, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetism and magnetism concentrates on the non-passivated edge. Edge passivation can not only tune the magnetism of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs, but also enhance their stability by eliminating dangling bonds. These interesting findings on ZMoS{sub 2}NRs may open the possibility of their application in nanodevices and spintronics. - Highlights: • Edge passivation for tuning magnetism of zigzag MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (ZMoS{sub 2}NRs) is proposed. • Edge passivation can tune ZMoS{sub 2}NRs from nonmagnetic metal to ferromagnetic metal. • When either edge is passivated, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetic states. • These findings may inspire great interest in the community of ZMoS{sub 2}NRs and motivate numerous experimental researches.

  9. The scientific and regulatory rationale for indication extrapolation: a case study based on the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13. (United States)

    Reinisch, Walter; Louis, Edouard; Danese, Silvio


    Extrapolation of clinical data from other indications is an important concept in the development of biosimilars. This process depends on strict comparability exercises to establish similarity to the reference medicinal product. However, the extrapolation paradigm has prompted a fierce scientific debate. CT-P13 (Remsima(®), Inflectra(®)), an infliximab biosimilar, is a TNF antagonist used to treat immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. On the basis of totality of similarity data, the EMA approved CT-P13 for all indications held by its reference medicinal product (Remicade(®)) including inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of action of TNF antagonists in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and illustrates the comparable profiles of CT-P13 and reference medicinal product on which the extrapolation of indications including inflammatory bowel disease is based.

  10. Extrapolated experimental critical parameters of unreflected and steel-reflected massive enriched uranium metal spherical and hemispherical assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.


    Sixty-nine critical configurations of up to 186 kg of uranium are reported from very early experiments (1960s) performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory near Denver, Colorado. Enriched (93%) uranium metal spherical and hemispherical configurations were studied. All were thick-walled shells except for two solid hemispheres. Experiments were essentially unreflected; or they included central and/or external regions of mild steel. No liquids were involved. Critical parameters are derived from extrapolations beyond subcritical data. Extrapolations, rather than more precise interpolations between slightly supercritical and slightly subcritical configurations, were necessary because experiments involved manually assembled configurations. Many extrapolations were quite long; but the general lack of curvature in the subcritical region lends credibility to their validity. In addition to delayed critical parameters, a procedure is offered which might permit the determination of prompt critical parameters as well for the same cases. This conjectured procedure is not based on any strong physical arguments.

  11. Toward a unified single-parameter extrapolation scheme for the correlation energy: Systems formed by atoms of hydrogen through neon (United States)

    Pansini, F. N. N.; Varandas, A. J. C.


    A simple scheme is suggested to extrapolate the valence electron correlation to the one-electron complete-basis-set limit in species formed by atoms of hydrogen through neon. The performance of the novel scheme is benchmarked for the correlation energy with a data set of 106 systems and, for the polarizability, with 8 molecules. For the former, the results are excellent, most often better than when extrapolated with the best available two-parameter protocols. For the polarizability, they show an enhancement relative to the raw ab initio values, and good agreement with the experimental ones.

  12. Signed Total Roman Edge Domination In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgharsharghi Leila


    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a simple graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A signed total Roman edge dominating function of G is a function f : Ʃ → {−1, 1, 2} satisfying the conditions that (i Ʃe′∈N(e f(e′ ≥ 1 for each e ∈ E, where N(e is the open neighborhood of e, and (ii every edge e for which f(e = −1 is adjacent to at least one edge e′ for which f(e′ = 2. The weight of a signed total Roman edge dominating function f is !(f = Ʃe∈E f(e. The signed total Roman edge domination number y′stR(G of G is the minimum weight of a signed total Roman edge dominating function of G. In this paper, we first prove that for every tree T of order n ≥ 4, y′stR(T ≥ 17−2n/5 and we characterize all extreme trees, and then we present some sharp bounds for the signed total Roman edge domination number. We also determine this parameter for some classes of graphs.

  13. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  14. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman


    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  15. Leading edge gypsy moth population dynamics (United States)

    M. R. Carter; F. W. Ravlin; M. L. McManus


    Leading edge gypsy moth populations have been the focus of several intervention programs (MDIPM, AIPM). Knowledge of gypsy moth population dynamics in leading edge area is crucial for effective management. Populations in these areas tend to reach outbreak levels (noticeable defoliation) within three to four years after egg masses are first detected. Pheromone traps...

  16. An overview of JET edge modelling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coster, D.P. E-mail:; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Dejarnac, R.; Fenstermacher, M.; Fundamenski, W.; Geier, A.; Hogan, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Krieger, K.; Loarte, A.; Matthews, G.; Pitts, R.A.; Porter, G.; Pugno, R.; Reiser, D.; Reiter, D.; Sipila, S.; Spence, J.; Stangeby, P.C.; Tsitrone, E.; Tskhakaya, D.; Wischmeier, M


    A number of codes are in use at JET to model the edge plasma. The range of edge codes is described as is the range of physics issues being explored by these codes. The balance between focussed modelling (that looking at particular physics effects) and integrated modelling (attempting to combine codes or encapsulate the physics from some codes into other codes) is examined.

  17. Strong List Edge Coloring of Subcubic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Ma


    Full Text Available We study strong list edge coloring of subcubic graphs, and we prove that every subcubic graph with maximum average degree less than 15/7, 27/11, 13/5, and 36/13 can be strongly list edge colored with six, seven, eight, and nine colors, respectively.

  18. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong


    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  19. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow (United States)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  20. Cascading Edge Failures: A Dynamic Network Process

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, June


    This paper considers the dynamics of edges in a network. The Dynamic Bond Percolation (DBP) process models, through stochastic local rules, the dependence of an edge $(a,b)$ in a network on the states of its neighboring edges. Unlike previous models, DBP does not assume statistical independence between different edges. In applications, this means for example that failures of transmission lines in a power grid are not statistically independent, or alternatively, relationships between individuals (dyads) can lead to changes in other dyads in a social network. We consider the time evolution of the probability distribution of the network state, the collective states of all the edges (bonds), and show that it converges to a stationary distribution. We use this distribution to study the emergence of global behaviors like consensus (i.e., catastrophic failure or full recovery of the entire grid) or coexistence (i.e., some failed and some operating substructures in the grid). In particular, we show that, depending on...

  1. Edge effects on water droplet condensation. (United States)

    Medici, Marie-Gabrielle; Mongruel, Anne; Royon, Laurent; Beysens, Daniel


    In this study we investigate the effect of geometrical or thermal discontinuities on the growth of water droplets condensing on a cooled substrate. Edges, corners, and cooled and noncooled boundaries can have a strong effect on the vapor concentration profile and mass diffusion around the drops. In comparison to growth in a pattern where droplets have to compete to catch vapor, which results in a linear water concentration profile directed perpendicularly to the substrate, droplets near discontinuities can get more vapor (outer edges, corners), resulting in faster growth or less vapor (inner edges), giving lower growth. When the cooling heat flux limits growth instead of mass diffusion (substrate with low thermal conductivity, strong heat exchange with air), edge effects can be canceled. In certain cases, growth enhancement can reach nearly 500% on edges or corners.

  2. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  3. Toward in vitro biomarkers for developmental toxicity and their extrapolation to the in vivo situation. (United States)

    Louisse, Jochem; Verwei, Miriam; Woutersen, Ruud A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M


    Reliable in vitro and in silico assays as alternatives for in vivo developmental toxicity studies are urgently needed, for the replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs) of animal use in toxicological research. Therefore, relevant biomarkers for in vivo developmental toxicity in in vitro assays are needed. The present review gives an overview of alternative assays, as described in literature, for in vivo developmental toxicity, including the effects (readouts) assessed in these assays. The authors discuss how these data may be used to obtain relevant biomarkers for in vivo developmental toxicity, and how in vitro effect data can be translated to the in vivo situation using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling. Relevance of readouts in in vitro developmental toxicity assays as predictive biomarkers for in vivo developmental toxicity should be evaluated by comparing the obtained in vitro effect concentrations with in vivo internal concentrations at dose levels causing developmental toxicity. Extrapolation of the in vitro effect concentrations to in vivo dose levels using PBK modeling (i.e., reverse dosimetry) is promising in its use to derive points of departure for risk assessment, enabling the use of in vitro toxicity data in the safety assessment of compounds.

  4. Mass, Measurement, Materials, and Mathematical Modeling: The Nuts and Bolts of Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Sinex


    Full Text Available A simple activity is described which is appropriate for any class dealing with measurement. It introduces students to the important scientific process of mathematical modeling and online collaboration. Students, working in groups, determine the mass of a bolt indirectly by extrapolation from massing the bolt with one to five nuts on it and determining the equation of the line; the y-intercept being the mass of the bolt. Students gain experience with using a balance, graphing data, and analyzing results using algebraic skills. They calculate percent error after measuring the bolt’s mass directly and can compare this with the error limits from the least squares fit. Groups enter data into a web-based form and the data is examined by the class using Google Docs in a collaborative manner. After entering data in Google Docs, the students use an interactive Excel spreadsheet to compare their results to the best-fit line obtained by linear regression (pre-built into the spreadsheet for novices. In the spreadsheet, they further explore the model to gain an understanding and examine the influence of scatter (error in the data and material density.

