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Sample records for h-13 die steel

  1. Precipitation Behavior of Carbides in H13 Hot Work Die Steel and Its Strengthening during Tempering

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    Angang Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of carbides, such as morphology, size, and type, in H13 hot work die steel were studied with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis; their size distribution and quantity after tempering, at different positions within the ingot, were analyzed using Image-Pro Plus software. Thermodynamic calculations were also performed for these carbides. The microstructures near the ingot surface were homogeneous and had slender martensite laths. Two kinds of carbide precipitates have been detected in H13: (1 MC and M6C, generally smaller than 200 nm; and (2 M23C6, usually larger than 200 nm. MC and M6C play the key role in precipitation hardening. These are the most frequent carbides precipitating at the halfway point from the center of the ingot, and the least frequent at the surface. From the center of the ingot to its surface, the size and volume fraction of the carbides decrease, and the toughness improves, while the contribution of the carbides to the yield strength increases.

  2. Improved Life of Die Casting Dies of H13 Steel by Attaining Improved Mechanical Properties and Distortion Control During Heat Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. Wallace; D. Schwam

    1998-10-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to increase die casting die life by using fast enough quenching rates to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in premium grade H-13 steel dies. The main tasks of the project were to compile a database on physical and mechanical properties of H-13; conduct gas quenching experiments to determine cooling rates of dies in difference vacuum furnaces; measure the as-quenched distortion of dies and the residual stresses; generate finite element analysis models to predict cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress of gas quenched dies; and establish rules and create PC-based expert system for prediction of cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress in vacuum/gas quenched H-13 dies. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes have been measured under a variety of gas pressure. Dimensional changes caused by the gas quenching processes have been determined by accurate mapping of all surfaces with coordinate measuring machines before and after the quench. Residual stresses were determined by the ASTM E837 hole-drilling strain gage method. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a comprehensive database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties has been compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes has been conducted using the TRAST/ABAQUS codes. There is a good fit between the predicted and measured distortion contours. However, the magnitude of the predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required before it can be used to predict distortion and residual stress in a quantitative manner. This last step is a prerequisite to generating rules for a reliable expert system.

  3. Improved life of die casting dies of H13 steel by attaining improved mechanical properties and distortion control during heat treatment. Year 1 report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.F.; Schwam, D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Optimum heat treatment of dies (quenching) is critical in ensuring satisfactory service performance: rapid cooling rates increase the thermal fatigue/heat checking resistance of the steel, although very fast cooling rates can also lead to distortion and lower fracture toughness, increasing the danger of catastrophic fracture. Goal of this project is to increase die life by using fast enough quenching rates (> 30 F/min ave cooling rate from 1750 to 550 F, 1/2 in. below working surfaces) to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in Premium grade H-13 steel dies. An iterative approach of computer modeling validated by experiment was taken. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes were measured under 2, 5, and 7.5 bar N2 and 4 bar Ar. Resulting dimensional changes and residual stresses were determined. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties was compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes was conducted. Good fit of modeled vs measured quenched rates was demonstrated for simple die shapes. The models predict well the phase transformation products from the quench. There is good fit between predicted and measured distortion contours; however magnitude of predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required.

  4. Superplasticity of Annealed H13 Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhenxin; Pei, Wen; Gong, Xuebo; Chen, Hua

    2017-07-28

    H13 steel is a widely used hot work die material. A new type of hot working method is imperative to develop complex and precise dies. In this paper, the heat treatment of H13 steel (AISI) was carried out by annealing, the final structure is a point or spherical pearlite, and the grain size is about 30-40 μm. The tensile properties of the annealed microstructure were investigated at 650, 750, and 850 °C with the strain rates of 1 × 10(-3) s(-1), 5 × 10(-4) s(-1), and 1 × 10(-4) s(-1). The tensile fracture and microstructure were analyzed by SEM and HREM. The results show that the tensile samples reach superplasticity at the strain rate of 1 × 10(-4) s(-1) in the temperature range of 750-850 °C. When the temperature is 850 °C, the maximum elongation rate reaches 112.5%. This demonstrates the possibility of making superplastic forming molds. During the tensile process, the refined M23C₆ and other high hardness carbides which are dispersed uniformly in the matrix, effectively inhibits grain growth and hinders dislocation movement, leading to the improvement of plasticity.

  5. Thermally-Induced Crack Evaluation in H13 Tool Steel

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    Hassan Abdulrssoul Abdulhadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the effect of thermal wear on cylindrical tool steel (AISI H13 under aluminum die-casting conditions. The AISIH13 steels were immersed in the molten aluminum alloy at 700 °C before water-quenching at room temperature. The process involved an alternating heating and cooling of each sample for a period of 24 s. The design of the immersion test apparatus stylistically simulated aluminum alloy dies casting conditions. The testing phase was performed at 1850, 3000, and 5000 cycles. The samples were subjected to visual inspection after each phase of testing, before being examined for metallographic studies, surface crack measurement, and hardness characteristics. Furthermore, the samples were segmented and examined under optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The areas around the crack zones were additionally examined under Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS. The crack’s maximum length and Vickers hardness profiles were obtained; and from the metallographic study, an increase in the number of cycles during the testing phase resulted in an increase in the surface crack formation; suggesting an increase in the thermal stress at higher cycle numbers. The crack length of Region I (spherically shaped was about 47 to 127 µm, with a high oxygen content that was analyzed within 140 µm from the surface of the sample. At 700 °C, there is a formation of aluminum oxides, which was in contact with the surface of the H13 sample. These stresses propagate the thermal wear crack length into the tool material of spherically shaped Region I and cylindrically shape Region II, while hardness parameters presented a different observation. The crack length of Region I was about 32% higher than the crack length of Region II.

  6. Influence of Cooling Rate on Phase Formationin Spray-Formed H13 Tool Steel

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    K. M. Mchugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia

    2006-04-01

    Spray forming is an effective way to process many tool steels into near-net-shape molds, dies and related tooling. The general approach involves depositing atomized droplets onto a refractory pattern in order to image the pattern’s features. The pattern is removed and the die is fitted into a standard holding fixture. This approach results in significant cost and lead-time savings compared to conventional machining, Spray-formed dies perform well in many industrial forming operations, oftentimes exhibiting extended die life over conventional dies. Care must be exercised when spray forming tool steel dies to minimize porosity and control the nature and distribution of phases and residual stresses. Selection of post-deposition heat treatment is important to tailor the die’s properties (hardness, strength, impact energy, etc.) for a particular application. This paper examines how the cooling rate and other processing parameters during spray processing and heat treatment of H13 tool steel influence phase formation. Results of case studies on spray-formed die performance in forging, extrusion and die casting, conducted by industry during production runs, will be described.

  7. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

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    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  9. Surface modification of AISI H13 tool steel by laser cladding with NiTi powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Chikarakara, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents laser cladding of NiTi powder on AISI H13 tool steel surface for surface properties enhancement. The cladding process was conducted using Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 laser system with wavelength of 10.6 µm. NiTi powder was pre-placed on H13 tool steel surface. The laser beam was focused with a spot size of 90 µm on the sample surface. Laser parameters were set to 1515 and 1138 W peak power, 18 and 24 % duty cycle and 2300-3500 Hz laser pulse repetition frequency. Hardness properties of the modified layer were characterized by Wilson Hardness tester. Metallographic study and chemical composition were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDXS) analysis. Results showed that hardness of NiTi clad layer increased three times that of the substrate material. The EDXS analysis detected NiTi phase presence in the modified layer up to 9.8 wt%. The metallographic study shows high metallurgical bonding between substrate and modified layer. These findings are significant to both increased hardness and erosion resistance of high-wear-resistant components and elongating their lifetime.

  10. Effect of the Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification (UNSM on Bulk and 3D-Printed AISI H13 Tool Steels

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    In-Sik Cho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the microstructure, hardness, and tribological properties of two different AISI H13 tool steels—classified as the bulk with no heat treatment steel or the 3D-printed steel—was undertaken. Both samples were subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM to further enhance their mechanical properties and improve their tribological behavior. The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties and tribological behavior of these tool steels since steel can exhibit a wide variety of mechanical properties depending on different manufacturing processes. The surface hardness of the samples was measured using a micro-Vickers hardness tester. The hardness of the 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel was found to be much higher than that of the bulk one. The surface morphology of the samples was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD in order to analyze the grain size and number of fractions with respect to the misorientation angle. The results revealed that the grain size of the 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel was less than 0.5 μm, whereas that of the bulk tool steel was greater than 4 μm. The number of fractions of the bulk tool steel was about 0.5 μm at a low misorientation angle, and it decreased gradually with increasing misorientation angle. The low-angle grain boundary (LAGB and high-angle grain boundary (HAGB of the bulk sample were about 21% and 79%, respectively, and those of the 3D-printed sample were about 8% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the UNSM-treated AISI H13 tool steel specimen was better than those of the untreated one. This study demonstrated the capability of 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel to exhibit excellent mechanical and tribological properties for industrial applications.

  11. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

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    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  12. Relations of Counterface Hardness with Wear Behavior and Tribo-Oxide Layer of AISI H13 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. Y.; Wang, S. Q.; Li, X. X.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, K. M.; Cui, X. H.

