Sample records for h-alpha ca ii

  1. The Appearance of Spicules in High Resolution Observations of Ca II H and H-alpha

    Pereira, Tiago M D; Carlsson, Mats


    Solar spicules are chromospheric fibrils that appear everywhere on the Sun, yet their origin is not understood. Using high resolution observations of spicules obtained with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope we aim to understand how spicules appear in filtergrams and Dopplergrams, how they compare in Ca II H and H-alpha, and what can make them appear and disappear. We find spicules display a rich and detailed spatial structure, and show a distribution of transverse velocities that when aligned with the line of sight can make them appear at different H-alpha wing positions. They become more abundant at positions closer to the line core, reflecting a distribution of Doppler shifts and widths. In H-alpha width maps they stand out as bright features both on disk and off-limb, reflecting their large Doppler motions and possibly higher temperatures than in the typical H-alpha formation region. Spicule lifetimes measured from narrowband images at only a few positions will be an underestimate because Doppler shifts can ...

  2. Chromospheric Sunspot Oscillations in H-alpha and Ca II 8542A

    Maurya, Ram Ajor; Park, Hyungmin; Yang, Heesu; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyuhyoun


    We study chromospheric oscillations including umbral flashes and running penumbral waves in a sunspot of active region (AR) using scanning spectroscopy in H-alpha and Ca II 8542A, with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) at the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A bisector method is applied to spectral observations to construct chromospheric Doppler velocity maps. Temporal sequence analysis of these shows enhanced high-frequency oscillations inside the sunspot umbra in both lines. Their peak frequency gradually decreases outward from the umbra. The oscillation power is found to be associated with magnetic-field strength and inclination, with different relationships in different frequency bands.

  3. Fluxes in H\\alpha and Ca II H and K for a sample of Southern stars

    Cincunegui, C; Mauas, P J D; Cincunegui, Carolina; D\\'iaz, Rodrigo F.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.


    The main chromospheric activity indicator is the S index, which is esentially the ratio of the flux in the core of the Ca II H and K lines to the continuum nearby, and is well studied basically for stars from F to K. Another usual chromospheric proxy is the H\\alpha line, which is beleived to be tightly correlated with the Ca II index. In this work we characterize both chromospheric activity indicators, one associated with the H and K Ca II lines and the other with H\\alpha, for the whole range of late type stars, from F to M. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed along 7 years. We use a total of 917 flux-calibrated spectra for 109 stars which range from F6 to M5. We statistically study these two indicators for stars of different activity levels and spectral types. We directly derive the conversion factor which translate the known S index to flux in the Ca II core...

  4. The HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N@TNG IV. Time resolved analysis of the Ca ii H&K and H{\\alpha} chromospheric emission of low-activity early-type M dwarfs

    Scandariato, G; Biazzo, K; Leto, G; Stelzer, B; Sanchez, R Zanmar; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Damasso, M; Desidera, S; Álvarez, E González; Hernández, J I González; Gratton, R; Lanza, A F; Maggio, A; Messina, S; Micela, G; Pagano, I; Perger, M; Piotto, G; Rebolo, R; Ribas, I; Rosich, A; Sozzetti, A; Mascareño, A Suárez


    M dwarfs are prime targets for planet search programs, particularly of those focused on the detection and characterization of rocky planets in the habitable zone. Understanding their magnetic activity is important because it affects our ability to detect small planets, and it plays a key role in the characterization of the stellar environment. We analyze observations of the Ca II H&K and H{\\alpha} lines as diagnostics of chromospheric activity for low-activity early-type M dwarfs. We analyze the time series of spectra of 71 early-type M dwarfs collected for the HADES project for planet search purposes. The HARPS-N spectra provide simultaneously the H&K doublet and the H{\\alpha} line. We develop a reduction scheme able to correct the HARPS-N spectra for instrumental and atmospheric effects, and to provide flux-calibrated spectra in units of flux at the stellar surface. The H&K and H{\\alpha} fluxes are compared with each other, and their variability is analyzed. We find that the H and K flux excesse...

  5. H-alpha features with hot onsets. II. A contrail fibril

    Rutten, R J


    The solar chromosphere observed in H-alpha consists mostly of narrow fibrils. The longest typically originate in network or plage and arch far over adjacent internetwork. We use data from multiple telescopes to analyze one well-observed example in a quiet area. It resulted from the earlier passage of an accelerating disturbance in which the gas was heated to high temperature as in the spicule-II phenomenon. After this passage a dark H-Halpha fibril appeared as a contrail. We use Saha-Boltzmann extinction estimation to gauge the onset and subsequent visibilities in various diagnostics and conclude that such H-alpha fibrils can indeed be contrail phenomena, not indicative of the thermodynamic and magnetic environment when they are observed but of more dynamic happenings before. They do not connect across internetwork cells but represent launch tracks of heating events and chart magnetic field during launch, not at present.

  6. MASH-II: More Planetary Nebulae from the AAO/UKST H\\alpha Survey

    Miszalski, B; Acker, A; Birkby, J L; Frew, D J; Kovacevic, A


    We present a supplement to the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H$\\alpha$ planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue (MASH), which we denote MASH-II. The supplement consists of over 300 true, likely and possible new Galactic PNe found after re-examination of the entire AAO/UKST H$\\alpha$ survey of the southern Galactic Plane in digital form. We have spectroscopically confirmed over 240 of these new candidates as bona-fide PNe and we include other high quality candidates awaiting spectroscopic confirmation as possible PNe. These latest discoveries largely comprise two distinct groups: small, star-like or moderately resolved PNe at one end and mostly large, extremely low surface brightness PNe at the other. Neither group were easy to discover from simple visual scrutiny of the original survey exposures as for MASH but were relatively straightforward to uncover from the digital images via application of semi-automated discovery techniques. We suspect the few PNe still hidden in the H$\\alpha$ survey will lie outside our search cr...

  7. HH 666: Different kinematics from H{\\alpha} and [Fe II] emission provide a missing link between jets and outflows

    Reiter, Megan; Kiminki, Megan M; Bally, John


    HH 666 is an externally irradiated protostellar outflow in the Carina Nebula for which we present new near-IR [Fe II] spectra obtained with the FIRE spectrograph at Magellan Observatory. Earlier H{\\alpha} and near-IR [Fe II] imaging revealed that the two emission lines trace substantially different morphologies in the inner ~40" of the outflow. H{\\alpha} traces a broad cocoon that surrounds the collimated [Fe II] jet that extends throughout the parent dust pillar. New spectra show that this discrepancy extends to their kinematics. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces steady, fast velocities of +/- 200 km/s from the eastern and western limbs of the jet. We compare this to a previously published H{\\alpha} spectrum that reveals a Hubble-flow velocity structure near the jet-driving source. New, second-epoch HST/ACS H{\\alpha} images reveal the lateral spreading of the H{\\alpha} outflow lobe away from the jet axis. H{\\alpha} proper motions also indicate a sudden increase in the mass-loss rate ~1000 yr ago, while steady ...

  8. Photometric H alpha and [O II] Luminosity Function of SDF and SXDF Galaxies: Implications for Future Baryon Oscillation Surveys

    Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Oshige, Shunsuke; Glazebrook, Karl; Akiyama, Masayuki; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masao; Yoshida, Makiko; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kodama, Tadayuki


    Efficient selection of emission line galaxies at z > 1 by photometric information in wide field surveys is one of the keys for future spectroscopic surveys to constrain dark energy using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signature. Here we estimate the H alpha and [O II] line luminosity functions of galaxies at z = 0.5-1.7 using a novel approach where multi-wavelength imaging data is used to jointly estimate both photometric redshifts and star-formation rates. These photometric estimates of line luminosities at high-redshift use the large data sets of the Subaru Deep Field and Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Field (covering \\sim 1 deg^2) and are calibrated with the spectroscopic data of the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. The derived luminosity functions (especially H alpha) are in reasonable agreement with the past estimates based on spectroscopic or narrow-band-filter surveys. This dataset is useful for examining the photometric selection of target galaxies for BAO surveys because of the large cosmologi...

  9. Oscillations of the sun's chromosphere. II - H-alpha line centre and wing filtergram time sequences

    Kneer, F.; von Uexkuell, M.


    In order to investigate the dynamics of the solar chromosphere we perform a Fourier analysis of time sequences (total duration 128 min) of Hα photographic filtergrams taken simultaneously at disc centre in line centre and ±0.5 Å from the line centre. The results are: (i) At low frequencies (periods >450 s) the brightness fluctuations are caused by the temporal evolution of Hα structures at the boundaries of the chromospheric network. We observe that much of the coarse chromospheric structure survives the 128 min time span. We derive lifetimes of 2-8 min for the small-scale structure and 5-20 min for the larger structures. (ii) The modal structure of the 5 min oscillation is clearly visible in the power spectra of the three filtergram. The fundamental (f) mode can be followed to high horizontal wavenumbers kh ≍3.7 Mm-1 and follows the expected relationship ω2f = gkh, where g is the surface gravity. (iii) A chromospheric resonant mode cannot be found in the k - ω plane. (iv) The higher resonant p modes reach into the acoustic wave domain (periods T ≍ 150 s) and thus require the transition zone as the upper reflecting layer. (v) We find no evidence for internal gravity waves. (vi) From a coherence and phase analysis we conclude that the brightness fluctuations of the chromospheric structure seen in -0.5 Å lead those in +0.5 Å by 2 min at kh =2 Mm -1 and by 4 min at kh =0.5 Mm-1. (vii) From the same coherence and phase analysis we can identify acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere with periods as short as 80 s. They possess as much power as the 5 min oscillations and are seen better outside the chromospheric network than within the network. (viii) The phase difference between intensity in Hα line centre and velocity, constructed from the two Hα wing filtergrams, decreases from about 90° at low frequencies and high wavenumbers to 0° at high frequencies and low wavenumbers. Tentatively we interpret this as a change from mainly standing waves for the low

  10. Isophotes of a field in the Cygnus Loop photographed in the forbidden O III and forbidden N II + H-alpha lines

    Sitnik, T. G.; Toropova, M. S.


    From interference-filter image-tube photographs of a 9 arc min field in the western part of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, taken in the 5007 forbidden O III and 6584, 6563 forbidden N II + H-alpha lines, sets of isophotes are derived by an equidensitometry technique based on the Sabattier effect. The emission regions in these lines exhibit a relatively displacement, interpreted as evidence for radiative cooling of the gas behind the shock generated in the supernova outburst. An explanation is offered for the differing morphology of the nebular filaments in the forbiddden O III and forbidden N II + H-alpha lines. The anomalously high I (O III)/I(H-beta) intensity ratio may reflect a spatial separation of the corresponding emission zones.

  11. Heavily Reddened z~2 Type 1 Quasars II: H-alpha Star Formation Constraints from SINFONI IFU Observations

    Alaghband-Zadeh, Susannah; Hewett, Paul C; McMahon, Richard G


    We use near infrared integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy to search for H$\\alpha$ emission associated with star formation in a sample of 28 heavily reddened ($E(B-V)\\simeq$0.5-1.9), hyperluminous ($log(L_{bol}/ergs^{-1})\\simeq$47-48) broad-line quasars at $z\\simeq$1.4-2.7. Sixteen of the 28 quasars show evidence for star formation with an average extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) of 320$\\pm$70M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$. A stacked spectrum of the detections shows weak [NII], consistent with star formation as the origin of the narrow H$\\alpha$ emission. The star-forming regions are spatially unresolved in 11 of the 16 detections and constrained to lie within $\\sim$6kpc of the quasar emission. In the five resolved detections we find the star-forming regions are extended on scales of $\\sim$8kpc around the quasar emission. The prevalence of high SFRs is consistent with the identification of the heavily reddened quasar population as representing a transitional phase from apparent `starburst galaxies' to opti...

  12. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    Rutten, R J


    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for H-alpha, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10,000 - 20,000 K and hydrogen densities around 10^15 cm^-3. Similar arguments likely hold for H-alpha visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  13. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. II - Detection of 16 Optically-Identified Supernova Remnant Candidates

    Vucetic, M M; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N; Goker, U D; Ercan, E N


    We present the detection of 16 optical supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. The candidates were detected by applying [SII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio criterion on observations made with the 2 m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper, we report the coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 16 SNRs detected in two fields of view in the IC342 galaxy. Also, we estimate that the contamination of total H$\\alpha$ flux from SNRs in the observed portion of IC342 is 1.4%. This would represent the fractional error when the star formation rate (SFR) for this galaxy is derived from the total galaxy's H$\\alpha$ emission.

  14. Solar Ca II K Observations

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev


    Some of the most important archives of past and current long-term solar synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K are described here. These observations are very important for understanding the state of the solar magnetism on time scales up to several decades. The first observations of this kind began in 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (India), followed by similar programs at different other locations. Regular full-disk Ca II K monitoring programs started in 1915 at the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA) and in 1917 at the National Solar Observatory of Japan. Beginning in 1919 and in 1926 regular observations were taken also at the Paris-Meudon Observatory (France) and at the "Donati solar tower telescope of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Italy, respectively. In 1926 the the Astronomical Observatory of the Coimbra University in Portugal started its own program of Ca II K observations. Although some of these programs have been terminated over the years, their data archives constitute a unique resource for studies of solar variability. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility.

  15. The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS: III. Comparison of Ca II K and Ca II 854.2 nm imaging

    Reardon, K P; Cauzzi, G


    Filtergrams obtained in Ca II H, Ca II K and H-alpha are often employed as diagnostics of the solar chromosphere. However, the vastly disparate appearance between the typical filtergrams in these different lines calls into question the nature of what is actually being observed. We investigate the lack of obvious structures of magnetic origin such as fibrils and mottles in on-disk Ca II H and K images by directly comparing a temporal sequence of classical Ca II K filtergrams with a co-spatial and co-temporal sequence of spectrally resolved Ca II 854.2 images obtained with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS), considering the effect of both the spectral and spatial smearing. We find that the lack of fine magnetic structuring in Ca II K filtergrams, even with the narrowest available filters, is due to observational effects. Signatures of fibrils remain however in the temporal evolution of the filtergrams, in particular with the evidence of magnetic shadows around the network elements. The Ca II ...

  16. M/L, H-alpha Rotation Curves, and HI Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals: II. Evidence for Galaxy Infall

    Vogt, N P; Giovanelli, R; Herter, T; Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Herter, Terry


    We have conducted a study of optical and HI properties of spiral galaxies (size, luminosity, H-alpha flux distribution, circular velocity, HI gas mass) to explore the role of gas stripping as a driver of morphological evolution in clusters. We find a strong correlation between the spiral and S0 fractions within clusters, and the spiral fraction scales tightly with cluster X-ray gas luminosity. We explore young star formation and identify spirals that are (1) asymmetric, with truncated H-alpha emission and HI gas reservoirs on the leading edge of the disk, on a first pass through the dense intracluster medium in the cores of rich clusters; (2) strongly HI deficient and stripped, with star formation confined to the inner 5 kpc/h and 3 disk scale lengths; (3) reddened, extremely HI deficient and quenched, where star formation has been halted across the entire disk. We propose that these spirals are in successive stages of morphological transformation, between infalling field spirals and cluster S0s, and that the...

  17. H-alpha as a Luminosity Class Diagnostic for K- and M-type Stars

    Jennings, Jeff


    We have identified the H-alpha absorption feature as a new spectroscopic diagnostic of luminosity class in K- and M-type stars. From high-resolution spectra of 19 stars with well-determined physical properties (including effective temperatures and stellar radii), we measured equivalent widths for H-alpha and the Ca II triplet and examined their dependence on both luminosity class and stellar radius. H-alpha shows a strong relation with both luminosity class and radius that extends down to late M spectral types. This behavior in H-alpha has been predicted as a result of the density-dependent overpopulation of the metastable 2S level in hydrogen, an effect that should become dominant for Balmer line formation in non-LTE conditions. We conclude that this new metallicity-insensitive diagnostic of luminosity class in cool stars could serve as an effective means of discerning between populations such as Milky Way giants and supergiant members of background galaxies.

  18. H-alpha macrospicules - Identification with EUV macrospicules and with flares in X-ray bright points

    Moore, R. L.; Tang, F.; Bohlin, J. D.; Golub, L.


    The paper presents observational evidence that two newly observed transient solar phenomena, EUV macrospicules and X-ray bright-point flares, are closely related. Time-lapse H-alpha filtergram observations of the limb in quiet regions show small surgelike eruptions called H-alpha macrospicules. From the similarity of H-alpha macrospicules and EUV macrospicules, and from comparison of simultaneous H-alpha and He II 304 A observations, we conclude that H-alpha macrospicules are EUV macrospicules viewed in H-alpha, although most EUV macrospicules are too faint in H-alpha to appear on H-alpha filtergrams of normal exposure. From comparison of simultaneous X-ray and H-alpha observations of flares in X-ray bright points situated on the limb, we show that flares in X-ray bright points often produce H-alpha macrospicules.

  19. On the long-term correlation between the flux in the Ca II H & K and Halpha lines for FGK stars

    da Silva, J Gomes; Boisse, I; Dumusque, X; Lovis, C


    The re-emission in the cores of the Ca II H & K and H$\\alpha$ lines, are well known proxies of stellar activity. However, these activity indices probe different activity phenomena, the first being more sensitive to plage variation, while the other one being more sensitive to filaments. In this paper we study the long-term correlation between $\\log R'_{HK}$ and $\\log I_{H\\alpha}$, two indices based on the Ca II H & K and H$\\alpha$ lines respectively, for a sample of 271 FGK stars using measurements obtained over a $\\sim$9 year time span. Because stellar activity is one of the main obstacles to the detection of low-mass and long-period planets, understanding further this activity index correlation can give us some hints about the optimal target to focus on, and ways to correct for these activity effects. We found a great variety of long-term correlations between $\\log R'_{HK}$ and $\\log I_{H\\alpha}$. Around 20% of our sample has strong positive correlation between the indices while about 3% show strong ...

  20. Coordinated soft X-ray and H-alpha observation of solar flares

    Zarro, D. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Metcalf, T. R.; Lemen, J. R.


    Soft X-ray, Ca XIX, and H-alpha observations obtained for a set of four solar flares in the impulsive phase are analyzed. A blue asymmetry was observed in the coronal Ca XIX line during the soft-Xray rise phase in all of the events. A red asymmetry was observed simultaneously in chromospheric H-alpha at spatial locations associated with enhanced flare heating. It is shown that the impulsive phase momentum of upflowing soft X-ray plasma equalled that of the downflowing H-alpha plasma to within an order of magnitude. This supports the explosive chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares.

  1. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - H-Alpha

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar...

  2. H-alpha Photometry of Abell 2390

    Balogh, M L; Balogh, Michael L.; Morris, Simon L.


    We present the results of a search for strong H-alpha emission line galaxies (rest frame equivalent widths greater than 50 A) in the z=0.23 cluster Abell 2390. The survey contains 1189 galaxies over 270 square arcminutes, and is 50% complete at M_r=-17.5+5 log h. The fraction of galaxies in which H-alpha is detected at the 2sigma level rises from 0.0 in the central regions (excluding the cD galaxy) to 12.5+/-8% at R200. For 165 of the galaxies in our catalogue, we compare the H-alpha equivalent widths with their [OII] equivalent widths, from the CNOC1 spectra. The fraction of strong H-alpha emission line galaxies is consistent with the fraction of strong [OII] emission galaxies in the CNOC1 sample: only 2+/-1% have no detectable [OII] emission and yet significant (>2sigma) H-alpha equivalent widths. Dust obscuration, non-thermal ionization, and aperture effects are all likely to contribute to this non-correspondence of emission lines. We identify six spectroscopically 'secure' k+a galaxies (W(OII)5 A); at lea...

  3. H-alpha Observations of MKW10

    Johnson, Harold; Coble, Kimberly A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team


    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project looking at clusters and groups of galaxies to investigate the effects of environment on star formation, we analyzed H-alpha and R-band observations of the group MKW10 from the WIYN 0.9-m telescope with MOSAIC camera at Kitt Peak. We continuum-subtract the H-alpha images by scaling and subtracting the broadband R images. This process includes: determining the seeing of each image by calculating the FWHM values of several stars in the image; convolving all images to the worst seeing; stacking images for each filter; subtracting sky background; scaling the R image to H-alpha; and subtracting the scaled R from H-alpha. We then use the H-alpha-continuum-subtracted image to perform surface photometry of individual galaxies in MKW10. The data will be used to determine star formation rates and distributions of galaxies in this group environment and will be compared to results for galaxies in other UAT group and cluster environments. Analysis is ongoing.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  4. Ca II Absorbers in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Statistics

    Sardane, Gendith M; Rao, Sandhya M


    We present the results of a survey for CaII 3934,3969 absorption-line systems culled from ~ 95,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 and Data Release 9 quasar spectra. With 435 doublets identified in the catalog, this list is the largest CaII catalog compiled to date, spanning redshifts z = 0.3 A, is n_0=0.017 +/- 0.001. In comparison to MgII surveys, we found that only 3% of MgII systems in the SDSS have CaII, confirming that it is rare to identify CaII in quasar absorption-line surveys. We also report on some preliminary investigations of the nature of the two populations of CaII absorbers, and show that they can likely be distinguished using their MgII properties.

  5. Fast inversion of solar Ca II spectra

    Beck, C; Rezaei, R; Louis, R E


    We present a fast (<< 1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log tau ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log tau = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  6. H$\\alpha$ kinematics of KPG 390

    Repetto, P; Fuentes-Carrera, R Gabbasov I


    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot H$\\alpha$ observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. Our kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  7. CaII Κ Imaging to Understand UV Irradiance Variability

    R. Kariyappa


    To identify and understand the underlying physical mechanisms of total solar and UV irradiance variability and to estimate the contribution of various chromospheric features to UV irradiance, detailed analysis of spatially resolved data is required. The various chromospheric features have been segregated and different parameters have been derived from CaII Κ Spectroheliograms of NSO/Sac Peak and Kodaikanal Observatory and compared with UV irradiance flux measured in MgII h and k lines by NOAA 9 satellite. The important results of this detailed analysis of CaII Κ Images of 1992 together with UV irradiance data will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa


    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  9. Correlation Between Sunspot Number and ca II K Emission Index

    Bertello, Luca; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev


    Long-term synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K constitute a fundamental database for a variety of retrospective analyses of the state of the solar magnetism. Synoptic Ca II K observations began in late 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory, in India. In early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility. These different data sets can be combined into a single disk-integrated Ca II K index time series that describes the average properties of the chromospheric emission over several solar cycles. We present such a Ca II K composite and discuss its correlation with the new entirely revised sunspot number data series. For this preliminary investigation, the scaling factor between pairs of time series was determined assuming a simple linear model for the relationship betwe...

  10. Correlation Between Sunspot Number and Ca ii K Emission Index

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev


    Long-term synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca ii K constitute a fundamental database for a variety of retrospective analyses of the state of the solar magnetism. Synoptic Ca ii K observations began in late 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory in India. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca ii K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility. These different data sets can be combined into a single disk-integrated Ca ii K index time series that describes the average properties of the chromospheric emission over several solar cycles. We present such a Ca ii K composite and discuss its correlation with the new entirely revised sunspot number data series. For this preliminary investigation, the scaling factor between pairs of time series was determined assuming a simple linear model for the relationship between the monthly mean values during the duration of overlapping observations.

  11. H$\\alpha$ and EUV observations of a partial CME

    Christian, Damian J; Antolin, Patrick; Mathioudakis, Mihalis


    We have obtained H$\\alpha$ high spatial and time resolution observations of the upper solar chromosphere and supplemented these with multi-wavelength observations from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and the {\\it Hinode} ExtremeUltraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The H$\\alpha$ observations were conducted on 11 February 2012 with the Hydrogen-Alpha Rapid Dynamics Camera (HARDcam) instrument at the National Solar Observatory's Dunn Solar Telescope. Our H$\\alpha$ observations found large downflows of chromospheric material returning from coronal heights following a failed prominence eruption. We have detected several large condensations ("blobs") returning to the solar surface at velocities of $\\approx$200 km s$^{-1}$ in both H$\\alpha$ and several SDO AIA band passes. The average derived size of these "blobs" in H$\\alpha$ is 500 by 3000 km$^2$ in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the direction of travel, respectively. A comparison of our "blob" widths to those found from coronal rain, indicate...

  12. The Infrared Ca II triplet as metallicity indicator

    Carrera, Ricardo; Pancino, Elena; Zinn, Robert


    From observations of almost 500 RGB stars in 29 Galactic open and globular clusters, we have investigated the behaviour of the infrared Ca II triplet (8498, 8542 and 8662 \\AA) in the age range 13$\\leq$Age/Gyr$\\leq$0.25 and the metallicity range $-2.2\\leq$ [Fe/H] $\\leq$+0.47. These are the widest ranges of ages and metallicities in which the behaviour of the Ca II triplet lines has been investigated in a homogeneous way. We report the first empirical study of the variation of the CaII triplet lines strength, for given metallicities, with respect to luminosity. We find that the sequence defined by each cluster in the Luminosity-$\\Sigma$Ca plane is not exactly linear. However, when only stars in a small magnitude interval are observed, the sequences can be considered as linear. We have studied the the Ca II triplet lines on three metallicities scales. While a linear correlation between the reduced equivalent width ($W'_V$ or $W'_I$) versus metallicity is found in the \\citet{cg97} and \\citet{ki03} scales, a secon...

  13. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.


    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  14. Morphological Properties of Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Observed by Sunrise II

    Gafeira, R.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Jafarzadeh, S.; van Noort, M.; Barthol, P.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Knölker, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Schmidt, W.


    We use seeing-free high spatial resolution Ca ii H data obtained by the Sunrise observatory to determine properties of slender fibrils in the lower solar chromosphere. In this work we use intensity images taken with the SuFI instrument in the Ca ii H line during the second scientific flight of the Sunrise observatory to identify and track elongated bright structures. After identification, we analyze theses structures to extract their morphological properties. We identify 598 slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCFs) with an average width of around 180 km, length between 500 and 4000 km, average lifetime of ≈400 s, and average curvature of 0.002 arcsec‑1. The maximum lifetime of the SCFs within our time series of 57 minutes is ≈2000 s. We discuss similarities and differences of the SCFs with other small-scale, chromospheric structures such as spicules of type I and II, or Ca ii K fibrils.

  15. Morphological properties of slender Ca II H fibrils observed by SUNRISE II

    Gafeira, R; Solanki, Sami K; Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Van Noort, M; Barthol, P; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knolker, M; Suarez, D Orozco; Riethmüller, T L; Schmidt, W


    We use seeing-free high spatial resolution Ca II H data obtained by the SUNRISE observatory to determine properties of slender fibrils in the lower solar chromosphere. In this work we use intensity images taken with the SUFI instrument in the Ca II H line during the second scientific flight of the SUNRISE observatory to identify and track elongated bright structures. After the identification, we analyze theses structures in order to extract their morphological properties. We identify 598 slender Ca II H fibrils (SCFs) with an average width of around 180 km, a length between 500 km and 4000 km, an average lifetime of ~400 s, and an average curvature of 0.002 arcsec^-1. The maximum lifetime of the SCFs within our time series of 57 minutes is ~2000 s. We discuss similarities and differences of the SCFs with other small-scale, chromospheric structures such as spicules of type I and II, or Ca II K fibrils.

  16. Scattered H-alpha light from Galactic dust clouds

    Mattila, K; Lehtinen, K


    Bright emission nebulae, or HII regions, around hot stars are readily seen in H-alpha light. However, the all-pervasive faint H-alpha emission has only recently been detected and mapped over the whole sky. Mostly the H-alpha emission observed along a line of sight is produced by ionised gas in situ. There are, however, cases where all or most of the H-alpha radiation is due to scattering by electrons or dust particles which are illuminated by an H-alpha emitting source off the line of sight. Here we demonstrate that diffuse, translucent and dark dust clouds at high galactic latitudes are in many cases observed to have an excess of diffuse H-alpha surface brightness, i.e. they are brighter than the surrounding sky. We show that the majority of this excess surface brightness can be understood as light scattered off the interstellar dust grains. The source of incident photons is the general Galactic H-alpha background radiation impinging on the dust clouds from all over the sky.

  17. Spectropolarimetric capabilities of Ca II 8542 A line

    Noda, C Quintero; Rodríguez, J de la Cruz; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K; Anan, T; Suematsu, Y


    The next generation of space and ground-based solar missions aim to study the magnetic properties of the solar chromosphere using the infrared Ca II lines and the He I 10830 {\\AA} line. The former seem to be the best candidates to study the stratification of magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere and their relation to the other thermodynamical properties underlying the chromospheric plasma. The purpose of this work is to provide a detailed analysis of the diagnostic capabilities of the Ca II 8542 {\\AA} line, anticipating forthcoming observational facilities. We study the sensitivity of the Ca II 8542 {\\AA} line to perturbations applied to the physical parameters of reference semi-empirical 1D model atmospheres using response functions and we make use of 3D MHD simulations to examine the expected polarization signals for moderate magnetic field strengths. Our results indicate that the Ca II 8542 {\\AA} line is mostly sensitive to the layers enclosed between $\\log$ $\\tau=[0,-5.5]$, under the physical conditio...

  18. Real-time flare detection in ground-based H$\\alpha$ imaging at Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory

    Pötzi, Werner; Riegler, Gernot; Amerstorfer, Ulrike; Pock, Thomas; Temmer, Manuela; Polanec, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Dietmar J


    Kanzelh\\"ohe Observatory (KSO) regularly performs high-cadence full-disk imaging of the solar chromosphere in the H$\\alpha$ and CaIIK spectrallines as well as the solar photosphere in white-light. In the frame of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme, a new system for real-time H$\\alpha$ data provision and automatic flare detection was developed at KSO. The data and events detected are published in near real-time at ESA's SSA Space Weather portal ( In this paper, we describe the H$\\alpha$ instrument, the image recognition algorithms developed, the implementation into the KSO H$\\alpha$ observing system and present the evaluation results of the real-time data provision and flare detection for a period of five months. The H$\\alpha$ data provision worked in $99.96$% of the images, with a mean time lag between image recording and online provision of 4s. Within the given criteria for the automatic image recognition system (at least three H$\\alpha$ images a...

  19. Radiative emission of solar features in Ca II K

    Criscuoli, S; Fontenla, J; Giorgi, F; Rast, M; Solanki, S; Uitenbroek, H


    We investigated the radiative emission of different types of solar features in the spectral range of the Ca II K line. We analyzed full-disk 2k x 2k observations from the PSPT Precision Solar Photometric Telescope. The data were obtained by using three narrow-band interference filters that sample the Ca II K line with different pass bands. Two filters are centered in the line core, the other in the red wing of the line. We measured the intensity and contrast of various solar features, specifically quiet Sun (inter-network), network, enhanced network, plage, and bright plage (facula) regions. Moreover, we compared the results obtained with those derived from the numerical synthesis performed for the three PSPT filters with a widely used radiative code on a set of reference semi-empirical atmosphere models.

  20. Study on Effect of Gd (III) Speciation on Ca (II) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation


    Ca (II) speciation and effect of Gd (III) speciation on Ca (II) speciation in human blood plasma were studied by computer simulation. [CaHCO3]+ is a predominant compound species of Ca (II). Gd (III) can compete with Ca (II) for biological molecules. The presence of Gd (III) results in a increase of concentration of free Ca (II) and a decrease of concentration of Ca (II) compounds.

  1. Probing low-redshift galaxies using quasar absorption lines with an emphasis on Ca II absorption

    Sardane, Gendith M.


    We searched for intervening CaII absorption in nearly 95,000 quasar spectra with i≤20 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS) data releases DR7+DR9. Our identification of >400 CaII systems is the largest compilation of CaII absorbers in a blind search. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. IPHAS : Surveying the North Galactic Plane in H-alpha

    Drew, J.E.; Groot, P.J.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Roelofs, G.H.A.


    H-alpha emission is ubiquitous in our Galaxy. It traces ionised gas of assorted nebulae such as HII regions, planetary nebulae, Wolf-Rayet nebulae, and supernova remnants. It is a strong signature of active stars, interacting binaries, very massive stars (especially supergiants, Luminous Blue Variab

  3. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates GABAA Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca2+ Channels and CaMK-II Pathway

    Xiao Hu Zhang


    Full Text Available The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ- binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II. Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor.

  4. H{\\alpha} Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    Theios, R L; Ross, N R


    We used narrowband interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 meter telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 {\\mu}m Active Galaxy Sample. We obtained pure emission line images of each galaxy in order to separate H{\\alpha} emission from the nucleus from that of the host galaxy. The extended H{\\alpha} emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and correlates well with other indicators of current star formation in these galaxies: 7.7 {\\mu}m PAH, far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The nuclear H{\\alpha} luminosity is dominated by the AGN, and is correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s due to a strong contribution from the Broad Line Region. We found a correlation between star formation rate and AGN luminosity. In sp...

  5. The Ca II triplet in red giant spectra: [Fe/H] determinations and the role of [Ca/Fe

    Da Costa, G S


    Measurements are presented and analyzed of the strength of the Ca II triplet lines in red giants in Galactic globular and open clusters, and in a sample of red giants in the LMC disk that have significantly different [Ca/Fe] abundance ratios to the Galactic objects. The Galactic objects are used to generate a calibration between Ca II triplet line strength and [Fe/H], which is then used to estimate [Fe/H]_CaT for the LMC stars. The values are then compared with the [Fe/H]_spec determinations from high dispersion spectroscopy. After allowance for a small systematic offset the two abundance determinations are in excellent agreement. Further, as found in earlier studies, e.g., Battaglia et al. (2008), the difference is only a very weak function of the [Ca/Fe] ratio. For example, changing [Ca/Fe] from +0.3 to -0.2 causes the Ca II based abundance to underestimate [Fe/H]_spec by only ~0.15 dex, assuming a Galactic calibration. Consequently, the Ca II triplet approach to metallicity determinations can be used witho...

  6. Angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress resets the Ca2+ dependence of Ca2+-calmodulin protein kinase II and promotes a death pathway conserved across different species.

    Palomeque, Julieta; Rueda, Omar Velez; Sapia, Luciana; Valverde, Carlos A; Salas, Margarita; Petroff, Martin Vila; Mattiazzi, Alicia


    Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced apoptosis was reported to be mediated by different signaling molecules. Whether these molecules are either interconnected in a single pathway or constitute different and alternative cascades by which Ang II exerts its apoptotic action, is not known. To investigate in cultured myocytes from adult cat and rat, 2 species in which Ang II has opposite inotropic effects, the signaling cascade involved in Ang II-induced apoptosis. Ang II (1 micromol/L) reduced cat/rat myocytes viability by approximately 40%, in part, because of apoptosis (TUNEL/caspase-3 activity). In both species, apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation and was prevented by the ROS scavenger MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI (diphenyleneiodonium) by CaMKII inhibitors (KN-93 and AIP [autocamtide 2-related inhibitory peptide]) or in transgenic mice expressing a CaMKII inhibitory peptide and by the p38MAPK inhibitor, SB202190. Furthermore, p38MAPK overexpression exacerbated Ang II-induced cell mortality. Moreover, although KN-93 did not affect Ang II-induced ROS production, it prevented p38MAPK activation. Results further show that CaMKII can be activated by Ang II or H(2)O(2), even in the presence of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, in myocytes and in EGTA-Ca(2+)-free solutions in the presence of the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 in in vitro experiments. (1) The Ang II-induced apoptotic cascade converges in both species, in a common pathway mediated by ROS-dependent CaMKII activation which results in p38MAPK activation and apoptosis. (2) In the presence of Ang II or ROS, CaMKII may be activated at subdiastolic Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting a new mechanism by which ROS reset the Ca(2+) dependence of CaMKII to extremely low Ca(2+) levels.

  7. Selective chelation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) versus Ca(II) and Zn(II) by using octadentate ligands containing pyridinecarboxylate and pyridyl pendants.

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa


    Herein we report the coordination properties toward Cd(II), Pb(II), Ca(II), and Zn(II) of a new octadentate ligand (py-H(2)bcpe) based on a ethane-1,2-diamine unit containing two picolinate and two pyridyl pendants, which is structurally derived from the previous reported ligand bcpe. Potentiometric studies have been carried out to determine the protonation constants of the ligand and the stability constants of the complexes with these cations. The introduction of the pyridyl pendants in bcpe provokes a very important increase of the logK(ML) values obtained for the Pb(II) and Cd(II) complexes, while this effect is less important in the case of the Zn(II) analogue. As a result, py-bcpe shows a certain selectivity for Cd(II) and Pb(II) over Zn(II) while keeping good Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Cd(II)/Ca(II) selectivities, and the new receptor py-bcpe can be considered as a new structural framework for the design of novel Cd(II) and Pb(II) extracting agents. Likewise, the stabilities of the Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes are higher than those of the corresponding EDTA analogues. The X-ray crystal structure of [Zn(py-bcpe)] shows hexadentate binding of the ligand to the metal ion, the coordination polyhedron being best described as a severely distorted octahedron. However, the X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) analogue shows octadentate binding of the ligand to the metal ion. A detailed investigation of the structure in aqueous solution of the complexes by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP) shows that while in the Zn(II) complex the metal ion is six-coordinated, in the Pb(II) and Ca(II) analogues the metal ions are eight-coordinated. For the Cd(II) complex, our results suggest that in solution the complex exists as a mixture of seven- and eight-coordinated species. DFT calculations performed both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution have been also used to investigate the role of the Pb(II) lone pair in

  8. Deep H{\\alpha} Observations of NGC 253: a Very Extended and Possibly Declining Rotation Curve?

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Daigle, O; de Denus-Baillargeon, M -M; Marcelin, M; Epinat, B; Hernandez, O


    This study presents a deep H{\\alpha} kinematical analysis of the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC253. The Fabry-Perot data were taken with the 36-cm Marseille Telescope in La Silla, Chile, using an EMCCD detector. Typical emission measures of ~0.1 cm^-6 pc are reached. The observations allow the detection of the Diffuse Ionized Gas component through [N II] emission at very large radii of 11.5', 12.8' and 19.0', on the receding side of the galaxy. No H{\\alpha} emission is observed at radii larger than the neutral component (11.5'). The very extended rotation curve confirms previous results and shows signs of a significant decline, on the order of 30 per cent vmax . Using the rotation data, mass models are constructed with and without the outer [N II] data points, and similar results are found. The declining part of the rotation curve is very well modeled, and seems to be truly declining.

  9. Shocks and Star Formation in Stephan's Quintet. I. Gemini Spectroscopy of H{\\alpha}-bright knots

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Guillard, P; Trancho, G; Cluver, M E; Bastian, N; Charlton, J C; Fedotov, K; Gallagher, S C; Smith, L J; Struck, C J


    We present a Gemini-GMOS spectroscopic study of HST-selected H{\\alpha}-emitting regions in Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92), a nearby compact galaxy group, with the aim of disentangling the processes of shock-induced heating and star formation in its intra-group medium. The $\\approx$40 sources are distributed across the system, but most densely concentrated in the $\\sim$kpc-long shock region. Their spectra neatly divide them into narrow- and and broad-line emitters, and we decompose the latter into three or more emission peaks corresponding to spatial elements discernible in HST imaging. The emission line ratios of the two populations of H{\\alpha}-emitters confirm their nature as H II regions (90% of the sample) or molecular gas heated by a shock-front propagating at $\\lesssim$300 km/s. Their redshift distribution reveals interesting three-dimensional structure with respect to gas-phase baryons, with no H II regions associated with shocked gas, no shocked regions in the intruder galaxy NGC 7318B, and a sharp bounda...

  10. Temporal evolution of mottles observed in H_alpha

    Bostanci, Z F; Erdogan, Nurol Al


    In April 2002, H_alpha observations of the solar chromosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer mounted in the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. In this work, we analyze a short time sequence of a quiet region with chains of mottles. Some physical parameters of dark mottles are determined by using Beckers' cloud model which takes the source function, the Doppler width, and the velocity to be constant within the cloud along the line of sight. Here, we present the results of our study.

  11. H-alpha response to geomagnetic disturbed activity at Arecibo.

    Santos, Pedrina; Kerr, R.; Noto, J.; Brum, Christiano; Gonzalez, Sixto

    Configured with a spectral resolution of 0.0086 nm at 6563A, the low resolution Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) installed at Arecibo Observatory sampled the geocoronal Balmer-alpha emission for sixty nights during new moon periods from September 2006 to September 2007. In this work two of these periods are analyzed according to the variability with the geomagnetic activity. With this purpose, the effect of the shadow height, local time and solar flux depen-dencies were found and isolated and only the possible variations due the geomagnetic activity were evaluated. The residuos of the relative H-alpha intensity and temperature are analyzed.

  12. Galaxies with Background QSOs, I: A Search for Strong Galactic H-alpha Lines

    York, Donald G; Bishof, Michael; Kuttruff, Seth; Bowen, David; Kulkarni, Varsha P; Subbarao, Mark; Richards, Gordon; Berk, Daniel Vanden; Hall, Patrick B; Heckman, Timothy; Khare, Pushpa; Quashnock, Jean; Ghering, Lara; Johnson, Sean


    A search for emission lines in foreground galaxies in quasar spectra (z(gal) < z(QSO)) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 5 (DR5) reveals 23 examples of quasars shining through low redshift, foreground galaxies at small impact parameters (< 10 kpc). About 74,000 quasar spectra were examined by searching for narrow H{\\alpha} emission lines at z < 0.38, at a flux level greater than 5 \\times 10^-17 ergs cm^-2 s^-1, then confirming that other expected emission lines of the H II regions in the galaxy are detected. The galaxies were deblended from the quasar images to get colors and morphologies. For cases that allow the galaxy and the quasar to be deblended, the galaxies are blue (0.95 <(u-r)< 1.95). Extinction and reddening through the galaxies is determined from the (g-i) color excesses of the quasars. These reddening values are compared with the flux ratio of H{\\alpha} to H{\\beta}, which reflect the extinction for an undetermined fraction of the sightline through each galaxy. No ...

  13. Adsorption of Ca(II, Mg(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II on Chitosan Membrane Blended with Rice Hull Ash Silica and Polyethylene Glycol

    F. Widhi Mahatmanti


    Full Text Available In this research, chitosan based membrane blended with rice hull ash (RHA silica and polyethylene glycol (PEG has been applied as adsorbent of Ca(II, Mg(II, Zn(II and Cd(II in an aqueous solution. Membrane was synthesized by blending RHA silica and polyethylene glycol into chitosan. Silica and polyethylene glycol blended into the chitosan to improve the mechanical properties and the membrane porous. The membrane was characterized using Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and swelling degree analyzer. Adsorption of metal ions investigated was conducted in a batch system with variation of pH, initial ion concentration and contact time. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were evaluated based on the adsorption data at initial metal ion concentration and contact time variations, respectively. Results showed that the optimum condition of adsorption was at pH 9.0 for Ca(II, 6.0 for both Mg(II and Zn(II and 5.5 for Cd(II, and contact time of 24 h for all ions investigated. Kinetics of all investigated metal ion adsorption followed a kinetic model of pseudo-second-order. Adsorption of Ca(II and Mg(II on the membrane fitted to Freundlich model with the affinity of 1.266 and 1.099, respectively; and Zn(II and Cd(II fitted to Langmuir one with the capacity of 182 and 106 µmol/g, respectively.

  14. The interacting galaxy pair KPG 390: H$\\alpha$ kinematics

    Repetto, P; Gabbasov, R; Fuentes-Carrera, I


    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot H$\\alpha$ observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields and rotation curves for both galaxies. For NGC 5278 we also obtained the residual velocity map to investigate the non-circular motions, and estimated its mass by fitting the rotation curve with a disk+halo components. We test three different types of halo (pseudo-isothermal, Hernquist and Navarro Frenk White) and obtain satisfactory fits to the rotation curve for all profiles. The amount of dark matter required by pseudo-isothermal profile is about ten times smaller than, that for the other two halo distributions. Finally, our kinematical results together with the analysis of dust lanes distribution and of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis allowed us to determine univocally that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  15. The galloping chromosphere. [H alpha observation of oscillating velocity fields

    Sawyer, C.


    Oscillating velocity fields can be observed on H-alpha filtergrams as a shifting pattern of intensity fluctuations known as 'the galloping chromosphere'. The characteristics of this activity are those of horizontal running waves of typical period of about 300 sec and long wavelength (about 20,000 km) that can be interpreted as acoustic-gravity waves propagating in the acoustic domain. Periods are longer in dark, structured regions, and in fibrils, and the change is quantitatively consistent with the reduction of resonance frequency in a magnetic field of 1 to 10 gauss. These easily observed fluctuations thus offer a means of estimating magnetic-field strength at specific locations in the chromosphere. Phase velocities are high, ranging upward from typical values between 50 and 100 km per sec, and tending to be lower in active regions and toward the limb.

  16. Pulsar H(alpha) Bowshocks probe Neutron Star Physics

    Romani, Roger W.


    We propose a KOALA/AAOmega study of southern pulsar bow shocks. These rare, Balmer-dominated, non-radiative shocks provide an ideal laboratory to study the interaction of the relativistic pulsar wind with the ISM. We will cover H(alpha) at high spectral resolution to measure the kinematics of the upstream ISM and the post-shock flow, while the blue channel measures the Balmer decrement and probes for a faint cooling component. These data, with MHD models, allow us to extract the 3D flow geometry and the orientation and asymmetry of the pulsar wind. These data can also measure the pulsar spindown power, thus estimating the neutron star moment of inertia and effecting a fundamental test of dense matter physics.

  17. K-band Imaging of strong CaII-absorber host galaxies at z~1

    Hewett, Paul


    We present K-band imaging of fields around 30 strong CaII absorption line systems, at 0.7CaII absorption of the form (L/L*)^0.7 reproduces the observations well. The luminosity-dependent cross-section for the CaII absorbers appears to be significantly stronger than the established (L/L*)^0.4 dependence for MgII absorbers. The associated galaxies lie at large physical distances from the CaII-absorbing gas; we find a mean impact parameter of 24kpc (H0=70km\\s\\Mpc). Combined with the observed number density of CaII absorbers the large physical separations result in an inferred filling factor of only ~10 per cent. The physical origin of the strong CaII absorption remains unclear,...

  18. Measurements of Ca II Infrared Triplet Lines of Young Stellar Objects

    Moto'oka, Keiko


    Equivalent widths and line widths of Ca II infrared triplet emission lines were measured in high-resolution optical spectra of 39 young stellar objects.We found that the equivalent widths of the emission lines decrease with stellar evolution. It has been often claimed that strong chromospheric activity is generated by a dynamo process caused by fast rotation of the photosphere. However, we found no clear correlation between the strength of the Ca II lines and the stellar rotation velocity. Instead, we found that the objects with high mass accretion rates had stronger Ca II emission lines. This correlation supports the turbulent chromosphere model or the magnetic accretion theory for classical T Tauri stars. We also noticed that the equivalent widths of Ca II lines of transitional disk objects are one-tenth of those of classical T Tauri stars, even if the masses of the circumstellar disks are comparable.

  19. The location of the Ca II ions in the beta Pictoris disk

    Hobbs, L. M.; Welty, D. E.; Lagrange-Henri, A. M.; Ferlet, R.; Vidal-Madjar, A.


    Echelle spectra of beta Pictoris have been obtained in the region of the Ca II 8542A line which arises from the metastable 3d 2D5/2 level. A narrow, weak, circumstellar absorption line is seen at the stellar radial velocity. A simple theory is developed of the radiative pumping of the metastable levels of the Ca II ions by the radiation from the star at the H and K lines. The relatively large fractional population, N3(Ca II)/N1(Ca II) of roughly 0.05, observed for the metastable level then requires that the calcium absorbers be largely concentrated within about 1 AU of the star. This result confirms two previous, independent estimates of the location of this gas. A time-variable circumstellar component of the 8542A line also is found at an infall velocity of about 15 km/s.

  20. A major second messenger mediator of Electrophorus electricus electric tissue is CaM kinase II.

    Gotter, A L; Kaetzel, M A; Dedman, J R


    Electric tissue of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, has been used extensively as a model system for the study of excitable membrane biochemistry and electrophysiology. Membrane receptors, ion channels, and ATPases utilized by electrocytes are conserved in mammalian neurons and myocytes. In this study, we show that Ca2+ predominates as the major mediator of electric tissue phosphorylation relative to cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP-induced phosphorylation. Mastoparan, a calmodulin inhibitor peptide, and a peptide corresponding to the pseudosubstrate region of mammalian calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII (281-302)) attenuated Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These experiments demonstrated that calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity predominates in electric tissue. The Electrophorus kinase was purified by a novel affinity chromatography procedure utilizing Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent binding to the CaMKII (281-302) peptide coupled to Sepharose. The purified 51 kDa calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II demonstrated extensive autophosphorylation and exhibited a 3- to 4-fold increase in Ca(2+)-independent activity following autophosphorylation. Immunofluorescent localization experiments demonstrated calmodulin to be abundant in electrocytes, particularly subjacent to the plasma membrane. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II had a punctate distribution indicating that it may be compartmentalized by association with vesicles or the cytoskeleton. As the primary mediator of phosphorylation within electric tissue, CaM kinase II may be critical for the regulation of the specialized electrophysiological function of electrocytes.

  1. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART Ca II triplet survey

    Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Parisi, P.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.


    We use Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) intermediate-resolution (R˜ 6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared Ca II triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the Se

  2. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART CaII triplet survey

    Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Parisi, P.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.


    We use Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) intermediate-resolution (R similar to 6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared Ca ii triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics

  3. Stellar Populations and the Star Formation Histories of LSB Galaxies: I. Optical and H-alpha Imaging

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy


    This paper presents optical and H-alpha imaging for a large sample of LSB galaxies selected from the PSS-II catalogs (Schombert et. al 1992). As noted in previous work, LSB galaxies span a range of luminosities (-10 > M_V > -20) and sizes (0.3 kpc < R_V25 < 10 kpc), although they are consistent in their irregular morphology. Their H-alpha luminosities (L(H-alpha) range from 10^36 to 10^41 ergs s^-1 (corresponding to a range in star formation, using canonical prescriptions, from 10^-5 to 1 M_solar yr^-1). Although their optical colors are at the extreme blue edge for galaxies, they are similar to the colors of dwarf galaxies (van Zee 2001) and gas-rich irregulars (Hunter & Elmegreen 2006). However, their star formation rates per unit stellar mass are a factor of ten less than other galaxies of the same baryonic mass, indicating that they are not simply quiescent versions of more active star forming galaxies. This paper presents the data, reduction techniques and new philosophy of data storage and pre...

  4. Adsorption and desorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) on Ca- alginate immobilized activated rice bran

    Suratman, A.; Kamalia, N. Z.; Kusumawati, W. A.


    Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran has been used for adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of the pH, kinetics model, adsorption isotherm and desorption on the adsorption performance was investigated. Activated rice bran was immobilized by the entrapment in alginate beads. The adsorption strength of Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran was compared to Ca-alginate and non-immobilized activated rice bran. The concentrations of adsorbed ions were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that pH of 4.0 and the contact time of 120 min are the optimum condition for adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II). The adsorption kinetic of Zn(II) and Cu(II) followed the pseudo-second-order model with adsorption rate constant 4.9 x 10-2 and 3.14, respectively. The both adsorption processes obeyed Langmuir isotherm with adsorption capacity of 2.03 and 2.42 mg.g-1 of adsorbent, respectively. The strength of Zn adsorption on Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran (86.63%) was more effective compared to Ca-alginate beads (60.96%) and activated rice bran (43.85%). The strength of Cu adsorption was 80.00%, 61.50% and 22.10%, respectively. The desorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) showed that recovery percentage of the adsorption was 76.56% and 57.80% with the condition of using HCl 0.1 M as desorption agent for 1 hour.

  5. High spatial resolution optical imaging of the multiple T Tauri system LkH{\\alpha} 262/LkH{\\alpha} 263

    Velasco, S; Oscoz, A; Mackay, C; Labadie, L; Garrido, A Pérez; Crass, J; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Femenía, B; González-Escalera, V; King, D L; López, R L; Puga, M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Zuther, J


    We report high spatial resolution i' band imaging of the multiple T Tauri system LkH$\\alpha$ 262/LkH$\\alpha$ 263 obtained during the first commissioning period of the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope, using its Lucky Imaging mode. AOLI images have provided photometry for each of the two components LkH$\\alpha$ 263 A and B (0.41 arcsec separation) and marginal evidence for an unresolved binary or a disc in LkH$\\alpha$ 262. The AOLI data combined with previously available and newly obtained optical and infrared imaging show that the three components of LkH$\\alpha$ 263 are co-moving, that there is orbital motion in the AB pair, and, remarkably, that LkH$\\alpha$ 262-263 is a common proper motion system with less than 1 mas/yr relative motion. We argue that this is a likely five-component gravitationally bounded system. According to BT-settl models the mass of each of the five components is close to 0.4 M$_{\\odot}$ and the age is in the range 1-2 Myr. The presence of discs...

  6. Metal Abundance Calibration of the Ca II Triplet Lines in RR Lyrae Stars

    Wallerstein, George; Huang, Wenjin


    The GAIA satellite is likely to observe thousands of RR Lyrae stars within a small spectral window, between 8470A and 8750A, at a resolution of 11,500. In order to derive the metallicity of RR Lyrae stars from Gaia, we have obtained numerous spectra of RR Lyrae stars at a resolution of 35,000 with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m echelle spectrograph. We have correlated the Ca II triplet line strengths with metallicity as derived from Fe II abundances, analogous to Preston's (1959) use of the Ca II K line to estimate the metallicity of RR Lyrae stars. The Ca II line at 8498A is the least blended with neighboring Paschen lines and thus provides the best correlation.

  7. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne


    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  8. The Strings of Eta Carina: The HST/STIS Spectra and [Ca II

    Melendez, M. B.; Gull, T. R.; Bautista, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.


    Long linear, filamentary ejecta, are found to move at very high velocity external to the Homunculus, the circumstellar hourglass-shaped ejecta surrounding Eta Carinae. The origin of the strings is a puzzle. As an example, the Weigelt Blobs have N at 10X solar and C, O at 0.01X solar abundance, along with He/H significantly enhanced. This abundance pattern is evidence for extreme CNO-processing. Similarly, the Strontium Filament has Ti/Ni at 100X solar, presumably due to the lack of oxygen to form Ti-oxide precipitates onto dust grains. We have obtained 2-D spectra with the HST/STIS of the Strontium Filament and a portion of a string. These deep spectral exposures, at moderate dispersion, span much of the near red spectral region from 5000 to 9000A. We have identified twelve emission lines in these spectra with proper velocities and spatial structure of this string and obtained line ratios for [Ca II] (7293/7325A) and [Fe Ill (7157/8619A) which are useful for determining physical conditions in this nebulosity. In an attempt to use the [Ca II] ratio to determine the physical parameters, and ultimately the abundances in the strings, we have constructed a statistical equilibrium model for Ca II , including radiative and collisional rates. These results incorporate our newly calculated atomic data for levels n = 3,4,5 and 6 configurations of Ca II. The aim is to compute the [Ca II] line ratios and use them as a diagnostic of the physical parameters. Using the [Fe II] ratio we find that for Te=10,000 K, the electron density is Ne approx.10(exp 6)/cu cm. We plan to use the [Ca II] ratio to confirm this result. Then, we will extend the use of this multilevel model Ca II atom to study the physical conditions of the Strontium filament where eight lines of Ca II, both allowed and forbidden, had been identified. With the physical conditions determined, we will be able to derive reliable estimates for the gas phase abundances in the strings.

  9. 3D Temperature Mapping of Solar Photospheric Fine Structure Using Ca II H Filtergrams

    Henriques, V M J


    Context. The wings of the Ca II H and K lines provide excellent photospheric temperature diagnostics. At the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope the blue wing of Ca II H is scanned with a narrowband interference filter mounted on a rotation stage. This provides up to 0"10 spatial resolution filtergrams at high cadence that are concurrent with other diagnostics at longer wavelengths. Aims. The aim is to develop observational techniques that provide the photospheric temperature stratification at the highest spatial resolution possible and use those to compare simulations and observations at different heights. Methods. We use filtergrams in the Ca II H blue wing obtained with a tiltable interference filter at the SST. Synthetic observations are produced from 3D HD and 3D MHD numerical simulations and degraded to match the observations. The temperature structure obtained from applying the method to the synthetic data is compared with the known structure in the simulated atmospheres and with observations of an active ...


    Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Chary, Ranga-Ram, E-mail: [U.S. Planck Data Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    Strong H{alpha} emitters (HAEs) dominate the z {approx} 4 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population. We have identified local analogs of these HAEs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. At z < 0.4, only 0.04% of the galaxies are classified as HAEs with H{alpha} equivalent widths ({approx}> 500 A) comparable to that of z {approx} 4 HAEs. Local HAEs have lower stellar mass and lower ultraviolet (UV) luminosity than z {approx} 4 HAEs, yet the H{alpha}-to-UV luminosity ratio, as well as their specific star formation rate, is consistent with that of z {approx} 4 HAEs, indicating that they are scaled-down versions of high-z star-forming galaxies. Compared to the previously studied local analogs of LBGs selected using rest-frame UV properties, local HAEs show similar UV luminosity surface density, weaker D{sub n} (4000) break, lower metallicity, and lower stellar mass. This implies that the local HAEs are less evolved galaxies than the traditional Lyman break analogs. In the stacked spectrum, local HAEs show a significant He II {lambda}4686 emission line suggesting a population of hot, massive stars similar to that seen in some Wolf-Rayet galaxies. Low [N II]/[O III] line flux ratios imply that local HAEs are inconsistent with being systems that host bright active galactic nuclei. Instead, it is highly likely that local HAEs are galaxies with an elevated ionization parameter, either due to a high electron density or large escape fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons as in the case of Wolf-Rayet galaxies.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CaII-Mv Correlation (Wilson-Bappu Effect) (Wallerstein+

    Wallerstein, G.; Machado-Pelaez, L.; Gonzalez, G.


    Hipparcos parallaxes were used to derive absolute visual magnitudes of G, K, and M stars with Ca II emission line widths previously measured by O.C. Wilson. A linear relationship similar to the one derived originally by Wilson & Bappu and improved by Lutz & Kelker was found from Mv=+7 to -2. For stars brighter than Mv=-2 a substantial number of stars show Ca II emission lines that are broader than expected from the linear fit. Most of those stars are bright giants and supergiants of type G. (3 data files).

  12. CaMK-II activation is essential for zebrafish inner ear development and acts through Delta-Notch signaling.

    Rothschild, Sarah C; Lahvic, Jamie; Francescatto, Ludmila; McLeod, Jamie J A; Burgess, Shawn M; Tombes, Robert M


    Zebrafish inner ear development is characterized by the crystallization of otoliths onto immotile kinocilia that protrude from sensory "hair" cells. The stereotypical formation of these sensory structures is dependent on the expression of key patterning genes and on Ca2+ signals. One potential target of Ca2+ signaling in the inner ear is the type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK-II), which is preferentially activated in hair cells, with intense activation at the base of kinocilia. In zebrafish, CaMK-II is encoded by seven genes; the expression of one of these genes (camk2g1) is enriched in hair cells. The suppression of camk2g1 expression by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or inhibition of CaMK-II activation by the pharmacological antagonist, KN-93, results in aberrant otolith formation without preventing cilia formation. In fact, CaMK-II suppression results in additional ciliated hair cells and altered levels of Delta-Notch signaling members. DeltaA and deltaD transcripts are increased and DeltaD protein accumulates in hair cells of CaMK-II morphants, indicative of defective recycling and/or exocytosis. Our findings indicate that CaMK-II plays a critical role in the developing ear, influencing cell differentiation through extranuclear effects on Delta-Notch signaling. Continued expression and activation of CaMK-II in maculae and cristae in older embryos suggests continued roles in auditory sensory maturation and transduction.

  13. H-alpha features with hot onsets III. Fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    Rutten, Robert J


    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by a dense canopy of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the large opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe the H-alpha fibril canopy, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if this canopy were transparent.

  14. Mapping High-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George


    We present new {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\\alpha$ and Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H$\\alpha$ imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms cr...

  15. Observations of Chromospheric Anemone Jets with Hinode SOT and Hida Ca II Spectroheliogram

    Morita, Satoshi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Otsuji, Ken-ichi


    We present the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric "anemone" jets in solar active regions with Hinode SOT Ca II H broadband filetergram and Ca II K spetroheliogram on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory. During the coordinated observation, 9 chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed three important features, i.e.: (1) the jets are generated in the lower chromosphere, (2) the length and lifetime of the jets are 0.4-5 Mm and 40-320 sec, (3) the apparent velocity of the jets with Hinode SOT are 3-24 km/s, while Ca II K3 component at the jets show blueshifts (in 5 events) in the range of 2- 6 km/s. The chromospheric anemone jets are associated with mixed polarity regions which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features. It is found that the Ca II K line often show red or blue asymmetry in K2/K1 component: the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often show redshift (2-...