  5. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz


    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  6. The risk of extrapolation in neuroanatomy: the case of the mammalian vomeronasal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Salazar


    Full Text Available The sense of smell plays a crucial role in mammalian social and sexual behaviour, identification of food, and detection of predators. Nevertheless, mammals vary in their olfactory ability. One reason for this concerns the degree of development of their pars basalis rhinencephali, an anatomical feature that has has been considered in classifying this group of animals as macrosmatic, microsmatic or anosmatic. In mammals, different structures are involved in detecting odours: the main olfactory system, the vomeronasal system (VNS, and two subsystems, namely the ganglion of Grüneberg and the septal organ. Here, we review and summarise some aspects of the comparative anatomy of the VNS and its putative relationship to other olfactory structures. Even in the macrosmatic group, morphological diversity is an important characteristic of the VNS, specifically of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb. We conclude that it is a big mistake to extrapolate anatomical data of the VNS from species to species, even in the case of relatively close evolutionary proximity between them. We propose to study other mammalian VNS than those of rodents in depth as a way to clarify its exact role in olfaction. Our experience in this field leads us to hypothesise that the VNS, considered for all mammalian species, could be a system undergoing involution or regression, and could serve as one more integrated olfactory subsystem.

  7. A Novel Ensemble Method for Imbalanced Data Learning: Bagging of Extrapolation-SMOTE SVM. (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Luo, ZhiHao; Huang, JinCai; Feng, YangHe; Liu, Zhong


    Class imbalance ubiquitously exists in real life, which has attracted much interest from various domains. Direct learning from imbalanced dataset may pose unsatisfying results overfocusing on the accuracy of identification and deriving a suboptimal model. Various methodologies have been developed in tackling this problem including sampling, cost-sensitive, and other hybrid ones. However, the samples near the decision boundary which contain more discriminative information should be valued and the skew of the boundary would be corrected by constructing synthetic samples. Inspired by the truth and sense of geometry, we designed a new synthetic minority oversampling technique to incorporate the borderline information. What is more, ensemble model always tends to capture more complicated and robust decision boundary in practice. Taking these factors into considerations, a novel ensemble method, called Bagging of Extrapolation Borderline-SMOTE SVM (BEBS), has been proposed in dealing with imbalanced data learning (IDL) problems. Experiments on open access datasets showed significant superior performance using our model and a persuasive and intuitive explanation behind the method was illustrated. As far as we know, this is the first model combining ensemble of SVMs with borderline information for solving such condition.

  8. Assessment of the dislocation bias in fcc metals and extrapolation to austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Zhongwen, E-mail: [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Reactor Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Sandberg, Nils [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Reactor Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Solna Strandväg 96, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Terentyev, Dmitry [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Samuelsson, Karl [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Reactor Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bonny, Giovanni [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Olsson, Pär, E-mail: [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Reactor Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    A systematic study of dislocation bias has been performed using a method that combines atomistic and elastic dislocation-point defect interaction models with a numerical solution of the diffusion equation with a drift term. Copper, nickel and aluminium model lattices are used in this study, covering a wide range of shear moduli and stacking fault energies. It is found that the dominant parameter for the dislocation bias in fcc metals is the width of the stacking fault ribbon. The variation in elastic constants does not strongly impact the dislocation bias value. As a result of this analysis and its extrapolation, the dislocation bias of the widely applied austenitic stainless steels of 316 type is predicted to be about 0.1 at temperature close to the swelling peak (815 K) and typical dislocation density of 10{sup 14} m{sup −2}. This is in line with the bias calculated using the elastic interaction model, which implies that the prediction method can be used readily in other fcc systems even without EAM potentials. By comparing the bias values obtained using atomistic- and elastic interaction energies, about 20% discrepancy is found, therefore a more realistic bias value for the 316 type alloy is 0.08 in these conditions.

  9. Evolution of the Active Region NOAA 12443 based on magnetic field extrapolations: preliminary results (United States)

    Chicrala, André; Dallaqua, Renato Sergio; Antunes Vieira, Luis Eduardo; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rodríguez Gómez, Jenny Marcela; Palacios, Judith; Coelho Stekel, Tardelli Ronan; Rezende Costa, Joaquim Eduardo; da Silva Rockenbach, Marlos


    The behavior of Active Regions (ARs) is directly related to the occurrence of some remarkable phenomena in the Sun such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections (CME). In this sense, changes in the magnetic field of the region can be used to uncover other relevant features like the evolution of the ARs magnetic structure and the plasma flow related to it. In this work we describe the evolution of the magnetic structure of the active region AR NOAA12443 observed from 2015/10/30 to 2015/11/10, which may be associated with several X-ray flares of classes C and M. The analysis is based on observations of the solar surface and atmosphere provided by HMI and AIA instruments on board of the SDO spacecraft. In order to investigate the magnetic energy buildup and release of the ARs, we shall employ potential and linear force free extrapolations based on the solar surface magnetic field distribution and the photospheric velocity fields.

  10. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    Full Text Available The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22 were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils.

  11. Employing Measures of Heterogeneity and an Object-Based Approach to Extrapolate Tree Species Distribution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones


    Full Text Available Information derived from high spatial resolution remotely sensed data is critical for the effective management of forested ecosystems. However, high spatial resolution data-sets are typically costly to acquire and process and usually provide limited geographic coverage. In contrast, moderate spatial resolution remotely sensed data, while not able to provide the spectral or spatial detail required for certain types of products and applications, offer inexpensive, comprehensive landscape-level coverage. This study assessed using an object-based approach to extrapolate detailed tree species heterogeneity beyond the extent of hyperspectral/LiDAR flightlines to the broader area covered by a Landsat scene. Using image segments, regression trees established ecologically decipherable relationships between tree species heterogeneity and the spectral properties of Landsat segments. The spectral properties of Landsat bands 4 (i.e., NIR: 0.76–0.90 µm, 5 (i.e., SWIR: 1.55–1.75 µm and 7 (SWIR: 2.08–2.35 µm were consistently selected as predictor variables, explaining approximately 50% of variance in richness and diversity. Results have important ramifications for ongoing management initiatives in the study area and are applicable to wide range of applications.

  12. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun


    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  13. Opportunities and Challenges in Employing In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation (IVIVE) to the Tox21 Dataset (United States)

    In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), or the process of using in vitro data to predict in vivo phenomena, provides key opportunities to bridge the disconnect between high-throughput screening data and real-world human exposures and potential health effects. Strategies utilizing...

  14. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements (United States)

    Mueller, David S.


    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity

  15. Direct activity determination of Mn-54 and Zn-65 by a non-extrapolation liquid scintillation method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS


    Full Text Available . The simple decay scheme exhibited by these radionuclides, with the emission of an energetic gamma ray, allows the absolute activity to be determined from 4pie-gamma data by direct calculation without the need for efficiency extrapolation. The method, which...

  16. Using Corpus Linguistics to Examine the Extrapolation Inference in the Validity Argument for a High-Stakes Speaking Assessment (United States)

    LaFlair, Geoffrey T.; Staples, Shelley


    Investigations of the validity of a number of high-stakes language assessments are conducted using an argument-based approach, which requires evidence for inferences that are critical to score interpretation (Chapelle, Enright, & Jamieson, 2008b; Kane, 2013). The current study investigates the extrapolation inference for a high-stakes test of…

  17. $\\pi^{-}$p $\\rightarrow\\pi^{-}\\pi^{+}$n amplitude analysis and extrapolation to the $\\pi$ exchange pole

    CERN Document Server

    Estabrooks, P G


    The authors solve analytically for the pi /sup -/p to pi /sup -/ pi /sup +/n amplitudes in the rho region at 17.2 GeV/c and find two acceptable solutions. They discuss the extrapolation of s and t channel amplitudes to the pi pole and conclude that the former should be used for pi pi phase shift analyses. (6 refs).

  18. Improving toxicity extrapolation using molecular sequence similarity: A case study of pyrethroids and the sodium ion channel (United States)

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology has been determining chemical hazards to species with limited or no toxicity data. Currently, extrapolation tools like U.S. EPA’s Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE; models categorize toxicity...

  19. Iteration and extrapolation methods for the approximate solution of the even-parity transport equation for systems with voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackroyd, R.T. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Riyait, N.S. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Nuclear Power Group)


    Conventional finite-element solutions of the even-parity transport equation for systems with voids treat the void as a region of low absorption. This treatment tends to give physically-unacceptable solutions to void problems as the void cross-section tends to zero. An explanation for the effect is proposed. Biased finite elements are used in two ways to obtain physically-acceptable solutions for the void regions. Two new methods are described and tested. The iterative method synthesizes finite-element solution using a sequence of problems with constant absorptions in the void regions. The sequence is terminated when the fluxes in the void regions become steady. The extrapolation method obtains a best approximation to the void solution by combining two or more independent biased trial functions in an optimum way. The extrapolation method is further subdivided into elementary and nodal or multiparameter extrapolation. The relevant theory of both the iteration and extrapolation methods is given. Several 2-D test problems using the above methods have been investigated. Results are compared with those obtained with other numerical methods and almost analytical results of the point kernel method for voids surrounded by purely absorbing media. (author).

