Sample records for h-alpha equivalent width

  1. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.


    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  2. H-alpha Photometry of Abell 2390

    Balogh, M L; Balogh, Michael L.; Morris, Simon L.


    We present the results of a search for strong H-alpha emission line galaxies (rest frame equivalent widths greater than 50 A) in the z=0.23 cluster Abell 2390. The survey contains 1189 galaxies over 270 square arcminutes, and is 50% complete at M_r=-17.5+5 log h. The fraction of galaxies in which H-alpha is detected at the 2sigma level rises from 0.0 in the central regions (excluding the cD galaxy) to 12.5+/-8% at R200. For 165 of the galaxies in our catalogue, we compare the H-alpha equivalent widths with their [OII] equivalent widths, from the CNOC1 spectra. The fraction of strong H-alpha emission line galaxies is consistent with the fraction of strong [OII] emission galaxies in the CNOC1 sample: only 2+/-1% have no detectable [OII] emission and yet significant (>2sigma) H-alpha equivalent widths. Dust obscuration, non-thermal ionization, and aperture effects are all likely to contribute to this non-correspondence of emission lines. We identify six spectroscopically 'secure' k+a galaxies (W(OII)5 A); at lea...

  3. Equivalent Widths of 15 Extrasolar-Planet Host Stars


    We present the equivalent widths of 15 extrasolar-planet host stars.These data were based on the high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained with the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station. The error in the Xinglong equivalent width is estimated by a comparison of these data with those given in previous studies of common stars.

  4. A new code for automatic determination of equivalent widths: Automatic Routine for line Equivalent widths in stellar Spectra (ARES)

    Sousa, S G; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Monteiro, M J P F G


    We present a new automatic code (ARES) for determining equivalent widths of the absorption lines present in stellar spectra. We also describe its use for determining fundamental spectroscopic stellar parameters. The code is written in C++ based on the standard method of determining EWs and is available for the community. The code automates the manual procedure that the users normally carry out when using interactive routines such as the splot routine implemented in IRAF. We test the code using both simulated and real spectra with different levels of resolution and noise and comparing its measurements to the manual ones obtained in the standard way. The results shows a small systematic difference, always below 1.5m\\AA. This can be explained by errors in the manual measurements caused by subjective continuum determination. The code works better and faster than others tested before.

  5. The distribution of equivalent widths in long GRB afterglow spectra

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Thoene, C C; Christensen, L; Gorosabel, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Schulze, S; Jakobsson, P; Wiersema, K; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Leloudas, G; Zafar, T; Malesani, D; Hjorth, J


    The extreme brightness of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and their simple spectral shape make them ideal beacons to study the interstellar medium of their host galaxies through absorption line spectroscopy. Using 69 low-resolution GRB afterglow spectra, we conduct a study of the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) distribution of features with an average rest-frame EW larger than 0.5 A. To compare an individual GRB with the sample, we develop EW diagrams as a graphical tool, and we give a catalogue with diagrams for the 69 spectra. We introduce a line strength parameter (LSP) that allows us to quantify the strength of the absorption features as compared to the sample by a single number. Using the distributions of EWs of single-species features, we derive the distribution of column densities by a curve of growth (CoG) fit. We find correlations between the LSP and the extinction of the GRB, the UV brightness of the host galaxies and the neutral hydrogen column density. However, we see no significant evolution of...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pal1-I elemental equivalent widths and abundances (Monaco+, 2011)

    Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Correnti, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Geisler, D.


    Table A1. reports the line list and atomic parameters adopted for the Palomar 1 giant Pal1-I and the Sun. For the Mn and Co lines we adopted the hyperfine structures (HFS) tabulated by Prochaska et al. (2000AJ....120.2513P). The measured equivalent width and the corresponding abundance obtained for each line are also reported. (1 data file).

  7. An anticorrelation between X-ray luminosity and Hα equivalent width in X-ray binaries

    Fender, R.P.; Russell, D.M.; Knigge, C.; Soria, R.; Hynes, R.I.; Goad, M.


    We report an anticorrelation between continuum luminosity and the equivalent width (EW) of the Ha emission line in X-ray binary systems. The effect is evident both in a universal monotonic increase in Ha EW with time following outbursts, as systems fade, and in a comparison between measured EWs and

  8. An H-alpha Imaging Survey of Galaxies in the Local 11 Mpc Volume

    Kennicutt, Robert C; Jose Funes, S; Sakai, Shoko; Akiyama, Sanae


    As part of a broader effort to characterize the population of star-forming galaxies in the local universe, we have carried out an H-alpha+[NII] imaging survey for an essentially volume-limited sample of galaxies within 11 Mpc of the Milky Way. This paper describes the design of the survey, the observation, data processing, and calibration procedures, and the characteristics of the galaxy sample. The main product of the paper is a catalog of integrated H-alpha fluxes, luminosities, and equivalent widths for the galaxies in the sample. We briefly discuss the completeness properties of the survey and compare the distribution of the sample and its star formation properties to other large H-alpha imaging surveys. These data form the foundation for a series of follow-up studies of the star formation properties of the local volume, and the properties and duty cycles of star formation bursts in dwarf galaxies.

  9. The reddening law of Type Ia Supernovae: separating intrinsic variability from dust using equivalent widths

    Chotard, N; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C


    We employ 76 type Ia supernovae with optical spectrophotometry within 2.5 days of B-band maximum light obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory to derive the impact of Si and Ca features on supernovae intrinsic luminosity and determine a dust reddening law. We use the equivalent width of Si II {\\lambda}4131 in place of light curve stretch to account for first-order intrinsic luminosity variability. The resultant empirical spectral reddening law exhibits strong features associated with Ca II and Si II {\\lambda}6355. After applying a correction based on the Ca II H&K equivalent width we find a reddening law consistent with a Cardelli extinction law. Using the same input data, we compare this result to synthetic rest-frame UBVRI-like photometry in order to mimic literature observations. After corrections for signatures correlated with Si II {\\lambda}4131 and Ca II H&K equivalent widths, and introducing an empirical correlation between colors, we determine the dust component in each band. We find a value ...

  10. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VII: H\\alpha{} imaging and massive star formation properties

    Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Wilson, C D; Barmby, P; Azimlu, M; Courteau, S


    We present H\\alpha{} fluxes, star formation rates (SFRs) and equivalent widths (EWs) for a sample of 156 nearby galaxies observed in the 12CO J=3-2 line as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These are derived from images and values in the literature and from new H\\alpha{} images for 72 galaxies which we publish here. We describe the sample, observations and procedures to extract the H\\alpha{} fluxes and related quantities. We discuss the SFR properties of our sample and confirm the well-known correlation with galaxy luminosity, albeit with high dispersion. Our SFRs range from 0.1 to 11 Msun yr-1 with a median SFR value for the complete sample of 0.2 Msun yr-1. This median values is somewhat lower than similar published measurements, which we attribute, in part, to our sample being HI-selected and, thus, not biased towards high SFRs as has frequently been the case in previous studies. Additionally, we calculate internal absorptions for the H\\alpha{} line, A(H\\alpha{}), whi...

  11. Bayesian Redshift Classification of Emission-line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths

    Leung, Andrew S; Gawiser, Eric; Ciardullo, Robin; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Zeimann, Gregory R; Bridge, Joanna S; Feldmeier, John J; Finkelstein, Steven L; Gebhardt, Karl; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Hill, Gary J; Schneider, Donald P


    We present a Bayesian approach to the redshift classification of emission-line galaxies when only a single emission line is detected spectroscopically. We consider the case of surveys for high-redshift ${\\rm Ly{\\alpha}}$-emitting galaxies (LAEs), which have traditionally been classified via an inferred rest-frame equivalent width $(W_{\\rm Ly\\alpha})$ greater than $20 {\\rm \\,\\AA}$. Our Bayesian method relies on known prior probabilities in measured emission-line luminosity functions and equivalent width distributions for the galaxy populations in question, and it returns the probability that an object is an LAE given the characteristics observed. This approach will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify $\\sim$$10^6$ emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [O II] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, our Bayesian method recovers $86\\%$ of LAEs missed by the traditional $W_{\\rm Ly\\alpha} > 20 {\\rm...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.


    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  13. H-alpha observations of the gamma-ray-emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303: orbital modulation, disk truncation, and long-term variability

    Zamanov, R; Marti, J; Tomov, N A; Belcheva, G; Luque-Escamilla, P L; Latev, G


    We report 138 spectral observations of the H-alpha emission line of the radio- and gamma-ray-emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303 obtained during the period of September 1998 -- January 2013. From measuring various H-alpha parameters, we found that the orbital modulation of the H-alpha is best visible in the equivalent width ratio EW(B)/EW(R), the equivalent width of the blue hump, and in the radial velocity of the central dip. The periodogram analysis confirmed that the H-alpha emission is modulated with the orbital and superorbital periods. For the past 20 years the radius of the circumstellar disk is similar to the Roche lobe size at the periastron. It is probably truncated by a 6:1 resonance. The orbital maximum of the equivalent width of H-alpha emission peaks after the periastron and coincides on average with the X-ray and gamma-ray maxima. All the spectra are available upon request from the authors and through the CDS.

  14. Connection between orbital modulation of H-alpha and gamma-rays in the Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303

    Zamanov, R; Stoyanov, K; Borissova, A; Tomov, N A


    We studied the average orbital modulation of various parameters (gamma-ray flux, H-alpha emission line, optical V band brightness) of the radio- and gamma-ray emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303. Using the Spearman rank correlation test, we found highly significant correlations between the orbital variability of the equivalent width of the blue hump of the H-alpha and Fermi-LAT flux with a Spearman p-value 2e-5, and the equivalent widths ratio EW_B/EW_R and Fermi-LAT flux with p-value 9e-5. We also found a significant anti-correlation between Fermi-LAT flux and V band magnitude with p-value 7.10^{-4}. All these correlations refer to the average orbital variability, and we conclude that the H-alpha and gamma-ray emission processes in LSI+61303 are connected. The possible physical scenario is briefly discussed.

  15. H$\\alpha$ and EUV observations of a partial CME

    Christian, Damian J; Antolin, Patrick; Mathioudakis, Mihalis


    We have obtained H$\\alpha$ high spatial and time resolution observations of the upper solar chromosphere and supplemented these with multi-wavelength observations from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and the {\\it Hinode} ExtremeUltraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The H$\\alpha$ observations were conducted on 11 February 2012 with the Hydrogen-Alpha Rapid Dynamics Camera (HARDcam) instrument at the National Solar Observatory's Dunn Solar Telescope. Our H$\\alpha$ observations found large downflows of chromospheric material returning from coronal heights following a failed prominence eruption. We have detected several large condensations ("blobs") returning to the solar surface at velocities of $\\approx$200 km s$^{-1}$ in both H$\\alpha$ and several SDO AIA band passes. The average derived size of these "blobs" in H$\\alpha$ is 500 by 3000 km$^2$ in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the direction of travel, respectively. A comparison of our "blob" widths to those found from coronal rain, indicate...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 8620 DIB equivalent width and extinction (Damineli+, 2016)

    Damineli, A.; Almeida, L. A.; Blum, R. D.; Damineli, D. S. C.; Navarete, F.; Rubinho, M. S.; Teodoro, M.


    Photometry in the optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared windows in a 10x10 arcmin field around the stellar cluster Westerlund 1 is analyzed to derive an extinction law. Cluster members and Red Clump stars are used,spanning a range of 17 magnitudes in Ks. Photometry in the passbands were not simultaneous and span a period of about 6 years. Since the sample comprises more than 24000 stars, variability is not an important source of errors. Equivalent widths of the 8620Å DIB in medium-high resolution spectra have been measured to extend its relation to extinction larger than the regime it was shown to have a linear behaviour. (1 data file).

  17. Calculations of periodicity from H{\\alpha} profiles of Proxima Centauri

    Collins, John M; Barnes, John R


    We investigate retrieval of the stellar rotation signal for Proxima Centauri. We make use of high-resolution spectra taken with uves and harps of Proxima Centauri over a 13-year period as well as photometric observations of Proxima Centauri from asas and hst. We measure the H{\\alpha} equivalent width and H{\\alpha} index, skewness and kurtosis and introduce a method that investigates the symmetry of the line, the Peak Ratio, which appears to return better results than the other measurements. Our investigations return a most significant period of 82.6 $\\pm$ 0.1 days, confirming earlier photometric results and ruling out a more recent result of 116.6 days which we conclude to be an alias induced by the specific harps observation times. We conclude that whilst spectroscopic H{\\alpha} measurements can be used for period recovery, in the case of Proxima Centauri the available photometric measurements are more reliable. We make 2D models of Proxima Centauri to generate simulated H{\\alpha}, finding that reasonable di...

  18. H-alpha as a Luminosity Class Diagnostic for K- and M-type Stars

    Jennings, Jeff


    We have identified the H-alpha absorption feature as a new spectroscopic diagnostic of luminosity class in K- and M-type stars. From high-resolution spectra of 19 stars with well-determined physical properties (including effective temperatures and stellar radii), we measured equivalent widths for H-alpha and the Ca II triplet and examined their dependence on both luminosity class and stellar radius. H-alpha shows a strong relation with both luminosity class and radius that extends down to late M spectral types. This behavior in H-alpha has been predicted as a result of the density-dependent overpopulation of the metastable 2S level in hydrogen, an effect that should become dominant for Balmer line formation in non-LTE conditions. We conclude that this new metallicity-insensitive diagnostic of luminosity class in cool stars could serve as an effective means of discerning between populations such as Milky Way giants and supergiant members of background galaxies.

  19. Photometry and H$alpha$ studies of a Low Mass Ratio Overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0

    Sriram, K; Rao, P Vivekananda


    Both high precision CCD photometric and H$alpha$ line studies are presented for an overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0. The light curve exhibits a total eclipse at secondary minima along with an O'Connell effect. The light curve was modeled using the Wilson Devinney code and the best solution provides the mass ratio q = 0.106 and fill-out factor f = 72%. These parameters indicate that the system is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with a high degree of geometrical contact. The H alpha line equivalent width varied at different phases and it is found that the line is possibly filled-in at secondary minima. From a small sample of overcontact binaries, we found a correlation between the orbital period and H alpha line equivalent width of the primary component. Based on a sample of high filling factor and low mass ratio contact binaries, a mass ratio cut-off is observed at q = 0.085 in mass ratio - period plane. It was observed that below q $\\le$ 0.085, period decreases with an increase in q and above it, pe...

  20. From HI to Stars: HI Depletion in Starbursts and Star-Forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA H-alpha Survey

    Jaskot, A E; Salzer, J J; Van Sistine, A; Bell, E F; Haynes, M P


    HI in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, HI-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the ALFALFA H-alpha survey, we explore HI properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA H-alpha provides R-band and H-alpha imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21-cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on H-alpha equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar HI to stellar mass ratios (MHI/M*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts' HI. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter HI depletion times (t_dep), implying more efficient HI-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in t_dep at low M*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers...

  1. Discovery of Massive, Mostly Star-formation Quenched Galaxies with Extremely Large Lyman-alpha Equivalent Widths at z ~ 3

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Scoville, Nick Z; Sanders, David B; Capak, Peter L; Koekemoer, Anton M; Toft, Sune; McCracken, Henry J; Fevre, Olivier Le; Tasca, Lidia; Sheth, Kartik; Renzini, Alvio; Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovac, Katarina; Ilbert, Olivier; Schinnerer, Eva; Fu, Hai; Tresse, Laurence; Griffiths, Richard E; Civano, Francesca


    We report a discovery of 6 massive galaxies with both extremely large Lya equivalent width and evolved stellar population at z ~ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lya emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lya emitters (LAEs) with twelve optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the SED fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame equivalent width of EW_0(Lya) ~ 100--300 A, (2) M_star ~ 10^10.5--10^11.1 M_sun, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M_star ~ 0.03--1 Gyr^-1. Three of the 6 MAESTLOs have extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission with a radius of several kpc although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for AGNs, the observed extended Lya emission is likely to be caused by star formation process including the superwind activit...

  2. Properties of High Equivalent Width Lyman-α Emitting Galaxies at Redshifts Between 2.5 and 3.5

    Baptista, Brian J.; Bonfield, D.; Grady, C.; Lindler, D.; Mufson, S.; Woodgate, B.


    Lyman-α emitting galaxies (LAEs) have been studied for the last decade, yet there are few observations of high equivalent width (EW) objects. The emission mechanisms that drive high EW LAEs, though studied for the last decade, still are not well understood. Since only small numbers have been discovered, it is unknown whether these high EW LAEs make up a population that is undergoing a peculiar stage of galactic evolution, or simply just a more vigorous version of star formation coupled with a clumpy ISM. We have developed a broadband selection technique to effectively increase the number of known LAEs, to build a bigger sample of high EW LAEs. While these high EW LAEs are less numerous than typical LAEs, we are able to probe much larger volumes than blind narrowband or spectroscopic searches. Using photometry from the Deep 2 and 3 fields from the CFHT-Legacy Survey, we have spectroscopically confirmed 63 LAEs with redshifts between 2.5 and 3.5 using the WIYN/Hydra multi-object spectrograph. These LAEs exhibit narrow Lyman-α emission, and show no other line emission to our spectroscopic flux limits. Using UV continuum fitting techniques in conjunction with our spectroscopic data, we have calculated equivalent widths, star formation rates, internal reddening, and escape fractions for our program galaxies. Of the 63 LAEs that we discovered, 29 show EWs that are in excess of 100 Å in the rest frame.

  3. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; Ferguson, Harry C.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lundgren, Britt F.; Marchesini, Danilo; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Straughn, Amber N.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Stijn


    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  4. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - H-Alpha

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar...

  5. Emission-line stars discovered in the UKST H-alpha survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud; Part 1: Hot stars

    Reid, Warren A


    We present new, accurate positions, spectral classifications, radial and rotational velocities, H-alpha fluxes, equivalent widths and B,V,I,R magnitudes for 579 hot emission-line stars (classes B0 - F9) in the Large Magellanic Cloud which include 469 new discoveries. Candidate emission line stars were discovered using a deep, high resolution H-alpha map of the central 25 deg2 of the LMC obtained by median stacking a dozen 2 hour H-alpha exposures taken with the UK Schmidt Telescope. Spectroscopic follow-up observations on the AAT, UKST, VLT, the SAAO 1.9m and the MSSSO 2.3m telescope have established the identity of these faint sources down to magnitude R~23 for H-alpha (4.5 x 10^-17 ergs cm^2 s^-1 Ang). Confirmed emission-line stars have been assigned an underlying spectral classification through cross-correlation against 131 absorption line template spectra covering the range O1 to F8. We confirm 111 previously identified emission line stars and 64 previously known variable stars with spectral types hotter ...

  6. Photometric and H-alpha studies of two extreme mass-ratio short period contact binaries in the direction of open cluster Praesepe

    Rukmini, J


    We present the high precession photometric studies in V band and spectroscopic studies centered around H-alpha line for two extreme mass-ratio short period contact binaries ASAS J082243+1927.0 (V1) and ASAS J085710+1856.8 (V2). The variables in study are in the direction of open cluster Praesepe. From the light curve analysis V1 was found to be a low mass-ratio over-contact binary of A-type, with a mass ratio q 0.121 and fill-out factor f 72%, and V2 was found to be a low mass contact binary of W-type, with a mass-ratio q 1.29 and fill-out factor f 11% (marginal contact). The study of H-alpha absorption line profile of both the variables shows variation in equivalent widths (EWs) with orbital phases. The mean EWs of the H-alpha line were obtained as 1.6+or-0.13 A and 1.18+or-0.12 A for V1 and V2 respectively. The variation of H-alpha absorption with respect to phase is explained to be due to chromospheric activity in V1, as evident from the O Connell effect and that due to chromospheric flares, winds or photo...

  7. Scale heights and equivalent widths of the iron K-shell lines in the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission

    Yamauchi, Shigeo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Hideki; Koyama, Katsuji


    This paper reports the analysis of the X-ray spectra of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission (GDXE) in the Suzaku archive. The fluxes of the Fe I K alpha (6.4 keV), Fe XXV,He alpha (6.7 keV) and Fe XXVI Ly alpha (6.97 keV) lines are separately determined. From the latitude distributions, we confirm that the GDXE is decomposed into the Galactic center (GCXE), the Galactic bulge (GBXE) and the Galactic ridge (GRXE) X-ray emissions. The scale heights (SHs) of the Fe XXV He alpha line of the GCXE, GBXE and GRXE are determined to be ~40, ~310 and ~140 pc, while those of the Fe I K alpha line are ~30, ~160 and ~70 pc, respectively. The mean equivalent widths (EWs) of the sum of the Fe XXV He alpha and Fe XXVI Ly alpha lines are ~750 eV, ~600 eV and ~550 eV, while those of the Fe I K alpha line are ~150~eV, ~60~eV and ~100~eV for the GCXE, GBXE and GRXE, respectively. The origin of the GBXE, GRXE and GCXE is separately discussed based on the new results of the SHs and EWs, in comparison with those of the Cataclysmic ...


    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others


    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  9. Halpha Equivalent Widths from the 3D-HST survey: evolution with redshift and dependence on stellar mass

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica


    We investigate the evolution of the Halpha equivalent width, EW(Halpha), with redshift and its dependence on stellar mass, taking advantage of the first data from the 3D-HST survey, a large spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3. Combining our Halpha measurements of 854 galaxies at 0.8

  10. On the equivalent width of the Fe K$\\alpha$ line produced by a dusty absorber in active galactic nuclei

    Gohil, Raj


    Obscured AGNs provide an opportunity to study the material surrounding the central engine. Geometric and physical constraints on the absorber can be deduced from the reprocessed AGN emission. In particular, the obscuring gas may reprocess the nuclear X-ray emission producing a narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line and a Compton reflection hump. In recent years, models of the X-ray reflection from an obscuring torus have been computed; however, although the reflecting gas may be dusty, the models do not yet take into account the effects of dust on the predicted spectrum. We study this problem by analyzing two sets of models, with and without the presence of dust, using the one dimensional photo-ionization code Cloudy. The calculations are performed for a range of column densities ($22 <{\\rm log}[N_H(\\rm cm^{-2})]< 24.5$ ) and hydrogen densities ( $6 <{\\rm log}[n_H(\\rm cm^{-3})]< 8$). The calculations show the presence of dust can enhance the Fe K$\\alpha$ equivalent width (EW) in the reflected spectrum by factor...

  11. Temporal evolution of mottles observed in H_alpha

    Bostanci, Z F; Erdogan, Nurol Al


    In April 2002, H_alpha observations of the solar chromosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer mounted in the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. In this work, we analyze a short time sequence of a quiet region with chains of mottles. Some physical parameters of dark mottles are determined by using Beckers' cloud model which takes the source function, the Doppler width, and the velocity to be constant within the cloud along the line of sight. Here, we present the results of our study.

  12. H-alpha Observations of MKW10

    Johnson, Harold; Coble, Kimberly A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team


    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project looking at clusters and groups of galaxies to investigate the effects of environment on star formation, we analyzed H-alpha and R-band observations of the group MKW10 from the WIYN 0.9-m telescope with MOSAIC camera at Kitt Peak. We continuum-subtract the H-alpha images by scaling and subtracting the broadband R images. This process includes: determining the seeing of each image by calculating the FWHM values of several stars in the image; convolving all images to the worst seeing; stacking images for each filter; subtracting sky background; scaling the R image to H-alpha; and subtracting the scaled R from H-alpha. We then use the H-alpha-continuum-subtracted image to perform surface photometry of individual galaxies in MKW10. The data will be used to determine star formation rates and distributions of galaxies in this group environment and will be compared to results for galaxies in other UAT group and cluster environments. Analysis is ongoing.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Comparison of the Halpha equivalent width of HII regions in a flocculent and a grand design galaxy: possible evidences for IMF variations

    Cedres, B; Tomita, A; Cedres, Bernabe; Cepa, Jordi; Tomita, Akihiko


    We present here a study of the Halpha equivalent widths of the flocculent galaxy NGC 4395 and the grand design galaxy NGC 5457. A difference between the mean values of the Halpha equivalent widths for the two galaxies has been found. Several hypotheses are presented in order to explain this difference: differences in age, metallicity, star formation rate, photon leakage and initial mass function. Various tests and Monte Carlo models are used to find out the most probable cause of this difference. The resultsshow that the possible cause for the difference could be a variation in the initial mass function. This difference is such that it seems to favor a fraction of more massive stars in the grand design galaxy when compared with the flocculent galaxy. This could be due to a change of the environmental conditions due to a density wave.


    Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Chary, Ranga-Ram, E-mail: [U.S. Planck Data Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    Strong H{alpha} emitters (HAEs) dominate the z {approx} 4 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population. We have identified local analogs of these HAEs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. At z < 0.4, only 0.04% of the galaxies are classified as HAEs with H{alpha} equivalent widths ({approx}> 500 A) comparable to that of z {approx} 4 HAEs. Local HAEs have lower stellar mass and lower ultraviolet (UV) luminosity than z {approx} 4 HAEs, yet the H{alpha}-to-UV luminosity ratio, as well as their specific star formation rate, is consistent with that of z {approx} 4 HAEs, indicating that they are scaled-down versions of high-z star-forming galaxies. Compared to the previously studied local analogs of LBGs selected using rest-frame UV properties, local HAEs show similar UV luminosity surface density, weaker D{sub n} (4000) break, lower metallicity, and lower stellar mass. This implies that the local HAEs are less evolved galaxies than the traditional Lyman break analogs. In the stacked spectrum, local HAEs show a significant He II {lambda}4686 emission line suggesting a population of hot, massive stars similar to that seen in some Wolf-Rayet galaxies. Low [N II]/[O III] line flux ratios imply that local HAEs are inconsistent with being systems that host bright active galactic nuclei. Instead, it is highly likely that local HAEs are galaxies with an elevated ionization parameter, either due to a high electron density or large escape fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons as in the case of Wolf-Rayet galaxies.

  15. H$\\alpha$ kinematics of KPG 390

    Repetto, P; Fuentes-Carrera, R Gabbasov I


    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot H$\\alpha$ observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. Our kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  16. Discovery of a very cool object with extraordinarily strong H(alpha) emission

    Barrado y Navascués, D; Martín, E L; Béjar, V J S; Rebolo, R; Mundt, R; Navascues, David Barrado y; Osorio, Maria Rosa Zapatero; Martin, Eduardo L.; Bejar, Victor J.S.; Rebolo, Rafael; Mundt, Reinhard


    We report on the finding of the strongest H(alpha) emission -pseudoequivalent width of 705 Angstrom- known so far in a young, late type dwarf. This object, named as SOri71, is a substellar candidate member of the 1-8 Myr star cluster sigma Orionis. Due to its overluminous location in color-magnitude diagrams, SOri71 might be younger than other cluster members, or a binary of similar components. Its mass is in the range 0.021-0.012 M(sun), depending on evolutionary models and possible binarity. The broad H(alpha) line of SOri71 appears asymmetric, indicative of high velocity mass motions in the H(alpha) forming region. The origin of this emission is unclear at the present time. We discuss three possible scenarios: accretion from a disk, mass exchange between the components of a binary system, and emission from a chromosphere.

  17. H alpha emitting galaxies and the star formation rate density at z~0.24

    Pascual, S; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Zamorano, J


    We have carried out a survey searching for H alpha emitting galaxies at z~0.24 using a narrow band filter tuned with the redshifted line. The total sky area covered was 0.19 square degrees within the redshift range 0.228 to 0.255 in a set of four fields in the ELAIS-N1 zone. This corresponds to a volume of 9.8 10^3 Mpc^3 and a look-back time of 3.6 Gyr when H0=50 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} and q=0.5 are assumed. A total of 52 objects are selected as candidates for a broad band limiting magnitude of I~22.9, plus 16 detected only in the narrow band image for a narrow band limiting magnitude for object detection of 21.0. The threshold detection corresponds to about 20 A equivalent width with an uncertainty of ~ 10 AA. Point-like objects (15) were excluded from our analysis using CLASS_STAR parameter from SExtractor}. The contamination from other emission lines such as O[II] 3727, H beta and [OIII] 4959,5007 at redshifts 1.2, 0.66 and 0.61 respectively is estimated, and found to be negligible at the flux limits of our sa...

  18. The Appearance of Spicules in High Resolution Observations of Ca II H and H-alpha

    Pereira, Tiago M D; Carlsson, Mats


    Solar spicules are chromospheric fibrils that appear everywhere on the Sun, yet their origin is not understood. Using high resolution observations of spicules obtained with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope we aim to understand how spicules appear in filtergrams and Dopplergrams, how they compare in Ca II H and H-alpha, and what can make them appear and disappear. We find spicules display a rich and detailed spatial structure, and show a distribution of transverse velocities that when aligned with the line of sight can make them appear at different H-alpha wing positions. They become more abundant at positions closer to the line core, reflecting a distribution of Doppler shifts and widths. In H-alpha width maps they stand out as bright features both on disk and off-limb, reflecting their large Doppler motions and possibly higher temperatures than in the typical H-alpha formation region. Spicule lifetimes measured from narrowband images at only a few positions will be an underestimate because Doppler shifts can ...

  19. The evolution of the equivalent width of the Hα emission line and specific star formation rate in star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 5

    Mármol-Queraltó, E.; McLure, R. J.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fontana, A.; McLeod, D. J.


    We present the results of a study which uses spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to investigate the evolution of the equivalent width (EW) of the Hα emission line in star-forming galaxies over the redshift interval 1 mass range (9.5 luminosity and Hα line flux, we use our galaxy samples to compare the evolution of EW(Hα) and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Our results indicate that over the redshift range 1 masses M⋆ ≃ 10^{10}{ M_{sun;} are related by EW(Hα)/Å = (63 ± 7) × sSFR/Gyr-1. Given the current uncertainties in measuring the SFRs of high-redshift galaxies, we conclude that EW(Hα) provides a useful independent tracer of sSFR for star-forming galaxies out to redshifts of z = 5.

  20. Photometric and H$\\alpha$ observations of LSI+61303 detection of a $\\sim$26 day V and JHK band modulation

    Paredes, J M; Martí, J; Fabregat, J; Coe, M J; Everall, C; Figueras, F; Jordi, C; Norton, A J; Prince, T A; Reglero, V; Roche, P; Torra, J; Unger, S J; Zamanov, R K


    We present new optical and infrared photometric observations and high resolution H$\\alpha$ spectra of the periodic radio star \\lsi. The optical photometric data set covers the time interval 1985-1993 and amounts to about a hundred nights. A period of $\\sim$26 days is found in the V band. The infrared data also present evidence for a similar periodicity, but with higher amplitude of variation (0\\rmag 2). The spectroscopic observations include 16 intermediate and high dispersion spectra of \\lsi\\ collected between January 1989 and February 1993. The H$\\alpha$ emission line profile and its variations are analyzed. Several emission line parameters -- among them the H$\\alpha$ EW and the width of the H$\\alpha$ red hump -- change strongly at or close to radio maximum, and may exhibit periodic variability. We also observe a significant change in the peak separation. The H$\\alpha$ profile of \\lsi\\ does not seem peculiar for a Be star. However, several of the observed variations of the H$\\alpha$ profile can probably be ...

  1. Scattered H-alpha light from Galactic dust clouds

    Mattila, K; Lehtinen, K


    Bright emission nebulae, or HII regions, around hot stars are readily seen in H-alpha light. However, the all-pervasive faint H-alpha emission has only recently been detected and mapped over the whole sky. Mostly the H-alpha emission observed along a line of sight is produced by ionised gas in situ. There are, however, cases where all or most of the H-alpha radiation is due to scattering by electrons or dust particles which are illuminated by an H-alpha emitting source off the line of sight. Here we demonstrate that diffuse, translucent and dark dust clouds at high galactic latitudes are in many cases observed to have an excess of diffuse H-alpha surface brightness, i.e. they are brighter than the surrounding sky. We show that the majority of this excess surface brightness can be understood as light scattered off the interstellar dust grains. The source of incident photons is the general Galactic H-alpha background radiation impinging on the dust clouds from all over the sky.

  2. H$\\alpha$ Imaging spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated shocks in Tycho's supernova remnant

    Knežević, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Font, Joan; Raymond, John C; Ghavamian, Parviz; Beckman, John


    We present Fabry-P\\'erot interferometric observations of the narrow H$\\alpha$ component in the shock front of the historical supernova remnant Tycho (SN 1572). Using GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy H$\\alpha$ Fabry-P\\'erot Spectrometer) on the William Herschel Telescope, we observed a great portion of the shock front in the northeastern (NE) region of the remnant. The angular resolution of $\\sim$1$^{\\prime\\prime}$ and spectral resolving power of R$\\sim$21 000 together with the large field-of-view (3.4$^{\\prime}$ $\\times$ 3.4$^{\\prime}$) of the instrument allow us to measure the narrow H$\\alpha$-line width in 73 bins across individual parts of the shock simultaneously and thereby study the indicators of several shock precursors in a large variety of shock front conditions. Compared to previous studies, the detailed spatial resolution of the filament also allows us to mitigate possible artificial broadening of the line from unresolved differential motion and projection. Covering one quarter of the remnant's shell, we conf...

  3. Broad H$\\alpha$ Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997

    Lee, H W; Lee, Hee-Won; Hyung, Siek


    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding $5000 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ around H$\\alpha$. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering involving atomic hydrogen, by which Ly$\\beta$ photons with a velocity width of a few $10^2 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ are converted to optical photons and fill the H$\\alpha$ broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1 and rapidly decreases in the far wings.Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, $n_H\\sim 10^{9-10} {\\rm cm^{-3}}$, we use the photoionization code `CLOUDY' to show that sufficient Ly$\\beta$ photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat incident profile for the Ly$\\beta$ flux and a scattering region with a H~I column density $N_{HI}=2\\times 10^{20} {\\rm cm^{-2}}$ and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile fitting an...

  4. IPHAS : Surveying the North Galactic Plane in H-alpha

    Drew, J.E.; Groot, P.J.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Roelofs, G.H.A.


    H-alpha emission is ubiquitous in our Galaxy. It traces ionised gas of assorted nebulae such as HII regions, planetary nebulae, Wolf-Rayet nebulae, and supernova remnants. It is a strong signature of active stars, interacting binaries, very massive stars (especially supergiants, Luminous Blue Variab

  5. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    Rutten, R J


    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for H-alpha, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10,000 - 20,000 K and hydrogen densities around 10^15 cm^-3. Similar arguments likely hold for H-alpha visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  6. H{\\alpha} Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    Theios, R L; Ross, N R


    We used narrowband interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 meter telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 {\\mu}m Active Galaxy Sample. We obtained pure emission line images of each galaxy in order to separate H{\\alpha} emission from the nucleus from that of the host galaxy. The extended H{\\alpha} emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and correlates well with other indicators of current star formation in these galaxies: 7.7 {\\mu}m PAH, far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The nuclear H{\\alpha} luminosity is dominated by the AGN, and is correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s due to a strong contribution from the Broad Line Region. We found a correlation between star formation rate and AGN luminosity. In sp...

  7. H-alpha response to geomagnetic disturbed activity at Arecibo.

    Santos, Pedrina; Kerr, R.; Noto, J.; Brum, Christiano; Gonzalez, Sixto

    Configured with a spectral resolution of 0.0086 nm at 6563A, the low resolution Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) installed at Arecibo Observatory sampled the geocoronal Balmer-alpha emission for sixty nights during new moon periods from September 2006 to September 2007. In this work two of these periods are analyzed according to the variability with the geomagnetic activity. With this purpose, the effect of the shadow height, local time and solar flux depen-dencies were found and isolated and only the possible variations due the geomagnetic activity were evaluated. The residuos of the relative H-alpha intensity and temperature are analyzed.

  8. The galloping chromosphere. [H alpha observation of oscillating velocity fields

    Sawyer, C.


    Oscillating velocity fields can be observed on H-alpha filtergrams as a shifting pattern of intensity fluctuations known as 'the galloping chromosphere'. The characteristics of this activity are those of horizontal running waves of typical period of about 300 sec and long wavelength (about 20,000 km) that can be interpreted as acoustic-gravity waves propagating in the acoustic domain. Periods are longer in dark, structured regions, and in fibrils, and the change is quantitatively consistent with the reduction of resonance frequency in a magnetic field of 1 to 10 gauss. These easily observed fluctuations thus offer a means of estimating magnetic-field strength at specific locations in the chromosphere. Phase velocities are high, ranging upward from typical values between 50 and 100 km per sec, and tending to be lower in active regions and toward the limb.

  9. The interacting galaxy pair KPG 390: H$\\alpha$ kinematics

    Repetto, P; Gabbasov, R; Fuentes-Carrera, I


    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot H$\\alpha$ observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields and rotation curves for both galaxies. For NGC 5278 we also obtained the residual velocity map to investigate the non-circular motions, and estimated its mass by fitting the rotation curve with a disk+halo components. We test three different types of halo (pseudo-isothermal, Hernquist and Navarro Frenk White) and obtain satisfactory fits to the rotation curve for all profiles. The amount of dark matter required by pseudo-isothermal profile is about ten times smaller than, that for the other two halo distributions. Finally, our kinematical results together with the analysis of dust lanes distribution and of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis allowed us to determine univocally that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  10. M/L, H-alpha Rotation Curves, and HI Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals: I. Data

    Vogt, N P; Herter, T; Giovanelli, R; Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry; Giovanelli, Riccardo


    A survey of 329 nearby galaxies (redshift z < 0.045) has been conducted to study the distribution of mass and light within spiral galaxies over a range of environments. The 18 observed clusters and groups span a range of richness, density, and X-ray temperature, and are supplemented by a set of 30 isolated field galaxies. Optical spectroscopy taken with the 200-inch Hale Telescope provides separately resolved H-alpha and [NII] major axis rotation curves for the complete set of galaxies, which are analyzed to yield velocity widths and profile shapes, extents and gradients. HI line profiles provide an independent velocity width measurement and a measure of HI gas mass and distribution. I-band images are used to deconvolve profiles into disk and bulge components, to determine global luminosities and ellipticities, and to check morphological classification. These data are combined to form a unified data set ideal for the study of the effects of environment upon galaxy evolution.

  11. H-alpha macrospicules - Identification with EUV macrospicules and with flares in X-ray bright points

    Moore, R. L.; Tang, F.; Bohlin, J. D.; Golub, L.