  16. CaII Absorbers in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Element Abundances and Dust

    Sardane, Gendith M; Rao, Sandhya M


    We present measurements of element abundance ratios and dust in CaII~absorbers identified in SDSS DR7+DR9. In an earlier paper we formed a statistical sample of 435 CaII absorbers and postulated that their statistical properties might be representative of at least two populations of absorbers. Here we show that if the absorbers are roughly divided into two subsamples with CaII rest equivalent widths larger and smaller than $W_0^{\\lambda 3934} = 0.7$ \\AA, they are then representative of two physically different populations. Comparisons of abundance ratios between the two CaII absorber populations indicate that the weaker $W_0^{\\lambda 3934}$ absorbers have properties consistent with halo-type gas, while the stronger absorbers have properties intermediate between halo- and disk-type gas. We also show that, on average, the dust extinction properties of the overall sample is consistent with a LMC or SMC dust law, and the stronger absorbers are nearly 6 times more reddened than their weaker counterparts. The absor...

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Isolated Internetwork Ca II H Bright Points Observed by Sunrise

    Jafarzadeh, S; Feller, A; Lagg, A; Pietarila, A; Danilovic, S; Riethmüller, T L; Pillet, V Martínez


    We aim to improve our picture of the low chromosphere in the quiet-Sun internetwork by investigating the intensity, horizontal velocity, size and lifetime variations of small bright points (BPs; diameter smaller than 0.3 arcsec) observed in the Ca II H 3968 {\\AA} passband along with their magnetic field parameters, derived from photospheric magnetograms. Several high-quality time series of disc-centre, quiet-Sun observations from the Sunrise balloon-borne solar telescope, with spatial resolution of around 100 km on the solar surface, have been analysed to study the dynamics of BPs observed in the Ca II H passband and their dependence on the photospheric vector magnetogram signal. Parameters such as horizontal velocity, diameter, intensity and lifetime histograms of the isolated internetwork and magnetic Ca II H BPs were determined. Mean values were found to be 2.2 km/s, 0.2 arcsec (150 km), 1.48 average Ca II H quiet-Sun and 673 sec, respectively. Interestingly, the brightness and the horizontal velocity of B...

  18. H alpha emitting galaxies and the star formation rate density at z~0.24

    Pascual, S; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Zamorano, J


    We have carried out a survey searching for H alpha emitting galaxies at z~0.24 using a narrow band filter tuned with the redshifted line. The total sky area covered was 0.19 square degrees within the redshift range 0.228 to 0.255 in a set of four fields in the ELAIS-N1 zone. This corresponds to a volume of 9.8 10^3 Mpc^3 and a look-back time of 3.6 Gyr when H0=50 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} and q=0.5 are assumed. A total of 52 objects are selected as candidates for a broad band limiting magnitude of I~22.9, plus 16 detected only in the narrow band image for a narrow band limiting magnitude for object detection of 21.0. The threshold detection corresponds to about 20 A equivalent width with an uncertainty of ~ 10 AA. Point-like objects (15) were excluded from our analysis using CLASS_STAR parameter from SExtractor}. The contamination from other emission lines such as O[II] 3727, H beta and [OIII] 4959,5007 at redshifts 1.2, 0.66 and 0.61 respectively is estimated, and found to be negligible at the flux limits of our sa...

  19. H-alpha flare of 14 March, 1984 -- Evidence for reconnection?

    Sundara Raman, K.; Aleem, S. M.; Singh, Jagdev; Selvendran, R.; Thiagarajan, R.


    Kodaikanal H-alpha monochromatic and white-light observations are used to study the circular flare of 14 March, 1984. We report here the dynamic activity of the H-alpha filament, which attained a severe twist before erupting as a 4B flare. We feel that the relative motion between the emerging spot field and its neighboring field is responsible for the field line reconnection, which triggered the flare.

  20. Ca(2+-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+ concentration in the myometrium mitochondria. II. Ca(2+ effects on mitochondria membranes polarization and [Ca(2+](m

    L. G. Babich


    Full Text Available It is known that Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria undergoes complex regulation by Ca2+ itself. But the mechanisms of such regulation are still discussed. In this paper we have shown that Ca ions directly or indirectly regulate the level of myometrium mitochondria membranes polarization. The additions of 100 µM Ca2+ were accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondria membranes. The following experiments were designed to study the impact of Ca2+ on the myometrium mitochondria [Ca2+]m. Isolated myometrium mitochondria were preincubated without or with 10 μM Са2+ followed by 100 μM Са2+ addition. Experiments were conducted in three mediums: without ATP and Mg2+ (0-medium, in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ (Mg-medium and 3 mM Mg2+ + 3 mM ATP (Mg,ATP-medium. It was shown that the effects of 10 μM Са2+ addition were different in different mediums, namely in 0- and Mg-medium the [Ca2+]m values increased, whereas in Mg,ATP-medium statistically reliable changes were not registered. Preincubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ did not affect the [Ca2+]m value after the addition of 100 μM Са2+. The [Ca2+]m values after 100 μM Са2+ addition were the same in 0- and Mg,ATP-mediums and somewhat lower in Mg-medium. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ in 0- and Mg-mediums reduced changes of Fluo 4 normalized fluorescence values that were induced by 100 μM Са2+ additions, but in Mg,ATP-medium such differences were not recorded. It is concluded that Са2+ exchange in myometrium mitochondria is regulated by the concentration of Ca ions as in the external medium, so in the matrix of mitochondria. The medium composition had a significant impact on the [Са2+]m values in the absence of exogenous cation. It is suggested that light increase of [Са2+]m before the addition of 100 μM Са2+ may have a positive effect on the functional activity of the mitochondria.

  1. Influence of inelastic collisions with hydrogen atoms on the non-LTE modelling of Ca i and Ca ii lines in late-type stars

    Mashonkina, L.; Sitnova, T.; Belyaev, A. K.


    We performed the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE, NLTE) calculations for Ca i-ii with the updated model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical rate coefficients for Ca i + H i collisions from two recent studies and investigated the accuracy of calcium abundance determinations using the Sun, Procyon, and five metal-poor (MP, -2.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-1.3) stars with well-determined stellar parameters. Including H i collisions substantially reduces over-ionisation of Ca i in the line formation layers compared with the case of pure electronic collisions and thus the NLTE effects on abundances derived from Ca i lines. We show that both collisional recipes lead to very similar NLTE results. As for Ca ii, the classical Drawinian rates scaled by SH = 0.1 are still applied. When using the subordinate lines of Ca i and the high-excitation lines of Ca ii, NLTE provides the smaller line-to-line scatter compared with the LTE case for each star. For Procyon, NLTE removes a steep trend with line strength among strong Ca i lines seen in LTE and leads to consistent [Ca/H] abundances from the two ionisation stages. In the MP stars, the NLTE abundance from Ca ii 8498 Å agrees well with the abundance from the Ca i subordinate lines, in contrast to LTE, where the abundance difference grows towards lower metallicity and reaches 0.46 dex in BD -13°3442 ([Fe/H] = -2.62). NLTE largely removes abundance discrepancies between the high-excitation lines of Ca ii and Ca ii 8498 Å obtained for our four [Fe/H] situation is improved when the calcium abundance decreases and the Ca i 4226 Å line formation depths are shifted into deep atmospheric layers that are dominated by over-ionisation of Ca i. However, the departures from LTE are still underestimated for Ca i 4226 Å at [Ca/H] ≃ -4.4 (HE 0557-4840). Consistent NLTE abundances from the Ca i resonance line and the Ca ii lines are found for HE 0107-5240 and HE 1327-2326 with [Ca/H] ≤-5. Thus, the Ca i/Ca ii ionisation

  2. Dust Attenuation and H-alpha Star Formation Rates of z~0.5 Galaxies

    Ly, Chun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne


    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z~0.40 and 249 z~0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7^{+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeli...

  3. Extracting H$\\alpha$ flux from photometric data in the J-PLUS survey

    Vilella-Rojo, G; López-Sanjuan, C; Cenarro, A J; Varela, J; Díaz-García, L A; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Ederoclite, A; Marín-Franch, A; Moles, M


    We present the main steps that will be taken to extract H$\\alpha$ emission flux from Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) photometric data. For galaxies with $z\\lesssim0.015$, the H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission is covered by the J-PLUS narrow-band filter $F660$. We explore three different methods to extract the H$\\alpha$ + [NII] flux from J-PLUS photometric data: a combination of a broad-band and a narrow-band filter ($r'$ and $F660$), two broad-band and a narrow-band one ($r'$, $i'$ and $F660$), and a SED-fitting based method using 8 photometric points. To test these methodologies, we simulated J-PLUS data from a sample of 7511 SDSS spectra with measured H$\\alpha$ flux. Based on the same sample, we derive two empirical relations to correct the derived H$\\alpha$+[NII] flux from dust extinction and [NII] contamination. We find that the only unbiased method is the SED fitting based one. The combination of two filters underestimates the measurements of the H$\\alpha$ + [NII] flux by a 28%, while the th...

  4. Mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II regulation of AMPA receptor gating

    Kristensen, Anders S; Jenkins, Meagan A; Banke, Tue G


    The function, trafficking and synaptic signaling of AMPA receptors are tightly regulated by phosphorylation. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser831 to increase single-channel conductance. We show that CaMKII increases the conductance...... of native heteromeric AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through phosphorylation of Ser831. In addition, co-expression of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) with recombinant receptors is required for phospho-Ser831 to increase conductance of heteromeric GluA1-GluA2 receptors...... the frequency of openings to larger conductances rather than altering unitary conductance. Together, these findings suggest that CaMKII phosphorylation of GluA1-Ser831 decreases the activation energy for an intrasubunit conformational change that regulates the conductance of the receptor when the channel pore...

  5. Unique action of sodium tanshinone II-A sulfonate (DS-201) on the Ca(2+) dependent BK(Ca) activation in mouse cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Tan, Xiaoqiu; Yang, Yan; Cheng, Jun; Li, Pengyun; Inoue, Isao; Zeng, Xiaorong


    Sodium tanshinone II-A sulfonate (DS-201) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, a main active constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza which has been used for treatments of cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases. DS-201 activates large conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels (BK(Ca)) in arterial smooth muscle cells, and reduces the vascular tone. Here we investigated the effect of DS-201 on the BK(Ca) channel kinetics by analyzing single channel currents. Smooth muscle cells were freshly isolated from mouse cerebral arteries. Single channel currents of BK(Ca) were recorded by patch clamp. DS-201 increased the total open probability (NPo) of BK(Ca) in a concentration-dependent manner. But this action required intracellular Ca(2+), and the effect depended on the Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](free)). DS-201 activated BK(Ca) with the half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) of 111.5μM at 0.01μM [Ca(2+)](free), and 68.5μM at 0.1μM [Ca(2+)](free.) The effect of DS-201 on NPo was particularly strong in the range of [Ca(2+)](free) between 0.1 and 1μM. Analysis of the channel kinetics revealed that DS-201 had only the effect on the channel closing without affecting the channel opening, which was a striking contrast to the effect of [Ca(2+)](free), that is characterized by changing the channel opening without changing the channel closing. DS-201 may be bound to the open state of BK(Ca), and have an inhibitory effect on the transition from the open to closed state. By this way DS-201 may enhance the activity of BK(Ca), and exhibit a strong vasodilating effect against vasoconstriction in the range of [Ca(2+)](free) between 0.1 and 1μM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bcl10 is phosphorylated on Ser138 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Xavier, Ramnik


    Ordered assembly of scaffold proteins Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 determines NF-kappaB activation following T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. Carma1-Bcl10 interaction and the signaling pathway are controlled by Carma1 phosphorylation, which are induced by PKCtheta and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In addition to Carma1 phosphorylation, previous studies have demonstrated that Bcl10 is phosphorylated in the C-terminal Ser/Thr rich region following TCR engagement. However the kinases that phosphorylate Bcl10 are incompletely understood. Here we show that CaMKII phosphorylates Bcl10 on Ser138. Furthermore, a CaMKII inhibitor, KN93, and CaMKII siRNA substantially reduce Bcl10 phosphorylation induced by phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin. S138A mutation prolongs Bcl10-induced NF-kappaB activation, suggesting that Bcl10 phosphorylation is involved in attenuation of NF-kappaB activation. These findings suggest that CaMKII modulates NF-kappaB activation via phosphorylating Bcl10 as well as Carma1.

  7. Theoretical study on the role of Ca(2+) at the S2 state in photosystem II.

    Yang, Jingxiu; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Ogata, Koji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Li, Can


    In photosynthesis, calcium is crucial for oxygen evolution. In the absence of Ca(2+), the Kok cycle has been proven to stop at S2 with Yz•. To explore the reason, photosystem II (PSII) S2 models (in total 32452 atoms) with different metal ions (Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and K(+)) or without Ca(2+) involved in the oxygen evolution complex (OEC) have been theoretically studied based on the previous dynamic study of PSII. It is found that the portion of the Mn1 d-orbital decreases in the highest occupied molecular orbitals for Ca(2+)-depleted PSII. This feature is unfavorable for the electron transfer from the OEC to the Yz•. Furthermore, the proton donor-acceptor distance was found elongated by the alternation of the binding water in the absence of Ca(2+). The isolated vibrational modes of the key water molecules along the path and their high frequency of the OH stretching modes also suggested the difficulty of the proton transfer from the OEC toward the proton exit channel. This work provides one mechanistic explanation for the inactivity of Ca(2+)-depleted PSII.

  8. Porous heterometallic Cd(II)-Ca(II)-terephthalate: Synthesis, structure, luminescent and gas adsorption properties

    Liu, Haiping; Dong, Yanli; Ren, Hailiang


    A new heterometallic poly(dihydrate-one and a half terephthalate-cadmium calcium) coordination polymer, namely [CdCa(pdc)1.5(H2O)2]n (1, H2pdc = terephthalic acid), has been successfully obtained by the solvothermal reactions of H2pdc, Cd(NO3)2·4H2O and Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 features a 3D porous framework based on 1D chain subunits. Moreover, compound 1 is luminescent and exhibits high adsorption capacities for H2, CH4 and CO2 at room temperature.

  9. A Century of Solar Ca ii Measurements and Their Implication for Solar UV Driving of Climate

    Foukal, Peter; Bertello, Luca; Livingston, William C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Singh, Jagdev; Tlatov, Andrey G.; Ulrich, Roger K.


    Spectroheliograms and disk-integrated flux monitoring in the strong resonance line of Ca ii (K line) provide the longest record of chromospheric magnetic plages. We compare recent reductions of the Ca ii K spectroheliograms obtained since 1907 at the Kodaikanal, Mt. Wilson, and US National Solar Observatories. Certain differences between the individual plage indices appear to be caused mainly by differences in the spectral passbands used. Our main finding is that the indices show remarkably consistent behavior on the multidecadal time scales of greatest interest to global warming studies. The reconstruction of solar ultraviolet flux variation from these indices differs significantly from the 20th-century global temperature record. This difference is consistent with other findings that, although solar UV irradiance variation may affect climate through influence on precipitation and storm tracks, its significance in global temperature remains elusive.

  10. Slender Ca II H fibrils mapping magnetic fields in the low solar chromosphere

    Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Solanki, S K; Wiegelmann, T; Riethmueller, T; van Noort, M; Szydlarski, M; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Barthol, P; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knoelker, M; Pillet, V Martinez; Suarez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W


    A dense forest of slender bright fibrils near a small solar active region is seen in high-quality narrow-band Ca II H images from the SuFI instrument onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The orientation of these slender Ca II H fibrils (SCF) overlaps with the magnetic field configuration in the low solar chromosphere derived by magnetostatic extrapolation of the photospheric field observed with Sunrise/IMaX and SDO/HMI. In addition, many observed SCFs are qualitatively aligned with small-scale loops computed from a novel inversion approach based on best-fit numerical MHD simulation. Such loops are organized in canopy-like arches over quiet areas that differ in height depending on the field strength near their roots.

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Bivariate functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies

    Gunawardhana, M L P; Taylor, E N; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Norberg, P; Baldry, I K; Loveday, J; Owers, M S; Wilkins, S M; Colless, M; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Brough, S; Cluver, M; Croom, S; Kelvin, L; Lara-López, M A; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, A R; Robotham, A S G


    We present bivariate luminosity and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies drawn from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. While optically deep spectroscopic observations of GAMA over a wide sky area enable the detection of a large number of $0.001<{SFR}_{H\\alpha}$ (M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$)$<100$ galaxies, the requirement for an H$\\alpha$ detection in targets selected from an $r$-band magnitude limited survey leads to an incompleteness due to missing optically faint star forming galaxies. Using $z<0.1$ bivariate distributions as a reference we model the higher-$z$ distributions, thereby approximating a correction for the missing optically faint star forming galaxies to the local SFR and stellar mass densities. Furthermore, we obtain the $r$-band LFs and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies from the bivariate LFs. As our sample is selected on the basis of detected H$\\alpha$ emission, a direct tracer of on-going star formation, this sample represents a true ...

  12. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VII: H\\alpha{} imaging and massive star formation properties

    Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Wilson, C D; Barmby, P; Azimlu, M; Courteau, S


    We present H\\alpha{} fluxes, star formation rates (SFRs) and equivalent widths (EWs) for a sample of 156 nearby galaxies observed in the 12CO J=3-2 line as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These are derived from images and values in the literature and from new H\\alpha{} images for 72 galaxies which we publish here. We describe the sample, observations and procedures to extract the H\\alpha{} fluxes and related quantities. We discuss the SFR properties of our sample and confirm the well-known correlation with galaxy luminosity, albeit with high dispersion. Our SFRs range from 0.1 to 11 Msun yr-1 with a median SFR value for the complete sample of 0.2 Msun yr-1. This median values is somewhat lower than similar published measurements, which we attribute, in part, to our sample being HI-selected and, thus, not biased towards high SFRs as has frequently been the case in previous studies. Additionally, we calculate internal absorptions for the H\\alpha{} line, A(H\\alpha{}), whi...

  13. Solar variability in the CaII K during solar cycles 21 and 22

    Sivaraman, K. R.; Gupta, S. S.; Kariyappa, R.; Aleem, P. S. M.; Sundararaman, K.


    We have monitored the sun in the light of the CaII K line and obtained the disc integrated profiles for the years 1974-91. From these profiles we have estimated the variability of the sun as a star as seen in the various K line parameters. The 1 A index shows an increase of about 35% in 1990 from its minimum value attained in 1986-87.

  14. Long-term Synoptic Observations of Ca II K and Magnetic Flux

    Bertello, L.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Tlatov, A. G.


    Long-term synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K and measurements of the solar magnetic flux over several decades constitute a fundamental database for a variety of retrospective analyzes of the state of the solar magnetism. These data archives may also hold the key for untangling some of the mysteries behind the solar dynamo, which in turn could result in a better predictive capability of current dynamo models. Synoptic Ca II K observations began in 1907 at the Kodaikanal observatory (India) and in 1915 at the Mt Wilson (California, USA) solar observatory. By the early 1970s a number of synoptic programs for solar magnetic observations were established that provided full disk magnetograms. These programs include measurements carried out at the Mt Wilson 150-foot solar tower, Wilcox observatory (California, USA), and by the National Solar Observatory (NSO, USA). Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility. We will review some of these historical observations, their properties, and their importance for understanding the behavior of the solar magnetic field over multidecadal time scales. We will also show recent results about using Ca II K spectroheliograms and sunspot magnetic field measurements to reconstruct homogeneous series of pseudo-magnetograms prior the magnetograph era.

  15. Ca II H sunspot tomography from the photosphere to the chromosphere

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Kiselman, D.


    Aims: We aim at gaining insight into the thermal properties of different small-scale structures related to sunspots. Methods: We use filtergrams in the Ca ii H filter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope to study the relationship between fine structure at different heights in a sunspot. Results: The methods for destretching and aligning the different image data work well. The magnetic spine structure in the outer parts of the sunspot penumbra is found to be associated with higher intensities in the Ca ii H wing passbands but with less steep vertical temperature gradients. Dark lanes in a light bridge behave very similarly to dark cores in penumbral filaments. Fibril structures are seen in the line-core images over the umbra and penumbra. Conclusions: The observations add support to the idea that penumbral filaments, light bridges, and umbral dots are caused by similar processes of overturning convection. Observations in the Ca ii H & K wings are a promising observable, complementing others, for testing simulation results for sunspots at high spatial resolution.

  16. Radiative emission of solar features in the Ca II K line: comparison of measurements and models

    Ermolli, I; Uitenbroek, H; Giorgi, F; Rast, M P; Solanki, S K


    We study the radiative emission of various types of solar features, such as quiet Sun, enhanced network, plage, and bright plage regions, identified on filtergrams taken in the Ca II K line. We analysed fulldisk images obtained with the PSPT, by using three interference filters that sample the Ca II K line with different bandpasses. We studied the dependence of the radiative emission of disk features on the filter bandpass. We also performed a NLTE spectral synthesis of the Ca II K line integrated over the bandpass of PSPT filters. The synthesis was carried out by utilizing both the PRD and CRD with the most recent set of semi­empirical atmosphere models in the literature and some earlier atmosphere models. We measured the CLV of intensity values for various solar features identified on PSPT images and compared the results obtained with those derived from the synthesis. We find that CRD calculations derived using the most recent quiet Sun model, on average, reproduce the measured values of the quiet Sun regi...

  17. Discovery of a very cool object with extraordinarily strong H(alpha) emission

    Barrado y Navascués, D; Martín, E L; Béjar, V J S; Rebolo, R; Mundt, R; Navascues, David Barrado y; Osorio, Maria Rosa Zapatero; Martin, Eduardo L.; Bejar, Victor J.S.; Rebolo, Rafael; Mundt, Reinhard


    We report on the finding of the strongest H(alpha) emission -pseudoequivalent width of 705 Angstrom- known so far in a young, late type dwarf. This object, named as SOri71, is a substellar candidate member of the 1-8 Myr star cluster sigma Orionis. Due to its overluminous location in color-magnitude diagrams, SOri71 might be younger than other cluster members, or a binary of similar components. Its mass is in the range 0.021-0.012 M(sun), depending on evolutionary models and possible binarity. The broad H(alpha) line of SOri71 appears asymmetric, indicative of high velocity mass motions in the H(alpha) forming region. The origin of this emission is unclear at the present time. We discuss three possible scenarios: accretion from a disk, mass exchange between the components of a binary system, and emission from a chromosphere.

  18. A study of the H-alpha line in X1735 - 444

    Smale, Alan P.; Corbet, Robin H. D.


    Forty six optical spectra containing the H-alpha line of X1735 - 444, which were obtained over three nights in May 1987, were analyzed. Using a convolution method, a radial velocity curve was derived for the whole H-alpha line. Combining the spectroscopic results with an updated photometric ephemeris, the probable sites for H-alpha emission in X1735 - 444 were determined. Results of the analyses suggest that two distinct regions contribute to the observed profile in X-1735 - 444: (1) the peak emission, which is associated with the accretion stream of material passing between the companion and the compact object; and (2) the base emission, which is produced symmetrically in the outer accretion disk.

  19. An H-alpha Imaging Survey of Galaxies in the Local 11 Mpc Volume

    Kennicutt, Robert C; Jose Funes, S; Sakai, Shoko; Akiyama, Sanae


    As part of a broader effort to characterize the population of star-forming galaxies in the local universe, we have carried out an H-alpha+[NII] imaging survey for an essentially volume-limited sample of galaxies within 11 Mpc of the Milky Way. This paper describes the design of the survey, the observation, data processing, and calibration procedures, and the characteristics of the galaxy sample. The main product of the paper is a catalog of integrated H-alpha fluxes, luminosities, and equivalent widths for the galaxies in the sample. We briefly discuss the completeness properties of the survey and compare the distribution of the sample and its star formation properties to other large H-alpha imaging surveys. These data form the foundation for a series of follow-up studies of the star formation properties of the local volume, and the properties and duty cycles of star formation bursts in dwarf galaxies.

  20. Alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides: Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and anticancer, antibacterial, anticarbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) activities

    O. Ozdemir, Ummuhan; İlbiz, Firdevs; Balaban Gunduzalp, Ayla; Ozbek, Neslihan; Karagoz Genç, Zuhal; Hamurcu, Fatma; Tekin, Suat


    Methane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3SO2NHNH2 (1), ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2SO2NHNH2 (2), propane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (3) and butane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (4) have been synthesized as homologous series and characterized by using elemental analysis, spectrophotometric methods (1H-13C NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS). In order to gain insight into the structure of the compounds, we have performed computational studies by using 6-311G(d, p) functional in which B3LYP functional were implemented. The geometry of the sulfonic acide hydrazides were optimized at the DFT method with Gaussian 09 program package. A conformational analysis of compounds were performed by using NMR theoretical calculations with DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level of theory by applying the (GIAO) approach. The anticancer activities of these compounds on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus NRRL-B-3711, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using the disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that butane sulfonic acide hydrazide (4) has more activity than the others against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram negative/Gram positive bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  1. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun


    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  2. Confirmation of a moving component in the $H-\\alpha$ emission line of LSI+61303

    Zamanov, R K


    We report our attempts to detect and confirm a narrow moving component in the H-alpha emission line of the radio emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61 303 (V615 Cas, GT0236+610). The existence of this spectral feature was already suspected in the past. As a result, we find that this component does exist and that its radial velocity varies in agreement with the radio period of the system. We interpret it tentatively as due to a denser region, or bulge, orbiting near the outer edge of the H-alpha emitting disk.

  3. H-alpha Survey of the Local Volume: Isolated Southern Galaxies

    Kaisin, S S; Knyazev, A Yu; Karachentsev, I D


    We present our H-alpha observations of 11 isolated southern galaxies: SDIG, PGC 51659, E 222-010, E 272-025, E 137-018, IC 4662, Sag DIG, IC 5052, IC 5152, UGCA 438, and E149-003, with distances from 1 to 7 Mpc. We have determined the total H-alpha fluxes from these galaxies. The star formation rates in these galaxies range from 10^{-1} (IC 4662) to 10^{-4}_{\\odot}/yr (SDIG) and the gas depletion time at the observed star formation rates lies within the range from 1/6 to 24 Hubble times H_0^{-1} .

  4. Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates angiotensin II-induced lipid raft clustering in mesenteric endothelial cells.

    Han, Wei-Qing; Chen, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yong-Jie; Gao, Ping-Jin


    It has been reported that intracellular Ca2+ is involved in lysosome fusion and membrane repair in skeletal cells. Given that angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and that lysosome fusion is a crucial mediator of lipid raft (LR) clustering, we hypothesized that Ang II induces lysosome fusion and activates LR formation in rat mesenteric endothelial cells (MECs). We found that Ang II acutely increased intracellular Ca2+ content, an effect that was inhibited by the extracellular Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced Ca2+ release inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Further study showed that EGTA almost completely blocked Ang II-induced lysosome fusion, the translocation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) to LR clusters, ASMase activation and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activation. In contrast, 2-APB had a slight inhibitory effect. Functionally, both the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and the ASMase inhibitor amitriptyline reversed Ang II-induced impairment of vasodilation. We conclude that Ca2+ -regulated lysosome fusion mediates the Ang II-induced regulation of the LR-redox signaling pathway and mesenteric endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Fusion-activated Ca(2+ entry: an "active zone" of elevated Ca(2+ during the postfusion stage of lamellar body exocytosis in rat type II pneumocytes.

    Pika Miklavc

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ is essential for vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in virtually all types of regulated exocytoses. However, in contrast to the well-known effects of a high cytoplasmic Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c in the prefusion phase, the occurrence and significance of Ca(2+ signals in the postfusion phase have not been described before.We studied isolated rat alveolar type II cells using previously developed imaging techniques. These cells release pulmonary surfactant, a complex of lipids and proteins, from secretory vesicles (lamellar bodies in an exceptionally slow, Ca(2+- and actin-dependent process. Measurements of fusion pore formation by darkfield scattered light intensity decrease or FM 1-43 fluorescence intensity increase were combined with analysis of [Ca(2+](c by ratiometric Fura-2 or Fluo-4 fluorescence measurements. We found that the majority of single lamellar body fusion events were followed by a transient (t(1/2 of decay = 3.2 s rise of localized [Ca(2+](c originating at the site of lamellar body fusion. [Ca(2+](c increase followed with a delay of approximately 0.2-0.5 s (method-dependent and in the majority of cases this signal propagated throughout the cell (at approximately 10 microm/s. Removal of Ca(2+ from, or addition of Ni(2+ to the extracellular solution, strongly inhibited these [Ca(2+](c transients, whereas Ca(2+ store depletion with thapsigargin had no effect. Actin-GFP fluorescence around fused LBs increased several seconds after the rise of [Ca(2+](c. Both effects were reduced by the non-specific Ca(2+ channel blocker SKF96365.Fusion-activated Ca(2+entry (FACE is a new mechanism that leads to [Ca(2+](c transients at the site of vesicle fusion. Substantial evidence from this and previous studies indicates that fusion-activated Ca(2+ entry enhances localized surfactant release from type II cells, but it may also play a role for compensatory endocytosis and other cellular functions.

  6. H-alpha spectra of dynamic chromospheric processes in five well-observed X-ray flares

    Canfield, Richard C.; Penn, Matthew J.; Wulser, Jean-Pierre; Kiplinger, Alan L.


    Simultaneous H-alpha and hard X-ray (HXR) spectra were obtained for five solar flares to determine the relationship of H-alpha profiles and the nonthermal part of the flare represented by the hard X-ray burst. All five flares exhibited impulsive-phase redshifted H-alpha in emission, which was temporarily and spatially associated with intense HXR emission and broad impulsive-phase H-alpha wings. A few small regions within two flares showed a blueshifted H-alpha emission which appeared only early in the impulsive phase and was temporally correlated with the HXR emission but not with broad H-alpha wings. Finally, there were both redshifted and blueshifted absorption spectra with properties fully consistent with those known for erupting and untwisting filaments.

  7. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR, UV/VIS), thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of Ca(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of ferulic acid

    Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Bruss, A.; Follet, C.; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Rzączyńska, Z.; Lewandowski, W.


    The molecular structure of Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Ca(II) ferulates (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamates) was studied. The selected metal ferulates were synthesized. Their composition was established by means of elementary and thermogravimetric analysis. The following spectroscopic methods were used: infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (13C, 1H NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS). On the basis of obtained results the electronic charge distribution in studied metal complexes in comparison with ferulic acid molecule was discussed. The microbiological study of ferulic acid and ferulates toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was done.

  8. A dynamic model of interactions of Ca2+, calmodulin, and catalytic subunits of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Shirley Pepke


    Full Text Available During the acquisition of memories, influx of Ca2+ into the postsynaptic spine through the pores of activated N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors triggers processes that change the strength of excitatory synapses. The pattern of Ca2+influx during the first few seconds of activity is interpreted within the Ca2+-dependent signaling network such that synaptic strength is eventually either potentiated or depressed. Many of the critical signaling enzymes that control synaptic plasticity,including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, are regulated by calmodulin, a small protein that can bindup to 4 Ca2+ ions. As a first step toward clarifying how the Ca2+-signaling network decides between potentiation or depression, we have created a kinetic model of the interactions of Ca2+, calmodulin, and CaMKII that represents our best understanding of the dynamics of these interactions under conditions that resemble those in a postsynaptic spine. We constrained parameters of the model from data in the literature, or from our own measurements, and then predicted time courses of activation and autophosphorylation of CaMKII under a variety of conditions. Simulations showed that species of calmodulin with fewer than four bound Ca2+ play a significant role in activation of CaMKII in the physiological regime,supporting the notion that processing of Ca2+ signals in a spine involves competition among target enzymes for binding to unsaturated species of CaM in an environment in which the concentration of Ca2+ is fluctuating rapidly. Indeed, we showed that dependence of activation on the frequency of Ca2+ transients arises from the kinetics of interaction of fluctuating Ca2+with calmodulin/CaMKII complexes. We used parameter sensitivity analysis to identify which parameters will be most beneficial to measure more carefully to improve the accuracy of predictions. This model provides a quantitative base from which to build more complex dynamic

  9. A study of flare buildup from simultaneous observations in microwave, H-alpha, and UV wavelengths

    Kundu, M. R.; Schmahl, E. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R.; Jones, H. P.


    The results of high-resolution observations of the solar preflare activity of June 25, 1980 are analyzed. The observations were carried out simultaneously in the UV microwave, and H-alpha wavelengths using the VLA, the Ottawa River photoheliograph, and the Solar Max spectrometer and polarimeter instruments. Increases were observed in the intensitiy and polarization of compact sources at a wavelength of 6-cm during the preflare hour. The increases were associated with rising and twisting motions in the magnetic loops near the sight of the subsequent flare. Consistent with this process, analysis of the transverse and Doppler motions observed in the H-alpha filament before disruption showed that the filament was activated internally by the motions of evolving magnetic flux patterns. Ultraviolet data for C IV brightenings and upflows at the first appearance of the H-alpha filament indicated the presence of rising magnetic loops and material rising within the loops. The complete VLA, microwave and H-alpha data sets are given.

  10. Anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line in the magnetospheric device RT-1

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Nishiura, Masaki; Nogami, Tomoaki; Kashyap, Ankur; Yano, Yoshihisa; Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yamasaki, Miyuri; Mushiake, Toshiki; Nakatsuka, Masataka


    Temperature anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line was found in the ring trap 1 (RT-1) device by Doppler spectroscopy. Since hot hydrogen neutrals emitting a broad component are mainly produced by charge exchange between neutrals and protons, the anisotropy in the broad component is the evidence of proton temperature anisotropy generated by betatron acceleration.

  11. Calculations of periodicity from H{\\alpha} profiles of Proxima Centauri

    Collins, John M; Barnes, John R


    We investigate retrieval of the stellar rotation signal for Proxima Centauri. We make use of high-resolution spectra taken with uves and harps of Proxima Centauri over a 13-year period as well as photometric observations of Proxima Centauri from asas and hst. We measure the H{\\alpha} equivalent width and H{\\alpha} index, skewness and kurtosis and introduce a method that investigates the symmetry of the line, the Peak Ratio, which appears to return better results than the other measurements. Our investigations return a most significant period of 82.6 $\\pm$ 0.1 days, confirming earlier photometric results and ruling out a more recent result of 116.6 days which we conclude to be an alias induced by the specific harps observation times. We conclude that whilst spectroscopic H{\\alpha} measurements can be used for period recovery, in the case of Proxima Centauri the available photometric measurements are more reliable. We make 2D models of Proxima Centauri to generate simulated H{\\alpha}, finding that reasonable di...

  12. H$_\\alpha$-activity and ages for stars in the SARG survey

    Sissa, E; Desidera, S; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Bonfanti, A; Carolo, E; Vassallo, D; Claudi, R U; Endl, M; Cosentino, R


    Stellar activity influences radial velocity (RV) measurements and can also mimic the presence of orbiting planets. As part of the search for planets around the components of wide binaries performed with the SARG High Resolution Spectrograph at the TNG, it was discovered that HD 200466A shows strong variation in RV that is well correlated with the activity index based on H$_\\alpha$. We used SARG to study the H$_\\alpha$ line variations in each component of the binaries and a few bright stars to test the capability of the H$_\\alpha$ index of revealing the rotation period or activity cycle. We also analysed the relations between the average activity level and other physical properties of the stars. We finally tried to reveal signals in the RVs that are due to the activity. At least in some cases the variation in the observed RVs is due to the stellar activity. We confirm that H$_\\alpha$ can be used as an activity indicator for solar-type stars and as an age indicator for stars younger than 1.5 Gyr.

  13. On the existence of oscillations in solar filaments observed in H alpha and C IV lines

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Mein, P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.


    Time sequence observations of filaments in both the H alpha line and the 1548 A C IV line were analyzed with the Fourier transform technique in the frequency range (1 - 10 mHz). No oscillation is detected in filaments except at the footpoints where a steady velocity gradient is large. The energy is probably due to convective motions rather than pressure oscillations.

  14. The Properties of H{\\alpha} Emission-Line Galaxies at $z$ = 2.24

    An, F X; Wang, W -H; Huang, J -S; Kong, X; Wang, J -X; Fang, G W; Zhu, F; Gu, Q -S; Wu, H; Hao, L; Xia, X -Y


    Using deep narrow-band $H_2S1$ and $K_{s}$-band imaging data obtained with CFHT/WIRCam, we identify a sample of 56 H$\\alpha$ emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at $z=2.24$ with the 5$\\sigma$ depths of $H_2S1=22.8$ and $K_{s}=24.8$ (AB) over 383 arcmin$^{2}$ area in the ECDFS. A detailed analysis is carried out with existing multi-wavelength data in this field. Three of the 56 H$\\alpha$ ELGs are detected in Chandra 4 Ms X-ray observation and two of them are classified as AGNs. The rest-frame UV and optical morphologies revealed by HST/ACS and WFC3 deep images show that nearly half of the H$\\alpha$ ELGs are either merging systems or with a close companion, indicating that the merging/interacting processes play a key role in regulating star formation at cosmic epoch z=2-3; About 14% are too faint to be resolved in the rest-frame UV morphology due to high dust extinction. We estimate dust extinction form SEDs. We find that dust extinction is generally correlated with H$\\alpha$ luminosity and stellar mass (SM). Our res...

  15. On-disk counterparts of type II spicules in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines

    van der Voort, L Rouppe; De Pontieu, B; Carlsson, M; Vissers, G


    Recently a second type of spicules was discovered at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Japanese Hinode spacecraft. These previously unrecognized type II spicules are thin chromospheric jets that are shorter-lived (10-60 s) and that show much higher apparent upward velocities (of order 50-100 km/s) than the classical spicules. Since they have been implicated in providing hot plasma to coronal loops, their formation, evolution and properties are important ingredients for a better understanding of the mass and energy balance of the low solar atmosphere. Here we report on the discovery of the disk counterparts of type II spicules using spectral imaging data in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) in La Palma. We find rapid blueward excursions in the line profiles of both chromospheric lines that correspond to thin, jet-like features that show apparent velocities of order 50 km/s. These blueward ex...

  16. North-south asymmetry of Ca II K regions determined from OAUC spectroheliograms: 1996 - 2006

    Dorotovič, I.; Rybák, J.; Garcia, A.; Journoud, P.


    The solar activity (SA) evolution levels are not identical in the northern and southern Sun's hemispheres. This fact was repeatedly confirmed in the past by the analysis of a number of long-term observations of various SA indices in individual atmospheric layers of the Sun and in different bandwidths. The north-south asymmetry (NSA) is thus a significant tool in investigation of long-term SA variations. This paper presents a software tool to determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric plages, as measured in the Ca II K3 spectroheliograms registered since 1926 in the Observatário Astronómico da Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, as well as evolution of sizes of these areas in the period 1996 - 2006. The algorithm of the program is limited to determining the total area of bright features in the Ca II K3 emission line based on the definition of the threshold value for relative brightness and, therefore, it does not resolve brightness of individual chromospheric features. A comparison and cross-correlation of this NSA with the NSAs found for the sunspots and coronal green line brightness have been added. In the near future we intend to 1) determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric Ca II K3 regions back to the year 1926, and 2) compare the evolution of the surface area of these regions in the period 1970-2006 with the evolution of the magnetic index obtained at Mt. Wilson Observatory, which would also help in setting up a proxy reconstruction of the magnetic index back to 1926. Since 2007 new spectroheliograms have been recorded using a CCD camera and, therefore, in the future we will also address this issue for the period 2007 - present.

  17. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George


    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.


    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomia Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)


    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  19. The [Fe/H] Dependence on the Ca {\\sc ii}-$M_V$ Relationship

    Gomez, Thomas; Pancino, Elena


    We examined the Wilson-Bappu effect, a relationship between the absolute magnitude of the star, $M_V$, and the logarithm of the Ca {\\sc ii} emission width, $W_0$, over the largest $M_V$ range to date, +13 to -5, covering M-dwarfs to type Ia supergiants. We used an extensive literature, the latest Hipparcos reduction, data from two globular clusters, and new observations from Apache Point Observatory to compile a sample that allowed us to study the effect of [Fe/H] on the Wilson-Bappu relationship. Our results include reporting the deviations from linearity and demonstrating that the Wilson-Bappu relationship is insensitive to metallicity.

  20. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, R.H.F. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintas, L.E.M. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Noel, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Einicker-Lamas, M. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, V.M.N. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Ca{sup 2+} pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub 0.5} = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC{sub 50} = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca{sup 2+} and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca{sup 2+} and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} pumping activity.

  1. Thermodynamics of calmodulin trapping by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: subpicomolar Kd determined using competition titration calorimetry.

    Tse, Joyce K Y; Giannetti, Anthony M; Bradshaw, J Michael


    Calmodulin (CaM) trapping by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a phenomenon whereby the affinity of CaM for CaMKII increases >1000-fold following CaMKII autophosphorylation. The molecular basis of this effect is not entirely understood. Binding of CaM to the phosphorylated and the unphosphorylated states of CaMKII is well mimicked by the interaction of CaM with two different length peptides taken from the CaM-binding region of CaMKII, peptides we refer to as the long and intermediate peptides. To better understand the conformational change accompanying CaM trapping, we have used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to compare the binding thermodynamics of CaM to these peptides as well as to a shorter CaMKII-based peptide. Calorimetric analysis revealed that the enthalpy, rather than the entropy, distinguished binding of these three peptides. Furthermore, the heat capacity change was found to be similar for the long and intermediate peptides but smaller in magnitude for the short peptide. Direct titration of CaM with peptide provided the Kd value for the short peptide (Kd = 5.9 +/- 2.4 microM), but a novel, two-phased competitive binding strategy was necessary to ascertain the affinities of the intermediate (Kd = 0.17 +/- 0.06 nM) and long (Kd = 0.07 +/- 0.04 pM) peptides. To our knowledge, the Kd for the long peptide is the most potent measured to date using ITC. Together, the findings reported here support a model whereby the final conformational change accompanying CaM trapping buries little additional surface area but does involve formation of new hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts that contribute to formation of the high-affinity, CaM-trapped state.

  2. Composite CaWO4 Detectors for the CRESST-II Experiment

    Kiefer, M; Bauer, M; Bavykina, I; Bento, A; Brown, A; Bucci, C; Ciemniak, C; Coppi, C; Deuter, G; von Feilitzsch, F; Hauff, D; Henry, S; Huff, P; Imber, J; Ingleby, S; Isaila, C; Jochum, J; Kimmerle, M; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J -C; Lang, R F; Malek, M; McGowan, R; Mikhailik, V B; Pantic, E; Petricca, F; Pfister, S; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schmaler, J; Scholl, S; Seidel, W; Stodolsky, L; Tolhurst, A J B; Usherov, I; Westphal, W


    CRESST-II, standing for Cryogenic Rare Events Search with Superconducting Thermometers phase II, is an experiment searching for Dark Matter. In the LNGS facility in Gran Sasso, Italy, a cryogenic detector setup is operated in order to detect WIMPs by elastic scattering off nuclei, generating phononic lattice excitations and scintillation light. The thermometers used in the experiment consist of a tungsten thin-film structure evaporated onto the CaWO4 absorber crystal. The process of evaporation causes a decrease in the scintillation light output. This, together with the need of a big-scale detector production for the upcoming EURECA experiment lead to investigations for producing thermometers on smaller crystals which are glued onto the absorber crystal. In our Run 31 we tested composite detectors for the first time in the Gran Sasso setup. They seem to produce higher light yields as hoped and could provide an additional time based discrimination mechanism for low light yield clamp events.

  3. Observations of the Ca ${\\rm\\tiny II}$ IR Triplet in High Luminosity Quasars: Exploring the Sample

    Mary Loli Martínez-Aldama; Paola Marziani; Deborah Dultzin; Jack W. Sulentic; Alessandro Bressan; Yang Chen; Giovanna M. Stirpe


    We present a new spectroscopic sample of 11 quasars at intermediate redshift observed with the Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera (ISAAC) on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), covering O ${\\rm\\tiny I}$ 8446 and the Ca ${\\rm\\tiny II}$ triplet 8498, 8542, 8662. The new observations – that supplement the sample presented by Martínez-Aldama et al. (2015) – allow us to confirm the constraints on physical conditions and location of the region emitting the low ionization lines, as well as the relation between Ca ${\\rm\\tiny II}$ and Fe ${\\rm\\tiny II}$.

  4. Transverse oscillations in slender Ca II H fibrils observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Gafeira, R; van Noort, M; Barthol, P; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knoelker, M; Suarez, D Orozco; Riethmueller, T L; Schmidt, W


    We present observations of transverse oscillations in slender Ca II H fibrils (SCFs) in the lower solar chromosphere. We use a 1-hour long time series of high (spatial and temporal) resolution, seeing-free observations in a 0.11 nm wide passband covering the line core of Ca II H 396.9 nm from the second flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The entire field of view, spanning the polarity inversion line of an active region close to the solar disk center, is covered with bright, thin, and very dynamic fine structures. Our analysis reveals the prevalence of transverse waves in SCFs with median amplitudes and periods on the order of 2.4+-0.8 km/s and 83+-29 s, respectively (with standard deviations given as uncertainties). We find that the transverse waves often propagate along (parts of) the SCFs with median phase speeds of 9+-14 km/s. While the propagation is only in one direction along the axis in some of the SCFs, propagating waves in both directions, as well as standing waves are also observ...

  5. The Appearance of Spicules in High Resolution Observations of Ca II H and Hα

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Carlsson, Mats


    Solar spicules are chromospheric fibrils that appear everywhere on the Sun, yet their origin is not understood. Using high resolution observations of spicules obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, we aim to understand how spicules appear in filtergrams and Dopplergrams, how they compare in Ca ii H and Hα filtergrams, and what can make them appear and disappear. We find that spicules display a rich and detailed spatial structure, and show a distribution of transverse velocities that, when aligned with the line of sight, can make them appear at different Hα wing positions. They become more abundant at positions closer to the line core, reflecting a distribution of Doppler shifts and widths. In Hα width maps they stand out as bright features both on disk and off limb, reflecting their large Doppler motions and possibly higher temperatures than in the typical Hα formation region. Spicule lifetimes measured from narrowband images at only a few positions will be an underestimate because Doppler shifts can make them disappear prematurely from such images; for such cases, width maps are a more robust tool. In Hα and Ca ii H filtergrams, off-limb spicules essentially have the same properties, appearance, and evolution. We find that the sudden appearance of spicules can be explained by Doppler shifts from their transverse motions, and does not require other convoluted explanations.

  6. Spectropolarimetric observations of the Ca II 8498 A and 8542 A lines in the quiet Sun

    Pietarila, A; Bogdan, T


    The Ca II infrared triplet is one of the few magnetically sensitive chromospheric lines available for ground-based observations. We present spectropolarimetric observations of the 8498 A and 8542 A lines in a quiet Sun region near a decaying active region and compare the results with a simulation of the lines in a high plasma-beta regime. Cluster analysis of Stokes V profile pairs shows that the two lines, despite arguably being formed fairly close, often do not have similar shapes. In the network, the local magnetic topology is more important in determining the shapes of the Stokes V profiles than the phase of the wave, contrary to what our simulations show. We also find that Stokes V asymmetries are very common in the network, and the histograms of the observed amplitude and area asymmetries differ significantly from the simulation. Both the network and internetwork show oscillatory behavior in the Ca II lines. It is stronger in the network, where shocking waves, similar to those in the high-beta simulation...

  7. Dynamo Sensitivity in Solar Analogs with 50 Years of Ca II H & K Activity

    Egeland, Ricky; Baliunas, Sallie; Hall, Jeffrey C; Pevtsov, Alexei A; Henry, Gregory W


    The Sun has a steady 11-year cycle in magnetic activity most well-known by the rising and falling in the occurrence of dark sunspots on the solar disk in visible bandpasses. The 11-year cycle is also manifest in the variations of emission in the Ca II H & K line cores, due to non-thermal (i.e. magnetic) heating in the lower chromosphere. The large variation in Ca II H & K emission allows for study of the patterns of long-term variability in other stars thanks to synoptic monitoring with the Mount Wilson Observatory HK photometers (1966-2003) and Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (1994-present). Overlapping measurements for a set of 27 nearby solar-analog (spectral types G0-G5) stars were used to calibrate the two instruments and construct time series of magnetic activity up to 50 years in length. Precise properties of fundamental importance to the dynamo are available from Hipparcos, the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey, and CHARA interferometry. Using these long time series and measurements of fu...

  8. Butterfly Diagram and Carrington Maps for Century-Long Ca II K Spectroheliograms from Kodaikanal Observatory

    Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Ravindra, B


    The century-long (1907-2007) Ca II K spectroheliograms from Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KSO) are calibrated, processed and analysed in the present study to follow the evolution of bright on disc structures called plages, the possible representatives of magnetic activity on the Sun. This has been the longest dataset studied in Ca II K till date covering about 9.5 cycles of 11 year periods. Plages were segmented with area $\\geq 1\\:\\textrm {arcmin}^2$ using global thresholds for individual full disc images and subsequent application of morphological closing operation. Plage index was calculated and seen to have close positive correlation with fractional disc area covered by plages. The newly generated plage area cycle (from KSO) was compared with the same from Mount Wilson observatory (Correlation~$95.6\\%$) for the overlapping years i.e. 1915-2000. Study illustrated time-latitude distribution of plage centroids rendering butterfly diagram (as observed for sunspots). The 3D visualisation of the diagram showed o...

  9. On the migration of Ca II H bright points in the internetwork

    Jafarzadeh, S; Solanki, S K; Pietarila, A; Feller, A; Lagg, A; Gandorfer, A


    The migration of magnetic bright point-like features (MBP) in the lower solar atmosphere reflects the dispersal of magnetic flux as well as the horizontal flows of the atmospheric layer they are embedded in. We analyse trajectories of the proper motion of intrinsically magnetic, isolated internetwork Ca II H MBPs (mean lifetime 461 +- 9 sec) to obtain their diffusivity behaviour. We use seeing-free high spatial and temporal resolution image sequences of quiet-Sun, disc-centre observations obtained in the Ca II H 3968 {\\AA} passband of the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Small MBPs in the internetwork are automatically tracked. The trajectory of each MBP is then calculated and described by a diffusion index ({\\gamma}) and a diffusion coefficient (D). We further explore the distribution of the diffusion indices with the help of a Monte Carlo simulation. We find {\\gamma} = 1.69 +- 0.08 and D = 257 +- 32 km^2/s averaged over all MBPs. Trajectories of most MBPs are...

  10. Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late K and M Dwarfs

    Rauscher, E; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rauscher, Emily


    We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromospheric emission lines in 147 main sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (0.30-0.55 solar masses) using multiple high resolution spectra obtained during six years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck 1 telescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and line luminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasing stellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the H and K lines with a double Gaussian model to represent both the chromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of the sample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshifted by ~0.1 km/s relative to the emission, but the nature of this velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the H and K lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of the Wilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths and FWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a given value of M_v, stars exhibi...

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis and intercalation of Ca(II)Fe(III)-layered double hydroxides

    Ferencz, Zs.; Szabados, M.; Varga, G.; Csendes, Z. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 8, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Materials and Solution Structure Research Group, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, Aradi Vértanúk tere 1, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Kukovecz, Á. [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); MTA-SZTE “Lendület” Porous Nanocomposites Research Group, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Kónya, Z. [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); MTA-SZTE Reaction Kinetics and Surface Chemistry Research Group, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Carlson, S. [MAX IV Laboratory, Ole Römers väg 1, Lund SE-223 63 (Sweden); Sipos, P. [Materials and Solution Structure Research Group, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, Aradi Vértanúk tere 1, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 7, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); and others


    A mechanochemical method (grinding the components without added water – dry grinding, followed by further grinding in the presence of minute amount of water or NaOH solution – wet grinding) was used in this work for the preparation and intercalation of CaFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Both the pristine LDHs and the amino acid anion (cystinate and tyrosinate) intercalated varieties were prepared by the two-step grinding procedure in a mixer mill. By systematically changing the conditions of the preparation method, a set of parameters could be determined, which led to the formation of close to phase-pure LDH. The optimisation procedure was also applied for the intercalation processes of the amino acid anions. The resulting materials were structurally characterised by a range of methods (X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray absorption and infra-red spectroscopies). It was proven that this simple mechanochemical procedure was able to produce complex organic–inorganic nanocomposites: LDHs intercalated with amino acid anions. - Graphical abstract: Amino acid anion-Ca(II)Fe(III)-LDHs were successfully prepared by a two-step milling procedure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of pristine and amino acid intercalated CaFe-LDHs by two-step milling. • Identifying the optimum synthesis and intercalation parameters. • Characterisation of the samples with a range of instrumental methods.

  12. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART CaII triplet survey

    Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Irwin, M; Parisi, P; Hill, V; Jablonka, P


    We use VLT/FLAMES intermediate resolution (R~6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared CaII triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). Our final sample consists of 174 probable members of Sextans with accurate line-of-sight velocities (+- 2 km/s) and CaT [Fe/H] measurements (+- 0.2 dex). We use the MgI line at 8806.8 \\AA\\, as an empirical discriminator for distinguishing between probable members of the dSph (giant stars) and probable Galactic contaminants (dwarf stars). Sextans shows a similar chemo-dynamical behaviour to other Milky Way dSphs, with its central regions being more metal rich than the outer parts and with the more metal-rich stars displaying colder kinematics than the more metal-poor stars. Hints of a velocity gradient are found along the projected major axis and along an axis at P.A.=191 deg, however a larger and more spatially extended sample may be necessary to p...

  13. Calcium EXAFS establishes the Mn-Ca cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II

    Cinco, Roehl M.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.; Robblee, John H.; Yano, Junko; Pizarro, Shelly A.; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Sauer, Kenneth; Yachandra, Vittal K.


    The proximity of Ca to the Mn cluster of the photosynthetic water-oxidation complex is demonstrated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have collected EXAFS data at the Ca K-edge using active PS II membrane samples that contain approximately 2 Ca per 4 Mn. These samples are much less perturbed than previously investigated Sr-substituted samples, which were prepared subsequent to Ca depletion. The new Ca EXAFS clearly shows backscattering from Mn at 3.4 angstroms, a distance that agrees with that surmised from previously recorded Mn EXAFS. This result is also consistent with earlier related experiments at the Sr K-edge, using samples that contained functional Sr, that show Mn is {approx}; 3.5 angstroms distant from Sr. The totality of the evidence clearly advances the notion that the catalytic center of oxygen evolution is a Mn-Ca heteronuclear cluster.

  14. A Robotic Wide-Angle H-Alpha Survey of the Southern Sky

    Gaustad, J E; Rosing, W; Van Buren, D T


    We have completed a robotic wide-angle imaging survey of the southern sky (declination less than +15 degrees) at 656.3 nm wavelength, the H-alpha emission line of hydrogen. Each image of the resulting Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas (SHASSA) covers an area of the sky 13 degrees square at an angular resolution of approximately 0.8 arcminute, and reaches a sensitivity level of 2 rayleigh (1.2 x 10^-17 erg cm^-2 s^-1 arcsec^-2) per pixel, corresponding to an emission measure of 4 cm^-6 pc, and to a brightness temperature for microwave free-free emission of 12 microkelvins at 30 GHz. Smoothing over several pixels allows features as faint as 0.5 rayleigh to be detected.

  15. Variations of flaring kernel sizes in various parts of the H-alpha line profile

    Radziszewski, K


    We analyze the temporal variations of the sizes and emission intensities of thirtyone flaring kernels in various parts of the H{\\alpha} line profile. We have found that the areas of all kernels decrease systematically when observed in consecutive wavelengths toward the wings of the H{\\alpha} line, but their areas and emission intensity vary in time. Our results are in agreement with the commonly accepted model of the glass-shaped lower parts of the magnetic flaring loops channelling high energy variable particle beams toward the chromospheric plasma. High time resolution spectral-imaging data used in our work were collected using the Large Coronagraph and Horizontal Telescope equipped with the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass Spectrograph and the Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (MSDP-SECIS) at the Bia{\\l}k\\'ow Observatory of the University of Wroc{\\l}aw, Poland.

  16. H-alpha and hard X-ray development in two-ribbon flares

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Hudson, H. S.; Kane, S. R.; Svestka, Z.


    Morphological features of two-ribbon flares have been studied, using simultaneous ISEE-3 hard X-ray records and high-resolution Big Bear H-alpha movies for more than 20 events. Long-lasting and complex hard X-ray bursts are almost invariably found associated with flares of the two-ribbon type. At least three events are found, namely March 31, 1979, April 10, 1980, and July 1, 1980, where the occurrence of individual spikes in hard X-ray radiation coincides with suddenly enhanced H-alpha emission covering the sunspot penumbra. There definitely exist important (greater than or equal to 1 B) two-ribbon flares without significant hard X-ray emission.

  17. Cloud modeling of a quiet solar region in H-alpha

    Bostanci, Z F


    We present chromospheric cloud modeling on the basis of H-alpha profile-sampling images taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). We choose the required reference background profile by using theoretical NLTE profile synthesis. The resulting cloud parameters are converted into estimates of physical parameters (temperature and various densities). Their mean values compare well with the VAL-C model.

  18. Regulation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in resting sensory neurons.

    Kostic, Sandra; Pan, Bin; Guo, Yuan; Yu, Hongwei; Sapunar, Damir; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Hudmon, Andy; Wu, Hsiang-En; Hogan, Quinn H


    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is recognized as a key element in encoding depolarization activity of excitable cells into facilitated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) function. Less is known about the participation of CaMKII in regulating VGCCs in resting cells. We examined constitutive CaMKII control of Ca(2+) currents in peripheral sensory neurons acutely isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of adult rats. The small molecule CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1.0μM) reduced depolarization-induced ICa by 16-30% in excess of the effects produced by the inactive homolog KN-92. The specificity of CaMKII inhibition on VGCC function was shown by the efficacy of the selective CaMKII blocking peptide autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide in a membrane-permeable myristoylated form, which also reduced VGCC current in resting neurons. Loss of VGCC currents is primarily due to reduced N-type current, as application of mAIP selectively reduced N-type current by approximately 30%, and prior N-type current inhibition eliminated the effect of mAIP on VGCCs, while prior block of L-type channels did not reduce the effect of mAIP on total ICa. T-type currents were not affected by mAIP in resting DRG neurons. Transduction of sensory neurons in vivo by DRG injection of an adeno-associated virus expressing AIP also resulted in a loss of N-type currents. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular adaptation whereby sensory neurons retain CaMKII support of VGCCs despite remaining quiescent.

  19. Relationship between breakthrough curve and adsorption isotherm of Ca(II) imprinted chitosan microspheres for metal adsorption

    Yangcheng Lu; Jing He; Longwen Wu; Guangsheng Luo


    In this work, an equilibrium-dispersion model was successfully established to describe the breakthrough performance of Ca(II) imprinted chitosan (Ca(II)-CS) microspheres packed column for metal adsorption, and the assumptions of Langmuir isotherms and axial dispersion controlled mass transfer process were confirmed. The axial dispersion coefficient in Ca(II)-CS microspheres packed column was found to be almost proportional to the linear velocity and fit for prediction through single breakthrough test. Sensitivity analysis for breakthrough curve indicated the axial dispersion coefficient as well as Langmuir coefficient was sensitive variable for deep removal requirement. The retrieval of the adsorption isotherms of Ca(II)-CS microspheres from breakthrough curve was fulfilled by model ing calibration. A strategy based on the correlation between adsorption isotherms and breakthrough performance was further proposed to simplify the column adsorption design using absorbents with smal/uniform size and fast adsorption kinetics like Ca(II)-CS microspheres to cut down the gap between lab and industry.

  20. The H alpha Galaxy Survey VII. The spatial distribution of star formation within disks and bulges

    James, P A; Knapen, J H


    We analyse the current build-up of stellar mass within the disks and bulges of nearby galaxies through a comparison of the spatial distributions of forming and old stellar populations. H alpha and R-band imaging are used to determine the distributions of young and old stellar populations in 313 S0a - Im field galaxies out to 40 Mpc. Concentration indices and mean normalised light profiles are calculated as a function of galaxy type and bar classification. The mean profiles and concentration indices show a strong and smooth dependence on galaxy type. Apart from a central deficit due to bulge/bar light in some galaxy types, mean H alpha and R-band profiles are very similar. Mean profiles within a given type are remarkably constant even given wide ranges in galaxy luminosity and size. SBc, SBbc and particularly SBb galaxies have profiles that are markedly different from those of unbarred galaxies. H alpha emission from SBb galaxies is studied in detail; virtually all show resolved central components and concentr...