  20. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg


    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector for polar......Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector...... for polarimetric SAR images is presented using a newly developed test statistic in the complex Wishart distribution to test for equality of covariance matrices. The new edge detector can be applied to a wide range of SAR data from single-channel intensity data to multifrequency and/or multitemporal polarimetric...... SAR data. By simply changing the parameters characterizing the test statistic according to the applied SAR data, constant false-alarm rate detection is always obtained. An adaptive filtering scheme is presented, and the distributions of the detector are verified using simulated polarimetric SAR images...

  1. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  2. Experimental studies of edge turbulence and confinement in Alcator C-Moda) (United States)

    Cziegler, I.; Terry, J. L.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B.


    The steep gradient edge region and scrape-off-layer (SOL) on the low-field-side of Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson, R. Boivin, F. Bombarda et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] tokamak plasmas are studied using gas-puff-imaging diagnostics. In L-mode plasmas, the region extending ˜2 cm inside the magnetic separatrix has fluctuations showing a broad, turbulent spectrum, propagating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, whereas features in the open field line region propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. This structure is robust against toroidal field strength, poloidal null-point geometry, plasma current, and plasma density. Global parameter dependence of spectral and spatial structure of the turbulence inside the separatrix is explored and characterized, and both the intensity and spectral distributions are found to depend strongly on the plasma density normalized to the tokamak density limit. In H-mode discharges the fluctuations at and inside the magnetic separatrix show fundamentally different trends compared to L-mode, with the electron diamagnetic direction propagating turbulence greatly reduced in ELM-free [F. Wagner et al., Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1982), Vol. I, p. 277], and completely dominated by the modelike structure of the quasicoherent mode in enhanced D-alpha regimes [A. E. Hubbard, R. L. Boivin, R. S. Granetz et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2033 (2001)], while the normalized SOL turbulence is largely unaffected.

  3. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman


    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  4. Natural and artificial spectral edges in exoplanets (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham


    Technological civilizations may rely upon large-scale photovoltaic arrays to harness energy from their host star. Photovoltaic materials, such as silicon, possess distinctive spectral features, including an 'artificial edge' that is characteristically shifted in wavelength shortwards of the 'red edge' of vegetation. Future observations of reflected light from exoplanets would be able to detect both natural and artificial edges photometrically, if a significant fraction of the planet's surface is covered by vegetation or photovoltaic arrays, respectively. The stellar energy thus tapped can be utilized for terraforming activities by transferring heat and light from the day side to the night side on tidally locked exoplanets, thereby producing detectable artefacts.

  5. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael


    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  6. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation of the coronal magnetic field using the data obtained by the Hinode satellite (United States)

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Yan, Yihua


    The Hinode satellite can obtain high-quality photospheric vector magnetograms of solar active regions and the simultaneous coronal loop images in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) bands. In this paper, we continue the work of He and Wang (2008) and apply the newly developed upward boundary integration computational scheme for the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of the coronal magnetic field to the photospheric vector magnetograms acquired by the Spectro-Polarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. Three time series vector magnetograms of the same solar active region, NOAA 10930, are selected for the NLFFF extrapolations, which were observed within the time interval of 26 h during 10-11 December 2006 when the active region crossed the central area of the Sun's disk. Parallel computation of the NLFFF extrapolation code was realized through OpenMP multithreaded, shared memory parallelism and Fortran 95 programming language for the extrapolation calculations. The comparison between the extrapolated field lines and the coronal loop images obtained by the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer of Hinode shows that, in the central area of the active region, the field line configurations generally agree with the coronal images, and the orientations of the field lines basically coincide with the coronal loop observations for all three successive magnetograms. This result supports the NLFFF model being used for tracing the time series evolution of the 3-D coronal magnetic structures as the responses of the quasi-equilibrium solar atmosphere to the vector magnetic field changes in the photosphere.

  7. Investigation Of A Transient Energetic Charge Exchange Fux Enhancement ('spike-on-tail') Observed In Neutral-beam-heated H-mode Discharges In The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley et al, S S


    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a large increase in the charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is measured by the E||B (superimposed parallel electric and magnetic fields) Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 50 kHz) are absent, Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmode (TAE) activity (f ~ 50 - 150 kHz) is weak and Global Alfvén Eigenmode (GAE) activity (f ~ 400 – 1000 kHz) is robust. Compressional Alfvén eigenmode (CAE) activity (f > 1000 kHz) is usually sporadic or absent during the HEF event. The HEF exhibits growth times of Δt ~ 20 - 80 ms, durations of ~ 100 – 600 ms and peak-to-base flux ratios up to H = Fmax /Fmin ~ 10. In infrequent cases, a slowing down distribution below the HEF energy can develop that continues to evolve over periods > 100 ms, a time scale long compared with the typical fast ion equilibration times. HEFs are Transient energetic charge exchange flux enhancement ('spike-on-tail') 2 observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected power Pb ≥ 4 MW and in the pitch range χ = vll /v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing particles. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy that are observed to coincide with the feature appear to be driven by concomitant broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles and not the HEF itself. While the HEF has minimal impact on plasma performance, it nevertheless poses a challenging wave-particle interaction phenomenon to understand. Candidate mechanisms for HEF formation are developed based on quasilinear theory of wave-particle interaction. The only mechanism found to lead to the large NPA flux ratios, H = Fmax /Fmin , observed in NSTX is the quasilinear evolution of the energetic ion distribution, Fb(E,χ,r), in phase space and the concomitant

  8. External excitation of a short-wavelength fluctuation in the Alcator C-Mod edge plasma and its relationship to the quasi-coherent modea) (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Burke, W.; Davis, E.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E.; Parkin, W.; Porkolab, M.; Terry, J.; Vieira, R.; Wolfe, S.


    A novel "Shoelace" antenna has been used to inductively excite a short-wavelength edge fluctuation in a tokamak boundary layer for the first time. The principal design parameters, k⊥=1.5±0.1 cm-1 and 45H-mode. In H-mode, whether or not there is a QCM, the antenna drives coherent, field-aligned perturbations in density, ñe, and field, B˜θ, which are guided by field lines, propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, and exhibit a weakly damped (γ/ω0˜5% -10%) resonance near the natural QCM frequency. This result is significant, offering the possibility that externally driven modes may be used to enhance particle transport. In L-mode, the antenna drives only a non-resonant B˜θ response. The facts that the driven mode has the same wave number and propagation direction as the QCM, and is resonant at the QCM frequency, suggest the antenna may couple to this mode, which we have shown elsewhere to be predominantly drift-mode-like [B. LaBombard et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056108 (2014)].

  9. Edge localized linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability studies in an extended-magnetohydrodynamic code (United States)

    Burke, B. J.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Zhu, P.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Howell, E. C.


    A linear benchmark between the linear ideal MHD stability codes ELITE [H. R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002)], GATO [L. Bernard et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981)], and the extended nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al.., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is undertaken for edge-localized (MHD) instabilities. Two ballooning-unstable, shifted-circle tokamak equilibria are compared where the stability characteristics are varied by changing the equilibrium plasma profiles. The equilibria model an H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. For both equilibria, NIMROD accurately reproduces the transition to instability (the marginally unstable mode), as well as the ideal growth spectrum for a large range of toroidal modes (n =1-20). The results use the compressible MHD model and depend on a precise representation of "ideal-like" and "vacuumlike" or "halo" regions within the code. The halo region is modeled by the introduction of a Lundquist-value profile that transitions from a large to a small value at a flux surface location outside of the pedestal region. To model an ideal-like MHD response in the core and a vacuumlike response outside the transition, separate criteria on the plasma and halo Lundquist values are required. For the benchmarked equilibria the critical Lundquist values are 108 and 103 for the ideal-like and halo regions, respectively. Notably, this gives a ratio on the order of 105, which is much larger than experimentally measured values using Te values associated with the top of the pedestal and separatrix. Excellent agreement with ELITE and GATO calculations are made when sharp boundary transitions in the resistivity are used and a small amount of physical dissipation is added for conditions very near and below marginal ideal stability.

  10. Impurity confinement and transport in high confinement regimes without edge localized modes on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grierson, B. A., E-mail:; Nazikian, R. M.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Belli, E. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Evans, T. E.; Smith, S. P.; Chrobak, C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); McKee, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53796 (United States); Orlov, D. M. [Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)


    Impurity transport in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] is investigated in stationary high confinement (H-mode) regimes without edge localized modes (ELMs). In plasmas maintained by resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), ELM-suppression, and QH-mode, the confinement time of fluorine (Z = 9) is equivalent to that in ELMing discharges with 40 Hz ELMs. For selected discharges with impurity injection, the impurity particle confinement time compared to the energy confinement time is in the range of τ{sub p}/τ{sub e}≈2−3. In QH-mode operation, the impurity confinement time is shown to be smaller for intense, coherent magnetic, and density fluctuations of the edge harmonic oscillation than weaker fluctuations. Transport coefficients are derived from the time evolution of the impurity density profile and compared to neoclassical and turbulent transport models NEO and TGLF. Neoclassical transport of fluorine is found to be small compared to the experimental values. In the ELMing and RMP ELM-suppressed plasma, the impurity transport is affected by the presence of tearing modes. For radii larger than the mode radius, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is smaller than the experimental value by a factor of 2–3, while the convective velocity is within error estimates. Low levels of diffusion are observed for radii smaller than the tearing mode radius. In the QH-mode plasma investigated, the TGLF diffusion coefficient is higher inside of ρ=0.4 and lower outside of 0.4 than the experiment, and the TGLF convective velocity is more negative by a factor of approximately 1.7.