    The paper presents observational evidence that two newly observed transient solar phenomena, EUV macrospicules and X-ray bright-point flares, are closely related. Time-lapse H-alpha filtergram observations of the limb in quiet regions show small surgelike eruptions called H-alpha macrospicules. From the similarity of H-alpha macrospicules and EUV macrospicules, and from comparison of simultaneous H-alpha and He II 304 A observations, we conclude that H-alpha macrospicules are EUV macrospicules viewed in H-alpha, although most EUV macrospicules are too faint in H-alpha to appear on H-alpha filtergrams of normal exposure. From comparison of simultaneous X-ray and H-alpha observations of flares in X-ray bright points situated on the limb, we show that flares in X-ray bright points often produce H-alpha macrospicules.

  12. High spatial resolution optical imaging of the multiple T Tauri system LkH{\\alpha} 262/LkH{\\alpha} 263

    Velasco, S; Oscoz, A; Mackay, C; Labadie, L; Garrido, A Pérez; Crass, J; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Femenía, B; González-Escalera, V; King, D L; López, R L; Puga, M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Zuther, J


    We report high spatial resolution i' band imaging of the multiple T Tauri system LkH$\\alpha$ 262/LkH$\\alpha$ 263 obtained during the first commissioning period of the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope, using its Lucky Imaging mode. AOLI images have provided photometry for each of the two components LkH$\\alpha$ 263 A and B (0.41 arcsec separation) and marginal evidence for an unresolved binary or a disc in LkH$\\alpha$ 262. The AOLI data combined with previously available and newly obtained optical and infrared imaging show that the three components of LkH$\\alpha$ 263 are co-moving, that there is orbital motion in the AB pair, and, remarkably, that LkH$\\alpha$ 262-263 is a common proper motion system with less than 1 mas/yr relative motion. We argue that this is a likely five-component gravitationally bounded system. According to BT-settl models the mass of each of the five components is close to 0.4 M$_{\\odot}$ and the age is in the range 1-2 Myr. The presence of discs...

  13. Uncovering the Outflow Driven by the Brown Dwarf LS-RCr A1: H-alpha as a Tracer of Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F


    It is now apparent that classical T Tauri-like outflows commonly accompany the formation of young brown dwarfs. To date two optical outflows have been discovered and results presented in this paper increase this number to three. Using spectro-astrometry the origin of the LS-RCrA 1 forbidden emission lines in a blue-shifted outflow is confirmed. The non-detection of the red-shifted component of the outflow in forbidden lines, along with evidence for some separation between low and high velocity outflow components, do not support the hypothesis that LS-RCrA 1 has an edge-on accretion disk. The key result of this analysis is the discovery of an outflow component to the H-alpha line. The H-alpha line profile has blue and red-shifted features in the wings which spectro-astrometry reveals to also originate in the outflow. The discovery that H-alpha emission in BDs can have a significant contribution from an outflow suggests the use of H-alpha line widths as a proxy of mass accretion in BDs is not clear-cut. This me...

  14. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne


    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  15. Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters with Very Large Ly$\\alpha$ Equivalent Widths, EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$) $\\simeq 200-400$ \\AA, at $z\\sim 2$

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Schaerer, Daniel; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Goto, Ryosuke


    We present physical properties of spectroscopically confirmed Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) with very large rest-frame Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent widths EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$). Although the definition of large EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$) LAEs is usually difficult due to limited statistical and systematic uncertainties, we identify six LAEs selected from $\\sim 3000$ LAEs at $z\\sim 2$ with reliable measurements of EW$_{\\rm 0}$ (Ly$\\alpha$) $\\simeq 200-400$ \\AA\\ given by careful continuum determinations with our deep photometric and spectroscopic data. These large EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$) LAEs do not have signatures of AGN, but notably small stellar masses of $M_{\\rm *} = 10^{7-8}$ $M_{\\rm \\odot}$ and high specific star-formation rates (star formation rate per unit galaxy stellar mass) of $\\sim 100$ Gyr$^{-1}$. These LAEs are characterized by the median values of $L({\\rm Ly\\alpha})=3.7\\times 10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and $M_{\\rm UV}=-18.0$ as well as the blue UV continuum slope of $\\beta = -2.5\\pm0.2$ and the low dust extinc...

  16. Mapping High-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George


    We present new {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\\alpha$ and Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H$\\alpha$ imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms cr...

  17. Coordinated soft X-ray and H-alpha observation of solar flares

    Zarro, D. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Metcalf, T. R.; Lemen, J. R.


    Soft X-ray, Ca XIX, and H-alpha observations obtained for a set of four solar flares in the impulsive phase are analyzed. A blue asymmetry was observed in the coronal Ca XIX line during the soft-Xray rise phase in all of the events. A red asymmetry was observed simultaneously in chromospheric H-alpha at spatial locations associated with enhanced flare heating. It is shown that the impulsive phase momentum of upflowing soft X-ray plasma equalled that of the downflowing H-alpha plasma to within an order of magnitude. This supports the explosive chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares.

  18. H-alpha features with hot onsets III. Fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    Rutten, Robert J


    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by a dense canopy of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the large opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe the H-alpha fibril canopy, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if this canopy were transparent.


    刘永平; 许贵桥


    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  20. Dust Attenuation and H-alpha Star Formation Rates of z~0.5 Galaxies

    Ly, Chun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne


    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z~0.40 and 249 z~0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7^{+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeli...

  1. Extracting H$\\alpha$ flux from photometric data in the J-PLUS survey

    Vilella-Rojo, G; López-Sanjuan, C; Cenarro, A J; Varela, J; Díaz-García, L A; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Ederoclite, A; Marín-Franch, A; Moles, M


    We present the main steps that will be taken to extract H$\\alpha$ emission flux from Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) photometric data. For galaxies with $z\\lesssim0.015$, the H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission is covered by the J-PLUS narrow-band filter $F660$. We explore three different methods to extract the H$\\alpha$ + [NII] flux from J-PLUS photometric data: a combination of a broad-band and a narrow-band filter ($r'$ and $F660$), two broad-band and a narrow-band one ($r'$, $i'$ and $F660$), and a SED-fitting based method using 8 photometric points. To test these methodologies, we simulated J-PLUS data from a sample of 7511 SDSS spectra with measured H$\\alpha$ flux. Based on the same sample, we derive two empirical relations to correct the derived H$\\alpha$+[NII] flux from dust extinction and [NII] contamination. We find that the only unbiased method is the SED fitting based one. The combination of two filters underestimates the measurements of the H$\\alpha$ + [NII] flux by a 28%, while the th...

  2. Evidence for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width nebular emission in z ∼ 7 galaxies: toward a clean measurement of the specific star-formation rate using a sample of bright, magnified galaxies

    Smit, R.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, A.; Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Straß e 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gonzalez, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Benítez, N.; Jimenez-Teja, Y. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P. O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, L. [Departamento de Astronoia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others


    Growing observational evidence indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z ∼ 5-7 galaxies. This line emission makes z ∼ 5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star-formation rates (sSFRs). However, corrections for this line emission have been difficult to perform reliably because of huge uncertainties on the strength of such emission at z ≳ 5.5. In this paper, we present the most direct observational evidence thus far for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width (EW) [O III] + Hβ line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 7, and we present a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z ∼ 7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ∼ 6.6-7.0 where the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 μm flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light, in contrast with the 3.6 μm flux, which is contaminated by the prominent [O III] + Hβ lines. To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio for our IRAC flux measurements, we consider only the brightest (H {sub 160} < 26 mag) magnified galaxies we have identified behind galaxy clusters. It is remarkable that the mean rest-frame optical color for our bright seven-source sample is very blue, [3.6]-[4.5] = –0.9 ± 0.3. Such blue colors cannot be explained by the stellar continuum light and require that the rest-frame EW of [O III] + Hβ is greater than 637 Å for the average source. The four bluest sources from our seven-source sample require an even more extreme EW of 1582 Å. We can also set a robust lower limit of ≳ 4 Gyr{sup –1} on the sSFR of our sample based on the mean spectral energy distribution.

  3. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Bivariate functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies

    Gunawardhana, M L P; Taylor, E N; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Norberg, P; Baldry, I K; Loveday, J; Owers, M S; Wilkins, S M; Colless, M; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Brough, S; Cluver, M; Croom, S; Kelvin, L; Lara-López, M A; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, A R; Robotham, A S G


    We present bivariate luminosity and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies drawn from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. While optically deep spectroscopic observations of GAMA over a wide sky area enable the detection of a large number of $0.001<{SFR}_{H\\alpha}$ (M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$)$<100$ galaxies, the requirement for an H$\\alpha$ detection in targets selected from an $r$-band magnitude limited survey leads to an incompleteness due to missing optically faint star forming galaxies. Using $z<0.1$ bivariate distributions as a reference we model the higher-$z$ distributions, thereby approximating a correction for the missing optically faint star forming galaxies to the local SFR and stellar mass densities. Furthermore, we obtain the $r$-band LFs and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies from the bivariate LFs. As our sample is selected on the basis of detected H$\\alpha$ emission, a direct tracer of on-going star formation, this sample represents a true ...

  4. A study of the H-alpha line in X1735 - 444

    Smale, Alan P.; Corbet, Robin H. D.


    Forty six optical spectra containing the H-alpha line of X1735 - 444, which were obtained over three nights in May 1987, were analyzed. Using a convolution method, a radial velocity curve was derived for the whole H-alpha line. Combining the spectroscopic results with an updated photometric ephemeris, the probable sites for H-alpha emission in X1735 - 444 were determined. Results of the analyses suggest that two distinct regions contribute to the observed profile in X-1735 - 444: (1) the peak emission, which is associated with the accretion stream of material passing between the companion and the compact object; and (2) the base emission, which is produced symmetrically in the outer accretion disk.

  5. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun


    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  6. Confirmation of a moving component in the $H-\\alpha$ emission line of LSI+61303

    Zamanov, R K


    We report our attempts to detect and confirm a narrow moving component in the H-alpha emission line of the radio emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61 303 (V615 Cas, GT0236+610). The existence of this spectral feature was already suspected in the past. As a result, we find that this component does exist and that its radial velocity varies in agreement with the radio period of the system. We interpret it tentatively as due to a denser region, or bulge, orbiting near the outer edge of the H-alpha emitting disk.

  7. H-alpha Survey of the Local Volume: Isolated Southern Galaxies

    Kaisin, S S; Knyazev, A Yu; Karachentsev, I D


    We present our H-alpha observations of 11 isolated southern galaxies: SDIG, PGC 51659, E 222-010, E 272-025, E 137-018, IC 4662, Sag DIG, IC 5052, IC 5152, UGCA 438, and E149-003, with distances from 1 to 7 Mpc. We have determined the total H-alpha fluxes from these galaxies. The star formation rates in these galaxies range from 10^{-1} (IC 4662) to 10^{-4}_{\\odot}/yr (SDIG) and the gas depletion time at the observed star formation rates lies within the range from 1/6 to 24 Hubble times H_0^{-1} .

  8. H-alpha spectra of dynamic chromospheric processes in five well-observed X-ray flares

    Canfield, Richard C.; Penn, Matthew J.; Wulser, Jean-Pierre; Kiplinger, Alan L.


    Simultaneous H-alpha and hard X-ray (HXR) spectra were obtained for five solar flares to determine the relationship of H-alpha profiles and the nonthermal part of the flare represented by the hard X-ray burst. All five flares exhibited impulsive-phase redshifted H-alpha in emission, which was temporarily and spatially associated with intense HXR emission and broad impulsive-phase H-alpha wings. A few small regions within two flares showed a blueshifted H-alpha emission which appeared only early in the impulsive phase and was temporally correlated with the HXR emission but not with broad H-alpha wings. Finally, there were both redshifted and blueshifted absorption spectra with properties fully consistent with those known for erupting and untwisting filaments.

  9. H$_\\alpha$-activity and ages for stars in the SARG survey

    Sissa, E; Desidera, S; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Bonfanti, A; Carolo, E; Vassallo, D; Claudi, R U; Endl, M; Cosentino, R


    Stellar activity influences radial velocity (RV) measurements and can also mimic the presence of orbiting planets. As part of the search for planets around the components of wide binaries performed with the SARG High Resolution Spectrograph at the TNG, it was discovered that HD 200466A shows strong variation in RV that is well correlated with the activity index based on H$_\\alpha$. We used SARG to study the H$_\\alpha$ line variations in each component of the binaries and a few bright stars to test the capability of the H$_\\alpha$ index of revealing the rotation period or activity cycle. We also analysed the relations between the average activity level and other physical properties of the stars. We finally tried to reveal signals in the RVs that are due to the activity. At least in some cases the variation in the observed RVs is due to the stellar activity. We confirm that H$_\\alpha$ can be used as an activity indicator for solar-type stars and as an age indicator for stars younger than 1.5 Gyr.

  10. On the existence of oscillations in solar filaments observed in H alpha and C IV lines

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Mein, P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.


    Time sequence observations of filaments in both the H alpha line and the 1548 A C IV line were analyzed with the Fourier transform technique in the frequency range (1 - 10 mHz). No oscillation is detected in filaments except at the footpoints where a steady velocity gradient is large. The energy is probably due to convective motions rather than pressure oscillations.

  11. The Properties of H{\\alpha} Emission-Line Galaxies at $z$ = 2.24

    An, F X; Wang, W -H; Huang, J -S; Kong, X; Wang, J -X; Fang, G W; Zhu, F; Gu, Q -S; Wu, H; Hao, L; Xia, X -Y


    Using deep narrow-band $H_2S1$ and $K_{s}$-band imaging data obtained with CFHT/WIRCam, we identify a sample of 56 H$\\alpha$ emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at $z=2.24$ with the 5$\\sigma$ depths of $H_2S1=22.8$ and $K_{s}=24.8$ (AB) over 383 arcmin$^{2}$ area in the ECDFS. A detailed analysis is carried out with existing multi-wavelength data in this field. Three of the 56 H$\\alpha$ ELGs are detected in Chandra 4 Ms X-ray observation and two of them are classified as AGNs. The rest-frame UV and optical morphologies revealed by HST/ACS and WFC3 deep images show that nearly half of the H$\\alpha$ ELGs are either merging systems or with a close companion, indicating that the merging/interacting processes play a key role in regulating star formation at cosmic epoch z=2-3; About 14% are too faint to be resolved in the rest-frame UV morphology due to high dust extinction. We estimate dust extinction form SEDs. We find that dust extinction is generally correlated with H$\\alpha$ luminosity and stellar mass (SM). Our res...

  12. Anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line in the magnetospheric device RT-1

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Nishiura, Masaki; Nogami, Tomoaki; Kashyap, Ankur; Yano, Yoshihisa; Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yamasaki, Miyuri; Mushiake, Toshiki; Nakatsuka, Masataka


    Temperature anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line was found in the ring trap 1 (RT-1) device by Doppler spectroscopy. Since hot hydrogen neutrals emitting a broad component are mainly produced by charge exchange between neutrals and protons, the anisotropy in the broad component is the evidence of proton temperature anisotropy generated by betatron acceleration.


    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomia Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)


    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  14. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George


    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  15. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won


    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines which can be identified with broad wings. We produce H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ and Pa$\\alpha$ wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density $N_{\\rm HI}$ being roughly ...

  16. Variations of flaring kernel sizes in various parts of the H-alpha line profile

    Radziszewski, K


    We analyze the temporal variations of the sizes and emission intensities of thirtyone flaring kernels in various parts of the H{\\alpha} line profile. We have found that the areas of all kernels decrease systematically when observed in consecutive wavelengths toward the wings of the H{\\alpha} line, but their areas and emission intensity vary in time. Our results are in agreement with the commonly accepted model of the glass-shaped lower parts of the magnetic flaring loops channelling high energy variable particle beams toward the chromospheric plasma. High time resolution spectral-imaging data used in our work were collected using the Large Coronagraph and Horizontal Telescope equipped with the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass Spectrograph and the Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (MSDP-SECIS) at the Bia{\\l}k\\'ow Observatory of the University of Wroc{\\l}aw, Poland.

  17. H-alpha and hard X-ray development in two-ribbon flares

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Hudson, H. S.; Kane, S. R.; Svestka, Z.


    Morphological features of two-ribbon flares have been studied, using simultaneous ISEE-3 hard X-ray records and high-resolution Big Bear H-alpha movies for more than 20 events. Long-lasting and complex hard X-ray bursts are almost invariably found associated with flares of the two-ribbon type. At least three events are found, namely March 31, 1979, April 10, 1980, and July 1, 1980, where the occurrence of individual spikes in hard X-ray radiation coincides with suddenly enhanced H-alpha emission covering the sunspot penumbra. There definitely exist important (greater than or equal to 1 B) two-ribbon flares without significant hard X-ray emission.

  18. A Robotic Wide-Angle H-Alpha Survey of the Southern Sky

    Gaustad, J E; Rosing, W; Van Buren, D T


    We have completed a robotic wide-angle imaging survey of the southern sky (declination less than +15 degrees) at 656.3 nm wavelength, the H-alpha emission line of hydrogen. Each image of the resulting Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas (SHASSA) covers an area of the sky 13 degrees square at an angular resolution of approximately 0.8 arcminute, and reaches a sensitivity level of 2 rayleigh (1.2 x 10^-17 erg cm^-2 s^-1 arcsec^-2) per pixel, corresponding to an emission measure of 4 cm^-6 pc, and to a brightness temperature for microwave free-free emission of 12 microkelvins at 30 GHz. Smoothing over several pixels allows features as faint as 0.5 rayleigh to be detected.

  19. H-alpha features with hot onsets. II. A contrail fibril

    Rutten, R J


    The solar chromosphere observed in H-alpha consists mostly of narrow fibrils. The longest typically originate in network or plage and arch far over adjacent internetwork. We use data from multiple telescopes to analyze one well-observed example in a quiet area. It resulted from the earlier passage of an accelerating disturbance in which the gas was heated to high temperature as in the spicule-II phenomenon. After this passage a dark H-Halpha fibril appeared as a contrail. We use Saha-Boltzmann extinction estimation to gauge the onset and subsequent visibilities in various diagnostics and conclude that such H-alpha fibrils can indeed be contrail phenomena, not indicative of the thermodynamic and magnetic environment when they are observed but of more dynamic happenings before. They do not connect across internetwork cells but represent launch tracks of heating events and chart magnetic field during launch, not at present.

  20. Cloud modeling of a quiet solar region in H-alpha

    Bostanci, Z F


    We present chromospheric cloud modeling on the basis of H-alpha profile-sampling images taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). We choose the required reference background profile by using theoretical NLTE profile synthesis. The resulting cloud parameters are converted into estimates of physical parameters (temperature and various densities). Their mean values compare well with the VAL-C model.

  1. Spatial Correlation Between Dust and H$\\alpha$ Emission in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Jimmy,; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola; Salmon, Brett; Forrest, Ben


    Using a sample of dwarf irregular galaxies selected from the ALFALFA blind HI-survey and observed using the VIMOS IFU, we investigate the relationship between H$\\alpha$ emission and Balmer optical depth ($\\tau_{\\text{b}}$). We find a positive correlation between H$\\alpha$ luminosity surface density and Balmer optical depth in 8 of 11 at $\\geq$ 0.8$\\sigma$ significance (6 of 11 at $\\geq$ 1.0$\\sigma$) galaxies. Our spaxels have physical scales ranging from 30 to 80 pc, demonstrating that the correlation between these two variables continues to hold down to spatial scales as low as 30 pc. Using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to test for correlation between $\\Sigma_{\\text{H}\\alpha}$ and $\\tau_{\\text{b}}$ in all the galaxies combined, we find $\\rho = 0.39$, indicating a positive correlation at 4$\\sigma$ significance. Our low stellar-mass galaxy results are in agreement with observations of emission line regions in larger spiral galaxies, indicating that this relationship is independent of the size of ...

  2. MASH-II: More Planetary Nebulae from the AAO/UKST H\\alpha Survey

    Miszalski, B; Acker, A; Birkby, J L; Frew, D J; Kovacevic, A


    We present a supplement to the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H$\\alpha$ planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue (MASH), which we denote MASH-II. The supplement consists of over 300 true, likely and possible new Galactic PNe found after re-examination of the entire AAO/UKST H$\\alpha$ survey of the southern Galactic Plane in digital form. We have spectroscopically confirmed over 240 of these new candidates as bona-fide PNe and we include other high quality candidates awaiting spectroscopic confirmation as possible PNe. These latest discoveries largely comprise two distinct groups: small, star-like or moderately resolved PNe at one end and mostly large, extremely low surface brightness PNe at the other. Neither group were easy to discover from simple visual scrutiny of the original survey exposures as for MASH but were relatively straightforward to uncover from the digital images via application of semi-automated discovery techniques. We suspect the few PNe still hidden in the H$\\alpha$ survey will lie outside our search cr...

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Catalogue of H$\\alpha$ emission stars

    Traven, Gregor; Van Eck, Sophie; Klutsch, Alexis; Bonito, Rosaria; Lanzafame, Alessandro C; Alfaro, Emilio J; Bayo, Amelia; Bragaglia, Angela; Costado, María Teresa; Damiani, Francesco; Flaccomio, Ettore; Frasca, Antonio; Hourihane, Anna; Jimenez-Esteban, Fran; Lardo, Carmela; Morbidelli, Lorenzo; Pancino, Elena; Prisinzano, Loredana; Sacco, Germano G; Worley, Clare C


    We discuss the properties of H$\\alpha$ emission stars across the sample of 22035 spectra from the Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release, observed with the GIRAFFE instrument and largely belonging to stars in young open clusters. Automated fits using two independent Gaussian profiles and a third component that accounts for the nebular emission allow us to discern distinct morphological types of H$\\alpha$ line profiles with the introduction of a simplified classification scheme. All in all we find 3765 stars with intrinsic emission and sort their spectra into eight distinct morphological categories: single--component emission, emission blend, sharp emission peaks, double emission, P-Cygni, inverted P-Cygni, self--absorption, and emission in absorption. We have more than one observation for 1430 stars in our sample, thus allowing a quantitative discussion of the degree of variability of H$\\alpha$ emission profiles, which is expected for young, active objects. We present a catalogue of stars with properties of th...

  4. The H alpha Galaxy Survey VII. The spatial distribution of star formation within disks and bulges

    James, P A; Knapen, J H


    We analyse the current build-up of stellar mass within the disks and bulges of nearby galaxies through a comparison of the spatial distributions of forming and old stellar populations. H alpha and R-band imaging are used to determine the distributions of young and old stellar populations in 313 S0a - Im field galaxies out to 40 Mpc. Concentration indices and mean normalised light profiles are calculated as a function of galaxy type and bar classification. The mean profiles and concentration indices show a strong and smooth dependence on galaxy type. Apart from a central deficit due to bulge/bar light in some galaxy types, mean H alpha and R-band profiles are very similar. Mean profiles within a given type are remarkably constant even given wide ranges in galaxy luminosity and size. SBc, SBbc and particularly SBb galaxies have profiles that are markedly different from those of unbarred galaxies. H alpha emission from SBb galaxies is studied in detail; virtually all show resolved central components and concentr...

  5. Herschel reveals the obscured star formation in HiZELS H\\alpha\\ emitters at z=1.47

    Ibar, E; Best, P N; Ivison, R J; Smail, I; Arumugam, V; Berta, S; Béthermin, M; Bock, J; Cava, A; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Floc'h, E Le; Lutz, D; Magdis, G; Magnelli, B; Ikarashi, S; Kohno, K; Marsden, G; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Schulz, B; Seymour, N; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Zemcov, M


    We describe the far-infrared (FIR; rest-frame 8--1000\\mu m) properties of a sample of 443 H\\alpha-selected star-forming galaxies in the COSMOS and UDS fields detected by the HiZELS imaging survey. Sources are identified using narrow-band filters in combination with broad-band photometry to uniformly select H\\alpha\\ (and [OII] if available) emitters in a narrow redshift slice at z = 1.47+/-0.02. We use a stacking approach in Spitzer, Herschel (from PEP and HerMES surveys) and AzTEC images to describe their typical FIR properties. We find that HiZELS galaxies with observed H\\alpha\\ luminosities of ~ 10^{8.1-9.1} Lo have bolometric FIR luminosities of typical LIRGs, L_FIR ~ 10^{11.48+/-0.05} Lo. Combining the H\\alpha\\ and FIR luminosities, we derive median SFR = 32+/-5 Mo/yr and H\\alpha\\ extinctions of A(H\\alpha) = 1.0+/-0.2 mag. Perhaps surprisingly, little difference is seen in typical HiZELS extinction levels compared to local star-forming galaxies. We confirm previous empirical stellar mass (M*) to A(H\\alpha...

  6. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Arbutina, B.


    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  7. Standard Stars for the BYU H-alpha Photometric System (Abstract)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.


    (Abstract only) We present primary standard stars for the BYU H-alpha photometric system. This system is similar to the H-beta photometric system that is often used with the intermediate band uvby system. Both systems use the difference between magnitudes measured in a wide (15-20-nm) and narrow (3-nm) bandpass centered on one of the strong Balmer lines of hydrogen to establish a color index. Line indices formed in this manner are independent of atmospheric extinction and interstellar reddening. These indices provide intrinsic measures of effective temperature for stars with spectral types between B and G. The present primary standard stars for the BYU system as established using spectroscopic observations that cover the region between the H-alpha and H-beta lines. The indices were formed using synthetic photometry reductions to convolve ideal filter profiles with the observed spectra. The number of observations per star is generally in excess of 25. Some stars have been observed more than 100 times over a period of 7 years. The typical error per observation for these stars is on the order of 1-3 mmag. In addition to the standard field stars, we present H-alpha and H-beta observations of individual stars that are members of selected open clusters. These include the Hyades, Pleiades, Coma, and NGC 752 clusters. Additional stars that exhibit varying degrees of hydrogen emission are easily distinguished in a plot of the alpha-beta plane. We have found that candidates for emission line objects, high mass x-ray binaries, and young stellar objects are readily identified in our alpha-beta plots. We acknowledge continued support from the BYU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as support from NSF Grant AST #0618209. We also thank the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory for continued allocation of robotic observing time for spectroscopy on the 1.2-m telescope.

  8. Orientation of the linear polarization plane of H-alpha emission in prominences

    Suyunova, E Z; Osokin, A R


    2D distributions of deviations of the polarization plane from the direction tangential to the solar limb (angle \\chi) and the sign of \\chi are presented for H{\\alpha} prominences of March 29, 2006. The obtained values of \\chi are in agreement with non-eclipse coronagraphic measurements and indicate the existence of longitudinal magnetic fields. The 2D distributions of the sign of \\chi show the existence of both {\\guillemotleft}+{\\guillemotright} and {\\guillemotleft}-{\\guillemotright} polarities for each prominence. An interpretation in the frame of the existence of oppositely directed magnetic fields is noted.

  9. An impulsive solar burst observed in H-alpha, microwaves, and hard X-rays

    Gary, D. E.; Tang, F.


    H-alpha, microwave, and hard X-ray observations of an unusually short duration impulsive spike burst are presented. The observations are analyzed, and it is found that the single spike is in fact composed of two separate acceleration episodes. The differences found in the time profiles for the two components stress the role of the decay rate and lead to a simple explanation for the often observed delay of the microwave peak. The approximate numbers of electrons responsible for the two types of emission are derived and compared.

  10. H-alpha Confirmation, Astrometry and Photometry of Two Novae in M31

    Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Gonzalez, A.


    We obtained five 120-s narrow-band H-alpha and three 90-s R-band CCD frames of the central region of M31 on 2013 June 27.189 and 27.193 UT, respectively, with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope + WFC at La Palma under ~2.0" seeing. The single frames were co-added and the co-added images were used for photometry and astrometry of the two recently discovered and spectroscopically unconfirmed M31 nova candidates, namely the PNV J00424894+4115163 (ATel #5133) and PNV J00425987+4120379 (ATel #5157).

  11. Calibrating [OII] star-formation rates at z>1 from dual H\\alpha-[OII] imaging from HiZELS

    Hayashi, Masao; Best, Philip N; Smail, Ian; Kodama, Tadayuki


    We investigate the relationship between H\\alpha\\ and [OII](\\lambda 3727) emission in faint star-forming galaxies at z=1.47 with dust uncorrected star formation rates (SFRs) down to 1.4 Msun/yr, using data in two narrow-bands from WFCAM/UKIRT and Suprime-Cam/Subaru. A stacking analysis allows us to investigate H\\alpha\\ emission flux from bright [OII] emitters as well as faint ones for which H\\alpha\\ is not individually detected, and to compare them with a large sample of local galaxies. We find that there is a clear, positive correlation between the average H\\alpha\\ and [OII] luminosities for [OII] emitters at z=1.47, with its slope being consistent with the local relation. [OII] emitters at z=1.47 have lower mean observed ratios of H\\alpha/[OII] suggesting a small but systematic offset (at 2.8\\sigma\\ significance) towards lower values of dust attenuation, A(H\\alpha)~0.35, than local galaxies. This confirms that [OII] selection tends to pick up galaxies which are significantly less dusty on average than H\\alph...

  12. HH 666: Different kinematics from H{\\alpha} and [Fe II] emission provide a missing link between jets and outflows

    Reiter, Megan; Kiminki, Megan M; Bally, John


    HH 666 is an externally irradiated protostellar outflow in the Carina Nebula for which we present new near-IR [Fe II] spectra obtained with the FIRE spectrograph at Magellan Observatory. Earlier H{\\alpha} and near-IR [Fe II] imaging revealed that the two emission lines trace substantially different morphologies in the inner ~40" of the outflow. H{\\alpha} traces a broad cocoon that surrounds the collimated [Fe II] jet that extends throughout the parent dust pillar. New spectra show that this discrepancy extends to their kinematics. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces steady, fast velocities of +/- 200 km/s from the eastern and western limbs of the jet. We compare this to a previously published H{\\alpha} spectrum that reveals a Hubble-flow velocity structure near the jet-driving source. New, second-epoch HST/ACS H{\\alpha} images reveal the lateral spreading of the H{\\alpha} outflow lobe away from the jet axis. H{\\alpha} proper motions also indicate a sudden increase in the mass-loss rate ~1000 yr ago, while steady ...

  13. Real-time flare detection in ground-based H$\\alpha$ imaging at Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory

    Pötzi, Werner; Riegler, Gernot; Amerstorfer, Ulrike; Pock, Thomas; Temmer, Manuela; Polanec, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Dietmar J


    Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory (KSO) regularly performs high-cadence full-disk imaging of the solar chromosphere in the H$\\alpha$ and CaIIK spectrallines as well as the solar photosphere in white-light. In the frame of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme, a new system for real-time H$\\alpha$ data provision and automatic flare detection was developed at KSO. The data and events detected are published in near real-time at ESA's SSA Space Weather portal ( In this paper, we describe the H$\\alpha$ instrument, the image recognition algorithms developed, the implementation into the KSO H$\\alpha$ observing system and present the evaluation results of the real-time data provision and flare detection for a period of five months. The H$\\alpha$ data provision worked in $99.96$% of the images, with a mean time lag between image recording and online provision of 4s. Within the given criteria for the automatic image recognition system (at least three H$\\alpha$ images a...

  14. Shocks and Star Formation in Stephan's Quintet. I. Gemini Spectroscopy of H{\\alpha}-bright knots

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Guillard, P; Trancho, G; Cluver, M E; Bastian, N; Charlton, J C; Fedotov, K; Gallagher, S C; Smith, L J; Struck, C J


    We present a Gemini-GMOS spectroscopic study of HST-selected H{\\alpha}-emitting regions in Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92), a nearby compact galaxy group, with the aim of disentangling the processes of shock-induced heating and star formation in its intra-group medium. The $\\approx$40 sources are distributed across the system, but most densely concentrated in the $\\sim$kpc-long shock region. Their spectra neatly divide them into narrow- and and broad-line emitters, and we decompose the latter into three or more emission peaks corresponding to spatial elements discernible in HST imaging. The emission line ratios of the two populations of H{\\alpha}-emitters confirm their nature as H II regions (90% of the sample) or molecular gas heated by a shock-front propagating at $\\lesssim$300 km/s. Their redshift distribution reveals interesting three-dimensional structure with respect to gas-phase baryons, with no H II regions associated with shocked gas, no shocked regions in the intruder galaxy NGC 7318B, and a sharp bounda...

  15. Rotation and H-alpha Emission Above and Below the Substellar Boundary

    Basri, G S


    I present the results of a multiyear survey of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, at high spectral resolution. The spectra were gathered with the HIRES echelle at the Keck Observatory. Some of these objects are stellar and others are substellar (or ambiguous). Early indications that such objects can be rapidly rotating but display little H-alpha emission turn out to be commonly true. This is the opposite of the relation between rotation and activity in solar-type stars. The H-alpha surface flux drops precipitously at the bottom of the main sequence, and seems to be related to the luminosity or temperature of the objects. There is a general trend to higher rotation velocities as one looks at objects of lower luminosity. I discuss several possible explanations for these results. The dynamos for these objects are probably fully turbulent, driven by convection, and thus more directly related to the object's luminosity. They may be quenched when the rotational velocities become too fast in comparison to the con...

  16. The Galactic Halo Ionizing Field and $H-\\alpha$ Distances to HVCs

    Bland-Hawthorn, J


    There has been much debate in recent decades as to what fraction of ionizing photons from star forming regions in the Galactic disk escape into the halo. The recent detection of the Magellanic Stream in optical line emission at the CTIO 4m and the AAT 3.9m telescopes may now provide the strongest evidence that at least some of the radiation escapes the disk completely. While the distance to the Magellanic Stream is uncertain, the observed H-alpha emission is most plausibly explained by photoionization due to hot, young stars. Our model requires that the mean Lyman-limit opacity perpendicular to the disk is tau close to unity. Within the context of this model, it now becomes possible to determine distances to high velocity clouds, and the 3D orientation of the Magellanic Stream. Here, we discuss complications of the model (e.g., porosity, topology), future tests, ongoing improvements, and the importance of H-alpha limb brightening from surface ionization. More speculatively, we propose a direct experiment for ...

  17. Galaxies with Background QSOs, I: A Search for Strong Galactic H-alpha Lines

    York, Donald G; Bishof, Michael; Kuttruff, Seth; Bowen, David; Kulkarni, Varsha P; Subbarao, Mark; Richards, Gordon; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Hall, Patrick B; Heckman, Timothy; Khare, Pushpa; Quashnock, Jean; Ghering, Lara; Johnson, Sean


    A search for emission lines in foreground galaxies in quasar spectra (z(gal) < z(QSO)) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 5 (DR5) reveals 23 examples of quasars shining through low redshift, foreground galaxies at small impact parameters (< 10 kpc). About 74,000 quasar spectra were examined by searching for narrow H{\\alpha} emission lines at z < 0.38, at a flux level greater than 5 \\times 10^-17 ergs cm^-2 s^-1, then confirming that other expected emission lines of the H II regions in the galaxy are detected. The galaxies were deblended from the quasar images to get colors and morphologies. For cases that allow the galaxy and the quasar to be deblended, the galaxies are blue (0.95 <(u-r)< 1.95). Extinction and reddening through the galaxies is determined from the (g-i) color excesses of the quasars. These reddening values are compared with the flux ratio of H{\\alpha} to H{\\beta}, which reflect the extinction for an undetermined fraction of the sightline through each galaxy. No ...

  18. H{\\alpha} to FUV ratios in resolved star forming region populations of nearby spiral galaxies

    Hermanowicz, Maciej T; Eldridge, John J


    We present a new study of H{\\alpha}/FUV flux ratios of star forming regions within a sample of nearby spiral galaxies. We search for evidence of the existence of a cluster mass dependent truncation in the underlying stellar initial mass function (IMF). We use an automated approach to identification of extended objects based on the SExtractor algorithm to catalogue resolved Hii regions within a set of nearby spiral galaxies. Corrections due to dust attenuation effects are applied to avoid artificially boosted H{\\alpha}/FUV values. We use the BPASS stellar population synthesis code of Eldridge & Stanway (2009) to create a benchmark population of star forming regions to act as a reference for our observations. Based on those models, we identify a zone of parameter space populated by regions that cannot be obtained with a cluster mass dependent truncation in the stellar IMF imposed. We find that the investigated galaxies display small subpopulations of star forming regions falling within our zone of interest,...

  19. Deep H{\\alpha} Observations of NGC 253: a Very Extended and Possibly Declining Rotation Curve?

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Daigle, O; de Denus-Baillargeon, M -M; Marcelin, M; Epinat, B; Hernandez, O


    This study presents a deep H{\\alpha} kinematical analysis of the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC253. The Fabry-Perot data were taken with the 36-cm Marseille Telescope in La Silla, Chile, using an EMCCD detector. Typical emission measures of ~0.1 cm^-6 pc are reached. The observations allow the detection of the Diffuse Ionized Gas component through [N II] emission at very large radii of 11.5', 12.8' and 19.0', on the receding side of the galaxy. No H{\\alpha} emission is observed at radii larger than the neutral component (11.5'). The very extended rotation curve confirms previous results and shows signs of a significant decline, on the order of 30 per cent vmax . Using the rotation data, mass models are constructed with and without the outer [N II] data points, and similar results are found. The declining part of the rotation curve is very well modeled, and seems to be truly declining.

  20. Spectropolarimetry of the H-alpha line in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Harrington, D M


    Using the HiVIS spectropolarimeter built for the Haleakala 3.7m AEOS telescope, we have obtained a large number of high precision spectropolarimetrc observations (284) of Herbig AeBe stars collected over 53 nights totaling more than 300 hours of observing. Our sample of five HAeBe stars: AB Aurigae, MWC480, MWC120, MWC158 and HD58647, all show systematic variations in the linear polarization amplitude and direction as a function of time and wavelength near the H-alpha line. In all our stars, the H-alpha line profiles show evidence of an intervening disk or outflowing wind, evidenced by strong emission with an absorptive component. The linear polarization varies by 0.2% to 1.5% with the change typically centered in the absorptive part of the line profile. These observations are inconsistent with a simple disk-scattering model or a depolarization model which produce polarization changes centered on the emmissive core. We speculate that polarized absorption via optical pumping of the intervening gas may be the c...

  1. A Survey for H-alpha Emission from Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs

    Pineda, J Sebastian; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cotter, Garret; Kao, Melodie M; Mooley, Kunal


    Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300 - 9700 Angstrom) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for H-alpha emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate resolution (R~2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an H-alpha detection rate of 9.2 (+3.5/-2.1) % for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4 - T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for ...

  2. Coronal X-ray enhancements associated with H-alpha filament disappearances

    Webb, D. F.; Krieger, A. S.; Rust, D. M.