    2016-12-01

    Dry sliding wear tests of AISI H13 steel (50 HRC) against AISI D2 steel counterface with three hardness levels (55, 50, and 42 HRC) were performed at 298 K to 873 K (25 °C to 600 °C). The relations of counterface hardness with the wear behavior and tribo-oxide layer of AISI H13 steel were explored. When sliding against the different-hardness counterface, H13 steel presents appreciably changed wear behavior as a function of temperature. For H d/ H p (the hardness ratio of disk to pin) > 1, the wear rate increases with the increase of temperature, but the wear rate variation is roughly inversed for H d/ H p 1, at 474 K (200 °C) for H d/ H p = 1, and at 673 K (400 °C) for H d/ H p 1 and at 673 K to 873 K (400 °C to 600 °C) for H d/ H p = 1. These findings suggest that the tribo-oxide layers are liable to exist stably for H d/ H p ≤ 1 but to readily delaminate for H d/ H p > 1.

  13. Tempering stability of Fe-Cr-Mo-W-V hot forging die steels

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    Shi, Yuan-ji; Wu, Xiao-chun; Li, Jun-wan; Min, Na

    2017-10-01

    The tempering stability of three Fe-Cr-Mo-W-V hot forging die steels (DM, H21, and H13) was investigated through hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Both dilatometer tests and TEM observations revealed that DM steel has a higher tempering stability than H21 and H13 steels because of its substantial amount of M2C (M represents metallic element) carbide precipitations. The activation energies of the M2C carbide precipitation processes in DM, H21, and H13 steels are 236.4, 212.0, and 228.9 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that vanadium atoms both increase the activation energy and affect the evolution of M2C carbides, resulting in gradual dissolution rather than over-aging during tempering.

  14. Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Year 1 report

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    Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Yumin; Schwam, D.

    1996-06-01

    The goal of this project is to extend the lifetime of dies for die casting by 20%. Since the die contributes about 10% to the cost of die cast parts, such an improvement in lifetime would result in annual savings of over $200 Million dollars. This is based on the estimated annual die production of one Billion dollars in the US. The major tasks of this two year project are: (1) Evaluate NEW DIE STEEL COMPOSITIONS that have been developed for demanding applications and compare them to Premium Grade H-13 die steel. (2) Optimize the AUSTENITIZING TREATMENT of the new composition. Assess the effects of fast, medium and slow COOLING RATES DURING HEAT TREATMENT, on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steel. (3) Determine the effect of ELECTRO-DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance and impact properties of the steel. (4) Select demanding components and conduct IN-PLANT TESTING by using the new steel. Compare the performance of the new steel with identical components made of Premium Grade H-13. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU is being used to determine resistance to heat checking, and the Charpy V-notch test for evaluating the toughness. The overall result of this project will be identification of the best steel available on the market and the best processing methods for aluminum die casting dies. This is an interim report for year 1 of the project.

  15. Characterization of an AISI H-13 steel for work in hot; Caracterizacion del acero H-13 AISI para trabajado en caliente

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    Godinez, J.; Robles, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Two materials were acquired which elaborated through secondary refining processes known as electroslag refusing (ESR) and electric arc in vacuum refusing (VAR) were acquired. These materials were thermically treated, for subsequently to determine their mechanical properties in longitudinal and transversal directions with respect to rolling direction, moreover they were characterized through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction determining microstructure, carbides and non-metallic inclusions. The results of the mechanical essays allowed to evaluate the fracture toughness to this steel by the Barsom and Rolfe method. (Author)

  16. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...... characterization parameters were tested. None of the height, spacing, material volume, void or segmentation parameters showed good correlations. Developed area, rms surface gradient, relative area and complexity showed strong correlations (R2 > 0.7). For area-scale fractal complexity the correlation increases...

  17. Experimental investigation and modelling of surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, M.; Yaşar, N.; Çiftçi, İ.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, turning of hardened steels has replaced grinding for finishing operations. This process is compared to grinding operations; hard turning has higher material removal rates, the possibility of greater process flexibility, lower equipment costs, and shorter setup time. CBN or ceramic cutting tools are widely used hard part machining. For successful application of hard turning, selection of suitable cutting parameters for a given cutting tool is an important step. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting tool edge geometry, feed rate and cutting speed on surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 steel with ceramic cutting tools. Machining experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe based on Taguchi experimental design (L16) in different levels of cutting parameters. In the experiments, a Kistler 9257 B, three cutting force components (Fc, Ff and Fr) piezoelectric dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces. Surface roughness measurements were performed by using a Mahrsurf PS1 device. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance has been performed and mathematical model have been developed for surface roughness and resultant cutting forces. The analysis of variance results showed that the cutting edge geometry, cutting speed and feed rate were the most significant factors on resultant cutting force while the cutting edge geometry and feed rate were the most significant factor for the surface roughness. The regression analysis was applied to predict the outcomes of the experiment. The predicted values and measured values were very close to each other. Afterwards a confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the predicted results and the measured results. According to the confirmation test results, measured values are within the 95% confidence interval.

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Additively Manufactured AISI H13 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ChangJun; Yan, Kai; Qin, Lanlan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xiaonan; Zou, Tao; Hu, Zengrong

    2017-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties (microhardness, wear resistance and impact toughness) of laser additively manufactured AISI H13 tool steel was systemically investigated. To understand the variation of microstructure and mechanical properties under different heat treatments, the as-deposited samples were treated at 350, 450, 550, 600 and 650 °C/2 h, respectively. Microstructure and phase transformation were investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The mechanical properties were characterized by nanoindentation tests, Charpy tests and high-temperature wear tests. The microstructure of as-deposited samples consisted of martensite, ultrafine carbides and retained austenite. After the tempering treatment, the martensite was converted into tempered martensite and some fine alloy carbides which precipitated in the matrix. When treated at 550 °C, the greatest hardness and nanohardness were 600 HV0.3 and 6119.4 MPa due to many needle-like carbides precipitation. The value of hardness increased firstly and then decreased when increasing the temperature. When tempered temperatures exceeded 550 °C, the carbides became coarse, and martensitic matrix recrystallized at the temperature of 650 °C. The least impact energy was 6.0 J at a temperature of 550 °C. Samples tempered at 550 °C had larger wear volume loss than that of others. Wear resistances of all samples under atmospheric condition at 400 °C showed an oxidation mechanism.

  19. Mechanism of generation of large (Ti,Nb,V)(C,N)-type precipitates in H13 + Nb tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, You; Cheng, Guo-guang; Chen, Lie; Zhang, Yan-dong; Yan, Qing-zhong

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics and generation mechanism of (Ti,Nb,V)(C,N) precipitates larger than 2 μm in Nb-containing H13 bar steel were studied. The results show that two types of (Ti,Nb,V)(C,N) phases exist—a Ti-V-rich one and an Nb-rich one—in the form of single or complex precipitates. The sizes of the single Ti-V-rich (Ti,Nb,V)(C,N) precipitates are mostly within 5 to 10 μm, whereas the sizes of the single Nb-rich precipitates are mostly 2-5 μm. The complex precipitates are larger and contain an inner Ti-V-rich layer and an outer Nb-rich layer. The compositional distribution of (Ti,Nb,V)(C,N) is concentrated. The average composition of the single Ti-V-rich phase is (Ti0.511V0.356Nb0.133)(C x N y ), whereas that for the single Nb-rich phase is (Ti0.061V0.263Nb0.676)(C x N y ). The calculation results based on the Scheil-Gulliver model in the Thermo-Calc software combining with the thermal stability experiments show that the large phases precipitate during the solidification process. With the development of solidification, the Ti-V-rich phase precipitates first and becomes homogeneous during the subsequent temperature reduction and heat treatment processes. The Nb-rich phase appears later.

  20. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza, Muataz Hazza F. Al; Adesta, Erry Y. T.; Riza, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models.

  1. Comparison of surface roughness and chip characteristics obtained under different modes of lubrication during hard turning of AISI H13 tool work steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anil; Wins, K. Leo Dev; Varadarajan, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Surface roughness is one of the important parameters, which not only affects the service life of a component but also serves as a good index of machinability. Near Dry Machining, methods (NDM) are considered as sustainable alternative for workshops trying to bring down their dependence on cutting fluids and the hazards associated with their indiscriminate usage. The present work presents a comparison of the surface roughness and chip characteristics during hard turning of AISI H13 tool work steel using hard metal inserts under two popular NDM techniques namely the minimal fluid application and the Minimum Quantity Lubrication technique(MQL) using an experiment designed based on Taguchi's techniques. The statistical method of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the relative significance of input parameters consisting of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the attainable surface finish and the chip characteristics. It was observed that the performance during minimal fluid application was better than that during MQL application.