  11. Exploitation of the Toll-like receptor system in cancer: a doubled-edged sword?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D


    The toll-like receptor (TLR) system constitutes a pylogenetically ancient, evolutionary conserved, archetypal pattern recognition system, which underpins pathogen recognition by and activation of the immune system. Toll-like receptor agonists have long been used as immunoadjuvants in anti cancer immunotherapy. However, TLRs are increasingly implicated in human disease pathogenesis and an expanding body of both clinical and experimental evidence suggests that the neoplastic process may subvert TLR signalling pathways to advance cancer progression. Recent discoveries in the TLR system open a multitude of potential therapeutic avenues. Extrapolation of such TLR system manipulations to a clinical oncological setting demands care to prevent potentially deleterious activation of TLR-mediated survival pathways. Thus, the TLR system is a double-edge sword, which needs to be carefully wielded in the setting of neoplastic disease.

  12. The cerebellum and visual perceptual learning: evidence from a motion extrapolation task. (United States)

    Deluca, Cristina; Golzar, Ashkan; Santandrea, Elisa; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Eštočinová, Jana; Moretto, Giuseppe; Fiaschi, Antonio; Panzeri, Marta; Mariotti, Caterina; Tinazzi, Michele; Chelazzi, Leonardo


    Visual perceptual learning is widely assumed to reflect plastic changes occurring along the cerebro-cortical visual pathways, including at the earliest stages of processing, though increasing evidence indicates that higher-level brain areas are also involved. Here we addressed the possibility that the cerebellum plays an important role in visual perceptual learning. Within the realm of motor control, the cerebellum supports learning of new skills and recalibration of motor commands when movement execution is consistently perturbed (adaptation). Growing evidence indicates that the cerebellum is also involved in cognition and mediates forms of cognitive learning. Therefore, the obvious question arises whether the cerebellum might play a similar role in learning and adaptation within the perceptual domain. We explored a possible deficit in visual perceptual learning (and adaptation) in patients with cerebellar damage using variants of a novel motion extrapolation, psychophysical paradigm. Compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, patients with focal damage to the posterior (but not the anterior) cerebellum showed strongly diminished learning, in terms of both rate and amount of improvement over time. Consistent with a double-dissociation pattern, patients with focal damage to the anterior cerebellum instead showed more severe clinical motor deficits, indicative of a distinct role of the anterior cerebellum in the motor domain. The collected evidence demonstrates that a pure form of slow-incremental visual perceptual learning is crucially dependent on the intact cerebellum, bearing the notion that the human cerebellum acts as a learning device for motor, cognitive and perceptual functions. We interpret the deficit in terms of an inability to fine-tune predictive models of the incoming flow of visual perceptual input over time. Moreover, our results suggest a strong dissociation between the role of different portions of the cerebellum in motor versus

  13. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.


    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  14. Overview of Curved Cutting Edge Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potapova


    Full Text Available Now that there is a need to increase a processing capacity, curved cutting edge mills find ever-growing use. Also known as “rough end”, “full-side”, and “heavy-duty” mills, they provide the increased depth and width values of milling owing to the width-sized chip separation. The analysis of produced mills allowed us both to reveal their basic design components (type of a shaft or basic opening, diameter and length of the cutting part, mill length, quantity of teeth, a tilt angle of a screw flute and to make their classification. The paper presents a classification of the profile types of cutting edges, which can be divided by form (flat, round, size (small, large, super-large, and symmetry (symmetrical and asymmetrical. The profile of the cutting edge is characterized by the following parameters: profile height, pitch of crests spherical radius of crest.A review of the curved cutting edge profile types allows us to build the geometrical constructions to define a form and the sizes of the chip load made by the cutting edge from a billet. It is shown that parameters of the cutting edge profile influence the form and the sizes (thickness and width of the chip load.The chip load thickness provided by the curved cutting edge mills exceeds that of observed when using the “smooth” cutting edge mills. A thickening degree of the chip load is changed with changing form and sizes of the cutting edge mill profile. Larger thickening is observed if the chip load is limited from below and from above by the marks of a single tooth (the first or second etc., and a length of the other teeth marks is minimum. The most achievable chip load thickness is equal to feed per revolution.Studying the references allowed us to formulate some rules to choose a cutting edge profile depending on a type of the processed material and a desirable roughness of the processed surface. It is important to note the following.When choosing a profile of the cutting edge

  15. Depth from Edge and Intensity Based Stereo. (United States)


    something similar for a machine (be the similarity in mechanism or effect). ,1 1.1 The Stereopsi. Process in Man .4 In the course of primate ...Dorr ain • restrictions An understanding of its domain of intended use and an analysis of its performance capabilities will give us insight into a stereo...providing for the interpretation of cei: ain edges as being spurious or obscured, is both unrealistic and unacceptable - there will always be edges which

  16. Characteristics of edge-localized modes in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, M.; Xu, G.S.; Xiao, C.


    confinement modes (H-modes) were obtained with 1 MW lower hybrid wave power in conjunction with wall conditioning by lithium (Li) evaporation and real-time Li powder injection. The ELMs in EAST at this heating power are mostly type-III ELMs. They were observed close to the H-mode threshold power and produced...

  17. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff


    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  18. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range-edge populations. (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J


    Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range-edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range-edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populations may be essential to species' persistence during periods of rapid climate change. We use relatively simple conceptual models to highlight the importance of locally adapted range-edge populations (leading and trailing edges) for determining the ability of species to persist under future climates. Using trees as an example, we show how locally adapted populations at species' range edges may expand under future climate change and become more common relative to range-core populations. We also highlight how large-scale habitat destruction occurring in some geographic areas where many species range edge converge, such as biome boundaries and ecotones (e.g., the arc of deforestation along the rainforest-cerrado ecotone in the southern Amazonia), can have major implications for global biodiversity. As climate changes, range-edge populations will play key roles in helping species to maintain or expand their geographic distributions. The loss of these locally adapted range-edge populations through anthropogenic disturbance is therefore hypothesized to reduce the ability of species to persist in the face of rapid future climate change.

  19. Characterization of a extrapolation chamber in standard X-ray beam, radiodiagnosis level; Caracterizacao de uma camara de extrapolacao em feixes padroes de raios X, nivel radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric A.B. da; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: ebrito@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The extrapolation chamber is a ionization chamber used for detection low energy radiation and can be used as an standard instrument for beta radiation beams. This type of ionization chamber have as main characteristic the variation of sensible volume. This paper performs a study of characterization of a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber, in the energy interval of the qualities of conventional radiodiagnostic

  20. A fish of many scales: extrapolating sublethal pesticide exposures to the productivity of wild salmon populations. (United States)

    Baldwin, David H; Spromberg, Julann A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L


    growth and size at ocean entry of juvenile chinook. The consequent reduction in individual survival over successive years reduces the intrinsic productivity (lambda) of a modeled ocean-type chinook population. Overall, we show that exposures to common pesticides may place important constraints on the recovery of ESA-listed salmon species, and that simple models can be used to extrapolate toxicological impacts across several scales of biological complexity.

  1. The extrapolated explicit midpoint scheme for variable order and step size controlled integration of the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation (United States)

    Exl, Lukas; Mauser, Norbert J.; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter


    A practical and efficient scheme for the higher order integration of the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is presented. The method is based on extrapolation of the two-step explicit midpoint rule and incorporates adaptive time step and order selection. We make use of a piecewise time-linear stray field approximation to reduce the necessary work per time step. The approximation to the interpolated operator is embedded into the extrapolation process to keep in step with the hierarchic order structure of the scheme. We verify the approach by means of numerical experiments on a standardized NIST problem and compare with a higher order embedded Runge-Kutta formula. The efficiency of the presented approach increases when the stray field computation takes a larger portion of the costs for the effective field evaluation.

  2. The conceptual basis of function learning and extrapolation: comparison of rule-based and associative-based models. (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Busemeyer, Jerome R


    The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for a more formal, systematic, and integrative approach to function learning that parallels the existing progress in category learning. First, we note limitations of existing formal theories. Next, we develop several potential formal models of function learning, which include expansion of classic rule-based approaches and associative-based models. We specify for the first time psychologically based learning mechanisms for the rule models. We then present new, rigorous tests of these competing models that take into account order of difficulty for learning different function forms and extrapolation performance. Critically, detailed learning performance was also used to conduct the model evaluations. The results favor a hybrid model that combines associative learning of trained input-prediction pairs with a rule-based output response for extrapolation (EXAM).

  3. Resolution enhancement by extrapolation of coherent diffraction images: a quantitative study on the limits and a numerical study of nonbinary and phase objects. (United States)

    Latychevskaia, T; Chushkin, Y; Fink, H-W


    In coherent diffractive imaging, the resolution of the reconstructed object is limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup. We present here a theoretical and numerical study for achieving super-resolution by postextrapolation of coherent diffraction images, such as diffraction patterns or holograms. We demonstrate that a diffraction pattern can unambiguously be extrapolated from only a fraction of the entire pattern and that the ratio of the extrapolated signal to the originally available signal is linearly proportional to the oversampling ratio. Although there could be in principle other methods to achieve extrapolation, we devote our discussion to employing iterative phase retrieval methods and demonstrate their limits. We present two numerical studies; namely, the extrapolation of diffraction patterns of nonbinary and that of phase objects together with a discussion of the optimal extrapolation procedure. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. L2-Error Estimates of the Extrapolated Crank-Nicolson Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations for Nonlinear Sobolev Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Young Lee


    Full Text Available We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal ℓ∞(L2 error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.