  1. Spatial Correlation Between Dust and H$\\alpha$ Emission in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Jimmy,; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola; Salmon, Brett; Forrest, Ben


    Using a sample of dwarf irregular galaxies selected from the ALFALFA blind HI-survey and observed using the VIMOS IFU, we investigate the relationship between H$\\alpha$ emission and Balmer optical depth ($\\tau_{\\text{b}}$). We find a positive correlation between H$\\alpha$ luminosity surface density and Balmer optical depth in 8 of 11 at $\\geq$ 0.8$\\sigma$ significance (6 of 11 at $\\geq$ 1.0$\\sigma$) galaxies. Our spaxels have physical scales ranging from 30 to 80 pc, demonstrating that the correlation between these two variables continues to hold down to spatial scales as low as 30 pc. Using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to test for correlation between $\\Sigma_{\\text{H}\\alpha}$ and $\\tau_{\\text{b}}$ in all the galaxies combined, we find $\\rho = 0.39$, indicating a positive correlation at 4$\\sigma$ significance. Our low stellar-mass galaxy results are in agreement with observations of emission line regions in larger spiral galaxies, indicating that this relationship is independent of the size of ...

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Catalogue of H$\\alpha$ emission stars

    Traven, Gregor; Van Eck, Sophie; Klutsch, Alexis; Bonito, Rosaria; Lanzafame, Alessandro C; Alfaro, Emilio J; Bayo, Amelia; Bragaglia, Angela; Costado, María Teresa; Damiani, Francesco; Flaccomio, Ettore; Frasca, Antonio; Hourihane, Anna; Jimenez-Esteban, Fran; Lardo, Carmela; Morbidelli, Lorenzo; Pancino, Elena; Prisinzano, Loredana; Sacco, Germano G; Worley, Clare C


    We discuss the properties of H$\\alpha$ emission stars across the sample of 22035 spectra from the Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release, observed with the GIRAFFE instrument and largely belonging to stars in young open clusters. Automated fits using two independent Gaussian profiles and a third component that accounts for the nebular emission allow us to discern distinct morphological types of H$\\alpha$ line profiles with the introduction of a simplified classification scheme. All in all we find 3765 stars with intrinsic emission and sort their spectra into eight distinct morphological categories: single--component emission, emission blend, sharp emission peaks, double emission, P-Cygni, inverted P-Cygni, self--absorption, and emission in absorption. We have more than one observation for 1430 stars in our sample, thus allowing a quantitative discussion of the degree of variability of H$\\alpha$ emission profiles, which is expected for young, active objects. We present a catalogue of stars with properties of th...

  3. H$\\alpha$ Imaging spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated shocks in Tycho's supernova remnant

    Knežević, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Font, Joan; Raymond, John C; Ghavamian, Parviz; Beckman, John


    We present Fabry-P\\'erot interferometric observations of the narrow H$\\alpha$ component in the shock front of the historical supernova remnant Tycho (SN 1572). Using GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy H$\\alpha$ Fabry-P\\'erot Spectrometer) on the William Herschel Telescope, we observed a great portion of the shock front in the northeastern (NE) region of the remnant. The angular resolution of $\\sim$1$^{\\prime\\prime}$ and spectral resolving power of R$\\sim$21 000 together with the large field-of-view (3.4$^{\\prime}$ $\\times$ 3.4$^{\\prime}$) of the instrument allow us to measure the narrow H$\\alpha$-line width in 73 bins across individual parts of the shock simultaneously and thereby study the indicators of several shock precursors in a large variety of shock front conditions. Compared to previous studies, the detailed spatial resolution of the filament also allows us to mitigate possible artificial broadening of the line from unresolved differential motion and projection. Covering one quarter of the remnant's shell, we conf...

  4. Proton Matrix ENDOR Studies on Ca2+-depleted and Sr2+-substituted Manganese Cluster in Photosystem II*

    Nagashima, Hiroki; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Shen, Jian-Ren; Mino, Hiroyuki


    Proton matrix ENDOR spectra were measured for Ca2+-depleted and Sr2+-substituted photosystem II (PSII) membrane samples from spinach and core complexes from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the S2 state. The ENDOR spectra obtained were similar for untreated PSII from T. vulcanus and spinach, as well as for Ca2+-containing and Sr2+-substituted PSII, indicating that the proton arrangements around the manganese cluster in cyanobacterial and higher plant PSII and Ca2+-containing and Sr2+-substituted PSII are similar in the S2 state, in agreement with the similarity of the crystal structure of both Ca2+-containing and Sr2+-substituted PSII in the S1 state. Nevertheless, slightly different hyperfine separations were found between Ca2+-containing and Sr2+-substituted PSII because of modifications of the water protons ligating to the Sr2+ ion. Importantly, Ca2+ depletion caused the loss of ENDOR signals with a 1.36-MHz separation because of the loss of the water proton W4 connecting Ca2+ and YZ directly. With respect to the crystal structure and the functions of Ca2+ in oxygen evolution, it was concluded that the roles of Ca2+ and Sr2+ involve the maintenance of the hydrogen bond network near the Ca2+ site and electron transfer pathway to the manganese cluster. PMID:26438823

  5. The Hanle and Zeeman polarization signals of the solar Ca II 8542 \\AA\\ line

    Štěpán, Jiří


    We highlight the main results of a three-dimensional (3D) multilevel radiative transfer investigation about the solar disk-center polarization of the Ca {\\sc ii} 8542 \\AA\\ line. First, we investigate the linear polarization due to the atomic level polarization produced by the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation in a 3D model of the solar atmosphere, taking into account the symmetry breaking effects caused by its thermal, dynamic and magnetic structure. Second, we study the contribution of the Zeeman effect to the linear and circular polarization. Finally, we show examples of the Stokes profiles produced by the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. We find that the Zeeman effect tends to dominate the linear polarization signals only in the localized patches of opposite magnetic polarity where the magnetic field is relatively strong and slightly inclined, while outside such very localized patches the linear polarization is often dominated by the contribution ...

  6. Chromospheric diagnosis with Ca II lines: forward modeling in forward scattering (I)

    Carlin, E S


    This paper shows the first synthetic tomography of the quiet solar chromosphere formed by spatial maps of scattering polarization. It has been calculated for the CaII 8498, 8542 and 3934 A lines by solving the NLTE (non-local thermodynamical equilibrium) RT (radiative transfer) problem of the second kind in a 3D atmosphere model obtained from realistic MHD (magneto-hydrodynamical) simulations. Maps of circular polarization were calculated neglecting atomic polarization. Our investigation focuses on the linear polarization signals induced by kinematics, radiation field anisotropy and Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry. Thus, instead of considering slit profiles at the limb as normally done in the study of the second solar spectrum, we synthetize and analyze spatial maps of polarization at disk center. It allows us to understand the spatial signatures of dynamics and magnetic field in the linear polarization for discriminating them observationally. Our results suggest new ideas for chromospheric diagno...

  7. Herschel reveals the obscured star formation in HiZELS H\\alpha\\ emitters at z=1.47

    Ibar, E; Best, P N; Ivison, R J; Smail, I; Arumugam, V; Berta, S; Béthermin, M; Bock, J; Cava, A; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Floc'h, E Le; Lutz, D; Magdis, G; Magnelli, B; Ikarashi, S; Kohno, K; Marsden, G; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Schulz, B; Seymour, N; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Zemcov, M


    We describe the far-infrared (FIR; rest-frame 8--1000\\mu m) properties of a sample of 443 H\\alpha-selected star-forming galaxies in the COSMOS and UDS fields detected by the HiZELS imaging survey. Sources are identified using narrow-band filters in combination with broad-band photometry to uniformly select H\\alpha\\ (and [OII] if available) emitters in a narrow redshift slice at z = 1.47+/-0.02. We use a stacking approach in Spitzer, Herschel (from PEP and HerMES surveys) and AzTEC images to describe their typical FIR properties. We find that HiZELS galaxies with observed H\\alpha\\ luminosities of ~ 10^{8.1-9.1} Lo have bolometric FIR luminosities of typical LIRGs, L_FIR ~ 10^{11.48+/-0.05} Lo. Combining the H\\alpha\\ and FIR luminosities, we derive median SFR = 32+/-5 Mo/yr and H\\alpha\\ extinctions of A(H\\alpha) = 1.0+/-0.2 mag. Perhaps surprisingly, little difference is seen in typical HiZELS extinction levels compared to local star-forming galaxies. We confirm previous empirical stellar mass (M*) to A(H\\alpha...

  8. Simulations of the Mg II k and Ca II 8542 lines from an Alfv\\'en Wave-heated flare chromosphere

    Kerr, Graham S; Russell, Alexander J B; Allred, Joel C


    We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfv\\'en wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg II k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca II 8542A profiles which are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg II k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with IRIS observations. The predicted differences between the Ca II 8542A in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating in flares.

  9. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs


    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3(-/-) but not in mGluR2(-/-) mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity.




    Full Text Available A new Ca(II coordination polymer has been obtained by reaction of Ca(ClO42·H2O with 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by IR, 1HNMR, thermal analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. X-ray analysis reveals that each Ca(II center is seven-coordination with a N2O5 distorted pentagonal bipyramidal coordination environment. The Ca(II ions are linked through the O atoms of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligands to form 1D chain structure. And then a 3D network structure is constructed by hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. The antitumor activity of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligand and its Ca(II coordination polymer against human intestinal adenocarcinoma HCT-8 cells, lung adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line have been investigated.

  11. Shaping of action potentials by type I and type II large-conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels.

    Jaffe, D B; Wang, B; Brenner, R


    The BK channel is a Ca(2+) and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca(2+) was high (>20 μM) and the other where BK-activating Ca(2+) was low (∼0.4-1.2 μM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca(2+) dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron.

  12. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Arbutina, B.


    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of the competitive binding of Eu(III), Ca(II), and Cu(II) to a sedimentary originated humic acid

    Marang, L.; Reiller, P.E. [CEA Saclay, Nucl Energy Div, DPC SECR, Lab Speciat Radionucleides and Mol, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marang, L.; Benedetti, M.F. [Univ Paris 07, Lab Geochim Eaux, IPGP UMR CNRS 7154, F-75205 Paris 13 (France); Eidner, S.; Kumke, M.U. [Univ Potsdam, Inst Chem, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)


    The competition between REE, alkaline earth and d-transition metals for organic matter binding sites is still an open field of research; particularly, the mechanisms governing these phenomena need to be characterized in more detail. In this study, we examine spectroscopically the mechanisms of competitive binding of Eu(III)/Cu(II) and Eu(III)/Ca(II) pair to Gorleben humic acid (HA), as previously proposed in the framework of the NICA-Donnan model. The evolution of time-resolved laser induced luminescence spectra of humic-complexed Eu(Ill) showed two strikingly different environments for a comparable bound proportion for Cu(II) and Ca(II). Cu(II) seems to compete more effectively with Eu(III) inducing its release into the Donnan phase, and into the bulk solution as free Eu{sup 3+}. This is evidenced both by the shapes of the spectra and by the decrease in the luminescence decay times. In contrast with that, Ca(II) induces a modification of the HA structure, which enhances the luminescence of humic-bound Eu(III), and causes a minor modification of the chemical environment of the complexed rare earth ion. (authors)

  14. Desorption of Hg(II) and Sb(V) on extracellular polymeric substances: effects of pH, EDTA, Ca(II) and temperature shocks.

    Zhang, Daoyong; Lee, Duu-Jong; Pan, Xiangliang


    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) existed ubiquitously in biological systems affect the mobility and availability of heavy metals in the environments. The adsorption-desorption behaviors of Hg(II) and Sb(V) on EPS were investigated. The sorption rates follow Sb(V) > Hg(II), and the desorption rates follow reverse order. Applications of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Ca(II) and pH shocks affect desorption rates and desorbed quantities of Hg(II) from EPS-Hg complex. Temperature shock minimally affects the desorption rate of Hg(II). Conversely, the EPS-Sb complex is stable subjected to EDTA, Ca(II), temperature or pH shocks. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and fast-Fourier (FT-IR) analysis showed that Hg(II) and Sb(V) principally interacted with polysaccharides and protein-like compounds in the EPS, respectively. The EPS-Hg complex presents a time bomb that may release high levels of Hg(II) in short time period under environmental shocks.

  15. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the Co(II) and Ni(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions by Ca-Mg phosphates.

    Ivanets, A I; Srivastava, V; Kitikova, N V; Shashkova, I L; Sillanpää, M


    The aim of this work was to study the sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of Co(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by sorbents on the basis of hydrogen (PD-1) and tertiary (PD-2) Ca-Mg phosphates depending on the solution temperature and sorbents chemical composition. Kinetic studies of adsorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions onto samples of phosphate sorbents were performed in batch experiment at the temperatures 288, 303, 318 and 333 K. The sorbent dose was fixed at 10 g L(-1), initial pH value 2.6, and contact time varied from 5 to 600 min. The kinetics of Co(II) and Ni(II) adsorption were analyzed by using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) for the sorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) were determined using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. The calculated kinetic parameters and corresponding correlation coefficients revealed that Co(II) and Ni(II) uptake process followed the pseudo-second order rate expression. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the spontaneous and endothermic nature of removal process which indicate that sorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions onto both phosphate sorbents is favoured at higher temperatures and has the chemisorptive mechanism. The data thus obtained would be useful for practical application of the low cost and highly effective Ca-Mg phosphate sorbents.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.


    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and 1H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M2+-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram - ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram + ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress.

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; Hamza, Reham Z; Refat, Moamen S


    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and (1)H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M(2+)-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]⋅nH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram+ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  18. Standard Stars for the BYU H-alpha Photometric System (Abstract)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.


    (Abstract only) We present primary standard stars for the BYU H-alpha photometric system. This system is similar to the H-beta photometric system that is often used with the intermediate band uvby system. Both systems use the difference between magnitudes measured in a wide (15-20-nm) and narrow (3-nm) bandpass centered on one of the strong Balmer lines of hydrogen to establish a color index. Line indices formed in this manner are independent of atmospheric extinction and interstellar reddening. These indices provide intrinsic measures of effective temperature for stars with spectral types between B and G. The present primary standard stars for the BYU system as established using spectroscopic observations that cover the region between the H-alpha and H-beta lines. The indices were formed using synthetic photometry reductions to convolve ideal filter profiles with the observed spectra. The number of observations per star is generally in excess of 25. Some stars have been observed more than 100 times over a period of 7 years. The typical error per observation for these stars is on the order of 1-3 mmag. In addition to the standard field stars, we present H-alpha and H-beta observations of individual stars that are members of selected open clusters. These include the Hyades, Pleiades, Coma, and NGC 752 clusters. Additional stars that exhibit varying degrees of hydrogen emission are easily distinguished in a plot of the alpha-beta plane. We have found that candidates for emission line objects, high mass x-ray binaries, and young stellar objects are readily identified in our alpha-beta plots. We acknowledge continued support from the BYU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as support from NSF Grant AST #0618209. We also thank the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory for continued allocation of robotic observing time for spectroscopy on the 1.2-m telescope.

  19. H-alpha Confirmation, Astrometry and Photometry of Two Novae in M31

    Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Gonzalez, A.


    We obtained five 120-s narrow-band H-alpha and three 90-s R-band CCD frames of the central region of M31 on 2013 June 27.189 and 27.193 UT, respectively, with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope + WFC at La Palma under ~2.0" seeing. The single frames were co-added and the co-added images were used for photometry and astrometry of the two recently discovered and spectroscopically unconfirmed M31 nova candidates, namely the PNV J00424894+4115163 (ATel #5133) and PNV J00425987+4120379 (ATel #5157).

  20. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.


    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  1. Orientation of the linear polarization plane of H-alpha emission in prominences

    Suyunova, E Z; Osokin, A R


    2D distributions of deviations of the polarization plane from the direction tangential to the solar limb (angle \\chi) and the sign of \\chi are presented for H{\\alpha} prominences of March 29, 2006. The obtained values of \\chi are in agreement with non-eclipse coronagraphic measurements and indicate the existence of longitudinal magnetic fields. The 2D distributions of the sign of \\chi show the existence of both {\\guillemotleft}+{\\guillemotright} and {\\guillemotleft}-{\\guillemotright} polarities for each prominence. An interpretation in the frame of the existence of oppositely directed magnetic fields is noted.

  2. An impulsive solar burst observed in H-alpha, microwaves, and hard X-rays

    Gary, D. E.; Tang, F.


    H-alpha, microwave, and hard X-ray observations of an unusually short duration impulsive spike burst are presented. The observations are analyzed, and it is found that the single spike is in fact composed of two separate acceleration episodes. The differences found in the time profiles for the two components stress the role of the decay rate and lead to a simple explanation for the often observed delay of the microwave peak. The approximate numbers of electrons responsible for the two types of emission are derived and compared.

  3. An ultra fast detection method reveals strain-induced Ca(2+) entry via TRPV2 in alveolar type II cells.

    Fois, Giorgio; Wittekindt, Oliver; Zheng, Xing; Felder, Erika Tatiana; Miklavc, Pika; Frick, Manfred; Dietl, Paul; Felder, Edward


    A commonly used technique to investigate strain-induced responses of adherent cells is culturing them on an elastic membrane and globally stretching the membrane. However, it is virtually impossible to acquire microscopic images immediately after the stretch with this method. Using a newly developed technique, we recorded the strain-induced increase of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in rat primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells at an acquisition rate of 30ms and without any temporal delay. We can show that the onset of the mechanically induced rise in [Ca(2+)](c) was very fast (<30 ms), and Ca(2+) entry was immediately abrogated when the stimulus was withdrawn. This points at a direct mechanical activation of an ion channel. RT-PCR revealed high expression of TRPV2 in ATII cells, and silencing TRPV2, as well as blocking TRPV channels with ruthenium red, significantly reduced the strain-induced Ca(2+) response. Moreover, the usually homogenous pattern of the strain-induced [Ca(2+)](c) increase was converted into a point-like response after both treatments. Also interfering with actin/myosin and integrin binding inhibited the strain-induced increase of [Ca(2)](c). We conclude that TRPV2 participates in strain-induced Ca(2+) entry in ATII cells and suggest a direct mechanical activation of the channel that depends on FAs and actin/myosin. Furthermore, our results underline the importance of cell strain systems that allow high temporal resolution.

  4. A DFT-Based QSARs Study of Acetazolamide/Sulfanilamide Derivatives with Carbonic Anhydrase (CA-II Isozyme Inhibitory Activity

    Oral Oltulu


    Full Text Available This study presents Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR studyon a pool of 18 bio-active sulfonamide compounds which includes five acetazolamidederivatives, eight sulfanilamide derivatives and five clinically used sulfonamides moleculesas drugs namely acetazolamide, methazolamide, dichlorophenamide, ethoxolamide anddorzolamide. For all the compounds, initial geometry optimizations were carried out with amolecular mechanics (MM method using the MM force fields. The lowest energyconformations of the compounds obtained by the MM method were further optimized by theDensity Functional Theory (DFT method by employing Becke’s three-parameter hybridfunctional (B3LYP and 6-31G (d basis set. Molecular descriptors, dipole moment,electronegativity, total energy at 0 K, entropy at 298 K, HOMO and LUMO energiesobtained from DFT calculations provide valuable information and have a significant role inthe assessment of carbonic anhydrase (CA-II inhibitory activity of the compounds. By usingthe multiple linear regression technique several QSAR models have been drown up with thehelp these calculated descriptors and carbonic anhydrase (CA-II inhibitory data of themolecules. Among the obtained QSAR models presented in the study, statistically the mostsignificant one is a five parameters linear equation with the squared correlation coefficient R2 values of ca. 0.94 and the squared cross-validated correlation coefficient R2CV values of ca. 0.85. The results were discussed in the light of the main factors that influence theinhibitory activity of the carbonic anhydrase (CA-II isozyme.

  5. The NIR Ca II triplet at low metallicity : Searching for extremely low-metallicity stars in classical dwarf galaxies

    Starkenburg, E.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J.I.; Irwin, M.; Helmi, A.; Battaglia, G.; Jablonka, P.; Tafelmeyer, M.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K.; de Boer, T.


    The NIR Ca II triplet absorption lines have proven to be an important tool for quantitative spectroscopy of individual red giant branch stars in the Local Group, providing a better understanding of metallicities of stars in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies and thereby an opportunity to constrain the

  6. Electronic Structure and Oxidation State Changes in the Mn (4) Ca Cluster of Photosystem II

    Yano, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Messinger, J.; Bergmann, U.; Glatzel, P.; Yachandra, V.K.; /SLAC


    Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (S{sub i}-states, i = 0-4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn{sub 4}(III{sub 2},IV{sub 2}) and Mn{sub 4}(III,IV{sub 3}) for S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states, while it is still controversial for the S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn{sub 4}Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra (metal spin state) simultaneously. We have collected data from PSII samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mn complexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p{sub 3/2} RIXS spectra between the S-states were compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S{sub 0} to S{sub 1}, and S{sub 1} to S{sub 2} transitions is twice as large as that during the S{sub 2} to S{sub 3} transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms.

  7. Photometric and H$\\alpha$ observations of LSI+61303 detection of a $\\sim$26 day V and JHK band modulation

    Paredes, J M; Martí, J; Fabregat, J; Coe, M J; Everall, C; Figueras, F; Jordi, C; Norton, A J; Prince, T A; Reglero, V; Roche, P; Torra, J; Unger, S J; Zamanov, R K


    We present new optical and infrared photometric observations and high resolution H$\\alpha$ spectra of the periodic radio star \\lsi. The optical photometric data set covers the time interval 1985-1993 and amounts to about a hundred nights. A period of $\\sim$26 days is found in the V band. The infrared data also present evidence for a similar periodicity, but with higher amplitude of variation (0\\rmag 2). The spectroscopic observations include 16 intermediate and high dispersion spectra of \\lsi\\ collected between January 1989 and February 1993. The H$\\alpha$ emission line profile and its variations are analyzed. Several emission line parameters -- among them the H$\\alpha$ EW and the width of the H$\\alpha$ red hump -- change strongly at or close to radio maximum, and may exhibit periodic variability. We also observe a significant change in the peak separation. The H$\\alpha$ profile of \\lsi\\ does not seem peculiar for a Be star. However, several of the observed variations of the H$\\alpha$ profile can probably be ...

  8. Calibrating [OII] star-formation rates at z>1 from dual H\\alpha-[OII] imaging from HiZELS

    Hayashi, Masao; Best, Philip N; Smail, Ian; Kodama, Tadayuki


    We investigate the relationship between H\\alpha\\ and [OII](\\lambda 3727) emission in faint star-forming galaxies at z=1.47 with dust uncorrected star formation rates (SFRs) down to 1.4 Msun/yr, using data in two narrow-bands from WFCAM/UKIRT and Suprime-Cam/Subaru. A stacking analysis allows us to investigate H\\alpha\\ emission flux from bright [OII] emitters as well as faint ones for which H\\alpha\\ is not individually detected, and to compare them with a large sample of local galaxies. We find that there is a clear, positive correlation between the average H\\alpha\\ and [OII] luminosities for [OII] emitters at z=1.47, with its slope being consistent with the local relation. [OII] emitters at z=1.47 have lower mean observed ratios of H\\alpha/[OII] suggesting a small but systematic offset (at 2.8\\sigma\\ significance) towards lower values of dust attenuation, A(H\\alpha)~0.35, than local galaxies. This confirms that [OII] selection tends to pick up galaxies which are significantly less dusty on average than H\\alph...

  9. Ca(II) Binding Regulates and Dominates the Reactivity of a Transition-Metal-Ion-Dependent Diesterase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Pedroso, Marcelo M; Larrabee, James A; Ely, Fernanda; Gwee, Shuhui E; Mitić, Nataša; Ollis, David L; Gahan, Lawrence R; Schenk, Gerhard


    The diesterase Rv0805 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dinuclear metallohydrolase that plays an important role in signal transduction by controlling the intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides. As Rv0805 is essential for mycobacterial growth it is a promising new target for the development of chemotherapeutics to treat tuberculosis. The in vivo metal-ion composition of Rv0805 is subject to debate. Here, we demonstrate that the active site accommodates two divalent transition metal ions with binding affinities ranging from approximately 50 nm for Mn(II) to about 600 nm for Zn(II) . In contrast, the enzyme GpdQ from Enterobacter aerogenes, despite having a coordination sphere identical to that of Rv0805, binds only one metal ion in the absence of substrate, thus demonstrating the significance of the outer sphere to modulate metal-ion binding and enzymatic reactivity. Ca(II) also binds tightly to Rv0805 (Kd ≈40 nm), but kinetic, calorimetric, and spectroscopic data indicate that two Ca(II) ions bind at a site different from the dinuclear transition-metal-ion binding site. Ca(II) acts as an activator of the enzymatic activity but is able to promote the hydrolysis of substrates even in the absence of transition-metal ions, thus providing an effective strategy for the regulation of the enzymatic activity.

  10. A mechanism for tunable autoinhibition in the structure of a human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II holoenzyme

    Chao, Luke H.; Stratton, Margaret M.; Lee, Il-Hyung; Rosenberg, Oren S.; Levitz, Joshua; Mandell, Daniel J.; Kortemme, Tanja; Groves, Jay T.; Schulman, Howard; Kuriyan, John


    Summary Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) forms a highly conserved dodecameric assembly that is sensitive to the frequency of calcium pulse trains. Neither the structure of the dodecameric assembly nor how it regulates CaMKII are known. We present the crystal structure of an autoinhibited full-length human CaMKII holoenzyme, revealing an unexpected compact arrangement of kinase domains docked against a central hub, with the calmodulin binding sites completely inaccessible. We show that this compact docking is important for the autoinhibition of the kinase domains and for setting the calcium response of the holoenzyme. Comparison of CaMKII isoforms, which differ in the length of the linker between the kinase domain and the hub, demonstrates that these interactions can be strengthened or weakened by changes in linker length. This equilibrium between autoinhibited states provides a simple mechanism for tuning the calcium response without changes in either the hub or the kinase domains. PMID:21884935

  11. Spectropolarimetry of the H-alpha line in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Harrington, D M


    Using the HiVIS spectropolarimeter built for the Haleakala 3.7m AEOS telescope, we have obtained a large number of high precision spectropolarimetrc observations (284) of Herbig AeBe stars collected over 53 nights totaling more than 300 hours of observing. Our sample of five HAeBe stars: AB Aurigae, MWC480, MWC120, MWC158 and HD58647, all show systematic variations in the linear polarization amplitude and direction as a function of time and wavelength near the H-alpha line. In all our stars, the H-alpha line profiles show evidence of an intervening disk or outflowing wind, evidenced by strong emission with an absorptive component. The linear polarization varies by 0.2% to 1.5% with the change typically centered in the absorptive part of the line profile. These observations are inconsistent with a simple disk-scattering model or a depolarization model which produce polarization changes centered on the emmissive core. We speculate that polarized absorption via optical pumping of the intervening gas may be the c...

  12. A Survey for H-alpha Emission from Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs

    Pineda, J Sebastian; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cotter, Garret; Kao, Melodie M; Mooley, Kunal


    Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300 - 9700 Angstrom) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for H-alpha emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate resolution (R~2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an H-alpha detection rate of 9.2 (+3.5/-2.1) % for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4 - T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for ...

  13. Boxy H$\\alpha$ Emission Profiles in Star-Forming Galaxies

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Tremonti, Christy A; Shi, Yong; Jin, Yi-Fei


    We assemble a sample of disk star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, studying the structure of H$\\alpha$ emission lines, finding a large fraction of this sample contains boxy H$\\alpha$ line profiles. This fraction depends on galaxy physical and geometric parameters in the following way: (1) it increases monotonically with star formation rate per unit area ($\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$), and stellar mass ($M_*$), with the trend being much stronger with $M_*$, from $\\sim$0% at $M_*=10^{10}M_{\\odot}$ to about 50% at $M_*=10^{11}M_\\odot$; (2) the fraction is much smaller in face-on systems than in edge-on systems. It increases with galaxy inclination ($i$) while $i < 60\\,^{\\circ}$ and is roughly a constant of 25% beyond this range; (3) for the sources which can be modeled well with two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity, these is a positive correlation between the velocity difference of these two components and the stellar mass, with a slope similar...

  14. H{\\alpha} to FUV ratios in resolved star forming region populations of nearby spiral galaxies

    Hermanowicz, Maciej T; Eldridge, John J


    We present a new study of H{\\alpha}/FUV flux ratios of star forming regions within a sample of nearby spiral galaxies. We search for evidence of the existence of a cluster mass dependent truncation in the underlying stellar initial mass function (IMF). We use an automated approach to identification of extended objects based on the SExtractor algorithm to catalogue resolved Hii regions within a set of nearby spiral galaxies. Corrections due to dust attenuation effects are applied to avoid artificially boosted H{\\alpha}/FUV values. We use the BPASS stellar population synthesis code of Eldridge & Stanway (2009) to create a benchmark population of star forming regions to act as a reference for our observations. Based on those models, we identify a zone of parameter space populated by regions that cannot be obtained with a cluster mass dependent truncation in the stellar IMF imposed. We find that the investigated galaxies display small subpopulations of star forming regions falling within our zone of interest,...

  15. The H alpha Galaxy Survey. IV. Star formation in the local Universe

    James, P A; Shane, N S; Baldry, I K; De Jong, R S


    We present an analysis of the star formation properties of field galaxies within the local volume out to a recession velocity limit of 3000 km/s. A parent sample of 863 star-forming galaxies is used to calculate a B-band luminosity function. This is then populated with star formation information from a subsample of 327 galaxies, for which we have H alpha imaging, firstly by calibrating a relationship between galaxy B-band luminosity and star formation rate, and secondly by a Monte Carlo simulation of a representative sample of galaxies, in which star formation information is randomly sampled from the observed subset. The total star formation rate density of the local Universe is found to be between 0.016 and 0.023 MSun/yr/cubic Mpc, with the uncertainties being dominated by the internal extinction correction used in converting measured H alpha fluxes to star formation rates. If our internally derived B-band luminosity function is replaced by one from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey blue sequence, the star format...

  16. Coronal X-ray enhancements associated with H-alpha filament disappearances

    Webb, D. F.; Krieger, A. S.; Rust, D. M.


    The X-ray telescope experiment aboard the Skylab/ATM mission provided high-resolution soft X-ray images of the lower corona away from active regions, revealing frequent large-scale transient X-ray enhancements which could often be associated with the disappearance of H-alpha filaments. The X-ray emitting structures featured peak brightnesses similar to those of nonflaring active region structures, durations from 3 to 40 hours, shapes that in general outlined the preexisting H-alpha filaments to as large as 400,000 km, apparent expansion velocities of the order of tens of km/sec, and observed peak temperatures of the order of a few million degrees. One such event is described and analyzed in detail. Two explanations of the events are discussed: (1) excess cool material is present in the filament cavity, contributing to the X-ray enhancement, and (2) the enhancement is due to the compression of preexisting material by a changing magnetic field.

  17. H{\\alpha} Kinematics of S4G spiral galaxies I. NGC 864

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Font, Joan; Beckman, John E; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Sánchez-Gallego, José Ramón; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Buta, Ronald J; Comerón, Sébastien; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Madore, Barry F; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha; Regan, Michael W; Salo, Heikki; Seibert, Mark


    We present a study of the kinematics of the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 864, using H{\\alpha} Fabry-Perot data obtained with the GH{\\alpha}FaS instrument at the William Herschel Telescope in La Palma, complemented with images at 3.6 {\\mu}m, in the R band and in H{\\alpha} filter, and integral field spectroscopic data. The resulting data cubes and velocity maps allow the study of the kinematics of the galaxy, including in-depth investigations of the rotation curve, velocity moment maps, velocity residual maps, gradient maps and position-velocity diagrams. We find asymmetries in the velocity field in the bar zone, caused by non-circular motions, probably in response to the potential of the bar. We also find a flat-profile bar, in agreement with the strong bar, with the grand design spiral pattern, and with the gap between the ends of the bar and the start of the spiral arms. We quantify the rate of massive star formation, which is concentrated in the two spiral arms.

  18. Rotation and H-alpha Emission Above and Below the Substellar Boundary

    Basri, G S


    I present the results of a multiyear survey of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, at high spectral resolution. The spectra were gathered with the HIRES echelle at the Keck Observatory. Some of these objects are stellar and others are substellar (or ambiguous). Early indications that such objects can be rapidly rotating but display little H-alpha emission turn out to be commonly true. This is the opposite of the relation between rotation and activity in solar-type stars. The H-alpha surface flux drops precipitously at the bottom of the main sequence, and seems to be related to the luminosity or temperature of the objects. There is a general trend to higher rotation velocities as one looks at objects of lower luminosity. I discuss several possible explanations for these results. The dynamos for these objects are probably fully turbulent, driven by convection, and thus more directly related to the object's luminosity. They may be quenched when the rotational velocities become too fast in comparison to the con...

  19. The Galactic Halo Ionizing Field and $H-\\alpha$ Distances to HVCs

    Bland-Hawthorn, J


    There has been much debate in recent decades as to what fraction of ionizing photons from star forming regions in the Galactic disk escape into the halo. The recent detection of the Magellanic Stream in optical line emission at the CTIO 4m and the AAT 3.9m telescopes may now provide the strongest evidence that at least some of the radiation escapes the disk completely. While the distance to the Magellanic Stream is uncertain, the observed H-alpha emission is most plausibly explained by photoionization due to hot, young stars. Our model requires that the mean Lyman-limit opacity perpendicular to the disk is tau close to unity. Within the context of this model, it now becomes possible to determine distances to high velocity clouds, and the 3D orientation of the Magellanic Stream. Here, we discuss complications of the model (e.g., porosity, topology), future tests, ongoing improvements, and the importance of H-alpha limb brightening from surface ionization. More speculatively, we propose a direct experiment for ...

  20. Broad H$\\alpha$ Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997

    Lee, H W; Lee, Hee-Won; Hyung, Siek


    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding $5000 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ around H$\\alpha$. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering involving atomic hydrogen, by which Ly$\\beta$ photons with a velocity width of a few $10^2 {\\rm km s^{-1}}$ are converted to optical photons and fill the H$\\alpha$ broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1 and rapidly decreases in the far wings.Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, $n_H\\sim 10^{9-10} {\\rm cm^{-3}}$, we use the photoionization code `CLOUDY' to show that sufficient Ly$\\beta$ photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat incident profile for the Ly$\\beta$ flux and a scattering region with a H~I column density $N_{HI}=2\\times 10^{20} {\\rm cm^{-2}}$ and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile fitting an...

  1. Limits on Lyman Continuum escape from z=2.2 H-alpha emitting galaxies

    Sandberg, A; Melinder, J; Bik, A; Guaita, L


    The leakage of Lyman continuum photons from star forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. H-alpha-selected galaxies at z~2 trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring Lyman continuum escape. Here we present this method, and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 H-alpha emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at z=2.2, also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual Lyman continuum detections, and our stack puts a 5 sigma upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes would rapidly increase and the method presented here would provide ver...

  2. Urotensin II induction of neonatal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy involves the CaMKII/PLN/SERCA 2a signaling pathway.

    Shi, Hongtao; Han, Qinghua; Xu, Jianrong; Liu, Wenyuan; Chu, Tingting; Zhao, Li


    Although studies have shown that Urotensin II (UII) can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model has been widely used for hypertrophy research, but its precise mechanism remains unknown. Recent researches have demonstrated that UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has a relationship with the changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by UII and to explore whether the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated up-regulating of phospholamban (PLN) Thr17-phosphorylation signaling pathway contributed to UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated for 48h with UII. Cell size, protein/DNA contents and intracellular Ca(2+) were determined. Phosphorylated and total forms of CaMKII, PLN and the total amount of serco/endo-plasmic reticulum ATPases (SERCA 2a) were quantified by western blot. The responses of cardiomyocytes to UII were also evaluated after pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-93. These results showed that UII increased cell size, protein/DNA ratio and intracellular Ca(2+), consistent with a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of CaMKII and its downstream target PLN (Thr17), SERCA 2a levels were up-regulated by UII treatment. Conversely, treatment with KN-93 reversed all those effects of UII. Taken together, the results suggest that UII can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through CaMKII-mediated up-regulating of PLN Thr17-phosphorylation signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pavlovian fear conditioning regulates Thr286 autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at lateral amygdala synapses.

    Rodrigues, Sarina M; Farb, Claudia R; Bauer, Elizabeth P; LeDoux, Joseph E; Schafe, Glenn E


    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and memory formation in a variety of learning systems and species. The present experiments examined the role of CaMKII in the circuitry underlying pavlovian fear conditioning. First, we reveal by immunocytochemical and tract-tracing methods that alphaCaMKII is postsynaptic to auditory thalamic inputs and colocalized with the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, we show that fear conditioning results in an increase of the autophosphorylated (active) form of alphaCaMKII in lateral amygdala (LA) spines. Next, we demonstrate that intra-amygdala infusion of a CaMK inhibitor, 1-[NO-bis-1,5-isoquinolinesulfonyl]-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl-4-phenylpiperazine, KN-62, dose-dependently impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Finally, in electrophysiological experiments, we demonstrate that an NMDA receptor-dependent form of long-term potentiation at thalamic input synapses to the LA is impaired by bath application of KN-62 in vitro. Together, the results of these experiments provide the first comprehensive view of the role of CaMKII in the amygdala during fear conditioning.


    Guangxiang Yuan


    Full Text Available Calcium(II is one of the most common metal ions in papermaking systems. However, the effect of Ca2+ on papermaking processes has not drawn much attention. The adsorption of Ca2+ from aqueous solutions onto bleached Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp fibers was investigated. Thermodynamic results indicate that the adsorption of Ca2+ onto bleached E. globulus kraft pulp fibers was exothermic, reversible, and spontaneous. The equilibrium data followed Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption basically agrees with the ionic reaction model between carboxyl groups of fibers and Ca2+ in which the molar ratio of carboxyl to Ca2+ is close to 2:1. The binding capacity with carboxyl groups is so strong that the anionic charge of the adsorption sites in fibers can be screened, leading to decreased performance of cationic polyacrylamide for retention and drainage, Alkyl Ketene Dimer (AKD for sizing, and cationic starch for dry strength. The precipitation effect of Ca2+ with three kinds of dissolved and colloidal substances (sodium rosinate, sodium stearate, sodium oxalate also was investigated. The results showed that deposits formed by Ca2+ and dissolved and colloidal substances, which could adsorb to the surfaces of fibers, would affect drainage and retention abilities of cationic polyacrylamide.

  5. Observational Searches for Chromospheric -Mode Oscillations from CaII H-Line Observations

    R. Kariyappa; L. Damé; K. M. Hiremath


    We have used a high spatial and temporal resolution of long time sequence of spectra in CaII H-line obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) of the Sacramento Peak Observatory on a quiet region at the center of the solar disk over a large number of bright points and network elements to search for atmospheric (chromospheric) -mode oscillations. An important parameter of the H-line profile, intensity at H2V(IH2V), has been derived from a large number of line profiles. We derived the light curves of all the bright points and network elements. The light curves represent the main pulse with large intensity amplitude and followed by several follower pulses with lower intensity amplitudes. The light curves of these bright points would give an impression that one can as well draw curves towards and away from the highest peak (main pulse) showing an exponential growth and decay of the amplitudes. An exponential decaying function has been fitted for all the light curves of the bright points to determine the damping time of the modes that are more or less the same, and one value of the coefficient of exponent can represent reasonably well the decay for all the cases. The FFT analysis of temporal variation of both the bright points and the network elements indicates around 10-min periodicity. We speculate that this longer period of oscillation may be related to chromospheric -mode oscillations.

  6. A STIS Atlas of CaII Triplet Absorption Line Kinematics in Galactic Nuclei

    Batcheldor, D; Valluri, M; Mandalou, J; Merritt, D


    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the CaII triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M estimates since they are found to have data...

  7. Chromospheric Diagnosis with Ca II Lines: Forward Modeling in Forward Scattering. I

    Carlin, E. S.; Asensio Ramos, A.


    This paper presents a synthetic tomography of the quiet solar chromosphere formed by spatial maps of scattering polarization. It has been calculated for the Ca II 8498, 8542, and 3934 Å lines by solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem of the second kind in a three-dimensional atmosphere model obtained from realistic magneto-hydrodynamical simulations. Our investigation focuses on the linear polarization signals induced by kinematics, radiation field anisotropy, and the Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry. Thus, instead of considering slit profiles at the limb as normally done in the study of the second solar spectrum, we synthesize and analyze spatial maps of polarization at the disk center. This allows us to understand the spatial signatures of dynamics and magnetic field in the linear polarization in order to discriminate them observationally. Our results suggest some ideas for chromospheric diagnosis that will be developed throughout a series of papers. In particular, Hanle polarity inversion lines and dynamic Hanle diagrams are two concepts introduced in the present work. We find that chromospheric dynamics and magnetic field topology create spatial polarization fingerprints that trace the dynamic situation of the plasma and the magnetic field. This allows us to reconstruct the magnetic field intensity in the middle chromosphere using Stokes V along grooves of null linear polarization. We finally address the problems of diagnosing Hanle saturation and kinematic amplification of scattering signals using Hanle diagrams.

  8. Ca II triplet spectroscopy of RGB stars in NGC 6822: kinematics and metallicities

    Swan, Jesse; Tolstoy, Eline; Irwin, Mike J


    We present a detailed analysis of the chemistry and kinematics of red giants in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Spectroscopy at 8500 Angstroms was acquired for 72 red giant stars across two fields using FORS2 at the VLT. Line of sight extinction was individually estimated for each target star to accommodate the variable reddening across NGC 6822. The mean radial velocity was found to be v_helio = (52.8 +/- 2.2) km/s with dispersion rms = 24.1 km/s, in agreement with other studies. Ca II triplet equivalent widths were converted into [Fe/H] metallicities using a V magnitude proxy for surface gravity. The average metallicity was [Fe/H] = (-0.84 +/- 0.04) with dispersion rms = 0.31 dex and interquartile range 0.48. Our assignment of individual reddening values makes our analysis more sensitive to spatial variations in metallicity than previous studies. We divide our sample into metal-rich and metal-poor stars; the former are found to cluster towards small radii with the metal-poor stars more evenly distribut...

  9. Synthesis, structural characterization and antitumor activity of a Ca(II) coordination polymer based on 4-formyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonate-2-furoic acid hydrazide ligands

    Tai, Xi-Shi; Wang, Xin


    A new Ca(II) coordination polymer, {[CaL(H2O)4] · (H2O)4} n (L = 4-formyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonate-2-furoic acid hydrazide) has been prepared by one-pot synthesis method. And it was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and thermal analysis. The result of X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis shows that the Ca(II) complex molecules form one-dimensional chain structure by the bridging oxygen atoms. The anti-tumor activity of L ligand and the Ca(II) coordination polymer has also been studied.

  10. Phosphorylation of the PCNA binding domain of the large subunit of replication factor C by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits DNA synthesis

    Maga, G; Mossi, R; Fischer, R


    that the PCNA binding domain is phosphorylated by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme required for cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The DNA binding domain, on the other hand, is not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation by CaMKII reduces the binding of PCNA to RF...

  11. Structural Diversities in Heterometallic Mn-Ca Cluster Chemistry from the Use of Salicylhydroxamic Acid: {Mn(III)4Ca2}, {Mn(II/III)6Ca2}, {Mn(III/IV)8Ca}, and {Mn(III)8Ca2} Complexes with Relevance to Both High- and Low-Valent States of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex.

    Alaimo, Alysha A; Koumousi, Evangelia S; Cunha-Silva, Luís; McCormick, Laura J; Teat, Simon J; Psycharis, Vassilis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Mukherjee, Shreya; Li, Chaoran; Gupta, Sayak Das; Escuer, Albert; Christou, George; Stamatatos, Theocharis C


    One-pot reactions between the [Mn3O(O2CPh)6(py)x](+/0) triangular precursors and either CaBr2·xH2O or CaCl2·6H2O, in the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid (shaH2), have afforded the heterometallic complexes [Mn(III)4Ca2(O2CPh)4(shi)4(H2O)3(Me2CO)] (1) and (pyH)[Mn(II)2Mn(III)4Ca2Cl2(O2CPh)7(shi)4(py)4] (2), respectively, in good yields. Further reactions but using a more flexible synthetic scheme comprising the Mn(NO3)2·4H2O/Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and Mn(O2CPh)2·2H2O/Ca(ClO4)2·4H2O "metal blends" and shaH2, in the presence of external base NEt3, led to the new complexes (NHEt3)2[Mn(III)4Mn(IV)4Ca(OEt)2(shi)10(EtOH)2] (3) and (NHEt3)4[Mn(III)8Ca2(CO3)4(shi)8] (4), respectively. In all reported compounds, the anion of the tetradentate (N,O,O,O)-chelating/bridging ligand salicylhydroxime (shi(3-)), resulting from the in situ metal-ion-assisted amide-iminol tautomerism of shaH2, was found to bridge both Mn and Ca atoms. Complexes 1-4 exhibit a variety of different structures, metal stoichiometries, and Mn oxidation-state descriptions; 1 possesses an overall octahedral metal arrangement, 2 can be described as a Mn4Ca2 octahedron bound to an additional Mn2 unit, 3 consists of a Mn8 "ring" surrounding a Ca(II) atom, and 4 adopts a rectangular cuboidal motif of eight Mn atoms accommodating two Ca(II) atoms. Solid-state direct-current magnetic susceptibility studies revealed the presence of predominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the Mn centers, leading to S = 0 spin ground-state values for all complexes. From a bioinorganic chemistry perspective, the reported compounds may demonstrate some relevance to both high-valent scheme (3) and lower-oxidation-level species (1, 2, and 4) of the catalytic cycle of the oxygen-evolving complex.

  12. Ca(II, Zn(II and Au(III sulfamethoxazole sulfa-drug complexes: Synthesis, spectroscopic and anticancer evaluation studies

    Fatima A.I. Al-Khodir


    Full Text Available Herein in this article, three new Ca(II, Zn(II and Au(III complexes of sulfamethoxazole (SZ (sulfa-drug have been synthesized for the first time. The sulfa-drugs have a great attentions because of their therapeutic applications against bacterial infections. The SZ complexes were discussed with the help of elemental analyses, molar conductance and spectroscopic instruments e.g. IR, 1H-NMR, and electronic spectra. Investigations of the infrared spectra of the SZ and their metal complexes indicated the vibrations due to the sulfonamido (SO2 and –NH and isoxazole (C=N groups are shifted with respect to the free molecule in line with their coordination to the metal. In case of calcium(II an zinc(II complexes, the coordination site of SZ are the sulfonyl oxygen and SO2-NH sulfonamide nitrogen, but in gold(III complex, the gold metal ions coordinates through the sulfonyl oxygen and isoxazole nitrogen. These complexes are formulated as: [Ca(SZ(Cl2].8H2O (1, [Zn(SZ(Cl2].2H2O (2 and [Au(SZ(Cl2].Cl (3. The molar conductance data reveals that both Ca(II and Zn(II complexes are non-electrolyte but gold(III complex is electrolyte. The morphological nano structures of SZ complexes were checked using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The gold(III complex was recorded good anticancer behavior against Human colon carcinoma (HCT-116 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cells.

  13. Search for H alpha emitters in Galaxy Clusters with Tunable Filters

    Perez-Martinez, Ricardo; Cepa, Jordi; Bongiovanni, Angel; Garcia, Ana Perez; 10.1007/978-3-642-11250-8


    The studies of the evolution of galaxies in Galaxy Clusters have as a traditional complication the difficulty in establishing cluster membership of those sources detected in the field of view. The determination of spectroscopic redshifts involves long exposure times when it is needed to reach the cluster peripherical regions of/or clusters at moderately large redshifts, while photometric redshifts often present uncertainties too large to offer significant conclusions. The mapping of the cluster of galaxies with narrow band tunable filters makes it possible to reach large redshifts intervals with an accuracy high enough to establish the source membership of those presenting emission/absorption lines easily identifiable, as H alpha. Moreover, the wavelength scan can include other lines as [NII], [OIII] or $H_{\\beta}$ allowing to distinguish those sources with strong stellar formation activity and those with an active galactic nuclei. All this makes it possible to estimate the stellar formation rate of the galax...

  14. X-ray structures associated with disappearing H-alpha filaments in active regions

    Kahler, S. W.


    The paper examines the relationship between active region disappearing H-alpha filaments and the associated coronal X-ray structures observed both before the disappearance event and afterwards. The events chosen for the study were selected from a list of active region X-ray transients observed in the images from the X-ray telescope on Skylab and from a list compiled by Webb (1976) of sudden disappearances of filaments during the Skylab period. Results indicate no distinction between the disappearing and the remaining active region filaments in terms of their pre-event associated X-ray emission features. However, X-ray brightenings were associated in a nearly one-to-one correspondence with disappearing portions of the filaments.

  15. Template RR Lyrae H alpha, H beta, and H gamma Velocity Curves

    Sesar, Branimir


    We present template radial velocity curves of $ab$-type RR Lyrae stars constructed from high-precision measurements of ${\\rm H\\alpha}$, ${\\rm H\\beta}$, and ${\\rm H\\gamma}$ lines. Amplitude correlations between the Balmer line velocity curves, Johnson $V$-band, and SDSS $g$- and $r$-band light curves are also derived. Compared to previous methods, these templates and derived correlations reduce the uncertainty in measured systemic (center-of-mass) velocities of RR Lyrae stars by up to 15 {\\kms}, and will be of particular interest to wide-area spectroscopic surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (LEGUE).

  16. TEMPLATE RR LYRAE H{alpha}, H{beta}, AND H{gamma} VELOCITY CURVES

    Sesar, Branimir, E-mail: [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present template radial velocity curves of ab-type RR Lyrae stars constructed from high-precision measurements of H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} lines. Amplitude correlations between the Balmer line velocity curves, Johnson V band, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g- and r-band light curves are also derived. Compared to previous methods, these templates and derived correlations reduce the uncertainty in measured systemic (center-of-mass) velocities of RR Lyrae stars by up to 15 km s{sup -1}, and will be of particular interest to wide-area spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS and LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration.

  17. The H$\\alpha$ surface brightness $-$ radius plane as a diagnostic tool for photoionized nebulae

    Frew, David J; Parker, Quentin A


    The H$\\alpha$ surface brightness $-$ radius ($S-r$) relation is a robust distance indicator for planetary nebulae (PNe), further enhanced by different populations of PNe having distinct loci in $S-r$ space. Other types of photoionized nebulae also plot in quite distinct regions in the $S-r$ plane, allowing its use as a diagnostic tool. In particular, the nova shells and massive star ejecta (MSE) plot on relatively tight loci illustrating their evolutionary sequences. For the MSE, there is potential to develop a distance indicator for these objects, based on their trend in $S-r$ space. As high-resolution, narrowband surveys of the nearest galaxies become more commonplace, the $S-r$ plane is a potentially useful diagnostic tool to help identify the various ionized nebulae in these systems.

  18. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on the expression of CaMK II mRNA in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hua


    In this study, we identified the subtype of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and observed the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration and different exposure time on the mRNA expression. Dorsal root ganglion neurons were isolated from the SD rats and cultured in vitro. The mRNA of the CaMK II subtype in dorsal root ganglion neurons were detected by real-time PCR. As well as, the dorsal root ganglion neurons were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration (1mM,2mM, 3mM and 4mM) for the same exposure time of 4h, or different exposure time (0h,2h,3h,4h and 6h) at the same concentration(3mM). The changes of the mRNA expression of the CaMK II subtype were observed with real-time PCR. All subtype mRNA of the CaMK II, CaMK IIα, CaMK IIβ, CaMK II δ, CaMK IIγ, can be detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons. With the increased of the concentration and exposure time of the ropivacaine hydrochloride, all the subtype mRNA expression increased. Ropivacaine hydrochloride up-regulate the CaMK IIβ, CaMK IIδ, CaMK IIg mRNA expression with the concentration and exposure time increasing. The nerve blocking or the neurotoxicity of the ropivacaine hydrochloride maybe involved with CaMK II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK.

    Sazonova, Olga V; Blishchenko, Elena Yu; Tolmazova, Anna G; Khachin, Dmitry P; Leontiev, Konstantin V; Karelin, Andrey A; Ivanov, Vadim T


    Neokyotorphin [TSKYR, hemoglobin alpha-chain fragment (137-141)] has previously been shown to enhance fibroblast proliferation, its effect depending on cell density and serum level. Here we show the dependence of the effect of neokyotorphin on cell type and its correlation with the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) activator 8-Br-cAMP, but not the PKC activator 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA). In L929 fibroblasts, the proliferative effect of neokyotorphin was suppressed by the Ca2+ L-type channel inhibitors verapamil or nifedipine, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester, kinase inhibitors H-89 (PKA), KN-62 (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) and PD98059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase). The proliferative effect of 8-Br-cAMP was also suppressed by KN-62 and PD98059. PKC suppression (downregulation with PMA or inhibition with bisindolylmaleimide XI) did not affect neokyotorphin action. The results obtained point to a cAMP-like action for neokyotorphin.

  20. Unveiling Vela - Time Variability of Interstellar Lines in the Direction of the Vela Supernova Remnant II. Na D and Ca II

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Gupta, Ranjan; Muneer, S.; Singh, Harinder P.


    In a survey conducted between 2011-12 of interstellar Na I D line profiles in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant, a few lines of sight showed dramatic changes in low velocity absorption components with respect to profiles from 1993-1994 reported by Cha & Sembach. Three stars - HD 63578, HD 68217 and HD 76161 showed large decrease in strength over the 1993-2012 interval. HD 68217 and HD 76161 are associated with the Vela SNR whereas HD 63578 is associated with γ2 Velorum wind bubble. Here, we present high spectral resolution observations of Ca II K lines obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) towards these three stars along with simultaneous observations of Na I D lines. These new spectra confirm that the Na D interstellar absorption weakened drastically between 1993-1994 and 2011-2012 but show for the first time that the Ca II K line is unchanged between 1993-1994 and 2015. This remarkable contrast between the behaviour of Na D and Ca II K line absorption lines is a puzzle concerning gas presumably affected by the outflow from the SNR and the wind from γ2 Velorum.

  1. H$\\alpha$ tail, intracluster HII regions and star-formation: ESO137-001 in Abell 3627

    Sun, M; Voit, G M


    We present the discovery of a 40 kpc H-alpha tail and at least 29 emission-line objects downstream of a star-forming galaxy ESO 137-001 in a rich, nearby cluster A3627. The galaxy is known to possess a dramatic 70 kpc X-ray tail. The detected H-alpha tail coincides positionally with the X-ray tail. The H-alpha emission in the galaxy is sharply truncated on the front and the sides near the nucleus, indicating significant ram pressure stripping. ESO 137-001 is thus the first cluster late-type galaxy known with both an X-ray tail and an H-alpha tail. The emission-line objects are all distributed downstream of the galaxy, with projected distance up to 39 kpc from the galaxy. From the analysis on the H-alpha_{off} frame and the estimate of the background emission-line objects, we conclude that it is very likely all these 29 emission-line objects are HII regions associated with ESO 137-001. The high surface number density and luminosities of these HII regions (up to 10^40 ergs/s) largely dwarf the previously known ...

  2. A study of solar flare energy transport based on coordinated H-alpha and X-ray observations

    Canfield, Richard C.; Wulser, Jean-Pierre; Zarro, Dominic M.; Dennis, Brian R.


    The temporal evolution of the ratio between H-alpha to nonthermal hard X-ray emission was investigated using coordinated H-alpha and hard- and soft-X-ray observations of five solar flares (on May 7, June 23, June 24, and June 25, 1980 and on April 30, 1985). These observations were used to estimate the emitted flare energy flux F(H-alpha) in H-alpha, the flux of F(2O) energy deposited by nonthermal electrons with energies above 20 keV, and the pressure p(c) of soft X-ray-emitting plasma as functions of time during the impulsive phase of each flare. It was found that the F(H-alpha)/F(2O) ratio shows a power-law dependence on F(2O), with a slope that differs slightly from that predicted by the static thick-target model of solar transport. Results also indicate that the power-law dependence is modified by hydrostatic pressure effects.

  3. Ca II triplet spectroscopy of RGB stars in NGC 6822: kinematics and metallicities

    Swan, J.; Cole, A. A.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.


    We present a detailed analysis of the chemistry and kinematics of red giants in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Spectroscopy at ≈8500 Å was acquired for 72 red giant stars across two fields using FORS2 at the VLT. Line-of-sight extinction was individually estimated for each target star to accommodate the variable reddening across NGC 6822. The mean radial velocity was found to be = -52.8 ± 2.2 km s-1 with dispersion σv = 24.1 km s-1, in agreement with other studies. Ca II triplet equivalent widths were converted into [Fe/H] metallicities using a V magnitude proxy for surface gravity. The average metallicity was = -0.84 ± 0.04 with dispersion σ = 0.31 dex and interquartile range 0.48. Our assignment of individual reddening values makes our analysis more sensitive to spatial variations in metallicity than previous studies. We divide our sample into metal-rich and metal-poor stars; the former were found to cluster towards small radii with the metal-poor stars more evenly distributed across the galaxy. The velocity dispersion of the metal-poor stars was found to be higher than that of the metal-rich stars (σ _{v_MP}=27.4 km s-1; σ _{v_MR}=21.1 km s-1); combined with the age-metallicity relation this indicates that the older populations have either been dynamically heated during their lifetimes or were born in a less disc-like distribution than the younger stars.. The low ratio vrot/σv suggests that within the inner 10 arcmin, NGC 6822's stars are dynamically decoupled from the H I gas, and possibly distributed in a thick disc or spheroid structure.

  4. Ca II 854.2 nm Spectromagnetograms: A Powerful Chromospheric Diagnostic

    Harvey, J. W.; Bertello, Luca; Branston, D.; Britanik, J.; Bulau, S.; Cole, L.; Gosain, Sanjay; Harker, Brian; Jones, Harrison P.; Marble, A.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Pevtsov, A.; Schramm, K.; Streander, Kim; Villegas, H.


    The transition from physical dominance by plasma flows in the photosphere to magnetic pressure in the solar chromosphere motivates as many diagnostic observations as possible across this important region. Among the few ground-accessible spectral lines formed within the chromosphere, the Ca II 854.2 nm line has the desirable properties of presence everywhere on the solar disk, Zeeman sensitivity, and narrow line width. Mapped observations of circular polarization within this line (spectromagnetograms) have been made at NSO infrequently since 1974, with regular daily full-disk observations starting in August 1996. Full-disk spectral observations of the complete Stokes polarization vector are now being made regularly since November 2015. It is not easy to estimate chromospheric magnetic field properties from the 854.2 nm line profile polarization. To provide rough quick-look vector field maps we found that the weak-field approximation provides a fair first estimate of the line-of-sight component but appears to be too simple to interpret the transverse magnetic field from frequently asymmetric, linearly-polarized line profiles. More realistic estimates of the chromospheric vector field, short of extremely lengthy, full 3D, non-local radiative transfer inversions, are being investigated. We briefly introduce recent instrumental modifications and observational characteristics, sample observations, and results concerning the expansion of the chromospheric field with increasing height, the presence of large areas of weak, nearly horizontal fields, and field estimates in plages, sunspots, flares, filaments, and filament channels. The Stokes spectra will be freely available to the community.This work utilizes SOLIS data obtained by the NSO Integrated Synoptic Program (NISP), managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.


    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)


    We present an analysis of ultradeep UV and H{alpha} imaging of five nearby spiral galaxies to study the recent star formation in the outer disk. Using azimuthally averaged ellipse photometry as well as aperture photometry of individual young stellar complexes, we measure how star formation rates (SFRs) and UV and H{alpha} colors vary with radius. We detect azimuthally averaged UV flux to {approx}1.2-1.4 R{sub 25} in most galaxies; at the edge of the detected UV disk, the surface brightnesses are 28-29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, corresponding to SFR surface densities of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Additionally, we detect between 120 and 410 young stellar complexes per galaxy, with a significant number of detections out to {approx}1.5 R{sub 25}. We measure radial FUV-NUV profiles, and find that the dispersion in the UV colors of individual young stellar complexes increases with radius. We investigate how radial variations in the frequency of star formation episodes can create color gradients and increasing dispersion in the UV colors of star-forming regions, like those observed in our study. Specifically, we use recently published, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of {Sigma}{sub SFR} throughout the disk of M33 to estimate the frequency of star formation episodes throughout the disk of a typical spiral galaxy. We use stellar synthesis models of these star formation histories (SFHs) to measure the variations in UV colors and find that we can replicate large dispersions in UV colors based on episodic SFHs.

  6. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on "aspirin" analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes

    Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Heiba, Zein K.


    Metal aspirinate complexes, M2(Asp)4, where M is Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) are formed by refluxed of aspirin (Asp) with divalent non-transition metal ions of group (II) and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy). Elemental analysis of the chelates suggests the stoichiometry is 1:2 (metal:ligand). Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through three donation sites of two oxygen atoms of bridge bidentate carboxylate group and oxygen atom of sbnd Cdbnd O of acetyl group. Infrared spectra coupled with the results of elemental analyzes suggested a distorted octahedral structure for the M(II) aspirinate complexes. Gamma irradiation was tested as a method for stabilization of aspirin as well as their complexes. The effect of gamma irradiation, with dose of 80 Gy, on the properties of aspirinate complexes was studied. The aspirinate chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the free aspirin chelate.