    The X-ray telescope experiment aboard the Skylab/ATM mission provided high-resolution soft X-ray images of the lower corona away from active regions, revealing frequent large-scale transient X-ray enhancements which could often be associated with the disappearance of H-alpha filaments. The X-ray emitting structures featured peak brightnesses similar to those of nonflaring active region structures, durations from 3 to 40 hours, shapes that in general outlined the preexisting H-alpha filaments to as large as 400,000 km, apparent expansion velocities of the order of tens of km/sec, and observed peak temperatures of the order of a few million degrees. One such event is described and analyzed in detail. Two explanations of the events are discussed: (1) excess cool material is present in the filament cavity, contributing to the X-ray enhancement, and (2) the enhancement is due to the compression of preexisting material by a changing magnetic field.

  3. H{\\alpha} Kinematics of S4G spiral galaxies I. NGC 864

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Font, Joan; Beckman, John E; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Sánchez-Gallego, José Ramón; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Buta, Ronald J; Comerón, Sébastien; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Madore, Barry F; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha; Regan, Michael W; Salo, Heikki; Seibert, Mark


    We present a study of the kinematics of the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 864, using H{\\alpha} Fabry-Perot data obtained with the GH{\\alpha}FaS instrument at the William Herschel Telescope in La Palma, complemented with images at 3.6 {\\mu}m, in the R band and in H{\\alpha} filter, and integral field spectroscopic data. The resulting data cubes and velocity maps allow the study of the kinematics of the galaxy, including in-depth investigations of the rotation curve, velocity moment maps, velocity residual maps, gradient maps and position-velocity diagrams. We find asymmetries in the velocity field in the bar zone, caused by non-circular motions, probably in response to the potential of the bar. We also find a flat-profile bar, in agreement with the strong bar, with the grand design spiral pattern, and with the gap between the ends of the bar and the start of the spiral arms. We quantify the rate of massive star formation, which is concentrated in the two spiral arms.

  4. The H alpha Galaxy Survey. IV. Star formation in the local Universe

    James, P A; Shane, N S; Baldry, I K; De Jong, R S


    We present an analysis of the star formation properties of field galaxies within the local volume out to a recession velocity limit of 3000 km/s. A parent sample of 863 star-forming galaxies is used to calculate a B-band luminosity function. This is then populated with star formation information from a subsample of 327 galaxies, for which we have H alpha imaging, firstly by calibrating a relationship between galaxy B-band luminosity and star formation rate, and secondly by a Monte Carlo simulation of a representative sample of galaxies, in which star formation information is randomly sampled from the observed subset. The total star formation rate density of the local Universe is found to be between 0.016 and 0.023 MSun/yr/cubic Mpc, with the uncertainties being dominated by the internal extinction correction used in converting measured H alpha fluxes to star formation rates. If our internally derived B-band luminosity function is replaced by one from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey blue sequence, the star format...

  5. Boxy H$\\alpha$ Emission Profiles in Star-Forming Galaxies

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Tremonti, Christy A; Shi, Yong; Jin, Yi-Fei


    We assemble a sample of disk star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, studying the structure of H$\\alpha$ emission lines, finding a large fraction of this sample contains boxy H$\\alpha$ line profiles. This fraction depends on galaxy physical and geometric parameters in the following way: (1) it increases monotonically with star formation rate per unit area ($\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$), and stellar mass ($M_*$), with the trend being much stronger with $M_*$, from $\\sim$0% at $M_*=10^{10}M_{\\odot}$ to about 50% at $M_*=10^{11}M_\\odot$; (2) the fraction is much smaller in face-on systems than in edge-on systems. It increases with galaxy inclination ($i$) while $i < 60\\,^{\\circ}$ and is roughly a constant of 25% beyond this range; (3) for the sources which can be modeled well with two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity, these is a positive correlation between the velocity difference of these two components and the stellar mass, with a slope similar...

  6. Limits on Lyman Continuum escape from z=2.2 H-alpha emitting galaxies

    Sandberg, A; Melinder, J; Bik, A; Guaita, L


    The leakage of Lyman continuum photons from star forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. H-alpha-selected galaxies at z~2 trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring Lyman continuum escape. Here we present this method, and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 H-alpha emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at z=2.2, also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual Lyman continuum detections, and our stack puts a 5 sigma upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes would rapidly increase and the method presented here would provide ver...

  7. Chromospheric Sunspot Oscillations in H-alpha and Ca II 8542A

    Maurya, Ram Ajor; Park, Hyungmin; Yang, Heesu; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyuhyoun


    We study chromospheric oscillations including umbral flashes and running penumbral waves in a sunspot of active region (AR) using scanning spectroscopy in H-alpha and Ca II 8542A, with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) at the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A bisector method is applied to spectral observations to construct chromospheric Doppler velocity maps. Temporal sequence analysis of these shows enhanced high-frequency oscillations inside the sunspot umbra in both lines. Their peak frequency gradually decreases outward from the umbra. The oscillation power is found to be associated with magnetic-field strength and inclination, with different relationships in different frequency bands.

  8. Template RR Lyrae H alpha, H beta, and H gamma Velocity Curves

    Sesar, Branimir


    We present template radial velocity curves of $ab$-type RR Lyrae stars constructed from high-precision measurements of ${\\rm H\\alpha}$, ${\\rm H\\beta}$, and ${\\rm H\\gamma}$ lines. Amplitude correlations between the Balmer line velocity curves, Johnson $V$-band, and SDSS $g$- and $r$-band light curves are also derived. Compared to previous methods, these templates and derived correlations reduce the uncertainty in measured systemic (center-of-mass) velocities of RR Lyrae stars by up to 15 {\\kms}, and will be of particular interest to wide-area spectroscopic surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (LEGUE).

  9. TEMPLATE RR LYRAE H{alpha}, H{beta}, AND H{gamma} VELOCITY CURVES

    Sesar, Branimir, E-mail: [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present template radial velocity curves of ab-type RR Lyrae stars constructed from high-precision measurements of H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} lines. Amplitude correlations between the Balmer line velocity curves, Johnson V band, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g- and r-band light curves are also derived. Compared to previous methods, these templates and derived correlations reduce the uncertainty in measured systemic (center-of-mass) velocities of RR Lyrae stars by up to 15 km s{sup -1}, and will be of particular interest to wide-area spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS and LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration.

  10. Search for H alpha emitters in Galaxy Clusters with Tunable Filters

    Perez-Martinez, Ricardo; Cepa, Jordi; Bongiovanni, Angel; Garcia, Ana Perez; 10.1007/978-3-642-11250-8


    The studies of the evolution of galaxies in Galaxy Clusters have as a traditional complication the difficulty in establishing cluster membership of those sources detected in the field of view. The determination of spectroscopic redshifts involves long exposure times when it is needed to reach the cluster peripherical regions of/or clusters at moderately large redshifts, while photometric redshifts often present uncertainties too large to offer significant conclusions. The mapping of the cluster of galaxies with narrow band tunable filters makes it possible to reach large redshifts intervals with an accuracy high enough to establish the source membership of those presenting emission/absorption lines easily identifiable, as H alpha. Moreover, the wavelength scan can include other lines as [NII], [OIII] or $H_{\\beta}$ allowing to distinguish those sources with strong stellar formation activity and those with an active galactic nuclei. All this makes it possible to estimate the stellar formation rate of the galax...

  11. X-ray structures associated with disappearing H-alpha filaments in active regions

    Kahler, S. W.


    The paper examines the relationship between active region disappearing H-alpha filaments and the associated coronal X-ray structures observed both before the disappearance event and afterwards. The events chosen for the study were selected from a list of active region X-ray transients observed in the images from the X-ray telescope on Skylab and from a list compiled by Webb (1976) of sudden disappearances of filaments during the Skylab period. Results indicate no distinction between the disappearing and the remaining active region filaments in terms of their pre-event associated X-ray emission features. However, X-ray brightenings were associated in a nearly one-to-one correspondence with disappearing portions of the filaments.

  12. The H$\\alpha$ surface brightness $-$ radius plane as a diagnostic tool for photoionized nebulae

    Frew, David J; Parker, Quentin A


    The H$\\alpha$ surface brightness $-$ radius ($S-r$) relation is a robust distance indicator for planetary nebulae (PNe), further enhanced by different populations of PNe having distinct loci in $S-r$ space. Other types of photoionized nebulae also plot in quite distinct regions in the $S-r$ plane, allowing its use as a diagnostic tool. In particular, the nova shells and massive star ejecta (MSE) plot on relatively tight loci illustrating their evolutionary sequences. For the MSE, there is potential to develop a distance indicator for these objects, based on their trend in $S-r$ space. As high-resolution, narrowband surveys of the nearest galaxies become more commonplace, the $S-r$ plane is a potentially useful diagnostic tool to help identify the various ionized nebulae in these systems.

  13. H$\\alpha$ tail, intracluster HII regions and star-formation: ESO137-001 in Abell 3627

    Sun, M; Voit, G M


    We present the discovery of a 40 kpc H-alpha tail and at least 29 emission-line objects downstream of a star-forming galaxy ESO 137-001 in a rich, nearby cluster A3627. The galaxy is known to possess a dramatic 70 kpc X-ray tail. The detected H-alpha tail coincides positionally with the X-ray tail. The H-alpha emission in the galaxy is sharply truncated on the front and the sides near the nucleus, indicating significant ram pressure stripping. ESO 137-001 is thus the first cluster late-type galaxy known with both an X-ray tail and an H-alpha tail. The emission-line objects are all distributed downstream of the galaxy, with projected distance up to 39 kpc from the galaxy. From the analysis on the H-alpha_{off} frame and the estimate of the background emission-line objects, we conclude that it is very likely all these 29 emission-line objects are HII regions associated with ESO 137-001. The high surface number density and luminosities of these HII regions (up to 10^40 ergs/s) largely dwarf the previously known ...

  14. A study of solar flare energy transport based on coordinated H-alpha and X-ray observations

    Canfield, Richard C.; Wulser, Jean-Pierre; Zarro, Dominic M.; Dennis, Brian R.


    The temporal evolution of the ratio between H-alpha to nonthermal hard X-ray emission was investigated using coordinated H-alpha and hard- and soft-X-ray observations of five solar flares (on May 7, June 23, June 24, and June 25, 1980 and on April 30, 1985). These observations were used to estimate the emitted flare energy flux F(H-alpha) in H-alpha, the flux of F(2O) energy deposited by nonthermal electrons with energies above 20 keV, and the pressure p(c) of soft X-ray-emitting plasma as functions of time during the impulsive phase of each flare. It was found that the F(H-alpha)/F(2O) ratio shows a power-law dependence on F(2O), with a slope that differs slightly from that predicted by the static thick-target model of solar transport. Results also indicate that the power-law dependence is modified by hydrostatic pressure effects.


    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)


    We present an analysis of ultradeep UV and H{alpha} imaging of five nearby spiral galaxies to study the recent star formation in the outer disk. Using azimuthally averaged ellipse photometry as well as aperture photometry of individual young stellar complexes, we measure how star formation rates (SFRs) and UV and H{alpha} colors vary with radius. We detect azimuthally averaged UV flux to {approx}1.2-1.4 R{sub 25} in most galaxies; at the edge of the detected UV disk, the surface brightnesses are 28-29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, corresponding to SFR surface densities of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Additionally, we detect between 120 and 410 young stellar complexes per galaxy, with a significant number of detections out to {approx}1.5 R{sub 25}. We measure radial FUV-NUV profiles, and find that the dispersion in the UV colors of individual young stellar complexes increases with radius. We investigate how radial variations in the frequency of star formation episodes can create color gradients and increasing dispersion in the UV colors of star-forming regions, like those observed in our study. Specifically, we use recently published, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of {Sigma}{sub SFR} throughout the disk of M33 to estimate the frequency of star formation episodes throughout the disk of a typical spiral galaxy. We use stellar synthesis models of these star formation histories (SFHs) to measure the variations in UV colors and find that we can replicate large dispersions in UV colors based on episodic SFHs.

  16. H$_{\\alpha}$ line as an indicator of envelope presence around the Cepheid Polaris Aa ($\\alpha~ UMi$)

    Usenko, I A; Klochkova, V G; Tavolzhanskaya, N S


    We present the results of the radial velocity ($RV$) measurements of metallic lines as well as H$_{\\alpha}$ (H$_{\\beta}$) obtained in 55 high-resolution spectra of the Cepheid $\\alpha$ UMi (Polaris Aa) in 1994-2010. While the $RV$ amplitudes of these lines are roughly equal, their mean $RV$ begin to differ essentially with growth of the Polaris Aa pulsational activity. This difference is accompanied by the H$_{\\alpha}$ line core asymmetries on the red side mainly (so-called knife-like profiles) and reaches 8-12 km/s in 2003 with a subsequent decrease to 1.5-2 km/s. We interpret a so unusual behaviour of the H$_{\\alpha}$ line core as dynamical changes in the envelope around Polaris Aa.

  17. Solar H-alpha features with hot onsets. III. Long fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    Rutten, R. J.


    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by dense canopies of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the extraordinary opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe H-alpha-like fibril canopies, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if these canopies were transparent. An additional file is available at the end of the PDF file of this article.This study is offered as compliment to M.W.M. de Graauw. Our ways, objects, instruments and spectral domains parted after the 1970 eclipse but converge here.

  18. FUNDPAR: A program for Deriving Fundamental Parameters from Equivalent Widths

    C. Saffe


    Full Text Available Implementamos un programa en Fortran que determina parámetros fundamentales de estrellas de tipo solar, a partir de anchos equivalentes del Fe. La solución debe verificar tres condiciones en el método estándar: equilibrio de ionización, equilibrio de excitación e independencia entre abundancias y anchos equivalentes. Calculamos modelos de atmósfera de Kurucz con opacidades NEWODF. Detalles como el parámetro de longitud de mezcla, el sobre impulso convectivo, etc. se calculan con un programa independiente. FUNDPAR calcula las incertezas por dos métodos: el criterio de Gonzalez & Vanture (1998 y utilizando la función X² . Los resultados derivados con FUNDPAR están de acuerdo con determinaciones previas en la literatura. En particular obtuvimos parámetros fundamentales de 58 estrellas con exoplanetas. El programa está disponible en la red1.

  19. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. I

    Vucetic, M M; Urosevic, D; Dobardzic, A; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N


    We present observations of the portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 2.5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.

  20. H$\\alpha$ spectroscopy and multi-wavelength imaging of a solar flare caused by filament eruption

    Huang, Z; Koleva, K; Doyle, J G; Duchlev, P; Dechev, M; Reardon, K


    We study a sequence of eruptive events including filament eruption, a GOES C4.3 flare and a coronal mass ejection. We aim to identify the possible trigger(s) and precursor(s) of the filament destabilisation; investigate flare kernel characteristics; flare ribbons/kernels formation and evolution; study the interrelation of the filament-eruption/flare/coronal-mass-ejection phenomena as part of the integral active-region magnetic field configuration; determine H alpha line profile evolution during the eruptive phenomena. Multi-instrument observations are analysed including H$\\alpha$ line profiles, speckle images at H$\\alpha$-0.8 \\AA\\ and H$\\alpha$+0.8 \\AA\\ from IBIS at DST/NSO, EUV images and magnetograms from the SDO, coronagraph images from STEREO and the X-ray flux observations from FERMI and GOES. We establish that the filament destabilisation and eruption are the main trigger for the flaring activity. A surge-like event with a circular ribbon in one of the filament footpoints is determined as the possible t...

  1. Discovery of H-alpha Emission from the Close Companion Inside the Gap of Transitional Disk HD142527

    Close, L M; Males, J R; Puglisi, A; Xompero, M; Apai, D; Najita, J; Weinberger, A J; Morzinski, K; Rodigas, T J; Hinz, P; Bailey, V; Briguglio, R


    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of HD142527 with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5m Magellan telescope (0.5-0.7"), we find MagAO delivers 24-19% Strehl at H-alpha (0.656 microns). We detect a faint companion (HD142527B) embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3+/-1.9 mas (~12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both H-alpha and a continuum filter (Delta_mag=6.33+/-0.20 mag at H-alpha and 7.50+/-0.25 mag in the continuum filter). This provides confirmation of the tentative companion discovered by Biller and co-workers with sparse aperture masking at the 8m VLT. The H-alpha emission from the ~0.25 solar mass companion (EW=180 Angstroms) implies a mass accretion rate of ~5.9x10^-10 Msun/yr, and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% Lsun. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably bet...

  2. Dust-Corrected Star Formation Rates of Galaxies. I. Combinations of H-alpha and Infrared Tracers

    Kennicutt, Robert C Jr; Calzetti, Daniela; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Bendo, George; Engelbracht, Charles W; Johnson, Benjamin D; Lee, Janice C


    We combine H-alpha emission-line and infrared continuum measurements of two samples of nearby galaxies to derive dust attenuation-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). We use a simple energy balance based method that has been applied previously to HII regions in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), and extend the methodology to integrated measurements of galaxies. We find that our composite H-alpha+IR based SFRs are in excellent agreement with attenuation-corrected SFRs derived from integrated spectrophotometry, over the full range of SFRs (0.01 -- 80 solar mass per year) and attenuations (0 -- 2.5 mag) studied. We find that the combination of H-alpha and total infrared luminosities provides the most robust SFR measurements, but combinations of H-alpha measurements with monochromatic luminosities at 24 micron and 8 micron perform nearly as well. The calibrations differ significantly from those obtained for HII regions (Calzetti et al. 2007), with the difference attributable to a more evolved ...

  3. Comparison of H-alpha and UV Star Formation Rates in the Local Volume: Systematic Discrepancies for Dwarf Galaxies

    Lee, Janice C; Tremonti, Christy; Kennicutt, Robert C; Salim, Samir; Bothwell, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Dalcanton, Julianne; Dale, Daniel; Engelbracht, Chad; J., Jose G Funes S; Johnson, Benjamin; Sakai, Shoko; Skillman, Evan; van Zee, Liese; Walter, Fabian; Weisz, Daniel


    (abridged) Using a complete sample of ~300 star-forming galaxies within 11 Mpc, we evaluate the consistency between star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from the far ultraviolet (FUV) non-ionizing continuum and H-alpha nebular emission, assuming standard conversion recipes in which the SFR scales linearly with luminosity at a given wavelength. Our analysis probes SFRs over 5 orders of magnitude, down to ultra-low activities on the order of ~0.0001 M_sun/yr. The data are drawn from the 11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey (11HUGS), which has obtained H-alpha fluxes from ground-based narrowband imaging, and UV fluxes from imaging with GALEX. For normal spiral galaxies (SFR~1 M_sun/yr), our results are consistent with previous work which has shown that FUV SFRs tend to be lower than H-alpha SFRs before accounting for internal dust attenuation, but that there is relative consistency between the two tracers after proper corrections are applied. However, a puzzle is encountered at the faint end of the lumin...

  4. Short-term H{\\alpha} line variations in Classical Be stars: 59 Cyg and OT Gem

    KT, Paul; Subramaniam, Annapurni


    We present the optical spectroscopic study of two Classical Be stars, 59 Cyg and OT Gem obtained over a period of few months in 2009. We detected a rare triple-peak H$\\alpha$ emission phase in 59 Cyg and a rapid decrease in the emission strength of H$\\alpha$ in OT Gem, which are used to understand their circumstellar disks. We find that 59 Cyg is likely to be rapid rotator, rotating at a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$ 0.80. The radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region for 59 Cyg is estimated to be $R_d/R_*$ $\\sim$ 10.0, assuming a Keplerian disk, suggesting that it has a large disk. We classify stars which have shown triple-peaks into two groups and find that the triple-peak emission in 59 Cyg is similar to $\\zeta$ Tau. OT Gem is found to have a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$ 0.30, suggesting that it is either a slow rotator or viewed in low inclination. In OT Gem, we observed a large reduction in the radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region from $\\sim$ 6.9 to $\\sim$ 1.7 in a period of three mon...


    Asai, Ayumi; Isobe, Hiroaki [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin' ichi; Morita, Satoshi; Nishida, Keisuke; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oi, Akihito [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Akioka, Maki, E-mail: [Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)


    We report on the first simultaneous observation of an H{alpha} Moreton wave, the corresponding EUV fast coronal waves, and a slow and bright EUV wave (typical EIT wave). We observed a Moreton wave, associated with an X6.9 flare that occurred on 2011 August 9 at the active region NOAA 11263, in the H{alpha} images taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory of Kyoto University. In the EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory we found not only the corresponding EUV fast 'bright' coronal wave, but also the EUV fast 'faint' wave that is not associated with the H{alpha} Moreton wave. We also found a slow EUV wave, which corresponds to a typical EIT wave. Furthermore, we observed, for the first time, the oscillations of a prominence and a filament, simultaneously, both in the H{alpha} and EUV images. To trigger the oscillations by the flare-associated coronal disturbance, we expect a coronal wave as fast as the fast-mode MHD wave with the velocity of about 570-800 km s{sup -1}. These velocities are consistent with those of the observed Moreton wave and the EUV fast coronal wave.

  6. Development of a high-speed H-alpha camera system for the observation of rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    Kiplinger, Alan L.; Dennis, Brian R.; Orwig, Larry E.; Chen, P. C.


    A solid-state digital camera was developed for obtaining H alpha images of solar flares with 0.1 s time resolution. Beginning in the summer of 1988, this system will be operated in conjunction with SMM's hard X-ray burst spectrometer (HXRBS). Important electron time-of-flight effects that are crucial for determining the flare energy release processes should be detectable with these combined H alpha and hard X-ray observations. Charge-injection device (CID) cameras provide 128 x 128 pixel images simultaneously in the H alpha blue wing, line center, and red wing, or other wavelength of interest. The data recording system employs a microprocessor-controlled, electronic interface between each camera and a digital processor board that encodes the data into a serial bitstream for continuous recording by a standard video cassette recorder. Only a small fraction of the data will be permanently archived through utilization of a direct memory access interface onto a VAX-750 computer. In addition to correlations with hard X-ray data, observations from the high speed H alpha camera will also be correlated and optical and microwave data and data from future MAX 1991 campaigns. Whether the recorded optical flashes are simultaneous with X-ray peaks to within 0.1 s, are delayed by tenths of seconds or are even undetectable, the results will have implications on the validity of both thermal and nonthermal models of hard X-ray production.

  7. H-alpha survey of low-mass satellites of the neighbouring galaxies M31 and M81

    Kaisin, S S


    Images have been obtained at the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the H-alpha line and in the continuum for 20 dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: And XI-And XXX, plus the distant Globular cluster Bol 520. Their star formation rates (FR) are estimated using the H-alpha flux and the ultraviolet FUV flux measured with the GALEX space telescope. Most of the dSph satellites of M31 have extremely low star formation rates with a characteristic upper limit of SFR~5x10^{-7}. We have made similar estimates of SFR from the H-alpha and FUV fluxes for 13 galaxies with low surface brightness recently discovered in the neighborhood of M81. Eleven of them are physical satellites of M81 with typical SFR< 5x10^{-5}. The median stellar masses of these satellites of M31 and M81 are 0.9 and 1.9 million solar masses, respectively. Our H-alpha observations place a 2-3 times stricter limit on the value of SFR than the data from the GALEX satellite, with a substant...

  8. Investigating H$\\alpha$, UV, and IR star-formation rate diagnostics for a large sample of z ~ 2 galaxies

    Shivaei, Irene; Steidel, Charles C; Shapley, Alice E


    We use a sample of 262 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies at redshifts $2.08\\leq z\\leq 2.51$ to compare H$\\alpha$, UV, and IR star-formation-rate diagnostics and to investigate the dust properties of the galaxies. At these redshifts, the H$\\alpha$ line shifts to the $K_{s}$-band. By comparing $K_{s}$-band photometry to underlying stellar population model fits to other UV, optical, and near-infrared data, we infer the H$\\alpha$ flux for each galaxy. We obtain the best agreement between H$\\alpha$- and UV-based SFRs if we assume that the ionized gas and stellar continuum are reddened by the same value and that the Calzetti attenuation curve is applied to both. Aided with MIPS 24$\\mu$m data, we find that an attenuation curve steeper than the Calzetti curve is needed to reproduce the observed IR/UV ratios of galaxies younger than 100 Myr. Furthermore, using the bolometric star-formation rate inferred from the UV and mid-IR data (SFR$_{IR}$+SFR$_{UV}$), we calculated the conversion between the H$\\alp...

  9. Short-Term H$\\alpha$ Line Variations in Classical Be Stars: 59 Cyg and OT Gem

    K. T. Paul; S. B. Shruthi; Annapurni Subramaniam


    We present the optical spectroscopic study of two classical Be stars, 59 Cyg and OT Gem obtained over a period of few months in 2009. We detected a rare triple-peak H$\\alpha$ emission phase in 59 Cyg and a rapid decrease in the emission strength of H$\\alpha$ in OT Gem, which are used to understand their circumstellar disks. We find that 59 Cyg is likely to be rapid rotator, rotating at a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$ 0.80. The radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region for 59 Cyg is estimated to be \\( R_d/R_*\\) $\\sim$, assuming a Keplerian disk, suggesting that it has a large disk. We classify stars which have shown triple-peaks into two groups and find that the triple-peak emission in 59 Cyg is similar to $\\zeta$ Tau. OT Gem is found to have a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$0.30, suggesting that it is either a slow rotator or viewed in low inclination. In OT Gem, we observed a large reduction in the radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region from $\\sim$6.9 to $\\sim$1.7 in a period of three months, along with the reduction in the emission strength. Our observations suggest that the disk is lost from outside to inside during this disk loss phase in OT Gem.

  10. The H$\\alpha$ emission of nearby M dwarfs and its relation to stellar rotation

    Newton, Elisabeth R; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Mink, Jessica


    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of H$\\alpha$ emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 solar masses are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass-period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well- defined active/inactive boundary ...

  11. Star formation properties in the Local Volume galaxies via $H\\alpha$ and FUV fluxes

    Karachentsev, Igor D


    A distance-limited sample of 869 objects from the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog is used to characterize the star formation status of the Local Volume population. We present a compiled list of 1217 star formation rate (SFR) estimates for 802 galaxies within 11 Mpc from us, derived from the H-alpha imaging surveys and GALEX far-ultraviolet survey. We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR and luminosity, morphology, HI-mass, surface brightness, as well as environment of the galaxies. About 3/4 of our sample consist of dwarf galaxies, for which we offer a more refined classification. We note that the specific star formation rate of nearly all luminous and dwarf galaxies does not exceed the maximum value: $\\log(SFR/L_K) = -9.4$ [yr$^{-1}$]. The bulk of spiral and blue dwarf galaxies have enough time to generate their stellar mass during the cosmological time, $T_0$, with the observed SFRs. They dispose of a sufficient amount of gas to support their present SFRs over the next $T_0$ term. We note ...

  12. Measurement of Star-Formation Rate from H-$\\alpha$ in field galaxies at z = 1

    Glazebrook, K; Economou, F; Lilly, S; Colless, M; Glazebrook, Karl; Blake, Chris; Economou, Frossie; Lilly, Simon; Colless, Matthew


    We report the results of J-band infrared spectroscopy of a sample of 13 z=1 field galaxies drawn from the Canada-France Redshift Survey, targeting galaxies whose redshifts place the rest frame H-alpha line emission from HII regions in between the bright night sky OH lines. As a result we detect emission down to a flux limit of ~10^{-16} ergs/cm^2/s corresponding to a luminosity limit of these luminosities we derive estimates of the star-formation rates in these galaxies which are independent of previous estimates based upon their rest-frame ultraviolet (2800 Angstroms) luminosity. The mean star-formation rate at z=1, from this sample, is found to be three times as high as the ultraviolet estimates. The dust extinction in these galaxies is inferred to be moderate, with a typical A_V=0.5-1.0 mags, comparable to local field galaxies. This suggests that the bulk of star-formation is not heavily obscured. Star-forming galaxies have the bluest colours and a preponderance of disturbed/interacting morphologies. We al...

  13. The Tremaine-Weinberg method for pattern speeds using H-alpha emission from ionized gas

    Beckman, John E; Piñol, Núria; Toonen, Silvia; Hernandez, Olivier; Carignan, Claude


    The Fabry-Perot interferometer FaNTOmM was used at the 3.6m Canada France Hawaii Telescope and the 1.6m Mont Megantic Telescope to obtain data cubes in H-alpha of 9 nearby spiral galaxies from which maps in integrated intensity, velocity, and velocity dispersion were derived. We then applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method, in which the pattern speed can be deduced from its velocity field, by finding the integrated value of the mean velocity along a slit parallel to the major axis weighted by the intensity and divided by the weighted mean distance of the velocity points from the tangent point measured along the slit. The measured variables can be used either to make separate calculations of the pattern speed and derive a mean, or in a plot of one against the other for all the points on all slits, from which a best fit value can be derived. Linear fits were found for all the galaxies in the sample. For two galaxies a clearly separate inner pattern speed with a higher value, was also identified and measured.

  14. Intensity mapping of H-alpha, H-beta, [OII] and [OIII] lines at z<5

    Gong, Yan; Silva, Marta B; Zemcov, Michael; Feng, Chang; Santos, Mario G; Dore, Olivier; Chen, Xuelei


    Intensity mapping is now becoming a useful tool to study the large-scale structure of the universe through spatial variations in the integrated emission from galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We study intensity mapping of the H-alpha6563A, [OIII]5007A, [OII]3727A and H-beta4861A lines at 0.8

  15. The deep OB star population in Carina from the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey (VPHAS+)

    Mohr-Smith, M; Napiwotzki, R; Simón-Díaz, S; Wright, N J; Barentsen, G; Eislöffel, J; Farnhill, H J; Greimel, R; Monguió, M; Kalari, V; Parker, Q A; Vink, J S


    Massive OB stars are critical to the ecology of galaxies, and yet our knowledge of OB stars in the Milky Way, fainter than $V \\sim 12$, remains patchy. Data from the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey (VPHAS+) permit the construction of the first deep catalogues of blue excess-selected OB stars, without neglecting the stellar field. A total of 14900 candidates with 2MASS cross-matches are blue-selected from a 42 square-degree region in the Galactic Plane, capturing the Carina Arm over the Galactic longitude range $282^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 293^{\\circ}$. Spectral energy distribution fitting is performed on these candidates' combined VPHAS+ $u,g,r,i$ and 2MASS $J,H,K$ magnitudes. This delivers: effective temperature constraints, statistically separating O from early-B stars; high-quality extinction parameters, $A_0$ and $R_V$ (random errors typically $ 3.5$) extinction laws are ubiquitous in the region, over the distance range 2.5--3 kpc to $\\sim$10~kpc. Near prominent massive clusters, $R_V$ tends to ri...

  16. The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. V. H-alpha-selected Survey List 3

    Jangren, A; Sarajedini, V L; Gronwall, C; Werk, J K; Chomiuk, L; Moody, J W; Boroson, T A; Jangren, Anna; Salzer, John J.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Gronwall, Caryl; Werk, Jessica K.; Chomiuk, Laura; Boroson, Todd A.


    The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) is an objective-prism survey designed to detect extragalactic emission-line objects. It combines many of the features of previous slitless spectroscopic surveys with the advantages of modern CCD detectors, and is the first purely digital objective-prism survey for emission-line galaxies (ELGs). Here we present the third list of ELG candidates selected from our red spectral data, which cover the wavelength range 6400 to 7200 A. In most cases, the detected emission line is H-alpha. The current survey list covers the region of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). This survey covers two fields; the first is 3 x 3 degrees square and located at RA = 14h 30m, DEC = 34.5 deg (B1950), the second is 2.3 x 4.0 degrees and centered at RA = 2h 7.5m, DEC = -4.75 deg. A total area of 19.65 deg^2 is covered by the KISS data. A total of 261 candidate emission-line objects have been selected for inclusion in the survey list (13.3 per deg^2). We tabulate accurate coordinate...

  17. The broad H-alpha, [O III] line wings in stellar supercluster A of NGC2363 and the turbulent mixing layer hypothesis

    Binette, Luc; Ubeda, Leonardo; Raga, Alejandro C; Robert, Carmelle; Krongold, Yair


    Context. SuperclusterA in the extragalactic HII region NGC2363 is remarkable for the hypersonic gas seen as faint extended broad emission lines with a full width zero intensity of 7000km/s. Aims. We explore the possibility that the observed broad profiles are the result of the interaction of a high velocity cluster wind with dense photoionized clumps. Methods. The geometry considered is that of near static photoionized condensations at the surface of which turbulent mixing layers arise as a result of the interaction with the hot wind. The approximative treatment of turbulence is carried out using the mixing length approach of Canto & Raga. The code mappings Ic is used to derive the mean quantities describing the flow and to compute the line emissivities within the turbulent layers. The velocity projection in three dimensions of the line sources is carried out analytically. Results. A fast entraining wind of up to ~4300km/s appears to be required to reproduce the faint wings of the broad H-alpha and [O III...

  18. Miocrowave spectral imaging, H-alpha and hard X-ray observations of a solar limb flare

    Wang, H.; Gary, D. E.; Lim, J.; Schwartz, R. A.


    We compare the microwave, H-alpha, and hard X-ray observations for a west limb C7.3 flare that occurred at 17:10 UT, 1992 June 26. H-alpha movies were obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Before the onset of the flare, overexposed H-alpha images show the complicated flux loop structure above the limb. Material was observed to descend along the loops toward the site where the flare occurred hours later. Using the five-antenna solar array at Owens Valley Radio Observatory, we obtain two-dimensional maps of flare emission from 1.4 to 14 GHz. In all three temporal peaks of the microwave bursts, the maps show the same characteristics. The peak low-frequency emission comes from the top of one bundle of the H-alpha loops and gradually shifts to the foot-point of the loops (the location of H-alpha flare) as the frequency increases. The location of the emission peak shifts 88 sec between 1 and 14 GHz. Seventy percent of the shift occurs between 1 and 5 GHz. The locus of the shift of the emission peak follows the shape of an H-alpha surge that occurred after the flare. For each point along the locus, we create the microwave brightness temperature spectrum and compare the radio-derived electron distribution with that derived from the high-resolution hard X-ray spectra measured with Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). We find that the peak frequency changes from approximately 3 GHz at the loop top to approximately 7 GHz at the footprint, presumably due to the increase of the magnetic field from approximately 160 GHz at the loop top to approximately 300 G at the footpoint. The high-frequency slope of the microwave power-law spectrum decreases from approximately 10 at the loop top to approximately 5 at the footprint due to a change in the energy distribution of the dominant electrons. The microwave brightness temperature spectral index predicted by the BATSE power-law hard X-ray spectra agrees with the measured

  19. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}-{alpha}-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale; Sintesis de N-Acetil-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartil-Glutamico a escala de Micromoles

    Suarez, C.


    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- {alpha} -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3{sup H}-acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.


    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  1. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  2. A Search for H-alpha Absorption in the Exosphere of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458b

    Winn, J N; Turner, E L; Narita, N; Frye, B L; Aoki, W; Sato, B; Yamada, T; Winn, Joshua N.; Suto, Yasushi; Turner, Edwin L.; Narita, Norio; Frye, Brenda L.; Aoki, Wako; Sato, Bunei; Yamada, Toru


    There is evidence that the transiting planet HD 209458b has a large exosphere of neutral hydrogen, based on a 15% decrement in Lyman-alpha flux that was observed by Vidal-Madjar et al. during transits. Here we report upper limits on Balmer-alpha (H-alpha) absorption by the exosphere. The results are based on optical spectra of the parent star obtained with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph. Comparison of the spectra taken inside and outside of transit reveals no exospheric H-alpha signal greater than 0.1% within a 5.1AA band (chosen to have the same Dlambda/lambda as the 15% Ly-alpha absorption). The corresponding limit on the column density of n=2 neutral hydrogen is N_2 <~ 10^9 cm^{-2}. This limit constrains proposed models involving a hot (~10^4 K) and hydrodynamically escaping exosphere.

  3. Interaction of NGC 2276 with the NGC 2300 group - Fabry-Perot observations of the H-alpha velocity field

    Gruendl, Robert A.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Davis, David S.; Mulchaey, John S.


    We report kinematic observations of H-alpha emission from the spiral galaxy NGC 2276 obtained with a Fabry-Perot Camera. The 'bow shock' appearance and enhanced star formation in NGC 2276 have been attributed by Mulchaey et al. (1993) to a ram-pressure interaction with the dense IGM detected in ROSAT observations of the NGC 2300 group of galaxies. Along the 'bow shock' limb of the galaxy, we observe strong H-alpha emission and significant kinematic perturbations located immediately interior to an abrupt decrease in the scale length of the optical disk. Although ram-pressure forces may be important in the evolution of the outer gaseous disk, the peculiar kinematics and the truncation in the stellar disk are difficult to explain in a ram-pressure model; a more likely cause is tidal interaction, probably with the elliptical galaxy NGC 2300.

  4. Evidence of Environmental Dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory indicated by Local H{\\alpha}

    Rigault, M; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Fakhouri, H K; Feindt, U; Fleury, M; Gangler, E; Greskovic, P; Guy, J; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Lombardo, S; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A


    (Abridged) We study the host galaxy regions in close proximity to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to analyze relations between the properties of SN Ia events and environments most similar to where their progenitors formed. We focus on local H\\alpha\\ emission as an indicator of young environments. The Nearby Supernova Factory has obtained flux-calibrated spectral timeseries for SNe Ia using integral field spectroscopy, allowing the simultaneous measurement of the SN and its immediate vicinity. For 89 SNe Ia we measure H\\alpha\\ emission tracing ongoing star formation within a 1 kpc radius around each SN. This constitutes the first direct study of the local environment for a large sample of SNe Ia also having accurate luminosity, color and stretch measurements. We find that SNe Ia with local H\\alpha\\ emission are redder by 0.036+/-0.017 mag, and that the previously-noted correlation between stretch and host mass is entirely driven by the SNe Ia coming from passive regions. Most importantly, the mean standardized bri...