  5. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto activated carbon fiber cloths - Modeling and extrapolation of adsorption isotherms at very low concentrations. (United States)

    Fallou, Hélène; Cimetière, Nicolas; Giraudet, Sylvain; Wolbert, Dominique; Le Cloirec, Pierre


    Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFC) have shown promising results when applied to water treatment, especially for removing organic micropollutants such as pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, further investigations are required, especially considering trace concentrations, which are found in current water treatment. Until now, most studies have been carried out at relatively high concentrations (mg L(-1)), since the experimental and analytical methodologies are more difficult and more expensive when dealing with lower concentrations (ng L(-1)). Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate an extrapolation procedure from high to low concentrations, for four compounds (Carbamazepine, Diclofenac, Caffeine and Acetaminophen). For this purpose, the reliability of the usual adsorption isotherm models, when extrapolated from high (mg L(-1)) to low concentrations (ng L(-1)), was assessed as well as the influence of numerous error functions. Some isotherm models (Freundlich, Toth) and error functions (RSS, ARE) show weaknesses to be used as an adsorption isotherms at low concentrations. However, from these results, the pairing of the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model with Marquardt's percent standard of deviation was evidenced as the best combination model, enabling the extrapolation of adsorption capacities by orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: A Canadian regulatory perspective on the assessment of clinically relevant differences and indication extrapolation. (United States)

    Scott, Bradley J; Klein, Agnes V; Wang, Jian


    Monoclonal antibodies have become mainstays of treatment for many diseases. After more than a decade on the Canadian market, a number of authorized monoclonal antibody products are facing patent expiry. Given their success, most notably in the areas of oncology and autoimmune disease, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are eager to produce their own biosimilar versions and have begun manufacturing and testing for a variety of monoclonal antibody products. In October of 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody products were approved by the European Medicines Agency (Remsima™ and Inflectra™). These products were authorized by Health Canada shortly after; however, while the EMA allowed for extrapolation to all of the indications held by the reference product, Health Canada limited extrapolation to a subset of the indications held by the reference product, Remicade®. The purpose of this review is to discuss the Canadian regulatory framework for the authorization of biosimilar mAbs with specific discussion around the clinical requirements for establishing (bio)-similarity and to present the principles that are used in the clinical assessment of New Drug Submissions for intended biosimilar monoclonal antibodies. Health Canada's current views regarding indication extrapolation, product interchangeability, and post-market surveillance are discussed as well. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.


    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  8. Ground state energy of the δ-Bose and Fermi gas at weak coupling from double extrapolation (United States)

    Prolhac, Sylvain


    We consider the ground state energy of the Lieb-Liniger gas with δ interaction in the weak coupling regime γ \\to 0 . For bosons with repulsive interaction, previous studies gave the expansion {{e}\\text{B}}≤ft(γ \\right)≃ γ -4{γ3/2}/3π +≤ft(1/6-1/{π2}\\right){γ2} . Using a numerical solution of the Lieb-Liniger integral equation discretized with M points and finite strength γ of the interaction, we obtain very accurate numerics for the next orders after extrapolation on M and γ. The coefficient of {γ5/2} in the expansion is found to be approximately equal to -0.001 587 699 865 505 944 989 29 , accurate within all digits shown. This value is supported by a numerical solution of the Bethe equations with N particles, followed by extrapolation on N and γ. It was identified as ≤ft(3\\zeta (3)/8-1/2\\right)/{π3} by G Lang. The next two coefficients are also guessed from the numerics. For balanced spin 1/2 fermions with attractive interaction, the best result so far for the ground state energy has been {{e}\\text{F}}≤ft(γ \\right)≃ {π2}/12-γ /2+{γ2}/6 . An analogue double extrapolation scheme leads to the value -\\zeta (3)/{π4} for the coefficient of {γ3} .

  9. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin


    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

  10. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.


    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  11. Evidence of Zonal-Flow-Driven Limit-Cycle Oscillations during L-H Transition and at H-mode Pedestal of a New Small-ELM Regime in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.; Wang, H.; Guo, H.

    Small-amplitude edge localized oscillations have been observed, for the first time, in EAST preceding the L-H transition at marginal input power, which manifest themselves as dithering in the divertor D signals at a frequency under 4 kHz, much lower than the GAM frequency. Detailed measurements...... providing a direct evidence of the zonal flows for the L-H transition at marginal input power. Furthermore, near the transition threshold sawtooth heat pulses appear to periodically enhance the dithering, finally triggering the L-H transition after a big sawtooth crash. The zonal flow induced limit...... link between them. A novel predator-prey model, incorporating the evolution of zonal flows, pressure gradient and turbulences at two different frequency ranges, has been developed and successfully reproduced the key features of this newly observed small-ELM regime....

  12. Should We Analyze for Trace Metal Contamination at the Edge, Bevel, and Edge Exclusion of Wafers? (United States)

    Beebe, Meredith; Sparks, Chris; Carpio, Ron


    The edge, bevel, and edge exclusion area of a wafer has historically been difficult to monitor for trace metals. Standard trace metal surface techniques such as total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and vapor phase decomposition inductively coupled plasma are currently not capable or have difficulty measuring metals to the edge and bevel of the wafer. With shared metrology toolsets and new materials being introduced into semiconductor fabs, it is important to measure possible contamination in these areas of the wafer. Tools that have edge grip pins or centering and aligning pins, also are at risk to contaminate wafers at the edge and bevel. A technique had been developed known as the beveled edge analysis tool that chemically extracts contamination from the edge, bevel and edge exclusion of a wafer that is then quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In this study we will show correlation of this technique to standard trace element analysis methods. We will also present data from characterizing processes and fab tools that will benefit from this measurement.

  13. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A., E-mail:


    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC

  14. Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Y.; Maier, A.; Berger, M.; Hornegger, J. [Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Bauer, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim 91301 (Germany)


    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anterior–posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on

  15. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier......-Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  16. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten


    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...... far. We show that some problems have polynomial time algorithms while others are NP-complete. Especially we show that allowing rotations in one-row puzzles makes the problem NP-hard. We moreover show that many commonly considered puzzles can be emulated by simple puzzles with quadratic pieces, so...

  17. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob


    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest...... qualitatively be explained with the concept of eddy‐blocking by the canopy top, which could also explain the observed increase in lateral variance and the decrease in the vertical variance. Despite the short distance to the edge of approximately 1.5hc, the beginning of a new internal boundary layer was visible...... at 1.04hc as a decrease in the vertical momentum flux. At this level, as well as within the forest, the results depended on the wind speed. The presented findings enhance the understanding of the forest edge flow and are useful for model verification and development....

  18. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems. (United States)

    Ge, Lixin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Meng; Wen, Weijia; Chan, C T; Han, Dezhuan


    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping.

  19. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts. (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E


    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  20. Long coherence times for edge spins (United States)

    Kemp, Jack; Yao, Norman Y.; Laumann, Christopher R.; Fendley, Paul


    We show that in certain one-dimensional spin chains with open boundary conditions, the edge spins retain memory of their initial state for very long times, even at infinite temperature. The long coherence times do not require disorder, only an ordered phase. In the integrable Ising and XYZ chains, the presence of a strong zero mode means the coherence time is infinite. When Ising is perturbed by interactions breaking the integrability, the coherence time remains exponentially long in the perturbing couplings. We show that this is a consequence of an edge ‘almost’ strong zero mode that almost commutes with the Hamiltonian. We compute this operator explicitly, allowing us to estimate accurately the plateau value of edge spin autocorrelator.

  1. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.


    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  2. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin


    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  3. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang


    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  4. Edge detection in landing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhagavatula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

  5. Parameter extrapolation to ungauged basins with a hydrological distributed model in a regional framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vélez


    Full Text Available A Regional Water Resources study was performed at basins within and draining to the Basque Country Region (N of Spain, with a total area of approximately 8500 km2. The objective was to obtain daily and monthly long-term discharges in 567 points, most of them ungauged, with basin areas ranging from 0.25 to 1850 km2. In order to extrapolate the calibrations at gauged points to the ungauged ones, a distributed and conceptually based model called TETIS was used. In TETIS the runoff production is modelled using five linked tanks at the each cell with different outflow relationships at each tank, which represents the main hydrological processes as snowmelt, evapotranspiration, overland flow, interflow and base flow. The routing along the channels' network couples its geomorphologic characteristics with the kinematic wave approach. The parameter estimation methodology tries to distinguish between the effective parameter used in the model at the cell scale, and the watershed characteristic estimated from the available information, being the best estimation without losing its physical meaning. The relationship between them can be considered as a correction function or, in its simple form, a correction factor. The correction factor can take into account the model input errors, the temporal and spatial scale effects and the watershed characteristics. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume the correction factor is the same for each parameter to all cells within the watershed. This approach reduces drastically the number of parameter to be calibrated, because only the common correction factors are calibrated instead of parameter maps (number of parameters times the number of cells. In this way, the calibration can be performed using automatic methodologies. In this work, the Shuffled Complex Evolution – University of Arizona, SCE-UA algorithm was used. The available recent year's data was used to calibrate the model in 20 of

  6. Physics-based edge evaluation for improved color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.


    Edge-based color constancy makes use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images such as shadow, geometry, material and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  7. 16 CFR 1211.12 - Requirements for edge sensors. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for edge sensors. 1211.12... Requirements for edge sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) When installed on a representative door edge, an edge sensor shall actuate upon the application of a 15 pounds (66.7 N) or less force in the direction...