  7. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the {\\lambda} Ori H II Region

    Sahan, M


    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in H{\\alpha}, [S II] {\\lambda}6716, and [N II] {\\lambda}6583 around the well-known O8 III star {\\lambda} Ori A (HD 36861) (l = 185{\\deg} to 205{\\deg}, b = -24{\\deg} to -1{\\deg}). The integrated intensity (v(LSR) = -80 to +80 km/s), I(H{\\alpha}), within WHAM's one-degree beams varies from ~ 190 R near the center to ~ 10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N II]/H{\\alpha} and [S II]/H{\\alpha} average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from {\\lambda} Ori, although the behavior of [N II]/H{\\alpha} is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S II]/[N II] intensity ratio ranges from ~ 0.5 to ~ 1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower H{\\alpha} intensities). Variations of [S II]/H{\\alpha}, [N II]/H{\\alpha}, and [S II]/[N II] line ratios...

  8. The octopamine receptor OAMB mediates ovulation via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the Drosophila oviduct epithelium.

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Ovulation is an essential physiological process in sexual reproduction; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously shown that OAMB, a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor for octopamine (the insect counterpart of mammalian norepinephrine, is required for ovulation induced upon mating. OAMB is expressed in the nervous and reproductive systems and has two isoforms (OAMB-AS and OAMB-K3 with distinct capacities to increase intracellular Ca2+ or intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP in vitro. Here, we investigated tissue specificity and intracellular signals required for OAMB's function in ovulation. Restricted OAMB expression in the adult oviduct epithelium, but not the nervous system, reinstated ovulation in oamb mutant females, in which either OAMB isoform was sufficient for the rescue. Consistently, strong immunoreactivities for both isoforms were observed in the wild-type oviduct epithelium. To delineate the cellular mechanism by which OAMB regulates ovulation, we explored protein kinases functionally interacting with OAMB by employing a new GAL4 driver with restricted expression in the oviduct epithelium. Conditional inhibition of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, but not protein kinase A or C, in the oviduct epithelium inhibited ovulation. Moreover, constitutively active CaMKII, but not protein kinase A, expressed only in the adult oviduct epithelium fully rescued the oamb female's phenotype, demonstrating CaMKII as a major downstream molecule conveying the OAMB's ovulation signal. This is consistent with the ability of both OAMB isoforms, whose common intracellular signal in vitro is Ca2+, to reinstate ovulation in oamb females. These observations reveal the critical roles of the oviduct epithelium and its cellular components OAMB and CaMKII in ovulation. It is conceivable that the OAMB-mediated cellular activities stimulated upon mating are crucial for secretory activities suitable for egg

  9. A Butterfly Diagram and Carrington Maps for Century-long CA II K Spectroheliograms from The Kodaikanal Observatory

    Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Banerjee, Dipankar; Ravindra, B.


    The century-long (1907-2007) Ca ii K spectroheliograms from the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KSO) are calibrated, processed, and analyzed to follow the evolution of the bright on-disc structures called plages, possible representatives of magnetic activity on the Sun. This is the longest data set studied in Ca ii K to date, covering about 9.5 cycles of 11 yr periods. Plages are segmented with area ≥slant 1 {{arcmin}}2 using global thresholds for individual full disc images and subsequent application of a morphological closing operation. The plage index is calculated and is seen to have a close positive correlation with the fractional disc area covered by plages. The newly generated plage area cycle (from KSO) was compared with the same from the Mount Wilson Observatory (correlation 95.6%) for the overlapping years, i.e., 1915-2000. This study illustrates the time-latitude distribution of plage centroids by rendering a butterfly diagram (as observed for sunspots). The 3D visualization of the diagram shows one-to-one mapping between plage location, time, and area. This work further delineates the positional correlation between magnetic patches and plage regions through the comparison of synoptic maps derived from both KSO Ca ii K images and space-based full disc line-of-sight magnetograms. Regular synoptic magnetograms from ground-based observatories are available only after 1970s. Thus the long term Ca ii K data from KSO can be used as a proxy for estimating magnetic activity locations and their strengths at earlier times.

  10. Empirical calibration of the near-IR Ca II triplet - I. The stellar library and index definition

    Cenarro, A J; Gorgas, J; Peletier, R F; Vazdekis, A; Prada, F


    A new stellar library at the near-IR spectral region developed for the empirical calibration of the Ca II triplet and stellar population synthesis modeling is presented. The library covers the range 8348-9020 Angstrom at 1.5 Angstrom (FWHM) spectral resolution, and consists of 706 stars spanning a wide range in atmospheric parameters. We have defined a new set of near-IR indices, CaT*, CaT and PaT, which mostly overcome the limitations of previous definitions, the former being specially suited for the measurement of the Ca II triplet strength corrected for the contamination from Paschen lines. We also present a comparative study of the new and the previous calcium indices, as well as the corresponding transformations between the different systems. A thorough analysis of the sources of index errors and the procedure to calculate them is given. Finally, index and error measurements for the whole stellar library are provided together with the final spectra.

  11. The behaviour of the excess CaII H & K and H$\\varepsilon$ emissions in chromospherically active binaries

    Montes, D; Cornide, M; De Castro, E


    In this work we analyze the behaviour of the excess Ca~{\\sc ii} H \\& K and H\\epsilon emissions in a sample of 73 chromospherically active binary systems (RS~CVn and BY~Dra classes), of different activity levels and luminosity classes. This sample includes the 53 stars analyzed by Fern\\'andez-Figueroa et al. (1994) and the observations of 28 systems described by Montes et al. (1995c). By using the spectral subtraction technique (subtraction of a synthesized stellar spectrum constructed from reference stars of spectral type and luminosity class similar to those of the binary star components) we obtain the active-chromosphere contribution to the Ca~{\\sc ii} H \\& K lines in these 73 systems. We have determined the excess Ca~{\\sc ii} H \\& K emission equivalent widths and converted them into surface fluxes. The emissions arising from each component were obtained when it was possible to deblend both contributions. We have found that the components of active binaries are generally stronger emitters than s...

  12. Simulations of the Mg II k and Ca II 8542 lines from an AlfvÉn Wave-heated Flare Chromosphere

    Kerr, Graham S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay.; Russell, Alexander J. B.; Allred, Joel C.


    We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfvén wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg ii k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca ii 8542 Å profiles that are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg ii k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations. The predicted differences between the Ca ii 8542 Å in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating in flares.

  13. Efficient biosorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solutions by functionalized cell with intracellular CaCO3 mineral scaffolds.

    Ma, Xiaoming; Cui, Weigang; Yang, Lin; Yang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Huifeng; Wang, Kui


    The functionalized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell with biogenic intracellular CaCO3 mineral scaffold, synthesized via a simple and environmentally friendly approach, was efficient for removing lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The CaCO3 mineral scaffold could promote the uptake of the heavy metal ions and increase the biosorption capabilities of the adsorbent. Compared with the Freundlich isotherm, Langmuir model more fitted the equilibrium data. The maximum removal capacity of functionalized cells for Pb(II) and Cd(II) was 116.69 and 42.63mgg(-1), respectively. Further investigation showed that the adsorbent had high removal efficiency for trace amount of heavy metal ions. Adsorption data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetics equations. The results indicated that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model could better describe the adsorption kinetics. The heavy metal ions might be removed by functionalized cells via membrane transport of metal ions and precipitation transformation.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and anticancer studies of metal-antibiotic chelations: Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) chloramphenicol complexes

    Al-Khodir, Fatima A. I.; Refat, Moamen S.


    Four Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes of chloramphenicol drug have been synthesized and well characterized using elemental analyses, (infrared, electronic, and 1H-NMR) spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, and thermal analyses. Infrared spectral data show that the chloramphenicol drug coordinated to Ca(II), Pd(II) and Au(III) metal ions through two hydroxyl groups with 1:1 or 1:2 M ratios, but Fe(III) ions chelated towards chloramphenicol drug via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of amide group with 1:2 ratio based on presence of keto↔enol form. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to identify the nano-size particles of both iron(III) and gold(III) chloramphenicol complexes. The antimicrobial assessments of the chloramphenicol complexes were scanned and collected the results against of some kind of bacteria and fungi. The cytotoxic activity of the gold(III) complex was tested against the human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) tumor cell lines.

  15. Solar H-alpha features with hot onsets. III. Long fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    Rutten, R. J.


    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by dense canopies of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the extraordinary opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe H-alpha-like fibril canopies, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if these canopies were transparent. An additional file is available at the end of the PDF file of this article.This study is offered as compliment to M.W.M. de Graauw. Our ways, objects, instruments and spectral domains parted after the 1970 eclipse but converge here.

  16. H$_{\\alpha}$ line as an indicator of envelope presence around the Cepheid Polaris Aa ($\\alpha~ UMi$)

    Usenko, I A; Klochkova, V G; Tavolzhanskaya, N S


    We present the results of the radial velocity ($RV$) measurements of metallic lines as well as H$_{\\alpha}$ (H$_{\\beta}$) obtained in 55 high-resolution spectra of the Cepheid $\\alpha$ UMi (Polaris Aa) in 1994-2010. While the $RV$ amplitudes of these lines are roughly equal, their mean $RV$ begin to differ essentially with growth of the Polaris Aa pulsational activity. This difference is accompanied by the H$_{\\alpha}$ line core asymmetries on the red side mainly (so-called knife-like profiles) and reaches 8-12 km/s in 2003 with a subsequent decrease to 1.5-2 km/s. We interpret a so unusual behaviour of the H$_{\\alpha}$ line core as dynamical changes in the envelope around Polaris Aa.

  17. Intracellular angiotensin II elicits Ca2+ increases in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells

    Filipeanu, CM; Brailoiu, E; Kok, JW; Henning, RH; De Zeeuw, D; Nelemans, SA


    Recent studies show that angiotensin II can act within the cell, possibly via intracellular receptors pharmacologically different from typical plasma membrane angiotensin II receptors. The signal transduction of intracellular angiotensin LI is unclear. Therefore. we investigated the effects of intra

  18. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. I

    Vucetic, M M; Urosevic, D; Dobardzic, A; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N


    We present observations of the portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 2.5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.

  19. RGS2 regulates urotensin II-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation and contraction in glomerular mesangial cells.

    Adebiyi, Adebowale


    Urotensin II (UII), a vasoactive peptide modulates renal hemodynamics. However, the physiological functions of UII in glomerular cells are unclear. In particular, whether UII alters mesangial tone remains largely unknown. The present study investigates the physiological effects of UII on glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). This study also tested the hypothesis that the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) controls UII receptor (UTR) activity in GMCs. RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence revealed UTR expression in cultured murine GMCs. Mouse UII (mUII) stimulated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activated store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in the cells. mUII also caused a reduction in planar GMC surface area. mUII-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation and contraction were attenuated by SB 657510, a UTR antagonist, araguspongin B, an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist, thapsigargin, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, and La(3+), a store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker, but not nimodipine, an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. In situ proximity ligation assay indicated molecular proximity between endogenous RGS2 and UTR in the cells. Treatment of GMCs with mUII elevated plasma membrane expression of RGS2 by ∼2-fold. mUII also increased the interaction between RGS2 and UTR in the cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of RGS2 in murine GMCs increased mUII-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation and contraction by ∼35 and 31%, respectively. These findings indicate that mUII-induced SOCE results in murine GMC contraction. These data also suggest that UTR activation stimulates RGS2 recruitment to GMC plasma membrane as a negative feedback mechanism to regulate UTR signaling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Angiotensin II increases nerve-evoked contractions in mouse tail artery by a T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent mechanism.

    Reardon, Trent F; Callaghan, Brid P; Brock, James A


    Angiotensin II (Ang II) increases sympathetic nerve-evoked contractions of arterial vessels. Here the mechanisms underlying this effect were investigated in mouse tail artery. Isometrically mounted segments of mouse distal tail artery were used to investigate the effects of endothelium denudation, blocking Ca(2+) channels and inhibiting superoxide signalling on Ang II-induced facilitation of nerve-evoked contractions. In addition, in situ amperometry was used to assess effects of Ang II on noradrenaline release. Ang II (0.1-1nM) increased nerve-evoked contractions but did not change noradrenaline release. Losartan (Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist), but not PD 123319 (Ang II type 2 receptor antagonist), blocked the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. Ang II increased vascular muscle reactivity to phenylephrine and UK-14304 (α1- and α2-adrenoceptor agonists, respectively). Endothelial denudation increased nerve-evoked contractions and reduced the facilitatory effect of Ang II on these responses. Efonidipine (L- and T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) and NNC 55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) also attenuated this effect of Ang II, while nifedipine (L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) did not. Blockers of superoxide generation/signalling did not change the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. The findings indicate that Ang II increases the contribution of T-type Ca(2+) channels to neural activation of the vascular muscle. In addition, Ang II appears to reduce the inhibitory influence of the endothelium on nerve-evoked contractions.

  1. Synoptic and fast events on the sun according to observations at the center and wings of the Ca II K line at the Kislovodsk Mountain station patrol telescope

    Tlatov, A. G.; Dormidontov, D. V.; Kirpichev, R. V.; Pashchenko, M. P.; Shramko, A. D.


    Observations performed at the solar telescope-spectroheliograph, which has continuously automatically operated at MAS MAO RAS, were analyzed. Measurements of the activity index in the Ca II K line, which were performed according to the program of synoptic observations, are presented. The development of the solar flares observed at the center and on the wings of the Ca II K line was compared with observations in the X-ray and radio bands. It was shown that the time variations in the intensity in the 1-8 Å range according to the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites' (GOES) data and in the Ca II K line are close to each other and that the total X-ray flux and Ca II K intensity amplitude substantially correlate during the entire flare.

  2. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars I: The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Ribas, Ignasi


    Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures, metallicity, and gravities avoiding the degeneracy present in photo...

  3. H$\\alpha$ spectroscopy and multi-wavelength imaging of a solar flare caused by filament eruption

    Huang, Z; Koleva, K; Doyle, J G; Duchlev, P; Dechev, M; Reardon, K


    We study a sequence of eruptive events including filament eruption, a GOES C4.3 flare and a coronal mass ejection. We aim to identify the possible trigger(s) and precursor(s) of the filament destabilisation; investigate flare kernel characteristics; flare ribbons/kernels formation and evolution; study the interrelation of the filament-eruption/flare/coronal-mass-ejection phenomena as part of the integral active-region magnetic field configuration; determine H alpha line profile evolution during the eruptive phenomena. Multi-instrument observations are analysed including H$\\alpha$ line profiles, speckle images at H$\\alpha$-0.8 \\AA\\ and H$\\alpha$+0.8 \\AA\\ from IBIS at DST/NSO, EUV images and magnetograms from the SDO, coronagraph images from STEREO and the X-ray flux observations from FERMI and GOES. We establish that the filament destabilisation and eruption are the main trigger for the flaring activity. A surge-like event with a circular ribbon in one of the filament footpoints is determined as the possible t...

  4. Short-Term H$\\alpha$ Line Variations in Classical Be Stars: 59 Cyg and OT Gem

    K. T. Paul; S. B. Shruthi; Annapurni Subramaniam


    We present the optical spectroscopic study of two classical Be stars, 59 Cyg and OT Gem obtained over a period of few months in 2009. We detected a rare triple-peak H$\\alpha$ emission phase in 59 Cyg and a rapid decrease in the emission strength of H$\\alpha$ in OT Gem, which are used to understand their circumstellar disks. We find that 59 Cyg is likely to be rapid rotator, rotating at a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$ 0.80. The radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region for 59 Cyg is estimated to be \\( R_d/R_*\\) $\\sim$, assuming a Keplerian disk, suggesting that it has a large disk. We classify stars which have shown triple-peaks into two groups and find that the triple-peak emission in 59 Cyg is similar to $\\zeta$ Tau. OT Gem is found to have a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$0.30, suggesting that it is either a slow rotator or viewed in low inclination. In OT Gem, we observed a large reduction in the radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region from $\\sim$6.9 to $\\sim$1.7 in a period of three months, along with the reduction in the emission strength. Our observations suggest that the disk is lost from outside to inside during this disk loss phase in OT Gem.

  5. Investigating H$\\alpha$, UV, and IR star-formation rate diagnostics for a large sample of z ~ 2 galaxies

    Shivaei, Irene; Steidel, Charles C; Shapley, Alice E


    We use a sample of 262 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies at redshifts $2.08\\leq z\\leq 2.51$ to compare H$\\alpha$, UV, and IR star-formation-rate diagnostics and to investigate the dust properties of the galaxies. At these redshifts, the H$\\alpha$ line shifts to the $K_{s}$-band. By comparing $K_{s}$-band photometry to underlying stellar population model fits to other UV, optical, and near-infrared data, we infer the H$\\alpha$ flux for each galaxy. We obtain the best agreement between H$\\alpha$- and UV-based SFRs if we assume that the ionized gas and stellar continuum are reddened by the same value and that the Calzetti attenuation curve is applied to both. Aided with MIPS 24$\\mu$m data, we find that an attenuation curve steeper than the Calzetti curve is needed to reproduce the observed IR/UV ratios of galaxies younger than 100 Myr. Furthermore, using the bolometric star-formation rate inferred from the UV and mid-IR data (SFR$_{IR}$+SFR$_{UV}$), we calculated the conversion between the H$\\alp...

  6. H-alpha survey of low-mass satellites of the neighbouring galaxies M31 and M81

    Kaisin, S S


    Images have been obtained at the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the H-alpha line and in the continuum for 20 dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: And XI-And XXX, plus the distant Globular cluster Bol 520. Their star formation rates (FR) are estimated using the H-alpha flux and the ultraviolet FUV flux measured with the GALEX space telescope. Most of the dSph satellites of M31 have extremely low star formation rates with a characteristic upper limit of SFR~5x10^{-7}. We have made similar estimates of SFR from the H-alpha and FUV fluxes for 13 galaxies with low surface brightness recently discovered in the neighborhood of M81. Eleven of them are physical satellites of M81 with typical SFR< 5x10^{-5}. The median stellar masses of these satellites of M31 and M81 are 0.9 and 1.9 million solar masses, respectively. Our H-alpha observations place a 2-3 times stricter limit on the value of SFR than the data from the GALEX satellite, with a substant...

  7. Development of a high-speed H-alpha camera system for the observation of rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    Kiplinger, Alan L.; Dennis, Brian R.; Orwig, Larry E.; Chen, P. C.


    A solid-state digital camera was developed for obtaining H alpha images of solar flares with 0.1 s time resolution. Beginning in the summer of 1988, this system will be operated in conjunction with SMM's hard X-ray burst spectrometer (HXRBS). Important electron time-of-flight effects that are crucial for determining the flare energy release processes should be detectable with these combined H alpha and hard X-ray observations. Charge-injection device (CID) cameras provide 128 x 128 pixel images simultaneously in the H alpha blue wing, line center, and red wing, or other wavelength of interest. The data recording system employs a microprocessor-controlled, electronic interface between each camera and a digital processor board that encodes the data into a serial bitstream for continuous recording by a standard video cassette recorder. Only a small fraction of the data will be permanently archived through utilization of a direct memory access interface onto a VAX-750 computer. In addition to correlations with hard X-ray data, observations from the high speed H alpha camera will also be correlated and optical and microwave data and data from future MAX 1991 campaigns. Whether the recorded optical flashes are simultaneous with X-ray peaks to within 0.1 s, are delayed by tenths of seconds or are even undetectable, the results will have implications on the validity of both thermal and nonthermal models of hard X-ray production.

  8. Short-term H{\\alpha} line variations in Classical Be stars: 59 Cyg and OT Gem

    KT, Paul; Subramaniam, Annapurni


    We present the optical spectroscopic study of two Classical Be stars, 59 Cyg and OT Gem obtained over a period of few months in 2009. We detected a rare triple-peak H$\\alpha$ emission phase in 59 Cyg and a rapid decrease in the emission strength of H$\\alpha$ in OT Gem, which are used to understand their circumstellar disks. We find that 59 Cyg is likely to be rapid rotator, rotating at a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$ 0.80. The radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region for 59 Cyg is estimated to be $R_d/R_*$ $\\sim$ 10.0, assuming a Keplerian disk, suggesting that it has a large disk. We classify stars which have shown triple-peaks into two groups and find that the triple-peak emission in 59 Cyg is similar to $\\zeta$ Tau. OT Gem is found to have a fractional critical rotation of $\\sim$ 0.30, suggesting that it is either a slow rotator or viewed in low inclination. In OT Gem, we observed a large reduction in the radius of the H$\\alpha$ emission region from $\\sim$ 6.9 to $\\sim$ 1.7 in a period of three mon...

  9. Discovery of H-alpha Emission from the Close Companion Inside the Gap of Transitional Disk HD142527

    Close, L M; Males, J R; Puglisi, A; Xompero, M; Apai, D; Najita, J; Weinberger, A J; Morzinski, K; Rodigas, T J; Hinz, P; Bailey, V; Briguglio, R


    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of HD142527 with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5m Magellan telescope (0.5-0.7"), we find MagAO delivers 24-19% Strehl at H-alpha (0.656 microns). We detect a faint companion (HD142527B) embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3+/-1.9 mas (~12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both H-alpha and a continuum filter (Delta_mag=6.33+/-0.20 mag at H-alpha and 7.50+/-0.25 mag in the continuum filter). This provides confirmation of the tentative companion discovered by Biller and co-workers with sparse aperture masking at the 8m VLT. The H-alpha emission from the ~0.25 solar mass companion (EW=180 Angstroms) implies a mass accretion rate of ~5.9x10^-10 Msun/yr, and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% Lsun. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably bet...

  10. From HI to Stars: HI Depletion in Starbursts and Star-Forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA H-alpha Survey

    Jaskot, A E; Salzer, J J; Van Sistine, A; Bell, E F; Haynes, M P


    HI in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, HI-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the ALFALFA H-alpha survey, we explore HI properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA H-alpha provides R-band and H-alpha imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21-cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on H-alpha equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar HI to stellar mass ratios (MHI/M*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts' HI. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter HI depletion times (t_dep), implying more efficient HI-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in t_dep at low M*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers...

  11. Comparison of H-alpha and UV Star Formation Rates in the Local Volume: Systematic Discrepancies for Dwarf Galaxies

    Lee, Janice C; Tremonti, Christy; Kennicutt, Robert C; Salim, Samir; Bothwell, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Dalcanton, Julianne; Dale, Daniel; Engelbracht, Chad; J., Jose G Funes S; Johnson, Benjamin; Sakai, Shoko; Skillman, Evan; van Zee, Liese; Walter, Fabian; Weisz, Daniel


    (abridged) Using a complete sample of ~300 star-forming galaxies within 11 Mpc, we evaluate the consistency between star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from the far ultraviolet (FUV) non-ionizing continuum and H-alpha nebular emission, assuming standard conversion recipes in which the SFR scales linearly with luminosity at a given wavelength. Our analysis probes SFRs over 5 orders of magnitude, down to ultra-low activities on the order of ~0.0001 M_sun/yr. The data are drawn from the 11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey (11HUGS), which has obtained H-alpha fluxes from ground-based narrowband imaging, and UV fluxes from imaging with GALEX. For normal spiral galaxies (SFR~1 M_sun/yr), our results are consistent with previous work which has shown that FUV SFRs tend to be lower than H-alpha SFRs before accounting for internal dust attenuation, but that there is relative consistency between the two tracers after proper corrections are applied. However, a puzzle is encountered at the faint end of the lumin...

  12. Dust-Corrected Star Formation Rates of Galaxies. I. Combinations of H-alpha and Infrared Tracers

    Kennicutt, Robert C Jr; Calzetti, Daniela; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Bendo, George; Engelbracht, Charles W; Johnson, Benjamin D; Lee, Janice C


    We combine H-alpha emission-line and infrared continuum measurements of two samples of nearby galaxies to derive dust attenuation-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). We use a simple energy balance based method that has been applied previously to HII regions in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), and extend the methodology to integrated measurements of galaxies. We find that our composite H-alpha+IR based SFRs are in excellent agreement with attenuation-corrected SFRs derived from integrated spectrophotometry, over the full range of SFRs (0.01 -- 80 solar mass per year) and attenuations (0 -- 2.5 mag) studied. We find that the combination of H-alpha and total infrared luminosities provides the most robust SFR measurements, but combinations of H-alpha measurements with monochromatic luminosities at 24 micron and 8 micron perform nearly as well. The calibrations differ significantly from those obtained for HII regions (Calzetti et al. 2007), with the difference attributable to a more evolved ...


    Asai, Ayumi; Isobe, Hiroaki [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; UeNo, Satoru; Nagata, Shin' ichi; Morita, Satoshi; Nishida, Keisuke; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Oi, Akihito [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Akioka, Maki, E-mail: [Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 311-1202 (Japan)


    We report on the first simultaneous observation of an H{alpha} Moreton wave, the corresponding EUV fast coronal waves, and a slow and bright EUV wave (typical EIT wave). We observed a Moreton wave, associated with an X6.9 flare that occurred on 2011 August 9 at the active region NOAA 11263, in the H{alpha} images taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory of Kyoto University. In the EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory we found not only the corresponding EUV fast 'bright' coronal wave, but also the EUV fast 'faint' wave that is not associated with the H{alpha} Moreton wave. We also found a slow EUV wave, which corresponds to a typical EIT wave. Furthermore, we observed, for the first time, the oscillations of a prominence and a filament, simultaneously, both in the H{alpha} and EUV images. To trigger the oscillations by the flare-associated coronal disturbance, we expect a coronal wave as fast as the fast-mode MHD wave with the velocity of about 570-800 km s{sup -1}. These velocities are consistent with those of the observed Moreton wave and the EUV fast coronal wave.

  14. The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. V. H-alpha-selected Survey List 3

    Jangren, A; Sarajedini, V L; Gronwall, C; Werk, J K; Chomiuk, L; Moody, J W; Boroson, T A; Jangren, Anna; Salzer, John J.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Gronwall, Caryl; Werk, Jessica K.; Chomiuk, Laura; Boroson, Todd A.


    The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) is an objective-prism survey designed to detect extragalactic emission-line objects. It combines many of the features of previous slitless spectroscopic surveys with the advantages of modern CCD detectors, and is the first purely digital objective-prism survey for emission-line galaxies (ELGs). Here we present the third list of ELG candidates selected from our red spectral data, which cover the wavelength range 6400 to 7200 A. In most cases, the detected emission line is H-alpha. The current survey list covers the region of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). This survey covers two fields; the first is 3 x 3 degrees square and located at RA = 14h 30m, DEC = 34.5 deg (B1950), the second is 2.3 x 4.0 degrees and centered at RA = 2h 7.5m, DEC = -4.75 deg. A total area of 19.65 deg^2 is covered by the KISS data. A total of 261 candidate emission-line objects have been selected for inclusion in the survey list (13.3 per deg^2). We tabulate accurate coordinate...

  15. The Tremaine-Weinberg method for pattern speeds using H-alpha emission from ionized gas

    Beckman, John E; Piñol, Núria; Toonen, Silvia; Hernandez, Olivier; Carignan, Claude


    The Fabry-Perot interferometer FaNTOmM was used at the 3.6m Canada France Hawaii Telescope and the 1.6m Mont Megantic Telescope to obtain data cubes in H-alpha of 9 nearby spiral galaxies from which maps in integrated intensity, velocity, and velocity dispersion were derived. We then applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method, in which the pattern speed can be deduced from its velocity field, by finding the integrated value of the mean velocity along a slit parallel to the major axis weighted by the intensity and divided by the weighted mean distance of the velocity points from the tangent point measured along the slit. The measured variables can be used either to make separate calculations of the pattern speed and derive a mean, or in a plot of one against the other for all the points on all slits, from which a best fit value can be derived. Linear fits were found for all the galaxies in the sample. For two galaxies a clearly separate inner pattern speed with a higher value, was also identified and measured.

  16. Intensity mapping of H-alpha, H-beta, [OII] and [OIII] lines at z<5

    Gong, Yan; Silva, Marta B; Zemcov, Michael; Feng, Chang; Santos, Mario G; Dore, Olivier; Chen, Xuelei


    Intensity mapping is now becoming a useful tool to study the large-scale structure of the universe through spatial variations in the integrated emission from galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We study intensity mapping of the H-alpha6563A, [OIII]5007A, [OII]3727A and H-beta4861A lines at 0.8

  17. Measurement of Star-Formation Rate from H-$\\alpha$ in field galaxies at z = 1

    Glazebrook, K; Economou, F; Lilly, S; Colless, M; Glazebrook, Karl; Blake, Chris; Economou, Frossie; Lilly, Simon; Colless, Matthew


    We report the results of J-band infrared spectroscopy of a sample of 13 z=1 field galaxies drawn from the Canada-France Redshift Survey, targeting galaxies whose redshifts place the rest frame H-alpha line emission from HII regions in between the bright night sky OH lines. As a result we detect emission down to a flux limit of ~10^{-16} ergs/cm^2/s corresponding to a luminosity limit of these luminosities we derive estimates of the star-formation rates in these galaxies which are independent of previous estimates based upon their rest-frame ultraviolet (2800 Angstroms) luminosity. The mean star-formation rate at z=1, from this sample, is found to be three times as high as the ultraviolet estimates. The dust extinction in these galaxies is inferred to be moderate, with a typical A_V=0.5-1.0 mags, comparable to local field galaxies. This suggests that the bulk of star-formation is not heavily obscured. Star-forming galaxies have the bluest colours and a preponderance of disturbed/interacting morphologies. We al...

  18. Star formation properties in the Local Volume galaxies via $H\\alpha$ and FUV fluxes

    Karachentsev, Igor D


    A distance-limited sample of 869 objects from the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog is used to characterize the star formation status of the Local Volume population. We present a compiled list of 1217 star formation rate (SFR) estimates for 802 galaxies within 11 Mpc from us, derived from the H-alpha imaging surveys and GALEX far-ultraviolet survey. We briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between SFR and luminosity, morphology, HI-mass, surface brightness, as well as environment of the galaxies. About 3/4 of our sample consist of dwarf galaxies, for which we offer a more refined classification. We note that the specific star formation rate of nearly all luminous and dwarf galaxies does not exceed the maximum value: $\\log(SFR/L_K) = -9.4$ [yr$^{-1}$]. The bulk of spiral and blue dwarf galaxies have enough time to generate their stellar mass during the cosmological time, $T_0$, with the observed SFRs. They dispose of a sufficient amount of gas to support their present SFRs over the next $T_0$ term. We note ...

  19. The deep OB star population in Carina from the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey (VPHAS+)

    Mohr-Smith, M; Napiwotzki, R; Simón-Díaz, S; Wright, N J; Barentsen, G; Eislöffel, J; Farnhill, H J; Greimel, R; Monguió, M; Kalari, V; Parker, Q A; Vink, J S


    Massive OB stars are critical to the ecology of galaxies, and yet our knowledge of OB stars in the Milky Way, fainter than $V \\sim 12$, remains patchy. Data from the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey (VPHAS+) permit the construction of the first deep catalogues of blue excess-selected OB stars, without neglecting the stellar field. A total of 14900 candidates with 2MASS cross-matches are blue-selected from a 42 square-degree region in the Galactic Plane, capturing the Carina Arm over the Galactic longitude range $282^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 293^{\\circ}$. Spectral energy distribution fitting is performed on these candidates' combined VPHAS+ $u,g,r,i$ and 2MASS $J,H,K$ magnitudes. This delivers: effective temperature constraints, statistically separating O from early-B stars; high-quality extinction parameters, $A_0$ and $R_V$ (random errors typically $ 3.5$) extinction laws are ubiquitous in the region, over the distance range 2.5--3 kpc to $\\sim$10~kpc. Near prominent massive clusters, $R_V$ tends to ri...

  20. The H$\\alpha$ emission of nearby M dwarfs and its relation to stellar rotation

    Newton, Elisabeth R; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Mink, Jessica


    The high-energy emission from low-mass stars is mediated by the magnetic dynamo. Although the mechanisms by which fully convective stars generate large-scale magnetic fields are not well understood, it is clear that, as for solar-type stars, stellar rotation plays a pivotal role. We present 270 new optical spectra of low-mass stars in the Solar Neighborhood. Combining our observations with those from the literature, our sample comprises 2202 measurements or non-detections of H$\\alpha$ emission in nearby M dwarfs. This includes 466 with photometric rotation periods. Stars with masses between 0.1 and 0.6 solar masses are well-represented in our sample, with fast and slow rotators of all masses. We observe a threshold in the mass-period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. The well- defined active/inactive boundary ...

  1. Effect of lipid matrix and cytoskeleton proteins on Ca2+-activated K+ channels in erythrocytes of alcoholic and II type diabetes mellitus patients.

    Prokop'eva, V D; Petrova, I V; Sitozhevskii, A V; Kremeno, S V; Koryukin, V I; Baskakov, M B; Bokhan, N A; Novitskii, V V


    We studied the effect of changes in erythrocyte volume and irreversible thermal denaturation of cytoskeleton proteins and lipid matrix on activity of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in erythrocytes of alcoholic and patients with II type diabetes mellitus. Changes in Ca(2+)-dependent potassium permeability of erythrocyte membrane in alcoholic patients and patients with II type diabetes mellitus are related to modification of cytoskeleton, rather than to changes in lipid matrix.

  2. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Antitumor Activity of a Ca(II Coordination Polymer Based on 1,6-Naphthalenedisulfonate and 4,4′-Bipyridyl

    Xishi Tai


    Full Text Available A novel Ca(II coordination polymer, [CaL(4,4′-bipyridyl(H2O4]n (L = 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonate, was synthesized by reaction of calcium perchlorate with 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and 4,4′-bipyridyl in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray crystallography reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer belongs to the orthorhombic system, with space group P212121. The geometry of the Ca(II ion is a distorted CaNO6 pengonal bipyramid, arising from its coordination by four water molecules, one nitrogen atom of 4,4′-bipyridyl molecule, and two oxygen atoms from two L ligands. The complex molecules form a helical chain by self-assembly. The antitumor activity of 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and the Ca(II coordination polymer against human hepatoma smmc-7721 cell line and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer inhibits cell growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line with IC50 value of 27 μg/mL, and is more resistive to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line as compared to 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt.

  3. Heme-induced Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation is mediated by CaM kinase II

    Souza, C.F. [Laboratorio de Imunomodulacao e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz (Brazil); Carneiro, A.B.; Silveira, A.B. [Laboratorio de Sinalizacao Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, UFRJ (Brazil); Laranja, G.A.T. [Laboratorio de Interacao Tripanosomatideos e Vetores, Departamento de Bioquimica, IBRAG, UERJ, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva-Neto, M.A.C. [Laboratorio de Sinalizacao Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, UFRJ (Brazil); INCT, Entomologia Molecular (Brazil); Costa, S.C. Goncalves da [Laboratorio de Imunomodulacao e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz (Brazil); Paes, M.C., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Interacao Tripanosomatideos e Vetores, Departamento de Bioquimica, IBRAG, UERJ, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); INCT, Entomologia Molecular (Brazil)


    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted through triatomine vectors during their blood-meal on vertebrate hosts. These hematophagous insects usually ingest approximately 10 mM of heme bound to hemoglobin in a single meal. Blood forms of the parasite are transformed into epimastigotes in the crop which initiates a few hours after parasite ingestion. In a previous work, we investigated the role of heme in parasite cell proliferation and showed that the addition of heme significantly increased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner . To investigate whether the heme effect is mediated by protein kinase signalling pathways, parasite proliferation was evaluated in the presence of several protein kinase (PK) inhibitors. We found that only KN-93, a classical inhibitor of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), blocked heme-induced cell proliferation. KN-92, an inactive analogue of KN-93, was not able to block this effect. A T. cruzi CaMKII homologue is most likely the main enzyme involved in this process since parasite proliferation was also blocked when Myr-AIP, an inhibitory peptide for mammalian CaMKII, was included in the cell proliferation assay. Moreover, CaMK activity increased in parasite cells with the addition of heme as shown by immunological and biochemical assays. In conclusion, the present results are the first strong indications that CaMKII is involved in the heme-induced cell signalling pathway that mediates parasite proliferation.

  4. Scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals for the CRESST-II and EURECA dark matter searches

    Sivers, Moritz v.; Ertl, Andreas; Guetlein, Achim; Lanfranchi, Jean-Come; Muenster, Andrea; Neumann, Felix; Potzel, Walter; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Wawozcny, Stephan; Willers, Michael; Zoeller, Andreas [Physik Department, E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Erb, Andreas [Walther-Meissner-Institut fuer Tieftemperatur Forschung, 85748 Garching (Germany); Strauss, Raimund; Wuestrich, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)


    The CRESST-II experiment for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter uses scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals that are operated as low-temperature detectors. EURECA is a joint collaboration of existing cryogenic direct dark matter searches to develop a future multi-material experiment with a target mass of up to one ton. While in the past crystals were obtained from external suppliers, we recently started producing CaWO{sub 4} single crystals with a dedicated Czochralski furnace at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen to have a direct influence on the radiopurity and scintillation properties. We present here an overview of the growth process as well as measurements of the crystals' scintillation properties and radiopurity.

  5. Radial velocities and metallicities from infrared Ca II triplet spectroscopy of open clusters II. Berkeley 23, King 1, NGC 559, NGC 6603 and NGC 7245

    Carrera, R; Ospina, N; Balaguer-Nuñez, L; Jordi, C; Monteagudo, L


    Context: Open clusters are key to studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, there is a deficiency of radial velocity and chemical abundance determinations for open clusters in the literature. Aims: We intend to increase the number of determinations of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for open clusters. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution spectra (R~8000) in the infrared region Ca II triplet lines (~8500 AA) for several stars in five open clusters with the long-slit IDS spectrograph on the 2.5~m Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain). Radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlation fitting techniques. The relationships available in the literature between the strength of infrared Ca II lines and metallicity were also used to derive the metallicity for each cluster. Results: We obtain = 48.6+/-3.4, -58.4+/-6.8, 26.0+/-4.3 and -65.3+/-3.2 km s-1 for Berkeley 23, NGC 559, NGC 6603 and NGC 7245, respectively. We found [Fe/H] =-0.25+...

  6. APE1/Ref-1 promotes the effect of angiotensin II on Ca2+ -activated K+ channel in human endothelial cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    Park, Won Sun; Ko, Eun A; Jung, In Duk; Son, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Nari; Park, So Youn; Hong, Ki Whan; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Han, Jin


    The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on whole-cell large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) currents was investigated in control and Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1)-overexpressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ang II blocked the BK(Ca) current in a dose-dependent fashion, and this inhibition was greater in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs than in control HUVECs (half-inhibition values of 102.81+/-9.54 nM and 11.34+/-0.39 nM in control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs, respectively). Pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or knock down of NADPH oxidase (p22 phox) using siRNA increased the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) currents, similar to the effect of APE1/Ref-1 overexpression. In addition, application of Ang II increased the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels in the control HUVECs but not in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. Furthermore, direct application of hydrogen peroxide increased BK(Ca) channel activity. Finally, the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) current was blocked by an antagonist of the Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in both control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. From these results, we conclude that the inhibitory effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channel function is NADPH oxidase-dependent and may be promoted by APE1/Ref-1.

  7. Miocrowave spectral imaging, H-alpha and hard X-ray observations of a solar limb flare

    Wang, H.; Gary, D. E.; Lim, J.; Schwartz, R. A.


    We compare the microwave, H-alpha, and hard X-ray observations for a west limb C7.3 flare that occurred at 17:10 UT, 1992 June 26. H-alpha movies were obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Before the onset of the flare, overexposed H-alpha images show the complicated flux loop structure above the limb. Material was observed to descend along the loops toward the site where the flare occurred hours later. Using the five-antenna solar array at Owens Valley Radio Observatory, we obtain two-dimensional maps of flare emission from 1.4 to 14 GHz. In all three temporal peaks of the microwave bursts, the maps show the same characteristics. The peak low-frequency emission comes from the top of one bundle of the H-alpha loops and gradually shifts to the foot-point of the loops (the location of H-alpha flare) as the frequency increases. The location of the emission peak shifts 88 sec between 1 and 14 GHz. Seventy percent of the shift occurs between 1 and 5 GHz. The locus of the shift of the emission peak follows the shape of an H-alpha surge that occurred after the flare. For each point along the locus, we create the microwave brightness temperature spectrum and compare the radio-derived electron distribution with that derived from the high-resolution hard X-ray spectra measured with Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). We find that the peak frequency changes from approximately 3 GHz at the loop top to approximately 7 GHz at the footprint, presumably due to the increase of the magnetic field from approximately 160 GHz at the loop top to approximately 300 G at the footpoint. The high-frequency slope of the microwave power-law spectrum decreases from approximately 10 at the loop top to approximately 5 at the footprint due to a change in the energy distribution of the dominant electrons. The microwave brightness temperature spectral index predicted by the BATSE power-law hard X-ray spectra agrees with the measured

  8. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}-{alpha}-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale; Sintesis de N-Acetil-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartil-Glutamico a escala de Micromoles

    Suarez, C.


    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- {alpha} -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3{sup H}-acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Alpha Trianguli Australis (K2 II-III) - Hybrid or composite?

    Ayres, T. R.


    The prototype hybrid-spectrum giant Alpha Trianguli Australis exhibits a far-ultraviolet continuum which is considerably bluer than would be expected of a star of its optical colors, suggesting the presence of a previously unrecognized companion. If the K-type primary is as luminous as indicated by the widths of its Ca II and H-alpha lines, the companion could be an early F-type dwarf that only recently has arrived on the main sequence. Indeed, the flux of C IV from Alpha TrA - an important measure of hybridness - would not be inconsistent with that expected from a very young chromospherically active F star.

  10. The effect of isotopic splitting on the bisector and inversions of the solar Ca II 854.2 nm line

    Leenaarts, Jorrit; Kochukhov, Oleg; Carlsson, Mats


    The Ca II 854.2 nm spectral line is a common diagnostic of the solar chromosphere. The average line profile shows an asymmetric core, and its bisector shows a characteristic inverse-C shape. The line actually consists of six components with slightly different wavelengths depending on the isotope of calcium. This isotopic splitting of the line has been taken into account in studies of non-solar stars, but never for the Sun. We performed non-LTE radiative transfer computations from three models of the solar atmosphere and show that the asymmetric line-core and inverse C-shape of the bisector of the 854.2 nm line can be explained by isotopic splitting. We confirm this finding by analysing observations and showing that the line asymmetry is present irrespective of conditions in the solar atmosphere. Finally, we show that inversions based on the Ca II 854.2 nm line should take the isotopic splitting into account, otherwise the inferred atmospheres will contain erroneous velocity gradients and temperatures.

  11. Using the Ca II Triplet to Trace Abundance Variations in Individual Red Giant Branch stars in Three Nearby Galaxies

    Tolstoy, E; Cole, A A; Pasquini, L; Gilmozzi, R; Gallagher, J S; Tolstoy, Eline; Irwin, Michael J.; Cole, Andrew A.


    Spectroscopic abundance determinations for stars spanning a Hubble time in age are necessary in order to unambiguously determine the evolutionary histories of galaxies. Using FORS1 in Multi-Object Spectroscopy mode on ANTU (UT1) at the ESO-VLT on Paranal we obtained near infrared spectra from which we measured the equivalent widths of the two strongest Ca II triplet lines to determine metal abundances for a sample of Red Giant Branch stars, selected from ESO-NTT optical (I, V-I) photometry of three nearby, Local Group, galaxies: the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal, the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal and the Dwarf Irregular NGC 6822. The summed equivalent width of the two strongest lines in the Ca II triplet absorption line feature, centered at 8500A, can be readily converted into an [Fe/H] abundance using the previously established calibrations by Armandroff & Da Costa (1991) and Rutledge, Hesser & Stetson (1997). We measured metallicities for 37 stars in Sculptor, 32 stars in Fornax, and 23 stars in NGC 6822, yie...

  12. RG-II from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer suppresses asthmatic reaction

    In Duk Jung


    Full Text Available In asthma, T helper 2 (TH2-type cytokines such as interleukin(IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are produced by activated CD4+ T cells.Dendritic cells played an important role in determining thefate of naïve T cells into either TH1 or TH2 cells. Wedetermined whether RG-II regulates the TH1/TH2 immuneresponse by using an ovalbumin-induced murine model ofasthma. RG-II reduced IL-4 production but increased interferon-gamma production, and inhibited GATA-3 geneexpression. RG-II also inhibited asthmatic reactions includingan increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolarlavage fluid, an increase in inflammatory cell infiltration inlung tissues, airway luminal narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness.This study provides evidence that RG-II plays acritical role in ameliorating the pathogenic process ofasthmatic inflammation in mice. These findings provide newinsights into the immunotherapeutic role of RG-II in terms ofits effects in a murine model of asthma. [BMB reports 2012;45(2: 79-84

  13. Complexin II plays a positive role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by facilitating vesicle priming

    Cai, Haijiang; Reim, Kerstin; Varoqueaux, Frederique


    the complex and inhibiting membrane fusion. However, several other studies also suggest that CPXs are positive regulators of neurotransmitter release. Thus, whether CPXs are positive or negative regulators of exocytosis is not known, much less the stage in the vesicle life cycle at which they function. Here...... regulate the size of the primed vesicle pools and have a positive role in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis....

  14. A Search for H-alpha Absorption in the Exosphere of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458b

    Winn, J N; Turner, E L; Narita, N; Frye, B L; Aoki, W; Sato, B; Yamada, T; Winn, Joshua N.; Suto, Yasushi; Turner, Edwin L.; Narita, Norio; Frye, Brenda L.; Aoki, Wako; Sato, Bunei; Yamada, Toru


    There is evidence that the transiting planet HD 209458b has a large exosphere of neutral hydrogen, based on a 15% decrement in Lyman-alpha flux that was observed by Vidal-Madjar et al. during transits. Here we report upper limits on Balmer-alpha (H-alpha) absorption by the exosphere. The results are based on optical spectra of the parent star obtained with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph. Comparison of the spectra taken inside and outside of transit reveals no exospheric H-alpha signal greater than 0.1% within a 5.1AA band (chosen to have the same Dlambda/lambda as the 15% Ly-alpha absorption). The corresponding limit on the column density of n=2 neutral hydrogen is N_2 <~ 10^9 cm^{-2}. This limit constrains proposed models involving a hot (~10^4 K) and hydrodynamically escaping exosphere.

  15. Interaction of NGC 2276 with the NGC 2300 group - Fabry-Perot observations of the H-alpha velocity field

    Gruendl, Robert A.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Davis, David S.; Mulchaey, John S.


    We report kinematic observations of H-alpha emission from the spiral galaxy NGC 2276 obtained with a Fabry-Perot Camera. The 'bow shock' appearance and enhanced star formation in NGC 2276 have been attributed by Mulchaey et al. (1993) to a ram-pressure interaction with the dense IGM detected in ROSAT observations of the NGC 2300 group of galaxies. Along the 'bow shock' limb of the galaxy, we observe strong H-alpha emission and significant kinematic perturbations located immediately interior to an abrupt decrease in the scale length of the optical disk. Although ram-pressure forces may be important in the evolution of the outer gaseous disk, the peculiar kinematics and the truncation in the stellar disk are difficult to explain in a ram-pressure model; a more likely cause is tidal interaction, probably with the elliptical galaxy NGC 2300.

  16. The Ca²⁺-calmodulin-Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling pathway is involved in oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptosis in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Toledo, Flavia D; Pérez, Leonardo M; Basiglio, Cecilia L; Ochoa, Justina E; Sanchez Pozzi, Enrique J; Roma, Marcelo G


    Oxidative stress (OS) is a common event in most hepatopathies, leading to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) formation and further exacerbation of both OS from mitochondrial origin and cell death. Intracellular Ca²⁺ increase plays a permissive role in these events, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly known. We examined in primary cultured rat hepatocytes whether the Ca²⁺/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway is involved in this process, by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) as a pro-oxidant, model compound. tBOOH (500 μM, 15 min) induced MPTP formation, as assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane depolarization as a surrogate marker, and increased lipid peroxidation in a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive manner, revealing the involvement of MPTPs in tBOOH-induced radical oxygen species (ROS) formation. Intracellular Ca²⁺ sequestration with BAPTA/AM, CaM blockage with W7 or trifluoperazine, and CaMKII inhibition with KN-62 all fully prevented tBOOH-induced MPTP opening and reduced tBOOH-induced lipid peroxidation to a similar extent to CsA, suggesting that Ca²⁺/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway fully mediates MPTP-mediated mitochondrial ROS generation. tBOOH-induced apoptosis, as shown by flow cytometry of annexin V/propidium iodide, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and increase in the Bax-to-Bcl-xL ratio, and the Ca²⁺/CaM/CaMKII signaling antagonists fully prevented these effects. Intramitochondrial CaM and CaMKII were partially involved in tBOOH-induced MPTP formation, since W7 and KN-62 both attenuated the tBOOH-induced, MPTP-mediated swelling of isolated mitochondria. We concluded that Ca²⁺/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway is a key mediator of OS-induced MPTP formation and the subsequent exacerbation of OS from mitochondrial origin and apoptotic cell death.

  17. Photometry and H$alpha$ studies of a Low Mass Ratio Overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0

    Sriram, K; Rao, P Vivekananda


    Both high precision CCD photometric and H$alpha$ line studies are presented for an overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0. The light curve exhibits a total eclipse at secondary minima along with an O'Connell effect. The light curve was modeled using the Wilson Devinney code and the best solution provides the mass ratio q = 0.106 and fill-out factor f = 72%. These parameters indicate that the system is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with a high degree of geometrical contact. The H alpha line equivalent width varied at different phases and it is found that the line is possibly filled-in at secondary minima. From a small sample of overcontact binaries, we found a correlation between the orbital period and H alpha line equivalent width of the primary component. Based on a sample of high filling factor and low mass ratio contact binaries, a mass ratio cut-off is observed at q = 0.085 in mass ratio - period plane. It was observed that below q $\\le$ 0.085, period decreases with an increase in q and above it, pe...

  18. The Wyoming Survey for H-alpha. I. Initial Results at z ~ 0.16 and 0.24

    Dale, Daniel A; Cohen, Seth A; Johnson, L Clifton; Kattner, ShiAnne M; Lamanna, Christine A; Moore, Carolynn A; Schuster, Micah D; Thatcher, Jacob W


    The Wyoming Survey for H-alpha, or WySH, is a large-area, ground-based, narrowband imaging survey for H-alpha-emitting galaxies over the latter half of the age of the Universe. The survey spans several square degrees in a set of fields of low Galactic cirrus emission. The observing program focuses on multiple dz~0.02 epochs from z~0.16 to z~0.81 down to a uniform (continuum+line) luminosity at each epoch of ~10^33 W uncorrected for extinction (3sigma for a 3" diameter aperture). First results are presented here for 98+208 galaxies observed over approximately 2 square degrees at redshifts z~0.16 and 0.24, including preliminary luminosity functions at these two epochs. These data clearly show an evolution with lookback time in the volume-averaged cosmic star formation rate. Integrals of Schechter fits to the extinction-corrected H-alpha luminosity functions indicate star formation rates per co-moving volume of 0.009 and 0.014 h_70 M_sun/yr/Mpc^3 at z~0.16 and 0.24, respectively. The formal uncertainties in the ...

  19. The Second Data Release of the INT Photometric H\\alpha\\ Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS DR2)

    Barentsen, Geert; Drew, J E; González-Solares, E A; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Miszalski, B; Ruhland, C; Groot, P; Mampaso, A; Sale, S E; Henden, A A; Aungwerojwit, A; Barlow, M J; Carter, P J; Corradi, R L M; Drake, J J; Eislöffel, J; Fabregat, J; Gänsicke, B T; Fusillo, N P Gentile; Greiss, S; Hales, A S; Hodgkin, S; Huckvale, L; Irwin, J; King, R; Knigge, C; Kupfer, T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D J; Lewis, J R; Mohr-Smith, M; Morris, R A H; Naylor, T; Parker, Q A; Phillipps, S; Pyrzas, S; Raddi, R; Roelofs, G H A; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Sabin, L; Scaringi, S; Steeghs, D; Suso, J; Tata, R; Unruh, Y C; van Roestel, J; Viironen, K; Vink, J S; Walton, N A; Wright, N J; Zijlstra, A A


    The INT/WFC Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is a 1800 square degrees imaging survey covering Galactic latitudes |b| < 5 deg and longitudes l = 30 to 215 deg in the r, i and H\\alpha\\ filters using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma. We present the first quality-controlled and globally-calibrated source catalogue derived from the survey, providing single-epoch photometry for 219 million unique sources across 92% of the footprint. The observations were carried out between 2003 and 2012 at a median seeing of 1.1 arcsec (sampled at 0.33 arcsec/pixel) and to a mean 5\\sigma-depth of 21.2 (r), 20.0 (i) and 20.3 (H\\alpha) in the Vega magnitude system. We explain the data reduction and quality control procedures, describe and test the global re-calibration, and detail the construction of the new catalogue. We show that the new calibration is accurate to 0.03 mag (rms) and recommend a series of quality criteria to select the most rel...

  20. Dust attenuation in z $\\sim$ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST H$\\alpha$ measurements

    Puglisi, A; Franceschini, A; Talia, M; Cimatti, A; Baronchelli, I; Daddi, E; Renzini, A; Schawinski, K; Mancini, C; Silverman, J; Gruppioni, C; Lutz, D; Berta, S; Oliver, S J


    We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with the PEP/Herschel data to characterize the H\\alpha dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 normal star-forming galaxies at $0.7\\leq z\\leq1.5$ in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR, at \\lambda=100 and/or 160 \\mu m, and only includes galaxies with a secure H\\alpha detection (S/N>3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured z and F(H\\alpha) for the whole sample, rescaling the observed flux by a constant factor of 1.2 to remove the contamination by [NII]. The stellar masses, infrared and UV luminosities were derived from the SEDs by fitting multi-band data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE500 \\mu m. We derived the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX ratio and the UV-slope, and found an excellent agreement among them. Galaxies in the sample have 2.6x10^9$\\leq$M*$\\leq$3.5x10^11 Msun, intense infrared luminosity (L_IR>1.2x10^10 Lsun), high level of dust obscuration (0.1$\\leq$Estar(B-V)$\\leq$1.1) and str...

  1. Evidence of Environmental Dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory indicated by Local H{\\alpha}

    Rigault, M; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Fakhouri, H K; Feindt, U; Fleury, M; Gangler, E; Greskovic, P; Guy, J; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Lombardo, S; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A


    (Abridged) We study the host galaxy regions in close proximity to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to analyze relations between the properties of SN Ia events and environments most similar to where their progenitors formed. We focus on local H\\alpha\\ emission as an indicator of young environments. The Nearby Supernova Factory has obtained flux-calibrated spectral timeseries for SNe Ia using integral field spectroscopy, allowing the simultaneous measurement of the SN and its immediate vicinity. For 89 SNe Ia we measure H\\alpha\\ emission tracing ongoing star formation within a 1 kpc radius around each SN. This constitutes the first direct study of the local environment for a large sample of SNe Ia also having accurate luminosity, color and stretch measurements. We find that SNe Ia with local H\\alpha\\ emission are redder by 0.036+/-0.017 mag, and that the previously-noted correlation between stretch and host mass is entirely driven by the SNe Ia coming from passive regions. Most importantly, the mean standardized bri...

  2. The large- and small-scale CaII K structure of the Milky Way from observations of Galactic and Magellanic sightlines

    Smoker, J V; Fox, A J


    Aims: By utilising spectra of early-type stellar probes of known distances in the same region of the sky, the large and small-scale (pc) structure of the Galactic ISM can be investigated. This paper determines the variation in line strength of CaII at 3933.661 A, as a function of probe separation for a sample of stars, including many sightlines in the Magellanic Clouds. Methods: FLAMES-GIRAFFE data taken with the VLT towards early-type stars in 3 Galactic & 4 Magellanic open clusters in CaII are used to obtain the velocity, EW, column density and line width of IS Galactic Ca for a total of 657 stars, of which 443 are Magellanic sightlines. In each cluster there are 43-110 stars observed. Additionally, FEROS and UVES CaII & NaI spectra of 21 Galactic & 154 Magellanic early-type stars are presented and combined with data from the literature to study the Ca column density/parallax relationship. Results: For the four Magellanic clusters studied with FLAMES, the strength of the Galactic IS CaII K EW ov...

  3. The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.


    Manganese(IV) oxides, believed to form primarily through microbial activities, are extremely important mineral phases in marine environments where they scavenge a variety of trace elements and thereby control their distributions. The presence of various ions common in seawater are known to influence Mn oxide mineralogy yet little is known about the effect of these ions on the kinetics of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn oxide formation. We examined factors affecting bacterial Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 in natural and artificial seawater of varying ionic conditions. Ca2+ concentration dramatically affected Mn(II) oxidation, while Mg2+, Sr2+, K+, Na+ and NO3- ions had no effect. The rate of Mn(II) oxidation at 10 mM Ca2+ (seawater composition) was four or five times that without Ca2+. The relationship between Ca2+ content and oxidation rate demonstrates that the equilibrium constant is small (on the order of 0.1) and the binding coefficient is 0.5. The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation changed depending on the amount of Ca2+ present, suggesting that Ca2+ exerts a direct effect on the enzyme perhaps as a stabilizing bridge between polypeptide components. We also examined the effect of varying concentrations of NaCl or KNO3 (0-2000 mM) on the kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation in solutions containing 10 mM Ca2+. Mn(II) oxidation was unaffected by changes in ionic strength (I) below 0.2, but it was inhibited by increasing salt concentrations above this value. Our results suggest that the critical coagulation concentration is around 200 mM of salt (I = ca. 0.2), and that the ionic strength of seawater (I > 0.2) accelerates the precipitation of Mn oxides around the spores. Under these conditions, the aggregation of Mn oxides reduces the supply of dissolved O2 and/or Mn2+ and inhibits the Mn(II) → Mn(III) step controlling the enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II). Our results suggest that the hardness and ionic strength of the aquatic environment

  4. A surprise at the bottom of the main sequence: Rapid rotation and NO H-alpha emission

    Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.


    We report Kech Observatory high-resolution echelle spectra from 640-850 nm for eight stars near the faint end of the main sequence. These spectra are the highest resolution spectra of such late-type stars, and clearly resolve the TiO, VO, and atomic lines. The sample includes the field brown-dwarf candidate, BRI 0021-0214 (M9.5+). Very unexpectedly, it shows the most rapid rotation in the entire samples, v sin i approximately 40 km/s, which is 20x faster than typical field nonemission M stars. Equally surprising is that BRI 0021 exhibits no emission or absorptionat H-alpha. We argue that this absence is not simply due to its cool photosphere, but that stellar activity declines in a fundamental way at the end of the main sequence. As it is the first very late M dwarf observed at high spectral resolution, BRI 0021 may be signaling a qualitative change in the angular momentum loss rate among the lowest mass stars. Conventionally, its rapid rotation would have marked BRI 0021 as very young, consistent with the selection effect which arises if the latest-type dwarfs are really brown dwarfs on cooling curves. In any case, it is unprecedented to find no sign of stellar activity in such a rapidly rotating convective star. We also discuss the possible conflict between this observation and the extremely strong H-alpha seen in another very cool star, PC 0025+0447. Extrapolation of M-L relations for BRI 0021 yields M approximately 0.065 solar mass, and the other sample objects have expected masses near the H-burning limit. These include two Pleiades brown-dwarf candidates, four field M6 dwarfs and one late-type T Tauri star. The two Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades membership. Similarly, the late-type T Tauri star has v sin i approximately 30 km/s and H alpha emission indicate of its

  5. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha is required for the initiation and maintenance of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Zaijie Jim


    Repeated administration of opioids not only leads to tolerance and dependence, but also results in nociceptive enhancement called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Nociceptive mediators involved in OIH generation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-depent protein kinase II (CaMKIIalpha) is critical for OIH. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia was produced by repeated morphine administration or pellet implantation in mice. Correlating with the development of tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, spinal CaMKIIalpha activity was significantly increased in OIH. KN93, a CaMKII inhibitor, dose- and time-dependently reversed OIH and CaMKII activation without impairing locomotor coordination. To elucidate the specific CaMKII isoform involved, we targeted CaMKIIalpha by using small interfering RNA and demonstrated that knockdown of spinal CaMKIIalpha attenuated OIH. Furthermore, morphine failed to induce OIH in CaMKIIalpha(T286A) point mutant mice, although wild-type littermate mice developed robust OIH after repeated treatments with morphine. These data implicate, for the first time, an essential role of CaMKIIalpha as a cellular mechanism leading to and maintaining opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

  6. Probing Our Heliospheric History I: High-Resolution Observations of Na I and Ca II Along the Solar Historical Trajectory

    Wyman, Katherine


    Over the course of its motion through the Galaxy, our solar system has encountered many interstellar environments of varying characteristics. Interstellar medium (ISM) density variations spanning seven orders of magnitude are commonly seen throughout the general Galactic environment, and a sufficiently dense cloud within this range has the potential to dramatically alter the structure of the heliosphere. We present observations of the ISM environments the Sun has most recently encountered based on high-resolution optical spectra toward nearby stars in the direction of the historical solar trajectory. The data were obtained with the highest-resolution spectrographs available, including the Tull Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory and the Ultra-High-Resolution Facility on the Anglo-Australian Telescope at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. Observations were made of interstellar Na I and Ca II doublet absorption toward 43 bright stars within about 500 pc. No absorption is seen ou...