  5. Dust attenuation in z $\\sim$ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST H$\\alpha$ measurements

    Puglisi, A; Franceschini, A; Talia, M; Cimatti, A; Baronchelli, I; Daddi, E; Renzini, A; Schawinski, K; Mancini, C; Silverman, J; Gruppioni, C; Lutz, D; Berta, S; Oliver, S J


    We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with the PEP/Herschel data to characterize the H\\alpha dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 normal star-forming galaxies at $0.7\\leq z\\leq1.5$ in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR, at \\lambda=100 and/or 160 \\mu m, and only includes galaxies with a secure H\\alpha detection (S/N>3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured z and F(H\\alpha) for the whole sample, rescaling the observed flux by a constant factor of 1.2 to remove the contamination by [NII]. The stellar masses, infrared and UV luminosities were derived from the SEDs by fitting multi-band data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE500 \\mu m. We derived the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX ratio and the UV-slope, and found an excellent agreement among them. Galaxies in the sample have 2.6x10^9$\\leq$M*$\\leq$3.5x10^11 Msun, intense infrared luminosity (L_IR>1.2x10^10 Lsun), high level of dust obscuration (0.1$\\leq$Estar(B-V)$\\leq$1.1) and str...

  6. The Wyoming Survey for H-alpha. I. Initial Results at z ~ 0.16 and 0.24

    Dale, Daniel A; Cohen, Seth A; Johnson, L Clifton; Kattner, ShiAnne M; Lamanna, Christine A; Moore, Carolynn A; Schuster, Micah D; Thatcher, Jacob W


    The Wyoming Survey for H-alpha, or WySH, is a large-area, ground-based, narrowband imaging survey for H-alpha-emitting galaxies over the latter half of the age of the Universe. The survey spans several square degrees in a set of fields of low Galactic cirrus emission. The observing program focuses on multiple dz~0.02 epochs from z~0.16 to z~0.81 down to a uniform (continuum+line) luminosity at each epoch of ~10^33 W uncorrected for extinction (3sigma for a 3" diameter aperture). First results are presented here for 98+208 galaxies observed over approximately 2 square degrees at redshifts z~0.16 and 0.24, including preliminary luminosity functions at these two epochs. These data clearly show an evolution with lookback time in the volume-averaged cosmic star formation rate. Integrals of Schechter fits to the extinction-corrected H-alpha luminosity functions indicate star formation rates per co-moving volume of 0.009 and 0.014 h_70 M_sun/yr/Mpc^3 at z~0.16 and 0.24, respectively. The formal uncertainties in the ...

  7. Stellar Populations and the Star Formation Histories of LSB Galaxies: I. Optical and H-alpha Imaging

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy


    This paper presents optical and H-alpha imaging for a large sample of LSB galaxies selected from the PSS-II catalogs (Schombert et. al 1992). As noted in previous work, LSB galaxies span a range of luminosities (-10 > M_V > -20) and sizes (0.3 kpc < R_V25 < 10 kpc), although they are consistent in their irregular morphology. Their H-alpha luminosities (L(H-alpha) range from 10^36 to 10^41 ergs s^-1 (corresponding to a range in star formation, using canonical prescriptions, from 10^-5 to 1 M_solar yr^-1). Although their optical colors are at the extreme blue edge for galaxies, they are similar to the colors of dwarf galaxies (van Zee 2001) and gas-rich irregulars (Hunter & Elmegreen 2006). However, their star formation rates per unit stellar mass are a factor of ten less than other galaxies of the same baryonic mass, indicating that they are not simply quiescent versions of more active star forming galaxies. This paper presents the data, reduction techniques and new philosophy of data storage and pre...

  8. The Second Data Release of the INT Photometric H\\alpha\\ Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS DR2)

    Barentsen, Geert; Drew, J E; González-Solares, E A; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Miszalski, B; Ruhland, C; Groot, P; Mampaso, A; Sale, S E; Henden, A A; Aungwerojwit, A; Barlow, M J; Carter, P J; Corradi, R L M; Drake, J J; Eislöffel, J; Fabregat, J; Gänsicke, B T; Fusillo, N P Gentile; Greiss, S; Hales, A S; Hodgkin, S; Huckvale, L; Irwin, J; King, R; Knigge, C; Kupfer, T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D J; Lewis, J R; Mohr-Smith, M; Morris, R A H; Naylor, T; Parker, Q A; Phillipps, S; Pyrzas, S; Raddi, R; Roelofs, G H A; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Sabin, L; Scaringi, S; Steeghs, D; Suso, J; Tata, R; Unruh, Y C; van Roestel, J; Viironen, K; Vink, J S; Walton, N A; Wright, N J; Zijlstra, A A


    The INT/WFC Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is a 1800 square degrees imaging survey covering Galactic latitudes |b| < 5 deg and longitudes l = 30 to 215 deg in the r, i and H\\alpha\\ filters using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma. We present the first quality-controlled and globally-calibrated source catalogue derived from the survey, providing single-epoch photometry for 219 million unique sources across 92% of the footprint. The observations were carried out between 2003 and 2012 at a median seeing of 1.1 arcsec (sampled at 0.33 arcsec/pixel) and to a mean 5\\sigma-depth of 21.2 (r), 20.0 (i) and 20.3 (H\\alpha) in the Vega magnitude system. We explain the data reduction and quality control procedures, describe and test the global re-calibration, and detail the construction of the new catalogue. We show that the new calibration is accurate to 0.03 mag (rms) and recommend a series of quality criteria to select the most rel...

  9. Level Width Broaden Effect

    ZHANG Jing-Shang


    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  10. Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-alpha, UV lines, and X-rays

    Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.


    A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-alpha, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-alpha wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a short-lived and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-alpha. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.

  11. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. II - Detection of 16 Optically-Identified Supernova Remnant Candidates

    Vucetic, M M; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N; Goker, U D; Ercan, E N


    We present the detection of 16 optical supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. The candidates were detected by applying [SII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio criterion on observations made with the 2 m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper, we report the coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 16 SNRs detected in two fields of view in the IC342 galaxy. Also, we estimate that the contamination of total H$\\alpha$ flux from SNRs in the observed portion of IC342 is 1.4%. This would represent the fractional error when the star formation rate (SFR) for this galaxy is derived from the total galaxy's H$\\alpha$ emission.

  12. X-ray and H-alpha observations of a filament-disappearance flare - An empirical analysis of the magnetic field configuration

    Kahler, S. W.; Webb, D. F.; Moore, R. L.


    On August, 29, 1973, a flare event occurred that involved the disappearance of a filament near central meridian. The event, well-observed in X-rays on Skylab and in H-alpha, was a four-ribbon flare involving both new and old magnetic inversion lines which were roughly parallel. The H-alpha, X-ray, and magnetic field data are used to deduce the magnetic polarities of the H-alpha brightening at the footpoints of the brightest X-ray loops. It is suggested that the event involved a reconnection of magnetic field lines rather than a brightening in place of preexisting loops. The simultaneity of the H-alpha brightening onsets in the four ribbons and the apparent lack of an eruption of the filament are consistent with this interpretation.

  13. Multi-epoch Spectroscopy of Dwarf Galaxies with AGN Signatures: Identifying Sources with Persistent Broad H-alpha Emission

    Baldassare, Vivienne F; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E; Graur, Or; Geha, Marla; Hainline, Kevin; Carroll, Christopher M; Hickox, Ryan C


    We use time-domain optical spectroscopy to distinguish between broad emission lines powered by accreting black holes (BHs) or stellar processes (i.e., supernovae) for 16 galaxies identified as AGN candidates by Reines et al. (2013). 14 of these have star-formation--dominated narrow-line emission ratios, one is a narrow-line AGN, and the last is a star-forming--AGN composite. We find that broad H$\\alpha$ emission has faded for 11/16 targets, based on spectra taken with the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph (MagE), the Dual Imaging Spectrograph, and the Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph with baselines ranging from 5 to 14 years. The 11 faded systems all have narrow-line ratios consistent with recent star formation, suggesting the broad emission for those targets was produced by a transient stellar process. The two objects with narrow-line AGN signatures (RGG 9 and RGG 119) have persistent broad H$\\alpha$ emission consistent with previous SDSS observations. The final three star-forming objects are classified a...

  14. Extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68: the LBV, H-alpha shells and the most luminous stars

    Pustilnik, S A; Perepelitsyna, Y A; Moiseev, A V; Makarov, D I


    The paper presents new results of the ongoing study of the unusual Lynx-Cancer void galaxy DDO 68 with record-low-metallicity regions (12+log(O/H) ~7.14) of the current star formation (SF). They include: a) a new spectrum and photometry with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (BTA) for the Luminous Blue Variable (LBV = DDO68-V1). Photometric data sets are complemented with those based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive images; b) the analysis of the DDO~68 supergiant shell (SGS) and the prominent smaller H-alpha arcs/shells visible at the HST image coupled with kinematics maps in H-alpha obtained with the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the BTA; c) the list of identified at the HST images of about 50 most luminous stars (-9.1 3.7~mag for the first time. New data suggest that in 2008--2010 the LBV reached M_V = --10.5 and probably underwent a giant eruption. We argue that the structure of star-forming complexes along the SGS (`Northern Ring') perimeter provides evid...

  15. Fluxes in H\\alpha and Ca II H and K for a sample of Southern stars

    Cincunegui, C; Mauas, P J D; Cincunegui, Carolina; D\\'iaz, Rodrigo F.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.


    The main chromospheric activity indicator is the S index, which is esentially the ratio of the flux in the core of the Ca II H and K lines to the continuum nearby, and is well studied basically for stars from F to K. Another usual chromospheric proxy is the H\\alpha line, which is beleived to be tightly correlated with the Ca II index. In this work we characterize both chromospheric activity indicators, one associated with the H and K Ca II lines and the other with H\\alpha, for the whole range of late type stars, from F to M. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed along 7 years. We use a total of 917 flux-calibrated spectra for 109 stars which range from F6 to M5. We statistically study these two indicators for stars of different activity levels and spectral types. We directly derive the conversion factor which translate the known S index to flux in the Ca II core...

  16. Full-disk Synoptic Observations of the Chromosphere Using H$_{\\alpha}$ Telescope at the Kodaikanal Observatory

    Ravindra, B; Rangarajan, K E; Bagare, S P; Jagdev, Singh; Kemkar, P M M; Lancelot, J P; Thulasidharen, K C; Gabriel, F; Selvendran, R


    This paper reports on the installation and observations of a new solar telescope installed on 7th October, 2014 at the Kodaikanal Observatory. The telescope is a refractive type equipped with a tunable Lyot H$_{\\alpha}$ filter. A CCD camera of 2k$\\times$2k size makes the image of the Sun with a pixel size of 1.21$^{\\prime\\prime}$ pixel$^{-1}$ with a full field-of-view of 41$^{\\prime}$. The telescope is equipped with a guiding system which keeps the image of the Sun within a few pixels throughout the observations. The FWHM of the Lyot filter is 0.4\\AA~and the filter is motorized, capable of scanning the H$_{\\alpha}$ line profile at a smaller step size of 0.01\\AA. Partial-disk imaging covering about 10$^{\\prime}$, is also possible with the help of a relay lens kept in front of the CCD camera. In this paper, we report the detailed specifications of the telescope, filter unit, its installation, observations and the procedures we have followed to calibrate and align the data. We also present preliminary results wi...

  17. An example of the association of X-ray and UV emission with H-alpha surges

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.


    From H-alpha UV, and X-ray data, the nature of a well-observed surge on November 12, 1980 has been studied to try to understand the relationships between the mechanical motions and the high-temperature emissions. The cool (H-alpha) and the hot (O v) parts of the surge plasma both show velocities in the range of 100-120 km/s. The kinetic and potential energies of the surge are two orders of magnitude higher than the radiative energy. The observations suggest that the surge occurs in open structures parallel to one leg of a large scale coronal magnetic loop. The energy is released principally in the open structure (surge) and only a small amount heats the coronal loop (X-ray signature). This energy division should probably not be treated as a general characteristic of surge events. Different events are expected to exhibit a different energy balance, and this can account for the lack of a consensus in the previous literature regarding surge/X-ray associations.

  18. On the relationship between soft X-rays and H-alpha-emitting structures during a solar flare

    Zirin, H.; Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Kane, S.


    Based on data obtained during a solar flare on March 31, 1979, soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR) bursts are analyzed and compared with other available data in order to identify structures in H-alpha that may correspond to the SXR-emitting site. Measurements taken with the X-ray telescope and the XUV spectroheliograph flown on Skylab, have shown that the SXR emission from many flares comes from rather small structures of about 10-20 arcsec across. These structures appear to be loops that cross the magnetic neutral line. Understanding of the morphology of SXR was based on data of the solar flare of June 15, 1973, observed from Skylab, and the work of Moore et al., (1980). Dense, highly emissive coronal structures, not suggested to be the X-ray source, were forming, lost energy rapidly by emission and conduction, and finally formed the loops. It is concluded that bright H-alpha loops form rapidly as the SXR emission rises, and the overall decay (cooling rate) of SXR emission is much slower than the formation time of individual loops.

  19. The H-alpha luminosity function at redshift 2.2: A new determination using VLT/HAWK-I

    Hayes, Matthew; Ostlin, Goran


    We aim to place new, strengthened constraints on the luminosity function (LF) of H-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z=2.2, and to further constrain the instantaneous star-formation rate density of the universe (rho*). We have used the new HAWK-I instrument at ESO-VLT to obtain extremely deep narrow-band (line; NB2090) and broad-band (continuum; Ks) imaging observations. The target field is in the GOODS-South, providing us with a rich multi-wavelength auxiliary data set, which we utilise for redshift confirmation and to estimate dust content. We use this new data to measure the faint-end slope (alpha) of LF(H-alpha) with unprecedented precision. The data are well fit by a Schechter function and also a single power-law, yielding alpha=(-1.72 +/- 0.20) and (-1.77 +/- 0.21), respectively. Thus we are able to confirm the steepening of alpha from low- to high-z predicted by a number of authors and observed at other wavelengths. We combine our LF data-points with those from a much shallower but wider survey at z=...

  20. Heavily Reddened z~2 Type 1 Quasars II: H-alpha Star Formation Constraints from SINFONI IFU Observations

    Alaghband-Zadeh, Susannah; Hewett, Paul C; McMahon, Richard G


    We use near infrared integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy to search for H$\\alpha$ emission associated with star formation in a sample of 28 heavily reddened ($E(B-V)\\simeq$0.5-1.9), hyperluminous ($log(L_{bol}/ergs^{-1})\\simeq$47-48) broad-line quasars at $z\\simeq$1.4-2.7. Sixteen of the 28 quasars show evidence for star formation with an average extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) of 320$\\pm$70M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$. A stacked spectrum of the detections shows weak [NII], consistent with star formation as the origin of the narrow H$\\alpha$ emission. The star-forming regions are spatially unresolved in 11 of the 16 detections and constrained to lie within $\\sim$6kpc of the quasar emission. In the five resolved detections we find the star-forming regions are extended on scales of $\\sim$8kpc around the quasar emission. The prevalence of high SFRs is consistent with the identification of the heavily reddened quasar population as representing a transitional phase from apparent `starburst galaxies' to opti...

  1. Photometric H alpha and [O II] Luminosity Function of SDF and SXDF Galaxies: Implications for Future Baryon Oscillation Surveys

    Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Oshige, Shunsuke; Glazebrook, Karl; Akiyama, Masayuki; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masao; Yoshida, Makiko; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kodama, Tadayuki


    Efficient selection of emission line galaxies at z > 1 by photometric information in wide field surveys is one of the keys for future spectroscopic surveys to constrain dark energy using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signature. Here we estimate the H alpha and [O II] line luminosity functions of galaxies at z = 0.5-1.7 using a novel approach where multi-wavelength imaging data is used to jointly estimate both photometric redshifts and star-formation rates. These photometric estimates of line luminosities at high-redshift use the large data sets of the Subaru Deep Field and Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Field (covering \\sim 1 deg^2) and are calibrated with the spectroscopic data of the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. The derived luminosity functions (especially H alpha) are in reasonable agreement with the past estimates based on spectroscopic or narrow-band-filter surveys. This dataset is useful for examining the photometric selection of target galaxies for BAO surveys because of the large cosmologi...

  2. Clumpy galaxies seen in H-alpha: inflated observed clump properties due to limited spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Cava, Antonio; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel


    High-resolution simulations of star-forming massive galactic discs have shown that clumps form with a characteristic baryonic mass in the range $10^7-10^8~M_{\\odot}$, with a small tail exceeding $10^9~M_{\\odot}$ produced by clump-clump mergers. This is in contrast with the observed kpc-size clumps with masses up to $10^{10}~M_{\\odot}$ in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. In this paper we show that the comparison between simulated and observed star-forming clumps is hindered by limited observational spatial resolution and sensitivity. We post-process high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of clumpy discs using accurate radiative transfer to model the effect of ionizing radiation from young stars and to compute H$\\alpha$ emission maps. By comparing the intrinsic clump size and mass distributions with those inferred from convolving the H$\\alpha$ maps with different gaussian apertures, we mimick the typical resolution used in observations. We found that with 100 pc resolution, mock observations can recover...

  3. The $H\\alpha$ Luminosity Function and Global Star Formation Rate From Redshifts of One to Two

    Yan, L; Freudling, W; Teplitz, H I; Malumuth, E M; Weymann, R J; Malkan, M A; Yan, Lin; Carthy, Patrick J. Mc; Freudling, Wolfram; Teplitz, Harry I.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Weymann, Ray J.; Malkan, Matthew A.


    We present a luminosity function for H$\\alpha$ emission from galaxies at redshifts between 0.7 and 1.9 based on slitless spectroscopy with NICMOS on HST. The luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function over the range $6 \\times 10^{41} < L(H\\alpha) < 2 \\times 10^{43} erg/sec$ with $L^* = 7 \\times 10^{42} erg/sec$ and $\\phi^* = 1.7 \\times 10^{-3} Mpc^{-3}$ for $H_0=50 km/s Mpc^{-1}$ and $q_0=0.5$. We derive a volume averaged star formation rate at $z = 1.3 \\pm 0.5$ of 0.13 M_{ødot} yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3} without correction for extinction. The SFR that we derive at $\\sim 6500 \\AA is a factor of 3 higher than that deduced from 2800 \\AA continua. If this difference is due entirely to reddening, the extinction correction at 2800 \\AA is quite significant. The precise magnitude of the total extinction correction at rest-frame UV wavelengths (e.g. 2800 \\AA and 1500 \\AA) is sensitive to the relative spatial distribution of the stars, gas and dust, as well as on the extinction law. In the extreme case of a ...

  4. Initial Data Release from the INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS)

    González-Solares, E A; Greimel, R; Drew, J E; Irwin, M J; Sale, S E; Andrews, K; Aungwerojwit, A; Barlow, M J; Besselaar, E van den; Corradi, R L M; Gänsicke, B T; Groot, P J; Hales, A S; Hopewell, E C; Hu, H; Irwin, J; Knigge, C; Lagadec, E; Leisy, P; Lewis, J R; Mampaso, A; Matsuura, M; Moont, B; Morales-Rueda, L; Morris, R A H; Naylor, T; Parker, Q A; Prema, P; Pyrzas, S; Rixon, G T; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Roelofs, G; Sabin, L; Skillen, I; Suso, J; Tata, R; Viironen, K; Vink, J S; Witham, A; Wright, N J; Zijlstra, A A; Zurita, A; Drake, J; Fabregat, J; Lennon, D J; Lucas, P W; Martín, E L; Steeghs, D; Unruh, Y C


    The INT/WFC Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is an imaging survey being carried out in H-alpha, r' and i' filters, with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) to a depth of r'=20 (10 sigma). The survey is aimed at revealing large scale structure in our local galaxy, and also the properties of key early and late populations making up the Milky Way. Mapping emission line objects enables a particular focus on objects in the young and old stages of stellar evolution ranging from early T-Tauri stars to late planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the IPHAS Initial Data Release, primarily a photometric catalogue of about 200 million unique objects, coupled with associated image data covering about 1600 square degrees in three passbands. We note how access to the primary data products has been implemented through use of standard virtual observatory publishing interfaces. Simple traditional web access is provided to the main IPHAS photometric cat...

  5. Artificial neural network based calibrations for the prediction of galactic [NII] $\\lambda$ 6584 and H$\\alpha$ line luminosities

    Teimoorinia, Hossein


    The artificial neural network (ANN) is a well-established mathematical technique for data prediction, based on the identification of correlations and pattern recognition in input training sets. We present the application of ANNs to predict the emission line luminosities of H$\\alpha$ and [NII] $\\lambda$6584 in galaxies. These important spectral diagnostics are used for metallicities, active galactic nuclei (AGN) classification and star formation rates, yet are shifted into the infra-red for galaxies above $z \\sim 0.5$, or may not be covered in spectra with limited wavelength coverage. The ANN is trained with a large sample of emission line galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using various combinations of emission lines and stellar mass. The ANN is tested for galaxies dominated by both star formation and AGN; in both cases the H$\\alpha$ and [NII] $\\lambda$6584 line luminosities can be predicted with a scatter $\\sigma <$ 0.1 dex. We also show that the performance of the ANN does not depend sig...

  6. Study of H-alpha Spicule Profiles with Line Inversion Techniques

    Tziotziou, K.; Kontogiannis, I.; Tsiropoula, G.; Kotrc, P.


    High resolution optical spectra of chromospheric spicules obtained in the H? line are studied together with slit-jaw filtergrams. The spectra were recorded along a vertical slit parallel to the solar limb with the HSFA2 (Horizontal-Sonnen-Forschungs-Anlage) Solar Spectrograph at Ondrejov Observatory on August 19, 2007 and show H? line profiles taken in spicules - due to the limb curvature - at different heights from the solar limb. A multi-cloud model that considers two or more spicules along the line-of-sight (LOS), together with a statistical approach that takes into account a large set of initial conditions for solving the radiative transfer equation, is used for the fitting of the observed profiles and the derivation of several parameters such as the LOS velocity, the source function, the optical thickness and the Doppler width that describe the respective spicules. The height-dependence of the shape of the observed profiles, as well as their dependence on the values of the derived parameters are studied in detail. The derived results are compared with the statistical theoretical results of a multi-cloud model where the aforementioned physical parameters, as well as a random number of spicules along the LOS were taken into account, in order to define the dependence of several spicule profile characteristics on them. Specific steps of the used procedures, as well as crucial problems are discussed.

  7. On Equivalence And Evaluation



      Equivalence, a central and controversial issue in translation, has been studied, discussed and disputed by many scholars. For this reason, they employed various approaches and have yielded fruitful and remarkable theories. Three representative equivalence theories are selected in the thesis to elaborate equivalence:Nida’s reader-response based dynamic equivalence, Catford’s textual equivalence, Qiu Maoru’s empirical formula on equivalence. Equivalence is an applicable tool to analyze and evaluate translation.


    Metzger, Brian D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542 (United States); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Berger, Edo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Identifying the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources detected by upcoming networks of advanced ground-based interferometers will be challenging, due in part to the large number of unrelated astrophysical transients within the {approx}10-100 deg{sup 2} sky localizations. A potential way to greatly reduce the number of such false positives is to limit detailed follow-up to only those candidates near galaxies within the GW sensitivity range of {approx}200 Mpc for binary neutron star mergers. Such a strategy is currently hindered by the fact that galaxy catalogs are grossly incomplete within this volume. Here, we compare two methods for completing the local galaxy catalog: (1) a narrowband H{alpha} imaging survey and (2) an H I emission line radio survey. Using H{alpha} fluxes, stellar masses (M {sub *}), and star formation rates (SFRs) from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), combined with H I data from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey and the Herschel Reference Survey, we estimate that an H{alpha} survey with a luminosity sensitivity of L {sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} at 200 Mpc could achieve a completeness of f {sup H{alpha}} {sub SFR} Almost-Equal-To 75% with respect to total SFR, but only f{sub M* Star-Operator }{sup H{alpha}} approx. 33% with respect to M {sub *} (due to lack of sensitivity to early-type galaxies). These numbers are significantly lower than those achieved by an idealized spectroscopic survey due to the loss of H{alpha} flux resulting from resolving out nearby galaxies and the inability to correct for the underlying stellar continuum. An H I survey with sensitivity similar to the proposed WALLABY survey on ASKAP could achieve f{sub SFR}{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 80% and f{sub M Star-Operator }{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 50%, somewhat higher than that of the H{alpha} survey. Finally, both H{alpha} and H I surveys should achieve {approx}> 50% completeness with respect to the host galaxies of

  9. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion Nebula An H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot study and Astrobiological Aspects

    De la Fuente-Acosta, E; Arias, L; Throop, H B; Ambrocio-Cruz, P; Fuente, Eduardo de la; Rosado, Margarita; Arias, Lorena; Throop, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz & Henry B.


    In this paper, we present a briefly overview of the protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula, incluiding some astrobiological aspects and an H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot study of 16 of them. We found that Fabry-Perot interferometry constitutes an effective technique for the detection of proplyds. We also report heliocentric systemic velocities for the proplyds 82-336, 158-323, 158-326, 159-350, 161-314, 161-324, 163-317, 166-316, 167-317, 168-326, 170-337, 176-325, 177-341, 180-331, 197-427 and 244-440. The velocities were measured between 22-38 km s$^{-1}$.

  10. Comparison of 30 THz impulsive burst time development to microwaves, H-alpha, EUV, and GOES soft X-rays

    Miteva, R; Cabezas, D P; Cassiano, M M; Fernandes, L O T; Freeland, S L; Karlicky, M; Kerdraon, A; Kudaka, A S; Luoni, M L; Marcon, R; Raulin, J -P; Trottet, G; White, S M


    The recent discovery of impulsive solar burst emission in the 30 THz band is raising new interpretation challenges. One event associated with a GOES M2 class flare has been observed simultaneously in microwaves, H-alpha, EUV, and soft X-ray bands. Although these new observations confirm some features found in the two prior known events, they exhibit time profile structure discrepancies between 30 THz, microwaves, and hard X-rays (as inferred from the Neupert effect). These results suggest a more complex relationship between 30 THz emission and radiation produced at other wavelength ranges. The multiple frequency emissions in the impulsive phase are likely to be produced at a common flaring site lower in the chromosphere. The 30 THz burst emission may be either part of a nonthermal radiation mechanism or due to the rapid thermal response to a beam of high-energy particles bombarding the dense solar atmosphere.

  11. A test of arm-induced star formation in spiral galaxies from near-IR and H$\\alpha$ imaging

    Seigar, M S; Seigar, Marc S.; James, Phil A.


    We have imaged a sample of 20 spiral galaxies in H$\\alpha$ and in the near-infrared K band (2.2 um), in order to determine the location and strength of star formation in these objects with respect to perturbations in the old stellar population. We have found that star formation rates are significantly enhanced in the vicinity of K band arms. We have also found that this enhancement in star formation rate in arm regions correlates well with a quantity that measures the relative strengths of shocks in arms. Assuming that the K band light is dominated by emission from the old stellar population, this shows that density waves trigger star formation in the vicinity of spiral arms.

  12. Star Formation Rates and Stellar Masses of H-alpha Selected Star-Forming Galaxies at z=0.84: A Quantification of the Downsizing

    Villar, V; Pérez-González, P-G; Barro, G; Zamorano, J; Noeske, K G; Koo, D C


    In this work we analyze the physical properties of a sample of 153 star forming galaxies at z~0.84, selected by their H-alpha flux with a NB filter. B-band luminosities of the objects are higher than those of local star forming galaxies. Most of the galaxies are located in the blue cloud, though some objects are detected in the green valley and in the red sequence. After the extinction correction is applied virtually all these red galaxies move to the blue sequence, unveiling their dusty nature. A check on the extinction law reveals that the typical extinction law for local starbursts is well suited for our sample but with E(B-V)_stars=0.55 E(B-V)_gas. We compare star formation rates (SFR) measured with different tracers (H-alpha, UV and IR) finding that they agree within a factor of three after extinction correction. We find a correlation between the ratios SFR_FUV/SFR_H-alpha, SFR_IR/SFR_H-alpha and the EW(H-alpha) (i.e. weighted age) which accounts for part of the scatter. We obtain stellar mass estimation...

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    J. Marková


    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  14. A deterministic width function model

    C. E. Puente


    Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.

  15. Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission

    Bagenal, Fran


    The work completed under this project, 'Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission', includes the following presentations: (1) Analysis of H-alpha Observations of High-altitude Coronal Condensations; (2) Multi-spectral Imaging of Coronal Activity; (3) Measurement and Modeling of Soft X-ray Loop Arcades; (4) A Study of the Origin and Dynamics of CMEs; and various poster presentations and thesis dissertations.

  16. Derived equivalence of algebras



    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  17. Biological width: No violation zone

    Ashu Sharma


    Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.

  18. The role of cluster mergers and travelling shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $\\bf z\\sim0.2$: `sausage' and `toothbrush' clusters

    Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub J A; van Weeren, Reinout J


    The most extreme cluster mergers can lead to massive cluster-wide travelling shock waves. The CIZA J2242.8+5301 ('sausage') and 1RXS J0603.3+4213 (`toothbrush') clusters ($z\\sim0.2$) host enormous radio-emitting shocks with simple geometry. We investigate the role of mergers and shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function, using custom-made narrow-band filters matching the cluster redshifts mounted on the INT. We surveyed $\\sim0.28$ deg$^2$ for each cluster and found $181$ line emitters in the `sausage' (volume of $3.371\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.1945$) and $141$ in the `toothbrush' ($4.546\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.225$), out of which $49$ (`sausage') and $30$ (`toothbrush') are expected to be H$\\alpha$. We build luminosity functions for the field-of-view down to an average limiting star formation rate of $0.14$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, find good agreement with field luminosity functions at $z=0.2$, but significant differences between the shapes of the luminosity functions...

  19. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.6 I. H\\alpha -based star formation rates and dust extinction

    Kashino, D; Rodighiero, G; Renzini, A; Arimoto, N; Daddi, E; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D B; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, H J; Nagao, T; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Kewley, L J; Koekemoer, A M; Kovač, K; Fèvre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Symeonidis, M; Taniguchi, Y


    We present first results from a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4H\\alpha\\ in emission between 1.6-1.8\\mu m with $f_H\\alpha\\ \\gtrsim 4 \\times 10^{-17} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. Here, we specifically focus on 271 sBzK-selected galaxies that yield a H\\alpha\\ detection thus providing a redshift and emission-line luminosity to establish the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass. With further J-band spectroscopy for 89 of these, the level of dust extinction is assessed by measuring the Balmer decrement using co-added spectra. We find that the extinction (0.6\\lesssim A_H\\alpha\\ \\lesssim 2.5) rises with stellar mass and is elevated at high masses compared to low-redshift galaxies. Using this subset of the spectroscopic sample, we further find that the differential extinction b...

  20. ZFIRE: Galaxy Cluster Kinematics, H$\\alpha$ Star Formation Rates, and Gas-Phase Metallicities of XMM-LSS J02182-05102 at z=1.6233

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Yuan, Tiantian; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Glazebrook, Karl; Kewley, Lisa J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Papovich, Casey J; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Greg; Saintonge, Amélie; Spitler, Lee R; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam


    We spectroscopically survey the galaxy cluster XMM-LSS J02182-05102 (hereafter IRC 0218) using LRIS (optical) and MOSFIRE (near-infrared) on Keck I as part of the ZFIRE survey. IRC 0218 has a narrow redshift range of $1.612H$\\alpha$ star formation rates (SFR), gas phase metallicities from [NII]/H$\\alpha$, and stellar masses. We measure an integrated H$\\alpha$ SFR of $\\sim325{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ (26 members; R$_{\\rm proj}<2$ Mpc) and show that the elevated star formation in the cluster core (R$_{\\rm proj}<0.25$ Mpc) is driven by the concentration of star-forming members, but the average SFR per H$\\alpha$-detected galaxy is half th...

  1. The compact H$\\alpha$ emitting regions of the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 179218 and HD 141569 from CHARA spectro-interferometry

    Mendigutía, I; Mourard, D; Muzerolle, J


    This work presents CHARA/VEGA H$\\alpha$ spectro-interferometry (R ~ 6000, and $\\lambda$/2B ~ 1 mas) of HD 179218 and HD 141569, doubling the sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars for which this type of observations is available so far. The observed H$\\alpha$ emission is spatially unresolved, indicating that the size of the H$\\alpha$ emitting region is smaller than ~ 0.21 and 0.12 au for HD 179218 and HD 141529 (~ 15 and 16 R*, respectively). This is smaller than for the two other HAeBes previously observed with the same instrumentation. Two different scenarios have been explored in order to explain the compact line emitting regions. A hot, several thousand K, blackbody disc is consistent with the observations of HD 179218 and HD 141569. Magnetospheric accretion (MA) is able to reproduce the bulk of the H$\\alpha$ emission shown by HD 179218, confirming previous estimates from MA shock modelling with a mass accretion rate of 10^-8 Msun/yr, and an inclination to the line of sight between 30 and 50 degr. The H$\\al...

  2. ESO-H$\\alpha$~574 and Par-Lup3-4 Jets: Exploring the spectral, kinematical and physical properties

    Whelan, E T; Antoniucci, S; Alcalá, J M; Giannini, T; Nisini, B; Bacciotti, F; Podio, L; Stelzer, B; Comerón, F


    In this paper a comprehensive analysis of VLT / X-Shooter observations of two jet systems, namely ESO-H$\\alpha$ 574 a K8 classical T Tauri star and Par-Lup 3-4 a very low mass (0.13~\\Msun) M5 star, is presented. Both stars are known to have near-edge on accretion disks. A summary of these first X-shooter observations of jets was given in a 2011 letter. The new results outlined here include flux tables of identified emission lines, information on the morphology, kinematics and physical conditions of both jets and, updated estimates of $\\dot{M}_{out}$ / $\\dot{M}_{acc}$. Asymmetries in the \\eso flow are investigated while the \\para jet is much more symmetric. The density, temperature, and therefore origin of the gas traced by the Balmer lines are investigated from the Balmer decrements and results suggest an origin in a jet for \\eso while for \\para the temperature and density are consistent with an accretion flow. $\\dot{M}_{acc}$ is estimated from the luminosity of various accretion tracers. For both targets, ne...

  3. Geocoronal Balmer-alpha Emission Observed by the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper During the Southern Sky Survey

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Nossal, S. M.; Wilson, M. L.; Freer, C. W.; Babler, B.; Gardner, D.; Roesler, F. L.


    After a successful eleven-year run at Kitt Peak Observatory (AZ), the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) was moved to Cerro Tololo (Chile) in 2009 to complete the southern portion of the Galactic Balmer-alpha survey. Although WHAM is primarily used for making observations of the interstellar medium, the terrestrial emission present in each of WHAM's astronomical spectra offers a rich resource for studying the Earth's atmosphere. Here we present an overview of the terrestrial Balmer-alpha emission collected during WHAM's first five years of operation under southern skies. Seasonal trends and comparisons with northern hemisphere observations will be discussed. WHAM can detect Balmer-alpha emission as faint as 0.05R in a 30s exposure, covering a 200 km/s (4.4 Angstrom) spectral region with 12 km/s spectral resolution from a 1 degree beam on the sky. With this sensitivity, hundreds of spectra can be collected in a single clear night. Although not capable of fully resolving the geocoronal Balmer-alpha line profile itself, WHAM's sensitivity makes it an exceptional instrument for geocoronal Balmer-alpha intensity observations. This work is supported by NSF award AGS-1352311 and AST-1108911.

  4. SMA observations towards the compact, short-lived bipolar water maser outflow in the LkH{\\alpha} 234 region

    Girart, J M; Estalella, R; Curiel, S; Anglada, G; Gómez, J F; Carrasco-González, C; Cantó, J; Rodríguez, L F; Patel, N A; Trinidad, M A


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations toward the LkH{\\alpha} 234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of $\\sim$5 arcsec ($\\sim$4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between $\\sim$200 and $\\sim$375 au and masses in the $\\sim$0.08-0.3 M$_{\\odot}$ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r$< 135$ au) circumstellar disk with a mass of $\\sim$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$. This source is powering a compact ($\\sim$4000 au), low radial velocity ($\\sim$7 km s$^{-1}$) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the "large-scale" counterpart of the short-lived, episodic, bipolar outflow ob...

  5. Politico-economic equivalence

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk


    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  6. CD(4) has bounded width

    Carvalho, Catarina; Marković, Petar; Maróti, Miklós


    We prove that the constraint languages invariant under a short sequence of J\\'onsson terms (containing at most three non-trivial ternary terms) are tractable by showing that they have bounded width. This improves the previous result by Kiss and Valeriote and presents some evidence that the Larose-Zadori conjecture holds in the congruence-distributive case.

  7. Thermal testing of the first mirror unit mock-up for H-alpha and visible spectroscopy in ITER

    Orlovskiy, Ilya, E-mail: [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, Andrey; Andreenko, Evgeniy; Vukolov, Konstantin [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Denisov, Vladimir; Klyatskin, Andrey [OAO Kompozit Company, Korolev (Russian Federation); Lukin, Anatoliy; Melnikov, Andrey; Muslimov, Eduard [NPO GIPO Company, Kazan (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Sandwich-like design was proposed for single-crystal molybdenum mirror. • High optical quality was provided for aspheric molybdenum mirror by diamond turning. • First mirror unit made of molybdenum was thermally tested in vacuum chamber. • Observations during the tests showed no degradation of image quality. - Abstract: H-alpha and visible spectroscopy (HA&VS) diagnostic in ITER is aimed at the measurements of the intensity of hydrogen isotopes and of impurity lines in the SOL emission. It is based on the endoscope scheme with the first mirror unit (FMU) containing two mirrors (flat and aspheric) located behind a small entrance pupil and a discharge cleaning system. A primary candidate material for the FMU mirror is a single-crystal molybdenum (SC-Mo). A sandwich-like design is proposed, in which few small-sized SC-Mo plates are bound by a diffusive welding to a large-size polycrystalline Mo substrate. An acceptable welding regime is presented. A recent progress is discussed on the polishing of SC-Mo focusing mirrors up to 150 mm diameter. Thermal tests of the molybdenum FMU mock-up had been performed. The FMU was heated up to 200 °C whereas the mirror temperature was up to 300 °C under the pressure of 8–9 Pa. A technique for the quantitative assessment of the image quality (contrast and resolution) at the elevated temperatures has been suggested. As a result, a sub-mm shift of an image plane along the optical axis had been observed with no significant degradation of the image quality.

  8. Average radiation widths and the giant dipole resonance width

    Arnould, M.; Thielemann, F.K.