  2. MICROSTRUCTURE AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF CHROMIUM NITRIDES OBTAINED BY VACUUM GAS NITRIDING OF ELECTROLYTIC CHROMIUM DEPOSITED ON AISI H13 STEEL

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    H. Cifuentes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this scientific research paper, the microstructure and corrosion resistance of chromium nitrides obtained from a duplex treatment consisting of an electroplated hard chromium coating applied on a steel AISI H13 follow by a thermochemical treatment in vacuum using NH3 as precursor gas of nitrogen, is evaluated. This type of duplex treatments combine the benefits of each individual treatment in order to obtain, with this synergic effect, compounds type CrxN more economic than those obtained by other kind of treatments e.g. physical vapor deposition (PVD. The results obtained by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD indicate the surface and subsurface transformation of the electrolytic hard chromium coating by formation of CrN and Cr2N phases. Likewise, potentiodynamic polarization tests indicate an increase in corrosion resistance of such kind of compounds in comparison with the obtained results with electroplated hard chromium.

  3. A study on the die steel surface modification by electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Ai Min; Zou Jian Xin; Hao Sheng Zhi; Dong Chuang; Zhang Ai Ming; Xu Tao

    2002-01-01

    A new surface modification technology-high current pulsed electron beam treatment method was applied to the surface of die steel to improve its properties. It has been shown that as a result of the HCPEB treatment, the most pronounced changes of the structure-phase state occur in the near-surface layers quenched from the liquid state, where the crystallization front velocity reaches its maximum. In these layers partial or complete dissolving of second phases and formation of over saturated solid solutions and ordered nano-sized structures may take place. This makes it possible to improve substantially the electrochemical and strength properties of the surface layer. The authors found that the thickness of remelt layer is about 10 mu m, and the sectional microhardness increased accompanied by the enhancement of the wear resistance of the material. After modification, the relative wear resistance of D2 steel have increased 5.63 times and that of H13 steel increased 11.76 times

  4. Development of HPDC Advanced Dies by Casting with Reinforced Tool Steels

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    I. Vicario

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure die casting (HPDC dies are nowadays manufactured with high quality forged steels. Cavities are made by electrical discharge machining (EDM or by high speed milling. The average life of an aluminium HPDC die is about 125.000 injections. Refrigeration circuits have simple configurations, because they are produced by drilling the die with straight holes. They are limitations in the distances and diameters of holes. Sensors are placed where the geometry of the die permits an easy machining. In order to obtain complex figures, several rapid prototyping methods have been developed. However, there is a limitation in the life of the dies produced by this technique, from several parts to thousands. A new method to obtain semifinished high pressure die casting dies in a steel of higher mechanical properties and with the refrigeration circuits and sensors embedded into it is described in this paper. The method consists in producing a molten steel alloy with micro-nano-special ceramic particles inserted in it and casting the composite material in sand moulds of the desired geometry. The resultant solidified near-net shape die with the cooling tubes and sensors embedded into it. A use-life and a productivity about 50% and 10% higher are obtained.

  5. Investigating the Evolution of Progressive Die Wear on Uncoated Dp1180 Steel in Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Zhou, D. J.; Adamski, D. J.; Young, D.; Wang, Y. W.

    2017-09-01

    A study of die wear was performed using an uncoated dual phase, 1,180 MPa ultimate tensile strength steel (DP1180) in a progressive die. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for forming operations on uncoated DP1180 steel and update OEM’s die standards based on the experimental results in the real production environment. In total, 100,800 hits were performed in manufacturing production conditions, where 33 die inserts with the combination of 10 die materials and 9 coatings were investigated. The die inserts were evaluated for surface wear using scanning electron microscopy and characterized in terms of die material and/or coating defects, failure mode, failure initiation and propagation. Surface roughness of the formed parts was characterized using a WYKO NT110 machine. The analytical analysis of the die inserts and formed parts, combined with the failure mode and service life, provide a basis for die material and coating selection for forming AHSS components. The conclusions of this study will guide the selection of die material and coatings for high-volume production of AHSS components.

  6. Tool Steels in Die-Casting Utilization and Increased Mold Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepanta Naimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In die-casting molds, heat-checking is the typical failure mechanism. Optimizing the parameters that decrease this failure venture should be considered when designing and heat treating steels. The quality of die steels and their treatment continue to improve. This research investigated properties of the traditional materials 1.2343 and 1.2344 and the new steels (Dievar and TOOLOX 44 when applied to the die-casting mold specimens, after different experimental cycles. Also microstructures of the mentioned materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM test. Chrome-molybdenum-silicon-vanadium steels have good hardening ability in oil and in air. Therefore, the hot-work steels have considerable toughness and plastic attributes through both regular and higher temperatures. So, it is a good traditional die-casting material. However, another special die steel, such as Dievar, is a particularly developed steel grade; its exclusivity profile is exceptional due to its chemical composition and the use of the latest production techniques. Dievar has good heat-checking and gross-cracking resistance as a result of both high toughness and good hot strength. An additional material, a new prehardened tool steel known as TOOLOX 44, exhibits control of the failure described above by optimizing the parameters of impact toughness that could reduce the heat-checking failures. A variety of heat treatment parameters exist for various reasons because the heat treatment operation is performed by a variety of companies. This issue of the diversity in heat treatments is resolved by TOOLOX 44; this steel is quenched and tempered in delivered state.

  7. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Soldering of cast alloys to the dies has been a continuing source of die surface damage in the aluminum die-casting industry. To reduce the repair and maintenance costs, an approach to modeling the damage and predicting the die lifetime is required. The aim of the present study is the estimation...... the die-casting industry. As an example, the model is applied to several cases of high pressure die casting (HPDC) where A380 alloy parts are cast in the H13 steel die. The predicted locations of the higher strength of soldering appear in the "hot spot" areas of the die surface in agreement...

  8. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nitrogen-Alloyed High-Mn Austenitic Hot Work Die Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the requirements for mechanical properties and service life above 650 °C, a high-Mn austenitic hot work die steel, instead of traditional martensitic hot work die steel such as H13, was developed in the present study. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the newly developed work die steel was studied. The results show that the microstructure of the high-Mn as-cast electroslag remelting (ESR ingot is composed of γ-Fe, V(C,N, and Mo2C. V(C,N is an irregular multilateral strip or slice shape with severe angles. Most eutectic Mo2C carbides are lamellar fish-skeleton-like, except for a few that are rod-shaped. With increasing solid solution time and temperature, the increased hardness caused by solid solution strengthening exceeds the effect of decreased hardness caused by grain size growth, but this trend is reversed later. As a result, the hardness of specimens after various solid solution heat treatments increases first and then decreases. The optimal combination of hardness and austenitic grain size can be obtained by soaking for 2 h at 1170 °C. The maximum Rockwell hardness (HRC is 47.24 HRC, and the corresponding austenite average grain size is 58.4 μm. When the solid solution time is 3 h at 1230 °C, bimodality presented in the histogram of the austenite grain size as a result of further progress in secondary recrystallization. Compared with the single-stage aging, the maximum impact energy of the specimen after two-stage aging heat treatment was reached at 16.2 J and increased by 29.6%, while the hardness decreased by 1–2 HRC. After two-stage aging heat treatment, the hardness of steel reached the requirements of superior grade H13, and the maximum impact energy was 19.6% higher than that of superior grade H13, as specified in NADCA#207-2003.

  9. Optimization strategy in end milling process for high speed machining of hardened die/mold steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An optimization strategy for high speed machining of hardened die/mold steel based on machining feature analysis was studied. It is a further extension of the previously presented study on the thermal mechanism of end milling and constant cutting force control. An objective function concerning machining cost and associated optimization algorithm based on machining time and cutting length calculation was proposed. Constraints to satisfy specific machining strategies when high speed machining the hardened die/mold steel, trochoid tool path pattern in slot end milling to avoid over-heat and feed rate adaptation to avoid over-load, were also discussed.As a case study, the tool selection problem when machining a die part with multiple machining features was investigated.

  10. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brucher, H.G. [Doehler-Jarvis, Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  11. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  12. Effect of Die and Punch Radius on Springback of Stainless Steel Sheet Metal in the Air V-Die Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Buang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the die and punch radii on the springback in the air V-die free bending process of stainless steel sheet metal. The experiment was performed on sheet metal using various die and punch radius values while their springback behavior was observed. The design of experiment approach was used in these experiments using the full factorial and analysis of variance methods to identify whether or not the die and punch radii are significant input parameters in predicting springback. From the statistical analysis, it shows that the die and punch radius parameters are significant factors contributing to the springback effect in the V-die bending of stainless steel sheet metal at the significance level of 0.05 because their p-value is less than 0.05. The results from the experiments showed that springback is affected by the die and punch radius values in the air V-bending experiments. From this analysis, it can be concluded that the springback values can be decreased by decreasing the values of the die and punch radii. In the air V-die bending process, the punch radius is the most important factor to be considered. The experimental method agreed well with the design of experiment results.

  13. Tribological behavior of CrN-coated Cr-Mo-V steels used as die materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Gülşah Aktaş; Polat, Şeyda; Atapek, Ş. Hakan

    2017-12-01

    DIN 1.2343 and 1.2367 steels are commonly used as die materials in aluminum extrusion, and single/duplex/multi-coatings enhance their surface properties. The design of an appropriate substrate/coating system is important for improving the tribological performance of these steels under service conditions because the load-carrying capacity of the system can be increased by decreasing the plastic deformation of the substrate. In this study, the tribological behavior of CrN-coated Cr-Mo-V steels (DIN 1.2343, 1.2367, and 1.2999 grades) was investigated using different setups and tribological pairs at room and elevated temperatures. The aim of this study was to reveal the wear resistance of a suggested system (1.2999/CrN) not yet studied and to understand both the wear and the failure characteristics of coated systems. The results showed that (i) among the steels studied, the DIN 1.2999 grade steel exhibited the lowest friction coefficient because it had the highest load-carrying capacity as a result of secondary hardening at elevated temperatures; (ii) at room temperature, both abrasive tracks and adhesive layers were observed on the worn surfaces; and (iii) a combination of chemical reactions and progressive oxidation caused aluminum adhesion on the worn surface, and the detachment of droplets and microcracking were the characteristic damage mechanisms at high temperatures.