  7. Ca(ii) and Ce(iii) homogeneous alginate hydrogels from the parent alginic acid precursor: a structural study.

    Sonego, Juan Manuel; Santagapita, Patricio R; Perullini, Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías


    Alginate hydrogels are suitable for the encapsulation of biomolecules and microorganisms for the building of bioactive materials. Several alternatives to the conventional alginate formulation are being studied for a broad range of biotechnological applications; among them the crosslinking of alginate by lanthanide cations, Ln(iii), envisages expanded biomedical applications. The performance of these functional materials is highly related to the microstructure of the alginate matrix, which in turn is affected by the conditions of synthesis. In particular, when a diffusing gradient of the crosslinking cation is involved, microstructure inhomogeneities are expected at the macroscopic level. Here we discuss the subtle differences in the microstructure, as assessed by SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering), established in the direction of the gradient of diffusion of Ca(ii) or Ce(iii).

  8. Investigation of Neuronal Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II.

    Mima Kazuko


    Full Text Available The promoter activity of the rat Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gene was analyzed using the luciferase reporter gene in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. Neuronal cell type-specific promoter activity was found in the 5'-flanking region of &agr; and &bgr; isoform genes of the kinase. Silencer elements were also found further upstream of promoter regions. A brain-specific protein bound to the DNA sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the gene was found by gel mobility shift analysis in the nuclear extract of the rat brain, including the cerebellum, forebrain, and brainstem, but not in that of non-neuronal tissues, including liver, kidney and spleen. The luciferase expression system and gel shift analysis can be used as an additional and better index by which to monitor gene expression in most cell types.

  9. Gentamicin Blocks the ACh-Induced BK Current in Guinea Pig Type II Vestibular Hair Cells by Competing with Ca2+ at the l-Type Calcium Channel

    Hong Yu


    Full Text Available Type II vestibular hair cells (VHCs II contain big-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (BK and L-type calcium channels. Our previous studies in guinea pig VHCs II indicated that acetylcholine (ACh evoked the BK current by triggering the influx of Ca2+ ions through l-type Ca2+ channels, which was mediated by M2 muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChRs. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin (GM, are known to have vestibulotoxicity, including damaging effects on the efferent nerve endings on VHCs II. This study used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to determine whether GM affects the vestibular efferent system at postsynaptic M2-mAChRs or the membrane ion channels. We found that GM could block the ACh-induced BK current and that inhibition was reversible, voltage-independent, and dose-dependent with an IC50 value of 36.3 ± 7.8 µM. Increasing the ACh concentration had little influence on GM blocking effect, but increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o could antagonize it. Moreover, 50 µM GM potently blocked Ca2+ currents activated by (--Bay-K8644, but did not block BK currents induced by NS1619. These observations indicate that GM most likely blocks the M2 mAChR-mediated response by competing with Ca2+ at the l-type calcium channel. These results provide insights into the vestibulotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics on mammalian VHCs II.


    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grocholski, A. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)


    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  11. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. III. Abundances and Velocities for a Sample of 14 Clusters

    Parisi, M C; Clariá, J J; Villanova, S; Marcionni, N; Sarajedini, A; Grocholski, A J


    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the CaII lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km/s, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at -1.1 and -0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from CaT spectra of a lar...

  12. Histological structure and distribution of carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I, II, III and VI) in major salivary glands in koalas.

    Mizuno, T; McKinnon, A; Ichihara, N; Amasaki, T; Asari, M; Nishita, T; Oishi, M; Soeta, S; Amasaki, H


    While the mandibular glands usually consist of only mucous acinar cells or a combination of mucous and serous cells in other species of mammals, those of koalas were serous glands. Rabbit mono-specific polyclonal anti-canine CA-I, II, III or VI antiserum showed cross-reactivity against corresponding koala carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes. Although immunohistochemical reactions to CA-I, II and VI in ductal cells were moderate to strong in the tested salivary glands, no reaction or only slight reactions were observed against CA-III. In the sublingual glands, moderate immunohistochemical reactions to CA-I, II and VI were also evident in serous acinar cells and serous demilunes. However, no reactions to the tested isozymes were observed in mucous acinar cells in these glands. With the exception of the histological structure of the mandibular glands, histological features and the distributional profile of CA isozymes of the salivary glands in koalas are relatively close to results obtained from horses.

  13. Mechanochemical synthesis and intercalation of Ca(II)Fe(III)-layered double hydroxides

    Ferencz, Zs.; Szabados, M.; Varga, G.; Csendes, Z.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Carlson, S.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.


    A mechanochemical method (grinding the components without added water - dry grinding, followed by further grinding in the presence of minute amount of water or NaOH solution - wet grinding) was used in this work for the preparation and intercalation of CaFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Both the pristine LDHs and the amino acid anion (cystinate and tyrosinate) intercalated varieties were prepared by the two-step grinding procedure in a mixer mill. By systematically changing the conditions of the preparation method, a set of parameters could be determined, which led to the formation of close to phase-pure LDH. The optimisation procedure was also applied for the intercalation processes of the amino acid anions. The resulting materials were structurally characterised by a range of methods (X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray absorption and infra-red spectroscopies). It was proven that this simple mechanochemical procedure was able to produce complex organic-inorganic nanocomposites: LDHs intercalated with amino acid anions.

  14. Active Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII Regulates NMDA Receptor Mediated Postischemic Long-Term Potentiation (i-LTP by Promoting the Interaction between CaMKII and NMDA Receptors in Ischemia

    Ning Wang


    Full Text Available Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP. Changes in CaMKII activity were detected in various ischemia models. It is tempting to know whether and how CaMKII takes a role in NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated postischemic long-term potentiation (NMDA i-LTP. Here, we monitored changes in NMDAR-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA fEPSPs at different time points following ischemia onset in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD ischemia model. We found that 10 min OGD treatment induced significant i-LTP in NMDA fEPSPs, whereas shorter (3 min or longer (25 min OGD treatment failed to induce prominent NMDA i-LTP. CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation displays a similar bifurcated trend at different time points following onset of ischemia both in vitro OGD or in vivo photothrombotic lesion (PT models, suggesting a correlation of increased CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation with NMDA i-LTP. Disturbing the association between CaMKII and GluN2B subunit of NMDARs with short cell-permeable peptides Tat-GluN2B reversed NMDA i-LTP induced by OGD treatment. The results provide support to a notion that increased interaction between NMDAR and CaMKII following ischemia-induced increased CaMKII activity and autophosphorylation is essential for induction of NMDA i-LTP.

  15. Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-alpha, UV lines, and X-rays

    Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.


    A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-alpha, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-alpha wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a short-lived and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-alpha. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.

  16. Preoperative serum CA 72.4 as prognostic factor of recurrence and death, especially at TNM stage II, for colorectal cancer.

    Ayude, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; Ayude, José; Blanco-Prieto, Sonia; Vázquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Vázquez-Cedeira, Marta; Páez de la Cadena, María


    Nowadays, evaluation of colorectal cancer prognosis and decision-making for treatment continues to be based primarily on TNM tumour stage. Administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is especially challenging for stage II patients that can have very different disease-related outcomes. Therefore, more reliable prognostic markers need to be developed to improve the selection of stage II patients at high risk for recurrence. Our purpose is to assess the prognostic value of preoperative serum CA 72.4 to improve the risk stratification of CRC patients. Preoperative sera collected from 71 unselected patients between January 1994 and February 1997 was assayed for CA 72.4 and CEA levels. Patients were followed-up for at least 30 months or until relapse. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the prognostic value was determined using Log-Rank test and Cox regression analysis. Preoperative CA 72.4 levels above 7 U/mL correlate with a worse prognosis, with associated recurrence and death percentages exceeding the displayed by CEA. In a multivariate analysis, its combination with CEA proved the most important independent factor predicting survival. Remarkably, at stage II CA 72.4 also discriminates better than CEA those patients that will relapse or die from those with a favourable prognosis; however, CEA has not a negligible effect on survival. The most outstanding finding of the present work is the correct classification of nearly every patient with bad prognosis (relapse or death) at TNM stage II when CEA and CA 72.4 are used altogether. This could improve the decision-making involved in the treatment of stage II colon cancer. Certainly further large-scale studies must be performed to determine whether CA 72.4 can be effectively used in the clinical setting.

  17. The role of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calcineurin in TNF-α-induced myocardial hypertrophy

    Wang, Gui-Jun [Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang Liaoning Province (China); Liaoning Medical College, Jinzhou (China); Wang, Hong-Xin; Yao, Yu-Sheng; Guo, Lian-Yi [Liaoning Medical College, Jinzhou (China); Liu, Pei [Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang Liaoning Province (China)


    We investigated whether Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The cardiomyocytes of neonatal Wistar rats (1-2 days old) were cultured and stimulated by TNF-α (100 µg/L), and Ca{sup 2+} signal transduction was blocked by several antagonists, including BAPTA (4 µM), KN-93 (0.2 µM) and cyclosporin A (CsA, 0.2 µM). Protein content, protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte volumes, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transients, CaMKIIδ{sub B} and CaN were evaluated by the Lowry method, [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation, a computerized image analysis system, a Till imaging system, and Western blot analysis, respectively. TNF-α induced a significant increase in protein content in a dose-dependent manner from 10 µg/L (53.56 µg protein/well) to 100 µg/L (72.18 µg protein/well), and in a time-dependent manner from 12 h (37.42 µg protein/well) to 72 h (42.81 µg protein/well). TNF-α (100 µg/L) significantly increased the amplitude of spontaneous [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transients, the total protein content, cell size, and [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, an intracellular Ca{sup 2+} chelator. The increases in protein content, cell size and [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation were abolished by 0.2 µM KN-93 or 0.2 µM CsA. TNF-α increased the expression of CaMKIIδ{sub B} by 35.21% and that of CaN by 22.22% compared to control. These effects were abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, which itself had no effect. These results suggest that TNF-α induces increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, CaMKIIδ{sub B} and CaN and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Ca{sup 2+}/CaMKII- and CaN-dependent signaling pathways are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by TNF-α.

  18. X-ray and H-alpha observations of a filament-disappearance flare - An empirical analysis of the magnetic field configuration

    Kahler, S. W.; Webb, D. F.; Moore, R. L.


    On August, 29, 1973, a flare event occurred that involved the disappearance of a filament near central meridian. The event, well-observed in X-rays on Skylab and in H-alpha, was a four-ribbon flare involving both new and old magnetic inversion lines which were roughly parallel. The H-alpha, X-ray, and magnetic field data are used to deduce the magnetic polarities of the H-alpha brightening at the footpoints of the brightest X-ray loops. It is suggested that the event involved a reconnection of magnetic field lines rather than a brightening in place of preexisting loops. The simultaneity of the H-alpha brightening onsets in the four ribbons and the apparent lack of an eruption of the filament are consistent with this interpretation.

  19. Construction of a Ca II Core-to-Wing Ratio Image

    Roberts, H.


    To understand Earth's climate, we must first understand the Sun. However, there are still significant uncertainties associated with both the fundamental mechanisms of solar variability and how they enter into the Earth's climate system. An important method to study the causes of solar variability can be found through the analysis of solar images. The Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) acquires images of the Sun in three different photometric bands to monitor the evolution of solar surface features that change over the course of a solar cycle. These images provide a complete knowledge about the Sun by targeting different layers of the solar atmosphere. Though raw images are meaningful and important, precision image processing is required to remove instrumental artifacts and false features that may appear in these images prior to usage for scientific purposes. A scientific application of the high precision solar images is investigated by analyzing a set of narrow band of Calcium II K core and wing images. The Core and Wing images are processed to remove the influence of the center-to-limb variation; the resultant core-to-wing ratio image enhances the appearance of network structures on the entire solar disk along with the more obvious facula and plage brightening associated with the passage of active regions.

  20. Age-dependent targeting of protein phosphatase 1 to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by spinophilin in mouse striatum.

    Anthony J Baucum

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying age-dependent changes of dendritic spines on striatal medium spiny neurons are poorly understood. Spinophilin is an F-actin- and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1-binding protein that targets PP1 to multiple downstream effectors to modulate dendritic spine morphology and function. We found that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII directly and indirectly associates with N- and C-terminal domains of spinophilin, but F-actin can displace CaMKII from the N-terminal domain. Spinophilin co-localizes PP1 with CaMKII on the F-actin cytoskeleton in heterologous cells, and spinophilin co-localizes with synaptic CaMKII in neuronal cultures. Thr286 autophosphorylation enhances the binding of CaMKII to spinophilin in vitro and in vivo. Although there is no change in total levels of Thr286 autophosphorylation, maturation from postnatal day 21 into adulthood robustly enhances the levels of CaMKII that co-immunoprecipitate with spinophilin from mouse striatal extracts. Moreover, N- and C-terminal domain fragments of spinophilin bind more CaMKII from adult vs. postnatal day 21 striatal lysates. Total levels of other proteins that interact with C-terminal domains of spinophilin decrease during maturation, perhaps reducing competition for CaMKII binding to the C-terminal domain. In contrast, total levels of α-internexin and binding of α-internexin to the spinophilin N-terminal domain increases with maturation, perhaps bridging an indirect interaction with CaMKII. Moreover, there is an increase in the levels of myosin Va, α-internexin, spinophilin, and PP1 in striatal CaMKII immune complexes isolated from adult and aged mice compared to those from postnatal day 21. These changes in spinophilin/CaMKII interactomes may contribute to changes in striatal dendritic spine density, morphology, and function during normal postnatal maturation and aging.

  1. Probing the accessibility of the Mn(4)Ca cluster in photosystem II : Channels calculation, noble gas derivatization, and cocrystallization with DMSO

    Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Guskov, Albert; Broser, Matthias; Kern, Jan; Müh, Frank; Saenger, Wolfram; Zouni, Athina


    Using the 2.9 A resolution structure of the membrane-intrinsic protein-cofactor complex photosystem II (PSII) from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, we calculated and characterized nine possible substrate/product channels leading to/away from the Mn(4)Ca cluster, where water is oxidi

  2. Mutations in the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin demonstrate the role of domain II and III in the specificity towards Spodoptera exigua larvae

    Herrero Sendra, S.; González-Cabrera, J.; Ferré, J.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.


    Several mutants of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin affected with regard to specific activity towards Spodoptera exigua were studied. Alanine was used to replace single residues in loops 2 and 3 of domain II (mutant pPB19) and to replace residues 541-544 in domain III (mutant pPB20). Addition

  3. Full-disk Synoptic Observations of the Chromosphere Using H$_{\\alpha}$ Telescope at the Kodaikanal Observatory

    Ravindra, B; Rangarajan, K E; Bagare, S P; Jagdev, Singh; Kemkar, P M M; Lancelot, J P; Thulasidharen, K C; Gabriel, F; Selvendran, R


    This paper reports on the installation and observations of a new solar telescope installed on 7th October, 2014 at the Kodaikanal Observatory. The telescope is a refractive type equipped with a tunable Lyot H$_{\\alpha}$ filter. A CCD camera of 2k$\\times$2k size makes the image of the Sun with a pixel size of 1.21$^{\\prime\\prime}$ pixel$^{-1}$ with a full field-of-view of 41$^{\\prime}$. The telescope is equipped with a guiding system which keeps the image of the Sun within a few pixels throughout the observations. The FWHM of the Lyot filter is 0.4\\AA~and the filter is motorized, capable of scanning the H$_{\\alpha}$ line profile at a smaller step size of 0.01\\AA. Partial-disk imaging covering about 10$^{\\prime}$, is also possible with the help of a relay lens kept in front of the CCD camera. In this paper, we report the detailed specifications of the telescope, filter unit, its installation, observations and the procedures we have followed to calibrate and align the data. We also present preliminary results wi...

  4. The $H\\alpha$ Luminosity Function and Global Star Formation Rate From Redshifts of One to Two

    Yan, L; Freudling, W; Teplitz, H I; Malumuth, E M; Weymann, R J; Malkan, M A; Yan, Lin; Carthy, Patrick J. Mc; Freudling, Wolfram; Teplitz, Harry I.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Weymann, Ray J.; Malkan, Matthew A.


    We present a luminosity function for H$\\alpha$ emission from galaxies at redshifts between 0.7 and 1.9 based on slitless spectroscopy with NICMOS on HST. The luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function over the range $6 \\times 10^{41} < L(H\\alpha) < 2 \\times 10^{43} erg/sec$ with $L^* = 7 \\times 10^{42} erg/sec$ and $\\phi^* = 1.7 \\times 10^{-3} Mpc^{-3}$ for $H_0=50 km/s Mpc^{-1}$ and $q_0=0.5$. We derive a volume averaged star formation rate at $z = 1.3 \\pm 0.5$ of 0.13 M_{ødot} yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3} without correction for extinction. The SFR that we derive at $\\sim 6500 \\AA is a factor of 3 higher than that deduced from 2800 \\AA continua. If this difference is due entirely to reddening, the extinction correction at 2800 \\AA is quite significant. The precise magnitude of the total extinction correction at rest-frame UV wavelengths (e.g. 2800 \\AA and 1500 \\AA) is sensitive to the relative spatial distribution of the stars, gas and dust, as well as on the extinction law. In the extreme case of a ...

  5. Clumpy galaxies seen in H-alpha: inflated observed clump properties due to limited spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Tamburello, Valentina; Mayer, Lucio; Cava, Antonio; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel


    High-resolution simulations of star-forming massive galactic discs have shown that clumps form with a characteristic baryonic mass in the range $10^7-10^8~M_{\\odot}$, with a small tail exceeding $10^9~M_{\\odot}$ produced by clump-clump mergers. This is in contrast with the observed kpc-size clumps with masses up to $10^{10}~M_{\\odot}$ in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. In this paper we show that the comparison between simulated and observed star-forming clumps is hindered by limited observational spatial resolution and sensitivity. We post-process high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of clumpy discs using accurate radiative transfer to model the effect of ionizing radiation from young stars and to compute H$\\alpha$ emission maps. By comparing the intrinsic clump size and mass distributions with those inferred from convolving the H$\\alpha$ maps with different gaussian apertures, we mimick the typical resolution used in observations. We found that with 100 pc resolution, mock observations can recover...

  6. Extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68: the LBV, H-alpha shells and the most luminous stars

    Pustilnik, S A; Perepelitsyna, Y A; Moiseev, A V; Makarov, D I


    The paper presents new results of the ongoing study of the unusual Lynx-Cancer void galaxy DDO 68 with record-low-metallicity regions (12+log(O/H) ~7.14) of the current star formation (SF). They include: a) a new spectrum and photometry with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (BTA) for the Luminous Blue Variable (LBV = DDO68-V1). Photometric data sets are complemented with those based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive images; b) the analysis of the DDO~68 supergiant shell (SGS) and the prominent smaller H-alpha arcs/shells visible at the HST image coupled with kinematics maps in H-alpha obtained with the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the BTA; c) the list of identified at the HST images of about 50 most luminous stars (-9.1 3.7~mag for the first time. New data suggest that in 2008--2010 the LBV reached M_V = --10.5 and probably underwent a giant eruption. We argue that the structure of star-forming complexes along the SGS (`Northern Ring') perimeter provides evid...

  7. The H-alpha luminosity function at redshift 2.2: A new determination using VLT/HAWK-I

    Hayes, Matthew; Ostlin, Goran


    We aim to place new, strengthened constraints on the luminosity function (LF) of H-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z=2.2, and to further constrain the instantaneous star-formation rate density of the universe (rho*). We have used the new HAWK-I instrument at ESO-VLT to obtain extremely deep narrow-band (line; NB2090) and broad-band (continuum; Ks) imaging observations. The target field is in the GOODS-South, providing us with a rich multi-wavelength auxiliary data set, which we utilise for redshift confirmation and to estimate dust content. We use this new data to measure the faint-end slope (alpha) of LF(H-alpha) with unprecedented precision. The data are well fit by a Schechter function and also a single power-law, yielding alpha=(-1.72 +/- 0.20) and (-1.77 +/- 0.21), respectively. Thus we are able to confirm the steepening of alpha from low- to high-z predicted by a number of authors and observed at other wavelengths. We combine our LF data-points with those from a much shallower but wider survey at z=...

  8. An example of the association of X-ray and UV emission with H-alpha surges

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.


    From H-alpha UV, and X-ray data, the nature of a well-observed surge on November 12, 1980 has been studied to try to understand the relationships between the mechanical motions and the high-temperature emissions. The cool (H-alpha) and the hot (O v) parts of the surge plasma both show velocities in the range of 100-120 km/s. The kinetic and potential energies of the surge are two orders of magnitude higher than the radiative energy. The observations suggest that the surge occurs in open structures parallel to one leg of a large scale coronal magnetic loop. The energy is released principally in the open structure (surge) and only a small amount heats the coronal loop (X-ray signature). This energy division should probably not be treated as a general characteristic of surge events. Different events are expected to exhibit a different energy balance, and this can account for the lack of a consensus in the previous literature regarding surge/X-ray associations.

  9. On the relationship between soft X-rays and H-alpha-emitting structures during a solar flare

    Zirin, H.; Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Kane, S.


    Based on data obtained during a solar flare on March 31, 1979, soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR) bursts are analyzed and compared with other available data in order to identify structures in H-alpha that may correspond to the SXR-emitting site. Measurements taken with the X-ray telescope and the XUV spectroheliograph flown on Skylab, have shown that the SXR emission from many flares comes from rather small structures of about 10-20 arcsec across. These structures appear to be loops that cross the magnetic neutral line. Understanding of the morphology of SXR was based on data of the solar flare of June 15, 1973, observed from Skylab, and the work of Moore et al., (1980). Dense, highly emissive coronal structures, not suggested to be the X-ray source, were forming, lost energy rapidly by emission and conduction, and finally formed the loops. It is concluded that bright H-alpha loops form rapidly as the SXR emission rises, and the overall decay (cooling rate) of SXR emission is much slower than the formation time of individual loops.

  10. Multi-epoch Spectroscopy of Dwarf Galaxies with AGN Signatures: Identifying Sources with Persistent Broad H-alpha Emission

    Baldassare, Vivienne F; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E; Graur, Or; Geha, Marla; Hainline, Kevin; Carroll, Christopher M; Hickox, Ryan C


    We use time-domain optical spectroscopy to distinguish between broad emission lines powered by accreting black holes (BHs) or stellar processes (i.e., supernovae) for 16 galaxies identified as AGN candidates by Reines et al. (2013). 14 of these have star-formation--dominated narrow-line emission ratios, one is a narrow-line AGN, and the last is a star-forming--AGN composite. We find that broad H$\\alpha$ emission has faded for 11/16 targets, based on spectra taken with the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph (MagE), the Dual Imaging Spectrograph, and the Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph with baselines ranging from 5 to 14 years. The 11 faded systems all have narrow-line ratios consistent with recent star formation, suggesting the broad emission for those targets was produced by a transient stellar process. The two objects with narrow-line AGN signatures (RGG 9 and RGG 119) have persistent broad H$\\alpha$ emission consistent with previous SDSS observations. The final three star-forming objects are classified a...

  11. Initial Data Release from the INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS)

    González-Solares, E A; Greimel, R; Drew, J E; Irwin, M J; Sale, S E; Andrews, K; Aungwerojwit, A; Barlow, M J; Besselaar, E van den; Corradi, R L M; Gänsicke, B T; Groot, P J; Hales, A S; Hopewell, E C; Hu, H; Irwin, J; Knigge, C; Lagadec, E; Leisy, P; Lewis, J R; Mampaso, A; Matsuura, M; Moont, B; Morales-Rueda, L; Morris, R A H; Naylor, T; Parker, Q A; Prema, P; Pyrzas, S; Rixon, G T; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Roelofs, G; Sabin, L; Skillen, I; Suso, J; Tata, R; Viironen, K; Vink, J S; Witham, A; Wright, N J; Zijlstra, A A; Zurita, A; Drake, J; Fabregat, J; Lennon, D J; Lucas, P W; Martín, E L; Steeghs, D; Unruh, Y C


    The INT/WFC Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is an imaging survey being carried out in H-alpha, r' and i' filters, with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) to a depth of r'=20 (10 sigma). The survey is aimed at revealing large scale structure in our local galaxy, and also the properties of key early and late populations making up the Milky Way. Mapping emission line objects enables a particular focus on objects in the young and old stages of stellar evolution ranging from early T-Tauri stars to late planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the IPHAS Initial Data Release, primarily a photometric catalogue of about 200 million unique objects, coupled with associated image data covering about 1600 square degrees in three passbands. We note how access to the primary data products has been implemented through use of standard virtual observatory publishing interfaces. Simple traditional web access is provided to the main IPHAS photometric cat...

  12. Artificial neural network based calibrations for the prediction of galactic [NII] $\\lambda$ 6584 and H$\\alpha$ line luminosities

    Teimoorinia, Hossein


    The artificial neural network (ANN) is a well-established mathematical technique for data prediction, based on the identification of correlations and pattern recognition in input training sets. We present the application of ANNs to predict the emission line luminosities of H$\\alpha$ and [NII] $\\lambda$6584 in galaxies. These important spectral diagnostics are used for metallicities, active galactic nuclei (AGN) classification and star formation rates, yet are shifted into the infra-red for galaxies above $z \\sim 0.5$, or may not be covered in spectra with limited wavelength coverage. The ANN is trained with a large sample of emission line galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using various combinations of emission lines and stellar mass. The ANN is tested for galaxies dominated by both star formation and AGN; in both cases the H$\\alpha$ and [NII] $\\lambda$6584 line luminosities can be predicted with a scatter $\\sigma <$ 0.1 dex. We also show that the performance of the ANN does not depend sig...

  13. Membrane actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in bone and cartilage cells.

    Doroudi, Maryam; Plaisance, Marc C; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi


    1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates osteoblasts and chondrocytes via its membrane-associated receptor, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (Pdia3) in caveolae. 1α,25(OH)2D3 binding to Pdia3 leads to phospholipase-A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAA) activation, stimulating cytosolic PLA2 and resulting in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and PKCα activation, subsequently stimulating differentiation. However, how PLAA transmits the signal to cPLA2 is unknown. Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation is required for PLA2 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells, suggesting a similar role in 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent signaling. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the roles of CaM and CaMKII as mediators of 1α,25(OH)2D3-stimulated PLAA-dependent activation of cPLA2 and PKCα, and downstream biological effects. The results indicated that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and PLAA-peptide increased CaMKII activity within 9 min. Silencing Cav-1, Pdia3 or Plaa in osteoblasts suppressed this effect. Similarly, antibodies against Plaa or Pdia3 blocked 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent CaMKII. Caveolae disruption abolished activation of CaMKII by 1α,25(OH)2D3 or PLAA. CaMKII-specific and CaM-specific inhibitors reduced cPLA2 and PKC activities, PGE2 release and osteoblast maturation markers in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. Camk2a-silenced but not Camk2b-silenced osteoblasts showed comparable effects. Immunoprecipitation showed increased interaction of CaM and PLAA in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. The results indicate that membrane actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3 via Pdia3 triggered the interaction between PLAA and CaM, leading to dissociation of CaM from caveolae, activation of CaMKII, and downstream PLA2 activation, and suggest that CaMKII plays a major role in membrane-mediated actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

  14. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Brown, Alexander; Mason, James P.; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Buccino, Andrea; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Redfield, Seth; Kowalski, Adam; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah; Segura, Antígona; Roberge, Aki; Vieytes, Mariela


    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10-3 W m-2 and possible proton fluxes ˜102-103 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  15. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Tagging Promotes Dendritic Branch Variability through the Capture of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II α (CaMKIIα) mRNAs by the RNA-binding Protein HuD.

    Sosanya, Natasha M; Cacheaux, Luisa P; Workman, Emily R; Niere, Farr; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F


    The fate of a memory, whether stored or forgotten, is determined by the ability of an active or tagged synapse to undergo changes in synaptic efficacy requiring protein synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. A synapse can be tagged, but without the "capture" of plasticity-related proteins, it will not undergo long lasting forms of plasticity (synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis). What the "tag" is and how plasticity-related proteins are captured at tagged synapses are unknown. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) is critical in learning and memory and is synthesized locally in neuronal dendrites. The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that increases CaMKIIα protein expression; however, the mechanism and site of dendritic expression are unknown. Herein, we show that mTOR activity mediates the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα, favoring one secondary, daughter branch over the other in a single neuron. mTOR inhibition decreased the dendritic levels of CaMKIIα protein and mRNA by shortening its poly(A) tail. Overexpression of the RNA-stabilizing protein HuD increased CaMKIIα protein levels and preserved its selective expression in one daughter branch over the other when mTOR was inhibited. Unexpectedly, deleting the third RNA recognition motif of HuD, the domain that binds the poly(A) tail, eliminated the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα when mTOR was active. These results provide a model for one molecular mechanism that may underlie the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis where mTOR is the tag, preventing deadenylation of CaMKIIα mRNA, whereas HuD captures and promotes its expression in a branch-specific manner.

  16. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Tagging Promotes Dendritic Branch Variability through the Capture of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II α (CaMKIIα) mRNAs by the RNA-binding Protein HuD*

    Sosanya, Natasha M.; Cacheaux, Luisa P.; Workman, Emily R.; Niere, Farr; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.


    The fate of a memory, whether stored or forgotten, is determined by the ability of an active or tagged synapse to undergo changes in synaptic efficacy requiring protein synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. A synapse can be tagged, but without the “capture” of plasticity-related proteins, it will not undergo long lasting forms of plasticity (synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis). What the “tag” is and how plasticity-related proteins are captured at tagged synapses are unknown. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) is critical in learning and memory and is synthesized locally in neuronal dendrites. The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that increases CaMKIIα protein expression; however, the mechanism and site of dendritic expression are unknown. Herein, we show that mTOR activity mediates the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα, favoring one secondary, daughter branch over the other in a single neuron. mTOR inhibition decreased the dendritic levels of CaMKIIα protein and mRNA by shortening its poly(A) tail. Overexpression of the RNA-stabilizing protein HuD increased CaMKIIα protein levels and preserved its selective expression in one daughter branch over the other when mTOR was inhibited. Unexpectedly, deleting the third RNA recognition motif of HuD, the domain that binds the poly(A) tail, eliminated the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα when mTOR was active. These results provide a model for one molecular mechanism that may underlie the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis where mTOR is the tag, preventing deadenylation of CaMKIIα mRNA, whereas HuD captures and promotes its expression in a branch-specific manner. PMID:25944900

  17. The Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is activated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and mediates cell proliferation stimulated by RET/PTC.

    Rusciano, Maria Rosaria; Salzano, Marcella; Monaco, Sara; Sapio, Maria Rosaria; Illario, Maddalena; De Falco, Valentina; Santoro, Massimo; Campiglia, Pietro; Pastore, Lucio; Fenzi, Gianfranco; Rossi, Guido; Vitale, Mario


    RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), TRK-T, or activating mutations of Ras and BRaf are frequent genetic alterations in PTC, all leading to the activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk) cascade. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) in the signal transduction leading to Erk activation in PTC cells. In normal thyroid cells, CaMKII and Erk were in the inactive form in the absence of stimulation. In primary PTC cultures and in PTC cell lines harboring the oncogenes RET/PTC-1 or BRaf(V600E), CaMKII was active also in the absence of any stimulation. Inhibition of calmodulin or phospholipase C (PLC) attenuated the level of CaMKII activation. Expression of recombinant RET/PTC-3, BRaf(V600E), or Ras(V12) induced CaMKII activation. Inhibition of CaMKII attenuated Erk activation and DNA synthesis in thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC-1), a cell line harboring RET/PTC-1, suggesting that CaMKII is a component of the Erk signal cascade in this cell line. In conclusion, PTCs contain an active PLC/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signal inducing constitutive activation of CaMKII. This kinase is activated by BRaf(V600E), oncogenic Ras, and by RET/PTC. CaMKII participates to the activation of the Erk pathway by oncogenic Ras and RET/PTC and contributes to their signal output, thus modulating tumor cell proliferation.

  18. Cardiac CaM Kinase II Genes δ and γ Contribute to Adverse Remodeling but Redundantly Inhibit Calcineurin-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy

    Kreusser, Michael M.; Lehmann, Lorenz H.; Keranov, Stanislav; Hoting, Marc-Oscar; Oehl, Ulrike; Kohlhaas, Michael; Reil, Jan-Christian; Neumann, Kay; Schneider, Michael D.; Hill, Joseph A.; Dobrev, Dobromir; Maack, Christoph; Maier, Lars S.; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Katus, Hugo A.; Olson, Eric N.; Backs, Johannes


    Background Ca2+-dependent signaling through CaM Kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin was suggested to contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the relative importance of CaMKII versus calcineurin for adverse cardiac remodeling remained unclear. Methods and Results We generated double-knockout mice (DKO) lacking the 2 cardiac CaMKII genes δ and γ specifically in cardiomyocytes. We show that both CaMKII isoforms contribute redundantly to phosphorylation not only of phospholamban, ryanodine receptor 2, and histone deacetylase 4, but also calcineurin. Under baseline conditions, DKO mice are viable and display neither abnormal Ca2+ handling nor functional and structural changes. On pathological pressure overload and β-adrenergic stimulation, DKO mice are protected against cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis. But surprisingly and paradoxically, DKO mice develop cardiac hypertrophy driven by excessive activation of endogenous calcineurin, which is associated with a lack of phosphorylation at the auto-inhibitory calcineurin A site Ser411. Likewise, calcineurin inhibition prevents cardiac hypertrophy in DKO. On exercise performance, DKO mice show an exaggeration of cardiac hypertrophy with increased expression of the calcineurin target gene RCAN1-4 but no signs of adverse cardiac remodeling. Conclusions We established a mouse model in which CaMKII’s activity is specifically and completely abolished. By the use of this model we show that CaMKII induces maladaptive cardiac remodeling while it inhibits calcineurin-dependent hypertrophy. These data suggest inhibition of CaMKII but not calcineurin as a promising approach to attenuate the progression of heart failure. PMID:25124496

  19. Detection of Low-Level Activities in Solar-Analog Stars from the Emission Strengths of Ca II 3934 Line

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Takashi


    Activity studies of solar-type stars, especially with reference to the status of our current Sun among them, have exposed the importance of (1) homogeneously selecting the sample stars and (2) reliably evaluating their activities down to a considerably low level. Motivated by these requirements, we conducted an extensive study on the activities of 118 solar-analog stars (of sufficiently similar properties to each other) by measuring the emission strength at the core of Ca II 3933.663 line (K line) on the high-dispersion spectrogram obtained by Subaru/HDS, where special attention was paid to correctly detecting the chromospheric emission by removing the wing-fitted photospheric profile calculated from the classical solar model atmosphere. This enabled us to detect low-level activities down to log R' ~ -5.4 (R' is the ratio of the chromospheric core emission flux to the total bolometric flux), by which we could detect subtle activity differences which were indiscernible in previous studies. Regarding the Sun, w...

  20. The wings of Ca II H and K as photospheric diagnostics and the reliability of one-dimensional photosphere modeling

    Sheminova, V A


    The extended wings of the Ca II H and K lines provide excellent diagnostics of the temperature stratification of the photosphere of the Sun and of other cool stars, thanks to their LTE opacities and source functions and their large span in formation height. The aim of this study is to calibrate the usage of the H and K wings in one-dimensional interpretation of spatially averaged spectra and in deriving per-pixel stratifications from resolved spectra. I use multi-dimensional simulations of solar convection to synthesize the H and K wings, derive one-dimensional models from these wings as if they were observed, and compare the resulting models to the actual simulation input. I find that spatially-averaged models constructed from the synthesized wings generally match the simulation averages well, except for the deepest layers of the photosphere where large thermal inhomogeneities and Planck-function nonlinearity gives large errors. The larger the inhomogeneity, the larger the latter. The presence of strong netw...

  1. Full-Disk Chromospheric Vector Magnetograms with Ca II 854.2 nm line: Some Promising Applications

    Gosain, Sanjay; Harvey, J. W.; Harker, Brian; Pillet, V. M.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Marble, Andrew R.; Bertello, Luca; + SOLIS-Team


    Over the last decade, the focus of solar magnetometry has shifted outward from the photosphere to the chromospheric layers. The reasons for this are many. With regards to instrumentation faster detectors with more sensitivity have become available, as have fast electro-optic modulators. Also, there are several potential benefits of observing vector fields in the chromospheric layer as the magnetic field is more force-free in this layer as compared to the photosphere. Coronal force-free field extrapolations are more reliable using chromospheric fields as the lower boundary condition and free magnetic energy is readily computed using the magnetic virial theorem. Recently, a full Stokes polarimeter for the chromospheric Ca II 854.2 nm spectral line was developed and installed in the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) instrument on the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope. We present details of this new polarimeter, full disk spectropolarimetric observations and vector magnetograms of the chromosphere, and examples of some promising applications (e.g., maps of normal component of electric current density in the chromosphere, free magnetic energy estimated using virial theorem, and non-potentiality parameter magnetic shear angle).This work utilizes SOLIS data obtained by the NSO Integrated Synoptic Program (NISP), managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation

  2. Ca depletion and the presence of dust in large scale nebulosities in radiogalaxies, 1

    Villar-Martin, M


    We show that the study of the Calcium depletion is a valid an highly sensitive method for investigating the chemical and physical history of the very extended ionized nebulae seen around radio galaxies (EELR), massive ellipticals and `cooling flow' galaxies. By observing the near IR spectrum of nebular regions characterized by low excitation emission lines (LINER-like), we can use the intensity of the [CaII]\\lambda\\lambda 7291,7324\\AA\\ doublet --relative to other lines, like H\\alpha-- to infer the amount of Calcium depletion onto dust grains. The presence of dust in these objects --which does not necessarily result in a measurable level of extinction-- would favour a `galactic debris' rather than a `cooling flow' origin for the emitting gas. Before aplying such test to our data, we study four possible alternative mechanisms to dust depletion and which could have explained the absence of the [CaII] lines: a) ionization of Ca^+ from its metastable level, b) thermal ionization of Ca^+, c) a high ionization param...

  3. High-Resolution Mn EXAFS of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex inPhotosystem II: Structural Implications for the Mn4Ca Cluster

    Yano, Junko; Pushkar, Yulia; Glatzel, Pieter; Lewis, Azul; Sauer,Kenneth; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal


    The biological generation of oxygen by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (PS II) is one of natures most important reactions. The recent X-ray crystal structures, while limited by resolutions of 3.2 to 3.5 A, have located the electron density associated with the Mn4Ca complex within the multi-protein PS II complex. Detailed structures critically depend on input from spectroscopic techniques such as EXAFS and EPR/ENDOR, as the XRD resolution does not allow for accurate determination of the position of Mn/Ca or the bridging and terminal ligand atoms. The number and distances of Mn-Mn/Ca/ligand interactions determined from EXAFS provide important constraints for the structure of the Mn cluster. Here we present data from a high-resolution EXAFS method using a novel multi-crystal monochromator that show three short Mn-Mn distances between 2.7 and 2.8 A and hence the presence of three di-mu-oxobridged units in the Mn4Ca cluster. This result imposes clear limitations on the proposed structures based on spectroscopic and diffraction data and provides input for refining such structures.

  4. HASH: the Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg H-alpha planetary nebula database

    Parker, Quentin A; Frew, David J


    By incorporating our major recent discoveries with re-measured and verified contents of existing catalogues we provide, for the first time, an accessible, reliable, on-line SQL database for essential, up-to date information for all known Galactic PNe. We have attempted to: i) reliably remove PN mimics/false ID's that have biased previous studies and ii) provide accurate positions, sizes, morphologies, multi-wavelength imagery and spectroscopy. We also provide a link to CDS/Vizier for the archival history of each object and other valuable links to external data. With the HASH interface, users can sift, select, browse, collate, investigate, download and visualise the entire currently known Galactic PNe diversity. HASH provides the community with the most complete and reliable data with which to undertake new science.

  5. Dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume is decreased and associated with depressive episodes and lipid peroxidation in bipolar II disorder: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses.

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zuzarte, Pedro; Westlye, Lars T; Bøen, Erlend; Josefsen, Dag; Boye, Birgitte; Hol, Per K; Malt, Ulrik F; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana C


    Reduced dentate gyrus volume and increased oxidative stress have emerged as potential pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder. However, the relationship between dentate gyrus volume and peripheral oxidative stress markers remains unknown. Here, we examined dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume longitudinally in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and healthy controls and investigated whether BD-II is associated with elevated peripheral levels of oxidative stress. We acquired high-resolution structural 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and quantified hippocampal subfield volumes using an automated segmentation algorithm in individuals with BD-II (n=29) and controls (n=33). The participants were scanned twice, at study inclusion and on average 2.4 years later. In addition, we measured peripheral levels of two lipid peroxidation markers (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]). First, we demonstrated that the automated hippocampal subfield segmentation technique employed in this work reliably measured dentate gyrus-CA4 volume. Second, we found a decreased left dentate gyrus-CA4 volume in patients and that a larger number of depressive episodes between T1 and T2 predicted greater volume decline. Finally, we showed that 4-HNE was elevated in BD-II and that 4-HNE was negatively associated with left and right dentate gyrus-CA4 volumes in patients. These results are consistent with a role for the dentate gyrus in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and suggest that depressive episodes and elevated oxidative stress might contribute to hippocampal volume decreases. In addition, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis that peripheral lipid peroxidation markers may reflect brain alterations in bipolar disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Metzger, Brian D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542 (United States); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Berger, Edo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Identifying the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources detected by upcoming networks of advanced ground-based interferometers will be challenging, due in part to the large number of unrelated astrophysical transients within the {approx}10-100 deg{sup 2} sky localizations. A potential way to greatly reduce the number of such false positives is to limit detailed follow-up to only those candidates near galaxies within the GW sensitivity range of {approx}200 Mpc for binary neutron star mergers. Such a strategy is currently hindered by the fact that galaxy catalogs are grossly incomplete within this volume. Here, we compare two methods for completing the local galaxy catalog: (1) a narrowband H{alpha} imaging survey and (2) an H I emission line radio survey. Using H{alpha} fluxes, stellar masses (M {sub *}), and star formation rates (SFRs) from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), combined with H I data from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey and the Herschel Reference Survey, we estimate that an H{alpha} survey with a luminosity sensitivity of L {sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} at 200 Mpc could achieve a completeness of f {sup H{alpha}} {sub SFR} Almost-Equal-To 75% with respect to total SFR, but only f{sub M* Star-Operator }{sup H{alpha}} approx. 33% with respect to M {sub *} (due to lack of sensitivity to early-type galaxies). These numbers are significantly lower than those achieved by an idealized spectroscopic survey due to the loss of H{alpha} flux resulting from resolving out nearby galaxies and the inability to correct for the underlying stellar continuum. An H I survey with sensitivity similar to the proposed WALLABY survey on ASKAP could achieve f{sub SFR}{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 80% and f{sub M Star-Operator }{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 50%, somewhat higher than that of the H{alpha} survey. Finally, both H{alpha} and H I surveys should achieve {approx}> 50% completeness with respect to the host galaxies of

  7. M/L, H-alpha Rotation Curves, and HI Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals: I. Data

    Vogt, N P; Herter, T; Giovanelli, R; Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry; Giovanelli, Riccardo


    A survey of 329 nearby galaxies (redshift z < 0.045) has been conducted to study the distribution of mass and light within spiral galaxies over a range of environments. The 18 observed clusters and groups span a range of richness, density, and X-ray temperature, and are supplemented by a set of 30 isolated field galaxies. Optical spectroscopy taken with the 200-inch Hale Telescope provides separately resolved H-alpha and [NII] major axis rotation curves for the complete set of galaxies, which are analyzed to yield velocity widths and profile shapes, extents and gradients. HI line profiles provide an independent velocity width measurement and a measure of HI gas mass and distribution. I-band images are used to deconvolve profiles into disk and bulge components, to determine global luminosities and ellipticities, and to check morphological classification. These data are combined to form a unified data set ideal for the study of the effects of environment upon galaxy evolution.

  8. A test of arm-induced star formation in spiral galaxies from near-IR and H$\\alpha$ imaging

    Seigar, M S; Seigar, Marc S.; James, Phil A.


    We have imaged a sample of 20 spiral galaxies in H$\\alpha$ and in the near-infrared K band (2.2 um), in order to determine the location and strength of star formation in these objects with respect to perturbations in the old stellar population. We have found that star formation rates are significantly enhanced in the vicinity of K band arms. We have also found that this enhancement in star formation rate in arm regions correlates well with a quantity that measures the relative strengths of shocks in arms. Assuming that the K band light is dominated by emission from the old stellar population, this shows that density waves trigger star formation in the vicinity of spiral arms.

  9. Comparison of 30 THz impulsive burst time development to microwaves, H-alpha, EUV, and GOES soft X-rays

    Miteva, R; Cabezas, D P; Cassiano, M M; Fernandes, L O T; Freeland, S L; Karlicky, M; Kerdraon, A; Kudaka, A S; Luoni, M L; Marcon, R; Raulin, J -P; Trottet, G; White, S M


    The recent discovery of impulsive solar burst emission in the 30 THz band is raising new interpretation challenges. One event associated with a GOES M2 class flare has been observed simultaneously in microwaves, H-alpha, EUV, and soft X-ray bands. Although these new observations confirm some features found in the two prior known events, they exhibit time profile structure discrepancies between 30 THz, microwaves, and hard X-rays (as inferred from the Neupert effect). These results suggest a more complex relationship between 30 THz emission and radiation produced at other wavelength ranges. The multiple frequency emissions in the impulsive phase are likely to be produced at a common flaring site lower in the chromosphere. The 30 THz burst emission may be either part of a nonthermal radiation mechanism or due to the rapid thermal response to a beam of high-energy particles bombarding the dense solar atmosphere.

  10. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion Nebula An H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot study and Astrobiological Aspects

    De la Fuente-Acosta, E; Arias, L; Throop, H B; Ambrocio-Cruz, P; Fuente, Eduardo de la; Rosado, Margarita; Arias, Lorena; Throop, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz & Henry B.


    In this paper, we present a briefly overview of the protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula, incluiding some astrobiological aspects and an H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot study of 16 of them. We found that Fabry-Perot interferometry constitutes an effective technique for the detection of proplyds. We also report heliocentric systemic velocities for the proplyds 82-336, 158-323, 158-326, 159-350, 161-314, 161-324, 163-317, 166-316, 167-317, 168-326, 170-337, 176-325, 177-341, 180-331, 197-427 and 244-440. The velocities were measured between 22-38 km s$^{-1}$.

  11. BVRI-H$\\alpha$ surface photometry of peculiar ring galaxies; 1, HRG 2302

    Myrrha, M L M; Faundez-Abans, M; De Oliveira-Abans, M; Soares, D S L


    Detailed BVRI-Halpha photometry has been obtained for the ring galaxy HRG 2302. This is probably a still interacting system which shows two principal components: the target, which is a knotted ringed-disk, and the intruder, an elongated galaxy with two substructures probably caused by the interaction. The existence of H II emission regions is suggested by Halpha images and medium dispersion spectra of the three brightest parts of this system. Analysis of a color-color diagram suggests recent star formation, in agreement with the behavior of interacting galaxies with nuclear emission. HRG 2302 has been previously classified as a Polar Ring galaxy (Faundez-Abans & de Oliveira-Abans 1998a), but we have reclassified it as Elliptical-Knotted, based on the morphological substructures found. This work reveals, for the first time, the existence of at least 15 fainter galaxies in the field within ~4 arcmin around HRG 2302, giving positions and integrated standard magnitudes for all of them.

  12. Searching for Dwarf H Alpha Emission-line Galaxies within Voids III: First Spectra

    Moody, J. Ward; Draper, Christian; McNeil, Stephen; Joner, Michael D.


    The presence or absence of dwarf galaxies with {M}r\\prime > -14 in low-density voids is determined by the nature of dark matter halos. To better understand what this nature is, we are conducting an imaging survey through redshifted Hα filters to look for emission-line dwarf galaxies in the centers of two nearby galaxy voids called FN2 and FN8. Either finding such dwarfs or establishing that they are not present is a significant result. As an important step in establishing the robustness of the search technique, we have observed six candidates from the survey of FN8 with the Gillett Gemini telescope and GMOS spectrometer. All of these candidates had emission, although none was Hα. The emission in two objects was the [O iii]λ4959, 5007 doublet plus Hβ, and the emission in the remaining four was the [O ii]λ3727 doublet, all from objects beyond the void. While no objects were within the void, these spectra show that the survey is capable of finding emission-line dwarfs in the void centers that are as faint as {M}r\\prime ˜ -12.4, should they be present. These spectra also show that redshifts estimated from our filtered images are accurate to several hundred km s-1 if the line is identified correctly, encouraging further work in finding ways to conduct redshift surveys through imaging alone.

  13. H-alpha observations of the gamma-ray-emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303: orbital modulation, disk truncation, and long-term variability

    Zamanov, R; Marti, J; Tomov, N A; Belcheva, G; Luque-Escamilla, P L; Latev, G


    We report 138 spectral observations of the H-alpha emission line of the radio- and gamma-ray-emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303 obtained during the period of September 1998 -- January 2013. From measuring various H-alpha parameters, we found that the orbital modulation of the H-alpha is best visible in the equivalent width ratio EW(B)/EW(R), the equivalent width of the blue hump, and in the radial velocity of the central dip. The periodogram analysis confirmed that the H-alpha emission is modulated with the orbital and superorbital periods. For the past 20 years the radius of the circumstellar disk is similar to the Roche lobe size at the periastron. It is probably truncated by a 6:1 resonance. The orbital maximum of the equivalent width of H-alpha emission peaks after the periastron and coincides on average with the X-ray and gamma-ray maxima. All the spectra are available upon request from the authors and through the CDS.

  14. Star Formation Rates and Stellar Masses of H-alpha Selected Star-Forming Galaxies at z=0.84: A Quantification of the Downsizing

    Villar, V; Pérez-González, P-G; Barro, G; Zamorano, J; Noeske, K G; Koo, D C


    In this work we analyze the physical properties of a sample of 153 star forming galaxies at z~0.84, selected by their H-alpha flux with a NB filter. B-band luminosities of the objects are higher than those of local star forming galaxies. Most of the galaxies are located in the blue cloud, though some objects are detected in the green valley and in the red sequence. After the extinction correction is applied virtually all these red galaxies move to the blue sequence, unveiling their dusty nature. A check on the extinction law reveals that the typical extinction law for local starbursts is well suited for our sample but with E(B-V)_stars=0.55 E(B-V)_gas. We compare star formation rates (SFR) measured with different tracers (H-alpha, UV and IR) finding that they agree within a factor of three after extinction correction. We find a correlation between the ratios SFR_FUV/SFR_H-alpha, SFR_IR/SFR_H-alpha and the EW(H-alpha) (i.e. weighted age) which accounts for part of the scatter. We obtain stellar mass estimation...

  15. Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contributes to hypoxic ischemic cell death in neonatal hippocampal slice cultures.

    Qing Lu

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that p38MAP kinase (p38MAPK stimulates ROS generation via the activation of NADPH oxidase during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI brain injury. However, how p38MAPK is activated during HI remains unresolved and was the focus of this study. Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII plays a key role in brain synapse development, neural transduction and synaptic plasticity. Here we show that CaMKII activity is stimulated in rat hippocampal slice culture exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD to mimic the condition of HI. Further, the elevation of CaMKII activity, correlated with enhanced p38MAPK activity, increased superoxide generation from NADPH oxidase as well as necrotic and apoptotic cell death. All of these events were prevented when CaMKII activity was inhibited with KN93. In a neonatal rat model of HI, KN93 also reduced brain injury. Our results suggest that CaMKII activation contributes to the oxidative stress associated with neural cell death after HI.

  16. Connection between orbital modulation of H-alpha and gamma-rays in the Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303

    Zamanov, R; Stoyanov, K; Borissova, A; Tomov, N A


    We studied the average orbital modulation of various parameters (gamma-ray flux, H-alpha emission line, optical V band brightness) of the radio- and gamma-ray emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303. Using the Spearman rank correlation test, we found highly significant correlations between the orbital variability of the equivalent width of the blue hump of the H-alpha and Fermi-LAT flux with a Spearman p-value 2e-5, and the equivalent widths ratio EW_B/EW_R and Fermi-LAT flux with p-value 9e-5. We also found a significant anti-correlation between Fermi-LAT flux and V band magnitude with p-value 7.10^{-4}. All these correlations refer to the average orbital variability, and we conclude that the H-alpha and gamma-ray emission processes in LSI+61303 are connected. The possible physical scenario is briefly discussed.


    Sekse, D. H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); De Pontieu, B. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)


    spicules. Finally, we look at the temporal connection between H{alpha} and Ca II 8542 RBEs and find that Ca II 8542 RBEs in addition to being located closer to the footpoint also appear before the H{alpha} RBEs. This connection between Ca II 8542 and H{alpha} supports the idea that heating is occurring in spicules and contributes more weight to the prominence of spicules as a source for heating and mass loading of the corona.

  18. Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission

    Bagenal, Fran


    The work completed under this project, 'Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission', includes the following presentations: (1) Analysis of H-alpha Observations of High-altitude Coronal Condensations; (2) Multi-spectral Imaging of Coronal Activity; (3) Measurement and Modeling of Soft X-ray Loop Arcades; (4) A Study of the Origin and Dynamics of CMEs; and various poster presentations and thesis dissertations.

  19. Molecular determinants for cardiovascular TRPC6 channel regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II

    Shi, Juan; Geshi, Naomi; Takahashi, Shinichi


    by a muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCh; 100 μm) was strongly attenuated by a CaMKII-specific peptide, autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP; 10 μm). TRPC6/C7 chimera experiments showed that the TRPC6 C-terminal sequence is indispensable for ICCh to be sensitive to AIP-induced CaMKII inhibition. Further...

  20. Hyperexcitability and changes in activities of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-bromopropane.

    Fueta, Yukiko; Fukunaga, Kohji; Ishidao, Toru; Hori, Hajime


    Chronic inhalation of 1-bromopropane (1-BP), a substitute of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, has been suspected of having central neurotoxicity (Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 101 (1999) 199; Journal of Occupational Health 44 (2002) 1) for humans. In animal experiments, 1-BP inhalation (1500 ppm) caused hyperexcitability in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) [Journal of Occupational Health 42 (2000) 149, Journal of Occupational Health 44 (2002) 156]. We studied whether the hyperexcitability is associated with changes of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase C (PKC). Male Wistar rats were exposed to 1-BP for 6 hours in a day in an exposure chamber with a concentration of 700 ppm for 8 weeks. After the inhalation, paired-pulse ratios of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes (PSs) were analyzed in the CA1 and DG of hippocampal slices. Control rats were then given fresh air in the inhalation chamber. Semiquantitative immunoblotting analyses of protein kinases using antibodies against active and conventional protein kinases were done using the whole hippocampus. A paired-pulse ratio of PS was increased at the 5 ms interpulse interval in the CA1 and at the 10-20 ms interpulse intervals in the DG. The amount of active MAPK and total amount of CaMKIIalpha and beta were significantly increased by 28, 29, and 46% compared to control, respectively, without any change in PKC activity. In contrast, the amount of active CaMKIIbeta was decreased to 78%. These results suggest that modifications of intracellular signaling cascades are associated with hyperexcitability that occurred in the hippocampal formation of rats exposed to the chronic inhalation of 1-BP.

  1. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars. I. The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dutra-Ferreira, L.; Ribas, I.


    Context. Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. Aims: The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines, λλ 8498, 8542, and 8662) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. Methods: We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures (Teff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and gravities (log g) avoiding the degeneracy usually present in photometric continuum calibrations based solely on color indices. Results: The internal uncertainties achieved for continuum absolute flux calculations are ≈2% of the solar chromospheric flux, one order of magnitude lower than for photometric calibrations. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we gauge the impact of observational errors on the final chromospheric fluxes due to the absolute continuum flux calibration and find that Teffuncertainties are properly mitigated by the photospheric correction leaving [Fe/H] as the dominating factor in the chromospheric flux uncertainty. Conclusions: Across the FGK spectral types, the Ca II IRT lines are sensitive to chromospheric activity. The reduced internal uncertainties reported here enable us to build a new chromospheric absolute flux scale and explore the age-activity relation from the active regime down to very low activity levels and

  2. Fourier transform spectrometer observations of solar carbon monoxide. II - Simultaneous cospatial measurements of the fundamental and first-overtone bands, and Ca II K, in quiet and active regions

    Ayres, T. R.; Testerman, L.; Brault, J. W.


    Fourier transform spectrometry has yielded simultaneous cospatial measurements of important diagnostics of thermal structure in the high solar photosphere and low chromosphere. It is noted that the anomalous behavior of the fundamental bands of CO in quiet areas near the limb is accentuated in an active region plage observed close to the limb. The difference between the core temperatures of the CO fundamental bands in a plage and a nearby quiet region at the limb is larger than the corresponding brightness temperature differences in the inner wings of the Ca II line measured in a quiet region and several plages closer to the disk center. Numerical simulations indicate that the disparate behavior of the CO bands with respect to Ca II K cannot be reconciled with existing single component thermal structure models; a two-component atmosphere is required.

  3. A Polybasic Plasma Membrane Binding Motif in the I-II Linker Stabilizes Voltage-gated CaV1.2 Calcium Channel Function.

    Kaur, Gurjot; Pinggera, Alexandra; Ortner, Nadine J; Lieb, Andreas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Obermair, Gerald J; Flucher, Bernhard E; Striessnig, Jörg


    L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) regulate many physiological functions like muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, and neuronal excitability. Their activity is strictly controlled by various molecular mechanisms. The pore-forming α1-subunit comprises four repeated domains (I-IV), each connected via an intracellular linker. Here we identified a polybasic plasma membrane binding motif, consisting of four arginines, within the I-II linker of all LTCCs. The primary structure of this motif is similar to polybasic clusters known to interact with polyphosphoinositides identified in other ion channels. We used de novo molecular modeling to predict the conformation of this polybasic motif, immunofluorescence microscopy and live cell imaging to investigate the interaction with the plasma membrane, and electrophysiology to study its role for Cav1.2 channel function. According to our models, this polybasic motif of the I-II linker forms a straight α-helix, with the positive charges facing the lipid phosphates of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Membrane binding of the I-II linker could be reversed after phospholipase C activation, causing polyphosphoinositide breakdown, and was accelerated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This indicates the involvement of negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane targeting of the linker. Neutralization of four arginine residues eliminated plasma membrane binding. Patch clamp recordings revealed facilitated opening of Cav1.2 channels containing these mutations, weaker inhibition by phospholipase C activation, and reduced expression of channels (as quantified by ON-gating charge) at the plasma membrane. Our data provide new evidence for a membrane binding motif within the I-II linker of LTCC α1-subunits essential for stabilizing normal Ca(2+) channel function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Uncovering the Outflow Driven by the Brown Dwarf LS-RCr A1: H-alpha as a Tracer of Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F


    It is now apparent that classical T Tauri-like outflows commonly accompany the formation of young brown dwarfs. To date two optical outflows have been discovered and results presented in this paper increase this number to three. Using spectro-astrometry the origin of the LS-RCrA 1 forbidden emission lines in a blue-shifted outflow is confirmed. The non-detection of the red-shifted component of the outflow in forbidden lines, along with evidence for some separation between low and high velocity outflow components, do not support the hypothesis that LS-RCrA 1 has an edge-on accretion disk. The key result of this analysis is the discovery of an outflow component to the H-alpha line. The H-alpha line profile has blue and red-shifted features in the wings which spectro-astrometry reveals to also originate in the outflow. The discovery that H-alpha emission in BDs can have a significant contribution from an outflow suggests the use of H-alpha line widths as a proxy of mass accretion in BDs is not clear-cut. This me...

  5. Photometric and H-alpha studies of two extreme mass-ratio short period contact binaries in the direction of open cluster Praesepe

    Rukmini, J


    We present the high precession photometric studies in V band and spectroscopic studies centered around H-alpha line for two extreme mass-ratio short period contact binaries ASAS J082243+1927.0 (V1) and ASAS J085710+1856.8 (V2). The variables in study are in the direction of open cluster Praesepe. From the light curve analysis V1 was found to be a low mass-ratio over-contact binary of A-type, with a mass ratio q 0.121 and fill-out factor f 72%, and V2 was found to be a low mass contact binary of W-type, with a mass-ratio q 1.29 and fill-out factor f 11% (marginal contact). The study of H-alpha absorption line profile of both the variables shows variation in equivalent widths (EWs) with orbital phases. The mean EWs of the H-alpha line were obtained as 1.6+or-0.13 A and 1.18+or-0.12 A for V1 and V2 respectively. The variation of H-alpha absorption with respect to phase is explained to be due to chromospheric activity in V1, as evident from the O Connell effect and that due to chromospheric flares, winds or photo...