  8. Multi-scale Regions from Edge Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


    In this article we introduce a novel method for detecting multi-scale salient regions around edges using a graph based image compression algorithm. Images are recursively decomposed into triangles arranged into a binary tree using linear interpolation. The entropy of any local region of the image...... to estimate regions. Salient regions are thus formed as stable regions around edges. Tree hierarchy is then used to generate multi-scale regions. We evaluate our detector by performing image retrieval tests on our building database which shows that combined with Spin Images (Lazebnik et al., 2003...

  9. Flow rates for sharp-edged orifices (United States)

    Groesbeck, W. A.; Manning, F. L.


    Two charts are proposed for calculating the flow coefficient and the area correction factor used in the equation for the flow rate through a sharp-edged orifice. The proposed charts account for variations in the discharge coefficient of sharp-edged orifices and can be used with any pressure ratio for both subcritical and supercritical flow conditions. They can also be used for any gas by using the appropriate gas constant and ratio of specific heats. The application of the charts is illustrated by examples.

  10. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei


    Full Text Available The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  11. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Coster, David; Feng, Yuhe; Lunt, Tilmann; Aguiam, Diogo; Bilato, Roberto; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Jacquot, Jonathan; Jacquet, Philippe; Lerche, Ernesto; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie; Tierens, Wouter


    The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF) wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  12. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE


    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R.; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P.; Saiz, P.


    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  13. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges. (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony


    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  14. Conical shell edge disturbance : An engineer's derivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwendraad, J.; Hoefakker, JH


    Because a rigorous bending theory for thin shells of revolution is complicated, attempts have been made for reliable approximations of the edge disturbance problem under axisymmetric loading. A well-known one was published by Geckeler [1, 2], who obtained his approximation by mathematical

  15. Fermi Bubble Edges: Spectrum and Diffusion Function (United States)

    Keshet, Uri; Gurwich, Ilya


    Current measurements of the γ-ray Fermi bubbles (FB) are based on model-dependent tracers, carry substantial systematic uncertainties, and contain some discrepancies between each other. We show that gradient filters pick out the FB edges, which are found to smoothly connect to the bipolar X-ray structure emanating from the Galactic center, thus supporting the interpretation of the FBs as a Galactic-scale phenomenon. The sharp edges facilitate a direct, model-free measurement of the peripheral FB spectrum. The result is strikingly similar to the full FB-integrated spectrum, softened by a power law of index η ≃ (0.2-0.3). This is naturally explained, in both hadronic and leptonic models, if cosmic rays are injected at the edge, and diffuse away preferentially at higher energies E. The inferred, averaged diffusion function in the (more plausible) leptonic model, D{(E)≃ {10}29.5(E/10{GeV})}0.48+/- 0.02 {{cm}}2 {{{s}}}-1, is consistent with estimates for Kraichnan-like turbulence. Our results, in particular the minute spatial variations in η, indicate that the FB edge is a strong, Mach ≳5, forward shock.

  16. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bomben, Marco; Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; D'Eramo, Louis; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola; Rummler, Andre; Weingarten, Jens


    this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  17. Edge Delamination of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. (United States)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Yun, Seok Joon; Thi, Quoc Huy; Zhao, Jiong


    Delamination of thin films from the supportive substrates is a critical issue within the thin film industry. The emergent two-dimensional, atomic layered materials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, are highly flexible; thus buckles and wrinkles can be easily generated and play vital roles in the corresponding physical properties. Here we introduce one kind of patterned buckling behavior caused by the delamination from a substrate initiated at the edges of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, led by thermal expansion mismatch. The atomic force microscopy and optical characterizations clearly showed the puckered structures associated with the strain, whereas the transmission electron microscopy revealed the special sawtooth-shaped edges, which break the geometrical symmetry for the buckling behavior of hexagonal samples. The condition of the edge delamination is in accordance with the fracture behavior of thin film interfaces. This edge delamination and buckling process is universal for most ultrathin two-dimensional materials, which requires more attention in various future applications.

  18. Fetch requirements near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van P.B.; Klaassen, W.; Moors, E.J.


    Measurements on forest-atmosphere exchange should be executed some distance from the forest boundaries to be representative for this forest. In this study the minimum fetch at measuring height is estimated by analysing measurements just above a mixed forest stand near the edge. The objective was to

  19. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh


    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Reading Edge. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    "Reading Edge" is a middle school literacy program that emphasizes cooperative learning, goal setting, feedback, classroom management techniques, and the use of metacognitive strategy, whereby students assess their own skills and learn to apply new ones. The program is a component of the "Success for All"[superscript 2]…

  1. Plasma oscillations of edge Dirac fermions (United States)

    Volkov, V. A.; Zagorodnev, I. V.


    The dispersion law of one-dimensional plasmons in a quasi-one-dimensional system of massless Dirac fermions has been calculated. Two model two-dimensional systems where bands of edge states filled with such Dirac fermions appear at the edge have been considered. Edge states in the first system, topological insulator, are due to topological reasons. Edge states in the second system, system of massive Dirac fermions, have Tamm origin. It has been shown that the dispersion laws of plasmons in both systems in the long-wavelength limit differ only in the definition of the parameters (velocity and localization depth of Dirac fermions). The frequency of plasmons is formally quantum (ω ∝ ħ -1/2) and, in the case of the Coulomb interaction between electrons, depends slightly on the Fermi level E F. The dependence on E F is stronger in the case of short-range interaction. The quantum features of oscillations of massless one-dimensional Dirac fermions are removed by introducing the mass of Dirac fermions at the Fermi level and their density. Correspondence to the dispersion law of classical one-dimensional plasma oscillations in a narrow stripe of "Schrödinger" electrons has been revealed.

  2. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)


    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented a modified edge fed Sierpinski carpet microstrip patch antenna for antenna miniaturization. The proposed design was etched as Sierpinski carpet to lower the antenna resonant frequency, which is used to reduce the conventional patch antenna size. After the Sierpinski carpet second iteration, the ...

  4. On A Graph Formalism for Ordered Edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Küster, J.; Tuosto, E.


    Though graphs are flexible enough to model any kind of data structure in principle, for some structures this results in a rather large overhead. This is for instance true for lists, i.e., edges that are meant to point to an ordered collection of nodes. Such structures are frequently encountered, for

  5. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE


    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  6. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge. (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish


    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  7. On dust in tokamak edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I. [Jacobs School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, Engineering Building II, room 474, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)]. E-mail:; Soboleva, T.K. [UNAM, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomita, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Smirnov, R.D. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Janev, R.K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    We study the dust particle dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas, with special emphasis on dust particle transport in the sheath and plasma recycling regions. The characteristics of this transport have been examined for both smooth and corrugated wall surfaces. The implications of dust particle transport in the divertor region on the core plasma contamination with impurities have also been examined.

  8. Shaping the edges using flowdrill technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matysiak


    Full Text Available In this paper, was presented the results of experimental studies of the edgetrimming process obtained using technology Flowdrill, shows distributions of thickness and height of recurving edging and its microhardness made of aluminum, mild steel and stainless steel.

  9. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges. (United States)


    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  10. Is the climate right for pleistocene rewilding? Using species distribution models to extrapolate climatic suitability for mammals across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orien M W Richmond

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used for extrapolation, or predicting suitable regions for species under new geographic or temporal scenarios. However, SDM predictions may be prone to errors if species are not at equilibrium with climatic conditions in the current range and if training samples are not representative. Here the controversial "Pleistocene rewilding" proposal was used as a novel example to address some of the challenges of extrapolating modeled species-climate relationships outside of current ranges. Climatic suitability for three proposed proxy species (Asian elephant, African cheetah and African lion was extrapolated to the American southwest and Great Plains using Maxent, a machine-learning species distribution model. Similar models were fit for Oryx gazella, a species native to Africa that has naturalized in North America, to test model predictions. To overcome biases introduced by contracted modern ranges and limited occurrence data, random pseudo-presence points generated from modern and historical ranges were used for model training. For all species except the oryx, models of climatic suitability fit to training data from historical ranges produced larger areas of predicted suitability in North America than models fit to training data from modern ranges. Four naturalized oryx populations in the American southwest were correctly predicted with a generous model threshold, but none of these locations were predicted with a more stringent threshold. In general, the northern Great Plains had low climatic suitability for all focal species and scenarios considered, while portions of the southern Great Plains and American southwest had low to intermediate suitability for some species in some scenarios. The results suggest that the use of historical, in addition to modern, range information and randomly sampled pseudo-presence points may improve model accuracy. This has implications for modeling range shifts of