  14. Medium carbon vanadium steels for closed die forging; Acos de medio carbono microligados ao vanadio para forjaria em matriz fechada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1993-12-31

    This work analyses the medium carbon micro alloyed vanadium potential for closed die forged production. The steels reach the mechanical resistance requests during cooling after forging, eliminating the subsequent thermal treatment. Those steels also present good fatigue resistance and machinability. The industrial scale experiments are also reported 16 refs., 21 figs.

  15. INVESTIGATION BY NUMERICAL MODELING OF INFLUENCE OF THE SHAPE OF DEFORMING ZONE OF DIE AT WIRE DRAWING OF STEEL HIGH-CARBON WIRE ON TEMPERATURE AND MODE OF DEFORMATION IN WIRE AND DIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. L. Bobarikin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation by numerical modeling of influence of the form of deforming zone of die at drawing of steel highcarbon wire on temperature and strained-deformed state in wire and die is carried out.

  16. STUDY OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF SHAPE DEFORMING ZONE OF DIES, DURING DRAWING HIGH CARBON STEEL WIRE TO THE TEMPERATURE AND THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE IN THE WIRE AND DIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Bobarikin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation by numerical modeling of influence of the form of deforming zone of die at drawing of steel high- carbon wire on temperature and strained-deformed state in wire and die is carried out.

  17. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical elements at present. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness of 1400 Hv within its thickness of 40 μm without any formation of nitrides after 14.4 ks plasma nitriding at 693 K. This nitrogen solid-solution treated stainless steel had thermal resistivity even at the mold-stamping conditions up to 900 K.

  18. Optimization of Processing Parameters in ECM of Die Tool Steel Using Nanofluid by Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of spikes prevents achievement of the better material removal rate (MRR and surface finish while using plain NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte in electrochemical machining (ECM of die tool steel. Hence this research work attempts to minimize the formation of spikes in the selected workpiece of high carbon high chromium die tool steel using copper nanoparticles suspended in NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte, that is, nanofluid. The selected influencing parameters are applied voltage and electrolyte discharge rate with three levels and tool feed rate with four levels. Thirty-six experiments were designed using Design Expert 7.0 software and optimization was done using multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA. This tool identified the best possible combination for achieving the better MRR and surface roughness. The results reveal that voltage of 18 V, tool feed rate of 0.54 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 12 lit/min would be the optimum values in ECM of HCHCr die tool steel. For checking the optimality obtained from the MOGA in MATLAB software, the maximum MRR of 375.78277 mm3/min and respective surface roughness Ra of 2.339779 μm were predicted at applied voltage of 17.688986 V, tool feed rate of 0.5399705 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 11.998816 lit/min. Confirmatory tests showed that the actual performance at the optimum conditions was 361.214 mm3/min and 2.41 μm; the deviation from the predicted performance is less than 4% which proves the composite desirability of the developed models.

  19. Optimization of Processing Parameters in ECM of Die Tool Steel Using Nanofluid by Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyamoorthy, V; Sekar, T; Elango, N

    2015-01-01

    Formation of spikes prevents achievement of the better material removal rate (MRR) and surface finish while using plain NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte in electrochemical machining (ECM) of die tool steel. Hence this research work attempts to minimize the formation of spikes in the selected workpiece of high carbon high chromium die tool steel using copper nanoparticles suspended in NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte, that is, nanofluid. The selected influencing parameters are applied voltage and electrolyte discharge rate with three levels and tool feed rate with four levels. Thirty-six experiments were designed using Design Expert 7.0 software and optimization was done using multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA). This tool identified the best possible combination for achieving the better MRR and surface roughness. The results reveal that voltage of 18 V, tool feed rate of 0.54 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 12 lit/min would be the optimum values in ECM of HCHCr die tool steel. For checking the optimality obtained from the MOGA in MATLAB software, the maximum MRR of 375.78277 mm(3)/min and respective surface roughness Ra of 2.339779 μm were predicted at applied voltage of 17.688986 V, tool feed rate of 0.5399705 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 11.998816 lit/min. Confirmatory tests showed that the actual performance at the optimum conditions was 361.214 mm(3)/min and 2.41 μm; the deviation from the predicted performance is less than 4% which proves the composite desirability of the developed models.

  20. Finite element modelling of chain-die forming for ultra-high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majji, Raju; Xiang, Yang; Ding, Scott; Yang, Chunhui

    2017-10-01

    There has been a high demand for weight reduction in automotive vehicles while maintaining passenger safety. A potential steel material to achieve this is Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS). As a high strength material, it is difficult to be formed with desired profiles using traditional sheet metal forming processes such as Cold Roll Forming. To overcome this problem, a potentially alternative solution is Chain-die Forming (CDF), recently developed. The basic principal of the CDF is to fully combine roll forming and bending processes. The main advantage of this process is the elongated deformation length that significantly increases effective roll radius. This study focuses on identifying issues with the CDF by using CAD modelling, Motion Analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to devise solutions and construct a more reliable process in an optimal design sense. Some attempts on finite element modelling and simulation of the CDF were conducted using relatively simple models in literature and the research was still not sufficient enough for optimal design of a typical CDF for UHSS. Therefore two numerical models of Chain-die Forming process are developed in this study, including a) one having a set of rolls similar to roll forming but with a large radius, i.e., 20 meters; and b) the other one with dies and punch segments similar to a typical CDF machine. As a case study, to form a 60° channel with single pass was conducted using these two devised models for a comparison. The obtained numerical results clearly show the CDF could generate less residual stress, low strain and small springback of a single pass for the 60° UHSS channel. The design analysis procedure proposed in this study could greatly help the mechanical designers to devise a cost-effective and reliable CDF process for forming UHSS.

  1. Fatigue life analysis of die forged railway axle manufactured from C30 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Trško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the manufacturing process, different parts of one structural component can have different fatigue properties. In this study, the fatigue life of a railway axle manufactured from C30 steel by die forging is evaluated in the part of the axle bolster and axle body. According to the fatigue test results obtained at high frequency tension - compression fatigue tests (f ≈ 20 kHz, R = -1, T = 20 ± 5 °C, due to the higher level of work hardening of the axle bolster, the fatigue strength of material in this part is significantly higher than in the axle body. Different fatigue strength of these parts were observed despite the fact, that results of static tensile tests did not proved any important differences in the ultimate tensile strength, yield point and elongation. 

  2. The influence of Ti, N and Ti + N implantation on phase change, microstructure, growth of metallic compounds and correlated effects in hardness and wear resistance in H13 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tonghe; Ji Chengzhou; Shen Jinghua; Chen Ju (Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal Univ. (China)); Tan Fujin (Dept. of Physics, Jinan Univ., Guangzhou (China)); Gao Yuzun (General Research Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metal, Beijing (China))

    1992-12-01

    The lattice damage, small intermetallic compound (Fe[sub 2]Ti), metallic compound (TiN, Fe[sub 2]N) formation and supersaturated solutions of Ti or Ti + N-ion implanted into steel with various ion doses and energies were measured by TEM and X-ray diffraction formation and growth of the metallic compound has found to depend on ion dose and energy. Change of phases and microstructure were particularly enhanced with high dose and high energy. Metal hardening also increases with increasing ion dose, energy and the amount and size of metallic compounds. Specimens implanted at target temperature ranging from 300degC to 400degC (HT) or implanted at room temperature (RT) and then annealed at temperature ranging from 300 to 500degC, showed significant increase in hardness. The wear resistance of high energy and high dose implanted steel is better than that of low energy and lower dose implantation. The wear rate decreases 2-2.6 times for low temperature implantation, 10.4 times for HT implantation and high energy implantation. The Fe[sub 2]Ti and TiC precipitates, phase and microstructural changes in the implanted layer are responsible for such a drastic reduction in wear. (orig.).

  3. Carbides Evolution and Tensile Property of 4Cr5MoSiV1 Die Steel with Rare Earth Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanghang Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of 4Cr5MoSiV1 die steel suggest that under appropriate conditions, additions of rare earth (RE can enhance tensile property. This improvement is apparently due to the more uniform distribution of carbides and the enhancement of precipitation strengthening after RE additions. In this present work, the effect of the RE addition on the carbides evolution and tensile property of 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel with various RE contents (0, 0.018, 0.048 and 0.15 wt % were systematically investigated. The two-dimensional detection techniques such as optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to investigate the carbides evolution of as-cast, annealed and tempered with RE addition. The results indicated that the carbides in 4Cr5MoSiV1 steels were modified by adding the suitable amount of RE. The eutectic structure and coarse eutectic carbides were all refining and the morphology of the annealed carbides initiated change from strip shape to ellipsoidal shape compared with the unmodified test steel (0RE. In addition, the amount of the tempered M8C7 carbides increased initially and then decreased with the alteration of RE addition from 0.018 to 0.15 wt %. Notably, the tensile test indicated that the average value of ultimate tensile strength (UTS and elongation rate of 0.048RE steel increased slightly to 1474 MPa and 15%, higher than the 1452 MPa and 12% for the unmodified test steel (0RE, respectively. Such an addition of RE (0.048 wt % would have a significant effect on the carbides evolution of as-cast, annealed and tempered and resulting in the tensile property of 4Cr5MoSiV1 die steel.