  6. ZFIRE: Galaxy Cluster Kinematics, H$\\alpha$ Star Formation Rates, and Gas-Phase Metallicities of XMM-LSS J02182-05102 at z=1.6233

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Yuan, Tiantian; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Glazebrook, Karl; Kewley, Lisa J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Papovich, Casey J; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Greg; Saintonge, Amélie; Spitler, Lee R; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam


    We spectroscopically survey the galaxy cluster XMM-LSS J02182-05102 (hereafter IRC 0218) using LRIS (optical) and MOSFIRE (near-infrared) on Keck I as part of the ZFIRE survey. IRC 0218 has a narrow redshift range of $1.612H$\\alpha$ star formation rates (SFR), gas phase metallicities from [NII]/H$\\alpha$, and stellar masses. We measure an integrated H$\\alpha$ SFR of $\\sim325{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ (26 members; R$_{\\rm proj}<2$ Mpc) and show that the elevated star formation in the cluster core (R$_{\\rm proj}<0.25$ Mpc) is driven by the concentration of star-forming members, but the average SFR per H$\\alpha$-detected galaxy is half th...

  7. The role of cluster mergers and travelling shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $\\bf z\\sim0.2$: `sausage' and `toothbrush' clusters

    Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub J A; van Weeren, Reinout J


    The most extreme cluster mergers can lead to massive cluster-wide travelling shock waves. The CIZA J2242.8+5301 ('sausage') and 1RXS J0603.3+4213 (`toothbrush') clusters ($z\\sim0.2$) host enormous radio-emitting shocks with simple geometry. We investigate the role of mergers and shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function, using custom-made narrow-band filters matching the cluster redshifts mounted on the INT. We surveyed $\\sim0.28$ deg$^2$ for each cluster and found $181$ line emitters in the `sausage' (volume of $3.371\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.1945$) and $141$ in the `toothbrush' ($4.546\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.225$), out of which $49$ (`sausage') and $30$ (`toothbrush') are expected to be H$\\alpha$. We build luminosity functions for the field-of-view down to an average limiting star formation rate of $0.14$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, find good agreement with field luminosity functions at $z=0.2$, but significant differences between the shapes of the luminosity functions...

  8. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.6 I. H\\alpha -based star formation rates and dust extinction

    Kashino, D; Rodighiero, G; Renzini, A; Arimoto, N; Daddi, E; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D B; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, H J; Nagao, T; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Kewley, L J; Koekemoer, A M; Kovač, K; Fèvre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Symeonidis, M; Taniguchi, Y


    We present first results from a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4H\\alpha\\ in emission between 1.6-1.8\\mu m with $f_H\\alpha\\ \\gtrsim 4 \\times 10^{-17} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. Here, we specifically focus on 271 sBzK-selected galaxies that yield a H\\alpha\\ detection thus providing a redshift and emission-line luminosity to establish the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass. With further J-band spectroscopy for 89 of these, the level of dust extinction is assessed by measuring the Balmer decrement using co-added spectra. We find that the extinction (0.6\\lesssim A_H\\alpha\\ \\lesssim 2.5) rises with stellar mass and is elevated at high masses compared to low-redshift galaxies. Using this subset of the spectroscopic sample, we further find that the differential extinction b...

  9. Emission-line stars discovered in the UKST H-alpha survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud; Part 1: Hot stars

    Reid, Warren A


    We present new, accurate positions, spectral classifications, radial and rotational velocities, H-alpha fluxes, equivalent widths and B,V,I,R magnitudes for 579 hot emission-line stars (classes B0 - F9) in the Large Magellanic Cloud which include 469 new discoveries. Candidate emission line stars were discovered using a deep, high resolution H-alpha map of the central 25 deg2 of the LMC obtained by median stacking a dozen 2 hour H-alpha exposures taken with the UK Schmidt Telescope. Spectroscopic follow-up observations on the AAT, UKST, VLT, the SAAO 1.9m and the MSSSO 2.3m telescope have established the identity of these faint sources down to magnitude R~23 for H-alpha (4.5 x 10^-17 ergs cm^2 s^-1 Ang). Confirmed emission-line stars have been assigned an underlying spectral classification through cross-correlation against 131 absorption line template spectra covering the range O1 to F8. We confirm 111 previously identified emission line stars and 64 previously known variable stars with spectral types hotter ...

  10. The compact H$\\alpha$ emitting regions of the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 179218 and HD 141569 from CHARA spectro-interferometry

    Mendigutía, I; Mourard, D; Muzerolle, J


    This work presents CHARA/VEGA H$\\alpha$ spectro-interferometry (R ~ 6000, and $\\lambda$/2B ~ 1 mas) of HD 179218 and HD 141569, doubling the sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars for which this type of observations is available so far. The observed H$\\alpha$ emission is spatially unresolved, indicating that the size of the H$\\alpha$ emitting region is smaller than ~ 0.21 and 0.12 au for HD 179218 and HD 141529 (~ 15 and 16 R*, respectively). This is smaller than for the two other HAeBes previously observed with the same instrumentation. Two different scenarios have been explored in order to explain the compact line emitting regions. A hot, several thousand K, blackbody disc is consistent with the observations of HD 179218 and HD 141569. Magnetospheric accretion (MA) is able to reproduce the bulk of the H$\\alpha$ emission shown by HD 179218, confirming previous estimates from MA shock modelling with a mass accretion rate of 10^-8 Msun/yr, and an inclination to the line of sight between 30 and 50 degr. The H$\\al...

  11. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Du-Hyong [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk-Hee [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Inho, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. This

  12. ESO-H$\\alpha$~574 and Par-Lup3-4 Jets: Exploring the spectral, kinematical and physical properties

    Whelan, E T; Antoniucci, S; Alcalá, J M; Giannini, T; Nisini, B; Bacciotti, F; Podio, L; Stelzer, B; Comerón, F


    In this paper a comprehensive analysis of VLT / X-Shooter observations of two jet systems, namely ESO-H$\\alpha$ 574 a K8 classical T Tauri star and Par-Lup 3-4 a very low mass (0.13~\\Msun) M5 star, is presented. Both stars are known to have near-edge on accretion disks. A summary of these first X-shooter observations of jets was given in a 2011 letter. The new results outlined here include flux tables of identified emission lines, information on the morphology, kinematics and physical conditions of both jets and, updated estimates of $\\dot{M}_{out}$ / $\\dot{M}_{acc}$. Asymmetries in the \\eso flow are investigated while the \\para jet is much more symmetric. The density, temperature, and therefore origin of the gas traced by the Balmer lines are investigated from the Balmer decrements and results suggest an origin in a jet for \\eso while for \\para the temperature and density are consistent with an accretion flow. $\\dot{M}_{acc}$ is estimated from the luminosity of various accretion tracers. For both targets, ne...

  13. Geocoronal Balmer-alpha Emission Observed by the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper During the Southern Sky Survey

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Nossal, S. M.; Wilson, M. L.; Freer, C. W.; Babler, B.; Gardner, D.; Roesler, F. L.


    After a successful eleven-year run at Kitt Peak Observatory (AZ), the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) was moved to Cerro Tololo (Chile) in 2009 to complete the southern portion of the Galactic Balmer-alpha survey. Although WHAM is primarily used for making observations of the interstellar medium, the terrestrial emission present in each of WHAM's astronomical spectra offers a rich resource for studying the Earth's atmosphere. Here we present an overview of the terrestrial Balmer-alpha emission collected during WHAM's first five years of operation under southern skies. Seasonal trends and comparisons with northern hemisphere observations will be discussed. WHAM can detect Balmer-alpha emission as faint as 0.05R in a 30s exposure, covering a 200 km/s (4.4 Angstrom) spectral region with 12 km/s spectral resolution from a 1 degree beam on the sky. With this sensitivity, hundreds of spectra can be collected in a single clear night. Although not capable of fully resolving the geocoronal Balmer-alpha line profile itself, WHAM's sensitivity makes it an exceptional instrument for geocoronal Balmer-alpha intensity observations. This work is supported by NSF award AGS-1352311 and AST-1108911.

  14. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won


    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines which can be identified with broad wings. We produce H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ and Pa$\\alpha$ wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density $N_{\\rm HI}$ being roughly ...

  15. SMA observations towards the compact, short-lived bipolar water maser outflow in the LkH{\\alpha} 234 region

    Girart, J M; Estalella, R; Curiel, S; Anglada, G; Gómez, J F; Carrasco-González, C; Cantó, J; Rodríguez, L F; Patel, N A; Trinidad, M A


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations toward the LkH{\\alpha} 234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of $\\sim$5 arcsec ($\\sim$4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between $\\sim$200 and $\\sim$375 au and masses in the $\\sim$0.08-0.3 M$_{\\odot}$ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r$< 135$ au) circumstellar disk with a mass of $\\sim$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$. This source is powering a compact ($\\sim$4000 au), low radial velocity ($\\sim$7 km s$^{-1}$) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the "large-scale" counterpart of the short-lived, episodic, bipolar outflow ob...

  16. A new synthetic library of the Near-Infrared CaII triplet indices. I.Index Definition, Calibration and Relations with stellar atmospheric parameters

    Du, Wei; Zhao, Yong-Heng


    Adopting the SPECTRUM package, we have synthesized a set of 2,890 Near-InfraRed (NIR) synthetic spectra with a resolution and wavelength sampling similar to the SDSS and the forthcoming LAMOST spectra. During the synthesis, we have applied the `New grids of ATLAS9 Model Atmosphere' to provide a grid of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres. This synthetic stellar library is composed of 1,350 solor scaled abundance (SSA) and 1,530 non-solar scaled abundance (NSSA) spectra, grounding on which we have defined a new set of NIR CaII triplet indices and an index CaT as the sum of the three. Then, these defined indices have been automatically measured on the synthetic spectra and calibrated with the indices computed on the observational spectra from the INDO-U.S. stellar library. In order to check the effect of alpha-element enhancement on the so-defined CaII indices, we have compared indices measured on the SSA spectra with those on the NSSA ones at the same terns of stellar parameters (Teff, log ...

  17. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Androgen Signaling Pathways Modulate MEF2 Activity in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy

    Javier Duran


    Full Text Available Testosterone is known to induce cardiac hypertrophy through androgen receptor (AR-dependent and -independent pathways, but the molecular underpinnings of the androgen action remain poorly understood. Previous work has shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII and myocyte-enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 play key roles in promoting cardiac myocyte growth. In order to gain mechanistic insights into the action of androgens on the heart, we investigated how testosterone affects CaMKII and MEF2 in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy by performing studies on cultured rat cardiac myocytes and hearts obtained from adult male orchiectomized (ORX rats. In cardiac myocytes, MEF2 activity was monitored using a luciferase reporter plasmid, and the effects of CaMKII and AR signaling pathways on MEF2C were examined by using siRNAs and pharmacological inhibitors targeting these two pathways. In the in vivo studies, ORX rats were randomly assigned to groups that were administered vehicle or testosterone (125 mg⋅kg-1⋅week-1 for 5 weeks, and plasma testosterone concentrations were determined using ELISA. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by measuring well-characterized hypertrophy markers. Moreover, western blotting was used to assess CaMKII and phospholamban (PLN phosphorylation, and MEF2C and AR protein levels in extracts of left-ventricle tissue from control and testosterone-treated ORX rats. Whereas testosterone treatment increased the phosphorylation levels of CaMKII (Thr286 and phospholambam (PLN (Thr17 in cardiac myocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, testosterone-induced MEF2 activity and cardiac myocyte hypertrophy were prevented upon inhibition of CaMKII, MEF2C, and AR signaling pathways. Notably, in the hypertrophied hearts obtained from testosterone-administered ORX rats, both CaMKII and PLN phosphorylation levels and AR and MEF2 protein levels were increased. Thus, this study presents the first evidence indicating that

  18. Immobilization of Fusarium verticillioides fungus on nano-silica (NSi-Fus): a novel and efficient biosorbent for water treatment and solid phase extraction of Mg(II) and Ca(II).

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Yakout, Amr A; Abdel-Aal, Hany; Osman, Maher M


    Biosorption and water treatment of Mg(II) and Ca(II) hardness was designed via surface loading of heat inactivated Fusarium verticillioides fungus (Fus) on nano-silica (NSi) for developing the (NSi-Fus) as a novel biosorbent. Surface characterization was confirmed by FT-IR and SEM analysis. The (NSi), (Fus) and (NSi-Fus) sorbents were investigated for removal of Mg(II) and Ca(II) by using the batch equilibrium technique under the influence of solution pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial metal concentration and interfering ion. The maximum magnesium capacity values were identified as 600.0, 933.3 and 1000.0 μmole g(-1) while, the maximum calcium values were 1066.7, 1800.0 and 1333.3 μmole g(-1) for (NSi), (Fus) and (NSi-Fus), respectively. Sorption equilibria were established in ∼20 min and the data were well described by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The potential applications of these biosorbents for water-softening and extraction of magnesium and calcium from sea water samples were successfully accomplished.

  19. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulation of the ligand vibrations of the water-oxidizing Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II.

    Nakamura, Shin; Noguchi, Takumi


    During photosynthesis, the light-driven oxidation of water performed by photosystem II (PSII) provides electrons necessary to fix CO2, in turn supporting life on Earth by liberating molecular oxygen. Recent high-resolution X-ray images of PSII show that the water-oxidizing center (WOC) is composed of an Mn4CaO5 cluster with six carboxylate, one imidazole, and four water ligands. FTIR difference spectroscopy has shown significant structural changes of the WOC during the S-state cycle of water oxidation, especially within carboxylate groups. However, the roles that these carboxylate groups play in water oxidation as well as how they should be properly assigned in spectra are unresolved. In this study, we performed a normal mode analysis of the WOC using the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to simulate FTIR difference spectra on the S1 to S2 transition in the carboxylate stretching region. By evaluating WOC models with different oxidation and protonation states, we determined that models of high-oxidation states, Mn(III)2Mn(IV)2, satisfactorily reproduced experimental spectra from intact and Ca-depleted PSII compared with low-oxidation models. It is further suggested that the carboxylate groups bridging Ca and Mn ions within this center tune the reactivity of water ligands bound to Ca by shifting charge via their π conjugation.

  20. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G


    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays.

  1. Thermal testing of the first mirror unit mock-up for H-alpha and visible spectroscopy in ITER

    Orlovskiy, Ilya, E-mail: [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, Andrey; Andreenko, Evgeniy; Vukolov, Konstantin [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Denisov, Vladimir; Klyatskin, Andrey [OAO Kompozit Company, Korolev (Russian Federation); Lukin, Anatoliy; Melnikov, Andrey; Muslimov, Eduard [NPO GIPO Company, Kazan (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Sandwich-like design was proposed for single-crystal molybdenum mirror. • High optical quality was provided for aspheric molybdenum mirror by diamond turning. • First mirror unit made of molybdenum was thermally tested in vacuum chamber. • Observations during the tests showed no degradation of image quality. - Abstract: H-alpha and visible spectroscopy (HA&VS) diagnostic in ITER is aimed at the measurements of the intensity of hydrogen isotopes and of impurity lines in the SOL emission. It is based on the endoscope scheme with the first mirror unit (FMU) containing two mirrors (flat and aspheric) located behind a small entrance pupil and a discharge cleaning system. A primary candidate material for the FMU mirror is a single-crystal molybdenum (SC-Mo). A sandwich-like design is proposed, in which few small-sized SC-Mo plates are bound by a diffusive welding to a large-size polycrystalline Mo substrate. An acceptable welding regime is presented. A recent progress is discussed on the polishing of SC-Mo focusing mirrors up to 150 mm diameter. Thermal tests of the molybdenum FMU mock-up had been performed. The FMU was heated up to 200 °C whereas the mirror temperature was up to 300 °C under the pressure of 8–9 Pa. A technique for the quantitative assessment of the image quality (contrast and resolution) at the elevated temperatures has been suggested. As a result, a sub-mm shift of an image plane along the optical axis had been observed with no significant degradation of the image quality.

  2. Monoclonal antibody against brain calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II detects putative conformational changes induced by Ca/sup 2 +/-calmodulin

    LeVine, H. III; Su, J.L.; Sahyoun, N.E.


    A mouse monoclonal IgG1 antibody has been generated against the soluble form of the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II. This antibody recognizes both the soluble and cytoskeletal forms of the enzyme, requiring Ca/sup 2 +/ for the interaction. Other divalent cations such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, and Ni/sup 2 +/ will substitute for Ca/sup 2 +/, while Mg/sup 2 +/ and Ba/sup 2 +/ will not. The antibody reacts with both the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-subunits on Western blots in a similar Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent fashion but with a lower sensitivity. The affinity of the antibody for the kinase is 0.13 nM determined by displacement of /sup 125/I Bolton-Hunter-labeled kinase with unlabeled enzyme. Calmodulin and antibody reciprocally potentiate each other's interaction with the enzyme. This is illustrated both by direct binding studies and by a decrease of the K/sub m app/ for calmodulin and an increase in the V/sub max/ for the autophosphorylation reaction of the enzyme. The antibody thus appears to recognize and stabilize a conformation of the kinase which favors calmodulin binding although it does not itself activate the kinase in the absence of calmodulin. Since the M/sub r/ 30,000 catalytic fragment of the kinase is not immunoreactive, either the antibody combining site of the kinase must be present in the noncatalytic portion of the protein along with the calmodulin binding site or proteolysis interferes with the putative Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent conformational change. Thus, monoclonal antibodies can be useful tools in elucidating the mechanism by which Ca/sup 2 +/ and calmodulin act on the kinase molecule.

  3. Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance studies of the interaction of methanol with the S2 state of the Mn4O5Ca cluster of photosystem II.

    Oyala, Paul H; Stich, Troy A; Stull, Jamie A; Yu, Fangting; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Britt, R David


    The binding of the substrate analogue methanol to the catalytic Mn4CaO5 cluster of the water-oxidizing enzyme photosystem II is known to alter the electronic structure properties of the oxygen-evolving complex without retarding O2-evolution under steady-state illumination conditions. We report the binding mode of (13)C-labeled methanol determined using 9.4 GHz (X-band) hyperfine sublevel-correlation (HYSCORE) and 34 GHz (Q-band) electron spin-echo electron nuclear double resonance (ESE-ENDOR) spectroscopies. These results are compared to analogous experiments on a mixed-valence Mn(III)Mn(IV) complex (2-OH-3,5-Cl2-salpn)2Mn(III)Mn(IV) (salpn = N,N'-bis(3,5-dichlorosalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane) in which methanol ligates to the Mn(III) ion ( Larson et al. (1992) J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 114 , 6263 ). In the mixed-valence Mn(III,IV) complex, the hyperfine coupling to the (13)C of the bound methanol (Aiso = 0.65 MHz, T = 1.25 MHz) is appreciably larger than that observed for (13)C methanol associated with the Mn4CaO5 cluster poised in the S2 state, where only a weak dipolar hyperfine interaction (Aiso = 0.05 MHz, T = 0.27 MHz) is observed. An evaluation of the (13)C hyperfine interaction using the X-ray structure coordinates of the Mn4CaO5 cluster indicates that methanol does not bind as a terminal ligand to any of the manganese ions in the oxygen-evolving complex. We favor methanol binding in place of a water ligand to the Ca(2+) in the Mn4CaO5 cluster or in place of one of the waters that form hydrogen bonds with the oxygen bridges of the cluster.

  4. Aberrant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity is associated with abnormal dendritic spine morphology in the ATRX mutant mouse brain.

    Shioda, Norifumi; Beppu, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Takaichi; Li, En; Kitajima, Isao; Fukunaga, Kohji


    In humans, mutations in the gene encoding ATRX, a chromatin remodeling protein of the sucrose-nonfermenting 2 family, cause several mental retardation disorders, including α-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome. We generated ATRX mutant mice lacking exon 2 (ATRX(ΔE2) mice), a mutation that mimics exon 2 mutations seen in human patients and associated with milder forms of retardation. ATRX(ΔE2) mice exhibited abnormal dendritic spine formation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Consistent with other mouse models of mental retardation, ATRX(ΔE2) mice exhibited longer and thinner dendritic spines compared with wild-type mice without changes in spine number. Interestingly, aberrant increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity was observed in the mPFC of ATRX(ΔE2) mice. Increased CaMKII autophosphorylation and activity were associated with increased phosphorylation of the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) and kalirin-7, known substrates of CaMKII. We confirmed increased phosphorylation of p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in mPFC extracts. Furthermore, reduced protein expression and activity of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) was evident in the mPFC of ATRX(ΔE2) mice. In cultured cortical neurons, PP1 inhibition by okadaic acid increased CaMKII-dependent Tiam1 and kalirin-7 phosphorylation. Together, our data strongly suggest that aberrant CaMKII activation likely mediates abnormal spine formation in the mPFC. Such morphological changes plus elevated Rac1-GEF/PAK signaling seen in ATRX(ΔE2) mice may contribute to mental retardation syndromes seen in human patients.

  5. SO{sub 2} retention on CaO/activated carbon sorbents. Part II: Effect of the activated carbon support

    M.C. Macias-Perez; M.A. Lillo-Rodenas; A. Bueno-Lopez; C. Salinas-Martinez de Lecea; A. Linares-Solano [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Department of Inorganic Chemistry


    The present paper analyses the role of the activated carbon (AC) properties on the SO{sub 2} uptake capacity of CaO/AC sorbents prepared by AC impregnation or ionic exchange with calcium acetate water solutions. Gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry have been used for textural characterization of the AC and surface oxygen groups have been characterized by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Thermogravimetry has been used for SO{sub 2} retention tests and CO{sub 2} chemisorption at 300{sup o}C for CaO dispersion (d) determinations. The results show that the surface calcium on CaO/AC samples governs the SO{sub 2} uptake. The surface oxygen content is the AC property that mainly controls both the calcium loading and surface calcium on CaO/AC samples, which could be explained by the fact that the surface oxygen lowers the hydrophobic character of the AC supports therefore favouring the interaction with the calcium acetate water solutions. The combination of high calcium loading and dispersion leads to SO{sub 2} uptakes up to 123 mg SO{sub 2}/g. The textural properties of the supports have some influence in the calcium loading. However, the effect is masked by the blockage of AC porosity by the calcium loaded. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. X-ray Damage to the Mn4Ca Complex in Single Crystals ofPhotosystem II: A Case Study for Metalloprotein Crystallography

    Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Irrgang, Klaus-Dieter; Latimer, Matthew; Bergmann, Uwe; Glatzel, Pieter; Pushkar, Yulia; Biesiadka, Jacek; Loll,Bernhard; Sauer, Kenneth; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra,Vittal K.


    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the damage caused by exposure to X-rays to the Mn4Ca active site in single crystals of photosystem II, as a function of dose and energy of X-rays, temperature, and time. These studies reveal that the conditions used for structure determination by X-ray crystallography cause serious damage specifically to the metal-site structure. The X-ray absorption spectra show that the structure changes from one that is characteristic of a high-valent Mn4(III2,IV2) oxo-bridged Mn4Ca cluster, to that of Mn(II) in aqueous solution. This damage to the metal site occurs at a dose that is more than an order of magnitude lower than that resulting in loss of diffractivity, and commonly considered safe for protein crystallography. These results establish the first quantitative X-ray dose parameters applicable to redox-active metallo-proteins. This case study shows that a careful evaluation of the structural intactness of the active sites by spectroscopic techniques can validate structures derived from crystallography, and it can be a valuable complementary method before structure-function correlations of metallo-proteins can be made on the basis of high resolution X-ray crystal structures.

  7. X-ray damage to the Mn4Ca complex in single crystals of photosystem II: a case study for metalloprotein crystallography.

    Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Irrgang, Klaus-Dieter; Latimer, Matthew J; Bergmann, Uwe; Glatzel, Pieter; Pushkar, Yulia; Biesiadka, Jacek; Loll, Bernhard; Sauer, Kenneth; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K


    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the damage caused by exposure to x-rays to the Mn(4)Ca active site in single crystals of photosystem II as a function of dose and energy of x-rays, temperature, and time. These studies reveal that the conditions used for structure determination by x-ray crystallography cause serious damage specifically to the metal-site structure. The x-ray absorption spectra show that the structure changes from one that is characteristic of a high-valent Mn(4)(III(2),IV(2)) oxo-bridged Mn(4)Ca cluster to that of Mn(II) in aqueous solution. This damage to the metal site occurs at a dose that is more than one order of magnitude lower than the dose that results in loss of diffractivity and is commonly considered safe for protein crystallography. These results establish quantitative x-ray dose parameters that are applicable to redox-active metalloproteins. This case study shows that a careful evaluation of the structural intactness of the active site(s) by spectroscopic techniques can validate structures derived from crystallography and that it can be a valuable complementary method before structure-function correlations of metalloproteins can be made on the basis of high-resolution x-ray crystal structures.

  8. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio


    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  9. H-alpha Variability in PTFO8-8695 and the Possible Direct Detection of Emission from a 2 Million Year Old Evaporating Hot Jupiter

    Johns-Krull, Christopher M; McLane, Jacob N; Ciardi, David R; van Eyken, Julian C; Chen, Wei; Stauffer, John R; Beichman, Charles A; Frazier, Sarah A; Boden, Andrew F; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Rebull, Luisa M


    We use high time cadence, high spectral resolution optical observations to detect excess H-alpha emission from the 2 - 3 Myr old weak lined T Tauri star PTFO8-8695. This excess emission appears to move in velocity as expected if it were produced by the suspected planetary companion to this young star. The excess emission is not always present, but when it is, the predicted velocity motion is often observed. We have considered the possibility that the observed excess emission is produced by stellar activity (flares), accretion from a disk, or a planetary companion; we find the planetary companion to be the most likely explanation. If this is the case, the strength of the H-alpha line indicates that the emission comes from an extended volume around the planet, likely fed by mass loss from the planet which is expected to be overflowing its Roche lobe.

  10. Roles of EDTA washing and Ca{sup 2+} regulation on the restoration of anammox granules inhibited by copper(II)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Cheng, Ya-Fei; Zhou, Yu-Huang; Buayi, Xiemuguli [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Jin, Ren-Cun, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China)


    Highlights: • 80.5% of the Cu in anammox granules was introduced via adsorption. • Cu(II) internalized on/into AnAOB cells plays a crucial role in toxicity. • EDTA washing contributes to the detoxification of anammox granules. • Ca{sup 2+} can stimulate the re-growth of damaged anammox consortium. - Abstract: We investigated the feasibility of using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) washing followed by Ca{sup 2+} enhancement for the recovery of anammox reactors inhibited by Cu(II). Kinetic experiments and batch activity assays were employed to determine the optimal concentration of EDTA and washing time; and the performance and physiological dynamics were tracked by continuous-flow monitoring to evaluate the long-term effects. The two-step desorption process revealed that the Cu in anammox granules was primarily introduced via adsorption (approximately, 80.5%), and the portion of Cu in the dispersible layer was predominant (accounting for 71.1%). Afterwards, the Cu internalized in the cells (approximately, 14.7%) could diffuse out of the cells and be gradually washed out of the reactor over the next 20 days. The Ca{sup 2+} addition that followed led to an accelerated nitrogen removal rate recovery slope (0.1491 kgN m{sup −3} d{sup −2}) and a normal biomass growth rate (0.054 d{sup −1}). The nitrogen removal rate returned to normal levels within 90 days and gradual improvements in granular characteristics were also achieved. Therefore, this study provides a new insight that externally removing the adsorbed heavy metals followed by internally repairing the metabolic system may represent an optimal restoration strategy for anammox consortium damaged by heavy metals.

  11. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). I. Overview of the Survey Targeting on H$\\alpha$ Emitters at $z \\sim 1.4$

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Okada, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Bunker, Andrew J; Coupon, Jean; Ferreira, Pedro G; Frenk, Carlos S; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hikage, Chiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Matsubara, Takahiko; More, Surhud; Okumura, Teppei; Percival, Will J; Spitler, Lee R; Szapudi, Istvan


    FastSound is a galaxy redshift survey using the near-infrared Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, targeting H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z \\sim 1.18$--$1.54$ down to the sensitivity limit of H$\\alpha$ flux $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{-16} \\ \\rm erg \\ cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. The primary goal of the survey is to detect redshift space distortions (RSD), to test General Relativity by measuring the growth rate of large scale structure and to constrain modified gravity models for the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. The target galaxies were selected based on photometric redshifts and H$\\alpha$ flux estimates calculated by fitting spectral energy distribution (SED) models to the five optical magnitudes of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Wide catalog. The survey started in March 2012, and all the observations were completed in July 2014. In total, we achieved $121$ pointings of FMOS (each pointing has a $30$ arcmin diameter circular footprint) covering $20.6...

  12. H-alpha Imaging with HST+NICMOS of An Elusive Damped Ly-alpha Cloud at z=0.6

    Bouche, N; Charlton, J C; Bershady, M A; Churchill, C W; Steidel, C C; Bouche, Nicolas; Lowenthal, James D.; Charlton, Jane C.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.


    Despite previous intensive ground--based imaging and spectroscopic campaigns and wide-band HST imaging of the z=0.927 QSO 3C336 field, the galaxy that hosts the damped Ly-alpha system along this line--of--sight has eluded detection. We present a deep narrow-band H-alpha image of the field of this z=0.656 damped Ly-alpha absorber, obtained through the F108N filter of NICMOS 1 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of this project was to detect any H-alpha emission 10 times closer than previous studies to unveil the damped absorber. We do not detect H-alpha emission between 0.05'' and 6'' (0.24 and 30 $h^{-1}$ kpc) from the QSO, with a 3-sigma flux limit of $3.70 \\times 10^{-17} h^{-2}$ erg/s/cm^2 for an unresolved source, corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR) of $0.3 h^{-2}$ M_sun/yr. This leads to a 3-sigma upper limit of 0.15 M_sun/yr/kpc^2 on the SFR density, or a maximum SFR of 1.87 M_sun/yr assuming a disk of 4 kpc in diameter. This result adds to the number of low redshift damped Ly-alpha ab...

  13. Spitzer IRAC observations of newly-discovered planetary nebulae from the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg H-alpha Planetary Nebula Project

    Cohen, Martin; Green, Anne J; Murphy, Tara; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J; Meade, Marilyn R; Babler, Brian; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A; Watson, Christer; Churchwell, Edward B; Watson, Douglas F


    We compare H-alpha, radio continuum, and Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) images of 58 planetary nebulae (PNe) recently discovered by the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbo- urg H-alpha PN Project (MASH) of the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Using InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data we define the IR colors of PNe and demonstrate good isolation between these colors and those of many other types of astronomical object. The only substantive contamination of PNe in the color-color plane we illustrate is due to YSOs. However, this ambiguity is readily resolved by the unique optical characteristics of PNe and their environs. We also examine the relationships between optical and MIR morphologies from 3.6 to 8.0um and explore the ratio of mid-infrared (MIR) to radio nebular fluxes, which is a valuable discriminant between thermal and nonthermal emission. MASH emphasizes late evolutionary stages of PNe compared with previous catalogs, enabling study of the changes in MIR and radio flux that attend the aging process. Spatially integrated M...

  14. A large H$\\alpha$ survey of star formation in relaxed and merging galaxy cluster environments at $z\\sim0.15-0.3$

    Stroe, Andra; Afonso, Ana; Alegre, Lara; Calhau, João; Santos, Sergio; van Weeren, Reinout


    We present the first results from the largest H$\\alpha$ survey of star formation and AGN activity in galaxy clusters. Using 9 different narrow band filters, we select $>3000$ H$\\alpha$ emitters within $19$ clusters and their larger scale environment over a total volume of $1.3\\times10^5$ Mpc$^3$. The sample includes both relaxed and merging clusters, covering the $0.15-0.31$ redshift range and spanning from $5\\times10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$ to $30\\times10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$. We find that the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function (LF) for merging clusters has a higher characteristic density $\\phi^*$ compared to relaxed clusters. $\\phi^*$ drops from cluster core to cluster outskirts for both merging and relaxed clusters, with the merging cluster values $\\sim0.3$ dex higher at each projected radius. The characteristic luminosity $L^*$ drops over the $0.5-2.0$ Mpc distance from the cluster centre for merging clusters and increases for relaxed objects. Among disturbed objects, clusters hosting large-scale shock waves (traced by...

  15. On the properties of galaxies at the faint-end of the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $z\\sim0.62$

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel


    Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at $0.5H$\\alpha$-based studies. Our main goal is to study the properties of a sample of faint H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z\\sim0.62$. We focus on their contribution to the faint-end of the luminosity function and derived star formation rate density, characterising their morphologies and basic photometric and spectroscopic properties. We use a narrow-band technique in the near-infrared, with a filter centered at 1.06 $\\mu$m. The data come from ultra-deep VLT/HAWK-I observations in the GOODS-S field with a total of 31.9 h in the narrow-band filter. We perform a visual classification of the sample and study their morphologies from structural parameters available in CANDELS. Our 28 H$\\alpha$-selected sample of faint star-forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function $\\alpha=-1.46_{-0.08}^{+0.16}$. The derived star formation...

  16. Effect of salinity and temperature on the adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions by a Ca-montmorillonite.

    Green-Ruiz, C


    Use of clay minerals for removing mercury is an effective technology for the treatment of industrial wastewaters and can become an effective tool for the remediation of coastal ecosystems polluted with this metal. Calcic montmorillonite was employed for adsorbing Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions at different conditions of salinity (0, 20 and 35 g NaCl L(-1)), temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), and initial concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg Hg L(-1)). It was observed that 0.4 g dry weight of montmorillonite removed from 0.02 mg g(-1) (at 0.25 mg L(-1) of Hg(II)) to 0.68 mg g(-1) (at 10.0 mg L(-1) of Hg(II)) at 25 degrees C, salinity of 0 g NaCl L(-1) and pH of 6. The initial concentration of Hg(II) and salinity had an effect on the behaviour of the adsorption process, which was temperature independent. The data fit well the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, indicating that heterogeneous conditions prevail in this process.

  17. La trehalosa. Parte II: su formación en diferentes variedades de caña

    Susana Ravelo; Eduardo L. Ramos


    Se estudia la presencia de la Trehalosa en los jugos de 10 variedades de caña que son especialmente propensas a acumular mezclas de oligosacáridos en sus jugos luego de ser cortadas. Para ello se usó el soporte cromatográfico conocido como HYDROMAG, y su variante modificada superficialmente, HYDROMAGM, los que permiten el aislamiento del oligosacárido estudiado y la identificación del monosacárido que lo forma, respectivamente. Se complementan los estudios, determinando el peso molecular del ...


    Maia ŞEVCIUC


    Full Text Available În articol este abordată problema privind mediul academic ca factor de asigurare a continuităţii şi interconexiunii dintre ciclurile învăţământului superior. În acest sens sunt analizate diferite concepte cu referire la mediul academic, sunt deduse principiile de concepere a unui mediu academic eficient, dar şi modalităţi de realizare a continuităţii şi inter­conexiunii dintre ciclurile învăţământului superior. Sunt propuse sugestii de asigurare a continuităţii şi interconexiunii dintre ciclurile învăţământului superior.ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR IN ENSURING CONTINUITY AND INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN CYCLES OF HIGHER EDUCATIONThe article addressed academics as a factor of continuity and interconnection between cycles of higher education. In this sense analyzed different concepts with reference to academia, they are deducted design principles of an academic environment effectively, but also ways of continuity and interconnection between cycles of higher education, are proposed suggestions to ensure continuity and interconnection between cycles of higher education.

  19. Correlation of noise storm and H-alpha activity for the CONS period Sept. 1 - 4, 1980.

    Vršnak, B.; Ruždjak, V.

    The Ca plage index was found to be highly correlated with the 260 MHz radio flux. The noise storm enhancement followed the increase in the number of major flares with the delay of one day. The noise storm behaviour was correlated with the three hour flare index, but not with the one hour flare index.

  20. MiR-152 may silence translation of CaMK II and induce spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation.

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs, hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H and syngeneic (C3H-C3H liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation.

  1. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.


    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  2. Three-dimensional localization of the α and β subunits and of the II-III loop in the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel.

    Szpyt, John; Lorenzon, Nancy; Perez, Claudio F; Norris, Ethan; Allen, Paul D; Beam, Kurt G; Samsó, Montserrat


    The L-type Ca(2+) channel (dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) in skeletal muscle acts as the voltage sensor for excitation-contraction coupling. To better resolve the spatial organization of the DHPR subunits (α(1s) or Ca(V)1.1, α(2), β(1a), δ1, and γ), we created transgenic mice expressing a recombinant β(1a) subunit with YFP and a biotin acceptor domain attached to its N- and C- termini, respectively. DHPR complexes were purified from skeletal muscle, negatively stained, imaged by electron microscopy, and subjected to single-particle image analysis. The resulting 19.1-Å resolution, three-dimensional reconstruction shows a main body of 17 × 11 × 8 nm with five corners along its perimeter. Two protrusions emerge from either face of the main body: the larger one attributed to the α(2)-δ1 subunit that forms a flexible hook-shaped feature and a smaller protrusion on the opposite side that corresponds to the II-III loop of Ca(V)1.1 as revealed by antibody labeling. Novel features discernible in the electron density accommodate the atomic coordinates of a voltage-gated sodium channel and of the β subunit in a single docking possibility that defines the α1-β interaction. The β subunit appears more closely associated to the membrane than expected, which may better account for both its role in localizing the α(1s) subunit to the membrane and its suggested role in excitation-contraction coupling.

  3. Ca(II) doped β-In2S3 hierarchical structures for photocatalytic hydrogen generation and organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation.

    Yang, Shuang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Zhang, Bao-You; Yang, Li; Hu, Sheng-Peng; Zhen, Liang


    Hierarchical structures assembled by two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets could inherit the characteristics of nanosheets and acquire additional advantages from the unique secondary architectures, which would have important influences on the photocatalytic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully synthesized Ca(II) doped β-In2S3 hierarchical structures stacked by thin nanosheets by a simple solution chemical process. The effects of reaction temperature and Ca(2+) concentration on the size and morphology of the products were systematically investigated. The photocatalytic applications of the β-In2S3 hierarchical structures were evaluated for hydrogen production and degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ>420nm). The β-In2S3 hierarchical structures showed promising activity towards photocatalytic hydrogen production (145.0μmolg(-1)h(-1)) and RhB solution (1×10(-5)M) was completely degraded within 100min under visible light irradiation.

  4. What do iris observations of Mg II k tell us about the solar plage chromosphere?

    Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart


    We analyze observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the Mg II k line, the Mg II UV subordinate lines, and the O I 135.6 nm line to better understand the solar plage chromosphere. We also make comparisons with observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope of the H{\\alpha} line, the Ca II 8542 line, and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the coronal 19.3 nm line. To understand the observed Mg II profiles, we compare these observations to the results of numerical experiments. The single-peaked or flat-topped Mg II k profiles found in plage imply a transition region at a high column mass and a hot and dense chromosphere of about 6500 K. This scenario is supported by the observed large-scale correlation between moss brightness and filled-in profiles with very little or absent self-reversal. The large wing width found in plage also implies a hot and dense chromosphere with a steep chromospheric temperature rise. The absence of emission in the Mg II subo...

  5. Oscillations in G-band and Ca II H wing in the active region NOAA AR10789. (Slovak Title: Oscilácie v G páse a Ca II H krídle v aktívnej oblasti NOAA AR10789)

    Karlovský, V.


    Variations of the area of a sunspot in G-band and in Ca II H line wing were analyzed based on observations obtained on 13 July, 2005 by DOT Telescope (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) in the active region NOAA 10789. Change of the area at the threshold value of 0.4 was analyzed using wavelet transform in order to determine the significance of the derived periods. Because of the different time dependence of the period distributions in these two spectral regions coherence between the two time series of observations was investigated.

  6. Participation of glutamate-333 of the D1 polypeptide in the ligation of the Mn₄CaO₅ cluster in photosystem II.

    Service, Rachel J; Yano, Junko; Dilbeck, Preston L; Burnap, Robert L; Hillier, Warwick; Debus, Richard J


    In the 1.9 Å structural model of photosystem II (PDB: 3ARC), the amino acid residue Glu333 of the D1 polypeptide coordinates to the oxygen-evolving Mn₄CaO₅ cluster. This residue appears to be highly significant in that it bridges the two Mn ions (Mn(B3) and the "dangling" Mn(A4)) that are also bridged by the oxygen atom O5. This oxygen atom has been proposed to be derived from one of two substrate water molecules and to become incorporated into the product dioxygen molecule during the final step in the catalytic cycle. In addition, the backbone nitrogen of D1-Glu333 interacts directly with a nearby Cl⁻ atom. To further explore the influence of this structurally unique residue on the properties of the Mn₄CaO₅ cluster, the D1-E333Q mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was characterized with a variety of biophysical and spectroscopic methods, including polarography, EPR, X-ray absorption, and FTIR difference spectroscopy. The kinetics of oxygen release in the mutant were essentially unchanged from those in wild-type. In addition, the oxygen flash yields exhibited normal period-four oscillations having normal S state parameters, although the yields were lower, indicative of the mutant's lower steady-state dioxygen evolution rate of approximately 30% compared to that of the wild-type. The S₁ state Mn-XANES and Mn-EXAFS and S₂ state multiline EPR signals of purified D1-E333Q PSII core complexes closely resembled those of wild-type, aside from having lower amplitudes. The S(n+1)-minus-S(n) FTIR difference spectra showed only minor alterations to the carbonyl, amide, and carboxylate stretching regions. However, the mutation eliminated a negative peak at 3663 cm⁻¹ in the weakly H-bonding O-H stretching region of the S₂-minus-S₁ FTIR difference spectrum and caused an approximately 9 cm⁻¹ downshift of the negative feature in this region of the S₁-minus-S₀ FTIR difference spectrum. We conclude that fully functional Mn₄Ca

  7. Empirical studies of solar flares: Comparison of X-ray and H alpha filtergrams and analysis of the energy balance of the X-ray plasma

    Moore, R. L.


    The physics of solar flares was investigated through a combined analysis of X-ray filtergrams of the high temperature coronal component of flares and H alpha filtergrams of the low temperature chromospheric component. The data were used to study the magnetic field configuration and its changes in solar flares, and to examine the chromospheric location and structure of X-ray bright points (XPB) and XPB flares. Each topic and the germane data are discussed. The energy balance of the thermal X-ray plasma in flares, while not studied, is addressed.

  8. Inferred H{\\alpha} Flux as a Star-Formation Rate Indicator at z ~ 4-5: Implications for Dust Properties, Burstiness, and the z = 4-8 Star-Formation-Rate Functions

    Smit, Renske; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Wilkins, Stephen M; Oesch, Pascal A


    We derive H{\\alpha} fluxes for a large spectroscopic and photometric-redshift-selected sample of sources over GOODS-North and South in the redshift range z = 3.8-5.0 with deep HST, Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based observations. The H{\\alpha} flux is inferred based on the offset between the IRAC 3.6 {\\mu}m flux and that predicted from the best-fit SED. We demonstrate that the H{\\alpha} flux correlates well with dust- corrected UV star-formation rate (SFR) and therefore can serve as an independent SFR indicator. However, we also find a systematic offset in the SFR_H{\\alpha}/SFR_UV ratios for z ~ 4-5 galaxies relative to local relations (assuming the same dust corrections for nebular regions and stellar light). We show that we can resolve the modest tension in the inferred SFRs by assuming bluer intrinsic UV slopes (increasing the dust correction), a rising star-formation history or assuming a low metallicity stellar population with a hard ionizing spectrum (increasing the L_H{\\alpha}/SFR ratio). Using H{\\alpha} a...

  9. IGRINS Near-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Multiple Jets around LkH$\\alpha$ 234

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T


    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star Lk{\\Ha} 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). Previous studies indicate that the region around Lk{\\Ha} 234 is complex, with several embedded YSOs and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H$-$ and K$-$band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 {\\FeII} and 14 H$_{2}$ emission lines. We revealed a new {\\FeII} jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position-velocity diagrams of H$_{2}$ 1$-$0 S(1) $\\lambda$2.122 $\\micron$ line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H$_{2}$ emission at the systemic velocity (V$_{LSR}$ $=$ $-$10.2 {\\kms}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity, {\\FeII} ...

  10. The H$\\alpha$ line forming region of AB Aur spatially resolved at sub-AU with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer

    Perraut, K; Mourard, D; Rajabi, S; Bacciotti, F; Bério, Ph; Bonneau, D; Chesneau, O; Clausse, J M; Delaa, O; Marcotto, A; Roussel, A; Spang, A; Stee, Ph; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Farrington, C; Goldfinger, P J


    A crucial issue in star formation is to understand the physical mechanism by which mass is accreted onto and ejected by a young star. The visible spectrometer VEGA on the CHARA array can be an efficient means of probing the structure and the kinematics of the hot circumstellar gas at sub-AU. For the first time, we observed the Herbig Ae star AB Aur in the H$\\alpha$ emission line, using the VEGA low spectral resolution on two baselines of the array. We computed and calibrated the spectral visibilities between 610 nm and 700 nm. To simultaneously reproduce the line profile and the visibility, we used a 1-D radiative transfer code that calculates level populations for hydrogen atoms in a spherical geometry and synthetic spectro-interferometric observables. We clearly resolved AB Aur in the H$\\alpha$ line and in a part of the continuum, even at the smallest baseline of 34 m. The small P-Cygni absorption feature is indicative of an outflow but could not be explained by a spherical stellar wind model. Instead, it f...

  11. The MOSDEF Survey: The strong agreement between H-alpha and UV-to-FIR star formation rates for z~2 star-forming galaxies

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A; Shapley, Alice E; Barro, Guillermo; Conroy, Charlie; Coil, Alison L; Freeman, William R; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H; Azadi, Mojegan; Pasha, Imad; Inami, Hanae


    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic SED-based SFRs for z~2 galaxies. For this comparison we used 17 star-forming galaxies selected from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey, with $3\\sigma$ detections for H$\\alpha$ and at least two IR bands (Spitzer/MIPS 24$\\mu$m and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160$\\mu$m, and in some cases Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500$\\mu$m). The galaxies have total IR (8-1000$\\mu$m) luminosities of $\\sim10^{11.4}-10^{12.4}\\,\\textrm{L}_\\odot$ and star-formation rates (SFRs) of $\\sim30-250\\,\\textrm{M}_\\odot\\,\\mathrm{yr^{-1}}$. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models - which include both stellar and dust emission - and compare the inferred SFRs with the SFR(H$\\alpha$,H$\\beta$) values corrected for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements. The two SFRs agree with a scatter of 0.17 dex. Our results imply that the Balmer decrement accurately predicts the obscuration of the nebular lines and can be used t...

  12. Constraining the Age and Distance of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7 by H-alpha Expansion Measurements

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Fesen, Robert; Milisavljevic, Dan


    We present deep H-alpha images of portions of the X-ray bright but optically faint Galactic supernova remnant G156.2+5.7, revealing numerous and delicately thin nonradiative filaments which mark the location of the remnant's forward shock. These new images show that these filaments have a complex structure not visible on previous lower resolution optical images. By comparing H-alpha images taken in 2004 at the McDonald Observatory and in 2015-2016 at the Kiso Observatory, we set a stringent 1-sigma upper limit of expansion to be 0.06 arcsec/yr. This proper motion, combined with a shock speed of 500 km/s inferred from X-ray spectral analyses, gives a distance of > 1.7 kpc. In addition, a simple comparison of expansion indices of several SNRs allows us to infer the age of the remnant to be a few 10,000 yr old. These estimates are more straightforward and reliable than any other previous studies, and clearly rule out a possibility that G156.2+5.7 is physically associated with part of the Taurus-Auriga cloud and ...

  13. M/L, H-alpha Rotation Curves, and HI Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals: III. Evolutionin Fundamental Galaxy Parameters

    Vogt, N P; Giovanelli, R; Herter, T; Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Herter, Terry


    We have conducted a study of optical and HI properties of spiral galaxies (size, luminosity, H-alpha flux distribution, circular velocity, HI gas mass) to investigate causes (e.g., nature versus nurture) for variation within the cluster environment. We find HI deficient cluster galaxies to be offset in Fundamental Plane space, with disk scale lengths decreased by a factor of 25%. This may be a relic of early galaxy formation, caused by the disk coalescing out of a smaller, denser halo (e.g., higher concentration index) or by truncation of the hot gas envelope due to the enhanced local density of neighbors, though we cannot completely rule out the effect of the gas stripping process. The spatial extent of H-alpha flux and the B-band radius also decreases, but only in early type spirals, suggesting that gas removal is less efficient within steeper potential wells (or that stripped late type spirals are quickly rendered unrecognizable). We find no significant trend in stellar mass-to-light ratios or circular vel...

  14. A search for H$\\alpha$ emission in high-metallicity damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems at $z \\sim 2.4$

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Prochaska, J Xavier


    We report on a sensitive search for redshifted H$\\alpha$ line-emission from three high-metallicity damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs) at $z \\approx 2.4$ with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) on the Gemini-North telescope, assisted by the ALTtitude conjugate Adaptive optics for the InfraRed (ALTAIR) system with a laser guide star. Within the NIFS field-of-view, $\\approx 3.22" \\times 2.92"$ corresponding to $\\approx 25$ kpc $ \\times 23$ kpc at $z=2.4$, we detect no statistically significant line-emission at the expected redshifted H$\\alpha$ wavelengths. The measured root-mean-square noise fluctuations in $0.4"$ apertures are $1-3\\times10^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Our analysis of simulated, compact, line-emitting sources yields stringent limits on the star-formation rates (SFRs) of the three DLAs, $< 2.2$~M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ ($3\\sigma$) for two absorbers, and $< 11$~M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ ($3\\sigma$) for the third, at all impact parameters within $\\approx 12.5$~kpc to the quasar s...

  15. Rapid line-profile variability of H-alpha and H-beta in the A-type shell star HD 163296

    Pogodin, M. A.


    The results of the H-alpha and H-beta line profile investigation of an A0-shell star HD 163296 are presented. 47 high-resolution CCD spectra (35 for H-alpha and 12 for H-beta) were obtained on July 15-20, 1991 and on July 24-27, 1992. A considerable profile variability is found on time scales from one hour to a few days. The main properties of the night-to-night variations are strong change in shape of the entire line profile with the exception of the primary PCyg-absorption which remains relatively constant both in strength and in position. Two types of extremely rapid variations (tau approximately equal hours) are discovered: (a) positional shift of sharp spectral bumps, and (b) monotonous flux variations of different parts of a profile during a night. A qualitative explanation in the framework of the model for an envelope containing an active non-stable region formed by an equatorially concentrated stellar wind and an external cool shell is proposed for the observed variability. Some reasons for the extremely rapid profile changes are considered.

  16. GHASP: an H$\\alpha$ kinematic survey of spiral galaxies - X. Surface photometry, decompositions and the Tully-Fisher relation in the Rc-band

    Barbosa, C E; Amram, P; Ferrari, F; Russeil, D; Epinat, B; Perret, V; Adami, C; Marcelin, M


    We present Rc-band surface photometry for 170 of the 203 galaxies in GHASP, Gassendi H-Alpha survey of SPirals, a sample of late-type galaxies for which high-resolution Fabry-Perot H{\\alpha} maps have previously been obtained. Our data set is constructed by new Rc-band observations taken at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), supplemented with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival data, obtained with the purpose of deriving homogeneous photometric profiles and parameters. Our results include Rc-band surface brightness profiles for 170 galaxies and $ugriz$ profiles for 108 of these objects. We catalogue several parameters of general interest for further reference, such as total magnitude, effective radius and isophotal parameters -- magnitude, position angle, ellipticity and inclination. We also perform a structural decomposition of the surface brightness profiles using a multi-component method in order to separate disks from bulges and bars, and to observe the main scaling relations involving luminos...

  17. Development of an Advanced Automated Method for Solar Filament Recognition and Its Scientific Application to a Solar Cycle of MLSO H\\alpha\\ Data

    Hao, Qi; Chen, P F


    We developed a method to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in H\\alpha\\ full-disk images. The program is able not only to recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area, the spine, and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. The program consists of three steps: First, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; Second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect filaments; Third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. To test the algorithm, we applied it to the observations from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), and the program is demonstrated to be robust and efficient. H\\alpha\\ images obtained by MLSO from 1998 to 2009 are analyzed, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; After the solar maximum...

  18. High-energy break-up of 6Li as a tool to study the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis reaction 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li

    Hammache, F; Typel, S; Galaviz, D; Sümmerer, K; Coc, A; Uhlig, F; Attallah, F; Caamano, M; Cortina, D; Geissel, H; Hellström, M; Iwasa, N; Kiener, J; Koczon, P; Kohlmeyer, B; Mohr, P; Schwab, E; Schwarz, K; Schümann, F; Senger, P; Sorlin, O; Tatischeff, V; Thibaud, J P; Vangioni, E; Wagner, A; Walus, W


    The recently claimed observations of non-negligible amounts of 6Li in old halo stars have renewed interest in the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) of 6Li. One important ingredient in the predicted BBN abundance of 6Li is the low-energy 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li cross section. Up to now, the only available experimental result for this cross section showed an almost constant astrophysical S-factor below 400 keV, contrary to theoretical expectations. We report on a new measurement of the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction using the break-up of 6Li at 150 A MeV. Even though we cannot separate experimentally the Coulomb contribution from the nuclear one, we find clear evidence for Coulomb-nuclear interference by analyzing the scattering-angular distributions. This is in-line with our theoretical description which indicates a drop of the S_24-factor at low energies as predicted also by most other models. Consequently, we find even lower upper limits for the calculated primordial 6Li abundance than before.

  19. Comparing H-alpha and HI Surveys as Means to a Complete Local Galaxy Catalog in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo Era

    Metzger, Brian D; Berger, Edo


    Identifying the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources detected by upcoming networks of advanced ground-based interferometers will be challenging due in part to the large number of unrelated astrophysical transients within the ~10-100 square degree sky localizations. A potential way to greatly reduce the number of such false positives is to limit detailed follow-up to only those candidates near galaxies within the GW sensitivity range of ~200 Mpc for binary neutron star mergers. Such a strategy is currently hindered by the fact that galaxy catalogs are grossly incomplete within this volume. Here we compare two methods for completing the local galaxy catalog: (1) a narrow-band H-alpha imaging survey; and (2) an HI emission line radio survey. Using H-alpha fluxes, stellar masses (M_star), and star formation rates (SFR) from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), combined with HI data from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey and the Herschel Reference Survey, we estimate that a H-alp...

  20. A Study of the Distribution of Star-Forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of H$\\alpha$ Imaging Observations

    Hattori, T; Ohtani, H; Sugai, H; Ishigaki, T; Sasaki, M; Hayashi, T; Ozaki, S; Ishii, M; Kawai, A


    We performed H-alpha imaging observations of 22 luminous infrared galaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions in these galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlation diagrams between H-alpha flux and continuum emission for individual galaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions was found: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost no star-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclear starbursts 1 kpc in size and a significant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extended starbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes of star-forming region were found to be strongly related to global star-forming properties such as star-formation efficiency, far-infrared color, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objects with more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higher star-formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciable fraction of the sampl...

  1. The H-alpha Variations of the Luminous Blue Variable P Cygni: Discrete Absorption Components and the Short S Doradus Phase

    Ricahrdson, Noel D; Gies, Douglas R; Markova, N; Hesselbach, Erica N; Percy, J R


    P Cygni is a prototype of the Luminous Blue Variables (or S Doradus variables), and the star displays photometric and emission line variability on a timescale of years (known as the "short S Doradus phase" variations). Here we present new high resolution H-alpha spectroscopy of P Cyg that we combine with earlier spectra and concurrent V-band photometry to document the emission and continuum flux variations over a 24 y time span. We show that the emission and continuum fluxes vary in concert on timescales of 1.6 y and longer, but differ on shorter timescales. The H-alpha profile shape also varies on the photometric timescales, and we describe the observed co-variations of the emission peak and absorption trough properties. We argue that the episodes of photometric and emission brightening are caused by increases in the size of the emission region that are related to variations in wind mass loss rate and outflow speed. We find evidence of blueward accelerating, Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) in the absor...

  2. Contribution of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase to neural activity-induced neurite outgrowth and survival of cerebellar granule cells.

    Borodinsky, Laura N; Coso, Omar A; Fiszman, Mónica L


    In this report we describe our studies on intracellular signals that mediate neurite outgrowth and long-term survival of cerebellar granule cells. The effect of voltage-gated calcium channel activation on neurite complexity was evaluated in cultured cerebellar granule cells grown for 48 h at low density; the parameter measured was the fractal dimension of the cell. We explored the contribution of two intracellular pathways, Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1), to the effects of high [K+ ]e under serum-free conditions. We found that 25 mm KCl (25K) induced an increase in calcium influx through L subtype channels. In neurones grown for 24-48 h under low-density conditions, the activation of these channels induced neurite outgrowth through the activation of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. This also produced an increase in long-term neuronal survival with a partial contribution from the MEK1 pathway. We also found that the addition of 25K increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Neuronal survival under resting conditions is supported by the MEK1 pathway. We conclude that intracellular calcium oscillations can triggered different biological effects depending on the stage of maturation of the neuronal phenotype. Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activation determines the growth of neurites and the development of neuronal complexity.

  3. Halpha and [S II] emission from warm ionized gas in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm

    Hill, Alex S; Haffner, L Matthew; Gostisha, Martin; Barger, Kathleen A


    We present Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper [S II] {\\lambda}6716 and H{\\alpha} spectroscopic maps of the warm ionized medium (WIM) in the Scutum-Centaurus Arm at Galactic longitudes 310{\\deg} = 100 R. The line ratio is better correlated with H{\\alpha} intensity than with height above the plane, indicating that the physical conditions within the WIM vary systematically with electron density. We argue that the variation of the line ratio with height is a consequence of the decrease of electron density with height. Our results reinforce the well-established picture in which the diffuse H{\\alpha} emission is due primarily to emission from in situ photoionized gas, with scattered light only a minor contributor.

  4. HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IV. Time resolved analysis of the Ca ii H&K and Hα chromospheric emission of low-activity early-type M dwarfs

    Scandariato, G.; Maldonado, J.; Affer, L.; Biazzo, K.; Leto, G.; Stelzer, B.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Damasso, M.; Desidera, S.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Messina, S.; Micela, G.; Pagano, I.; Perger, M.; Piotto, G.; Rebolo, R.; Ribas, I.; Rosich, A.; Sozzetti, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.


    Context. M dwarfs are prime targets for current and future planet search programs, particularly those focused on the detection and characterization of rocky planets in the habitable zone. In this context, understanding their magnetic activity is important for two main reasons: it affects our ability to detect small planets and it plays a key role in the characterization of the stellar environment. Aims: We analyze observations of the Ca ii H&K and Hα lines as diagnostics of chromospheric activity for low-activity early-type M dwarfs. Methods: We analyze the time series of spectra of 71 early-type M dwarfs collected in the framework of the HADES project for planet search purposes. The HARPS-N spectra simultaneously provide the Ca ii H&K doublet and the Hα line. We develop a reduction scheme able to correct the HARPS-N spectra for instrumental and atmospheric effects, and also to provide flux-calibrated spectra in units of flux at the stellar surface. The Ca ii H&K and Hα fluxes are then compared with each other, and their time variability is analyzed. Results: We find that the Ca ii H and K flux excesses are strongly correlated with each other, while the Hα flux excess is generally less correlated with the Ca ii H&K doublet. We also find that Hα emission does not increase monotonically with the Ca ii H&K line flux, showing some absorption before being filled in by chromospheric emission when Ca ii H&K activity increases. Analyzing the time variability of the emission fluxes, we derive a tentative estimate of the rotation period (on the order of a few tens of days) for some of the program stars, and the typical lifetime of chromospheric active regions (on the order of a few stellar rotations). Conclusions: Our results are in good agreement with similar previous studies. In particular, we find evidence that the chromospheres of early-type M dwarfs could be characterized by different filament coverage, affecting the formation mechanism of the Hα line. We also

  5. Toward models for the full oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II by ligand coordination to lower the symmetry of the Mn3CaO4 cubane: demonstration that electronic effects facilitate binding of a fifth metal.

    Kanady, Jacob S; Lin, Po-Heng; Carsch, Kurtis M; Nielsen, Robert J; Takase, Michael K; Goddard, William A; Agapie, Theodor


    Synthetic model compounds have been targeted to benchmark and better understand the electronic structure, geometry, spectroscopy, and reactivity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II, a low-symmetry Mn4CaOn cluster. Herein, low-symmetry Mn(IV)3GdO4 and Mn(IV)3CaO4 cubanes are synthesized in a rational, stepwise fashion through desymmetrization by ligand substitution, causing significant cubane distortions. As a result of increased electron richness and desymmetrization, a specific μ3-oxo moiety of the Mn3CaO4 unit becomes more basic allowing for selective protonation. Coordination of a fifth metal ion, Ag(+), to the same site gives a Mn3CaAgO4 cluster that models the topology of the OEC by displaying both a cubane motif and a "dangler" transition metal. The present synthetic strategy provides a rational roadmap for accessing more accurate models of the biological catalyst.