    The average E1 radiation width can be calculated in terms of the energy Esub(G) and width GAMMAsub(G) of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). While various models can predict Esub(G) quite reliably, the theoretical situation regarding ..lambda..sub(G) is much less satisfactory. We propose a simple phenomenological model which is able to provide GAMMAsub(G) values in good agreement with experimental data for spherical or deformed intermediate and heavy nuclei. In particular, this model can account for shell effects in GAMMAsub(G), and can be used in conjunction with the droplet model. The GAMMAsub(G) values derived in such a way are used to compute average E1 radiation widths which are quite close to the experimental values. The method proposed for the calculation of GAMMAsub(G) also appears to be well suited when the GDR characteristics of extended sets of nuclei are required, as is namely the case in nuclear astrophysics.

  9. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Ni, W.-T.


    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  10. Equivalence in Translation



    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  11. Hybrid Exotic Meson Decay Width

    Cook, M S


    We present results of a decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson(h, JPC=1-+) in the decay channel h to pi+a1. This calculation uses quenched lattice QCD and Luescher's finite box method. Operators for the h and pi+a1 states are used in a correlation matrix which was expanded by varying the smearing and fuzzing levels at source and sink points. Scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative pi+a1 momenta are determined using eigenvalues of the correlation matrix and formulae derived by Luescher. The phase shift data is very sparse, but fits to a Breit-Wigner model are made, resulting in a decay width of about 80 MeV.

  12. On the maximal diphoton width

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo


    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  13. An Equivalent Gauge and the Equivalence Theorem

    Wulzer, Andrea


    I describe a novel covariant formulation of massive gauge theories in which the longitudinal polarization vectors do not grow with the energy. Therefore in the present formalism, differently from the ordinary one, the energy and coupling power-counting is completely transparent at the level of individual Feynman diagrams, with obvious advantages both at the conceptual and practical level. Since power-counting is transparent, the high-energy limit of the amplitudes involving longitudinal particles is immediately taken, and the Equivalence Theorem is easily demonstrated at all orders in perturbation theory. Since the formalism makes the Equivalence Theorem self-evident, and because it is based on a suitable choice of the gauge, we can call it an "Equivalent Gauge".

  14. H-alpha Variability in PTFO8-8695 and the Possible Direct Detection of Emission from a 2 Million Year Old Evaporating Hot Jupiter

    Johns-Krull, Christopher M; McLane, Jacob N; Ciardi, David R; van Eyken, Julian C; Chen, Wei; Stauffer, John R; Beichman, Charles A; Frazier, Sarah A; Boden, Andrew F; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Rebull, Luisa M


    We use high time cadence, high spectral resolution optical observations to detect excess H-alpha emission from the 2 - 3 Myr old weak lined T Tauri star PTFO8-8695. This excess emission appears to move in velocity as expected if it were produced by the suspected planetary companion to this young star. The excess emission is not always present, but when it is, the predicted velocity motion is often observed. We have considered the possibility that the observed excess emission is produced by stellar activity (flares), accretion from a disk, or a planetary companion; we find the planetary companion to be the most likely explanation. If this is the case, the strength of the H-alpha line indicates that the emission comes from an extended volume around the planet, likely fed by mass loss from the planet which is expected to be overflowing its Roche lobe.

  15. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio


    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  16. Spitzer IRAC observations of newly-discovered planetary nebulae from the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg H-alpha Planetary Nebula Project

    Cohen, Martin; Green, Anne J; Murphy, Tara; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J; Meade, Marilyn R; Babler, Brian; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A; Watson, Christer; Churchwell, Edward B; Watson, Douglas F


    We compare H-alpha, radio continuum, and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) images of 58 planetary nebulae (PNe) recently discovered by the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbo- urg H-alpha PN Project (MASH) of the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Using InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data we define the IR colors of PNe and demonstrate good isolation between these colors and those of many other types of astronomical object. The only substantive contamination of PNe in the color-color plane we illustrate is due to YSOs. However, this ambiguity is readily resolved by the unique optical characteristics of PNe and their environs. We also examine the relationships between optical and MIR morphologies from 3.6 to 8.0um and explore the ratio of mid-infrared (MIR) to radio nebular fluxes, which is a valuable discriminant between thermal and nonthermal emission. MASH emphasizes late evolutionary stages of PNe compared with previous catalogs, enabling study of the changes in MIR and radio flux that attend the aging process. Spatially integrated M...

  17. A large H$\\alpha$ survey of star formation in relaxed and merging galaxy cluster environments at $z\\sim0.15-0.3$

    Stroe, Andra; Afonso, Ana; Alegre, Lara; Calhau, João; Santos, Sergio; van Weeren, Reinout


    We present the first results from the largest H$\\alpha$ survey of star formation and AGN activity in galaxy clusters. Using 9 different narrow band filters, we select $>3000$ H$\\alpha$ emitters within $19$ clusters and their larger scale environment over a total volume of $1.3\\times10^5$ Mpc$^3$. The sample includes both relaxed and merging clusters, covering the $0.15-0.31$ redshift range and spanning from $5\\times10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$ to $30\\times10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$. We find that the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function (LF) for merging clusters has a higher characteristic density $\\phi^*$ compared to relaxed clusters. $\\phi^*$ drops from cluster core to cluster outskirts for both merging and relaxed clusters, with the merging cluster values $\\sim0.3$ dex higher at each projected radius. The characteristic luminosity $L^*$ drops over the $0.5-2.0$ Mpc distance from the cluster centre for merging clusters and increases for relaxed objects. Among disturbed objects, clusters hosting large-scale shock waves (traced by...

  18. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). I. Overview of the Survey Targeting on H$\\alpha$ Emitters at $z \\sim 1.4$

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Okada, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Bunker, Andrew J; Coupon, Jean; Ferreira, Pedro G; Frenk, Carlos S; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hikage, Chiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Matsubara, Takahiko; More, Surhud; Okumura, Teppei; Percival, Will J; Spitler, Lee R; Szapudi, Istvan


    FastSound is a galaxy redshift survey using the near-infrared Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, targeting H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z \\sim 1.18$--$1.54$ down to the sensitivity limit of H$\\alpha$ flux $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{-16} \\ \\rm erg \\ cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. The primary goal of the survey is to detect redshift space distortions (RSD), to test General Relativity by measuring the growth rate of large scale structure and to constrain modified gravity models for the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. The target galaxies were selected based on photometric redshifts and H$\\alpha$ flux estimates calculated by fitting spectral energy distribution (SED) models to the five optical magnitudes of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Wide catalog. The survey started in March 2012, and all the observations were completed in July 2014. In total, we achieved $121$ pointings of FMOS (each pointing has a $30$ arcmin diameter circular footprint) covering $20.6...

  19. H-alpha Imaging with HST+NICMOS of An Elusive Damped Ly-alpha Cloud at z=0.6

    Bouche, N; Charlton, J C; Bershady, M A; Churchill, C W; Steidel, C C; Bouche, Nicolas; Lowenthal, James D.; Charlton, Jane C.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.


    Despite previous intensive ground--based imaging and spectroscopic campaigns and wide-band HST imaging of the z=0.927 QSO 3C336 field, the galaxy that hosts the damped Ly-alpha system along this line--of--sight has eluded detection. We present a deep narrow-band H-alpha image of the field of this z=0.656 damped Ly-alpha absorber, obtained through the F108N filter of NICMOS 1 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of this project was to detect any H-alpha emission 10 times closer than previous studies to unveil the damped absorber. We do not detect H-alpha emission between 0.05'' and 6'' (0.24 and 30 $h^{-1}$ kpc) from the QSO, with a 3-sigma flux limit of $3.70 \\times 10^{-17} h^{-2}$ erg/s/cm^2 for an unresolved source, corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR) of $0.3 h^{-2}$ M_sun/yr. This leads to a 3-sigma upper limit of 0.15 M_sun/yr/kpc^2 on the SFR density, or a maximum SFR of 1.87 M_sun/yr assuming a disk of 4 kpc in diameter. This result adds to the number of low redshift damped Ly-alpha ab...

  20. On the properties of galaxies at the faint-end of the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $z\\sim0.62$

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel


    Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at $0.5H$\\alpha$-based studies. Our main goal is to study the properties of a sample of faint H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z\\sim0.62$. We focus on their contribution to the faint-end of the luminosity function and derived star formation rate density, characterising their morphologies and basic photometric and spectroscopic properties. We use a narrow-band technique in the near-infrared, with a filter centered at 1.06 $\\mu$m. The data come from ultra-deep VLT/HAWK-I observations in the GOODS-S field with a total of 31.9 h in the narrow-band filter. We perform a visual classification of the sample and study their morphologies from structural parameters available in CANDELS. Our 28 H$\\alpha$-selected sample of faint star-forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function $\\alpha=-1.46_{-0.08}^{+0.16}$. The derived star formation...

  1. Masses, widths, and leptonic widths of the higher upsilon resonances

    Lovelock, D.M.J.; Horstkotte, J.E.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Romero, L.; Schamberger, R.D.; Youssef, S.; Franzini, P.; Son, D.; Tuts, P.M.


    The masses, total widths, and leptonic widths of three triplet s-wave bb-bar states UPSILON(4S), UPSILON(5S), and UPSILON(6S) are determined from measurements of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation cross section into hadrons for 10.55

  2. CIV Line-Width Anomalies

    Denney, Kelly D.; Pogge, Richard W.; Assef, Roberto J.;


    /N data can severely limit the reliability of single-epoch mass estimates based on the CIV emission line. We combine the analysis of these new high-quality data with a reanalysis of three other samples based on high S/N spectra of the CIV emission line region. We find that a large scatter between...... the Hbeta- and CIV-based masses remains even for this high S/N sample when using the FWHM to characterize the BLR velocity dispersion and the standard virial assumption to calculate the mass. However, we demonstrate that using high-quality data and the line dispersion to characterize the CIV line width...

  3. Spreading widths of doorway states

    De Pace, A., E-mail: depace@to.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Molinari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell' Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Weidenmueller, H.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)


    As a function of energy E, the average doorway strength function S(E)-bar of a doorway state is commonly assumed to be Lorentzian in shape and characterized by two parameters, the peak energy E{sub 0} and the spreading width {Gamma}{sup {down_arrow}}. The simple picture is modified when the density of background states that couple to the doorway state changes significantly in an energy interval of size {Gamma}{sup {down_arrow}}. For that case we derive an approximate analytical expression for S(E)-bar. We test our result successfully against numerical simulations. Our result may have important implications for shell-model calculations.

  4. N-Widths and Average Widths of Besov Classes in Sobolev Spaces

    Gui Qiao XU; Yong Sheng SUN; Yong Ping LIU


    In this paper, we consider the n-widths and average widths of Besov classes in the usual Sobolev spaces. The weak asymptotic results concerning the Kolmogorov n-widths, the linear n-widths,the Gel'fand n-widths, in the Sobolev spaces on Td, and the infinite-dimensional widths and the average widths in the Sobolev spaces on Rd are obtained, respectively.

  5. On translation equivalence



    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  6. Equivalence principles exotica



    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  7. Clique-width of unit interval graphs

    Lozin, Vadim V.


    The clique-width is known to be unbounded in the class of unit interval graphs. In this paper, we show that this is a minimal hereditary class of unbounded clique-width, i.e., in every hereditary subclass of unit interval graphs the clique-width is bounded by a constant.

  8. Topics in orbit equivalence

    Kechris, Alexander S


    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  9. Empirical studies of solar flares: Comparison of X-ray and H alpha filtergrams and analysis of the energy balance of the X-ray plasma

    Moore, R. L.


    The physics of solar flares was investigated through a combined analysis of X-ray filtergrams of the high temperature coronal component of flares and H alpha filtergrams of the low temperature chromospheric component. The data were used to study the magnetic field configuration and its changes in solar flares, and to examine the chromospheric location and structure of X-ray bright points (XPB) and XPB flares. Each topic and the germane data are discussed. The energy balance of the thermal X-ray plasma in flares, while not studied, is addressed.

  10. Palindromic widths of nilpotent and wreath products

    Valeriy G Bardakov; Oleg V Bryukhanov; Krishnendu Gongopadhyay


    We prove that the nilpotent product of a set of groups $A_1, \\ldots , A_s$ has finite palindromic width if and only if the palindromic widths of $A_i$, $i = 1, \\ldots , s$, are finite. We give a new proof that the commutator width of $F_n \\wr K$ is infinite, where $F_n$ is a free group of rank $n\\geq 2$ and $K$ is a finite group. This result, combining with a result of Fink [9] gives examples of groups with infinite commutator width but finite palindromic width with respect to some generating set.

  11. Inferred H{\\alpha} Flux as a Star-Formation Rate Indicator at z ~ 4-5: Implications for Dust Properties, Burstiness, and the z = 4-8 Star-Formation-Rate Functions

    Smit, Renske; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Wilkins, Stephen M; Oesch, Pascal A


    We derive H{\\alpha} fluxes for a large spectroscopic and photometric-redshift-selected sample of sources over GOODS-North and South in the redshift range z = 3.8-5.0 with deep HST, Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based observations. The H{\\alpha} flux is inferred based on the offset between the IRAC 3.6 {\\mu}m flux and that predicted from the best-fit SED. We demonstrate that the H{\\alpha} flux correlates well with dust- corrected UV star-formation rate (SFR) and therefore can serve as an independent SFR indicator. However, we also find a systematic offset in the SFR_H{\\alpha}/SFR_UV ratios for z ~ 4-5 galaxies relative to local relations (assuming the same dust corrections for nebular regions and stellar light). We show that we can resolve the modest tension in the inferred SFRs by assuming bluer intrinsic UV slopes (increasing the dust correction), a rising star-formation history or assuming a low metallicity stellar population with a hard ionizing spectrum (increasing the L_H{\\alpha}/SFR ratio). Using H{\\alpha} a...

  12. The H$\\alpha$ line forming region of AB Aur spatially resolved at sub-AU with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer

    Perraut, K; Mourard, D; Rajabi, S; Bacciotti, F; Bério, Ph; Bonneau, D; Chesneau, O; Clausse, J M; Delaa, O; Marcotto, A; Roussel, A; Spang, A; Stee, Ph; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Farrington, C; Goldfinger, P J


    A crucial issue in star formation is to understand the physical mechanism by which mass is accreted onto and ejected by a young star. The visible spectrometer VEGA on the CHARA array can be an efficient means of probing the structure and the kinematics of the hot circumstellar gas at sub-AU. For the first time, we observed the Herbig Ae star AB Aur in the H$\\alpha$ emission line, using the VEGA low spectral resolution on two baselines of the array. We computed and calibrated the spectral visibilities between 610 nm and 700 nm. To simultaneously reproduce the line profile and the visibility, we used a 1-D radiative transfer code that calculates level populations for hydrogen atoms in a spherical geometry and synthetic spectro-interferometric observables. We clearly resolved AB Aur in the H$\\alpha$ line and in a part of the continuum, even at the smallest baseline of 34 m. The small P-Cygni absorption feature is indicative of an outflow but could not be explained by a spherical stellar wind model. Instead, it f...

  13. GHASP: an H$\\alpha$ kinematic survey of spiral galaxies - X. Surface photometry, decompositions and the Tully-Fisher relation in the Rc-band

    Barbosa, C E; Amram, P; Ferrari, F; Russeil, D; Epinat, B; Perret, V; Adami, C; Marcelin, M


    We present Rc-band surface photometry for 170 of the 203 galaxies in GHASP, Gassendi H-Alpha survey of SPirals, a sample of late-type galaxies for which high-resolution Fabry-Perot H{\\alpha} maps have previously been obtained. Our data set is constructed by new Rc-band observations taken at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), supplemented with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival data, obtained with the purpose of deriving homogeneous photometric profiles and parameters. Our results include Rc-band surface brightness profiles for 170 galaxies and $ugriz$ profiles for 108 of these objects. We catalogue several parameters of general interest for further reference, such as total magnitude, effective radius and isophotal parameters -- magnitude, position angle, ellipticity and inclination. We also perform a structural decomposition of the surface brightness profiles using a multi-component method in order to separate disks from bulges and bars, and to observe the main scaling relations involving luminos...

  14. High-energy break-up of 6Li as a tool to study the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis reaction 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li

    Hammache, F; Typel, S; Galaviz, D; Sümmerer, K; Coc, A; Uhlig, F; Attallah, F; Caamano, M; Cortina, D; Geissel, H; Hellström, M; Iwasa, N; Kiener, J; Koczon, P; Kohlmeyer, B; Mohr, P; Schwab, E; Schwarz, K; Schümann, F; Senger, P; Sorlin, O; Tatischeff, V; Thibaud, J P; Vangioni, E; Wagner, A; Walus, W


    The recently claimed observations of non-negligible amounts of 6Li in old halo stars have renewed interest in the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) of 6Li. One important ingredient in the predicted BBN abundance of 6Li is the low-energy 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li cross section. Up to now, the only available experimental result for this cross section showed an almost constant astrophysical S-factor below 400 keV, contrary to theoretical expectations. We report on a new measurement of the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction using the break-up of 6Li at 150 A MeV. Even though we cannot separate experimentally the Coulomb contribution from the nuclear one, we find clear evidence for Coulomb-nuclear interference by analyzing the scattering-angular distributions. This is in-line with our theoretical description which indicates a drop of the S_24-factor at low energies as predicted also by most other models. Consequently, we find even lower upper limits for the calculated primordial 6Li abundance than before.

  15. The H-alpha Variations of the Luminous Blue Variable P Cygni: Discrete Absorption Components and the Short S Doradus Phase

    Ricahrdson, Noel D; Gies, Douglas R; Markova, N; Hesselbach, Erica N; Percy, J R


    P Cygni is a prototype of the Luminous Blue Variables (or S Doradus variables), and the star displays photometric and emission line variability on a timescale of years (known as the "short S Doradus phase" variations). Here we present new high resolution H-alpha spectroscopy of P Cyg that we combine with earlier spectra and concurrent V-band photometry to document the emission and continuum flux variations over a 24 y time span. We show that the emission and continuum fluxes vary in concert on timescales of 1.6 y and longer, but differ on shorter timescales. The H-alpha profile shape also varies on the photometric timescales, and we describe the observed co-variations of the emission peak and absorption trough properties. We argue that the episodes of photometric and emission brightening are caused by increases in the size of the emission region that are related to variations in wind mass loss rate and outflow speed. We find evidence of blueward accelerating, Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) in the absor...

  16. A Study of the Distribution of Star-Forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of H$\\alpha$ Imaging Observations

    Hattori, T; Ohtani, H; Sugai, H; Ishigaki, T; Sasaki, M; Hayashi, T; Ozaki, S; Ishii, M; Kawai, A


    We performed H-alpha imaging observations of 22 luminous infrared galaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions in these galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlation diagrams between H-alpha flux and continuum emission for individual galaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions was found: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost no star-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclear starbursts 1 kpc in size and a significant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extended starbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes of star-forming region were found to be strongly related to global star-forming properties such as star-formation efficiency, far-infrared color, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objects with more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higher star-formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciable fraction of the sampl...

  17. Comparing H-alpha and HI Surveys as Means to a Complete Local Galaxy Catalog in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo Era

    Metzger, Brian D; Berger, Edo


    Identifying the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources detected by upcoming networks of advanced ground-based interferometers will be challenging due in part to the large number of unrelated astrophysical transients within the ~10-100 square degree sky localizations. A potential way to greatly reduce the number of such false positives is to limit detailed follow-up to only those candidates near galaxies within the GW sensitivity range of ~200 Mpc for binary neutron star mergers. Such a strategy is currently hindered by the fact that galaxy catalogs are grossly incomplete within this volume. Here we compare two methods for completing the local galaxy catalog: (1) a narrow-band H-alpha imaging survey; and (2) an HI emission line radio survey. Using H-alpha fluxes, stellar masses (M_star), and star formation rates (SFR) from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), combined with HI data from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey and the Herschel Reference Survey, we estimate that a H-alp...

  18. A search for H$\\alpha$ emission in high-metallicity damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems at $z \\sim 2.4$

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Prochaska, J Xavier


    We report on a sensitive search for redshifted H$\\alpha$ line-emission from three high-metallicity damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs) at $z \\approx 2.4$ with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) on the Gemini-North telescope, assisted by the ALTtitude conjugate Adaptive optics for the InfraRed (ALTAIR) system with a laser guide star. Within the NIFS field-of-view, $\\approx 3.22" \\times 2.92"$ corresponding to $\\approx 25$ kpc $ \\times 23$ kpc at $z=2.4$, we detect no statistically significant line-emission at the expected redshifted H$\\alpha$ wavelengths. The measured root-mean-square noise fluctuations in $0.4"$ apertures are $1-3\\times10^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Our analysis of simulated, compact, line-emitting sources yields stringent limits on the star-formation rates (SFRs) of the three DLAs, $< 2.2$~M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ ($3\\sigma$) for two absorbers, and $< 11$~M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ ($3\\sigma$) for the third, at all impact parameters within $\\approx 12.5$~kpc to the quasar s...

  19. M/L, H-alpha Rotation Curves, and HI Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals: II. Evidence for Galaxy Infall

    Vogt, N P; Giovanelli, R; Herter, T; Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Herter, Terry


    We have conducted a study of optical and HI properties of spiral galaxies (size, luminosity, H-alpha flux distribution, circular velocity, HI gas mass) to explore the role of gas stripping as a driver of morphological evolution in clusters. We find a strong correlation between the spiral and S0 fractions within clusters, and the spiral fraction scales tightly with cluster X-ray gas luminosity. We explore young star formation and identify spirals that are (1) asymmetric, with truncated H-alpha emission and HI gas reservoirs on the leading edge of the disk, on a first pass through the dense intracluster medium in the cores of rich clusters; (2) strongly HI deficient and stripped, with star formation confined to the inner 5 kpc/h and 3 disk scale lengths; (3) reddened, extremely HI deficient and quenched, where star formation has been halted across the entire disk. We propose that these spirals are in successive stages of morphological transformation, between infalling field spirals and cluster S0s, and that the...

  20. M/L, H-alpha Rotation Curves, and HI Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals: III. Evolutionin Fundamental Galaxy Parameters

    Vogt, N P; Giovanelli, R; Herter, T; Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Herter, Terry


    We have conducted a study of optical and HI properties of spiral galaxies (size, luminosity, H-alpha flux distribution, circular velocity, HI gas mass) to investigate causes (e.g., nature versus nurture) for variation within the cluster environment. We find HI deficient cluster galaxies to be offset in Fundamental Plane space, with disk scale lengths decreased by a factor of 25%. This may be a relic of early galaxy formation, caused by the disk coalescing out of a smaller, denser halo (e.g., higher concentration index) or by truncation of the hot gas envelope due to the enhanced local density of neighbors, though we cannot completely rule out the effect of the gas stripping process. The spatial extent of H-alpha flux and the B-band radius also decreases, but only in early type spirals, suggesting that gas removal is less efficient within steeper potential wells (or that stripped late type spirals are quickly rendered unrecognizable). We find no significant trend in stellar mass-to-light ratios or circular vel...

  1. Constraining the Age and Distance of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7 by H-alpha Expansion Measurements

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Fesen, Robert; Milisavljevic, Dan


    We present deep H-alpha images of portions of the X-ray bright but optically faint Galactic supernova remnant G156.2+5.7, revealing numerous and delicately thin nonradiative filaments which mark the location of the remnant's forward shock. These new images show that these filaments have a complex structure not visible on previous lower resolution optical images. By comparing H-alpha images taken in 2004 at the McDonald Observatory and in 2015-2016 at the Kiso Observatory, we set a stringent 1-sigma upper limit of expansion to be 0.06 arcsec/yr. This proper motion, combined with a shock speed of 500 km/s inferred from X-ray spectral analyses, gives a distance of > 1.7 kpc. In addition, a simple comparison of expansion indices of several SNRs allows us to infer the age of the remnant to be a few 10,000 yr old. These estimates are more straightforward and reliable than any other previous studies, and clearly rule out a possibility that G156.2+5.7 is physically associated with part of the Taurus-Auriga cloud and ...

  2. Development of an Advanced Automated Method for Solar Filament Recognition and Its Scientific Application to a Solar Cycle of MLSO H\\alpha\\ Data

    Hao, Qi; Chen, P F


    We developed a method to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in H\\alpha\\ full-disk images. The program is able not only to recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area, the spine, and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. The program consists of three steps: First, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; Second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect filaments; Third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. To test the algorithm, we applied it to the observations from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), and the program is demonstrated to be robust and efficient. H\\alpha\\ images obtained by MLSO from 1998 to 2009 are analyzed, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; After the solar maximum...

  3. The MOSDEF Survey: The strong agreement between H-alpha and UV-to-FIR star formation rates for z~2 star-forming galaxies

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A; Shapley, Alice E; Barro, Guillermo; Conroy, Charlie; Coil, Alison L; Freeman, William R; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H; Azadi, Mojegan; Pasha, Imad; Inami, Hanae


    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic SED-based SFRs for z~2 galaxies. For this comparison we used 17 star-forming galaxies selected from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey, with $3\\sigma$ detections for H$\\alpha$ and at least two IR bands (Spitzer/MIPS 24$\\mu$m and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160$\\mu$m, and in some cases Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500$\\mu$m). The galaxies have total IR (8-1000$\\mu$m) luminosities of $\\sim10^{11.4}-10^{12.4}\\,\\textrm{L}_\\odot$ and star-formation rates (SFRs) of $\\sim30-250\\,\\textrm{M}_\\odot\\,\\mathrm{yr^{-1}}$. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models - which include both stellar and dust emission - and compare the inferred SFRs with the SFR(H$\\alpha$,H$\\beta$) values corrected for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements. The two SFRs agree with a scatter of 0.17 dex. Our results imply that the Balmer decrement accurately predicts the obscuration of the nebular lines and can be used t...

  4. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Tejmal S. Rathore


    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  5. Equivalent Josephson junctions

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.


    The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt-or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is adequate to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flow. This fact may explain the improvement of the spectra of microwave radiation noted in the literature.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 5824 calcium triplet equivalent widths (Da Costa+, 2014)

    da Costa, G. S.; Held, E. V.; Saviane, I.


    Observing time to follow up the possibility of an intrinsic [Fe/H] spread in NGC 5824 was allocated for intermediate-resolution spectroscopy of candidate red giant members on both the VLT with the FORS2 multi-object spectrograph, and on the Gemini-S telescope with the GMOS-S multi-object spectrograph. (1 data file).

  7. The width of 5-dimensional prismatoids

    Matschke, Benjamin; Weibel, Christophe


    Santos' construction of counter-examples to the Hirsch conjecture is based on the existence of prismatoids of dimension d of width greater than d. The case d=5 being the smallest one in which this can possibly occur, we here study the width of 5-dimensional prismatoids, obtaining the following results: - There are 5-prismatoids of width six with only 25 vertices, versus the 48 vertices in Santos' original construction. This leads to lowering the dimension of the non-Hirsch polytopes from 43 to only 20. - There are 5-prismatoids with n vertices and width \\Omega(n^(1/2)) for arbitrarily large n.

  8. Approximation Algorithms for Directed Width Parameters

    Kintali, Shiva; Kumar, Akash


    Treewidth of an undirected graph measures how close the graph is to being a tree. Several problems that are NP-hard on general graphs are solvable in polynomial time on graphs with bounded treewidth. Motivated by the success of treewidth, several directed analogues of treewidth have been introduced to measure the similarity of a directed graph to a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Directed treewidth, D-width, DAG-width, Kelly-width and directed pathwidth are some such parameters. In this paper, we present the first approximation algorithms for all these five directed width parameters. For directed treewidth and D-width we achieve an approximation factor of O(sqrt{logn}). For DAG-width, Kelly-width and directed pathwidth we achieve an O({\\log}^{3/2}{n}) approximation factor. Our algorithms are constructive, i.e., they construct the decompositions associated with these parameters. The width of these decompositions are within the above mentioned factor of the corresponding optimal width.

  9. Width Distributions for Convex Regular Polyhedra

    Finch, Steven R


    The mean width is a measure on three-dimensional convex bodies that enjoys equal status with volume and surface area [Rota]. As the phrase suggests, it is the mean of a probability density f. We verify formulas for mean widths of the regular tetrahedron and the cube. Higher-order moments of f_tetra and f_cube have not been examined until now. Assume that each polyhedron has edges of unit length. We deduce that the mean square width of the regular tetrahedron is 1/3+(3+sqrt(3))/(3*pi) and the mean square width of the cube is 1+4/pi.

  10. Equivalence of Differential System

    Zheng-xin Zhou


    Using refiecting function of Mironenko we construct some differential systems which are equivalent to the given differential system.This gives us an opportunity to find out the monodromic matrix of these periodi csystems which are not integrable in finite terms.


    XUE Songbai; WU Yuxiu; HAN Zongjie; WANG Jianxin


    The finite element method(FEM) is used to analyze the effects of lead widths and pitches on reliability of soldered joints. The optimum Simulation for QFP devices is also researched. The results indicate that when the lead pitches are the same, the maximum equivalent stress of the soldered joints increases with the increasing of lead widths, while the reliability of the soldered joints reduces. When the lead widths are the same, the maximum equivalent stress of the soldered joints doesn't decrease completely with the increasing of lead pitches, a minimum value of the maximum equivalent stress values exists in all the curves. Under this condition the maximum equivalent stress of the soldered joints is relatively the least, the reliability of soldered joints is high and the assembly is excellent. The simulating results indicate the best parameter: The lead width is 0.2 mm and lead pitch is 0.3 mm (the distance between two leads is 0.1 mm), which are benefited for the micromation of QFP devices now. The minimum value of the maximum equivalent stress of soldered joints exists while lead width is 0.25 mm and lead pitch is 0.35 mm (the distance between two leads is 0.1 mm), the devices can serve for a long time and the reliability is the highest, the assembly is excellent. The simulating results also indicate the fact that the lead width is 0.15 mm and lead pitch is 0.2 mm maybe the limit of QFP, which is significant for the high lead count and micromation of assembly.

  12. A Niche Width Model of Optimal Specialization

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Ó Nualláin, Breanndán


    Niche width theory, a part of organizational ecology, predicts whether “specialist” or “generalist” forms of organizations have higher “fitness,” in a continually changing environment. To this end, niche width theory uses a mathematical model borrowed from biology. In this paper, we first loosen th

  13. From equivalence to adaptation

    Paulina Borowczyk


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  14. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Changguo Wei


    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  15. Spin gated GDR widths at moderate temperatures

    Mukul Ish


    Full Text Available We present the evolution of giant dipole resonance (GDR width as a function of angular momentum in the compound nucleus 144Sm in the temperature range of 1.5-2.0 MeV. The high energy γ rays emitted from the decay of excited 144Sm were measured using large NaI detector in coincidence with 4π sum spin spectrometer. GDR widths were found to comply with thermal shape fluctuation model in this temperature range over a wide range of spin. Experimental widths tend to increase rapidly at high angular momentum values.

  16. On the Spectrum Width of Wind Waves

    李陆平; 黄培基


    Based on the universal expression of wind wave spectra, four commonly used definitions of the spectrum width arere-examined. The results show that the non-dimensional spectrum width can measure the width of non-dimensionalspectra but it does not reflect the developing state of the spectra. The dimensional spectrum width expresses the degree ofconcentration of wave energy of the spectrum in the process of wind wave growth. Tests show that the spectrum widthpresented by Wen et al. can objectively measure the degree of concentration of wave energy of the spectrum, reflect thestate of wind wave growth, and provides a better result for practical application. The rules for definition of the spectrumwidth are discussed.

  17. Bipartite Graphs of Large Clique-Width

    Korpelainen, Nicholas; Lozin, Vadim V.

    Recently, several constructions of bipartite graphs of large clique-width have been discovered in the literature. In the present paper, we propose a general framework for developing such constructions and use it to obtain new results on this topic.

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  19. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C


    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  20. [OIII] emission line as a tracer of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts: Comparison between H$\\alpha$ and [OIII] emitters at $z$=2.23 in HiZELS

    Suzuki, T L; Sobral, D; Khostovan, A A; Hayashi, M; Shimakawa, R; Koyama, Y; Tadaki, K -i; Tanaka, I; Minowa, Y; Yamamoto, M; Smail, I; Best, P N


    We investigate the properties of $z$=2.23 H$\\alpha$ and [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emitters using the narrow-band-selected samples obtained from the High-$z$ Emission Line Survey (HiZELS: Sobral et al. 2013). We construct two samples of the H$\\alpha$ and [OIII] emitters and compare their integrated physical properties. We find that the distribution of stellar masses, dust extinction, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs, is not statistically different between the two samples. When we separate the full galaxy sample into three subsamples according to the detections of the H$\\alpha$ and/or [OIII] emission lines, most of the sources detected with both H$\\alpha$ and [OIII] show ${\\rm log(sSFR_{UV})}$$\\gtrsim$-9.5. The comparison of the three subsamples suggests that sources with strong [OIII] line emission tend to have the highest star-forming activity out all galaxies that we study. We argue that the [OIII] emission line can be used as a tracer of star-forming galaxies at high redshift, and that it is especia...

  1. The Masses of Distant Galaxies from Optical Emission Line Widths

    Gillespie, E B; Gillespie, Elizabeth Barton; Zee, Liese van


    Promising methods for studying galaxy evolution rely on optical emission line width measurements to compare intermediate-redshift objects to galaxies with equivalent masses at the present epoch. However, emission lines can be misleading. We show empirical examples of galaxies with concentrated central star formation from a survey of galaxies in pairs; HI observations of these galaxies indicate that the optical line emission fails to sample their full gravitational potentials. We use simple models of bulge-forming bursts of star formation to demonstrate that compact optical morphologies and small half-light radii can accompany these anomalously narrow emission lines; thus late-type bulges forming on rapid (0.5-1 Gyr) timescales at intermediate redshift would exhibit properties similar to those of heavily bursting dwarfs. We conclude that some of the luminous compact objects observed at intermediate and high redshift may be starbursts in the centers of massive galaxies and/or bulges in formation.

  2. The nature of H-alpha star-forming galaxies at z~0.4 in and around Cl 0939+4713: the environment matters

    Sobral, David; Koyama, Yusei; Darvish, Behnam; Calhau, João; Afonso, Ana; Kodama, Tadayuki; Nakata, Fumiaki


    Cluster star-forming galaxies are found to have an excess of Far-Infrared emission relative to H-alpha (Ha), when compared to those in the field, which could be caused by intense AGN activity, dust and/or declining star formation histories. Here we present spectroscopic observations of Ha emitters in the Cl 0939+4713 (Abell 851) super-cluster at z=0.41, using AF2+WYFFOS on the WHT. We measure [OII], Hbeta (Hb), [OIII], Ha and [NII] for a sample of 119 Ha emitters in and around the cluster. We find that 17+-5% of the Ha emitters are AGN, irrespective of environment. For star-forming galaxies, we obtain Balmer decrements, metallicities and ionisation parameters with different methods, individually and by stacking. We find a strong mass-metallicity relation at all environments, with no significant dependence on environment. The ionisation parameter declines with increasing stellar mass for low-mass galaxies. Ha emitters residing in intermediate environments show the highest ionisation parameters (along with high...

  3. $\\rm{H}\\alpha$ Velocity Fields and Galaxy Interaction in the Quartet of Galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A

    A. A. Yeghiazaryan; T. A. Nazaryan; A. A. Hakobyan


    The quartet of galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A is a system of interacting galaxies. Close interaction between galaxies caused characteristic morphological features: tidal arms and bars, as well as an induced star formation. In this study, we performed the Fabry–Perot scanning interferometry of the system in $\\rm{H}\\alpha$ line and studied the velocity fields of the galaxies. We found that the rotation curve of NGC 7769 is weakly distorted. The rotation curve of NGC 7771 is strongly distorted with the tidal arms caused by direct flyby of NGC 7769 and flyby of a smaller neighbor NGC 7770. The rotation curve of NGC 7770 is significantly skewed because of the interaction with the much massive NGC 7771. The rotation curves and morphological disturbances suggest that the NGC 7769 and NGC 7771 have passed the first pericenter stage, however, probably the second encounter has not happened yet. Profiles of surface brightness of NGC 7769 have a characteristic break, and profiles of color indices have a minimum at a radius of intensive star formation induced by the interaction with NGC 7771.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Filament Features Based on the H{\\alpha} Solar Images from 1988 to 2013 by Computer Automated Detection Method

    Hao, Q; Cao, W; Chen, P F


    We improve our filament automated detection method which was proposed in our previous works. It is then applied to process the full disk H$\\alpha$ data mainly obtained by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) from 1988 to 2013, spanning nearly 3 solar cycles. The butterfly diagrams of the filaments, showing the information of the filament area, spine length, tilt angle, and the barb number, are obtained. The variations of these features with the calendar year and the latitude band are analyzed. The drift velocities of the filaments in different latitude bands are calculated and studied. We also investigate the north-south (N-S) asymmetries of the filament numbers in total and in each subclass classified according to the filament area, spine length, and tilt angle. The latitudinal distribution of the filament number is found to be bimodal. About 80% of all the filaments have tilt angles within [0{\\deg}, 60{\\deg}]. For the filaments within latitudes lower (higher) than 50{\\deg} the northeast (northwest) direction i...

  5. Constraints on widths of mixed pentaquark multiplets

    Mohta, V


    We determine constraints on the partial widths of mixed pentaquark multiplets in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HB$\\chi$PT). The partial widths satisfy a GMO-type relation at leading order in HB$\\chi$PT, for arbitrary mixing. The widths of N(1440), N(1710), and $\\Theta(1540)$ are not consistent with ideal mixing, $\\theta_{N} = 35.3^{\\circ}$, but are consistent with $\\theta_{N} \\lesssim 25^{\\circ}$. Furthermore, there are parameter values in HB$\\chi$PT that produce such a mixing angle while allowing the identification of the mass spectrum above. As an alternative to non-ideal mixing, we also suggest reasons for giving up on N(1440) as a pure pentaquark state.

  6. The Variable Line Width of Achernar

    Rivinius, Th; Baade, D; Carciofi, A C; Leister, N; Štefl, S


    Spectroscopic observations of Achernar over the past decades, have shown the photospheric line width, as measured by the rotational parameter $v \\sin i$, to vary in correlation with the emission activity. Here we present new observations, covering the most recent activity phase, and further archival data collected from the archives. The $v \\sin i$ variation is confirmed. On the basis of the available data it cannot be decided with certainty whether the increased line width precedes the emission activity, i.e. is a signature of the ejection mechanism, or postdates is, which would make it a signature of re-accretion of some of the disk-material. However, the observed evidence leans towards the re-accretion hypothesis. Two further stars showing the effect of variable line width in correlation with emission activity, namely 66 Oph and $\\pi$ Aqr, are presented as well.