  4. An Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm on Parametric Optimization of WEDM of Die-Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, V.; Suresh Babu, A.; Venkatasamy, R.; Senthil Kumar, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study employed Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) algorithm to optimize the machining parameters that lead to a maximum Material Removal Rate (MRR), minimum surface roughness and minimum kerf width values for Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) of AISI D3 die-steel. Four machining parameters that are optimized using APSO algorithm include Pulse on-time, Pulse off-time, Gap voltage, Wire feed. The machining parameters are evaluated by Taguchi's L9 Orthogonal Array (OA). Experiments are conducted on a CNC WEDM and output responses such as material removal rate, surface roughness and kerf width are determined. The empirical relationship between control factors and output responses are established by using linear regression models using Minitab software. Finally, APSO algorithm, a nature inspired metaheuristic technique, is used to optimize the WEDM machining parameters for higher material removal rate and lower kerf width with surface roughness as constraint. The confirmation experiments carried out with the optimum conditions show that the proposed algorithm was found to be potential in finding numerous optimal input machining parameters which can fulfill wide requirements of a process engineer working in WEDM industry.

  5. Formability of dual-phase steels in deep drawing of rectangular parts: Influence of blank thickness and die radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana María Camacho; Regueras, José María Gutiérrez

    2017-10-01

    The new goals of automotive industry related with environment concerns, the reduction of fuel emissions and the security requirements have driven up to new designs which main objective is reducing weight. It can be achieved through new materials such as nano-structured materials, fibre-reinforced composites or steels with higher strength, among others. Into the last group, the Advance High Strength Steels (AHSS) and particularly, dual-phase steels are in a predominant situation. However, despite of their special characteristics, they present issues related to their manufacturability such as springback, splits and cracks, among others. This work is focused on the deep drawing processof rectangular shapes, a very usual forming operation that allows manufacturing several automotive parts like oil pans, cases, etc. Two of the main parameters in this process which affect directly to the characteristics of final product are blank thickness (t) and die radius (Rd). Influence of t and Rd on the formability of dual-phase steels has been analysed considering values typically used in industrial manufacturing for a wide range of dual-phase steels using finite element modelling and simulation; concretely, the influence of these parameters in the percentage of thickness reduction pt(%), a quite important value for manufactured parts by deep drawing operations, which affects to its integrity and its service behaviour. Modified Morh Coulomb criteria (MMC) has been used in order to obtain Fracture Forming Limit Diagrams (FFLD) which take into account an important failure mode in dual-phase steels: shear fracture. Finally, a relation between thickness reduction percentage and studied parameters has been established fordual-phase steels, obtaining a collection of equations based on Design of Experiments (D.O.E) technique, which can be useful in order to predict approximate results.

  6. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.

  7. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  8. Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of AISI D2 Die Steel Machined Using Electrical Discharge Surface Grinding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rajesh; Kumar, Harmesh; Singh, Shankar

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to establish optimum machining conditions for EDSG of AISI D2 die steel through an experimental investigation using Taguchi Methodology. To achieve combined grinding and electrical discharge machining, metal matrix composite electrodes (Cu-SiCp) were processed through powder metallurgy route. A rotary spindle attachment was developed to perform the EDSG experimental runs on EDM machine. Relationships were developed between various input parameters such as peak current, speed, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, abrasive particle size, and abrasive particle concentration, and output characteristics such as material removal rate and surface roughness. The optimized parameters were further validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE PROPERTIES IN MANGANESE POWDER MIXED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF OHNS AND D2 DIE STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrical discharge machining (EDM process is used for generating accurate internal profiles in hardened materials. An powder additive in the hydrocarbon dielectric affects the energy distribution and sparking efficiency, and consequently the surface finish and micro-hardness. In this paper the Taguchi approach has been used to optimize and compare the surface properties in manganese powder-mixed EDM of oil-hardening non-shrinkable (OHNS and high-carbon high-chromium (D2 die steels. The results of the study show an improvement of 73% and 71.6% in the micro-hardness of OHNS and D2 die steels, respectively. The machining parameters for the best value of micro-hardness are found to be the same for both work materials. A scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of the machined surfaces show a transfer of manganese and carbon from the plasma channel in the form of manganese carbide. The chemical composition of the machined surface has been further checked on an optical emission spectrometer to verify and quantify the results.

  10. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  11. Forging method for consolidating loose structure in steel ingot with v shape dies. V ji gata kanashiki ni yoru kokon no zagu acchaku tanzoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, K.; Noguchi, H. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, K. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    A forging method effective for consolidating loose structure in steel ingot is proposed to measure distribution of deformation of round billets in forging with 135{degree} dies, using a model sample made by piling up extremely thin plasticine sheets and a moire technique. From the observation of moire fringes at the time of forging plane deformation, an octagonal forging method with billet rotation of 0-90-135-225{degree} is effective to consolidate the loose structure in the wide area of steel ingot axial region. Moreover, according to the axial distribution of moire stripes of three-dimensional deformation materials with axial direction elongation, it is necessary to axially shift the ingot fittingly in the cogging process. As a result of the cogging experiment using dummy steel ingot plasticine, a {1/4} full die-width shifting method is more effective than a full die-width shifting method in terms of strain distribution in the axial region. Furthermore, it is confirmed that in the forging of the actual steel ingot, loose structure of the steel ingot can be consolidated by the combined use of the octagonal forging method and the {1/4} full die-width shifting method. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Multi-field coupling finite element analysis for determining the influence of temperature field on die service life during precision-forming process of steel synchronizer ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun; Luo, Shan-Ming; Li, Feng-Qiang; Xu, Chen-Bing [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China)

    2017-07-15

    Failure analysis shows that increased die temperature caused by severe plastic deformation of material and heat conduction between hot billet and cavity significantly affects the distortion of gear cavity in steel synchronizer ring forging process. The forging process of steel synchronizer ring and die temperature distribution under different forging conditions are analyzed through finite element method. Simulation results show that severe plastic deformation occurs in the gear cavity. The improvement of lubrication condition results in decreased die temperature. When the initial billet temperature is high, the die temperature is also high. Increasing forging speed in a certain range facilitates the die temperature decrease. The distribution of die temperature in synthetic forming technology is more reasonable than that of one step forging. The synthetic forming technology is adopted in production to reduce the effects of severe plastic deformation caused by die temperature. The ejection mechanism and control system of the double disc friction press are improved to reduce the contact time between the hot billet and cavity. Experimental results show that synthetic forming technology is reasonable, and that the die service life is prolonged.

  13. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    summarizes properties of H13 tool steel dies.

  14. Effects of the ageing of microporous heat-insulating materials on temperature control in steel casting ladles; Auswirkungen der Alterung von mikroporoesen Waermedaemmstoffen auf die Temperaturfuehrung von Stahlgiesspfannen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, A.; Felsch, T.; Hoever, P. [Thyssen Krupp Stahl AG, Dortmund (Germany); Bauer, W. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Huettentechnik und Giessereitechnik; Feja, D. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie

    1998-12-15

    With steel casting ladles developing from pure transfer vessels into metallurgical reactors, the exact control of the melt temperature in the ladles has become co-decisive for the production of high-grade quality steel. A thermal model used for such temperature control was to undergo verification by comparing the shell temperature calculated and measured for high-alumina- and basic-lined steel casting ladles. The shell temperature calculated in the thermal model for the steel casting ladles during circulation was verified by infrared thermography. While there is a good concurrence for high-alumina-lined steel casting ladles, with maximum variations of 15 K emerging, appreciable variations as great as some 45 K were found for basic-lined ladles. The cause of these variations lies in material changes in the form of shrinkage, carbon deposits and single particle growth of the microporous panels utilised for heat insulation. This results in increased thermal conductivity. The variations are reduced to a maximum of 8 K, also for basic-lined ladles, with corrected material data. Given the progressive ageing of the insulating panels in the permanent safety lining, it appears advisable to set a maximum operating time as a function of the conditions prevailing in the steel plant in each case so as to avoid excessive heat losses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Entwicklung der Stahlgiesspfanne vom reinen Transportgefaess zum metallurgischen Reaktor wurde die exakte Temperaturfuehrung der Schmelze in der Pfanne mitentscheidend fuer die Erzeugung qualitativ hochwertigen Stahls. Ein zur Temperaturfuehrung eingesetztes waermetechnisches Modell sollte durch Vergleich von berechneter und gemessener Manteltemperatur von aluminareich und basisch zugestellten Stahlgiesspfannen ueberprueft werden. Die im waermetechnischen Modell berechnete Manteltemperatur der Stahlgiesspfannen waehrend des Umlaufs wurde mit Infrarotthermografie ueberprueft. Waehrend bei aluminareich zugestellten