  6. A high spatial resolution X-ray and H-alpha study of hot gas in the halos of star-forming disk galaxies. II. Quantifying supernova feedback

    Strickland, D K; Colbert, E J M; Hoopes, C G; Weaver, K A


    We investigate how the empirical properties of hot X-ray-emitting gas in a sample of 7 starburst and 3 normal edge-on spiral galaxies correlate with the size, mass, star formation rate and star formation intensity in the host galaxies. From this analysis we investigate various aspects of mechanical energy feedback on galactic scales. We demonstrate, using a variety of multi-wavelength star formation rate and intensity indicators, that the diffuse X-ray emission is ultimately driven by mechanical energy feedback from massive stars. We find that the luminosity of the extra-planar diffuse X-ray emission is proportional to proxies of the star formation rate of the host galaxy, for example the FIR or 1.4 GHz radio luminosity. Larger galaxies tend to have more extended X-ray-emitting halos, but galaxy mass appears to play no role in determining the properties of the disk or extra-planar X-ray emitting plasma. Accretion of gas from the IGM does not appear to be a significant contributor to the diffuse X-ray emission...

  7. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II contributes to inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase complex activation in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Maubach, Gunter; Sokolova, Olga; Wolfien, Markus; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Naumann, Michael


    Helicobacter pylori, a class I carcinogen, induces a proinflammatory response by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in gastric epithelial cells. This inflammatory condition could lead to chronic gastritis, which is epidemiologically and biologically linked to the development of gastric cancer. So far, there exists no clear knowledge on how H. pylori induces the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. In our study, we investigated the role of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII), calmodulin, protein kinases C (PKCs) and the CARMA3-Bcl10-MALT1 (CBM) complex in conjunction with H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB via the inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase (IKK) complex. We use specific inhibitors and/or RNA interference to assess the contribution of these components. Our results show that CAMKII and calmodulin contribute to IKK complex activation and thus to the induction of NF-κB in response to H. pylori infection, but not in response to TNF-α. Thus, our findings are specific for H. pylori infected cells. Neither the PKCs α, δ, θ, nor the CBM complex itself is involved in the activation of NF-κB by H. pylori. The contribution of CAMKII and calmodulin, but not PKCs/CBM to the induction of an inflammatory response by H. pylori infection augment the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved and provide potential new disease markers for the diagnosis of gastric inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer.

  8. Production of dammarane-type sapogenins in rice by expressing the dammarenediol-II synthase gene from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.

    Huang, Zhiwei; Lin, Juncheng; Cheng, Zuxin; Xu, Ming; Huang, Xinying; Yang, Zhijian; Zheng, Jingui


    Ginsenosides are the main active ingredients in Chinese medicinal ginseng; 2,3-oxidosqualene is a precursor metabolite to ginsenosides that is present in rice. Because rice lacks a key rate-limiting enzyme (dammarenediol-II synthase, DS), rice cannot synthesize dammarane-type ginsenosides. In this study, the ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Mey.) DS gene (GenBank: AB265170.1) was transformed into rice using agrobacterium, and 64 rice transgenic plants were produced. The Transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertion sites in homozygous lines of the T2 generation were determined by using high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR) and differed in all tested lines. One to two copies of the T-DNA were present in each transformant, and real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the transformed DS gene could be transcribed and highly expressed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the dammarane-type sapogenin 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) content was 0.35-0.59 mg/g dw and the dammarane-type sapogenin 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) content was 0.23-0.43 mg/g dw in the transgenic rice. LC/MS analysis confirmed production of PPD and PPT. These results indicate that a new "ginseng rice" germplasm containing dammarane-type sapogenins has been successfully developed by transforming the ginseng DS gene into rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthetic CA II Triplet Lines

    Erdelyi, M. M.; Barbuy, B.


    RESUMEN. Se hicieron calculos de sintesis del espectro en el ititervalo de longitud de onda - 8700 A, ara ? oder verificar el comporta- mien to de diferentes lineas moleculares y at5micas como funci5n de los parametros esteldres de temperatura, gravedad y metalicidad. El espec- tro sintetico ha sido generado para:(a) todas las , (b) solamente de CN, (c) solamente de TiO, y (d) solamente lineas at6micas. Abstract. Spectrum synthesis calculations are carried out in the wavelength interval X 8300 - 8700 A, in order to verify the behaviour of different molecular and atomic lines as a function of the stellar para meters temperature, gravity and metallicity. Synthetic spectra were ge nerated for: (a) all lines, (b) only CN lines, (c) only TiO lines, and (d) only atomic lines Key `td6: LINE-PROFILE - ST S-AThOSPHERES

  10. Rapid 1α,25(OH)₂D ₃ membrane-mediated activation of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in growth plate chondrocytes requires Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae.

    Doroudi, Maryam; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi


    1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] regulates growth zone chondrocytes (GC) via classical steroid hormone receptor-mediated gene transcription and by initiating rapid membrane-mediated signaling pathways. 1α,25(OH)2D3 initiates its membrane effects via its specific membrane-associated receptor (Pdia3) in caveolae. 1α,25(OH)2D3 binding to Pdia3 leads to phospholipase-A2 (PLA2)-activating protein (PLAA) activation, stimulating PLA2, resulting in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and protein kinase C activation. Recently, we reported that 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapidly activates Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in GC cells. However, the roles of Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae in 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent rapid activation of CaMKII are not clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the roles of Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae in 1α,25(OH)2D3 membrane-stimulated CaMKII activation. Pre-treating chondrocytes from the growth zone of the rat costochondral cartilage with antibodies against PLAA or Pdia3 blocked activation of CaMKII by 1α,25(OH)2D3. PLAA peptide rapidly activated CaMKII in GC cells. Caveolae disruption abolished CaMKII activation in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3 or PLAA peptide treatment. Immunoprecipitation studies showed increased CaM binding to PLAA in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. The results indicated that Pdia3, PLAA and caveolae are required for rapid 1α,25(OH)2D3 membrane-mediated activation of CaMKII. 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling via Pdia3 receptor triggered the interaction between PLAA and CaM suggesting that CaM may play a major role linking PLAA to CaMKII in membrane-mediated actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

  11. Effects of La(III) and Ca(II) on isolated Carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Wu, Man; Gao, Jia-Ling; Sun, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie


    The effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from Carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (Δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. La(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (IC50) being 71.2 μmol L(-1). Similarly, Ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the IC50 of Ca(2+) was much higher than that of La(3+). In the spectroscopic experiments, La(3+) and Ca(2+) induced fish liver mitochondrial swelling and decreased membrane potential (Δψ), and the induction ability of La(3+) was stronger than that of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the effects of La(3+) and Ca(2+) on fish liver mitochondria differ, and La represents toxic action rather than Ca analogy.

  12. Sigma-1 receptor stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of CaM kinase II, protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yui; Ikuno, Tatsuya; Fukunaga, Kohji


    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is one of the most abundant neurosteroids synthesized de novo in the CNS. We here found that sigma-1 receptor stimulation by DHEA improves cognitive function through phosphorylation of synaptic proteins in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mouse hippocampus. We have previously reported that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were impaired in OBX mouse hippocampus. OBX mice were administered once a day for 7-8 days with DHEA (30 or 60 mg/kg p.o.) 10 days after operation. The spatial, cognitive and conditioned fear memories in OBX mice were significantly improved as assessed by Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance task, respectively. DHEA also improved impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation in OBX mice. Notably, DHEA treatment restored PKCα (Ser-657) autophosphorylation and NR1 (Ser-896) and myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Ser-152/156) phosphorylation to the control levels in the hippocampal CA1 region. Likewise, DHEA treatment improved CaMKIIα (Thr-286) autophosphorylation and GluR1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation to the control levels in the CA1 region. Furthermore, DHEA treatment improved ERK and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (Ser-133) phosphorylation to the control levels. Finally, NE-100, sigma-1 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the DHEA-induced improvement of memory-related behaviors and CaMKII, PKC and ERK phosphorylation in CA1 region. Taken together, sigma-1 receptor stimulation by DHEA ameliorates OBX-induced impairment in memory-related behaviors and long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region through activation of CaMKII, PKC and ERK. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Phosphorylation at Ser²⁶ in the ATP-binding site of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II as a mechanism for switching off the kinase activity.

    Yilmaz, Mehtap; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Leavis, Paul; Grabarek, Zenon; Morgan, Kathleen G


    CaMKII (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) is a serine/threonine phosphotransferase that is capable of long-term retention of activity due to autophosphorylation at a specific threonine residue within each subunit of its oligomeric structure. The γ isoform of CaMKII is a significant regulator of vascular contractility. Here, we show that phosphorylation of CaMKII γ at Ser²⁶, a residue located within the ATP-binding site, terminates the sustained activity of the enzyme. To test the physiological importance of phosphorylation at Ser²⁶, we generated a phosphospecific Ser²⁶ antibody and demonstrated an increase in Ser²⁶ phosphorylation upon depolarization and contraction of blood vessels. To determine if the phosphorylation of Ser²⁶ affects the kinase activity, we mutated Ser²⁶ to alanine or aspartic acid. The S26D mutation mimicking the phosphorylated state of CaMKII causes a dramatic decrease in Thr²⁸⁷ autophosphorylation levels and greatly reduces the catalytic activity towards an exogenous substrate (autocamtide-3), whereas the S26A mutation has no effect. These data combined with molecular modelling indicate that a negative charge at Ser²⁶ of CaMKII γ inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme towards its autophosphorylation site at Thr²⁸⁷ most probably by blocking ATP binding. We propose that Ser²⁶ phosphorylation constitutes an important mechanism for switching off CaMKII activity.

  14. Wasilewski 72 - an extragalactic H II region

    Osterbrock, Donald E.; Tran, Hien D.; Bidelman, William P.


    Was 72 is established as an extragalactic H II region. The reddening of Was 72, as judged from the H-alpha/H-beta/H-gamma ratios, is very nearly zero, and the relative intensity of H-delta suggests a nonzero reddening. It is concluded that Was 72 is either very young or is dominated by very young stars; the age of the stars which dominate its optical spectrum is estimated at not more than 3 x 10 exp yr.

  15. Studies of renal injury. II. Activation of the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) gene and glycolysis in LLC-PK1 cells under Ca2+ stress.

    Dominguez, J H; Song, B; Liu-Chen, S; Qulali, M; Howard, R; Lee, C H; McAteer, J


    Injury to the renal proximal tubule is common and may be followed by either recovery or cell death. The survival of injured cells is supported by a transient change in cellular metabolism that maintains life even when oxygen tension is reduced. This adaptive process involves the activation of the gene encoding the glucose transporter GLUT1, which is essential to maintain the high rates of glucose influx demanded by glycolysis. We hypothesized that after cell injury increases of cell Ca2+ (Ca2+i) initiate the flow of information that culminates with the upregulation of the stress response gene GLUT1. We found that elevations of Ca2+i caused by the calcium ionophore A23187 activated the expression of the GLUT1 gene in LLC-PK1 cells. The stimulatory effect of Ca2+i on GLUT1 gene expression was, at least in part, transcriptional and resulted in higher levels of GLUT1 mRNA, cognate protein, cellular hexose transport activity, glucose consumption, and lactate production. This response was vital to the renal cells, as its interruption severely increased Ca2+-induced cytotoxicity and cell mortality. We propose that increases of Ca2+i initiate stress responses, represented in part by activation of the GLUT1 gene, and that disruption to the flow of information originating from Ca2+-induced stress, or to the coordinated expression of the stress response, prevents cell recovery after injury and may be an important cause of permanent renal cell injury and cell death. PMID:8755650

  16. [OIII] emission line as a tracer of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts: Comparison between H$\\alpha$ and [OIII] emitters at $z$=2.23 in HiZELS

    Suzuki, T L; Sobral, D; Khostovan, A A; Hayashi, M; Shimakawa, R; Koyama, Y; Tadaki, K -i; Tanaka, I; Minowa, Y; Yamamoto, M; Smail, I; Best, P N


    We investigate the properties of $z$=2.23 H$\\alpha$ and [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emitters using the narrow-band-selected samples obtained from the High-$z$ Emission Line Survey (HiZELS: Sobral et al. 2013). We construct two samples of the H$\\alpha$ and [OIII] emitters and compare their integrated physical properties. We find that the distribution of stellar masses, dust extinction, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs, is not statistically different between the two samples. When we separate the full galaxy sample into three subsamples according to the detections of the H$\\alpha$ and/or [OIII] emission lines, most of the sources detected with both H$\\alpha$ and [OIII] show ${\\rm log(sSFR_{UV})}$$\\gtrsim$-9.5. The comparison of the three subsamples suggests that sources with strong [OIII] line emission tend to have the highest star-forming activity out all galaxies that we study. We argue that the [OIII] emission line can be used as a tracer of star-forming galaxies at high redshift, and that it is especia...

  17. $\\rm{H}\\alpha$ Velocity Fields and Galaxy Interaction in the Quartet of Galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A

    A. A. Yeghiazaryan; T. A. Nazaryan; A. A. Hakobyan


    The quartet of galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A is a system of interacting galaxies. Close interaction between galaxies caused characteristic morphological features: tidal arms and bars, as well as an induced star formation. In this study, we performed the Fabry–Perot scanning interferometry of the system in $\\rm{H}\\alpha$ line and studied the velocity fields of the galaxies. We found that the rotation curve of NGC 7769 is weakly distorted. The rotation curve of NGC 7771 is strongly distorted with the tidal arms caused by direct flyby of NGC 7769 and flyby of a smaller neighbor NGC 7770. The rotation curve of NGC 7770 is significantly skewed because of the interaction with the much massive NGC 7771. The rotation curves and morphological disturbances suggest that the NGC 7769 and NGC 7771 have passed the first pericenter stage, however, probably the second encounter has not happened yet. Profiles of surface brightness of NGC 7769 have a characteristic break, and profiles of color indices have a minimum at a radius of intensive star formation induced by the interaction with NGC 7771.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Filament Features Based on the H{\\alpha} Solar Images from 1988 to 2013 by Computer Automated Detection Method

    Hao, Q; Cao, W; Chen, P F


    We improve our filament automated detection method which was proposed in our previous works. It is then applied to process the full disk H$\\alpha$ data mainly obtained by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) from 1988 to 2013, spanning nearly 3 solar cycles. The butterfly diagrams of the filaments, showing the information of the filament area, spine length, tilt angle, and the barb number, are obtained. The variations of these features with the calendar year and the latitude band are analyzed. The drift velocities of the filaments in different latitude bands are calculated and studied. We also investigate the north-south (N-S) asymmetries of the filament numbers in total and in each subclass classified according to the filament area, spine length, and tilt angle. The latitudinal distribution of the filament number is found to be bimodal. About 80% of all the filaments have tilt angles within [0{\\deg}, 60{\\deg}]. For the filaments within latitudes lower (higher) than 50{\\deg} the northeast (northwest) direction i...

  19. The nature of H-alpha star-forming galaxies at z~0.4 in and around Cl 0939+4713: the environment matters

    Sobral, David; Koyama, Yusei; Darvish, Behnam; Calhau, João; Afonso, Ana; Kodama, Tadayuki; Nakata, Fumiaki


    Cluster star-forming galaxies are found to have an excess of Far-Infrared emission relative to H-alpha (Ha), when compared to those in the field, which could be caused by intense AGN activity, dust and/or declining star formation histories. Here we present spectroscopic observations of Ha emitters in the Cl 0939+4713 (Abell 851) super-cluster at z=0.41, using AF2+WYFFOS on the WHT. We measure [OII], Hbeta (Hb), [OIII], Ha and [NII] for a sample of 119 Ha emitters in and around the cluster. We find that 17+-5% of the Ha emitters are AGN, irrespective of environment. For star-forming galaxies, we obtain Balmer decrements, metallicities and ionisation parameters with different methods, individually and by stacking. We find a strong mass-metallicity relation at all environments, with no significant dependence on environment. The ionisation parameter declines with increasing stellar mass for low-mass galaxies. Ha emitters residing in intermediate environments show the highest ionisation parameters (along with high...

  20. The broad H-alpha, [O III] line wings in stellar supercluster A of NGC2363 and the turbulent mixing layer hypothesis

    Binette, Luc; Ubeda, Leonardo; Raga, Alejandro C; Robert, Carmelle; Krongold, Yair


    Context. SuperclusterA in the extragalactic HII region NGC2363 is remarkable for the hypersonic gas seen as faint extended broad emission lines with a full width zero intensity of 7000km/s. Aims. We explore the possibility that the observed broad profiles are the result of the interaction of a high velocity cluster wind with dense photoionized clumps. Methods. The geometry considered is that of near static photoionized condensations at the surface of which turbulent mixing layers arise as a result of the interaction with the hot wind. The approximative treatment of turbulence is carried out using the mixing length approach of Canto & Raga. The code mappings Ic is used to derive the mean quantities describing the flow and to compute the line emissivities within the turbulent layers. The velocity projection in three dimensions of the line sources is carried out analytically. Results. A fast entraining wind of up to ~4300km/s appears to be required to reproduce the faint wings of the broad H-alpha and [O III...

  1. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.

    Walkup, Ward G; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J; Carlisle, Holly J; Graham, Robert L; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B


    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. H-alpha as a Probe of Very Low-mass Planets: The GAPplanetS Survey With the MagAO System

    Close, L.; MagAO Team


    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of young Transitional Disk with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5m Magellan telescope (0.5 - 0.7''), we find MagAO delivers 24-19% Strehl at Ha (0.656 mm). We detect a faint companion embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3±1.9 mas (~12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both Ha and a continuum filter (Dmag=6.33±0.20 mag at Ha and 7.50±0.25 mag in the continuum filter). The Ha emission from the ~0.25 solar mass companion (EW=180 Angstroms) implies a mass accretion rate of ~5.9x10-10 Msun/yr, and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% Lsun. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably better (50-1,000x) planet/star contrasts at Ha than at H band (COND models) for a range of optical extinctions (3.4-0 mag). We suggest that ~0.5-5 Mjup extrasolar planets in their gas accretion phase could be much more luminous at Ha than in the NIR. This is the motivation for our new MagAO GAPplanetS survey for directly imaging lowmass exoplanets in the gaps of transitional disks in the light of H-alpha with MagAO's unique SDI AO camera.

  3. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    Moriguchi, Shigeki; Tanaka, Tomoya; Tagashira, Hideaki; Narahashi, Toshio; Fukunaga, Kohji


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows degeneration of the cholinergic system in the medial septum, thereby eliciting down-regulation of the olfactory function in patients. We have previously reported that olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice show hippocampus-dependent memory impairment as assessed by memory-related behavioral tasks and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we focused whether novel pyrrolidone nootropic drug sunifiram improves both memory impairment and depression observed in OBX mice. OBX mice were administered once a day for 7-12 days with sunifiram (0.01-1.0mg/kg p.o.) from 10 days after operation with or without gavestinel (10mg/kg i.p.), which is glycine-binding site inhibitor of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The spatial reference memory assessed by Y-maze and short-term memory assessed by novel object recognition task were significantly improved by sunifiram treatment in OBX mice. Sunifiram also restored hippocampal LTP injured in OBX mice without treatment with gavestinel. By contrast, sunifiram treatment did not ameliorate the depressive behaviors assessed by tail suspension task in OBX mice. Notably, sunifiram treatment restored CaMKIIα (Thr-286) autophosphorylation and GluR1 (Ser-831) phosphorylation in the hippocampal CA1 region from OBX mice to the levels of control mice. Likewise, sunifiram treatment improved PKCα (Ser-657) autophosphorylation and NR1 (Ser-896) phosphorylation to the control levels. Stimulation of CaMKII and PKC autophosphorylation by sunifiram was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with gavestinel. However, sunifiram treatment did not affect the phosphorylation of CaMKIV (Thr-196) and ERK. Taken together, sunifiram ameliorates OBX-induced deficits of memory-related behaviors and impaired LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region via stimulation of glycine-binding site of NMDAR.

  4. [Fe II] jets from intermediate-mass protostars in Carina

    Reiter, Megan; Bally, John


    We present new HST/WFC3-IR narrowband [Fe II] images of protostellar jets in the Carina Nebula. Combined with 5 previously published sources, we have a sample of 18 jets and 2 HH objects. All of the jets we targeted with WFC3 show bright infrared [Fe II] emission, and a few H$\\alpha$ candidate jets are confirmed as collimated outflows based on the morphology of their [Fe II] emission. Continuum-subtracted images clearly separate jet emission from the adjacent ionization front, providing a better tracer of the collimated jet than H$\\alpha$ and allowing us to connect these jets with their embedded driving sources. The [Fe II] 1.64 $\\mu$m/H$\\alpha$ flux ratio measured in the jets is $\\gtrsim 5$ times larger than in the adjacent ionization fronts. The low-ionization jet core requires high densities to shield Fe$^+$ against further ionization by the FUV radiation from O-type stars in the H II region. High jet densities imply high mass-loss rates, consistent with the intermediate-mass driving sources we identify fo...

  5. A cold metal poor cloud traced by a weak MgII absorption at z~0.45. First detection of SiI, CaI and FeI in a QSO absorber

    D'Odorico, Valentina


    We present the observations of a weak MgII absorption system detected at z~0.452 in the UVES high resolution spectrum of the QSO HE0001-2340. The weakest of the two MgII components forming the system shows associated absorptions due to SiI, CaI and FeI observed for the first time in a QSO spectrum. We investigate the nature of this absorber by comparing its properties with those of different classes of absorbers (weak MgII, Damped Ly-alpha systems and local interstellar clouds) and reproducing its ionization conditions with photoionization models. The observed absorber belongs to the class of weak MgII systems on the basis of its equivalent width, however the relative strength of commonly observed transitions deviates significantly from those of the above mentioned absorbers. A rough estimate of the probability to cross such a system with a QSO line of sight is P~0.03. The presence of rare neutral transitions suggests that the cloud is shielded by a large amount of neutral Hydrogen. A detailed comparison of t...

  6. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    Gnacinski, P


    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  7. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    Gnacinski, P.; Krogulec, M.


    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  8. Tolerância de genótipos de cafeeiro ao alumínio em solução nutritiva. II. Teores de P, Ca e Al e eficiência ao P e Ca

    M. C. L. Braccini


    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento, em janeiro de 1994, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do alumínio nos teores de P, Ca e Al e na eficiência ao fósforo e cálcio de nove genótipos de café, as plantas foram crescidas em solução nutritiva com 0 e 0,296 mmol L-1 de alumínio, com pH 4,0, por um período de 115 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram divididas em folhas superiores, folhas inferiores, primeiro par de folhas totalmente expandido, caule e raízes, para a determinação da matéria seca e de concentrações de fósforo, cálcio e alumínio. A tolerância ao alumínio foi associada ao menor acúmulo de fósforo nas raízes, à menor redução na translocação desse nutriente para a parte aérea, à menor redução na absorção de cálcio e à maior eficiência no uso do fósforo e do cálcio. Foi observado grande acúmulo de alumínio nas raízes, bem como um transporte restrito do elemento para a parte aérea, para todos os genótipos de café.

  9. ISORROPIA II: a computationally efficient thermodynamic equilibrium model for K+─Ca²+─Mg²+─NH4+─Na+─SO4²-─NO3-─Cl-─H2O aerosols

    C. Fountoukis


    Full Text Available This study presents ISORROPIA II, a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the K+–Ca2+–Mg2+–NH4+–Na+–SO42−–NO3−–Cl−–H2O aerosol system. A comprehensive evaluation of its performance is conducted against water uptake measurements for laboratory aerosol and predictions of the SCAPE2 thermodynamic module over a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions. The two models agree well, to within 13% for aerosol water content and total PM mass, 16% for aerosol nitrate and 6% for aerosol chloride and ammonium. Largest discrepancies were found under conditions of low RH, primarily from differences in the treatment of water uptake and solid state composition. In terms of computational speed, ISORROPIA II was more than an order of magnitude faster than SCAPE2, with robust and rapid convergence under all conditions. The addition of crustal species does not slow down the thermodynamic calculations (compared to the older ISORROPIA code because of optimizations in the activity coefficient calculation algorithm. Based on its computational rigor and performance, ISORROPIA II appears to be a highly attractive alternative for use in large scale air quality and atmospheric transport models.

  10. Effect of phosphate, silicate, and Ca on the morphology, structure and elemental composition of Fe(III)-precipitates formed in aerated Fe(II) and As(III) containing water

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Folini, Doris; Hug, Stephan J.


    We investigated Fe(III)-precipitates formed from Fe(II) oxidation in water at pH 7 as a function of dissolved Fe(II), As(III), phosphate, and silicate in the absence and presence of Ca. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to characterize the morphology, structure and elemental composition of the precipitates. Results from our companion X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study suggested that the oxidation of Fe(II) leads to the sequential formation of distinct polymeric units in the following order: Fe(III)-phosphate oligomers in the presence of phosphate, silicate-rich hydrous ferric oxide (HFO-Si) at high Si/Fe (>0.5) or 2-line ferrihydrite (2L-Fh) at lower Si/Fe (˜0.1-0.5), and lepidocrocite (Lp) in the absence of phosphate at low Si/Fe (arrangement of the different polymeric units within Fe(III)-precipitates. The resulting structural and compositional heterogeneity of short-range-ordered Fe(III)-precipitates likely affects their colloidal stability and their chemical reactivity and needs to be considered when addressing the fate of co-transformed trace elements such as arsenic.

  11. Concurrent Supermassive Black Hole and Galazy Growth: Linking Environment and Nuclear Activity in Zeta Equals 2.23 H Alpha Emitters

    Lehmer, B. D.; Lucy, A. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P. N.; Geach, J. E.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Sobral, D.; Swinbank, A. M.


    We present results from an approximately equal 100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 structure at z = 2.23 (hereafter 2QZ Clus). 2QZ Clus was originally identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected QSOs at z = 2.23 within a 15 × 15 arcmin square region. Narrow-band imaging in the near-IR (within the K band) revealed that the structure contains an additional overdensity of 22 z = 2.23 H alpha-emitting galaxies (HAEs), resulting in 23 unique z = 2.23 HAEs/QSOs (22 within the Chandra field of view). Our Chandra observations reveal that three HAEs in addition to the four QSOs harbor powerfully accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with 2-10 keV luminosities of approximately equal (8-60) × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp-1) and X-ray spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a large comparison sample of 210 z = 2.23 HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), we find suggestive evidence that the AGN fraction increases with local HAE galaxy density. The 2QZ Clus HAEs reside in a moderately overdense environment (a factor of approximately equal 2 times over the field), and after excluding optically-selected QSOs, we find that the AGN fraction is a factor of approximately equal 3.5(+3.8/ -2.2) times higher than C-COSMOS HAEs in similar environments. Using stacking analyses of the Chandra data and Herschel SPIRE observations at 250micrometers, we respectively estimate mean SMBH accretion rates ( M(BH)) and star formation rates (SFRs) for the 2QZ Clus and C-COSMOS samples. We find that the mean 2QZ Clus HAE stacked X-ray luminosity is QSO-like (L(2-10 keV) approximately equal [6-10] × 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1)), and the implied M(BH)/SFR approximately equal (1.6-3.2) × 10(exp -3) is broadly consistent with the local M(BH)/Stellar Mass relation and z approximately equal 2 X-ray selected AGN. In contrast, the C-COSMOS HAEs are on average an order of magnitude less X-ray luminous and have M(BH)/SFR approximately

  12. Filling the gap. Human cranial remains from Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia; ca. 850 ka) and the origin of Homo heidelbergensis.

    Profico, Antonio; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Gagliardi, Lorenza; Piperno, Marcello; Manzi, Giorgio


    African archaic humans dated to around 1,0 Ma share morphological affinities with Homo ergaster and appear distinct in cranio-dental morphology from those of the Middle Pleistocene that are referred to Homo heidelbergensis. This observation suggests a taxonomic and phylogenetic discontinuity in Africa that ranges across the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal (780 ka). Yet, the fossil record between roughly 900 and 600 ka is notoriously poor. In this context, the Early Stone Age site of Gombore II, in the Melka Kunture formation (Upper Awash, Ethiopia), provides a privileged case-study. In the Acheulean layer of Gombore II, somewhat more recent than 875 ±10 ka, two large cranial fragments were discovered in 1973 and 1975 respectively: a partial left parietal (Melka Kunture 1) and a right portion of the frontal bone (Melka Kunture 2), which probably belonged to the same cranium. We present here the first detailed description and computer-assisted reconstruction of the morphology of the cranial vault pertaining to these fossil fragments. Our analysis suggest that the human fossil specimen from Gombore II fills a phenetic gap between Homo ergaster and Homo heidelbergensis. This appears in agreement with the chronology of such a partial cranial vault, which therefore represents at present one of the best available candidates (if any) for the origin of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.

  13. Optical identification of the long-wavelength (700-1700 nm) electronic excitations of the native reaction centre, Mn4CaO5 cluster and cytochromes of photosystem II in plants and cyanobacteria.

    Morton, Jennifer; Akita, Fusamichi; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Shen, Jian-Ren; Krausz, Elmars


    Visible/UV absorption in PS II core complexes is dominated by the chl-a absorptions, which extend to ~700 nm. A broad 700-730 nm PS II core complex absorption in spinach has been assigned to a charge transfer excitation between ChlD1 and ChlD2. Emission from this state, which peaks at 780 nm, has been seen for both plant and cyanobacterial samples. We show that Thermosynechococcus vulcanus PS II core complexes have parallel absorbance in the 700-730 nm region and similar photochemical behaviour to that seen in spinach. This establishes the low energy charge transfer state as intrinsic to the native PS II reaction centre. High-sensitivity MCD measurements made in the 700-1700 nm region reveal additional electronic excitations at ~770 nm and ~1550 nm. The temperature and field dependence of MCD spectra establish that the system peaking near 1550 nm is a heme-to-Fe(III) charge transfer excitation. These transitions have not previously been observed for cyt b559 or cyt c550. The distinctive characteristics of the MCD signals seen at 770 nm allow us to assign absorption in this region to a dz(2)→d(x2-y2) transition of Mn(III) in the Ca-Mn4O5 cluster of the oxygen evolving centre. Current measurements were performed in the S1 state. Detailed analyses of this spectral region, especially in higher S states, promise to provide a new window on models of water oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glutamate-354 of the CP43 polypeptide interacts with the oxygen-evolving Mn4Ca cluster of photosystem II: a preliminary characterization of the Glu354Gln mutant.

    Strickler, Melodie A; Hwang, Hong Jin; Burnap, Robert L; Yano, Junko; Walker, Lee M; Service, Rachel J; Britt, R David; Hillier, Warwick; Debus, Richard J


    In the recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of photosystem II, Glu354 of the CP43 polypeptide is assigned as a ligand of the O2-evolving Mn4Ca cluster. In this communication, a preliminary characterization of the CP43-Glu354Gln mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is presented. The steady-state rate of O2 evolution in the mutant cells is only approximately 20% compared with the wild-type, but the kinetics of O2 release are essentially unchanged and the O2-flash yields show normal period-four oscillations, albeit with lower overall intensity. Purified PSII particles exhibit an essentially normal S2 state multiline electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal, but exhibit a substantially altered S2-minus-S1 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectrum. The intensities of the mutant EPR and FTIR difference spectra (above 75% compared with wild-type) are much greater than the O2 signals and suggest that CP43-Glu354Gln PSII reaction centres are heterogeneous, with a minority fraction able to evolve O2 with normal O2 release kinetics and a majority fraction unable to advance beyond the S2 or S3 states. The S2-minus-S1 FTIR difference spectrum of CP43-Glu354Gln PSII particles is altered in both the symmetric and asymmetric carboxylate stretching regions, implying either that CP43-Glu354 is exquisitely sensitive to the increased charge that develops on the Mn4Ca cluster during the S1-->S2 transition or that the CP43-Glu354Gln mutation changes the distribution of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxidation states within the Mn4Ca cluster in the S1 and/or S2 states.

  15. A high spatial resolution X-ray and H-alpha study of hot gas in the halos of star-forming disk galaxies. I. Spatial and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission

    Strickland, D K; Colbert, E J M; Hoopes, C G; Weaver, K A


    We present arcsecond resolution Chandra X-ray and ground-based optical H-alpha imaging of a sample of ten edge-on star-forming disk galaxies (seven starburst and three ``normal'' spiral galaxies), a sample which covers the full range of star-formation intensity found in disk galaxies. We use the unprecedented spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observatory to robustly remove point sources, and hence obtain the X-ray properties of the diffuse thermal emission alone. The X-ray observations are combined with comparable-resolution H-alpha and R-band imaging, and presented as a mini-atlas of images on a common spatial and surface brightness scale. The vertical distribution of the halo-region X-ray surface brightness is best described as an exponential, with the observed scale heights lying in the range H_eff = 2 -- 4 kpc. The ACIS X-ray spectra of extra-planar emission from all these galaxies can be fit with a common two-temperature spectral model with an enhanced alpha-to-iron element ratio. This is consisten...

  16. Complex Variability of the H$\\alpha$ Emission Line Profile of the T Tauri Binary System KH 15D: The Influence of Orbital Phase, Occultation by the Circumbinary Disk, and Accretion Phenomenae

    Hamilton, Catrina M; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N


    We have obtained 48 high resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main sequence eclipsing binary system KH~15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 d, $e$ $\\sim$ 0.6, M$_{A}$ = 0.6 M$_{\\odot}$, M$_{B}$ = 0.7 M$_{\\odot}$). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The H$\\alpha$ line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to "edge effects" and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the H$\\alpha$ emission line profile changes from an inverse P Cygni type profile during ingress to an enhanced d...

  17. Multi-Wavelength Constraints on the Cosmic Star Formation History from Spectroscopy: the Rest-Frame UV, H-alpha, and Infrared Luminosity Functions at Redshifts 1.9

    Reddy, Naveen A; Pettini, Max; Adelberger, Kurt L; Shapley, Alice E; Erb, Dawn K; Dickinson, Mark


    We use a sample of rest-frame UV selected and spectroscopically observed galaxies at redshifts 1.9H-alpha and Spitzer MIPS 24 micron data, to derive the most robust measurements of the rest-frame UV, H-alpha, and infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) at these redshifts. Our sample is by far the largest of its kind, with over 2000 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.9

  18. When is high-Ca+ microdomain required for mitochondrial Ca+ uptake?

    Spät, A; Fülöp, L; Koncz, P; Szanda, G


    Ca(2+) release from IP(3)-sensitive stores in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced by Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists generates high-Ca(2+) microdomains between ER vesicles and neighbouring mitochondria. Here we present a model that describes when such microdomains are required and when submicromolar [Ca(2+)] is sufficient for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake rate in angiotensin II-stimulated H295R adrenocortical cells correlates with the proximity between ER vesicles and the mitochondrion, reflecting the uptake promoting effect of high-Ca(2+) peri-mitochondrial microdomains. Silencing or inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or inhibition of the novel isoforms of protein kinase C enhances mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and abolishes the positive correlation between Ca(2+) uptake and ER-mitochondrion proximity. Inhibition of protein phosphatases attenuates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and also abolishes its positive correlation with ER-mitochondrion proximity. We postulate that during IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+) uptake is confined to ER-close mitochondria, because of the simultaneous activation of the protein kinases. Attenuation of Ca(2+) uptake prevents Ca(2+) overload of mitochondria and thus protects the cell against apoptosis. On the other hand, all the mitochondria accumulate Ca(2+) at a non-inhibited rate during physiological Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane. Membrane potential is higher in ER-distant mitochondria, providing a bigger driving force for Ca(2+) uptake. Our model explains why comparable mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals are formed in response to K(+) and angiotensin II (equipotent in respect to global cytosolic Ca(2+) signals), although only the latter generates high-Ca(2+) microdomains.

  19. El sitio Bajo del Coypar II: Las evidencias más tempranas (CA. 1000 AP del proceso agropastoril en la Puna Meridional Argentina (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca

    Silvina Vigliani


    Full Text Available El sitio Bajo del Coypar II (BC II es un conjunto de estructuras de pequeñas dimensiones ubicado sobre una saliente de la ladera de los cerros del Coypar, frente y alrededor del cual se distribuye una gran superficie de campos de cultivo prehispánicos, (Bajo del Coypar I de aproximadamente 1000 ha. En un trabajo anterior se postuló que este amplio sistema de producción agrícola se originó hacia el final del proceso regional tardío (ca. 1300 AP en asociación con el crecimiento del principal centro habitacional de la región, La Alumbrera (Olivera, 1994 y que luego fue apropiado y ampliado por el Incario. En el presente trabajo se plantean tres objetivos generales: conocer el tipo de actividades que se realizaban en el conjunto de estructuras de BC II, establecer la asociación que había entre este conjunto de estructuras y el sistema de producción agrícola e identificar posibles cambios en el uso del espacio a lo largo del tiempo. En un principio se pensó que Bajo del Coypar II formaba parte de la ampliación del espacio productivo implementada por el Imperio Incaico. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en el mismo permitieron determinar que efectivamente hacia las etapas más tardías y en asociación con el Incario había una estrecha relación con el sector agrícola, evidenciado en una alta frecuencia de vasijas para el almacenaje y/o el procesamiento de sustancias secas. Sin embargo, también revelaron ocupaciones más tempranas vinculadas a grupos o unidades domésticas con un desarrollo creciente de las prácticas agrícolas. De este modo, la actividad agro-pastoril fue, en este sector de la Puna meridional, mucho más temprana de lo que pensábamos.

  20. Generalized approximate spin projection calculations of effective exchange integrals of the CaMn4O5 cluster in the S1 and S3 states of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

    Isobe, H; Shoji, M; Yamanaka, S; Mino, H; Umena, Y; Kawakami, K; Kamiya, N; Shen, J-R; Yamaguchi, K


    Full geometry optimizations followed by the vibrational analysis were performed for eight spin configurations of the CaMn4O4X(H2O)3Y (X = O, OH; Y = H2O, OH) cluster in the S1 and S3 states of the oxygen evolution complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). The energy gaps among these configurations obtained by vertical, adiabatic and adiabatic plus zero-point-energy (ZPE) correction procedures have been used for computation of the effective exchange integrals (J) in the spin Hamiltonian model. The J values are calculated by the (1) analytical method and the (2) generalized approximate spin projection (AP) method that eliminates the spin contamination errors of UB3LYP solutions. Using J values derived from these methods, exact diagonalization of the spin Hamiltonian matrix was carried out, yielding excitation energies and spin densities of the ground and lower-excited states of the cluster. The obtained results for the right (R)- and left (L)-opened structures in the S1 and S3 states are found to be consistent with available optical and magnetic experimental results. Implications of the computational results are discussed in relation to (a) the necessity of the exact diagonalization for computations of reliable energy levels, (b) magneto-structural correlations in the CaMn4O5 cluster of the OEC of PSII, (c) structural symmetry breaking in the S1 and S3 states, and (d) the right- and left-handed scenarios for the O-O bond formation for water oxidation.

  1. Electron transfer pathways from the S2-states to the S3-states either after a Ca2+/Sr2+ or a Cl-/I- exchange in Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.

    Boussac, Alain; Rutherford, A William; Sugiura, Miwa


    The site for water oxidation in Photosystem II (PSII) goes through five sequential oxidation states (S0 to S4) before O2 is evolved. It consists of a Mn4CaO5-cluster close to a redox-active tyrosine residue (YZ). Cl- is also required for enzyme activity. By using EPR spectroscopy it has been shown that both Ca2+/Sr2+ exchange and Cl-/I- exchange perturb the proportions of centers showing high (S=5/2) and low spin (S=1/2) forms of the S2-state. The S3-state was also found to be heterogeneous with: i) a S=3 form that is detectable by EPR and not sensitive to near-infrared light; and ii) a form that is not EPR visible but in which Mn photochemistry occurs resulting in the formation of a (S2YZ)' split EPR signal upon near-infrared illumination. In Sr/Cl-PSII, the high spin (S=5/2) form of S2 shows a marked heterogeneity with a g=4.3 form generated at low temperature that converts to a relaxed form at g=4.9 at higher temperatures. The high spin g=4.9 form can then progress to the EPR detectable form of S3 at temperatures as low as 180K whereas the low spin (S=1/2) S2-state can only advance to the S3 state at temperatures≥235 K. Both of the two S2 configurations and the two S3 configurations are each shown to be in equilibrium at ≥235 K but not at 198 K. Since both S2 configurations are formed at 198 K, they likely arise from two specific populations of S1. The existence of heterogeneous populations in S1, S2 and S3 states may be related to the structural flexibility associated with the positioning of the oxygen O5 within the cluster highlighted in computational approaches and which has been linked to substrate exchange. These data are discussed in the context of recent in silico studies of the electron transfer pathways between the S2-state(s) and the S3-state(s).

  2. CaMKII inhibition targeted to the sarcoplasmic reticulum inhibits frequency dependent acceleration of relaxation and Ca2+ current facilitation

    Picht, Eckard; DeSantiago, Jaime; Huke, Sabine; Kaetzel, Marcia A.; Dedman, John R.; Bers, Donald M.


    Cardiac Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in heart has been implicated in Ca2+ current (ICa) facilitation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and frequency dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) via enhanced SR Ca2+ uptake. However, questions remain about how CaMKII may work in these three processes. Here we tested the role of CaM-KII in these processes using transgenic mice (SR-AIP) that express four concatenated repeats of the CaMKII inhibitory peptide...

  3. Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay

    Verma, M; Deng, N; Liu, C; Shimizu, T; Wang, H; Denker, C


    We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period from 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca II H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT Echelle H-alpha 656.28 nm spectra and Fe I 630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms as context for the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. We have performed a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observed moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumb...

  4. Autonomous CaMKII requires further stimulation by Ca2+/calmodulin for enhancing synaptic strength.

    Barcomb, Kelsey; Buard, Isabelle; Coultrap, Steven J; Kulbe, Jacqueline R; O'Leary, Heather; Benke, Timothy A; Bayer, K Ulrich


    A hallmark feature of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is generation of autonomous (Ca(2+)-independent) activity by T286 autophosphorylation. Biochemical studies have shown that "autonomous" CaMKII is ∼5-fold further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM, but demonstration of a physiological function for such regulation within cells has remained elusive. In this study, CaMKII-induced enhancement of synaptic strength in rat hippocampal neurons required both autonomous activity and further stimulation. Synaptic strength was decreased by CaMKIIα knockdown and rescued by reexpression, but not by mutants impaired for autonomy (T286A) or binding to NMDA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B; formerly NR2B; I205K). Full rescue was seen with constitutively autonomous mutants (T286D), but only if they could be further stimulated (additional T305/306A mutation), and not with two other mutations that additionally impair Ca(2+)/CaM binding. Compared to rescue with wild-type CaMKII, the CaM-binding-impaired mutants even had reduced synaptic strength. One of these mutants (T305/306D) mimicked an inhibitory autophosphorylation of CaMKII, whereas the other one (Δstim) abolished CaM binding without introducing charged residues. Inhibitory T305/306 autophosphorylation also reduced GluN2B binding, but this effect was independent of reduced Ca(2+)/CaM binding and was not mimicked by T305/306D mutation. Thus, even autonomous CaMKII activity must be further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM for enhancement of synaptic strength.

  5. 激变变星及相关天体的与近红外电离钙三重线的光谱分析%Spectroscopy around and Ca II Triplet of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects

    刘学富; 陈阳; 黄河


    给出了1997年4月15日至17日在北京天文台用2.16 m望远镜卡焦光谱仪观测获得的6颗激变变星 (AB Boo, UX UMa, T CrB, AH Her, Z Cam 和 V426 Oph) 及3颗相关天体(UMa3, EG UMa 和 Leo3)的CCD光谱, 并同时拍摄了5颗晚型星(3 Dra, Vir, Leo, 34 Boo 和36Com) 的CCD 光谱, 作为晚型星参考谱. 测量了观测样本星的和近红外Ca II的三重线(8498, 8542和 8662)的等值宽度(EW),谱线半极大全宽(FWHM)和视向速度(Vr), 并分析了这些星的活动性.%In this paper, some CCD spectra of 6 cataclysmic variables: AB Boo, T CrB, UX UMa, AH Her, Z Cam, V426 Oph and 3 related objects: Leo3, UMa3 and EG UMa are presented. We also observed 5 late-type stars: 3 Dra, Vir, Leo, 34 Boo, and 36 Com in order to provide comparison with the late-type component of the program systems. The observations were made using the 2.16 m telescope of Bejing Observatory with a Cassergrain spectrograph on 1997—04—15/17 at the Xinglong Station. The CCD spectra were obtained with a low resolution and a dispersion of 1.2/pixel. The spectral region covered is from 5920 to 7072, and from 7950 to 9180 for all the program stars and only 3390—8380 for AH Her. Representative spectra are given for each object. The equivalent width (EW) and FWHM of and CaII triplet lines were determined. The radial velocities for 9 program stars were also determined. Implications of our results are discussed.

  6. The Optical Depth of H II Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Pellegrini, E W; Winkler, P F; Points, S D; Smith, R C


    We exploit ionization-parameter mapping as a powerful tool to measure the optical depth of star-forming H II regions. Our simulations based on the C LOUDY photoionization code and our new, SURFBRIGHT surface brightness simulator demonstrate that this technique can directly diagnose most density-bounded, optically thin nebulae with spatially resolved emission line data. We apply this method to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, using the data from the Magellanic Clouds Emission Line Survey. We generate new H II region catalogs based on photoionization criteria set by the observed ionization structure in the [SII]/[OIII] ratio and H{\\alpha} surface brightness. The luminosity functions from these catalogs generally agree with those from H{\\alpha}-only surveys. We then use ionization-parameter mapping to crudely classify all the nebulae into optically thick vs optically thin categories, yielding fundamental new insights into the Lyman continuum radiation transfer. We find that in both galaxies, the frequency ...

  7. Optical and Infrared Analysis of Type II SN 2006BC

    Gallagher, Joseph S; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Andrews, J E; Clem, J; Barlow, M J; Ercolano, B; Fabbri, J; Otsuka, M; Wesson, R; Meixner, M


    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H$\\alpha$ line profile to be red-shifted with respect to the host galaxy H$\\alpha$ emission by day 325. Such an phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of $^{56}$Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the SN explosion. We also observe a gradual blue-shifting of this H$\\alpha$ peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V $\\sim$ -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by $\\sim$6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low $^{56}$Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implicatio...

  8. Photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of AA Tau, DN Tau, UX Tau A, T Tau, RY Tau, Lk Ca 4, and Lk Ca 7

    Vrba, F. J.; Chugainov, P. F.; Weaver, W. B.; Stauffer, J. S.


    We report the results of a UBVRI photometric monitoring campaign for three classical T Tauri stars (AA Tau, DN Tau, and UX Tau A) and two weak emission line T Tauri stars (Lk Ca 4 and Lk Ca 7). Observations were obtained at three sites during a core observing period spanning UT 1985 October 14 through UT 1985 December 25, with additional observations continuing until UT 1986 April 6. Concurrent spectrophotometric observations were obtained for all main program stars except Lk Ca 7 and additionally for T Tau, RW Aur, and RY Tau. Periodic photometric variability, assumed to be the stars' rotation periods, were found for AA Tau, DN Tau, Lk Ca 4, and Lk Ca 7, respectively, as 8.2, 6.3, 3.4, and 5.7 days. Several U-filter flares were observed for Lk Ca 4 and Lk Ca 7, which are strongly concentrated toward phases of minimum light. Correlations are found between H-alpha line strengths and V magnitudes for AA Tau and RY Tau. An analysis of absolute color variations of classical T Tauri stars confirms that hot spots are the predominant cause of these stars' variability. Our overall results are consistent with earlier findings that long-lived cool spots are responsible for most of the variability found for weak-emission T Tauri stars, while temporal hot spots are primarily responsible for the observed variability found in classical T Tauri stars.

  9. IFU observations of luminous type II AGN - I. Evidence for ubiquitous winds

    McElroy, Rebecca; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Ho, I-Ting; Medling, Anne M


    We present observations of 17 luminous (log(L[O III]/L_Sun) > 8.7) local (z 95 %) correlation between the [N II]/H{\\alpha} ratio and the velocity dispersion of the gas. Such a correlation is the natural consequence of a contribution to the ionization from shock excitation and we argue that this demonstrates that the outflows from these AGN are directly impacting the surrounding ISM within the galaxies.

  10. [Fe II] 1.64 um Features of Jets and Outflows from Young Stellar Objects in the Carina Nebula

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Sung, Hwankyung; Chun, Moo Young; Lyo, A -Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Yong-Hyun


    We present [Fe II] 1.64 {\\mu}m imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (~ 24'x45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ~1.5"+-0.5". Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions, and are named as Ionized Fe Objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro object candidate missed in Hubble Space Telescope H{\\alpha} observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4 %, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show an anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and H{\\alpha}, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(H{\\alpha}) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux, using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for th...

  11. The very low-mass population of the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Mundt, R; Mart\\'{\\i}, Bel\\'en L\\'opez; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Mundt, Reinhard


    We present the results of a deep optical survey in the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions. Our optical photometry is combined with available near- and mid-infrared photometry to identify very low-mass candidate members in these dark clouds. In our Chamaeleon II field, only one object exhibits clear H-alpha emission, but the discrepancy between its optical and near-infrared colours suggests that it might be a foreground star. We also identify two objects without H-alpha emission that could be planetary mass members of Chamaeleon II. In Corona Australis, we find ten stars and three brown dwarf candidates in the Coronet cluster. Five of our new members are identified with ISOCAM sources. Only two of them have a mid-infrared excess, indicating the presence of an accretion disk. On the other hand, one brown dwarf candidate has a faint close companion, seen only in our deepest I-band image. For many of the candidates in both clouds, membership could not be inferred from their H-alpha emission o...

  12. Magnetic fields and differential rotation on the pre-main sequence II: The early-G star HD 141943 - coronal magnetic field, H-alpha emission and differential rotation

    Marsden, S C; Vélez, J C Ramírez; Alecian, E; Brown, C J; Carter, B D; Donati, J F; Dunstone, N; Hart, R; Semel, M; Waite, I A


    Spectropolarimetric observations of the pre-main sequence early-G star HD 141943 were obtained at three observing epochs (2007, 2009 and 2010). The observations were obtained using the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian telescope with the UCLES echelle spectrograph and the SEMPOL spectropolarimeter visitor instrument. The brightness and surface magnetic field topologies (given in Paper I) were used to determine the star's surface differential rotation and reconstruct the coronal magnetic field of the star. The coronal magnetic field at the 3 epochs shows on the largest scales that the field structure is dominated by the dipole component with possible evidence for the tilt of the dipole axis shifting between observations. We find very high levels of differential rotation on HD 141943 (~8 times the solar value for the magnetic features and ~5 times solar for the brightness features) similar to that evidenced by another young early-G star, HD 171488. These results indicate that a significant increase in the level of differe...

  13. Pressure-induced structural transformation of CaC2

    Wang, Lu; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Da; Huang, Yanping; Bao, Kuo; Li, Fangfei; Wu, Gang; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian


    The high pressure structural changes of calcium carbide CaC2 have been investigated with Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. At ambient conditions, two forms of CaC2 co-exist. Above 4.9 GPa, monoclinic CaC2-ii diminished indicating the structural phase transition from CaC2-ii to CaC2-i. At about 7.0 GPa, both XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed that CaC2-i transforms into a metallic Cmcm structure which contains polymeric carbon chains. Along with the phase transition, the isolated C2 dumbbells are polymerized into zigzag chains resulting in a large volume collapse with 22.4%. Above 30.0 GPa, the XRD patterns of CaC2 become featureless and remain featureless upon decompression, suggesting an irreversible amorphization of CaC2.

  14. Ca2+ uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in rat microvascular endothelial cells.

    Moccia, Francesco; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Baruffi, Silvana; Spaggiari, Santina; Signorelli, Silvia; Castelli, Loretta; Magistretti, Jacopo; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco


    In non-excitable cells, many agonists increase the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by inducing an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores. Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular medium may then sustain the Ca(2+) signal. [Ca(2+)](i) recovers its resting level as a consequence of Ca(2+)-removing mechanisms, i.e. plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) pump, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump. In a study performed in pancreatic acinar cells, evidence has been provided suggesting that, during the decay phase of the agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients, the Ca(2+) concentration within the intracellular stores remains essentially constant [Mogami, Tepikin and Petersen (1998) EMBO J. 17, 435-442]. It was therefore hypothesized that, in such a situation, intracellular Ca(2+) is not only picked up by the SERCA pump, but is also newly released through IP(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, with the balance between these two processes being approximately null. The main aim of the present work was to test this hypothesis by a different experimental approach. Using cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, we found that inhibition of the SERCA pump has no effect on the time course of agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients. This result was not due to a low capacity of the SERCA pump since, after agonist removal, this pump proved to be very powerful in clearing the excess of intracellular Ca(2+). We showed further that: (i) in order to avoid a rapid removal of Ca(2+) by the SERCA pump, continuous IP(3) production appears to be required throughout all of the decay phase of the Ca(2+) transient; and (ii) Ca(2+) picked up by the SERCA pump can be fully and immediately released by agonist application. All these results support the model of Mogami, Tepikin and Petersen [(1998) EMBO J. 17, 435-442]. Since the SERCA pump did not appear to be involved in shaping the decay phase of the

  15. Neutron-induced background by an alpha-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction at LUNA

    Anders, M; Bellini, A; Aliotta, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Costantini, H; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Alvarez, C Rossi; Scott, D; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T


    The production of the stable isotope Li-6 in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological Li-6 plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of Li-7 abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of Li-6, contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang Li-6 production must be revisited. The main production channel for Li-6 in the Big Bang is the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an {\\alpha}-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction....

  16. Quantifying two-bond 1HN-13CO and one-bond 1H(alpha)-13C(alpha) dipolar couplings of invisible protein states by spin-state selective relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy.

    Hansen, D Flemming; Vallurupalli, Pramodh; Kay, Lewis E


    Relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy has become a valuable probe of millisecond dynamic processes in biomolecules that exchange between a ground (observable) state and one or more excited (invisible) conformers, in part because chemical shifts of the excited state(s) can be obtained that provide insight into the conformations that are sampled. Here we present a pair of experiments that provide additional structural information in the form of residual dipolar couplings of the excited state. The new experiments record (1)H spin-state selective (13)CO and (13)C(alpha) dispersion profiles under conditions of partial alignment in a magnetic field from which two-bond (1)HN-(13)CO and one-bond (1)H(alpha)-(13)C(alpha) residual dipolar couplings of the invisible conformer can be extracted. These new dipolar couplings complement orientational restraints that are provided through measurement of (1)HN-(15)N residual dipolar couplings and changes in (13)CO chemical shifts upon alignment that have been measured previously for the excited-state since the interactions probed here are not collinear with those previously investigated. An application to a protein-ligand binding reaction is presented, and the accuracies of the extracted excited-state dipolar couplings are established. A combination of residual dipolar couplings and chemical shifts as measured by relaxation dispersion will facilitate a quantitative description of excited protein states.

  17. GLACE survey: OSIRIS/GTC Tuneable Filter H$\\alpha$ imaging of the rich galaxy cluster ZwCl 0024.0+1652 at z = 0.395. Part I -- Survey presentation, TF data reduction techniques and catalogue

    Sánchez-Portal, Miguel; Pérez-Martínez, Ricardo; Cepa, Jordi; García, Ana M Pérez; Domínguez-Sánchez, Helena; Bongiovanni, Ángel; Serra, Ana L; Alfaro, Emilio; Altieri, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Balkowski, Chantal; Biviano, Andrea; Bremer, Malcom; Castander, Francisco; Castañeda, Héctor; Castro-Rodríguez, Nieves; Chies-Santos, Ana L; Coia, Daniela; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Geach, James; González-Serrano, Ignacio; Haines, Chris P; McBreen, Brian; Metcalfe, Leo; Oteo, Iván; Pérez-Fournón, Ismael; Poggianti, Bianca; Polednikova, Jana; Ramón-Pérez, Marina; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José M; Santos, Joana S; Smail, Ian; Smith, Graham P; Temporin, Sonia; Valtchanov, Ivan


    The cores of clusters at 0 $\\lesssim$ z $\\lesssim$ 1 are dominated by quiescent early-type galaxies, whereas the field is dominated by star-forming late-type ones. Galaxy properties, notably the star formation (SF) ability, are altered as they fall into overdense regions. The critical issues to understand this evolution are how the truncation of SF is connected to the morphological transformation and the responsible physical mechanism. The GaLAxy Cluster Evolution Survey (GLACE) is conducting a study on the variation of galaxy properties (SF, AGN, morphology) as a function of environment in a representative sample of clusters. A deep survey of emission line galaxies (ELG) is being performed, mapping a set of optical lines ([OII], [OIII], H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$/[NII]) in several clusters at z $\\sim$ 0.40, 0.63 and 0.86. Using the Tunable Filters (TF) of OSIRIS/GTC, GLACE applies the technique of TF tomography: for each line, a set of images at different wavelengths are taken through the TF, to cover a rest fra...

  18. Solar Imagery - GONG (H-alpha)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  19. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)


    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  20. Structure and properties of the slags of continuous converting of copper nickel-containing mattes and concentrates: II. Effect of the SiO2/CaO ratio on the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags

    Pigarev, S. P.; Tsymbulov, L. B.; Selivanov, E. N.; Chumarev, V. M.


    The structure and liquidus temperature of the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeO x -Cu2O-NiO slags that form during continuous converting of copper mattes and concentrates into blister copper are analyzed. The slag melt compositions are varied over a wide SiO2/CaO range. The slags are studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis. The liquidus temperature of the slags is determined by differential thermal analysis. It is found that, depending on the SiO2/CaO ratio, the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags change and the forms of copper in a slag also change. The SiO2/CaO range in a slag is recommended for the process of continuous converting of a copper nickel-containing sulfide raw materials.

  1. Five different profiles of dihydropyridines in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes (Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)), Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), and Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I))) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    Furukawa, Taiji; Nukada, Toshihide; Namiki, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Yoriko; Hatsuno, Kento; Ueno, Yasunari; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Isshiki, Takaaki


    1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca(2+) antagonists have recently been shown to block T-type Ca(2+) channels, which may render favorable actions on cardiovascular systems. However, this evaluation remains to be done systematically for each T-type Ca(2+) channel subtype except for the Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)) subtype. To address this issue at the molecular level, blocking effects of 14 kinds of DHPs (amlodipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, felodipine, manidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine), which are clinically used for treatments of hypertension, on 3 subtypes of T-type Ca(2+) channels [Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I)), and Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G))] were investigated in the Xenopus oocyte expression system using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. These 3 kinds (alpha(1H), alpha(1I) and alpha(1G)) of T-type channels were blocked by amlodipine, manidipine and nicardipine. On the other hand, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine and efonidipine significantly blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1G), but not alpha(1I) channels, while nilvadipine and nimodipine apparently blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1I), but not alpha(1G) channels. Moreover, aranidipine blocked only alpha(1H) channels. By contrast, cilnidipine, felodipine, nifedipine and nitrendipine had little effects on these subtypes of T-type channels. The result indicates that the blockade of T-type Ca(2+) channels by derivatives of DHP Ca(2+) antagonist was selective for the channel subtype. Therefore, these selectivities of DHPs in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes would provide useful pharmacological and clinical information on the mode of action of the drugs including side-effects and adverse effects.

  2. What Determines the Incidence and Extent of MgII Absorbing Gas Around Galaxies?

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Tinker, Jeremy L; Gauthier, Jean-Rene; Helsby, Jennifer E; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B


    We study the connections between on-going star formation, galaxy mass, and extended halo gas, in order to distinguish between starburst-driven outflows and infalling clouds that produce the majority of observed MgII absorbers at large galactic radii (>~ 10 h^{-1} kpc) and to gain insights into halo gas contents around galaxies. We present new measurements of total stellar mass (M_star), H-alpha emission line strength (EW(H-alpha)), and specific star formation rate (sSFR) for the 94 galaxies published in H.-W. Chen et al. (2010). We find that the extent of MgII absorbing gas, R_MgII, scales with M_star and sSFR, following R_MgII \\propto M_star^{0.28}\\times sSFR^{0.11}. The strong dependence of R_MgII on M_star is most naturally explained, if more massive galaxies possess more extended halos of cool gas and the observed MgII absorbers arise in infalling clouds which will subsequently fuel star formation in the galaxies. The additional scaling relation of R_MgII with sSFR can be understood either as accounting f...

  3. Mapping of the spectral density function of a C alpha-H alpha bond vector from NMR relaxation rates of a 13C-labelled alpha-carbon in motilin.