  11. Free-flying honeybees extrapolate relational size rules to sort successively visited artificial flowers in a realistic foraging situation. (United States)

    Howard, Scarlett R; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Garcia, Jair; Dyer, Adrian G


    Learning and applying relational concepts to solve novel tasks is considered an indicator of cognitive-like ability. It requires the abstraction of relational concepts to different objects independent to the physical nature of the individual objects. Recent research has revealed the honeybee's ability to rapidly learn and manipulate relations between visual stimuli such as 'same/different', 'above/below', or 'larger/smaller' despite having a miniature-sized brain. While honeybees can solve problems using rule-based relative size comparison, it remains unresolved as to whether bees can apply size rules when stimuli are encountered successively, which requires reliance on working memory for stimuli comparison. Additionally, the potential ability of bees to extrapolate acquired information to novel sizes beyond training sets remains to be investigated. We tested whether individual free-flying honeybees could learn 'larger/smaller' size rules when visual stimuli were presented successively, and whether such rules could then be extrapolated to novel stimulus sizes. Honeybees were individually trained to a set of four sizes such that individual elements might be correct, or incorrect, depending upon the alternative stimulus. In a learning test, bees preferred the correct size relation for their respective learning group. Bees were also able to successfully extrapolate the learnt relation during transfer tests by maintaining the correct size relationships when considering either two smaller, or two larger, novel stimulus sizes. This performance demonstrates that an insect operating in a complex environment has sufficient cognitive capacity to learn rules that can be abstracted to novel problems. We discuss the possible learning mechanisms which allow their success.

  12. Aeroelastic analysis of an adaptive trailing edge with a smart elastic skin (United States)

    Arena, Maurizio; Pecora, Rosario; Amoroso, Francesco; Noviello, Maria Chiara; Rea, Francesco; Concilio, Antonio


    Nowadays, the design choices of the new generation aircraft are moving towards the research and development of innovative technologies, aimed at improving performance as well as to minimize the environmental impact. In the current "greening" context, the morphing structures represent a very attractive answer to such requirements: both aerodynamic and structural advantages are ensured in several flight conditions, safeguarding the fuel consumption at the same time. An aeronautical intelligent system is therefore the outcome of combining complex smart materials and structures, assuring the best functionality level in the flight envelope. The Adaptive Trailing Edge Device (ATED) is a sub-project inside SARISTU (Smart Intelligent Aircraft Structures), an L2 level project of the 7th EU Framework programme coordinated by Airbus, aimed at developing technologies for realizing a morphing wing extremity addressed to improve the general aircraft performance and to reduce the fuel burning up to 5%. This specific study, divided into design, manufacturing and testing phases, involved universities, research centers and leading industries of the European consortium. The paper deals with the aeroelastic impact assessment of a full-scale morphing wing trailing edge on a Large Aeroplanes category aircraft. The FE (Finite Element) model of the technology demonstrator, located in the aileron region and manufactured within the project, was referenced to for the extrapolation of the structural properties of the whole adaptive trailing edge device placed in its actual location in the outer wing. The input FE models were processed within MSC-Nastran® environment to estimate stiffness and inertial distributions suitable to construct the aeroelastic stick-beam mock-up of the reference structure. Afterwards, a flutter analysis in simulated operative condition, have been carried out by means of Sandy®, an in-house code, according to meet the safety requirements imposed by the applicable

  13. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Storm Water Runoff in Real-Time using Extrapolated Radar Rainfall Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    Model based short-term forecasting of urban storm water runoff can be applied in realtime control of drainage systems in order to optimize system capacity during rain and minimize combined sewer overflows, improve wastewater treatment or activate alarms if local flooding is impending. A novel...... online system, which forecasts flows and water levels in real-time with inputs from extrapolated radar rainfall data, has been developed. The fully distributed urban drainage model includes auto-calibration using online in-sewer measurements which is seen to improve forecast skills significantly...

  14. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)


    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  15. Review of creep-fatigue life prediction methods: Identification and extrapolation to long term and low strain cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailletaud, G.; Nouailhas, D. (Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)); Grattier, J. (Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing. Dept. d' Etudes des Materiaux); Levaillant, C. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux); Mottot, M.; Tortel, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Technologie); Escavarage, C.; Heliot, J.; Kang, S. (Novatome Industries, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France))


    Eight creep-fatigue interaction models are identified on a set of LCF experimental data. The material is 316 L type stainless steel, the temperature is 600/sup 0/C. The general agreement between tests and predictions is good in the experimental range. Tentative extrapolations are made towards low strain and along dwell. Opposite trends are then pointed out on stress dependent and strain range dependent models. The final results are still encouraging and general rules are given concerning the long term life prediction.

  16. Interpolation and extrapolation problems of multivariate regression in analytical chemistry: benchmarking the robustness on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data. (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V


    Modern analytical chemistry of industrial products is in need of rapid, robust, and cheap analytical methods to continuously monitor product quality parameters. For this reason, spectroscopic methods are often used to control the quality of industrial products in an on-line/in-line regime. Vibrational spectroscopy, including mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, and near-infrared (NIR), is one of the best ways to obtain information about the chemical structures and the quality coefficients of multicomponent mixtures. Together with chemometric algorithms and multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, which were especially created for the analysis of complicated, noisy, and overlapping signals, NIR spectroscopy shows great results in terms of its accuracy, including classical prediction error, RMSEP. However, it is unclear whether the combined NIR + MDA methods are capable of dealing with much more complex interpolation or extrapolation problems that are inevitably present in real-world applications. In the current study, we try to make a rather general comparison of linear, such as partial least squares or projection to latent structures (PLS); "quasi-nonlinear", such as the polynomial version of PLS (Poly-PLS); and intrinsically non-linear, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector regression (SVR), and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM/LSSVM), regression methods in terms of their robustness. As a measure of robustness, we will try to estimate their accuracy when solving interpolation and extrapolation problems. Petroleum and biofuel (biodiesel) systems were chosen as representative examples of real-world samples. Six very different chemical systems that differed in complexity, composition, structure, and properties were studied; these systems were gasoline, ethanol-gasoline biofuel, diesel fuel, aromatic solutions of petroleum macromolecules, petroleum resins in benzene, and biodiesel. Eighteen different sample sets were used in total. General

  17. Biomechanical study on the edge shapes for penetrating keratoplasty. (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Zhuang, Han


    A parametric study to investigate the compressive and the shear stress distributions for various edge shapes created during penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using femtosecond laser is reported. The finite element analysis has been implemented using ABAQUS to study the cornea with various edge shapes, namely the standard edge shape, the zigzag edge shape, the top hat edge shape and the mushroom edge shape for PK. The ratio of maximum compressive stress to maximum shear stress is used as the main factor to assess the relative merits of wound healing rate for different edge shapes. For the typical values of tissue mechanical properties, the zigzag edge shape has the highest ratio of maximum compressive stress to maximum shear stress (11.1 in the xy-direction and 3.7 in the yz-direction), followed by the mushroom edge shape (7.7 in the xy-direction and 3.2 in the yz-direction). The ratios for the top hat and the standard edge shapes are even lower in both directions. A sensitivity analysis of the model has been done to demonstrate that the zigzag edge shape always results in the highest ratios of stresses regardless of the difference in the tissue mechanical properties. The zigzag edge shape also gives the lowest dioptric power D = 45.4. The present results imply that the zigzag edge shape provides the best wound healing rate and optical outcome among the four edge shapes models for PK.

  18. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: III. Minimum datasets, core parameters, and application of the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (United States)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene


    In Part 2 of these articles, an extensive analysis of pinning-force curves and raw scaling data was used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE). This is a parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) that has the extrapolation capability of fundamental unified scaling, coupled with the application ease of a simple fitting equation. Here in Part 3, the accuracy of the ESE relation to interpolate and extrapolate limited critical-current data to obtain complete I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets is evaluated and compared with present fitting equations. Accuracy is analyzed in terms of root mean square (RMS) error and fractional deviation statistics. Highlights from 92 test cases are condensed and summarized, covering most fitting protocols and proposed parameterizations of the USL. The results show that ESE reliably extrapolates critical currents at fields B, temperatures T, and strains ɛ that are remarkably different from the fitted minimum dataset. Depending on whether the conductor is moderate-J c or high-J c, effective RMS extrapolation errors for ESE are in the range 2-5 A at 12 T, which approaches the I c measurement error (1-2%). The minimum dataset for extrapolating full I c(B,T,ɛ) characteristics is also determined from raw scaling data. It consists of one set of I c(B,ɛ) data at a fixed temperature (e.g., liquid helium temperature), and one set of I c(B,T) data at a fixed strain (e.g., zero applied strain). Error analysis of extrapolations from the minimum dataset with different fitting equations shows that ESE reduces the percentage extrapolation errors at individual data points at high fields, temperatures, and compressive strains down to 1/10th to 1/40th the size of those for extrapolations with present fitting equations. Depending on the conductor, percentage fitting errors for interpolations are also reduced to as little as 1/15th the size. The extrapolation accuracy of the ESE relation offers the prospect of straightforward implementation of

  19. LIDAR TS for ITER core plasma. Part III: calibration and higher edge resolution (United States)

    Nielsen, P.; Gowers, C.; Salzmann, H.