  15. Surface quality analysis of die steels in powder-mixed electrical discharge machining using titan powder in fine machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banh Tien Long

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of surface molds after electrical discharge machining is still being considered by many researchers. Powder-mixed dielectric in electrical discharge machining showed that it is one of the processing methods with high efficiency. This article reports on the results of surface quality of mold steels after powder-mixed electrical discharge machining using titanium powder in fine machining. The process parameters such as electrode material, workpiece material, electrode polarity, pulse on-time, pulse off-time, current, and titanium powder concentration were considered in the research. These materials are most commonly used with die-sinking electrical discharge machining in the manufacture of molds and has been selected as the subject of research: workpiece materials were SKD61, SKT4, and SKD11 mold steels, and electrode materials were copper and graphite. Taguchi’s method is used to design experiments. The influence of the parameters on surface roughness was evaluated through the average value and ratio (S/N. Results showed that the parameters such as electrical current, electrode material, pulse on-time, electrode polarity, and interaction between the electrode materials with concentration powder mostly influence surface roughness and surface roughness at optimal parameters SRopt = 1.73 ± 0.39 µm. Analysis of the surface layer after powder-mixed electrical discharge machining using titanium powder in optimal conditions has shown that the white layer with more uniform thickness and increased hardness (≈861.0 HV, and amount and size of microscopic cracks, is reduced. This significantly leads to the increase in the quality of the surface layer.

  16. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  17. Spray-formed tooling for injection molding and die casting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. M. McHugh; B. R. Wickham

    2000-06-26

    Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The ability of the sprayed deposit to capture features of the tool pattern eliminates costly machining operations in conventional mold making and reduces turnaround time. Moreover, rapid solidification suppresses carbide precipitation and growth, allowing many ferritic tool steels to be artificially aged, an alternative to conventional heat treatment that offers unique benefits. Material properties and microstructure transformation during heat treatment of spray-formed H13 tool steel are described.

  18. Spray-formed Tooling for Injection Molding and Die Casting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Hugh, Kevin Matthew

    2000-06-01

    Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) ToolingTM is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The ability of the sprayed deposit to capture features of the tool pattern eliminates costly machining operations in conventional mold making and reduces turnaround time. Moreover, rapid solidification suppresses carbide precipitation and growth, allowing many ferritic tool steels to be artificially aged, an alternative to conventional heat treatment that offers unique benefits. Material properties and microstructure transformation during heat treatment of spray-formed H13 tool steel are described.

  19. Effects of initial hardness on heat crack formation of die steel for hot working; Netsukan kakoyo kanagatako no heat crack keisei ni oyobosu shoki katasa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, N.; Tanaka, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-09-25

    An investigation was made on the effects of initial hardness on heat crack formation in die steel during a diecasting process. Reduction in the life of a diecast die is caused by heat crack at more than 70% attributable to thermal fatigue as a result of the quick heating and cooling cycles. Conventional simplified testing methods do not make necessarily clear their relation with actual operations. Modeling on the diecasting process, a test piece with a notch is immersed directly into Al alloy melt and quenched in water as a thermal fatigue test to discuss the relationship between heat cracks in the die steel SKD61 and the initial hardness. High-temperature tensile strength of the SKD61 largely affects crack formation. The tensile strength increases linearly at 573 K or lower as the hardness increases. However, at 673 K or higher, the tensile strength shows a nearly proportional relationship up to HRC50 with increasing hardness, but decreases at higher hardness with HRC50 as a maximum value. Raising the initial hardness up to near HRC50 presents effect in suppressing generation and propagation of heat cracks. However, raising it further will result in an inverse effect. 11 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  1. An ALMA Survey of DCN/H13CN and DCO+/H13CO+ in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Furuya, Kenji; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Loomis, Ryan A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-02-01

    The deuterium enrichment of molecules is sensitive to their formation environment. Constraining patterns of deuterium chemistry in protoplanetary disks is therefore useful for probing how material is inherited or reprocessed throughout the stages of star and planet formation. We present ALMA observations at ˜0.″6 resolution of DCO+, H13CO+, DCN, and H13CN in the full disks around T Tauri stars AS 209 and IM Lup, in the transition disks around T Tauri stars V4046 Sgr and LkCa 15, and in the full disks around Herbig Ae stars MWC 480 and HD 163296. We also present ALMA observations of HCN in the IM Lup disk. DCN, DCO+, and H13CO+ are detected in all disks, and H13CN in all but the IM Lup disk. We find efficient deuterium fractionation for the sample, with estimates of disk-averaged DCO+/HCO+ and DCN/HCN abundance ratios ranging from ˜0.02-0.06 and ˜0.005-0.08, respectively, which is comparable to values reported for other interstellar environments. The relative distributions of DCN and DCO+ vary between disks, suggesting that multiple formation pathways may be needed to explain the diverse emission morphologies. In addition, gaps and rings observed in both H13CO+ and DCO+ emission provide new evidence that DCO+ bears a complex relationship with the location of the midplane CO snowline.

  2. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University

    2014-06-13

    In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Tool steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance – but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis. H13 was

  3. Effect of post-welding heat treatment on wear resistance of cast-steel die with surfacing layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wujiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance capability of die surfacing layer under different Post-Welding Heat Treatments (PWHT was analysed by Finite Element (FE simulation and experiments. Taking hot forging process of a crankshaft as an example, a wear model of the hot forging die coated with surfacing layer was established using FE software DEFORM-3D. The simulation results indicated that the wear resistance capability of the die surfacing layer is optimal when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 °C and 4 h respectively. To verify the wear computational results, 16 groups of PWHT orthogonal wear tests were performed at a temperature of 400 °C, which is a similar temperature to that occurs in an actual hot forging die. The wear-test result showed a good agreement with the FE simulation. SEM observation of the wear debris on 16 specimens showed that oxidative wear is dominant when the temperature was in 400 °C. Furthermore, when tempering temperature and holding time were 550 °C and 4 h respectively, the carbide alloy dispersively distributes in the metallographic structure, which helps to improve the wear resistance of the surfacing layer.

  4. Effect of post weld heat treatment on wear resistance of hot forging cast steel die coated with surfacing layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wujiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance capability of die surfacing layer under different Post Weld Heat Treatments (PWHT was analysed by Finite Element Method (FEM simulation and experiments. Taking the hot forging process of crankshaft as example, a wear model of hot forging die coated with surfacing layer was established by the software DEFORM-3D. The simulation results indicate that the wear resistance capability of the die surfacing layer is optimal when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 ∘C and 4h respectively. To verify the wear calculation result, 16 groups of different PWHT orthogonal wear tests were performed under atmospheric condition at 400 ∘C. The wear test result shows a good agreement with the FEM simulation result. SEM observation of the wear debris shows that oxidative wear plays a dominant role in 400 ∘C among 16 specimens. Furthermore, when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 ∘C and 4h respectively, the alloy carbide dispersively distributes in the metallographic structure, which can improve the wear resistance of the surfacing.

  5. Harmony search optimization in dimensional accuracy of die sinking EDM process using SS316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deris, A. M.; Zain, A. M.; Sallehuddin, R.; Sharif, S.

    2017-09-01

    Electric discharge machine (EDM) is one of the widely used nonconventional machining processes for hard and difficult to machine materials. Due to the large number of machining parameters in EDM and its complicated structural, the selection of the optimal solution of machining parameters for obtaining minimum machining performance is remain as a challenging task to the researchers. This paper proposed experimental investigation and optimization of machining parameters for EDM process on stainless steel 316L work piece using Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. The mathematical model was developed based on regression approach with four input parameters which are pulse on time, peak current, servo voltage and servo speed to the output response which is dimensional accuracy (DA). The optimal result of HS approach was compared with regression analysis and it was found HS gave better result y giving the most minimum DA value compared with regression approach.

  6. Effect of changing polarity of graphite tool/ Hadfield steel workpiece couple on machining performances in die sinking EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özerkan Haci Bekir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, machining performance ouput parameters such as machined surface roughness (SR, material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR, were experimentally examined and analyzed with the diversifying and changing machining parameters in (EDM. The processing parameters (input par. of this research are stated as tool material, peak current (I, pulse duration (ton and pulse interval (toff. The experimental machinings were put into practice by using Hadfield steel workpiece (prismatic and cylindrical graphite electrodes with kerosene dielectric at different machining current, polarity and pulse time settings. The experiments have shown that the type of tool material, polarity (direct polarity forms higher MRR, SR and TWR, current (high current lowers TWR and enhances MRR, TWR and pulse on time (ton=48□s is critical threshold value for MRR and TWR were influential on machining performance in electrical discharge machining.