    Allard, P; Jarvet, J; Ehrenberg, A; Gräslund, A


    The peptide hormone motilin was synthesised with a 13C-enriched alpha-carbon in the leucine at position 10. In aqueous solution, six different relaxation rates were measured for the 13C alpha-H alpha fragment as a function of temperature and with and without the addition of 30% (v/v) of the cosolvent d2-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFP). The relaxation rates were analysed employing the spectral density mapping technique introduced by Peng and Wagner [(1992) J. Magn. Reson., 98, 308-332] and using the model-free approach by Lipari and Szabo [(1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 104, 4546-4570]. The fit to various models of dynamics was also considered. Different procedures to evaluate the overall rotational correlation time were compared. A single exponential time correlation function was found to give a good fit to the measured spectral densities only for motilin in 30% (v/v) HFP at low temperatures, whereas at high temperatures in this solvent, and in D2O at all temperatures, none of the considered models gave an acceptable fit. A new empirical spectral density function was tested and found to accurately fit the experimental spectral density mapping points. The application of spectral density mapping based on NMR relaxation data for a specific 13C-1H vector is shown to be a highly useful method to study biomolecular dynamics. Advantages are high sensitivity, high precision and uniform sampling of the spectral density function over the frequency range.

  4. (Meta)stable CaC{sub 2}; (Meta)stabiles CaC{sub 2}

    Glaser, J.; Dill, S.; Marzini, M.; Mayer, H.A.; Meyer, H.J. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie


    One out of four modifications of CaC{sub 2} is the so-called metastable calcium carbide, CaC{sub 2}-III, which was synthesized as pure material. It forms by heating monoclinic CaC{sub 2}-II (C2/c) above 150 C and remains stable after cooling down to room temperature. The structure was refined from X-ray powder patterns (C2/m, Z = 4, a = 722.6(1) pm, b = 385.26(7) pm, c = 737.6(1) pm, {beta} = 107.345(2) ). After grinding CaC{sub 2}-III transforms back into CaC{sub 2}-II. Heating CaC{sub 2}-III induces a reversible phase transition into the cubic modification (CaC{sub 2}-IV) at 460 C. Differences between the three different structures of CaC{sub 2} I-III, being stable at ambient conditions are also shown by {sup 13}C-MAS-NMR measurements, especially the presence of two distinct types of carbon atoms in the structure of the title compound. (orig.)

  5. Defect chemistry and oxygen transport of (La0.6Sr0.4 − xMx)0.99Co0.2Fe0.8O3 − δ, M = Ca (x = 0.05, 0.1), Ba (x = 0.1, 0.2), Sr: Part II: Oxygen transport

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    radius). The size difference induces different strains into the crystal structure in each composition. The possibility of simple relationships between various crystal strain parameters and the transport properties were analyzed. Oxygen pump controlled permeation experiments and a surface sensitive......, the findings on the defect chemistry were reported, while the oxygen transport properties are reported here in part II. In the investigated material series, the amount of divalent dopant has been kept constant, while Sr ions have been substituted with Ca ions (smaller ionic radius) or Ba ions (larger ionic...

  6. Generation and behavior characterization of CaMKIIβ knockout mice.

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is abundant in the brain, where it makes important contributions to synaptic organization and homeostasis, including playing an essential role in synaptic plasticity and memory. Four genes encode isoforms of CaMKII (α, β, δ, γ, with CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ highly expressed in the brain. Decades of molecular and cellular research, as well as the use of a large number of CaMKIIα mutant mouse lines, have provided insight into the pivotal roles of CaMKIIα in brain plasticity and cognition. However, less is known about the CaMKIIβ isoform. We report the development and extensive behavioral and phenotypic characterization of a CaMKIIβ knockout (KO mouse. The CaMKIIβ KO mouse was found to be smaller at weaning, with an altered body mass composition. The CaMKIIβ KO mouse showed ataxia, impaired forelimb grip strength, and deficits in the rotorod, balance beam and running wheel tasks. Interestingly, the CaMKIIβ KO mouse exhibited reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze and open field tests. The CaMKIIβ KO mouse also showed cognitive impairment in the novel object recognition task. Our results provide a comprehensive behavioral characterization of mice deficient in the β isoform of CaMKII. The neurologic phenotypes and the construction of the genotype suggest the utility of this KO mouse strain for future studies of CaMKIIβ in brain structure, function and development.

  7. A significant but rather mild contribution of T286 autophosphorylation to Ca2+/CaM-stimulated CaMKII activity.

    Steven J Coultrap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autophosphorylation of the Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII at T286 generates partially Ca(2+/CaM-independent "autonomous" activity, which is thought to be required for long-term potentiation (LTP, a form of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory. A requirement for T286 autophosphorylation also for efficient Ca(2+/CaM-stimulated CaMKII activity has been described, but remains controversial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to determine the contribution of T286 autophosphorylation to Ca(2+/CaM-stimulated CaMKII activity, the activity of CaMKII wild type and its phosphorylation-incompetent T286A mutant was compared. As the absolute activity can vary between individual kinase preparations, the activity was measured in six different extracts for each kinase (expressed in HEK-293 cells. Consistent with measurements on purified kinase (from a baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system, CaMKII T286A showed a mildly but significantly reduced rate of Ca(2+/CaM-stimulated phosphorylation for two different peptide substrates (to ~75-84% of wild type. Additional slower CaMKII autophosphorylation at T305/306 inhibits stimulation by Ca(2+/CaM, but occurs only minimally for CaMKII wild type during CaM-stimulated activity assays. Thus, we tested if the T286A mutant may show more extensive inhibitory autophosphorylation, which could explain its reduced stimulated activity. By contrast, inhibitory autophosphorylation was instead found to be even further reduced for the T286A mutant under our assay conditions. On a side note, the phospho-T305 antibody showed some basal background immuno-reactivity also with non-phosphorylated CaMKII, as indicated by T305/306A mutants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that Ca(2+/CaM-stimulated CaMKII activity is mildly (~1.2-1.3fold further increased by additional T286 autophosphorylation, but that this autophosphorylation is not required for the major

  8. The emerging role of CaMKII in cancer.

    Wang, Yan-yang; Zhao, Ren; Zhe, Hong


    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinases best known for its critical role in learning and memory. Recent studies suggested that high levels of CaMKII also expressed in variety of malignant diseases. In this review, we focus on the structure and biology properties of CaMKII, including the role of CaMKII in the regulation of cancer progression and therapy response. We also describe the role of CaMKII in the diagnosis of different kinds of cancer and recent progress in the development of CaMKII inhibitors. These data establishes CaMKII as a novel target whose modulation presents new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Peculiar Type II Supernovae from Blue Supergiants

    Kleiser, Io K W; Kasen, Daniel; Young, Timothy R; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Challis, Peter; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Nugent, Peter E; Silverman, Jeffrey M


    The vast majority of Type II supernovae (SNe) are produced by red supergiants (RSGs), but SN 1987A revealed that blue supergiants (BSGs) can produce members of this class as well, albeit with some peculiar properties. This best studied event revolutionized our understanding of SNe, and linking it to the bulk of Type II events is essential. We present here optical photometry and spectroscopy gathered for SN 2000cb, which is clearly not a standard Type II SN and yet is not a SN 1987A analog. The light curve of SN 2000cb is reminiscent of that of SN 1987A in shape, with a slow rise to a late optical peak, but on substantially different time scales. Spectroscopically, SN 2000cb resembles a normal SN II but with ejecta velocities that far exceed those measured for SN 1987A or normal SNe II, above 18000 km/s for H-alpha at early times. The red colours, high velocities, late photometric peak, and our modeling of this object all point toward a scenario involving the high-energy explosion of a small-radius star, most ...

  10. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Rayle, D. L.


    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  11. Fusion calculations for 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+48Ca, 40Ca+48Ca and p+208Pb systems

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Haifei; Bao, Xiaojun; Li, Junqing; Zhang, Hongfei


    The fusion cross sections of calcium isotopes and proton induced fusion have been calculated in terms of a coupled-channels formulation. Results indicated that there are big differences between the two fusion types. In the calculations of calcium isotopes fusion, the pair-transfer coupling has been applied in addition to the vibrational coupling, the combined effects showed that pair-transfer has played a significant role in the fusion process for the asymmetric 40Ca+48Ca system. The result of proton induced fusion for p+208Pb system successfully presents the fusion oscillation, which agrees with the experimental data rather well.

  12. CaMKII in sinoatrial node physiology and dysfunction

    Yuejin eWu


    Full Text Available The calcium and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is present in sinoatrial node (SAN pacemaker cells and is required for physiological fight or flight SAN beating rate responses. Inhibition of CaMKII in SAN does not affect baseline heart rate, but reduces heart rate increases in response to physiological stress. CaMKII senses intracellular calcium (Ca2+ changes, oxidation status and hyperglycemia to phosphorylate substrates that regulate Ca2+-sensitive proteins, such as L-type Ca2+ channels, phospholamban (PLN, and cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2. All of these substrates are involved in the SAN pacemaking mechanism. Excessive CaMKII activity, as occurs under pathological conditions such as heart failure, ischemia and diabetes, can promote intracellular Ca2+ overload and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Oxidation of CaMKII (ox-CaMKII locks CaMKII into a constitutively active configuration that contributes to SAN cell apoptosis and fibrosis. This ox-CaMKII-mediated loss of functional SAN cells contributes to sinoatrial node dysfunction (SND and sudden death. Thus, CaMKII has emerged as a central regulator of physiological SAN responses and a key determinant of SND.

  13. Renovascular BK(Ca) channels are not activated in vivo under resting conditions and during agonist stimulation

    Magnusson, Linda; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig


    We investigated the role of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels for the basal renal vascular tone in vivo. Furthermore, the possible buffering by BK(Ca) of the vasoconstriction elicited by angiotensin II (ANG II) or norepinephrine (NE) was investigated. The possible activati...

  14. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex


    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions.

  15. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKIIδ

    Cha, Min-Ji [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Kyung [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee [Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunhyun [Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University Health System, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Woo-min [Department of Animal Resource, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Taek [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others


    Highlights: •CaMKIIδ mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKIIδ-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKIIδ-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKIIδ, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKIIδ protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKIIδ as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  16. Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release regulate cAMP accumulation and Epac1-dependent ERK 1/2 activation in INS-1 cells.

    Pratt, Evan P S; Salyer, Amy E; Guerra, Marcy L; Hockerman, Gregory H


    We previously reported that INS-1 cells expressing the intracellular II-III loop of the L-type Ca(2+) channel Cav1.2 (Cav1.2/II-III cells) are deficient in Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). Here we show that glucose-stimulated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation (GSEP) is slowed and reduced in Cav1.2/II-III cells compared to INS-1 cells. This parallels a decrease in glucose-stimulated cAMP accumulation (GS-cAMP) in Cav1.2/II-III cells. Influx of Ca(2+) via L-type Ca(2+) channels and CICR play roles in both GSEP and GS-cAMP in INS-1 cells since both are inhibited by nicardipine or ryanodine. Further, the Epac1-selective inhibitor CE3F4 abolishes glucose-stimulated ERK activation in INS-1 cells, as measured using the FRET-based sensor EKAR. The non-selective Epac antagonist ESI-09 but not the Epac2-selective antagonist ESI-05 nor the PKA antagonist Rp-cAMPs inhibits GSEP in both INS-1 and Cav1.2/II-III cells. We conclude that L-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent cAMP accumulation, that's amplified by CICR, activates Epac1 and drives GSEP in INS-1 cells.

  17. The molecular cloud-H II region complexes associated with SH 90 and SH 235

    Lafon, G.; Baudry, A.; de La Noe, J.; Deharveng, L.


    The Sharpless regions Sh 90 and Sh 235 are characterized on the basis of monochromatic photographs (at H-alpha, N III, and O III) and H-alpha photographic interferograms made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and of molecular-cloud maps (at 110.201 and 89.189 GHz) made at the Observatoire de Bordeaux. Sh 90, at a distance of 2.4 kpc, is found to have an evolved-H II-region shell structure, with ionized gas flowing both away from and toward a neutral molecular cloud with a mass of about 60,000 solar mass which lies partly in front of the H II region. Sh 235, at 1.6 kpc, has two extended 100,000-300,000-solar-mass neutral clouds which partly overlap. The northern cloud, identified at -20 km/s, is related to the optical nebula; the southern cloud (at -17 km/s) contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and exhibits recent star-formation processes. The 'champagne' model of H II regions proposed by Tenorio-Tagle (1979) is considered applicable to Sh 90 and to Sh 235C.

  18. Determination of the membrane topology of the small EF-hand Ca2+-sensing proteins CaBP7 and CaBP8.

    Hannah V McCue

    Full Text Available The CaBPs represent a subfamily of small EF-hand containing calcium (Ca(2+-sensing proteins related to calmodulin that regulate key ion channels in the mammalian nervous system. In a recent bioinformatic analyses we determined that CaBP7 and CaBP8 form an evolutionarily distinct branch within the CaBPs (also known as the calneurons a finding that is consistent with earlier observations characterising a putative C-terminal transmembrane (TM spanning helix in each of these proteins which is essential for their sub-cellular targeting to the Golgi apparatus and constitutive secretory vesicles. The C-terminal position of the predicted TM-helix suggests that CaBP7 and CaBP8 could be processed in a manner analogous to tail-anchored integral membrane proteins which exhibit the ability to insert across membranes post-translationally. In this study we have investigated the topology of CaBP7 and CaBP8 within cellular membranes through a combination of trypsin protection and epitope accessibility analyses. Our results indicate that the TM-helices of CaBP7 and CaBP8 insert fully across membranes such that their extreme C-termini are luminal. The observed type-II membrane topology is consistent with processing of CaBP7 and CaBP8 as true tail-anchored proteins. This targeting mechanism is distinct from any other calmodulin related Ca(2+-sensor and conceivably underpins unique physiological functions of these proteins.

  19. The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft.

    Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.

  20. Chromospherically active stars. II - HD 82558, a young single BY Draconis variable

    Fekel, Francis C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John L.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Palmer, Leigh Hunter


    It is presently noted that the HD 82558 chromospherically active star is a young and rapidly rotating K2 V single BY Draconis variable with very strong far-UV emission features and an H-alpha line filled to the continuum level by emission. HD 82558 has constant velocity and is not a member of the Hyades Supercluster. Its light curve behavior, which appears to have been stable for several hundred rotation cycles, is reminiscent of that of the young, rapidly rotating, single K V variable H II 1883 in the Pleiades; this stability may be characteristic of young, single, chromospherically active stars.

  1. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). III. The Young Open Cluster NGC 1893 in the H II Region W8

    Lim, Beomdu; Kim, Jinyoung S; Bessell, Michael S; Park, Byeong-Gon


    We present a UBV I and H alpha photometric study of the young open cluster NGC 1893 in the H II region W8 (IC 410 or Sh 2-236). A total of 65 early-type members are selected from photometric diagrams. A mean reddening of the stars is = 0.563 +/- 0.083 mag. The published photometric data in the near- and mid-infrared passbands are used to test the reddening law toward the cluster, and we confirm that the reddening law is normal (R_V = 3.1). Zero-age main sequence fitting gives a distance modulus of V_0 - M_V = 12.7 +/- 0.2 mag, equivalent to 3.5 +/- 0.3 kpc. From H alpha photometry 125 H alpha emission stars and candidates are identified as pre-main sequence (PMS). The lists of young stellar objects and X-ray sources published by previous studies allow us to select a large number of PMS members down to 1 M_sun. Isochrone fitting in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram gives a turn-off age of 1.5 Myr and the median age of 1.9 Myr from the PMS members with a spread of 5 Myr. We derive the initial mass function (IMF)...

  2. The other side of cardiac Ca2+ signaling: transcriptional control

    Alejandro eDomínguez-Rodríquez


    Full Text Available Ca2+ is probably the most versatile signal transduction element used by all cell types. In the heart, it is essential to activate cellular contraction in each heartbeat. Nevertheless Ca2+ is not only a key element in excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling, but it is also a pivotal second messenger in cardiac signal transduction, being able to control processes such as excitability, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. Regarding the latter, Ca2+ activates Ca2+-dependent transcription factors by a process called excitation-transcription coupling (ET coupling. ET coupling is an integrated process by which the common signaling pathways that regulate EC coupling activate transcription factors. Although ET coupling has been extensively studied in neurons and other cell types, less is known in cardiac muscle. Some hints have been found in studies on the development of cardiac hypertrophy, where two Ca2+-dependent enzymes are key actors: Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII and phosphatase calcineurin, both of which are activated by the complex Ca2+/ /Calmodulin. The question now is how ET coupling occurs in cardiomyocytes, where intracellular Ca2+ is continuously oscillating. In this focused review, we will draw attention to location of Ca2+ signaling: intranuclear ([Ca2+]n or cytoplasmic ([Ca2+]c, and the specific ionic channels involved in the activation of cardiac ET coupling. Specifically, we will highlight the role of the 1,4,5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs in the elevation of [Ca2+]n levels, which are important to locally activate CaMKII, and the role of transient receptor potential channels canonical (TRPCs in [Ca2+]c, needed to activate calcineurin.

  3. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393, II: Investigating the Extended Narrow Line Region using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Narrow Line Imaging

    Maksym, W Peter; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa


    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) designed to take full advantage of Chandra's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble narrow line images of [O III], [S II] and H$\\alpha$, as well as previously-unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. We find evidence for a complex multi-phase structure in the circumnuclear ISM, with no single simple correlation between X-rays and high-ionization ([O III]/H$\\alpha$-dominated) and low-ionization ([S II]-dominated) features. We also find X-ray structures ~50-pc in extent, H$\\alpha$ evidence for gas compression, and extended MUV emission associated with the S-shaped arms that envelope the radio jets. In conjunction with existing STIS kinematics, these findings support a role for shock contributions to the feedback, driven by...

  4. Integral field spectroscopy of a sample of nearby galaxies: II. Properties of the H ii regions

    Sanchez, S F; Marino, R A; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Vilchez, J M; Kennicutt, R C; Diaz, A I; Mast, D; Monreal-Ibero, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Perez, E; Delgado, R Gonzalez; Husemann, B; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Fernandes, R Cid; Kehrig, C; Walcher, C J; de Paz, A Gil; Ellis, S


    In this work we analyze the spectroscopic properties of a large number of H ii regions, \\sim2600, located in 38 galaxies. The sample of galaxies has been assembled from the face-on spirals in the PINGS survey and a sample described in M\\'armol-Queralt\\'o (2011, henceforth Paper I). All the galaxies were observed using Integral Field Spectroscopy with a similar setup, covering their optical extension up to \\sim2.4 effective radii within a wavelength range from \\sim3700 to \\sim6900{\\AA}. We develop a new automatic procedure to detect H ii regions, based on the contrast of the H{\\alpha} intensity maps. Once detected, the procedure provides us with the integrated spectra of each individual segmented region. A well-tested automatic decoupling procedure has been applied to remove the underlying stellar population, deriving the main proper- ties of the strongest emission lines in the considered wavelength range (covering from [O ii] {\\lambda}3727 to [S ii] {\\lambda}6731). A final catalogue of the spectroscopic prope...

  5. Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex reveals the molecular mechanism of CaMKII kinase activation.

    Peter Rellos

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Long-term potentiation (LTP, a long-lasting enhancement in communication between neurons, is considered to be the major cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII. CaMKII acts as a molecular switch because it remains active for a long time after the return to basal calcium levels, which is a unique property required for CaMKII function. Here we describe the crystal structure of the human CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, structures of all four human CaMKII catalytic domains in their autoinhibited states, as well as structures of human CaMKII oligomerization domains in their tetradecameric and physiological dodecameric states. All four autoinhibited human CaMKIIs were monomeric in the determined crystal structures but associated weakly in solution. In the CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, the inhibitory region adopted an extended conformation and interacted with an adjacent catalytic domain positioning T287 into the active site of the interacting protomer. Comparisons with autoinhibited CaMKII structures showed that binding of calmodulin leads to the rearrangement of residues in the active site to a conformation suitable for ATP binding and to the closure of the binding groove for the autoinhibitory helix by helix alphaD. The structural data, together with biophysical interaction studies, reveals the mechanism of CaMKII activation by calmodulin and explains many of the unique regulatory properties of these two essential signaling molecules. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3-D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the Web plugin are available in Text S1.

  6. Experiencias en la producción de etanol a partir de jugos de caña mezclados. Parte II. Efecto de la temperatura y la concentración de azúcares

    Miguel A. Otero


    Full Text Available Se realizó una prueba industrial de producción de etanol a partir de jugos mezclados de caña en las instalaciones de la destilería anexa a la EA Heriberto Duquesne en Villa Clara. Los factores de mayor incidencia en la eficiencia del proceso fueron la temperatura de fermentación y la concentración de azúcares en los fermentadores. Se demostró que temperaturas de 35 ± 1ºC son las óptimas para obtener eficiencias del orden de 85% y productividades de etanol de 2,5 Lm-3h-1, en tanto que la concentración de azúcares alimentados se encuentre entre 105 y 115 kgm-3. El arreglo tecnológico seleccionado permite derivar jugos de menor calidad como son los jugos de filtros hacia la producción de etanol lo que confiere una gran flexibilidad a la instalación. El uso de los jugos, el control de temperatura y el empleo de levaduras de mayor especificidad productiva, permite incrementos significativos de eficiencia de producción sin grandes inversiones en la destilería. Las vinazas procedentes de la destilación presentan valores de carga orgánica 30-40% menores que sus homólogas de melazas.

  7. Evaluation of the medtronic exponent self-expanding carotid stent system with the medtronic guardwire temporary occlusion and aspiration system in the treatment of carotid stenosis: combined from the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection In the treatment of Carotid stenosis) I and MAVErIC II trials.

    Higashida, Randall T; Popma, Jeffrey J; Apruzzese, Patricia; Zimetbaum, Peter


    Embolic protection devices and improved stent technology have advanced the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease. A combined analysis was performed of the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection) I and II trials to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this system among patients at high risk for surgical endarterectomy. Four hundred ninety-eight patients were enrolled in the MAVErIC I (99 patients) and MAVErIC II (399 patients) studies from June 2001 to October 2004. The results were pooled for statistical analysis of a common primary end point, the 365-day rate of major adverse events. Clinical follow-up took place at 30 days, 6 months, and 365 days postprocedure. The 365-day major adverse event rate, defined as death, stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, and death, ipsilateral stroke, or myocardial infarction from days 31 to 365 was 12.5%. The incidence of neurological death through 365 days was 1.1%. The 30-day major adverse event rate was 5.4%. Subgroup analyses showed no notable differences in the 365-day major adverse event rate for symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Treatment of carotid artery disease with carotid artery stenting with a self-expanding stent and distal embolic protection results in a low 30-day adverse event rate, including the occurrence of stroke in patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.

  8. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.


    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  9. Ca2+ paradox injury mediated through TRPC channels in mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Kojima, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Ca(2+) paradox is an important phenomenon associated with Ca(2+) overload-mediated cellular injury in myocardium. The present study was undertaken to elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms for the development of the Ca(2+) paradox. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fluorescence imaging was performed on fluo-3 loaded quiescent mouse ventricular myocytes using confocal laser scanning microscope. KEY RESULTS The Ca(2+) paradox was readily evoked by restoration of the extracellular Ca(2+) following 10-20 min of nominally Ca(2+)-free superfusion. The Ca(2+) paradox was significantly reduced by blockers of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, Gd(3+), La(3+)) and anti-TRPC1 antibody. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content, assessed by caffeine application, gradually declined during Ca(2+)-free superfusion, which was further accelerated by metabolic inhibition. Block of SR Ca(2+) leak by tetracaine prevented Ca(2+) paradox. The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) blocker KB-R7943 significantly inhibited Ca(2+) paradox when applied throughout superfusion period, but had little effect when added for a period of 3 min before and during Ca(2+) restoration. The SR Ca(2+) content was better preserved during Ca(2+) depletion by KB-R7943. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of TRPC1, in addition to TRPC3 and TRPC4, in mouse ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide evidence that (i) the Ca(2+) paradox is primarily mediated by Ca(2+) entry through TRPC (probably TRPC1) channels that are presumably activated by SR Ca(2+) depletion; and (ii) reverse mode NCX contributes little to the Ca(2+) paradox, whereas inhibition of NCX during Ca(2+) depletion improves SR Ca(2+) loading, and is associated with reduced incidence of Ca(2+) paradox in mouse ventricular myocytes. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.


    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  11. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.


    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  12. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and exocytosis in Paramecium cells. A correlated Ca2+ imaging and quenched-flow/freeze-fracture analysis.

    Klauke, N; Plattner, H


    Caffeine causes a [Ca2+]i increase in the cortex of Paramecium cells, followed by spillover with considerable attenuation, into central cell regions. From [Ca2+]resti approximately 50 to 80 nm, [Ca2+]acti rises within /=2 sec. Chelation of Ca2+o considerably attenuated [Ca2+]i increase. Therefore, caffeine may primarily mobilize cortical Ca2+ pools, superimposed by Ca2+ influx and spillover (particularly in tl cells with empty trichocyst docking sites). In nd cells, caffeine caused trichocyst contents to decondense internally (Ca2+-dependent stretching, normally occurring only after membrane fusion). With 7S cells this usually occurred only to a small extent, but with increasing frequency as [Ca2+]i signals were reduced by [Ca2+]o chelation. In this case, quenched-flow and ultrathin section or freeze-fracture analysis revealed dispersal of membrane components (without fusion) subsequent to internal contents decondensation, opposite to normal membrane fusion when a full [Ca2+]i signal was generated by caffeine stimulation (with Ca2+i and Ca2+o available). We conclude the following. (i) Caffeine can mobilize Ca2+ from cortical stores independent of the presence of Ca2+o. (ii) To yield adequate signals for normal exocytosis, Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx both have to occur during caffeine stimulation. (iii) Insufficient [Ca2+]i increase entails caffeine-mediated access of Ca2+ to the secretory contents, thus causing their decondensation before membrane fusion can occur. (iv) Trichocyst decondensation in turn gives a signal for an unusual dissociation of docking/fusion components at the cell membrane. These observations imply different threshold [Ca2+]i-values for membrane fusion and contents discharge.

  13. 有关CA


    @@ 什么是CA? CA(Certificaton Authority)是认证机构的国际通称,是指对数字证书的申请者发放、管理、取消数字证书的机构.CA的作用是检查证书持有者身份的合法性,并签发证书(在证书上签字),以防证书被伪造或篡改.

  14. Final Results of the Randomized Phase II NorCap-CA223 Trial Comparing First-Line All-Oral Versus Taxane-Based Chemotherapy for HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Cinieri, Saverio; Chan, Arlene; Altundag, Kadri; Vandebroek, An; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole; Barnadas, Agusti; Dodyk, Patricia; Lazzarelli, Silvia; Botha, Michiel; Rauch, Daniel; Villanova, Gustavo; Coskun, Ugur


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3 first-line chemotherapy combination regimens for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC). In this open-label, 3-arm, randomized phase II trial, patients were randomized to all-oral NORCAP (vinorelbine/capecitabine), GEMPAC (gemcitabine/paclitaxel), or GEMDOC (gemcitabine/docetaxel) as first-line chemotherapy for HER2-negative mBC. Stratification factors were center, previous (neo)adjuvant anthracycline, and age. The primary end point was disease control rate (DCR; complete or partial response, or stable disease for ≥3 months). The DCR was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59-85) with NORCAP (36 of 49 patients), 78% (95% CI, 64-88) with GEMPAC (39 of 50 patients), and 80% (95% CI, 66-90) with GEMDOC (40 of 50 patients). Objective response rates were 33% (16 of 49 patients), 24% (12 of 50 patients), and 50% (25 of 50 patients), respectively; median progression-free survival was 7.6, 9.0, and 11.4 months, respectively. Median overall survival was 30 to 31 months with all regimens. The most common Grade ≥3 adverse event with each regimen was neutropenia (24 patients [50%], 23 patients [46%], and 43 patients [86%], respectively). The most common nonhematological Grade ≥3 adverse event was fatigue. Grade 2 alopecia occurred in 36 patients (72%) who received GEMPAC and 38 patients (76%) who received GEMDOC, but only 4 patients (8%) who received NORCAP. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect of NORCAP on quality of life. All-oral NORCAP is an active first-line chemotherapy regimen and might be offered as an alternative to first-line taxane-based therapy for HER2-negative mBC, particularly if patients wish to avoid alopecia or frequent intravenous administrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infrared Imaging of z = 2.43 Radio Galaxy B3 0731+438 with the Subaru Telescope Detection of H$\\alpha$ Ionization Cones of a Powerful Radio Galaxy

    Motohara, K; Terada, H; Goto, M; Iwai, J; Tanabe, H; Taguchi, T; Hata, R; Maihara, T; Oya, S; Iye, M; Kosugi, G; Noumaru, J; Ogasawara, R; Sasaki, T; Takata, T; Motohara, Kentaro; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Iwai, Jun'ichi; Tanabe, Hirohisa; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Hata, Ryuji; Maihara, Toshinori; Oya, Shin; Iye, Masanori; Kosugi, George; Noumaru, Jun'ichi; Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Sasaki, Toshinori; Takata, Tadafumi


    We report on infrared imaging observations of the z=2.429 radio galaxy B3 0731+438 with the Subaru telescope. The images were taken with the K'-band filter and the 2.25 um narrow-band filter to examine the structure and properties of the Ha+[N II] 6548,6583 emission-line components. The Ha+[N II] emission-line image shows biconical lobes with an extent of 40 kpc, which are aligned with the radio axis. The rest-frame equivalent widths of the emission lines at these cones are as large as 1100 AA, and can be well explained by a gas-cloud model photoionized by power-law continuum radiation. The isotropic ionizing photon luminosity necessary to ionize the hydrogen gas in these cones amounts to 1e57(photons/s), which is larger than that in the majority of radio-loud QSOs. From these results, we propose that the Ha alignment effect in this object is produced by biconical gas clouds, which are swept up by the passage of radio jets, and are ionized by strong UV radiation from a hidden AGN. The continuum image consists...

  16. Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation.

    Hongo, Yoshie; Ogawa, Koichi; Takahara, Yuji; Takasu, Keiko; Royer, Sebastien; Hasegawa, Minoru; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Ikegaya, Yuji


    The CA1-projecting axons of CA3 pyramidal cells, called Schaffer collaterals, constitute one of the major information flow routes in the hippocampal formation. Recent anatomical studies have revealed the non-random structural connectivity between CA3 and CA1, but little is known regarding the functional connectivity (i.e. how CA3 network activity is functionally transmitted downstream to the CA1 network). Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. Specifically, synchronized bursts initiated from multiple hot spots in CA3 ensembles, and CA1 neurons located deeper in the pyramidal cell layer were recruited during earlier phases of the burst events. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals. Thus, CA3 axons innervate CA1 neurons in a highly topographical fashion.

  17. Biomarker CA125

    Kargo, Anette Stolberg

    be detected months before symptoms arise and recurrence is visible on imaging. Therefore, biochemical detection of potential relapse by CA125 assessment can cause significant distress. A decision aid (DA) is a tool that provides information and describes advantages and disadvantages of a specific intervention...

  18. Polyamine triggering of exocytosis in Paramecium involves an extracellular Ca(2+)/(polyvalent cation)-sensing receptor, subplasmalemmal Ca-store mobilization and store-operated Ca(2+)-influx via unspecific cation channels.

    Klauke, N; Blanchard, M; Plattner, H


    The polyamine secretagogue, aminoethyldextran (AED), causes a cortical [Ca(2+)] transient in Paramecium cells, as analyzed by fluorochrome imaging. Our most essential findings are: (i) Cortical Ca(2+) signals also occur when AED is applied in presence of the fast Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA. (ii) Extracellular La(3+) application causes within seconds a rapid, reversible fluorescence signal whose reversibility can be attributed to a physiological [Ca(2+)](i) transient (while injected La(3+) causes a sustained fluorescence signal). (iii) Simply increasing [Ca(2+)](o) causes a similar rapid, short-lived [Ca(2+)](i) transient. All these phenomena, (i-iii), are compatible with activation of an extracellular "Ca(2+)/(polyvalent cation)-sensing receptor" known from some higher eukaryotic systems, where this sensor (responding to Ca(2+), La(3+) and some multiply charged cations) is linked to cortical calcium stores which, thus, are activated. In Paramecium, such subplasmalemmal stores ("alveolar sacs") are physically linked to the cell membrane and they can also be activated by the Ca(2+) releasing agent, 4-chloro-m-cresol, just like in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. Since this drug causes a cortical Ca(2+) signal also in absence of Ca(2+)(o) we largely exclude a "Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release" (CICR) mechanism. Our finding of increased cortical Ca(2+) signals after store depletion and re-addition of extracellular Ca(2+) can be explained by a "store-operated Ca(2+) influx" (SOC), i.e., a Ca(2+) influx superimposing store activation. AED stimulation in presence of Mn(2+)(o) causes fluorescence quenching in Fura-2 loaded cells, indicating involvement of unspecific cation channels. Such channels, known to occur in Paramecium, share some general characteristics of SOC-type Ca(2+) influx channels. In conclusion, we assume the following sequence of events during AED stimulated exocytosis: (i) activation of an extracellular Ca(2+)/polyamine-sensing receptor, (ii) release of Ca(2+) from

  19. On the mechanism of synaptic depression induced by CaMKIIN, an endogenous inhibitor of CaMKII.

    Camilo Gouet

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity underlies, at least in part, learning and memory processes. NMDA receptor (NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP is a major synaptic plasticity model. During LTP induction, Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is activated, autophosphorylated and persistently translocated to the postsynaptic density, where it binds to the NMDAR. If any of these steps is inhibited, LTP is disrupted. The endogenous CaMKII inhibitor proteins CaMKIINα,β are rapidly upregulated in specific brain regions after learning. We recently showed that transient application of peptides derived from CaMKIINα (CN peptides persistently depresses synaptic strength and reverses LTP saturation, as it allows further LTP induction in previously saturated pathways. The treatment disrupts basal CaMKII-NMDAR interaction and decreases bound CaMKII fraction in spines. To unravel CaMKIIN function and to further understand CaMKII role in synaptic strength maintenance, here we more deeply investigated the mechanism of synaptic depression induced by CN peptides (CN-depression in rat hippocampal slices. We showed that CN-depression does not require glutamatergic synaptic activity or Ca(2+ signaling, thus discarding unspecific triggering of activity-dependent long-term depression (LTD in slices. Moreover, occlusion experiments revealed that CN-depression and NMDAR-LTD have different expression mechanisms. We showed that CN-depression does not involve complex metabolic pathways including protein synthesis or proteasome-mediated degradation. Remarkably, CN-depression cannot be resolved in neonate rats, for which CaMKII is mostly cytosolic and virtually absent at the postsynaptic densities. Overall, our results support a direct effect of CN peptides on synaptic CaMKII-NMDAR binding and suggest that CaMKIINα,β could be critical plasticity-related proteins that may operate as cell-wide homeostatic regulators preventing saturation of

  20. Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation by CaMKII Promotes Spontaneous Ca2+ Release Events in a Rodent Model of Early Stage Diabetes: the Arrhythmogenic Substrate

    Sommese, Leandro; Valverde, Carlos A; Blanco, Paula; Castro, María Cecilia; Rueda, Omar Velez; Kaetzel, Marcia; Dedman, John; Anderson, Mark E.; Mattiazzi, Alicia; Palomeque, Julieta


    Background Heart failure and arrhythmias occur more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) than in the general population. T2DM is preceded by a prediabetic condition marked by elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subclinical cardiovascular defects. Although multifunctional Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is ROS-activated and CaMKII hyperactivity promotes cardiac diseases, a link between prediabetes and CaMKII in the heart is unprecedented. Objectives to prove the hypothesis that increased ROS and CaMKII activity contribute to heart failure and arrhythmogenic mechanisms in early stage diabetes. Methods-Results Echocardiography, electrocardiography, biochemical and intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) determinations were performed in fructose-rich diet -induced impaired glucose tolerance, a prediabetes model, in rodents. Fructose-rich diet rats showed decreased contractility and hypertrophy associated with increased CaMKII activity, ROS production, oxidized CaMKII and enhanced CaMKII-dependent ryanodine receptor (RyR2) phosphorylation compared to rats fed with control diet. Isolated cardiomyocytes from fructose-rich diet showed increased spontaneous Ca2+i release events associated with spontaneous contractions, which were prevented by KN-93, a CaMKII inhibitor, or addition of Tempol, a ROS scavenger, to the diet. Moreover, fructose-rich diet myocytes showed increased diastolic Ca2+ during the burst of spontaneous Ca2+i release events. Micetreated with Tempol or with sarcoplasmic reticulum-targeted CaMKII-inhibition by transgenic expression of the CaMKII inhibitory peptide AIP, were protected from fructose-rich diet-induced spontaneous Ca2+i release events, spontaneous contractions and arrhythmogenes is in vivo, despite ROS increases. Conclusions RyR2 phosphorylation by ROS-activated CaMKII, contributes to impaired glucose tolerance-induced arrhythmogenic mechanisms, suggesting that CaMKII inhibition could prevent prediabetic

  1. The Expression of CaN and CaMK is Associated with Lipogenesis in the Muscle of Chicken

    Ye YANG; Jiao SONG; Ruiqi FUl; Yanfa SUN; Jie WEN


    IntramuscuIar fat (IMF) content in chickens significantIy contributes to meat quality. The maln objective of this study was to assess the expression of calcineurin (CaN) and Ca2+/calmoduIin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) in Iipogene-sis in chicken muscIe. The chickens were sIaughtered and sampIed at the ages of 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectiveIy. IMF content and the expression of CaN subunits and CaMK isoforms were measured in thigh muscIe tissue. The resuIts showed that the IMF contents were higher in chickens at the age of 16 weeks compared with those in chickens at the ages of 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The expression IeveIs of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid transIocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) mRNA in 16-week-oId chickens were al significantIy up-reguIated compared with those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). The mRNA IeveIs of CaNB and CaMK IV in 16-week-oId chickens were significantIy Iower than those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). But the CaMK II mRNA IeveIs in 16-week-oId chickens were significantIy higher than those in 4-week-oId chickens (P<0.05). To investigate the roIes of CaMK and CaN in adipogenesis, SV ceI s were incubated in standard adipogenesis medium for 24 h and treated with specific inhibitor of CaMK and CaN. The ex-pressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β(C/EBPβ), steroI reguIatory eIement-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proIiferation-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) were dramatical y enhanced by CsA and CaN inhibitor (P<0.05). KN93, a CaMK II inhibitor, dramatical y repressed the expression of those Iipogenic genes (P<0.05). al the resuIts above indicated that CaN and CaMK had different effects on adipogenesis in the muscIe of chickens.

  2. Electrodeposition of Ca Metal in CaCl2-CaO Molten Salt

    GUO; Jun-kang; WANG; Chang-shui; CAO; Long-hao; OUYANG; Ying-gen


    To realize the continuouscalciothermic reduction in molten salts,the electrodeposition behavior of Ca metal in CaCl2-CaO molten salt was investigated by cylic voltammetry.The cyclic voltammograms at the scan rate of 100 mV/s are shown in Fig.1.As is shown,the electrodeposition potential of Ca deviated from-1.66 V to-0.97 V after CaO was added to molten CaCl2 and the decomposition of CaO

  3. Coping with Asymmetric Channel Losses in CSMA/CA

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank


    Inspired by the discrepancy between past theoretical analysis and real measurements for high-load scenarios for intersession network coding, we pinpoint and analyze the source of this discrepancy in wireless networks implementing a CSMA/CA medium access scheme. Our analysis shows that CSMA/CA is ......) confirm the sensitivity of the CSMA/CA scheme in real implementations, and (ii) shows that our adaptive protocol provides a simple, yet potent mechanism to cope with asymmetric channel losses and ultimately to enhance end-to-end throughput in high-load scenarios....

  4. Role of glycolytically generated ATP for CaMKII-mediated regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in bovine vascular endothelial cells.

    Aromolaran, Ademuyiwa S; Zima, Aleksey V; Blatter, Lothar A


    The role of glycolytically generated ATP in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling was examined in cultured calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. Exposure of cells (extracellular Ca(2+) concentration = 2 mM) to glycolytic inhibitors 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), pyruvate (pyr) + beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB), or iodoacetic acid (IAA) caused an increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). CaMKII inhibitors (KN-93, W-7) triggered a similar increase of [Ca(2+)](i). The rise of [Ca(2+)](i) was characterized by a transient spike followed by a small sustained plateau of elevated [Ca(2+)](i). In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) 2-DG caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), suggesting that inhibition of glycolysis directly triggered release of Ca(2+) from intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. The inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate abolished the KN-93- and 2-DG-induced Ca(2+) response. Ca(2+) release was initiated in peripheral cytoplasmic processes from which activation propagated as a [Ca(2+)](i) wave toward the central region of the cell. Focal application of 2-DG resulted in spatially confined elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Propagating [Ca(2+)](i) waves were preceded by [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations and small, highly localized elevations of [Ca(2+)](i) (Ca(2+) puffs). Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-DG reduced the KN-93-induced Ca(2+) response, and vice versa during inhibition of CaMKII 2-DG-induced Ca(2+) release was attenuated. Similar results were obtained with pyr + beta-HB and W-7. Furthermore, 2-DG and IAA caused a rapid increase of intracellular Mg(2+) concentration, indicating a concomitant drop of cellular ATP levels. In conclusion, CaMKII exerts a profound inhibition of ER Ca(2+) release in CPAE cells, which is mediated by glycolytically generated ATP, possibly through ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the IP(3)R.

  5. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.


    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  6. Measurement of the dissociation constant of Fluo-3 for Ca2+ in isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes using Ca2+ wave characteristics.

    Loughrey, C M; MacEachern, K E; Cooper, J; Smith, G L


    The Ca(2+) dissociation constant (K(d)) of Fluo-3 was determined using confocal fluorescence microscopy in two different situations: (i) within the cytosol of a permeabilised cardiomyocyte; and (ii) in an intact cardiomyocyte after incubation with the acetoxymethyl ester form of Fluo-3 (AM). Measurements were made on isolated rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes after permeabilisation by a brief treatment with beta-escin (0.1mg/ml) and equilibration with 10 microM Fluo-3. The K(d) of Fluo-3 within the cytosol was not significantly different from that in free solution (558 +/- 15 nM, n=6). Over a range of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], the minimum [Ca(2+)] values between Ca(2+) waves was relatively constant despite changes in wave frequency. After loading intact cardiomyocytes with Fluo-3 by incubation with the -AM, spontaneous Ca(2+) waves were produced by incubation with strophanthidin (10 microM). By assuming a common minimum [Ca(2+)] in permeabilised and intact cells, the intracellular K(d) of Fluo-3 in intact myocytes was estimated to be 898 +/-64 nM (n=6). Application of this K(d) to fluorescence records shows that Ca(2+) waves in intact cells have similar amplitudes to those in permeabilised cells. Stimulation of cardiac myocytes at 0.5 Hz in the absence of strophanthidin (room temperature) resulted in a Ca(2+) transient with a maximum and minimum [Ca(2+)] of 1190 +/- 200 and 158 +/- 30 nM (n=11), respectively.

  7. Sulfide capacities of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 melts

    Simeonov, Simeon; Sakai, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masafumi


    The sulfide capacityC_{s^{2 - } } = ({text{pct S}}^{{text{2 - }}} )(p_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } /p_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } )^{1/2} ) of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 slag was determined at temperatures from 1000 °C to 1300 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2-Ar gas mixture. The sulfide capacity increases with replacing CaCl2 by CaF2 in slags of constant CaO contents. The sulfide capacity also increases with increasing temperature as well as with increasing CaO content at a constant ratio of CaF2/CaCl2 of unity. A linear relationship between the sulfide capacity and carbonate capacity in literature was observed on a logarithmic scale.

  8. Structural Changes in the Mn4Ca Cluster and the Mechanism of Photosynthetic Water Splitting

    Pushkar, Y.; Yano, J.; Sauer, K.; Boussac, A.; Yachandra, V.K.


    Photosynthetic water oxidation, where water is oxidized to dioxygen, is a fundamental chemical reaction that sustains the biosphere. This reaction is catalyzed by a Mn4Ca complex in the photosystem II (PS II) oxygen-evolving complex (OEC): a multiproteinassembly embedded in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, cyanobacteria, and algae. The mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation by the Mn4Ca cluster in photosystem II is the subject of much debate, although lacking structural characterization of the catalytic intermediates. Biosynthetically exchanged Ca/Sr-PS II preparations and x-ray spectroscopy, including extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), allowed us to monitor Mn-Mn and Ca(Sr)-Mn distances in the four intermediate S states, S0 through S3, of the catalytic cycle that couples the one-electron photochemistry occurring at the PS II reaction center with the four-electron water-oxidation chemistry taking place at the Mn4Ca(Sr) cluster. We have detected significant changes in the structure of the complex, especially in the Mn-Mn and Ca(Sr)-Mn distances, on the S2-to-S3 and S3-to-S0 transitions. These results implicate the involvement of at least one common bridging oxygen atom between the Mn-Mn and Mn-Ca(Sr) atoms in the O-O bond formation. Because PS II cannot advance beyond the S2 state in preparations that lack Ca(Sr), these results show that Ca(Sr) is one of the critical components in the mechanism of the enzyme. The results also show that Ca is not just a spectator atom involved in providing a structural framework, but is actively involved in the mechanism of water oxidation and represents a rare example of a catalytically active Ca cofactor.

  9. The multi-faceted Type II-L supernova 2014G from pre-maximum to nebular phase

    Terreran, G; Benetti, S; Smartt, S J; Ochner, P; Tomasella, L; Howell, D A; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Harutyunyan, A; Kankare, E; Arcavi, I; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Hosseinzadeh, G; Kangas, T; Pastorello, A; Tartaglia, L; Turatto, M; Valenti, S; Wiggins, P; Yuan, F


    We present multi-band ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry, along with visual-wavelength spectroscopy, of supernova (SN) 2014G in the nearby galaxy NGC 3448 (25 Mpc). The early-phase spectra show strong emission lines of the high ionisation species He II/N IV/C IV during the first 2-3 d after explosion, traces of a metal-rich CSM probably due to pre-explosion mass loss events. These disappear by day 9 and the spectral evolution then continues matching that of normal Type II SNe. The post-maximum light curve declines at a rate typical of Type II-L class. The extensive photometric coverage tracks the drop from the photospheric stage and constrains the radioactive tail, with a steeper decline rate than that expected from the $^{56}$Co decay if $\\gamma$-rays are fully trapped by the ejecta. We report the appearance of an unusual feature on the blue-side of H$\\alpha$ after 100 d, which evolves to appear as a flat spectral feature linking H$\\alpha$ and the O I doublet. This may be due to interaction o...

  10. Intracellular Ca-carbonate biomineralization is widespread in cyanobacteria.

    Benzerara, Karim; Skouri-Panet, Feriel; Li, Jinhua; Férard, Céline; Gugger, Muriel; Laurent, Thierry; Couradeau, Estelle; Ragon, Marie; Cosmidis, Julie; Menguy, Nicolas; Margaret-Oliver, Isabel; Tavera, Rosaluz; López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David


    Cyanobacteria have played a significant role in the formation of past and modern carbonate deposits at the surface of the Earth using a biomineralization process that has been almost systematically considered induced and extracellular. Recently, a deep-branching cyanobacterial species, Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, was reported to form intracellular amorphous Ca-rich carbonates. However, the significance and diversity of the cyanobacteria in which intracellular biomineralization occurs remain unknown. Here, we searched for intracellular Ca-carbonate inclusions in 68 cyanobacterial strains distributed throughout the phylogenetic tree of cyanobacteria. We discovered that diverse unicellular cyanobacterial taxa form intracellular amorphous Ca-carbonates with at least two different distribution patterns, suggesting the existence of at least two distinct mechanisms of biomineralization: (i) one with Ca-carbonate inclusions scattered within the cell cytoplasm such as in Ca. G. lithophora, and (ii) another one observed in strains belonging to the Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 lineage, in which Ca-carbonate inclusions lie at the cell poles. This pattern seems to be linked with the nucleation of the inclusions at the septum of the cells, showing an intricate and original connection between cell division and biomineralization. These findings indicate that intracellular Ca-carbonate biomineralization by cyanobacteria has been overlooked by past studies and open new perspectives on the mechanisms and the evolutionary history of intra- and extracellular Ca-carbonate biomineralization by cyanobacteria.

  11. Intracellular Ca-carbonate biomineralization is widespread in cyanobacteria

    Benzerara, Karim; Skouri-Panet, Feriel; Li, Jinhua; Férard, Céline; Gugger, Muriel; Laurent, Thierry; Couradeau, Estelle; Ragon, Marie; Cosmidis, Julie; Menguy, Nicolas; Margaret-Oliver, Isabel; Tavera, Rosaluz; López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David


    Cyanobacteria have played a significant role in the formation of past and modern carbonate deposits at the surface of the Earth using a biomineralization process that has been almost systematically considered induced and extracellular. Recently, a deep-branching cyanobacterial species, Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, was reported to form intracellular amorphous Ca-rich carbonates. However, the significance and diversity of the cyanobacteria in which intracellular biomineralization occurs remain unknown. Here, we searched for intracellular Ca-carbonate inclusions in 68 cyanobacterial strains distributed throughout the phylogenetic tree of cyanobacteria. We discovered that diverse unicellular cyanobacterial taxa form intracellular amorphous Ca-carbonates with at least two different distribution patterns, suggesting the existence of at least two distinct mechanisms of biomineralization: (i) one with Ca-carbonate inclusions scattered within the cell cytoplasm such as in Ca. G. lithophora, and (ii) another one observed in strains belonging to the Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 lineage, in which Ca-carbonate inclusions lie at the cell poles. This pattern seems to be linked with the nucleation of the inclusions at the septum of the cells, showing an intricate and original connection between cell division and biomineralization. These findings indicate that intracellular Ca-carbonate biomineralization by cyanobacteria has been overlooked by past studies and open new perspectives on the mechanisms and the evolutionary history of intra- and extracellular Ca-carbonate biomineralization by cyanobacteria.

  12. Ion pathways in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    Bublitz, Maike; Musgaard, Maria; Poulsen, Hanne; Thøgersen, Lea; Olesen, Claus; Schiøtt, Birgit; Morth, J Preben; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul


    The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is a transmembrane ion transporter belonging to the P(II)-type ATPase family. It performs the vital task of re-sequestering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum store, thereby also terminating Ca(2+)-induced signaling such as in muscle contraction. This minireview focuses on the transport pathways of Ca(2+) and H(+) ions across the lipid bilayer through SERCA. The ion-binding sites of SERCA are accessible from either the cytoplasm or the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum lumen, and the Ca(2+) entry and exit channels are both formed mainly by rearrangements of four N-terminal transmembrane α-helices. Recent improvements in the resolution of the crystal structures of rabbit SERCA1a have revealed a hydrated pathway in the C-terminal transmembrane region leading from the ion-binding sites to the cytosol. A comparison of different SERCA conformations reveals that this C-terminal pathway is exclusive to Ca(2+)-free E2 states, suggesting that it may play a functional role in proton release from the ion-binding sites. This is in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and mutational studies and is in striking analogy to a similar pathway recently described for the related sodium pump. We therefore suggest a model for the ion exchange mechanism in P(II)-ATPases including not one, but two cytoplasmic pathways working in concert.

  13. [Carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9, CA 242, CA 50 in liver diseases].

    Nowak, J; Jakubowska, D; Wiczkowski, A; Sprzaczkowska, K; Stechły, T; Zmudziński, W; Grzesik, P; Walas, R; Jarzab, B


    Serum concentrations of CA 19-9, CA 242, and CA 50 were determined in patients with hepatitis and liver cirrhosis without cholestasis. The study included 63 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis (group A), chronic active hepatitis (group B), and liver cirrhosis (group C). The control group (K) consisted of 82 patients with: peptic ulcer, colorectal polypi or diverticulosis of the colon. CA 19-9 level normal in the majority of patients with liver diseases, however, it was found to be increased in 4 (23%) of patients with liver cirrhosis. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of increased level of CA 19-9 between liver diseases and the control group. The rate of elevated serum level of CA 242 in patients with liver diseases and in control group was similar respectively 12%; 8.5%). The elevated CA 50 levels were most frequently found in patients with liver pathology (50% in liver cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis; 36% in chronic persistent hepatitis). The elevation of CA 50 serum level occurs very often in liver diseases, even when they are going without cholestasis. Thus, the antigen is not useful for differentiating between benign and cancer diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Antigen CA 50 is to be taken into account only after exclusion of the pathology of liver, especially cirrhosis. Other investigated antigens: CA 19-9 and CA 242 are influenced by liver diseases to a minor and neglectable extent. Antigen CA 19-9 is the marker of choice in gastrointestinal cancers.

  14. Measurement of delta13C and delta18O Isotopic Ratios of CaCO3 by a Thermoquest Finnigan GasBench II Delta Plus XL Continous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer with Application to Devils Hole Core DH-11 Calcite

    Revesz, Kinga M.; Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas; Keybl, Jaroslav Edward


    A new method was developed to analyze the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400?20 ?g) of calcium carbonate. This new method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid - calcium carbonate (H3PO4 - CaCO3) reaction method by making use of a Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II preparation device and a Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, optimal conditions for the H3PO4 - CaCO3 reaction had to be determined. At the acid-carbonate reaction temperature suggested by the equipment manufacturer, the oxygen isotope ratio results were unsatisfactory (standard deviation () greater than 1.5 per mill), probably because of a secondary reaction. When the acid-carbonate reaction temperature was lowered to 26?C and the reaction time was increased to 24 hours, the precision of the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for duplicate analyses improved to 0.1 and 0.2 per mill, respectively. The method was tested by analyzing calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, which was formed by precipitation from ground water onto the walls of a sub-aqueous cavern during the last 500,000 years. Isotope-ratio values previously had been obtained by the classical method for Devils Hole core DH-11. The DH-11 core had been recently re-sampled, and isotope-ratio values were obtained using this new method. The results were comparable to those obtained by the classical method. The consistency of the isotopic results is such that an alignment offset could be identified in the re-sampled core material, a cutting error that was then independently confirmed. The reproducibility of the isotopic values is demonstrated by a correlation of approximately 0.96 for both isotopes, after correcting for an alignment offset. This result indicates that the new method is a viable alternative to the classical method. In particular, the new method requires less sample material permitting finer resolution and allows automation of some processes

  15. Intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling during the phenotypic journey of human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Muñoz, Eva; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Sobradillo, Diego; Rocher, Asunción; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos


    Vascular smooth muscle cells undergo phenotypic switches after damage which may contribute to proliferative disorders of the vessel wall. This process has been related to remodeling of Ca(2+) channels. We have tested the ability of cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs) to return from a proliferative to a quiescent behavior and the contribution of intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling to the process. We found that cultured, early passage hCASMCs showed a high proliferation rate, sustained increases in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in response to angiotensin II, residual voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry, increased Stim1 and enhanced store-operated currents. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibited store-operated Ca(2+) entry and abolished cell proliferation in a mitochondria-dependent manner. After a few passages, hCASMCs turned to a quiescent phenotype characterized by lack of proliferation, oscillatory Ca(2+) response to angiotensin II, increased Ca(2+) store content, enhanced voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry and Cav1.2 expression, and decreases in Stim1, store-operated current and store-operated Ca(2+) entry. We conclude that proliferating hCASMCs return to quiescence and this switch is associated to a remodeling of Ca(2+) channels and their control by subcellular organelles, thus providing a window of opportunity for targeting phenotype-specific Ca(2+) channels involved in proliferation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with secondary sulfonamides incorporating benzothiazole scaffolds.

    Petrou, Anthi; Geronikaki, Athina; Terzi, Emine; Guler, Ozen Ozensoy; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Supuran, Claudiu T


    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological conditions. A series of benzothiazole-based sulfonamides were synthesized and tested as possible CA inhibitors. Their inhibitory activity was assessed against the cytosolic human isoforms hCA I and hCA II and the transmembrane hCA IX and hCA XII. Several of the investigated derivatives showed interesting inhibition activity and selectivities for inhibiting hCA IX and hCA XII over the off-target ones hCA I and hCA II. Furthermore, computational procedures were used to investigate the binding mode of this class of compounds, within the active site of hCA IX.

  17. Prevention of long-term memory loss after retrieval by an endogenous CaMKII inhibitor.

    Vigil, Fabio Antonio; Mizuno, Keiko; Lucchesi, Walter; Valls-Comamala, Victoria; Giese, Karl Peter


    CaMK2N1 and CaMK2N2 are endogenous inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a key synaptic signaling molecule for learning and memory. Here, we investigated the learning and memory function of CaMK2N1 by knocking-down its expression in dorsal hippocampus of mice. We found that reduced CaMK2N1 expression does not affect contextual fear long-term memory (LTM) formation. However, we show that it impairs maintenance of established LTM, but only if retrieval occurs. CaMK2N1 knockdown prevents a decrease of threonine-286 (T286) autophosphorylation of αCaMKII and increases GluA1 levels in hippocampal synapses after retrieval of contextual fear LTM. CaMK2N1 knockdown can also increase CaMK2N2 expression, but we show that such increased expression does not affect LTM after retrieval. We also found that substantial overexpression of CaMK2N2 in dorsal hippocampus impairs LTM formation, but not LTM maintenance, suggesting that CaMKII activity is not required for LTM storage. Taken together, we propose a specific function for CaMK2N1; enabling LTM maintenance after retrieval by inhibiting T286 autophosphorylation of αCaMKII.

  18. On the History of Unified Field Theories. Part II. (ca. 1930 – ca. 1965

    Hubert F. M. Goenner


    Full Text Available The present review intends to provide an overall picture of the research concerning classical unified field theory, worldwide, in the decades between the mid-1930 and mid-1960. Main themes are the conceptual and methodical development of the field, the interaction among the scientists working in it, their opinions and interpretations. Next to the most prominent players, A. Einstein and E. Schrödinger, V. Hlavatý and the French groups around A. Lichnerowicz, M.-A. Tonnelat, and Y. Thiry are presented. It is shown that they have given contributions of comparable importance. The review also includes a few sections on the fringes of the central topic like Born–Infeld electromagnetic theory or scalar-tensor theory. Some comments on the structure and organization of research-groups are also made.

  19. Analysis of blue-shifted emission peaks in type II supernovae

    Anderson, J P; Gutierrez, C P; Hamuy, M; Morrell, N I; Phillips, M; Folatelli, G; Stritzinger, M D; Freedman, W L; González-Gaitán, S; McCarthy, P; Suntzeff, N; Thomas-Osip, J


    In classical P-Cygni profiles, theory predicts emission to peak at zero rest velocity. However, supernova spectra exhibit emission that is generally blue shifted. While this characteristic has been reported in many supernovae, it is rarely discussed in any detail. Here we present an analysis of H-alpha emission-peaks using a dataset of 95 type II supernovae, quantifying their strength and time evolution. Using a post-explosion time of 30d, we observe a systematic blueshift of H-alpha emission, with a mean value of -2000 kms-1. This offset is greatest at early times but vanishes as supernovae become nebular. Simulations of Dessart et al. (2013) match the observed behaviour, reproducing both its strength and evolution in time. Such blueshifts are a fundamental feature of supernova spectra as they are intimately tied to the density distribution of ejecta, which falls more rapidly than in stellar winds. This steeper density structure causes line emission/absorption to be much more confined; it also exacerbates th...

  20. Cardiomyocytes with disrupted CFTR function require CaMKII and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel activity to maintain contraction rate.

    Sellers, Zachary M; De Arcangelis, Vania; Xiang, Yang; Best, Philip M


    The physiological role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. Using spontaneously beating neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes from wild-type (WT) or CFTR knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of CFTR in the modulation of cardiomyocyte contraction rate. Contraction rates of spontaneously beating myocytes were captured by video imaging. Real-time changes in intracellular ([Ca(2+)](i)) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were measured by fura-2 and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, respectively. Acute inhibition of CFTR in WT cardiomyocytes using the CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172 transiently inhibited the contraction rate. By contrast, cardiomyocytes from CFTR KO mice displayed normal contraction rates. Further investigation revealed that acute inhibition of CFTR activity in WT cardiomyocytes activated L-type Ca(2+) channels, leading to a transient increase of [Ca(2+)](i) and inhibition of PKA activity. Additionally, we found that contraction rate normalization following acute CFTR inhibition in WT cardiomyocytes or chronic deletion in cardiomyocytes from CFTR KO mice requires the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC) because simultaneous addition of myristoylated-autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide or niflumic acid and CFTR(inh)-172 to WT cardiomyocytes or treatment of cardiomyoctes from CFTR KO mice with these agents caused sustained attenuation of contraction rates. Our results demonstrate that regulation of cardiomyocyte contraction involves CFTR. They also reveal that activation of CaMKII and CaCC compensates for loss of CFTR function. Increased dependence on CaMKII upon loss of CFTR function might leave cystic fibrosis patients at increased risk of heart dysfunction and disease.