  7. Graph Operations on Clique-Width Bounded Graphs

    Gurski, Frank


    Clique-width is a well-known graph parameter. Many NP-hard graph problems admit polynomial-time solutions when restricted to graphs of bounded clique-width. The same holds for NLC-width. In this paper we study the behavior of clique-width and NLC-width under various graph operations and graph transformations. We give upper and lower bounds for the clique-width and NLC-width of the modified graphs in terms of the clique-width and NLC-width of the involved graphs.

  8. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.;


    to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...

  9. Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?

    Sk., Nayem


    Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.

  10. Correlation Widths in Quantum--Chaotic Scattering

    Dietz, B.; Richter, A; WeidenmÜller, H.


    An important parameter to characterize the scattering matrix S for quantum-chaotic scattering is the width Gamma_{corr} of the S-matrix autocorrelation function. We show that the "Weisskopf estimate" d/(2pi) sum_c T_c (where d is the mean resonance spacing, T_c with 0

  11. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye


    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  12. H-alpha as a Probe of Very Low-mass Planets: The GAPplanetS Survey With the MagAO System

    Close, L.; MagAO Team


    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of young Transitional Disk with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5m Magellan telescope (0.5 - 0.7''), we find MagAO delivers 24-19% Strehl at Ha (0.656 mm). We detect a faint companion embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3±1.9 mas (~12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both Ha and a continuum filter (Dmag=6.33±0.20 mag at Ha and 7.50±0.25 mag in the continuum filter). The Ha emission from the ~0.25 solar mass companion (EW=180 Angstroms) implies a mass accretion rate of ~5.9x10-10 Msun/yr, and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% Lsun. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably better (50-1,000x) planet/star contrasts at Ha than at H band (COND models) for a range of optical extinctions (3.4-0 mag). We suggest that ~0.5-5 Mjup extrasolar planets in their gas accretion phase could be much more luminous at Ha than in the NIR. This is the motivation for our new MagAO GAPplanetS survey for directly imaging lowmass exoplanets in the gaps of transitional disks in the light of H-alpha with MagAO's unique SDI AO camera.

  13. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    Wellek, Stefan


    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  14. Width dependence of platinum and titanium thermistor characteristics for application in room-temperature antenna-coupled terahertz microbolometer

    Banerjee, Amit; Satoh, Hiroaki; Tiwari, Ajay; Apriono, Catur; Tjipto Rahardjo, Eko; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Inokawa, Hiroshi


    For application in a room-temperature microbolometer to detect terahertz waves, “narrow-width effects” on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistivity (ρ) for platinum (Pt) and titanium (Ti) nanowires are investigated. The TCR and ρ of a thermistor could be described by empirical formulas with average measured widths for higher precision. The effect of width on TCR in Pt is lower than that in Ti. The noise equivalent power of the microbolometer could be improved by a factor of 2.3 by replacing the Ti thermistor with a Pt thermistor of the same width (100 nm). The results provide a detailed understanding of the narrow-width effect on TCR for Pt and Ti, which, to our knowledge, is lacking at present.

  15. Exotic Meson Decay Widths using Lattice QCD

    Cook, M S


    A decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson h, with JPC=1-+, is presented for the channel h->pi+a1. This quenched lattice QCD simulation employs Luescher's finite box method. Operators coupling to the h and pi+a1 states are used at various levels of smearing and fuzzing, and at four quark masses. Eigenvalues of the corresponding correlation matrices yield energy spectra that determine scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative pi+a1 momenta. Although the phase shift data is sparse, fits to a Breit-Wigner model are attempted, resulting in a decay width of about 60 MeV when averaged over two lattice sizes.

  16. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Saxena, R B


    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  17. W mass and width at the LHC.

    Malberti, Martina


    The precision measurement of the W boson properties, such as its mass and width, constitutes an important consistency check of the Standard Model. This paper, in particular, describes methods to measure the W mass with improved precision at the Large Hadron Collider, exploiting the large number of Z bosons produced. The precision on the W boson mass achievable with an integrated luminosisty of 10~fb^-1 is discussed.

  18. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)


    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  19. The HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N@TNG IV. Time resolved analysis of the Ca ii H&K and H{\\alpha} chromospheric emission of low-activity early-type M dwarfs

    Scandariato, G; Biazzo, K; Leto, G; Stelzer, B; Sanchez, R Zanmar; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Damasso, M; Desidera, S; Álvarez, E González; Hernández, J I González; Gratton, R; Lanza, A F; Maggio, A; Messina, S; Micela, G; Pagano, I; Perger, M; Piotto, G; Rebolo, R; Ribas, I; Rosich, A; Sozzetti, A; Mascareño, A Suárez


    M dwarfs are prime targets for planet search programs, particularly of those focused on the detection and characterization of rocky planets in the habitable zone. Understanding their magnetic activity is important because it affects our ability to detect small planets, and it plays a key role in the characterization of the stellar environment. We analyze observations of the Ca II H&K and H{\\alpha} lines as diagnostics of chromospheric activity for low-activity early-type M dwarfs. We analyze the time series of spectra of 71 early-type M dwarfs collected for the HADES project for planet search purposes. The HARPS-N spectra provide simultaneously the H&K doublet and the H{\\alpha} line. We develop a reduction scheme able to correct the HARPS-N spectra for instrumental and atmospheric effects, and to provide flux-calibrated spectra in units of flux at the stellar surface. The H&K and H{\\alpha} fluxes are compared with each other, and their variability is analyzed. We find that the H and K flux excesse...

  20. Artifacts for Calibration of Submicron Width Measurements

    Grunthaner, Frank; Grunthaner, Paula; Bryson, Charles, III


    Artifacts that are fabricated with the help of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are undergoing development for use as dimensional calibration standards with submicron widths. Such standards are needed for calibrating instruments (principally, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes) for measuring the widths of features in advanced integrated circuits. Dimensional calibration standards fabricated by an older process that involves lithography and etching of trenches in (110) surfaces of single-crystal silicon are generally reproducible to within dimensional tolerances of about 15 nm. It is anticipated that when the artifacts of the present type are fully developed, their critical dimensions will be reproducible to within 1 nm. These artifacts are expected to find increasing use in the semiconductor-device and integrated- circuit industries as the width tolerances on semiconductor devices shrink to a few nanometers during the next few years. Unlike in the older process, one does not rely on lithography and etching to define the critical dimensions. Instead, one relies on the inherent smoothness and flatness of MBE layers deposited under controlled conditions and defines the critical dimensions as the thicknesses of such layers. An artifact of the present type is fabricated in two stages (see figure): In the first stage, a multilayer epitaxial wafer is grown on a very flat substrate. In the second stage, the wafer is cleaved to expose the layers, then the exposed layers are differentially etched (taking advantage of large differences between the etch rates of the different epitaxial layer materials). The resulting structure includes narrow and well-defined trenches and a shelf with thicknesses determined by the thicknesses of the epitaxial layers from which they were etched. Eventually, it should be possible to add a third fabrication stage in which durable, electronically inert artifacts could be replicated in diamondlike carbon from a master made by

  1. Clique Cover Width and Clique Sum

    Shahrokhi, Farhad


    For a clique cover $C$ in the undirected graph $G$, the clique cover graph of $C$ is the graph obtained by contracting the vertices of each clique in $C$ into a single vertex. The clique cover width of G, denoted by $CCW(G)$, is the minimum value of the bandwidth of all clique cover graphs of $G$. When $G$ is the clique sum of $G_1$ and $G_2$, we prove that $CCW(G) \\le 3/2(CCW(G_1) + CCW(G_2))$.

  2. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Zheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis


    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  4. Optical antennas with sinusoidal modulation in width.

    Dikken, Dirk Jan; Segerink, Frans B; Korterik, Jeroen P; Pfaff, Stefan S; Prangsma, Jord C; Herek, Jennifer L


    Small metal structures sustaining plasmon resonances in the optical regime are of great interest due to their large scattering cross sections and ability to concentrate light to subwavelength volumes. In this paper, we study the dipolar plasmon resonances of optical antennas with a constant volume and a sinusoidal modulation in width. We experimentally show that by changing the phase of the width-modulation, with a small 10 nm modulation amplitude, the resonance shifts over 160 nm. Using simulations we show how this simple design can create resonance shifts greater than 600 nm. The versatility of this design is further shown by creating asymmetric structures with two different modulation amplitudes, which we experimentally and numerically show to give rise to two resonances. Our results on both the symmetric and asymmetric antennas show the capability to control the localization of the fields outside the antenna, while still maintaining the freedom to change the antenna resonance wavelength. The antenna design we tested combines a large spectral tunability with a small footprint: all the antenna dimensions are factor 7 to 13 smaller than the wavelength, and hold potential as a design element in meta-surfaces for beam shaping.

  5. Resonance trapping and saturation of decay widths

    Persson, E; Rotter, I


    Resonance trapping appears in open many-particle quantum systems at high level density when the coupling to the continuum of decay channels reaches a critical strength. Here a reorganization of the system takes place and a separation of different time scales appears. We investigate it under the influence of additional weakly coupled channels as well as by taking into account the real part of the coupling term between system and continuum. We observe a saturation of the mean width of the trapped states. Also the decay rates saturate as a function of the coupling strength. The mechanism of the saturation is studied in detail. In any case, the critical region of reorganization is enlarged. When the transmission coefficients for the different channels are different, the width distribution is broadened as compared to a chi_K^2 distribution where K is the number of channels. Resonance trapping takes place before the broad state overlaps regions beyond the extension of the spectrum of the closed system.

  6. Concurrent Supermassive Black Hole and Galazy Growth: Linking Environment and Nuclear Activity in Zeta Equals 2.23 H Alpha Emitters

    Lehmer, B. D.; Lucy, A. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P. N.; Geach, J. E.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Sobral, D.; Swinbank, A. M.


    We present results from an approximately equal 100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 structure at z = 2.23 (hereafter 2QZ Clus). 2QZ Clus was originally identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected QSOs at z = 2.23 within a 15 × 15 arcmin square region. Narrow-band imaging in the near-IR (within the K band) revealed that the structure contains an additional overdensity of 22 z = 2.23 H alpha-emitting galaxies (HAEs), resulting in 23 unique z = 2.23 HAEs/QSOs (22 within the Chandra field of view). Our Chandra observations reveal that three HAEs in addition to the four QSOs harbor powerfully accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with 2-10 keV luminosities of approximately equal (8-60) × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp-1) and X-ray spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a large comparison sample of 210 z = 2.23 HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), we find suggestive evidence that the AGN fraction increases with local HAE galaxy density. The 2QZ Clus HAEs reside in a moderately overdense environment (a factor of approximately equal 2 times over the field), and after excluding optically-selected QSOs, we find that the AGN fraction is a factor of approximately equal 3.5(+3.8/ -2.2) times higher than C-COSMOS HAEs in similar environments. Using stacking analyses of the Chandra data and Herschel SPIRE observations at 250micrometers, we respectively estimate mean SMBH accretion rates ( M(BH)) and star formation rates (SFRs) for the 2QZ Clus and C-COSMOS samples. We find that the mean 2QZ Clus HAE stacked X-ray luminosity is QSO-like (L(2-10 keV) approximately equal [6-10] × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1)), and the implied M(BH)/SFR approximately equal (1.6-3.2) × 10(exp -3) is broadly consistent with the local M(BH)/Stellar Mass relation and z approximately equal 2 X-ray selected AGN. In contrast, the C-COSMOS HAEs are on average an order of magnitude less X-ray luminous and have M(BH)/SFR approximately

  7. Device-width dependence of plateau width in quantum Hall states

    Kawaji, S.; Hirakawa, K.; Nagata, M.


    Hall bar type devices having a total length of 2900 μm, a source and drain electrode width of 400 μm and different widths w ranging from 10 to 120 μm in its central 600 μm long part are fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs wafer with electron mobility of 21 m 2V -1s -1. The current at which the quantum Hall plateau for i=2 at B=9.7T at T=1.2K disappears is proportional to w. The average critical current density is Jcr=(1.6±0.2) A m -1

  8. Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups

    Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM


    Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S' = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S' and R' are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.

  9. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.


    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  10. Direct measurement of the W boson width.

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G


    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W --> enu candidate events. Data from approximately 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity recorded at square root of s = 1.96 TeV by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider are analyzed. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 +/- 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model.

  11. Infrared Imaging of z = 2.43 Radio Galaxy B3 0731+438 with the Subaru Telescope Detection of H$\\alpha$ Ionization Cones of a Powerful Radio Galaxy

    Motohara, K; Terada, H; Goto, M; Iwai, J; Tanabe, H; Taguchi, T; Hata, R; Maihara, T; Oya, S; Iye, M; Kosugi, G; Noumaru, J; Ogasawara, R; Sasaki, T; Takata, T; Motohara, Kentaro; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Iwai, Jun'ichi; Tanabe, Hirohisa; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Hata, Ryuji; Maihara, Toshinori; Oya, Shin; Iye, Masanori; Kosugi, George; Noumaru, Jun'ichi; Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Sasaki, Toshinori; Takata, Tadafumi


    We report on infrared imaging observations of the z=2.429 radio galaxy B3 0731+438 with the Subaru telescope. The images were taken with the K'-band filter and the 2.25 um narrow-band filter to examine the structure and properties of the Ha+[N II] 6548,6583 emission-line components. The Ha+[N II] emission-line image shows biconical lobes with an extent of 40 kpc, which are aligned with the radio axis. The rest-frame equivalent widths of the emission lines at these cones are as large as 1100 AA, and can be well explained by a gas-cloud model photoionized by power-law continuum radiation. The isotropic ionizing photon luminosity necessary to ionize the hydrogen gas in these cones amounts to 1e57(photons/s), which is larger than that in the majority of radio-loud QSOs. From these results, we propose that the Ha alignment effect in this object is produced by biconical gas clouds, which are swept up by the passage of radio jets, and are ionized by strong UV radiation from a hidden AGN. The continuum image consists...

  12. Matching of equivalent field regions

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.


    screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure......In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  13. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    Gonzalez, P A


    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion due to these theories prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Gravity, and then we construct Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity. In order to achieve this goal we use the vielbein and the connection, without imposing the Weitzenb\\"ock connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to be null.

  14. Mathematically Equivalent, Computationally Non-equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility


    and Software Comprehensibility Marvin J. Goldstein Surface Ship Sonar Department Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Report...equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Marvin Goldstein...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT In the development of mathematical software , often the formula that defines the mathematical purpose

  15. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  16. Pulse-Width Jitter Measurement for Laser Diode Pulses

    TANG Jun-Hua; WANG Yun-Cai


    @@ Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of pulse-width jitter of diode laser pulses are presented. The expression of pulse power spectra with all amplitude jitter, timing jitter and pulse-width jitter is deduced.

  17. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko


    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  18. Changing step width alters lower extremity biomechanics during running.

    Brindle, Richard A; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning; Fitzhugh, Eugene C


    Step width is a spatiotemporal parameter that may influence lower extremity biomechanics at the hip and knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical response of the lower extremity joints to step width changes during running. Lower extremity data from 30 healthy runners, half of them male, were collected during running in three step width conditions: preferred, wide, and narrow. Dependent variables and step width were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA and pairwise t-tests for post hoc comparisons. Step width was successfully altered in the wide and narrow conditions. Generally, frontal plane peak values decreased as step width increased from narrow to preferred to wide. Peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Peak knee abduction moment and knee abduction impulse also decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Although men and women ran differently, gender only influenced the effect of step width on peak rearfoot inversion moment. In conclusion, step width influences lower extremity biomechanics in healthy runners. When step width increased from narrow to wide, peak values of frontal plane variables decreased. In addition to previously reported changes at the rearfoot, the hip and knee joint biomechanics were also influenced by changes in step width.

  19. Comments on field equivalence principles

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...


    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  1. The Average Widths and Non-linear Widths of the Classes of Multivariate Functions with Bounded Moduli of Smoothness

    Yong-ping Liu; Gui-qiao Xu


    The classes of the multivariate functions with bounded moduli on Rd and Td are given and their average a-widths and non-linear n-widths are discussed. The weak asymptotic behaviors are established for the corresponding quantities.

  2. SOL Width Scaling in the MAST Tokamak

    Ahn, Joon-Wook; Counsell, Glenn; Connor, Jack; Kirk, Andrew


    Target heat loads are determined in large part by the upstream SOL heat flux width, Δ_h. Considerable effort has been made in the past to develop analytical and empirical scalings for Δh to allow reliable estimates to be made for the next-step device. The development of scalings for a large spherical tokamak (ST) such as MAST is particularly important both for development of the ST concept and for improving the robustness of scalings derived for conventional tokamaks. A first such scaling has been developed in MAST DND plasmas. The scaling was developed by flux-mapping data from the target Langmuir probe arrays to the mid-plane and fitting to key upstream parameters such as P_SOL, bar ne and q_95. In order to minimise the effects of co-linearity, dedicated campaigns were undertaken to explore the widest possible range of each parameter while keeping the remainder as fixed as possible. Initial results indicate a weak inverse dependence on P_SOL and approximately linear dependence on bar n_e. Scalings derived from consideration of theoretical edge transport models and integration with data from conventional devices is under way. The established scaling laws could be used for the extrapolations to the future machine such as Spherical Tokamak Power Plant (STPP). This work is jointly funded by Euratom and UK Department of Trade and Industry. J-W. Ahn would like to recognise the support of a grant from the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office.

  3. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.


    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.


    Cristina, Chifane


    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  5. Multi-Wavelength Constraints on the Cosmic Star Formation History from Spectroscopy: the Rest-Frame UV, H-alpha, and Infrared Luminosity Functions at Redshifts 1.9

    Reddy, Naveen A; Pettini, Max; Adelberger, Kurt L; Shapley, Alice E; Erb, Dawn K; Dickinson, Mark


    We use a sample of rest-frame UV selected and spectroscopically observed galaxies at redshifts 1.9H-alpha and Spitzer MIPS 24 micron data, to derive the most robust measurements of the rest-frame UV, H-alpha, and infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) at these redshifts. Our sample is by far the largest of its kind, with over 2000 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.9

  6. A high spatial resolution X-ray and H-alpha study of hot gas in the halos of star-forming disk galaxies. I. Spatial and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission

    Strickland, D K; Colbert, E J M; Hoopes, C G; Weaver, K A


    We present arcsecond resolution Chandra X-ray and ground-based optical H-alpha imaging of a sample of ten edge-on star-forming disk galaxies (seven starburst and three ``normal'' spiral galaxies), a sample which covers the full range of star-formation intensity found in disk galaxies. We use the unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory to robustly remove point sources, and hence obtain the X-ray properties of the diffuse thermal emission alone. The X-ray observations are combined with comparable-resolution H-alpha and R-band imaging, and presented as a mini-atlas of images on a common spatial and surface brightness scale. The vertical distribution of the halo-region X-ray surface brightness is best described as an exponential, with the observed scale heights lying in the range H_eff = 2 -- 4 kpc. The ACIS X-ray spectra of extra-planar emission from all these galaxies can be fit with a common two-temperature spectral model with an enhanced alpha-to-iron element ratio. This is consisten...

  7. Complex Variability of the H$\\alpha$ Emission Line Profile of the T Tauri Binary System KH 15D: The Influence of Orbital Phase, Occultation by the Circumbinary Disk, and Accretion Phenomenae

    Hamilton, Catrina M; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N


    We have obtained 48 high resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main sequence eclipsing binary system KH~15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 d, $e$ $\\sim$ 0.6, M$_{A}$ = 0.6 M$_{\\odot}$, M$_{B}$ = 0.7 M$_{\\odot}$). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The H$\\alpha$ line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to "edge effects" and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the H$\\alpha$ emission line profile changes from an inverse P Cygni type profile during ingress to an enhanced d...

  8. Application of oxygen A-band equivalent width to disambiguate downwelling radiances for cloud optical depth measurement

    Niple, Edward R.; Scott, Herman E.; Conant, John A.; Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J.; Pereira, Wellesley E.


    This paper presents the three-waveband spectrally agile technique (TWST) for measuring cloud optical depth (COD). TWST is a portable field-proven sensor and retrieval method offering a unique combination of fast (1 Hz) cloud-resolving (0.5° field of view) real-time-reported COD measurements. It entails ground-based measurement of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) zenith spectral radiances much like the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) cloud-mode sensors. What is novel in our approach is that we employ absorption in the oxygen A-band as a means of resolving the COD ambiguity inherent in using up-looking spectral radiances. We describe the TWST sensor and algorithm, and assess their merits by comparison to AERONET cloud-mode measurements collected during the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Spectral radiance agreement was better than 1 %, while a linear fit of COD yielded a slope of 0.905 (TWST reporting higher COD) and offset of -2.1.

  9. Detection of Broad H$\\alpha$ Emission Lines in the Late-time Spectra of a Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova

    Yan, Lin; Ofek, E; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P; Leloudas, G; de Cia, A; Masci, F; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, P R; Yaron, O


    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This eje...

  10. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Francis, Gregory


    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  11. Equivalence problem for Bishop surfaces


    The paper has two parts. We first briefly survey recent studies on the equivalence problem for real submanifolds in a complex space under the action of biholomorphic transformations. We will mainly focus on some of the recent studies of Bishop surfaces, which, in particular, includes the work of the authors. In the second part of the paper, we apply the general theory developed by the authors to explicitly classify an algebraic family of Bishop surfaces with a vanishing Bishop invariant. More precisely, we let M be a real submanifold of C 2 defined by an equation of the form w = zz + 2Re(z s + az s+1 ) with s≥ 3 and a a complex parameter. We will prove in the second part of the paper that for s≥ 4 two such surfaces are holomorphically equivalent if and only if the parameter differs by a certain rotation. When s = 3, we show that surfaces of this type with two different real parameters are not holomorphically equivalent.

  12. On an equivalence of fuzzy subgroups III

    V. Murali


    Full Text Available This paper is the third in a series of papers studying equivalence classes of fuzzy subgroups of a given group under a suitable equivalence relation. We introduce the notion of a pinned flag in order to study the operations sum, intersection and union, and their behavior with respect to the equivalence. Further, we investigate the extent to which a homomorphism preserves the equivalence. Whenever the equivalences are not preserved, we have provided suitable counterexamples.

  13. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works



    As for translation principle, people have different opinions. The principle of equivalent translation may be is one of the most reason-able ones in today's translation world in my eyes. This paper focuses on the possibility and thec ondition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic, pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle. Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  14. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works



    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  15. The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width

    Strajnić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.

  16. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    Spyrou, N. K.


    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  17. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.


    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  18. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel


    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  19. Thermodynamic equivalence of spin systems

    Beltman, J.M. (Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands))


    The thermodynamic equilibrium properties of systems composed of classical spin /sup 1///sub 2/ particles (Ising spins) are studied. Given an interaction pattern between the Ising spins the main problem is to calculate the equilibrium state(s) of the system. The point put forward here is the existence of many thermodynamical equivalent spin coordinate systems. As a consequence of this phenomenon the interaction pattern of a system may be very intricate when described with respect to one spin coordinate system whereas it may become simple with respect to another one and vice versa. A systematic investigation of this phenomenon is made. (FR)

  20. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut


    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  1. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  2. Biologic width and its importance in periodontal and restorative dentistry

    Babitha Nugala


    Full Text Available An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry.

  3. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    Shaker Khubab


    Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

  4. Minimal forbidden induced subgraphs of graphs of bounded clique-width and bounded linear clique-width

    Meister, Daniel; Rotics, Udi


    In the study of full bubble model graphs of bounded clique-width and bounded linear clique-width, we determined complete sets of forbidden induced subgraphs, that are minimal in the class of full bubble model graphs. In this note, we show that (almost all of) these graphs are minimal in the class of all graphs. As a corollary, we can give sets of minimal forbidden induced subgraphs for graphs of bounded clique-width and for graphs of bounded linear clique-width for arbitrary bounds.

  5. The Local Lyman-$\\alpha$ Forest; 1, Distribution of HI Absorbers, Doppler Widths, and Baryon Content

    Penton, S V; Stocke, J T; Penton, Steven V.; Stocke, John T.


    In Paper I of this series (astro-ph/9911117) we described observations of 15 extragalactic targets taken with the Hubble Space Telescope GHRS/G160M grating for studies of the low-z Lya forest. We reported the detection of 110 Lya absorbers at significance level >3 sigma in the redshift range z=0.002-0.069, over a total pathlength of 116,000 km/s. In this second paper, we evaluate the physical properties of these Lya absorbers and compare them to their high-z counterparts. The distribution of Doppler parameters is similar to that at high redshift, with mean b = 35.0 +- 16.6 km/s. The true Doppler parameter may be somewhat lower, owing to component blends and non-thermal velocities. The distribution of equivalent widths exhibits a significant break at W~133mA, with an increasing number of weak absorbers (10mA-100mA). Adopting a curve of growth with b = 25 +- 5km/s and applying a sensitivity correction as a function of equivalent width and wavelength, we derive the distribution in column density, Nh^{-1.80+-0.05...

  6. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi;


    homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence...

  7. Quantifying River Widths of North America from Satellite Imagery

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Miller, Z.


    River width is a fundamental predictor variable in many hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical models, yet current large-scale models rely on theoretical hydraulic geometry relationships that do not fully capture natural variability in river form. Here we present the first high-resolution dataset of long-term mean width of North American rivers wider than 30 m. The dataset contains 7.93 million georeferenced width measurements derived from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery that were acquired when rivers were most likely to be at mean discharge. We built the dataset by developing an automated procedure that selects and downloads raw imagery, creates cloud-free normalized difference water index images, histogram balances and mosaics them together, and produces a water mask using a dynamic water-land threshold technique. We then visually inspected and corrected the mask for errors and used RivWidth software to calculate river width at each river centerline pixel. We validated our dataset using >1000 United States Geological Survey and Water Survey of Canada in situ gauge station measurements. Error analysis shows a robust relationship between the remotely sensed widths and in situ gauge measurements with an r 2 = 0.86 (Spearman's = 0.81) and a mean absolute error of 27.5 m. We find that North American river widths lie on logarithmic frequency curve with some notable exceptions at widths SWOT) satellite mission.

  8. Average widths of anisotropic Besov-Wiener classes


    This paper concerns the problem of average σ-K width and average σ-L width of some anisotropic Besov-Wiener classes Srp q θb(Rd) and Srp q θB(Rd) in Lq(Rd) (1≤q≤p<∞). The weak asymptotic behavior is established for the corresponding quantities.

  9. Average widths of anisotropic Besov-Wiener classes



    This paper concems the problem of average σ-K width and average σ-L width of some anisotropic Besov-wiener classes Spqθr(Rd) and Spqθr(Rd) in Lq(Rd) (1≤≤q≤p<∞). The weak asymptotic behavior is established for the corresponding quantities.

  10. Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement

    Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune

    the ductility of the fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is set up and experimental work is conducted in order to verify the crack width model. The ductility of the FRC is taken into account by using the stress crack width relation. The constitutive model for the FRC is based on the idea that the initial part......The main object of the research work presented in this paper is to establish design tools for concrete structures where main reinforcement is combined with addition of short discrete steel fibers. The work is concerned with calculating and measuring crack widths in structural elements subjected...... to bending load. Thus, the aim of the work is to enable engineers to calculate crack widths for flexural concrete members and analyze how different combinations of amounts of fibers and amounts of main reinforcement can meet a given maximum crack width requirement. A mathematical model including...

  11. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  12. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    Kopeikin, Sergei M


    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...

  13. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.


    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  14. What sets the minimum tokamak scrape-off layer width?

    Joseph, Ilon


    The heat flux width of the tokamak scrape-off layer is on the order of the poloidal ion gyroradius, but the ``heuristic drift'' physics model is still not completely understood. In the absence of anomalous transport, neoclassical transport sets the minimum width. For plateau collisionality, the ion temperature width is set by qρi , while the electron temperature width scales as the geometric mean q(ρeρi) 1 / 2 and is close to qρi in magnitude. The width is enhanced because electrons are confined by the sheath potential and have a much longer time to radially diffuse before escaping to the wall. In the Pfirsch-Schluter regime, collisional diffusion increases the width by the factor (qR / λ) 1 / 2 where qR is the connection length and λ is the mean free path. This qualitatively agrees with the observed transition in the scaling law for detached plasmas. The radial width of the SOL electric field is determined by Spitzer parallel and ``neoclassical'' radial electric conductivity and has a similar scaling to that for thermal transport. Prepared under US DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.

    Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R


    This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p < 0.001, p = 0.040). ITB strain was significantly (p < 0.001) greater in the narrow condition than the preferred and wide conditions and it was greater in the preferred condition than the wide condition. ITB strain rate was significantly greater in the narrow condition than the wide condition (p = 0.020). Polynomial contrasts revealed a linear increase in both ITB strain and strain rate with decreasing step width. We conclude that relatively small decreases in step width can substantially increase ITB strain as well as strain rates. Increasing step width during running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.

  16. Performance influence in submersible pump with different diffuser inlet widths

    Qingshun Wei


    Full Text Available The diffuser inlet width is a key geometric parameter that affects submersible pump performance. On the basis of diffuser characteristic curve analyses, diffusers with different inlet widths and the same impeller were equipped to construct a submersible pump model through the use of AutoCAD software. The performance curves of the submersible pump, with six diffuser inlet widths, were obtained using computational fluid dynamics method. Simultaneously, the simulation results were tested with the experimental method presented in this article. The results show that the optimum value of the inlet width (b3 = 50 mm is larger than the experience-based one. With an increase in the inlet width, the optimum operating point of a submersible pump offsets to a larger flow rate. When the guide blade inlet width is approximately 40–55 mm, the submersible pump efficiency is relatively high, approximately 75.9%–83.7% capacity, and the flow rate is approximately 105–135 m3/h. The numerical results of submersible pump performance are higher than those of the test results; however, their change trends have an acceptable agreement with each other. The practical significance is supplied by changing the inlet width of the diffuser to expand the scope of use.

  17. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding.

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y; Ishii, Satoshi; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander V


    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated.

  18. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  19. Probing eigenfunction nonorthogonality by parametric shifts of resonance widths

    Savin, D V


    Recently, it has been shown that the change of resonance widths in an open system under a perturbation of its interior is a sensitive indicator of the nonorthogonality of resonance states. We apply this measure to quantify parametric motion of the resonances. In particular, a strong redistribution of the widths is linked with the maximal degree of nonorthogonality. Then for weakly open chaotic systems we discuss the role of spectral rigidity on the statistical properties of the parametric width shifts, and derive the distribution of the latter in a picket-fence model with equidistant spectrum.

  20. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian


    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...... attention in previous studies. In this paper we report on finding for syrphids, spiders and carabids, three taxonomic groups with different mobility, all important for conservation biological control. For all groups we found an effect of buffer zone width on their density. A buffer width of 6m...

  1. Biologic width and crown lengthening: case reports and review.

    Oh, Se-Lim


    The biologic width includes both the connective tissue attachment and the junctional epithelium and has a mean dimension of approximately 2 mm. Invading the biologic width with a restoration can result in localized crestal bone loss, gingival recession, localized gingival hyperplasia, or a combination of these three. When restoring teeth that have subgingival caries or fractures below the gingival attachment, a clinical crown-lengthening procedure is needed to establish the biologic width. This article presents three case reports that utilized crown-lengthening procedures.

  2. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    Cai Changchun


    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are performed for the test of the equivalent model of micro-grid. The simulation results show that the equivalent model of micro-grid is effective, and the dynamic of equivalent model is similar with the detailed model of micro-grid. The equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid network and distributed components is suitable for the study of micro-grid.  

  3. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.


    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  4. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor


    Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...

  5. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.


    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  6. Sweep Width Estimation for Ground Search and Rescue


    that may influence sweep width were measured during the experiments. Promising variables include SAR background, height, age, color - blindness , fatigue...123 8.3.9 Color Blindness ................................................................................................... 124... Color Blindness ................................................................................................ 200 Searcher Profile

  7. Widths of some classes of convex functions and bodies

    Konovalov, V. N.; Maiorov, Vitalii E.


    We consider classes of uniformly bounded convex functions defined on convex compact bodies in \\mathbb{R}^d and satisfying a Lipschitz condition and establish the exact orders of their Kolmogorov, entropy, and pseudo-dimension widths in the L_1-metric. We also introduce the notions of pseudo-dimension and pseudo-dimension widths for classes of sets and determine the exact orders of the entropy and pseudo-dimension widths of some classes of convex bodies in \\mathbb{R}^drelative to the pseudo-metric defined as the d-dimensional Lebesgue volume of the symmetric difference of two sets. We also find the exact orders of the entropy and pseudo-dimension widths of the corresponding classes of characteristic functions in L_p-spaces, 1\\le p\\le\\infty.

  8. Metabolic equivalents during scooter exercise.

    Kijima, Akira; Arimoto, Morio; Muramatsu, Shigeru


    The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated in scootering on a treadmill at three different speeds for six minutes each. Before, during, and after the exercise, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide product, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were measured. These measurements kept steady states from the 3rd to 6th minute of each different speed session. The MET values acquired during scootering at 80 m.min(-1), 110 m.min(-1), and 140 m.min(-1) were 3.9, 4.3, and 5.0, respectively. Calculated using VO(2) ([4.0+R], the energy consumption for scootering at each speed was 67.0+/-10.6, 73.3+/-10.2, and 84.8+/-7.9, respectively. The regression equation between scootering speed (X, m.min(-1)) and VO(2) (Y, is Y=0.062X+8.655, and the regression equation between HR (X, beats.min(-1)) and VO(2)reserve (Y, %) is Y=0.458X-11.264. These equations can be applied to both females and males. Thus, scootering at 80 to 140 m.min(-1) might not be sufficient to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of young male adults similar to the participants, but it may contribute many healthy benefits to most female adults and even male adults, and improve their health and fitness at the faster speeds.

  9. Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal

    Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.


    Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.......Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector....

  10. Calculating Method of Moments Uniform Bin Width Histograms

    James S. Weber


    A clear articulation of Method of Moments (MOM) Histograms is instructive and has waited 121 years since 1895. Also of interest are enabling uniform bin width (UBW) shape level sets. Mean-variance MOM uniform bin width frequency and density histograms are not unique, however ranking them by histogram skewness compared to data skewness helps. Although theoretical issues rarely take second place to calculations, here calculations based on shape level sets are central and challenge uncritically ...

  11. Statistical study of the pulse width distribution for radio pulsars


    Pulse widths of standard pulse profiles for 262 pulsars were measured by using the Urumqi 25 m radio telescope at 1.54 GHz.For the simplest case of circular emission beam,we applied Monte Carlo simulations to the pulse width distribution.Different density functions of magnetic inclination angle α and observer angle ξ were considered.Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests,we derived the most probable distribution for α and ξ.

  12. Energetic Constraints on the Width of the Intertropical Convergence Zone


    The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) has been the focus of considerable research in recent years, with much of this work concerned with how the latitude of maximum tropical precipitation responds to natural climate variability and to radiative forcing. The width of the ITCZ, however, has received little attention despite its importance for regional climate and for understanding the general circulation of the atmosphere. This paper investigates the ITCZ width in simulations with an ideali...


    Li Fang; Sun Longgang


    The aim of this article is to study some invariants of associative algebras under stable equivalences of Morita type.First of all,we show that,if two finite-dimensional selfinjective k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,then their orbit algebras are isomorphic.Secondly,it is verified that the quasitilted property of an algebra is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type.As an application of this result,it is obtained that if an algebra is of finite representation type,then its tilted property is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type; the other application to partial tilting modules is given in Section 4. Finally,we prove that when two finite-dimensional k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,their repetitive algebras are also stably equivalent of Morita type under certain conditions.

  14. Homogeneous Dielectric Equivalents of Composite Material Shields

    P. Tobola


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology of replacing complicated parts of an airplane skin by simple homogeneous equivalents, which can exhibit similar shielding efficiency. On one hand, the airplane built from the virtual homogeneous equivalents can be analyzed with significantly reduced CPU-time demands and memory requirements. On the other hand, the equivalent model can estimate the internal fields satisfactory enough to evaluate the electromagnetic immunity of the airplane.

  15. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro


    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  16. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin


    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  17. equivalency/majorly/market share,etc.



    equivalency n. a level of achievement equivalent to completion of an educational or trainingprogram。同等学历(相当于完成某一教育或训练计划的学业成绩水平):a highschool equivalency certificate中学同等学历证书。注意不能用equivalence。majorly[’meid??li]adv.[1956

  18. Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras

    DING; Huiru; Don; Hadwin


    One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).

  19. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.


    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  20. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.


    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence...

  1. GLACE survey: OSIRIS/GTC Tuneable Filter H$\\alpha$ imaging of the rich galaxy cluster ZwCl 0024.0+1652 at z = 0.395. Part I -- Survey presentation, TF data reduction techniques and catalogue

    Sánchez-Portal, Miguel; Pérez-Martínez, Ricardo; Cepa, Jordi; García, Ana M Pérez; Domínguez-Sánchez, Helena; Bongiovanni, Ángel; Serra, Ana L; Alfaro, Emilio; Altieri, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Balkowski, Chantal; Biviano, Andrea; Bremer, Malcom; Castander, Francisco; Castañeda, Héctor; Castro-Rodríguez, Nieves; Chies-Santos, Ana L; Coia, Daniela; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Geach, James; González-Serrano, Ignacio; Haines, Chris P; McBreen, Brian; Metcalfe, Leo; Oteo, Iván; Pérez-Fournón, Ismael; Poggianti, Bianca; Polednikova, Jana; Ramón-Pérez, Marina; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José M; Santos, Joana S; Smail, Ian; Smith, Graham P; Temporin, Sonia; Valtchanov, Ivan


    The cores of clusters at 0 $\\lesssim$ z $\\lesssim$ 1 are dominated by quiescent early-type galaxies, whereas the field is dominated by star-forming late-type ones. Galaxy properties, notably the star formation (SF) ability, are altered as they fall into overdense regions. The critical issues to understand this evolution are how the truncation of SF is connected to the morphological transformation and the responsible physical mechanism. The GaLAxy Cluster Evolution Survey (GLACE) is conducting a study on the variation of galaxy properties (SF, AGN, morphology) as a function of environment in a representative sample of clusters. A deep survey of emission line galaxies (ELG) is being performed, mapping a set of optical lines ([OII], [OIII], H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$/[NII]) in several clusters at z $\\sim$ 0.40, 0.63 and 0.86. Using the Tunable Filters (TF) of OSIRIS/GTC, GLACE applies the technique of TF tomography: for each line, a set of images at different wavelengths are taken through the TF, to cover a rest fra...