  7. Emission factors of the iron and steel sector for the emission reporting; Emissionsfaktoren zur Eisen- und Stahlindustrie fuer die Emissionsberichterstattung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensmann, Michael; Haardt, Sebastian; Ebert, Dominik [Betriebsforschungsinstitut VDEh-Institut fuer Angewandte Forschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The German Umweltbundesamt (UBA) records emission factors of important groups of emitters of the iron- and steelmaking industry in a central database named ''Zentrales System Emissionen'' (ZSE) since 1990. This data is being used for calculations of emission inventories. The main purposes are the generation of forecasts, calculating emissions of other plants and the appraisal of potential measures for reduction of pollution. This makes it possible to identify and appraise future problems and measures. Because of steadily increasing requirements to data quality and quality assurance, it became necessary to update the ZSE with characteristical emission data in order to give a representative view of relevant stages in the iron- and steelmaking industry with respect to emissions. In 2008, the VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut (BFI) was assigned to determine up-to-date emission factors for the following relevant stages in the iron- and steelmaking industry: - sintering plant - coking plant - blast furnace - steel making (differentiated between oxygen and electric steel making) - production of rolled steel Due to a wide diversity of data quality, a consecutive project to determine the corresponding uncertainty of the emission factors was integrated into the ongoing project. This is necessary to create reliable forecasts of emissions and to meet national and international duties of reporting. The project was supported by 18 companies of the German iron- and steelmaking industry. A total of 40 relevant sources of emissions were identified within the five stages of steelmaking and taken into consideration. The emission data for documenting organic and inorganic components of harmful gas, heavy metals and air borne dusts in the ZSE was taken from the reports of emissions 2008 of the supporting companies and made up for a total of 63 plants. Due to a wide variety of data quality the emissions of point sources and diffuse sources are treated separately. While

  8. Statistical Approach to Optimize the Process Parameters of HAZ of Tool Steel EN X32CrMoV12-28 after Die-Sinking EDM with SF-Cu Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’uboslav Straka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of the experimental research of the heat affected zone (HAZ of an eroded surface after die-sinking electrical discharge machining (EDM. The research was carried out on chrome-molybdenum-vanadium alloyed tool steel EN X32CrMoV12-28 (W.-Nr. 1.2365 after die-sinking EDM with a SF-Cu electrode. The aim of the experimental measurements was to contribute to the database of knowledge that characterizes the significant impact of the main technological and process parameters on the eroded surface properties during die-sinking EDM. The quality of the eroded surface was assessed from the viewpoint of surface roughness, microhardness variation, and the total HAZ depth of the thin sub-surface layer adjacent to the eroded surface. On the basis of measurement results, mathematical models were established by statistical methods. These models can be applied for computer simulation and prediction of the resultant quality of the machined surface after die-sinking EDM. The results achieved by simulation were compared with the results of experimental measurements and high correlation indexes between the predicted and real values were achieved. Suggested mathematical models can be also applied for the determination of the optimal combination of significant technological parameters in order to minimize microhardness and total HAZ depth variations of tool steel EN X32CrMoV12-28 after die-sinking EDM with a SF-Cu electrode.

  9. 3D thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work a three dimensional (3D) finite element model of laser surface glazing (LSG) process has been developed. The purpose of the 3D thermal model of LSG was to achieve maximum accuracy towards the predicted outcome for optimizing the process. A cylindrical geometry of 10mm diameter and 1mm length was used in ANSYS 15 software. Temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and cooling rates were analysed from the thermal model. Parametric study was carried out varying the laser power from 200W-300W with constant beam diameter and residence time which were 0.2mm and 0.15ms respectively. The maximum surface temperature 2554°K was obtained for power 300W and minimum surface temperature 1668°K for power 200W. Heating and cooling rates increased with increasing laser power. The depth of the laser modified zone attained for 300W power was 37.5µm and for 200W power was 30µm. No molten zone was observed at 200W power. Maximum surface temperatures obtained from 3D model increased 4% than 2D model presented in author's previous work. In order to verify simulation results an analytical solution of temperature distribution for laser surface modification was used. The surface temperature after heating was calculated for similar laser parameters which is 1689°K. The difference in maximum surface temperature is around 20.7°K between analytical and numerical analysis of LSG for power 200W.

  10. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  11. COMPOSITION OF DIE STEEL 5HVMFS WITH INCREASED WEAR RESISTANCE AND THE SCHEME OF ITS SMELTING WITH USE OF UNDIVIDED SCRAP OF STEELS R6M5 AND 45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological scheme of the new tool steel 5HVMFS smelting by means of electroslag casting method with the use of different combinations of steel scrap of R6M5 and CH5 steels and dressing the chemical composition directly in the bowl and also filling into metal bowl is developed.

  12. Die instelling van die doop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Venter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Die eerste plek in die evangeliebeskrywings waar daar van die doop as ’n opdrag van Jesus Christus gepraat word en waar die betekenis die duidelikste uitkristalliseer, staan in Matteus 28 : 16 - 20. Heilshistories gesien, is dit die begin van kerklike inlywing van die wat gehoor het hoedat Jesus sy koninkryk proklameer, die evangelie aanvaar en tot bekering kom. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word hierdie gedeelte ondersoek om te sien hoe die instelling geskied het, wat die plek en betekenis van die Christelike doop is.

  13. Die eenheid van die universiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Coetzee

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit lyk na ’n teenstrydigheid otn te besin oor die eenheid van ’n universiteit. Die naam „universiteit” is tog afgelei van die Latynse woord „universitas”, wat in die amptelike stukke van die meeste Europese lande vandag nog gebruik word. Hierdie woord beteken „die geheel” en dit veronderstel natuurlik dadelik eenheid.

  14. Die kerkregtelike posisie van die ouderling en diaken in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) en die Diakonale Dienskomitees (DDK). Die ADR en die RDR moet slegs as komplimentêr gesien word ten opsigte van die gemeentelike barmhartigheid, omdat die swaartepunt van die barmhartigheid steeds in die gemeente, waar die kerk ...

  15. Interfacial heat transfer behavior at metal/die in finger-plated casting during high pressure die casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bo Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer at the metal-die interface has a great influence on the solidification process and casting structure. As thin-wall components are extensively produced by high pressure die casting process (HPDC, the B390 alloy finger-plate casting was cast against an H13 steel die on a cold-chamber HPDC machine. The interfacial heat transfer behavior at different positions of the die was carefully studied using an inverse approach based on the temperature measurements inside the die. Furthermore, the filling process and the solidification rate in different finger-plates were also given to explain the distribution of interfacial heat flux (q and interfacial heat transfer coefficient (h. Measurement results at the side of sprue indicates that qmax and hmax could reach 9.2 MW昺-2 and 64.3 kW昺-2昁-1, respectively. The simulation of melt flow in the die reveals that the thinnest (T1 finger plate could accelerate the melt flow from 50 m晄-1 to 110 m晄-1. Due to this high velocity, the interfacial heat flux at the end of T1 could firstly reach a highest value 7.92 MW昺-2 among the ends of Tn (n=2,3,4,5. In addition, the qmax and hmax values of T2, T4 and T5 finger-plates increase with the increasing thickness of the finger plate. Finally, at the rapid decreasing stage of interfacial heat transfer coefficient (h, the decreasing rate of h has an exponential relationship with the increasing rate of solid fraction (f.

  16. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  17. DIE KLOOF TUSSEN ROME EN DIE PROTESTANTISME Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ryke leër van die belyders noem U die tempel van die heiligste Drie vuldigheid. Die hele hemelse hof eer U as Koningin. U is die Konin gin van die engele, die poort van die paradys. Leer tot die glorie van die hemel, troon van God, ark van versoening en genade. Kanaal van genade, Bruid en Moeder van die ewige Koning.

  18. Measurement of temperature inside die and estimation of interfacial heat transfer coefficient in squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-fan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an advanced near-net shape technology, squeeze casting is an excellent method for producing high integrity castings. Numerical simulation is a very effective method to optimize squeeze casting process, and the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is an important boundary condition in numerical simulation. Therefore, the study of the IHTC is of great significance. In the present study, experiments were conducted and a “plate shape” aluminum alloy casting was cast in H13 steel die. In order to obtain accurate temperature readings inside the die, a special temperature sensor units (TSU was designed. Six 1 mm wide and 1 mm deep grooves were machined in the sensor unit for the placement of the thermocouples whose tips were welded to the end wall. Each groove was machined to terminate at a particular distance (1, 3, and 6 mm from the front end of the sensor unit. Based on the temperature measurements inside the die, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC at the metal-die interface was determined by applying an inverse approach. The acquired data were processed by a low pass filtering method based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The feature of the IHTC at the metal-die interface was discussed.

  19. Effect of Process Parameters, Casting Thickness, and Alloys on the Interfacial Heat-Transfer Coefficient in the High-Pressure Die-Casting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Shou-Mei; Liu, Bai-Cheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John

    2008-12-01

    The heat transfer at the metal-die interface is believed to have great influence on the solidification process and cast structure of the high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) process. The present article focused on the effects of process parameters, casting thickness, and alloys on the metal-die interfacial heat-transfer coefficient (IHTC) in the HPDC process. Experiment was carried out on a cold-chamber die-casting machine with two casting alloys AM50 and ADC12. A special casting, namely, “step-shape” casting, was used and cast against a H13 steel die. The IHTC was determined using an inverse approach based on the temperature measurements inside the die. Results show that the IHTC is different at different steps and changes as the solidification of the casting proceeds. Process parameters only influence the IHTC in its peak value, and for both AM50 and ADC12 alloys, a greater fast shot velocity leads to a greater IHTC peak value at steps 1 and 2. The initial die surface temperature has a more prominent influence on the IHTC peak values at the thicker steps, especially step 5. Results also show that a closer contact between the casting and die could be achieved when the casting alloy is ADC12 instead of AM50, which consequently leads to a higher IHTC.