    Calibration, after initial installation, of the proposed two wavelength LIDAR Thomson Scattering System requires no access to the front end and does not require a foreign gas fill for Raman scattering. As already described, the variation of solid angle of collection with scattering position is a simple geometrical variation over the unvignetted region. The additional loss over the vignetted region can easily be estimated and in the case of a small beam dump located between the Be tiles, it is within the specified accuracy of the density. The only additional calibration is the absolute spectral transmission of the front-end optics. Over time we expect the transmission of the two front-end mirrors to suffer a deterioration mainly due to depositions. The reduction in transmission is likely to be worse towards the blue end of the scattering spectrum. It is therefore necessary to have a method to monitor such changes and to determine its spectral variation. Standard methods use two lasers at different wavelength with a small time separation. Using the two-wavelength approach, a method has been developed to determine the relative spectral variation of the transmission loss, using simply the measured signals in plasmas with peak temperatures of 4–6 keV . Comparing the calculated line integral of the fitted density over the full chord to the corresponding interferometer data we also have an absolute calibration. At the outer plasma boundary, the standard resolution of the LIDAR Thomson Scattering System is not sufficient to determine the edge gradient in an H-mode plasma. However, because of the step like nature of the signal here, it is possible to carry out a deconvolution of the scattered signals, thereby achieving an effective resolution of ~ 1–2 cm in the outer 10–20 cm.

  20. Defects' geometric feature recognition based on infrared image edge detection (United States)

    Junyan, Liu; Qingju, Tang; Yang, Wang; Yumei, Lu; Zhiping, Zhang


    Edge detection is an important technology in image segmentation, feature extraction and other digital image processing areas. Boundary contains a wealth of information in the image, so to extract defects' edges in infrared images effectively enables the identification of defects' geometric features. This paper analyzed the detection effect of classic edge detection operators, and proposed fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering-Canny operator algorithm to achieve defects' edges in the infrared images. Results show that the proposed algorithm has better effect than the classic edge detection operators, which can identify the defects' geometric feature much more completely and clearly. The defects' diameters have been calculated based on the image edge detection results.

  1. Edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to aid in the use of the digital images by edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images using edge-deted interpolation. This study was performed by image processing of 20 digital periapical images; pixel replication, linear non-interpolation, linear interpolation, and edge-sensitive interpolation. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Pixel replication showed blocking artifact and serious image distortion. 2. Linear interpolation showed smoothing effect on the edge. 3. Edge-sensitive interpolation overcame the smoothing effect on the edge and showed better image.

  2. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath


    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  3. submitter Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Ekin, Jack W; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David


    A scaling study of several thousand Nb3Sn critical-current $(I_c)$ measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ε). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb3Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ε) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ~2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strains from –...

  4. [Influence of the physiological medium on the mechanical properties of bone cement: can current studies be extrapolated?]. (United States)

    Sanz-Ruiz, P; Paz, E; Abenojar, J; Del Real, J C; Forriol, F; Vaquero, J


    The use of bone cement is widespread in orthopaedic surgery. Most of the mechanical tests are performed in dry medium, making it difficult to extrapolate the results. The objective of this study is to assess if the mechanical properties of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), obtained in previous reports, are still present in a liquid medium. An experimental study was designed with antibiotic (vancomycin) loaded PMMA. Four groups were defined according to the medium (dry or liquid) and the pre-conditioning in liquid medium (one week or one month). Wear and flexural strength tests were performed according to ASTM and ISO standards. Volumetric wear, friction coefficient, tensile strength, and Young's modulus were analyzed. All samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The samples tested in liquid medium showed lower wear and flexural strength values (P<.05). The kind of wear was modified from abrasive to adhesive in those samples studied in liquid medium. The samples with a pre-conditioning time showed lower values of wear (P<.05). Caution is recommended when extrapolating the results of previous PMMA results. The different mechanical strength of the cement in a liquid medium, observed in saline medium, is much closer to the clinical situation. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement of low quality reconstructed digital hologram images based on frequency extrapolation of large objects under the diffraction limit (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiaohong; Yang, Chao


    During the reconstruction of a digital hologram, the reconstructed image is usually degraded by speckle noise, which makes it hard to observe the original object pattern. In this paper, a new reconstructed image enhancement method is proposed, which first reduces the speckle noise using an adaptive Gaussian filter, then calculates the high frequencies that belong to the object pattern based on a frequency extrapolation strategy. The proposed frequency extrapolation first calculates the frequency spectrum of the Fourier-filtered image, which is originally reconstructed from the +1 order of the hologram, and then gives the initial parameters for an iterative solution. The analytic iteration is implemented by continuous gradient threshold convergence to estimate the image level and vertical gradient information. The predicted spectrum is acquired through the analytical iteration of the original spectrum and gradient spectrum analysis. Finally, the reconstructed spectrum of the restoration image is acquired from the synthetic correction of the original spectrum using the predicted gradient spectrum. We conducted our experiment very close to the diffraction limit and used low quality equipment to prove the feasibility of our method. Detailed analysis and figure demonstrations are presented in the paper.

  6. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng


    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... the concentration and flux fields against those of a uniform forested surface. We use an atmospheric boundary layer two-equation closure model that accounts for the flow dynamics and vertical divergence of CO2 sources/sinks within a plant canopy. This paper characterizes the spatial variation of CO2 fluxes...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  7. Edges of Saturn's rings are fractal. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin


    The images recently sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (on the NASA website show the complex and beautiful rings of Saturn. Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. Here we focus on four images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings", slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine", slide #66 taken two weeks before the planet's Augus't 200'9 equinox, and slide #68 showing edge waves raised by Daphnis on the Keeler Gap) and one image from the Voyager 2' mission in 1981. Using three box-counting methods, we determine the fractal dimension of edges of rings seen here to be consistently about 1.63 ~ 1.78. This clarifies in what sense Saturn's rings are fractal.

  8. Scattering of waves by axisymmetrical edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  9. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene. (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J


    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  10. A Review of Classic Edge Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldo Spontón


    Full Text Available In this paper some of the classic alternatives for edge detection in digital images are studied. The main idea behind edge detection is to find where abrupt changes in the intensity of an image have occurred. The first family of algorithms reviewed in this work uses the first derivative to find the changes of intensity, such as Sobel, Prewitt and Roberts. In the second reviewed family it is used second derivative, for example in algorithms like Marr-Hildreth and Haralick. Results obtained from a qualitative point of view (perceptual and from a quantitative point of view (number of operations, execution time are compared, considering different ways to convolve an image with a kernel (step required in some of the algorithms.

  11. The stochastic edge in adaptive evolution


    Brunet, Éric; Rouzine, Igor M.; Wilke, Claus O


    In a recent article, Desai and Fisher (2007) proposed that the speed of adaptation in an asexual population is determined by the dynamics of the stochastic edge of the population, that is, by the emergence and subsequent establishment of rare mutants that exceed the fitness of all sequences currently present in the population. Desai and Fisher perform an elaborate stochastic calculation of the mean time $\\tau$ until a new class of mutants has been established, and interpret $1/\\tau$ as the sp...

  12. Edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles in hypertournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    We introduce a method for reducing k-tournament problems, for k >= 3, to ordinary tournaments, that is, 2-tournaments. It is applied to show that a k-tournament on n >= k + 1 + 24d vertices (when k >= 4) or on n >= 30d + 2 vertices (when k = 3) has d edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles if and only i......) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Edge-on View of Saturn's Rings (United States)


    TOP - This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshot of Saturn with its rings barely visible. Normally, astronomers see Saturn with its rings tilted. Earth was almost in the plane of Saturn's rings, thus the rings appear edge-on.In this view, Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is casting a shadow on Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is a dark brown haze. The other moons appear white because of their bright, icy surfaces. Four moons - from left to right, Mimas, Tethys, Janus, and Enceladus - are clustered around the edge of Saturn's rings on the right. Two other moons appear in front of the ring plane. Prometheus is on the right edge; Pandora, on the left. The rings also are casting a shadow on Saturn because the Sun was above the ring plane.BOTTOM - This photograph shows Saturn with its rings slightly tilted. The moon called Dione, on the lower right, is casting a long, thin shadow across the whole ring system due to the setting Sun on the ring plane. The moon on the upper left of Saturn is Tethys.Astronomers also are studying the unusual appearance of Saturn's rings. The bottom image displays a faint, narrow ring, the F-ring just outside the main ring, which normally is invisible from Earth. Close to the edge of Saturn's disk, the front section of rings seem brighter and more yellow than the back due to the additional lumination by yellowish Saturn.The color images were assembled from separate exposures taken August 6 (top) and November 17 (bottom), 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL

  14. Edge Effects in Finite Elongated Graphene Nanoribbons


    Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.


    We analyze the relevance of finite-size effects to the electronic structure of long graphene nanoribbons using a divide and conquer density functional approach. We find that for hydrogen terminated graphene nanoribbons most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite graphene nanoribbon are recovered at a length of 40 nm. Nevertheless, even for the longest systems considered (72 nm long) pronounced edge effects appear in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The wei...

  15. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  16. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  17. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.


    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects. (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B


    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  19. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  20. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats


    Verboom, B.


    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical functions of edge habitats for bats were studied: foraging areas, shelter from wind, shelter from avian predators, and acoustical landmarks.

    Both wind and food abundance we...