  2. Quantifying two-bond 1HN-13CO and one-bond 1H(alpha)-13C(alpha) dipolar couplings of invisible protein states by spin-state selective relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy.

    Hansen, D Flemming; Vallurupalli, Pramodh; Kay, Lewis E


    Relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable probe of millisecond dynamic processes in biomolecules that exchange between a ground (observable) state and one or more excited (invisible) conformers, in part because chemical shifts of the excited state(s) can be obtained that provide insight into the conformations that are sampled. Here we present a pair of experiments that provide additional structural information in the form of residual dipolar couplings of the excited state. The new experiments record (1)H spin-state selective (13)CO and (13)C(alpha) dispersion profiles under conditions of partial alignment in a magnetic field from which two-bond (1)HN-(13)CO and one-bond (1)H(alpha)-(13)C(alpha) residual dipolar couplings of the invisible conformer can be extracted. These new dipolar couplings complement orientational restraints that are provided through measurement of (1)HN-(15)N residual dipolar couplings and changes in (13)CO chemical shifts upon alignment that have been measured previously for the excited-state since the interactions probed here are not collinear with those previously investigated. An application to a protein-ligand binding reaction is presented, and the accuracies of the extracted excited-state dipolar couplings are established. A combination of residual dipolar couplings and chemical shifts as measured by relaxation dispersion will facilitate a quantitative description of excited protein states.

  3. Neutron-induced background by an alpha-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction at LUNA

    Anders, M; Bellini, A; Aliotta, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Costantini, H; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Alvarez, C Rossi; Scott, D; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T


    The production of the stable isotope Li-6 in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological Li-6 plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of Li-7 abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of Li-6, contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang Li-6 production must be revisited. The main production channel for Li-6 in the Big Bang is the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an {\\alpha}-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction....

  4. Self-Energy Correction to the Two-Photon Decay Width in Hydrogenlike Atoms

    Jentschura, U D


    We investigate the gauge invariance of the leading logarithmic radiative correction to the two-photon decay width in hydrogenlike atoms. It is shown that an effective treatment of the correction using a Lamb-shift "potential" leads to equivalent results in both the length as well as the velocity gauges provided all relevant correction terms are taken into account. Specifically, the relevant radiative corrections are related to the energies that enter into the propagator denominators, to the Hamiltonian, to the wave functions, and to the energy conservation condition that holds between the two photons; the form of all of these effects is different in the two gauges, but the final result is shown to be gauge invariant, as it should be. Although the actual calculation only involves integrations over nonrelativistic hydrogenic Green functions, the derivation of the leading logarithmic correction can be regarded as slightly more complex than that of other typical logarithmic terms. The dominant radiative correctio...

  5. Deciduous neonatal line: Width is associated with duration of delivery.

    Hurnanen, Jaana; Visnapuu, Vivian; Sillanpää, Matti; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Rautava, Jaana


    The delivery-related neonatal line (NNL) appears into the enamel of primary teeth and first permanent molars at birth and is a marker of live birth process. It varies in width and its location, is different in each deciduous tooth type, and is indicative of gestation time. It is unclear which triggers determine NNL at birth. Our objective was to investigate the effect of the duration and mode of delivery on NNL width. NNL of 129 teeth, a collection derived from a long-term, prospectively followed population cohort, was measured under light microscope. Altogether, 54 sections with most optimal plane of sectioning were analysed for the duration and mode of delivery. NNL was detected in 98% of the deciduous teeth with the median width of 9.63μm (min 3.16μm, max 27.58μm). A prolonged duration of vaginal delivery was highly significantly associated with a narrower NNL (r=-0.41, p=0.0097). No significant association was found between the width of NNL and mode of delivery (p=0.36). NNL is demonstrable in virtually all deciduous teeth. The width seems to be inversely proportional to the duration of delivery. Causes of the inverse proportion are speculated to result from altered amelogenesis induced by prolonged and intensified delivery-associated stress. Further research is needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    Mihalka, A. M.


    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the dc input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  7. Solar Imagery - GONG (H-alpha)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  8. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino


    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  9. Criteria equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis

    Cisło, J.; Wolf, M.


    We give a brief overview of a few criteria equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Next we concentrate on the Riesz and Báez-Duarte criteria. We prove that they are equivalent and we provide some computer data to support them.




    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank def

  11. The therapeutic equivalence of complex drugs

    Schellekens, H.; Klinger, E.; Muehlebach, S.; Brin, J-F.; Storm, G.; Crommelin, D.J.A.


    When the patent of a small molecule drug expires generics may be introduced. They are considered therapeutically equivalent once pharmaceutical equivalence (i.e. identical active substances) and bioequivalence (i.e. comparable pharmacokinetics) have been established in a cross-over volunteer study.

  12. Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width

    Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo


    In alluvial channels, forcing effects, such as a longitudinally varying width, can induce the formation of steady bars (Olesen, 1984). The type of bars that form, such as alternate, central or multiple, will mainly depend on the local flow width-to-depth ratio and on upstream conditions (Struiksma et al., 1985). The effects on bar formation of varying the channel width received attention only recently and investigations, based on flume experiments and mathematical modelling, are mostly restricted to small longitudinal sinusoidal variations of the channel width (e.g. Repetto et al., 2002; Wu and Yeh, 2005, Zolezzi et al., 2012; Frascati and Lanzoni, 2013). In this work, we analyze the variations in equilibrium bed topography in a longitudinal width-varying channel with characteristic scales of the Waal River (The Netherlands) using two different 2D depth-averaged morphodynamic models, one based on the Delft3D code and one on Telemac-Mascaret system. In particular, we explore the effects of changing the wavelength of sinusoidal width variations in a straight channel, focusing on the effects of the spatial lag between bar formation and forcing that is observed in numerical models and laboratory experiments (e.g. Crosato et al, 2011). We extend the investigations to finite width variations in which longitudinal changes of the width-to-depth ratio are such that they may affect the type of bars that become unstable (alternate, central or multiple bars). Numerical results are qualitatively validated with field observations and the resulting morphodynamic pattern is compared with the physics-based predictor of river bar modes by Crosato and Mosselman (2009). The numerical models are finally used to analyse the experimental conditions of Wu and Yeh (2005). The study should be seen as merely exploratory. The aim is to investigate possible approaches for future research aiming at assessing the effects of artificial river widening and narrowing to control bar formation in

  13. Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations

    Kolorenč, Přemysl, E-mail: [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Sisourat, Nicolas [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France)


    We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.

  14. Modelling the widths of fission observables in GEF

    Schmidt K.-H.


    Full Text Available The widths of the mass distributions of the different fission channels are traced back to the probability distributions of the corresponding quantum oscillators that are coupled to the heat bath, which is formed by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the fissioning system under the influence of pairing correlations and shell effects. Following conclusion from stochastic calculations of Adeev and Pashkevich, an early freezing due to dynamical effects is assumed. It is shown that the mass width of the fission channels in low-energy fission is strongly influenced by the zero-point motion of the corresponding quantum oscillator. The observed variation of the mass widths of the asymmetric fission channels with excitation energy is attributed to the energy-dependent properties of the heat bath and not to the population of excited states of the corresponding quantum oscillator.

  15. A Discrete Equivalent of the Logistic Equation

    Petropoulou EugeniaN


    Full Text Available A discrete equivalent and not analogue of the well-known logistic differential equation is proposed. This discrete equivalent logistic equation is of the Volterra convolution type, is obtained by use of a functional-analytic method, and is explicitly solved using the -transform method. The connection of the solution of the discrete equivalent logistic equation with the solution of the logistic differential equation is discussed. Also, some differences of the discrete equivalent logistic equation and the well-known discrete analogue of the logistic equation are mentioned. It is hoped that this discrete equivalent of the logistic equation could be a better choice for the modelling of various problems, where different versions of known discrete logistic equations are used until nowadays.

  16. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer


    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  17. Analysis on Longitudinal Dose according to Change of Field Width

    Jung, Won Seok; Shin, Ryung Mi; Oh, Byung Cheon; Jo, Jun Young; Kim, Gi Chul; Choi, Tae Gu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Back, Jong Geal [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Caner Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To analyze the accuracy of tumor volume dose following field width change, to check the difference of dose change by using self-made moving car, and to evaluate practical delivery tumor dose when tomotherapy in the treatment of organ influenced by breathing. By using self-made moving car, the difference of longitudinal movement (0.0 cm, 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm) was applied and compared calculated dose with measured dose according to change of field width (1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm) and apprehended margin of error. Then done comparative analysis in degree of photosensitivity of DQA film measured by using Gafchromic EBT film. Dose profile and Gamma histogram were used to measure degree of photosensitivity of DQA film. When field width were 1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm, margin of error of dose delivery coefficient was -2.00%, -0.39%, -2.55%. In dose profile of Gafchromic EBT film's analysis, the movement of moving car had greater motion toward longitudinal direction and as field width was narrower, big error increased considerably at high dose part compared to calculated dose. The more field width was narrowed, gamma index had a large considerable influence of moving at gamma histogram. We could check the difference of longitudinal dose of moving organ. In order to small field width and minimize organ moving due to breathing, it is thought to be needed to develop breathing control unit and fixation tool.

  18. Measuring slit width and separation in a diffraction experiment

    Gan, K K; Law, A T [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail:


    We present a procedure for measuring slit width and separation in single- and double-slit diffraction experiments. Intensity spectra of diffracted laser light are measured with an optical sensor (PIN diode). Slit widths and separations are extracted by fitting to the measured spectra. We present a simple fitting procedure to account for the integration (averaging) of light across the finite sensor aperture. This experiment provides students with a quantitative, in-depth verification of diffraction theory, as well as hands-on experience in sophisticated fitting methods.

  19. Resonance widths in open microwave cavities studied by harmonic inversion

    Kuhl, U; Hoehmann, R.; Main, J.; Stoeckmann, H. -J.


    From the measurement of a reflection spectrum of an open microwave cavity the poles of the scattering matrix in the complex plane have been determined. The resonances have been extracted by means of the harmonic inversion method. By this it became possible to resolve the resonances in a regime where the line widths exceed the mean level spacing up to a factor of 10, a value inaccessible in experiments up to now. The obtained experimental distributions of line widths were found to be in perfec...

  20. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods


    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent... methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental... in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human Exposure...

  1. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures



    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  2. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods


    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice... measuring concentrations of PM 10-2.5 , two for measuring PM 2.5, and one for measuring NO 2 in the...

  3. A Measurement of the Total Width, the Electronic Width, and the Mass of the Upsilon(10580) Resonance

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Donald, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Fisher, A; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H


    We present a measurement of the parameters of the $\\Upsilon(10580)$ resonance based on a dataset collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric $B$ factory. We measure the total width $\\Gamma_{\\rm tot}$ to be $(20.7\\pm1.6\\pm2.5) {\\rm MeV}$, the electronic partial width $\\Gamma_{ee} = (0.321\\pm0.017\\pm0.029) {\\rm keV}$ and the mass $M = (10579.3\\pm0.4\\pm1.2) {\\rm MeV/c^2}$.

  4. Echo width of foam supports used in scattering measurements

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Solodukhov, V. V.


    Theoretically and experimentally determined echo widths of dielectric cylinders having circular, triangular, and quadratic cross sections have been compared. The cylinders were made of foam material having a relative dielectric constant of about 1.035. The purpose of the investigation was to find...

  5. Quality of pedestrian flow and crosswalk width at signalized intersections

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen


    Full Text Available Among various pedestrian facilities, signalized crosswalks are the most complex and critical ones. Their geometry and configuration including width, position and angle directly affect the safety, cycle length and resulting delays for all users. Existing manuals do not provide clear and rational specifications for the required crosswalk width under different pedestrian demand combinations and properties. Furthermore, they do not consider the bi-directional flow effects on crossing speed and time when addressing pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. However, quantifying the effects of such interactions on the behavior of pedestrian flow is a prerequisite for improving the geometric design and configuration of signalized crosswalks. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology for estimating the required crosswalk width at different pedestrian demand combinations and a pre-defined LOS. The developed methodology is based on theoretical modeling for total pedestrian platoon crossing time, which consists of discharge and crossing times. The developed models are utilized to generate the fundamental diagrams of pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. A comprehensive discussion about the effects of bi-directional flow and various pedestrian age groups on the characteristics of pedestrian flow and the capacity of signalized crosswalks is presented. It is found that the maximum reduction in the capacity of signalized crosswalks occurs at roughly equal pedestrian flows from both sides of the crosswalk. By utilizing existing LOS thresholds for pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks, the required crosswalk widths for various pedestrian demand combinations are proposed for implementation.

  6. Directed path-width and monotonicity in digraph searching

    Barat, Janos


    Directed path-width was defined by Reed, Thomas and Seymour around 1995. The author and P. Hajnal defined a cops-and-robber game on digraphs in 2000. We prove that the two notions are closely related and for any digraph D, the corresponding graph parameters differ by at most one. The result is ac...


    ZhangShaoqiang; LiGuojun; SohnMoo-Young


    Many difficult (often NP-complete) optimization problems can be solved efficiently on graphs of small tree-width with a given tree decomposition. In this paper,it is discussed how to solve the minimum feedback vertex set problem and the minimum vertex feedback edge set problem efficiently by using dynamic programming on a tree-decomposition.

  8. Synaptic channel model including effects of spike width variation


    Synaptic Channel Model Including Effects of Spike Width Variation Hamideh Ramezani Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireless Communications Laboratory (NWCL) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT An accu...

  9. Potential dominance of oscillating crescent waves in finite width tanks

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.


    Recently, it has been proposed that the emergence of previously observed oscillating crescent water wave patterns, created by class II (three-dimensional) instabilities which are in principle not dominant, could in fact be explained as an artifact of a finite width tank, combined with a suppression...

  10. Rinsing Processes in Open-width Washing Machines

    Kroezen, A.B.J.; Linden, van der H.J.L.J.; Groot Wassink, J.


    A simulator is described for rinsing processes carried out on open-width washing machines. In combination with a theoretical model, a simple method is given for testing rinsing processes. The method has been used to investigate the extraction of caustic soda from a cotton fabric, varying the tempera

  11. Improved determination of the width of the top quark

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatia S.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; de Jong S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Graf C. P.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; La Cruz I. Heredia-De; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li H.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; Melnitchouk A.; Menezes D.; Mercadante P. G.; Merkin M.; et al.


    We present an improved determination of the total width of the top quark, {Gamma}{sub t}, using 5.4 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The total width {Gamma}{sub t} is extracted from the partial decay width {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) and the branching fraction {Beta}(t {yields} Wb). {Gamma}(t {yields} Wb) is obtained from the t-channel single top-quark production cross section and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb) is measured in t{bar t} events. For a top mass of 172.5 GeV, the resulting width is {Gamma}{sub t} = 2.00{sub -0.43}{sup +0.47} GeV. This translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.29{sub -0.63}{sup +0.90}) x 10{sup -25} s. We also extract an improved direct limit on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix element 0.81 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at 95% C.L. and a limit of |V{sub tb}| < 0.59 for a high-mass fourth-generation bottom quark assuming unitarity of the fourth-generation quark-mixing matrix.

  12. Measurement of joint space width and erosion size

    Sharp, JI; van der Heijde, D; Angwin, J; Duryea, J; Moens, HJB; Jacobs, JWG; Maillefert, JF; Strand, CV


    Measurement of radiographic abnormalities in metric units has been reported by several investigators during the last 15 years. Measurement of joint space in large joints has been employed in a few trials to evaluate therapy in osteoarthritis. Measurement of joint space width in small joints has been

  13. Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions

    MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi


    By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.

  14. Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers.

    Schallenberg, Uwe B


    Some novel concepts of designing antireflection (AR) coatings with equivalent layers are presented. As an introduction, essential papers concerning thin-film optics and AR designs are cited, and the AR problem and a previously introduced AR-hard design type are discussed. Based on the known matrix formalism, a potential AR region, an equivalent stack index, and an equivalent substrate index are defined to use the theory of stop-band suppression as a starting point for the design of broadband AR coatings. The known multicycle AR design type is identified as a typical solution to the AR problem if the presented approach is used.

  15. The dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on VMAT treatment planning in Pinnacle: comparing Pareto fronts.

    van Kesteren, Z; Janssen, T M; Damen, E; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C


    To evaluate in an objective way the effect of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on volumetric modulated arc therapy plans in Pinnacle. Three multileaf collimators (MLCs) were modeled: two 10 mm leaf width MLCs, with and without interdigitating leafs, and a 5 mm leaf width MLC with interdigitating leafs. Three rectum patients and three prostate patients were used for the planning study. In order to compare treatment techniques in an objective way, a Pareto front comparison was carried out. 200 plans were generated in an automated way, per patient per MLC model, resulting in a total of 3600 plans. From these plans, Pareto-optimal plans were selected which were evaluated for various dosimetric variables. The capability of leaf interdigitation showed little dosimetric impact on the treatment plans, when comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with and without leaf interdigitation. When comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with the 5 mm leaf width MLC, both with interdigitating leafs, improvement in plan quality was observed. For both patient groups, the integral dose was reduced by 0.6 J for the thin MLC. For the prostate patients, the mean dose to the anal sphincter was reduced by 1.8 Gy and the conformity of the V(95%) was reduced by 0.02 using the thin MLC. The V(65%) of the rectum was reduced by 0.1% and the dose homogeneity with 1.5%. For rectum patients, the mean dose to the bowel was reduced by 1.4 Gy and the mean dose to the bladder with 0.8 Gy for the thin MLC. The conformity of the V(95%) was equivalent for the 10 and 5 mm leaf width MLCs for the rectum patients. We have objectively compared three types of MLCs in a planning study for prostate and rectum patients by analyzing Pareto-optimal plans which were generated in an automated way. Interdigitation of MLC leafs does not generate better plans using the SmartArc algorithm in Pinnacle. Changing the MLC leaf width from 10 to 5 mm generates better treatment plans although the clinical relevance remains

  16. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    Chen Yu; Wen Yu-Mei; Li Ping


    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established.In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  17. Lithologic controls on valley width and strath terrace formation

    Schanz, Sarah A.; Montgomery, David R.


    Valley width and the degree of bedrock river terrace development vary with lithology in the Willapa and Nehalem river basins, Pacific Northwest, USA. Here, we present field-based evidence for the mechanisms by which lithology controls floodplain width and bedrock terrace formation in erosion-resistant and easily friable lithologies. We mapped valley surfaces in both basins, dated straths using radiocarbon, compared valley width versus drainage area for basalt and sedimentary bedrock valleys, and constructed slope-area plots. In the friable sedimentary bedrock, valleys are 2 to 3 times wider, host flights of strath terraces, and have concavity values near 1; whereas the erosion-resistant basalt bedrock forms narrow valleys with poorly developed, localized, or no bedrock terraces and a channel steepness index half that of the friable bedrock and an average channel concavity of about 0.5. The oldest dated strath terrace on the Willapa River, T2, was active for nearly 10,000 years, from 11,265 to 2862 calibrated years before present (cal YBP), whereas the youngest terrace, T1, is Anthropocene in age and recently abandoned. Incision rates derived from terrace ages average 0.32 mm y- 1 for T2 and 11.47 mm y- 1 for T1. Our results indicate bedrock weathering properties influence valley width through the creation of a dense fracture network in the friable bedrock that results in high rates of lateral erosion of exposed bedrock banks. Conversely, the erosion-resistant bedrock has concavity values more typical of detachment-limited streams, exhibits a sparse fracture network, and displays evidence for infrequent episodic block erosion and plucking. Lithology thereby plays a direct role on the rates of lateral erosion, influencing valley width and the potential for strath terrace planation and preservation.

  18. First correlation between compact object and circumstellar disk in the Be/X-ray binaries

    Zamanov, R K


    A remarkable correlation between the H-alpha emission line and the radio behaviour of LSI+61 303 (V615 Cas, GT 0236+610) over its 4 yr modulation is discovered. The radio outburst peak is shifted by a quarter of the 4 yr modulation period (about 400 days) with respect to the equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line variability. The onset of the LSI+61 303 radio outbursts varies in phase with the changes of the H-alpha emission line, at least during the increase of H-alpha equivalent width. This is the first clear correlation between the emission associated to the compact object and the Be circumstellar disk in a Be/X-ray binary system.

  19. Mapping of the spectral density function of a C alpha-H alpha bond vector from NMR relaxation rates of a 13C-labelled alpha-carbon in motilin.

    Allard, P; Jarvet, J; Ehrenberg, A; Gräslund, A


    The peptide hormone motilin was synthesised with a 13C-enriched alpha-carbon in the leucine at position 10. In aqueous solution, six different relaxation rates were measured for the 13C alpha-H alpha fragment as a function of temperature and with and without the addition of 30% (v/v) of the cosolvent d2-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFP). The relaxation rates were analysed employing the spectral density mapping technique introduced by Peng and Wagner [(1992) J. Magn. Reson., 98, 308-332] and using the model-free approach by Lipari and Szabo [(1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 104, 4546-4570]. The fit to various models of dynamics was also considered. Different procedures to evaluate the overall rotational correlation time were compared. A single exponential time correlation function was found to give a good fit to the measured spectral densities only for motilin in 30% (v/v) HFP at low temperatures, whereas at high temperatures in this solvent, and in D2O at all temperatures, none of the considered models gave an acceptable fit. A new empirical spectral density function was tested and found to accurately fit the experimental spectral density mapping points. The application of spectral density mapping based on NMR relaxation data for a specific 13C-1H vector is shown to be a highly useful method to study biomolecular dynamics. Advantages are high sensitivity, high precision and uniform sampling of the spectral density function over the frequency range.

  20. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Sidman, M


    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  1. Equivalent boundary integral equations for plane elasticity

    胡海昌; 丁皓江; 何文军


    Indirect and direct boundary integral equations equivalent to the original boundary value problem of differential equation of plane elasticity are established rigorously. The unnecessity or deficiency of some customary boundary integral equations is indicated by examples and numerical comparison.

  2. On the Notion of Equivalence in Translation



    Thanks to translations, varies cultures are allowed to exchange with one another. One the one hand, this has been promoting the studies of translation. On the other hand, this poses huge challenges on translators, because it is hard to define what is a good target translation when a source text is translated. There is a variety of standards to evaluate the quality of a translation, among which equivalence seems to be the most controversial one. On the analysis of studies on equivalence, this essay discusses the role of equivalence in the practice of translating with illustrations of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation. Indeed, to translate a source text into a target one is based on the equivalence among languages. However, in the process of translating, it can be adjusted to some extent for the sake of the acceptability in the target culture.

  3. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Mauro Francaviglia


    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  4. The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations

    Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag


    The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above...... under effectively Borel reducibility. The resulting structure is complex, even for equivalence relations with finitely many equivalence classes. However use of Kleene's O as a parameter is sufficient to restore the picture from the noneffective setting. A key lemma is that of the existence of two...... effectively Borel sets of reals, neither of which contains the range of the other under any effectively Borel function; the proof of this result applies Barwise compactness to a deep theorem of Harrington (see [5,16]) establishing for any recursive ordinal α the existence of Π singletons whose α...

  5. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation



    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  6. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation



    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  7. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Tucker, Stephen I.


    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.



    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  9. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Sidman, M


    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...

  10. a Linear Model for Meandering Rivers with Arbitrarily Varying Width

    Frascati, A.; Lanzoni, S.


    Alluvial rivers usually exhibit quite complex planforms, characterized by a wide variety of alternating bends, that have attracted the interest of a large number of researchers. Much less attention has been paid to another striking feature observed in alluvial rivers, namely the relatively regular spatial variations attained by the channel width. Actively meandering channels, in fact, generally undergo spatial oscillations systematically correlated with channel curvature, with cross sections wider at bends than at crossings. Some other streams have been observed to exhibit irregular width variations. Conversely, rivers flowing in highly vegetated flood plains, i.e. canaliform rivers, may exhibit an opposite behavior, owing to the combined effects of bank erodibility and floodplain depositional processes which, in turn, are strictly linked to vegetation cover. Similarly to streamline curvatures induced by bends, the presence of along channel width variations may have remarkable effects on the flow field and sediment dynamics and, thereby, on the equilibrium river bed configuration. In particular, spatial distribution of channel curvature typically determines the formation of a rhythmic bar-pool pattern in the channel bed strictly associated with the development of river meanders. Channel width variations are on the contrary characterized by a sequence of narrowing, yielding a central scour, alternated to the downstream development of a widening associated with the formation of a central bar. Here we present a morphodynamic model that predict at a linear level the spatial distribution of the flow field and the equilibrium bed configuration of an alluvial river characterized by arbitrary along channel distributions of both the channel axis curvature and the channel width. The mathematical model is averaged over the depth and describes the steady, non-uniform flow and sediment transport in sinuous channels with a noncohesive bed. The governing two-dimensional equations

  11. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi;


    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogeniz......Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any...... homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence...

  12. Width of Sunspot Generating Zone and Reconstruction of Butterfly Diagram

    Ivanov, V G; 10.1007/s11207-010-9665-6


    Based on the extended Greenwich-NOAA/USAF catalogue of sunspot groups it is demonstrated that the parameters describing the latitudinal width of the sunspot generating zone (SGZ) are closely related to the current level of solar activity, and the growth of the activity leads to the expansion of SGZ. The ratio of the sunspot number to the width of SGZ shows saturation at a certain level of the sunspot number, and above this level the increase of the activity takes place mostly due to the expansion of SGZ. It is shown that the mean latitudes of sunspots can be reconstructed from the amplitudes of solar activity. Using the obtained relations and the group sunspot numbers by Hoyt and Schatten (1998), the latitude distribution of sunspot groups ("the Maunder butterfly diagram") for the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries is reconstructed and compared with historical sunspot observations.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and line width distributions - II

    Chajet, L. S.; Hall, P. B.


    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Emmering et al. Here, we extend our previous work to consider central objects with different masses and/or luminosities. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV line-width distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. Following Fine et al., we transform that scatter in the profile line-widths into a constraint on the torus geometry and show how the half-opening angle of the obscuring structure depends on the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. We find that the results depend only mildly on the dimensionless angular momentum, one of the two integrals of motion that characterize the dynamics of the self-similar ideal MHD outflows.

  14. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)


    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  15. Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru


    In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.

  16. On the Angular Width of Diffractive Beam in Anisotropic Media

    Lock, Edwin H


    2-D diffraction patterns arising in the far-field region were investigated theoretically for the case, when the plane wave with non collinear group and phase velocities is incident on the wide slit in opaque screen with arbitrary orientation. This investigation was carried out by consideration as an example of magnetostatic surface wave diffraction in tangentially magnetized ferrite slab. It was deduced the universal analytical formula, which one can use to calculate the angular width of diffractive beam in any 2-D anisotropic geometries for the waves of various nature. It was shown, that in 2-D anisotropic geometries this width may be not only more or less then the value L/D (L - wavelength of incident wave, D - length of slit), but it also may be equal to zero in certain conditions.

  17. The width of the omega meson in the nuclear medium

    Ramos, A; Molina, R; Oset, E


    We evaluate the width of the \\omega\\ meson in nuclear matter. We consider the free decay mode of the \\omega\\ into three pions, which is dominated by \\rho\\pi\\ decay, and replace the \\rho\\ and \\pi\\ propagators by their medium modified ones. We also take into account the quasielastic and inelastic processes induced by a vector-baryon interaction dominated by vector meson exchange, as well as the contributions coming from the \\omega\\ \\to K \\bar K mechanism with medium modified K, \\bar K meson propagators. We obtain a substantial increase of the \\omega\\ width in the medium, reaching a value of 114 \\pm 10 MeV at normal nuclear matter density, which comes mainly from \\omega N \\to \\pi \\pi N, \\omega NN \\to \\pi NN processes associated to the dominant \\omega\\ \\to \\rho\\pi\\ decay mode.

  18. Static vortices in long Josephson junctions of exponentially varying width

    Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.


    A numerical simulation is carried out for static vortices in a long Josephson junction with an exponentially varying width. At specified values of the parameters the corresponding boundary-value problem admits more than one solution. Each solution (distribution of the magnetic flux in the junction) is associated to a Sturm-Liouville problem, the smallest eigenvalue of which can be used, in a first approximation, to assess the stability of the vortex against relatively small spatiotemporal perturbations. The change in width of the junction leads to a renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. The influence of the model parameters on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux is investigated in detail, particularly that of the shape parameter. The critical curve of the junction is constructed from pieces of the critical curves for the different magnetic flux distributions having the highest critical currents for the given magnetic field.

  19. Determination of the width of the top quark

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Altona, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; \\degAsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besan?con, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdinb, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-P?erez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Th?ery, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M -C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; ?Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; D?eliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, 47 R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J -F; Grohsjean, A; Gr?unendahl, S; Gr?unewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haasc, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; La Cruz, I Heredia-De; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffr?e, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Justed, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kur?ca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garciae, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Maga?na-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Mart?\\inez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Garz?on, G J Otero y; Owen, 1 M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridgec, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; P?etroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M -A; Podesta-Lermaf, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M -E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; S?anchez-Hern?andez, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; S?oldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S Uvarov S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weberg, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wetstein, M; White, A; Williams, D Wicke M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W -C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L


    We extract the total width of the top quark, Gamma_t, from the partial decay width Gamma(t -> W b) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t -> W b) measured in ttbar events using up to 2.3 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron ppbar Collider. The result is Gamma_t = 1.99 +0.69 -0.55 GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of tau_t = (3.3 +1.3 -0.9) x 10^-25 s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |Vtb'| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  20. The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks

    Kerner, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O. [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Determination of the width of the top quark.

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Ćwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L


    We extract the total width of the top quark, Γ(t), from the partial decay width Γ(t → Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t → Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is Γ(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)  GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of τ(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25)   s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  2. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    Vine, Troy [Univ. of College, London (United Kingdom)


    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  3. Regional Differences in Equivalence Scales in Turkey

    Gianni Betti


    Full Text Available Equivalence scales have a crucial role in poverty measurement. For Turkey, there are no available up-todate equivalence scales, representing Turkish data. There were no efforts for calculation of equivalence scales at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to calculate and propose an equivalence scale for Turkey and estimate regional differences. Besides the models with Engel method, different equivalence scales were estimated by Almost Ideal Demand System. The results of the first model of AIDS approach composed of 5 age groups, is proposed for Turkey, but for simplicity the results of the second AIDS model could be used as well. In this model, the equivalence scale for Turkey is calculated as 0.65 for each additional adult after the first one and 0.35 for each child. For regional equivalence scales, we use two methods and comare the results. In the first one, regressions were run for each region separately and in the second one, dummy variables introduced. The highest difference in the results of the two methods was observed in Istanbul region. The findings for the regional scales are less reliable as the household size is bigger. This limitation is due to the relatively small size of the data sets. Having surveys with higher sample sizes would enable better results. After getting the results some conclusions could be drawn especially with regard to child cost differences among regions. It was expected to have higher costs for children in poorer regions and the regional results have confirmed this hypothesis.


    Ekaterina Alexandrovna Shershunova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the realization and the diagnostics of the volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in 1-mm air gap when applying high voltage rectangular pulses to the electrodes. The effect of the applied pulse width on the discharge dissipated energy was studied in detail. It was found experimentally, the energy stayed nearly constant with the pulse elongation from 600 ns to 1 ms.

  5. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    Huang Shi-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  6. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes.

    Huang, Kai; Huang, Shi-Ming; Pu, Lin; Shi, Yi; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Ji, Li; Kang, Jun-Yong


    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.

  7. Beam Width Robustness of a 670 GHz Imaging Radar

    Cooper, K. B.; Llombart, N.; Dengler, R. J.; Siegel, P. H.


    Detection of a replica bomb belt concealed on a mannequin at 4 m standoff range is achieved using a 670 GHz imaging radar. At a somewhat larger standoff range of 4.6 m, the radar's beam width increases substantially, but the through-shirt image quality remains good. This suggests that a relatively modest increase in aperture size over the current design will be sufficient to detect person-borne concealed weapons at ranges exceeding 25 meters.

  8. Influence of Doppler Bin Width on GNSS Detection Probabilities

    Geiger, Bernhard C


    The acquisition stage in GNSS receivers determines Doppler shifts and code phases of visible satellites. Acquisition is thus a search in two continuous dimensions, where the digital algorithms require a partitioning of the search space into cells. We present analytic expressions for the acquisition performance depending on the partitioning of the Doppler frequency domain. In particular, the impact of the number and width of Doppler bins is analyzed. The presented results are verified by simulations.

  9. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    Salomon, Phil M.


    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  10. Pulse width control loop as a duty cycle corrector

    Jovanović Goran


    Full Text Available The clock distribution and generation circuitry forms a critical component of current synchronous digital systems. A digital system’s clocks must have not only low jitter, low skew, but also well-controlled duty cycle in order to facilitate versatile clocking techniques. In high-speed CMOS clock buffer design, the duty cycle of a clock is liable to be changed when the clock passes through a multistage buffer because the circuit is not pure digital [8]. In this paper, we propose a pulse width control loop referred as MPWCL (modified pulse width control loop that adopts the same architecture as the conventional PWCL, but with a new pulse generator and new charge pump circuit as a constituent of the duty cycle detector. Thanks to using new building blocks the proposed pulse width control loop can control the duty cycle in a wide range, and what is more important it becomes operative in saturation region too, what provides conditional for fast locking time. For 1.2 µm double-metal double-poly CMOS process with Vdd = 5 V and operating frequency of 133 MHz, results of SPICE simulation show that the duty cycle can be well controlled in the range from 20 % up to 80 % if the loop parameters are properly chosen.

  11. Space maintainer effects on intercanine arch width and length.

    Dincer, M; Haydar, S; Unsal, B; Turk, T


    In order to investigate the effects of space maintainers in intercanine arch width and length, twenty cases, characterized with the early loss of mandibular primary molars were selected and divided into two groups. The treatment group used removable space maintainers, while the other ten cases served as the control group. The first dental casts of the treatment and control groups were obtained when the primary canines were in the mouth. After the eruption of permanent canines second dental casts were obtained in both groups. Six measurements were made on the dental casts of each patient. No parameter was found to be statistically significant in the treatment group. In the control group the increase in intercanine arch width and perimeter were found to be statistically significant. Also the increase at the buccal and lingual bone measurements were found to be statistically significant. These results showed that space maintainers might cease the increase in intercanine arch width and length during the transition period between the primary and permanent canines.

  12. Axial couplings and strong decay widths of heavy hadrons.

    Detmold, William; Lin, C-J David; Meinel, Stefan


    We calculate the axial couplings of mesons and baryons containing a heavy quark in the static limit using lattice QCD. These couplings determine the leading interactions in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory and are central quantities in heavy quark physics, as they control strong decay widths and the light quark mass dependence of heavy hadron observables. Our analysis makes use of lattice data at six different pion masses, 227 MeVwidths with experimental data for Σ(c)(*) decays, we obtain Γ[Σ(b)(*)→Λ(b)π(±)]=4.2(1.0), 4.8(1.1), 7.3(1.6), 7.8(1.8) MeV for the Σ(b)(+), Σ(b)(-), Σ(b)(*+), Σ(b)(*-) initial states, respectively. We also derive upper bounds on the widths of the Ξ(b)(I(*)) baryons.

  13. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.


    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Measurements of the Mass, Total Width and Two-Photon Partial Width of the $\\eta_{c}$ Meson

    Brandenburg, G; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Ugolini, D W; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Kopp, S E; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; McGee, S; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Hill, T S; Morrison, R J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Vogel, H; Behrens, B H; Ford, W T; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Thies, P G; Urner, D; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J


    Using 13.4 $fb^{-1}$ of data collected with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have observed 300 events for the two-photon production of ground-state pseudo-scalar charmonium in the decay $\\eta_c$ -> $K_S K^{\\mp} \\pi^{\\pm}$. We have measured the $\\eta_c$ mass to be (2980.4 +- 2.3 (stat) +- 0.6 (sys)) MeV and its full width as (27.0 +- 5.8 (stat) +- 1.4 (sys)) MeV. We have determined the two-photon partial width of the $\\eta_c$ meson to be (7.6 +- 0.8 (stat) +- 0.4 (sys) +- 2.3 (br)) keV, with the last uncertainty associated with the decay branching fraction.

  15. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    Lin, Xi


    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  16. Coordinate transformation in the model of long Josephson junctions: geometrically equivalent Josephson junctions

    Semerdzhieva, E. G.; Boyadzhiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.


    The transition from the model of a long Josephson junction of variable width to the model of a junction with a coordinate-dependent Josephson current amplitude is effected through a coordinate transformation. This establishes the correspondence between the classes of Josephson junctions of variable width and quasi-one-dimensional junctions with a variable thickness of the barrier layer. It is shown that for a junction of exponentially varying width the barrier layer of the equivalent quasi-one-dimensional junction has a distributed resistive inhomogeneity that acts as an attractor for magnetic flux vortices. The curve of the critical current versus magnetic field for a Josephson junction with a resistive microinhomogeneity is constructed with the aid of a numerical simulation, and a comparison is made with the critical curve of a junction of exponentially varying width. The possibility of replacing a distributed inhomogeneity in a Josephson junction by a local inhomogeneity at the end of the junction is thereby demonstrated; this can have certain advantages from a technological point of view.

  17. Analysis and Minimization of Output Current Ripple for Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Techniques in Three-Phase Inverters

    Gabriele Grandi


    Full Text Available This paper gives the complete analysis of the output current ripple in three-phase voltage source inverters considering the different discontinuous pulse-width modulation (DPWM strategies. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically evaluated over the fundamental period and compared among the most used DPWMs, including positive and negative clamped (DPWM+ and DPWM−, and the four possible combinations between them, usually named as DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2, and DPWM3. The maximum and the average values of peak-to-peak current ripple are estimated, and a simple method to correlate the ripple envelope with the ripple rms is proposed and verified. Furthermore, all the results obtained by DPWMs are compared to the centered pulse-width modulation (CPWM, equivalent to the space vector modulation to identify the optimal pulse-width modulation (PWM strategy as a function of the modulation index, taking into account the different average switching frequency. In this way, the PWM technique providing for the minimum output current ripple is identified over the whole modulation range. The analytical developments and the main results are experimentally verified by current ripple measurements with a three-phase PWM inverter prototype supplying an induction motor load.

  18. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Sheng Yong PAN


    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  19. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence



    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.


    Fan Hualin; Yang Wei


    An equivalent continuum method is developed to analyze the effective stiffness of three-dimensional stretching dominated lattice materials. The strength and three-dimensional plastic yield surfaces are calculated for the equivalent continuum. A yielding model is formulated and compared with the results of other models. The bedding-in effect is considered to include the compliance of the lattice joints. The predicted stiffness and strength are in good agreement with the experimental data, validating the present model in the prediction of the mechanical properties of stretching dominated lattice structures.

  1. Algebraic cobordism theory attached to algebraic equivalence

    Krishna, Amalendu


    After the algebraic cobordism theory of Levine-Morel, we develop a theory of algebraic cobordism modulo algebraic equivalence. We prove that this theory can reproduce Chow groups modulo algebraic equivalence and the zero-th semi-topological K-groups. We also show that with finite coefficients, this theory agrees with the algebraic cobordism theory. We compute our cobordism theory for some low dimensional or special types of varieties. The results on infinite generation of some Griffiths groups by Clemens and on smash-nilpotence by Voevodsky and Voisin are also lifted and reinterpreted in terms of this cobordism theory.

  2. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande


    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  3. A model for equivalent axle load factors

    Amorim, Sara I.R.; Pais, Jorge; Vale, Aline C.; Minhoto, Manuel


    Most design methods for road pavements require the design traffic, based on the transformation of the traffic spectrum, to be calculated into a number of equivalent passages of a standard axle using the equivalent axle load factors. Generally, these factors only consider the type of axle (single, tandem or tridem), but they do not consider the type of wheel on the axles, i.e., single or dual wheel. The type of wheel has an important influence on the calculation of the design traffic. The exis...

  4. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    Zhang, Xueqian


    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  5. Be Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 6830

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Konidaris, Nick; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, Hui-Chen; Malkan, Matthew A; Chang, Chan-Kao; Laher, Russ; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Edelson, Rick; Ritter, Andreas; Quimby, Robert; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran O; Surace, Jason; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R


    We report the discovery of 2 new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven H-alpha emitters were discovered using the H-alpha imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3-m telescope at Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three H-alpha emitters were confirmed as Be stars with H-alpha equivalent widths > -10 Angstrom. Two objects were also observed by the new spectrograph SED-Machine on the Palomar 60 inch Telescope. The SED-Machine results show strong H-alpha emission lines, which are consistent with the results of the Lick observations. The high efficiency of the SED-Machine can provide rapid observations for Be stars in a comprehensive survey in the future.

  6. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Elif Eker; İmdat Taymaz


    In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  7. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Eker, Elif; Taymaz, İmdat


    In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant. The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  8. Directional Lya Equivalent Boosting I: Spherically Symmetric Distributions of Clumps

    Gronke, Max


    We quantify the directional dependence of the escape fraction of Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) and non-ionising UV-continuum photons from a multiphase medium, and investigate whether there exist directional enhancements in the Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width (EW). Our multiphase medium consists of spherically symmetric distributions of cold, dusty clumps embedded within a hot dust-free medium. We focus on three models from the analysis presented by Laursen et al. (2013). We find that for a Ly$\\alpha$ and UV-continuum point source, it is possible to find an EW boost $b(\\theta,\\phi) > 5 \\bar{b}$ in a few per cent of sight lines, where $\\bar{b}$ denotes the boost averaged over all photons. For spatially extended sources this directional dependence vanishes quickly when the size of the UV emitting region exceeds the mean distance between cold dusty clumps. Our analysis suggests that directional EW boosting can occur, and that this is mostly driven by reduced escape fractions of UV photons (which gives rise to UV-contin...

  9. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method


    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... concentrations of PM 2.5 in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human...

  10. Mesiodistal width and proximal enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids

    Aurélio de Carvalho Macha


    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating measurements relative to the mesiodistal crown width and enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids. The sample consisted of 40 extracted sound bicuspids (20 right and 20 left, selected from white patients (mean age: 23.7 ± 4.2 years, who were treated orthodontically with tooth extraction at a private clinic in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. All teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axis through the proximal surfaces, parallel to the buccal side, to obtain 0.6-mm central sections. The mesiodistal crown width and proximal enamel thickness were measured using a stereoscopic microscope connected to a computer. Measurements for right and left teeth, as well as the mesial and distal enamel thicknesses in the total sample, were compared by the Wilcoxon test (α = 0.05. The mesiodistal crown width mean values found were 7.51 mm (± 0.54 on the right side and 7.53 mm (± 0.35 on the left side. The mean enamel thickness on the distal surfaces for both sides was 1.29 mm (right: s.d. = 0.12 and left: s.d. = 0.18. The mean values for the mesial surfaces were 1.08 mm (± 0.14 and 1.19 mm (± 0.25, on the right and the left sides, respectively. No significant differences were found between the crown measurements and enamel thicknesses on the left and right sides. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces. Reliable measurements of enamel thickness are useful to guide stripping, which may be an attractive alternative to tooth extraction because it allows the transverse arch dimension to be maintained.

  11. Total width of 125 GeV Higgs boson.

    Barger, Vernon; Ishida, Muneyuki; Keung, Wai-Yee


    By using the LHC and Tevatron measurements of the cross sections to various decay channels relative to the standard model Higgs boson, the total width of the putative 125 GeV Higgs boson is determined as 6.1(-2.9)(+7.7) MeV. We describe a way to estimate the branching fraction for the Higgs-boson decay to dark matter. We also discuss a no-go theorem for the γγ signal of the Higgs boson at the LHC.

  12. Narrowing of Terrace-width Distributions During Growth on Vicinals

    Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Pimpinelli, A.; Einstein, T. L.


    Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for a generic minimal SOS model of vicinal surfaces, we compute the terrace-width distributions (TWDs) as a function of incident flux during homoepitaxial growth. We show that the distribution narrows markedly, U.B.P.-Clermont 2 as though there were a flux-dependent repulsion between steps, until the step picture fails at high flux. Using a Fokker-Planck approach, we analyze the evolution and saturation of this narrowing. We compare with a 1D model and with our simulations for narrowing due to an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier.

  13. CGC beyond eikonal accuracy: finite width target effects

    Altinoluk Tolga


    Full Text Available We present a method to systematically include the corrections to the eikonal approximation that are associated with the finite width of the target. The retarded gluon propagator in background field is calculated at next-to-next-to-eikonal (NNE accuracy by using this method. The corrections to the strict eikonal limit of the gluon propagator are found to be Wilson lines decorated by gradients of the background field of the target. The result is then applied to single inclusive gluon production and to single transverse spin asymmetry for a polarized target in pA collisions.

  14. CGC beyond eikonal accuracy: finite width target effects

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Armesto, Nestor; Beuf, Guillaume; Moscoso, Alexis


    We present a method to systematically include the corrections to the eikonal approximation that are associated with the finite width of the target. The retarded gluon propagator in background field is calculated at next-to-next-to-eikonal (NNE) accuracy by using this method. The corrections to the strict eikonal limit of the gluon propagator are found to be Wilson lines decorated by gradients of the background field of the target. The result is then applied to single inclusive gluon production and to single transverse spin asymmetry for a polarized target in pA collisions.

  15. Microsecond pulse width, intense, light-ion beam accelerator

    Rej, D. J.; Bartsch, R. R.; Davis, H. A.; Faehl, R. J.; Greenly, J. B.; Waganaar, W. J.


    A relatively long-pulse width (0.1-1 μs) intense ion beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied Br, magnetically insulated extraction ion diode with dielectric flashover ion source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. The diode is designed with the aid of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse shaping. The effect of a plasma opening switch on diode behavior is considered.

  16. Average radiation widths of levels in natural xenon isotopes

    Noguere, G., E-mail: [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Litaize, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France)


    Average radiation widths <{Gamma}{sub {gamma}>} for the stable xenon isotopes have been estimated using neutron resonance spectroscopic information deduced from high-resolution capture and transmission data measured at the electron linear accelerator GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Geel, Belgium. The combination of conventional Neutron Resonance Shape Analysis techniques (NRSA) with high-energy model calculations in a simple Bayesian learning method permit to calculate a consistent local systematic in the xenon's mass region (Z=54) from A=124 to A=136.

  17. Effect of stance width on multidirectional postural responses

    Henry, S. M.; Fung, J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)


    The effect of stance width on postural responses to 12 different directions of surface translations was examined. Postural responses were characterized by recording 11 lower limb and trunk muscles, body kinematics, and forces exerted under each foot of 7 healthy subjects while they were subjected to horizontal surface translations in 12 different, randomly presented directions. A quasi-static approach of force analysis was done, examining force integrals in three different epochs (background, passive, and active periods). The latency and amplitude of muscle responses were quantified for each direction, and muscle tuning curves were used to determine the spatial activation patterns for each muscle. The results demonstrate that the horizontal force constraint exerted at the ground was lessened in the wide, compared with narrow, stance for humans, a similar finding to that reported by Macpherson for cats. Despite more trunk displacement in narrow stance, there were no significant changes in body center of mass (CoM) displacement due to large changes in center of pressure (CoP), especially in response to lateral translations. Electromyographic (EMG) magnitude decreased for all directions in wide stance, particularly for the more proximal muscles, whereas latencies remained the same from narrow to wide stance. Equilibrium control in narrow stance was more of an active postural strategy that included regulating the loading/unloading of the limbs and the direction of horizontal force vectors. In wide stance, equilibrium control relied more on an increase in passive stiffness resulting from changes in limb geometry. The selective latency modulation of the proximal muscles with translation direction suggests that the trunk was being actively controlled in all directions. The similar EMG latencies for both narrow and wide stance, with modulation of only the muscle activation magnitude as stance width changed, suggest that the same postural synergy was only slightly modified

  18. Exact values of Kolmogorov widths of classes of analytic functions

    Serdyuk, A. S.; Bodenchuk, V. V.


    We prove that kernels of analytic functions of kind $H_{h,\\beta}(t)=\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{\\infty}\\frac{1}{\\cosh kh}\\cos\\Big(kt-\\frac{\\beta\\pi}{2}\\Big)$, $h>0$, ${\\beta\\in\\mathbb{R}}$, satisfies Kushpel's condition $C_{y,2n}$ beginning with some number $n_h$ which is explicitly expressed by parameter $h$ of smoothness of the kernel. As a consequence, for all $n\\geqslant n_h$ we obtain lower bounds for Kolmogorov widths $d_{2n}$ of functional classes that are representable as convolutions of kerne...

  19. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K


    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  20. Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width

    Enders, G.; Berg, F. D.; Hagel, K.; Kühn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O.; Charity, R. J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R. S.; Simon, R. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A. A.


    High-energy γ rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of 136Xe+48Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width Γ is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy E*. A saturation at about Γ=10 MeV is observed for E*/A>=1.0 MeV/nucleon.

  1. Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width

    Enders, G.; Berg, F.D.; Hagel, K.; Kuehn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet, Giessen, Giessen (Germany)); Charity, R.J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R.S.; Simon, R.S.; Wessels, J.P. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)); Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A.A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Florence, Florence (Italy))


    High-energy {gamma} rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of {sup 136}Xe+{sup 48}Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width {Gamma} is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy {ital E}{sup *}. A saturation at about {Gamma}=10 MeV is observed for {ital E}{sup *}/{ital A}{ge}1.0 MeV/nucleon.

  2. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J


    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  3. Stark Widths of Spectral Lines of Neutral Neon

    Milan S. Dimitrijević; Zoran Simić; Andjelka Kovačević; Aleksandar Valjarević; Sylvie Sahal-Bréchot


    In order to complete Stark broadening data for Ne I spectral lines which are needed for analysis of stellar atmospheres, collisional widths and shifts (the so-called Stark broadening parameters) of 29 isolated spectral lines of neutral neon have been determined within the impact semiclassical perturbation method. Calculations have been performed for the broadening by collisions with electrons, protons and ionized helium for astrophysical applications, and for collisions with ionized neon and argon for laboratory plasma diagnostics. The shifts have been compared with existing experimental values. The obtained data will be included in the STARK-B database, which is a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center – VAMDC.

  4. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Sidman, Murray


    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  5. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    Srba, Jiri


    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...

  6. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA


    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  7. The Nature of Dynamic Equivalence in Translating

    Nida, Eugene A.


    A discussion of three types of translation: formal correspondence, cognitive content and emotive response-oriented. The latter two are dynamic-equivalent translations. Their purpose is to enable the receptors to understand the implications of the cognitive content or to make a corresponding emotive response without recourse to the original text.…

  8. Canonical equivalence between massive spin 1 theories

    Arias, P J; Arias, Pio J.; Perez-Mosquera, Jean C.


    The model of Cremmer-Scherck and Proca are considered in dimensions greater than 3+1. It is obtained that the Proca model correspond to a gauged fixed version of the Cremmer-Scherck one, and we show their canonical equivalence.

  9. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin


    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods. PMID:28220075

  10. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.


    The work of Abadi and Fournet introduces the notion of a frame to describe the knowledge of the environment of a cryptographic protocol. Frames are lists of terms; two frames are indistinguishable under the notion of static equivalence if they satisfy the same equations on terms. We present a first...

  11. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.


    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  12. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    Pécseli, Hans


    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  13. Chameleonic equivalence postulate and wave function collapse

    Zanzi, Andrea


    A chameleonic solution to the cosmological constant problem and the non-equivalence of different conformal frames at the quantum level have been recently suggested [Phys. Rev. D82 (2010) 044006]. In this article we further discuss the theoretical grounds of that model and we are led to a chameleonic equivalence postulate (CEP). Whenever a theory satisfies our CEP (and some other additional conditions), a density-dependence of the mass of matter fields is naturally present. Let us summarize the main results of this paper. 1) The CEP can be considered the microscopic counterpart of the Einstein's Equivalence Principle and, hence, a chameleonic description of quantum gravity is obtained: in our model, (quantum) gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. 2) To illustrate one of the possible applications of the CEP, we point out a connection between chameleon fields and quantum-mechanical wave function collapse. The collapse is induced by the chameleonic nature of the theory. We discuss the collapse for a S...

  14. On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes

    YANG Ji-Feng


    We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.

  15. Experimental Uncertainties of TEPC Dose Equivalent

    ZHANG; Wei-hua; XIAO; Xue-fu; WANG; Zhi-qiang; LIU; Yi-na; LI; Chun-juan; LUO; Hai-long


    The tissue-equivalent proportional counters(TEPC)are widely used for radiation protection in mixed radiation fields.The operational quantity H*(10)can be directly obtained by means of microdosimetric spectra measurements with TEPC.An empirical evaluation of uncertainties is reported in this paper.The sources of uncertainties involved in measuring microdosimetric spectra mainly are the sensitive

  16. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne


    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...


    Lin-Tian Luh


    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  18. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin


    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  19. Equivalence of Conformal Superalgebras to Hamiltonian Superoperators

    Xiaoping Xu


    In this paper, we present a formal variational calculus of super functions in one real variable and find the conditions for a "matrix differential operator'' to be a Hamiltonian superoperator. Moreover, we prove that conformal superalgebras are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian superoperators.

  20. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Fitch, V. L.


    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  1. On Functional Equivalence of Idiom Translation



    The aim of this article is to discuss the feasibility of functional equivalence in idiom translations in Chinese-English cultures,trying to find efficient ways to avoid both under-translation and over-translation.The more functions are reproduced,the better the version will be at achieving correspondence between meaning and function.

  2. On the Leitmann equivalent problem approach

    F.O.O. Wagener


    The purpose of this paper is to show how Leitmann’s equivalent problem approach ties in with the classical notions of the calculus of variations and how it can be exploited to give a rapid and elegant approach to the Weierstrass theory of sufficient conditions. Fixed, free and constrained endpoint c

  3. A quality index for equivalent uniform dose

    Henríquez, Francisco Cutanda; Castrillón, Silvia Vargas


    Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) is the absorbed dose that, when homogeneously given to a tumor, yields the same mean surviving clonogen number as the given non-homogeneous irradiation. EUD is used as an evaluation tool under the assumption that two plans with the same value of EUD are equivalent, and their biological effect on the tumor (clonogen survival) would be the same as the one of a homogeneous irradiation of absorbed dose EUD. In this work, this assumption has been studied, and a figure of merit of its applicability has been obtained. Distributions of surviving clonogen number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous irradiations are found to be different even if their mean values are the same, the figure of merit being greater when there is a wider difference, and the equivalence assumption being less valid. Therefore, EUD can be closer to a uniform dose for some cases than for other ones (high α values, extreme heterogeneity), and the accuracy of the radiobiological indices obtained for evaluation, could be affected. Results show that the equivalence is very sensitive to the choice of radiobiological parameters, and this conclusion has been derived from mathematical properties of EUD. PMID:21897557

  4. Size of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age at magnetic resonance imaging

    Oyama, Jun; Mori, Kouichi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Imamura, Masatoshi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizushima, Yukiko [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tateishi, Ukihide [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)


    The expected MRI-based dimensions of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates are unknown. To evaluate the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age using MRI. We retrospectively analyzed brain MRI examinations in 62 infants (28 boys) without intracranial abnormalities. The images were obtained in infants at term-equivalent age with a 1.5-tesla MRI scanner. We measured the widths and heights of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract and calculated the cross-sectional areas using the formula for an ellipse. The means ± standard deviation of the width, height and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 2.7 ± 0.2 mm, 1.7 ± 0.2 mm and 3.5 ± 0.5 mm{sup 2}, respectively. The width, height and cross-sectional area of the optic tract were 1.5 ± 0.1 mm, 1.6 ± 0.1 mm and 2.0 ± 0.2 mm{sup 2}, respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that postmenstrual age showed independent intermediate positive correlations with the width (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and cross-sectional area (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) of the intracranial optic nerve. The lower bounds of the 95% prediction intervals for the width and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 0.07 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 0.46 mm, and 0.17 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 4.0 mm{sup 2}, respectively. We identified the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age. The postmenstrual age at MRI independently positively correlated with the sizes. (orig.)

  5. Critical caving erosion width for cantilever failures of river bank

    Yangui Wang; Shangfu Kuang; Jialin Su


    The cantilever failure is one of the typical bank failures, in which the lateral caving erosion at the bottom of the bank plays an important role. When the caving erosion width is larger than a certain value, the cantilever failures such as shear, toppling and stress failures may occur. In order to understand the condition of the cantilever failure, the collapse mechanisms of the cantilever failures are studied based on the bank stability theory and flume experiment. According to the bank stability equation with the lateral erosion, the critical caving erosion width (CCEW) formulas for the shear and toppling failures of simple slope bank were derived in this paper. The formulas show that the CCEW increases as the overhanging soil thickness and soil cohesion increase, and decreases as the crack depth on the bank surface and the slope angle of the bank increase. And these formulas were tested with experimental data, which shows the predicted values are good agreement with experimental data. The paper reveals a quantitative expression on the process of the river cantilever failure.

  6. Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates

    Lim, Teik-Cheng


    This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.

  7. Combining LEP and LHC to bound the Higgs Width

    Englert, Christoph; Spannowsky, Michael


    The correlation of on- and off-shell Higgs boson production at the LHC in $gg \\to h^* \\to ZZ$ to bound the Higgs width, under specific model-dependent assumptions, has recently received a lot of attention. As off-shell cross section measurements in this channel suffer from a small signal yield, large backgrounds, and theoretical uncertainties, we propose an alternative complementary constraint which is only possible through the combination of LEP and LHC measurements. Previous precision electroweak measurements at LEP allow for the determination of indirect constraints on Higgs couplings to vector bosons by considering one-loop processes involving virtual Higgs exchange. As the Higgs is off-shell in these diagrams we venture that LEP can be interpreted as an off-shell `Higgs Factory'. By combining these LEP constraints with current LHC 8 TeV Higgs measurements a stronger limit on the Higgs width can be achieved than with LHC data alone for models with rescaled Higgs couplings. Looking to the future, avoiding ...

  8. Fractal Reference Signals in Pulse-Width Modulation

    Lurie, Boris; Lurie, Helen


    A report proposes the use of waveforms having fractal shapes reminiscent of sawteeth (in contradistinction to conventional regular sawtooth waveforms) as reference signals for pulse-width modulation in control systems for thrusters of spacecraft flying in formation. Fractal reference signals may also be attractive in some terrestrial control systems - especially those in which pulse-width modulation is used for precise control of electric motors. The report asserts that the use of fractal reference signals would enable the synchronous control of several variables of a spacecraft formation, such that consumption of propellant would be minimized, intervals between thruster firings would be long (as preferred for performing scientific observations), and delays in controlling large-thrust maneuvers for retargeting would be minimized. The report further asserts that whereas different controllers would be needed for different modes of operation if conventional pulsewidth modulation were used, the use of fractal reference signals would enable the same controller to function nearly optimally in all regimes of operation, so that only this one controller would be needed.

  9. Bang Time and Burn Width Analysis at the NIF

    Grafil, E.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Kim, Y.; Hoffman, N. M.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Church, J.; Bernstein, L.; Liebman, J.; Rubery, M.; Horsefield, C. J.; Miller, E. K.


    The time of peak fusion reactivity with respect to the impingement of laser light on an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule is known as Nuclear Bang Time (BT). The width of this peak is the Nuclear Burn Width (BW). Accurately measuring BT & BW is essential for constraining hydrodynamic simulations as it is a measure of energy coupling to the target. BT & BW measurements have been performed using a variety of instruments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is designed to measure fusion gamma-rays in determining BT & BW to within 30 ps precision and accuracy. The GRH consists of four Gas Cherenkov Detectors having variable energy-thresholding capability. For BT measurements, the threshold is typically set >8 MeV so as to isolate DT fusion gamma-rays at 16.75 MeV while thresholding out the lower energy (n,n') gammas. The GRH experimental setup, data and comparison to BT & BW from other diagnostics methods are presented. U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-480419.

  10. Origin of multiple band gap values in single width nanoribbons

    Goyal, Deepika; Kumar, Shailesh; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh


    Deterministic band gap in quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons is prerequisite for their integrated functionalities in high performance molecular-electronics based devices. However, multiple band gaps commonly observed in graphene nanoribbons of the same width, fabricated in same slot of experiments, remain unresolved, and raise a critical concern over scalable production of pristine and/or hetero-structure nanoribbons with deterministic properties and functionalities for plethora of applications. Here, we show that a modification in the depth of potential wells in the periodic direction of a supercell on relative shifting of passivating atoms at the edges is the origin of multiple band gap values in nanoribbons of the same width in a crystallographic orientation, although they carry practically the same ground state energy. The results are similar when calculations are extended from planar graphene to buckled silicene nanoribbons. Thus, the findings facilitate tuning of the electronic properties of quasi-one-dimensional materials such as bio-molecular chains, organic and inorganic nanoribbons by performing edge engineering.

  11. Interalar width as a guide in denture tooth selection.

    Hoffman, W; Bomberg, T J; Hatch, R A


    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of the IAW, measured between at the widest dimension of the alae of the nose, and two other measurements of maxillary anterior teeth. The other measurements, both of which are significant in the selection and arrangement of artificial teeth used in complete dentures, were the ICTW and the ARCD measured from the distal surface of the maxillary canine on one side of the arch to the distal surface of the canine on the opposite side of the arch. No distinction was made between either the sex or the age of the subjects. The mean ICTW of 35.35 mm was 3% greater than the mean IAW of 34.28 mm. The mean ARCD of 44.85 mm was 31% greater than the mean IAW of 34.28 mm. This mean ARCD compares favorably (less than 1 mm difference) with a constructed ARCD of 45.8 mm from a tooth dimension study by Shillingburg et al. The ARCD was 44.85 mm. This measurement had not been made in the previous study examining the relationship of interalar distance to ICTW. When the IAW was plotted against the intercanine cusp tip width, a fairly strong correlation coefficient of 0.413 was exhibited. A weaker but definite correlation coefficient of 0.217 was observed when the interalar width plotted against the circumferential arc distance from distal surface to distal surface of the maxillary canines.

  12. Determination of the width of the top quark

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.


    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  13. Dibaryon Mass and Width Calculation with Tensor Interaction

    PANG Hou-Rong; PING Jia-Lun; CHEN Ling-Zhi; WANG Fan


    @@ The effect of tensor interaction due to gluon and Goldstone boson exchange on the dibaryon mass and decay width has been studied in the framework of the quark delocalization and colour screening model. The effective S-D wave transition interactions induced by gluon and Goldstone boson exchanges decrease quickly with the increasing channel strangeness, and there is no six-quark state in the light flavour world, which can become a bound one by the help of these tensor interactions, except for the deuteron. The K and η meson exchange effect has been shown to be negligible after a short-range truncation in this model approach. The partial D-wave decay widths, from the NΩ state to the A final states of spins 0 and 1, are 20. 7keV and 63.1 kev respectively. This is a very narrow dibaryon resonance, that might be detected in the relativistic heavy ion reaction by the existing RHIC detectors through the reconstruction of the A vertex mass and by the future COMPAS detector at CERNand the FAIR project in Germany.

  14. Prediction of concentrated flow width in ephemeral gully channels

    Nachtergaele, J.; Poesen, J.; Sidorchuk, A.; Torri, D.


    Empirical prediction equations of the form W = aQb have been reported for rills and rivers, but not for ephemeral gullies. In this study six experimental data sets are used to establish a relationship between channel width (W, m) and flow discharge (Q, m3 s-1) for ephemeral gullies formed on cropland. The resulting regression equation (W = 2·51 Q0·412; R2 = 0·72; n = 67) predicts observed channel width reasonably well. Owing to logistic limitations related to the respective experimental set ups, only relatively small runoff discharges (i.e. Q flow channels revealed that the discharge exponent (flow shear stress distribution over the wetted perimeter between rills, gullies and rivers, (ii) a decrease in probability of a channel formed in soil material with uniform erosion resistance from rills over gullies to rivers and (iii) a decrease in average surface slope from rills over gullies to rivers.material. For both cases observed flow on cropland. For the frozen soils the equation

  15. Colorimetry and efficiency of white LEDs: Spectral width dependence

    Taylor, Elaine; Edwards, Paul R.; Martin, Robert W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, Strathclyde University, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    The potential colour rendering capability and efficiency of white LEDs constructed by a combination of individual red, green and blue (RGB) LEDs are analysed. The conventional measurement of colour rendering quality, the colour rendering index (CRI), is used as well as a recently proposed colour quality scale (CQS), designed to overcome some of the limitations of CRI when narrow-band emitters are being studied. The colour rendering performance is maximised by variation of the peak emission wavelength and relative intensity of the component LEDs, with the constraint that the spectral widths follow those measured in actual devices. The highest CRI achieved is 89.5, corresponding to a CQS value of 79, colour temperature of 3800 K and a luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) of 365 lm/W. By allowing the spectral width of the green LED to vary the CRI can be raised to 90.9, giving values of 82.5 and 370 lm/W for the CQS and LER, respectively. The significance of these values are discussed in terms of optimising the possible performance of RGB LEDs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S


    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  17. Is biologic width of anterior and posterior teeth similar?

    Amir Alireza Rasouli Ghahroudi


    Full Text Available The biologic width (BW includes attached epithelial cells and connective tissue attachment complex being very important in the periodontal health during prosthetic treatments as invading this zone can cause bone resorption and gingival recession. The present study investigated biologic width values in the normal periodontium in anterior and posterior teeth. 30 patients that referred from restorative department to periodontics department of Tehran University of medical sciences who need crown lengthening procedure on their teeth with no history of orthodontic, prosthodontic and periodontal treatment were randomly enrolled in this cross-sectional trial. Sulcus depths (SD as well as the distance between free gingival margin and the bone crest (FB of anterior and posterior teeth were measured by UNC-15 probe and compared. periodontium thickness was also assessed. The data were subjected to Student t test. Mean BW in the 43 anterior and 47 posterior teeth was measured and not significantly different (1.4651±0.39 mm vs. 1.6312±0.49 mm was observed; however, BW was significantly more in the teeth with thick periodontium compared to those with thin periodontium (1.703±0.5 vs. 1.408±0.35; P=0.002. BW not only is different in individuals but also could be dissimilar in different teeth and should be calculated independently prior to restorative treatments.

  18. A closer look at the "characteristic" width of molecular cloud filaments

    Panopoulou, G V; Skalidis, R; Tassis, K; Andrews, J J


    Filaments in Herschel molecular cloud images are found to exhibit a "characteristic width". This finding is in tension with spatial power spectra of the data, which show no indication of this characteristic scale. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is a result of the methodology adopted for measuring filament widths. First, we perform the previously used analysis technique on artificial scale-free data, and obtain a peaked width distribution of filament-like structures. Next, we repeat the analysis on three Herschel maps and reproduce the narrow distribution of widths found in previous studies $-$ when considering the average width of each filament. However, the distribution of widths measured at all points along a filament spine is broader than the distribution of mean filament widths, indicating that the narrow spread (interpreted as a "characteristic" width) results from averaging. Furthermore, the width is found to vary significantly from one end of a filament to the other. Therefore, the previously ide...

  19. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.


    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  20. Internal and external radiative widths in the combined R-matrix and potential model formalism

    Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Hao, T V Nhan


    Using the $R$-matrix approach we calculate the radiative width for a resonance decaying to a bound state through electric dipole, $E1$, transitions. The total radiative width is determined by the interference of the nuclear internal and external radiative width amplitudes. For a given channel radius the external radiative width amplitude is model independent and is determined by the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of the bound state to which the resonance decays. It also depends on the partial resonance width. To calculate the internal radiative width amplitude we show that a single particle potential model is appropriate. We compare our results with a few experimental data.

  1. Correlation of Density Pedestal Width and Neutral Penetration

    Xu, X. Q.; Nevins, W. M.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Umansky, M. V.


    Pedestal studies in DIII-D and C-Mod find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length.[1][2] These results suggest that the width may be set by the combined effects of neutral and plasma transport. This paper is a report on fluid simulations of boundary plasma using BOUT code [3] with neutral source added. Thus both neutral and plasma physics are treated. The plasma transport is self-consistently driven by boundary turbulence due to the resistive X-point mode, while neutral is described by a simple fluid diffusive model. The plasma profiles are evolved on the same time scale as the turbulence for the given heat source from the core plasma and particle source from the neutrals. For prescribed neutral profiles, we find the formation of a density pedestal inside the separatrix in the L-mode even though the calculated plasma diffusion coefficients are almost radially constant and without the formation of a temperature pedestal. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling can provide the dominant control for the size of the H-mode density barrier. The width of the density barrier, and its relationship to pedestal height and neutral penetration length at the midplane, will be given by using hyperbolic-tangent fit to the simulation data. [1] R.J.Groebner, M.A.Mahdavi, A.W.Leonard, 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference(Lyon, France, 14 to 19 October 2002), IAEA-CN-94/EX/C2-3. [2] D.Mossessian, J.W.Hughes, M.Greenwald, et al., ``Local dimensionless identity method as a tool for studying H-mode pedestal'', The 9th Joint US-European TTF workshop (Madison, Wisconsin, April 2nd - 5th, 2003). [3] X.Q.Xu, R.H.Cohen, T.D.Rognlien and J.R.Myra, Physics of Plasma, Vol. 7, 1951-1958 (2000).


    Yuan, Haibo; Liu, Xiaowei [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    Stellar loci are widely used for selection of interesting outliers, reddening determinations, and calibrations. However, until now, the dependence of stellar loci on metallicity has not been fully explored, and their intrinsic widths are unclear. In this paper, by combining the spectroscopic and recalibrated imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, we have built a large, clean sample of dwarf stars with accurate colors and well-determined metallicities to investigate the metallicity dependence and intrinsic widths of the SDSS stellar loci. Typically, 1 dex decrease in metallicity causes 0.20 and 0.02 mag decrease in colors u – g and g – r and 0.02 and 0.02 mag increase in colors r – i and i – z, respectively. The variations are larger for metal-rich stars than for metal-poor ones, and larger for F/G/K stars than for A/M ones. Using the sample, we have performed two-dimensional polynomial fitting to the u – g, g – r, r – i, and i – z colors as a function of color g – i and metallicity [Fe/H]. The residuals, at the level of 0.029, 0.008, 0.008, and 0.011 mag for the u – g, g – r, r – i, and i – z colors, respectively, can be fully accounted for by the photometric errors and metallicity uncertainties, suggesting that the intrinsic widths of the loci are at maximum a few millimagnitudes. The residual distributions are asymmetric, revealing that a significant fraction of stars are binaries. In a companion paper, we will present an unbiased estimate of the binary fraction for field stars. Other potential applications of the metallicity-dependent stellar loci are briefly discussed.

  3. Invariantly propagating dissolution fingers in finite-width systems

    Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr


    Dissolution fingers are formed in porous medium due to positive feedback between transport of reactant and chemical reactions [1-4]. We investigate two-dimensional semi-infinite systems, with constant width W in one direction. In numerical simulations we solve the Darcy flow problem combined with advection-dispersion-reaction equation for the solute transport to track the evolving shapes of the fingers and concentration of reactant in the system. We find the stationary, invariantly propagating finger shapes for different widths of the system, flow and reaction rates. Shape of the reaction front, turns out to be controlled by two dimensionless numbers - the (width-based) Péclet number PeW = vW/Dφ0 and Damköhler number DaW = ksW/v, where k is the reaction rate, s - specific reactive surface area, v - characteristic flow rate, D - diffusion coefficient of the solute, and φ0 - initial porosity of the rock matrix. Depending on PeW and DaW stationary shapes can be divided into seperate classes, e.g. parabolic-like and needle-like structures, which can be inferred from theoretical predictions. In addition we determine velocity of propagating fingers in time and concentration of reagent in the system. Our simulations are compared with natural forms (solution pipes). P. Ortoleva, J. Chadam, E. Merino, and A. Sen, Geochemical self-organization II: the reactive-infiltration instability, Am. J. Sci, 287, 1008-1040 (1987). M. L. Hoefner, and H. S. Fogler. Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal 34, 45-54 (1988). C. E. Cohen, D. Ding, M. Quintard, and B. Bazin, From pore scale to wellbore scale: impact of geometry on wormhole growth in carbonate acidization, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 3088-3099 (2008). P. Szymczak and A. J. C. Ladd, Reactive-infiltration nstabilities in rocks. Part II: Dissolution of a porous matrix, J. Fluid Mech. 738, 591-630 (2014).

  4. Testing the Equivalence of Regular Languages

    Marco Almeida


    Full Text Available The minimal deterministic finite automaton is generally used to determine regular languages equality. Antimirov and Mosses proposed a rewrite system for deciding regular expressions equivalence of which Almeida et al. presented an improved variant. Hopcroft and Karp proposed an almost linear algorithm for testing the equivalence of two deterministic finite automata that avoids minimisation. In this paper we improve the best-case running time, present an extension of this algorithm to non-deterministic finite automata, and establish a relationship between this algorithm and the one proposed in Almeida et al. We also present some experimental comparative results. All these algorithms are closely related with the recent coalgebraic approach to automata proposed by Rutten.

  5. Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle

    Adunas, G Z; Ahluwalia, D V


    The joint realm of quantum mechanics and the general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we present arguments that support the view that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principl...

  6. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails:,,; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  7. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill


    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs

  8. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    Müller, Dieter


    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. We review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the $t$-channel ${\\rm SO}(3)$ partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs.

  9. Galilean Equivalence for Galactic Dark Matter

    Kesden, M; Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc


    Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way experience a tidal disruption as they orbit in the Milky Way's dark halo. While the bound core of the satellite remains dominated by dark matter, the tidally disrupted stars behave like purely baryonic tracers of the Milky Way's potential well. If dark matter experiences a stronger self attraction than visible matter, stars will preferentially gain rather than lose energy during tidal disruption. This leads to a relative enhancement in the trailing as compared to the leading tidal stream. We show that the absence of a strong asymmetry in the surface brightness of the leading and trailing tidal streams already constrains the equivalence of acceleration of dark matter and baryons in a gravitational field to less than ten percent--thus ruling out a recently proposed mechanism to clear dwarf galaxies from voids. Future observations should be sensitive at the percent level to departures from the equivalence of dark matter and baryons.

  10. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong


    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward-feedback compound control.

  11. Adaptive passive equivalence of uncertain Lü system

    Qi Dong-Lian


    An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain Lü system is proposed. Since the uncertain Lü system is minimum phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the essential conditions are studied by which uncertain Lü system could be equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using passive theory, the uncertain Lü system could be globally asymptotically stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.

  12. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    Voicu, Razvan


    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  13. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    Razvan VOICU; Li, Mengran


    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive...

  14. Residential Building Envelope Alternatives with Equivalent Cost


    Selecting the optimum envelope alternative in buildings is one of the most important factors in ensuring thermal comfort. This study calculated the heating costs, construction and lifecycle costs for a residential building in Istanbul with different envelope alternatives created by changing the type and thickness of the body and insulation materials used in the walls and roof, which are the structural components forming the building envelope. Envelope alternatives with equivalent costs were d...

  15. Equivalent Lagrangians: Generalization, Transformation Maps, and Applications

    N. Wilson


    Full Text Available Equivalent Lagrangians are used to find, via transformations, solutions and conservation laws of a given differential equation by exploiting the possible existence of an isomorphic algebra of Lie point symmetries and, more particularly, an isomorphic Noether point symmetry algebra. Applications include ordinary differential equations such as the Kummer equation and the combined gravity-inertial-Rossbywave equation and certain classes of partial differential equations related to multidimensional wave equations.

  16. Translation Theory and the Problem of Equivalence

    García-Landa, Mariano


    El presente artículo se ocupa de estudiar el problema de la equivalencia desde la perspectiva de la teoría de la traducción, y las posibles soluciones que puede dársele a esta cuestión This article is devoted to the study of the problem of equivalence in translation theory, and to the different possibilities available to find a solution

  17. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)


    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  18. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.


    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  19. On the equivalence theorem for integrable systems

    Melikyan, A; Rivelles, V O


    We investigate the equivalence theorem for integrable systems using two formulations of the Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov model. We show that the S-matrix is invariant under the field transformation which reduces the non-linear Dirac brackets of one formulation into the standard commutation relations in the second formulation. We also explain how to perform the direct diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian by constructing the states corresponding to self-adjoint extensions.

  20. Electromagnetic Boundaries with PEC/PMC Equivalence

    Lindell, Ismo V


    The most general electromagnetic boundary, defined by linear and local boundary conditions, is defined in terms of conditions which can be called generalized impedance boundary conditions. Requiring that the boundary be equivalent to PEC and PMC boundaries for its two eigen-plane waves, which property is known to exist for many of its special cases, it is shown that the recently introduced Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB (GSHDB) boundary is the most general boundary satisfying this property.