  20. die rol van die unieverdedigingsmag in die onderdrukking van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIE ROL VAN DIE UNIEVERDEDIGINGSMAG. IN DIE ONDERDRUKKING VAN DIE. NYWERHEIDSONLUSTE. VAN JANUARIE. 1914. Maj C.J. Jacobs. During the Railways and Mineworkers strike which commenced on the 18th of January 1914, the. Union Defence Force, enlarged by the Active Citizen Force and assisted ...

  1. LongerLife products increase the sustainability. Is corrosion protection ecologically useful for steel components?; LongerLife-Produkte erhoehen die Nachhaltigkeit. Ist Korrosionsschutz von Stahlbauteilen oekologisch sinnvoll?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogall, Armin Dietmar [Fachhochschule Dortmund (Germany). Fachbereich Architektur

    2011-07-01

    The installation of hot-dip galvanized construction units means sustainable acting. Since corrosion protection by hot-dip galvanizing can be particularly named sustainable due to its longevity, its environmental careful production, its recycling ability and life extension of steel components. Particularly the reduction of the maintenance cycles and utilization costs accompanying with a slightly higher initial investment makes the hot-dip galvanizing a sustainable system. Steel components which are treated with galvanization and colour coating, have a maintenance-free life span of more than 80 years.

  2. The induction furnace as a melting facility in steel production. Pt. 1. Features of induction furnaces used in steel production; Der Induktionsofen als Schmelzaggregat fuer die Stahlerzeugung. T. 1. Merkmale von Induktionsoefen in der Stahlerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabet, Mohamed; Doetsch, Erwin [ABP Induction Systems GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Global steel output has now been growing extremely rapidly for a prolonged time; in the past ten years alone, annual production has risen from 851 million t/a (in 2001) to 1417 million t/a (2010), as a result, primarily, of growth in China. Electric steel production using the electric arc furnace as the classical melting facility is around 45 % world-wide, with a rising trend (but excluding the special case of China, where oxygen-route steel holds a 90 % share of production). Following the development of induction technology and inverter outputs of over 40 MW for crucible furnaces with capacities of above 65 t, the induction furnace is now available as an alternative electrical melting installation for use in smaller mini steel mills. The benefits of this technology can be found in high feed-material efficiencies and low environmental and workplace burdens, in addition to the absence of electrode costs and the only modest demands made on the power-supply grid. These features of the induction furnace and their special significance for steel production are examined in Part 1 of this article. The second part of the article then focuses on examples of the use of induction furnaces in the steelmaking plant. (orig.)

  3. Memorandum op die beswaarskrif oor die diakenamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Die probleem in die beswaarskrif voor die Sinode 1973 spits hom toe op die vraag: wat is die objek van die diakonale diens? Is dit die hele gemeente of alleen ’n gedeelte van die gemeente nl. die armes? In verband hiermee moet ook gevra word: welke spesifieke opdrag is inherent aan die diakenamp?

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF THE CORE THERMO-MECHANICALLY HARDENED REINFORC-ING STEEL OF GRADE A700HW OF DIE-ROLLED SECTION NO 12, 14, 16 PRODUCTION ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENT OF FINNISH STANDARDS SFST1216 IN CONDITIONS OF SMALL-SECTION MILL 320 OF RUP «BMZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rusalenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology of the core thermomechanically hardened reinforcing steel of grade А700HW of die-rolled section No 12, 14, 16 production according to requirement of Finnish standards SFST1216 in conditions of small-section mill 320 of RUP «BMZ» is given.

  5. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diktaat van die regte rede' is en John Locke (1632-1704), wie se rasionalisering van die samelewing die beste daarin slaag om uitdrukking te gee aan die wese van die opkomende Britse liberalisme van die sewentiende eeu. 2^ 'n Samelewing waarin die ekonomie die bepalende posisie inneem. Die samelewing wat ...

  6. die verwerkliking van die geloof in die kerklike kategese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verbondskind 'n blye en aktiewe instemming met en aanvaarding van die beloftes en die eise van die genadeverbond. Verbondskinders moet daartoe kom om dit wat objektief in die verbond belowe is, persoonlik deelagtig te word; dit is die daad van heilstoe-eiening. Die verbond is die verseëling van die belofte van God.

  7. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  8. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  9. Die Kumulantenmethode

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird eine neue Methode zur Reduktion der Boltzmann-Gleichung auf ein System partieller Differentialgleichungen diskutiert. Nach einer kurzen Einführung in die kinetische Theorie einer Mischung inerter Gase wird ein Überblick in die aus der Literatur bekannten Momentenmethoden gegeben. Der anschließend vorgestellten Kumulantenmethode liegt die Annahme zugrunde, daß durch Stoßprozesse in einem Gas Korrelationen höherer Ordnung schneller abgebaut we...

  10. DIE PERSOON VAN VREDE IN DIE SENDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. KOMMUNIKASIE VAN DIE EVANGELIE EN. SENTRALE FIGURE IN DIE GEMEENSKAP. Die kommunikasie van die evangelie in gemeenskappe word dikwels bevorder of bemoeilik deur die persoon van die sendeling en die persone tot wie hy/sy hom rig. Dit is inderdaad so dat mense 'n belangrike rol kan speel in die ...

  11. The revised VGB Guidelines for condenser tubes from copper alloys, stainless steels and titanium; Die ueberarbeiteten Richtlinien fuer Kondensatorrohre aus Kupferlegierungen, nichtrostenden Staehlen und Titan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidich, Frank Udo [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Seipp, Hans-Guenter

    2011-07-01

    At the end of the 1970s application-related codes for material and semi-finished goods have been terminated in the German codes, therefore VGB took initiative to set-up the first revision of the guidelines for condenser tubes, especially suited for power plant application. Substantial transfer of requirements from the old German codes to the European Standards was a basic request and motivation for the revision. The guidelines for the three material families (copper alloys, stainless steels, titanium), that have been set-up almost independently, are now attuned to a maximum and strongly referenced to other relevant VGB guidelines, like the coming new guideline for cooling systems. The need of users for further explanations is satisfied by assignment to cited codes as well as by literature references including their abstracts, which is firstly used here. This might help users to decide more economically for literature relevant for a specific field of interest. Finally a table with likewise sorted materials opens and expands the possibilities for global sourcing of tubes. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization, and reactivity studies of 5-CF3SO3-B10H13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Emily R; Ewing, William C; Carroll, Patrick J; Sneddon, Larry G

    2014-05-19

    In contrast to previous reactions carried out in cyclopentane solvent at room temperature that produced 6-TfO-B10H13 (TfO = CF3SO3), the reaction of closo-B10H10(2-) with a large excess of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (bmimOTf) gave exclusively the previously unknown 5-TfO-B10H13 isomer. Experimental and computational studies demonstrated that the difference in the products of the two reactions is a result of 6-TfO-B10H13 isomerizing to 5-TfO-B10H13 above room temperature in bmimOTf solutions. Reactivity studies showed that 5-TfO-B10H13: (1) is deprotonated by reaction with 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene to form the 5-TfO-B10H12(1-) anion; (2) reacts with alcohols to produce 6-RO-B10H13 boryl ethers (R = Me and 4-CH3O-C6H4); (3) undergoes olefin-hydroboration reactions to form 5-TfO-6,9-R2-B10H11 derivatives; and (4) forms a 5-TfO-6,9-(Me2S)2-B10H11 adduct at its Lewis acidic 6,9-borons upon reaction with dimethylsulfide. The 5-TfO-6,9-(Me2S)2-B10H11 adduct was also found to undergo alkyne-insertion reactions to form a range of previously unreported triflate-substituted 4-TfO-ortho-carboranes (1-R-4-TfO-1,2-C2B10H10) and reactions with triethylamine or ammonia to form the first TfO-substituted decaborate [R3NH(+)]2[2-TfO-B10H9(2-)], and [R3NH(+)]2[1-TfO-B10H9(2-)] (R = H, Et) salts.

  13. Oor die Bybel in die Afrikaanse digkuns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 'Lotos-land' dryf hy die spot met die Kanaánitiese siening van Suid-Afrika, met die sogenaamde Land van Belofte, Suid-Afrika, met die verdoping van Suid-Afri- kaanse plekke met Bybelse name en die siening van die Kaapkolonie as Egipte, ensovoorts. Die (Suid-)Afrikaanse Kanaán is in hierdie gedig 'n Luilekkerland - ...

  14. 1H, 13C and 19F NMR studies on fluorinated ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonga, P. E.; Kowalewski, V. J.; Contreras, R. H.

    The enflurane and ethoxyflurane 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectra are examined—including sign determination of FF and FH couplings—and considered in the light of previously reported results for methoxyflurane. Conformational differences between methoxyflurane and the former two molecules are indicated by through space FH coupling constants and by the nonequivalence of geminal fluorine nuclei. Populations of conformers about the CC bond are estimated.

  15. Die betekenis van die sesde gebod vir die mediese etiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smedes vra die vraag of 'n mens dan wederregtelik mag doodmaak? Smedes meen dat wederregtelikheid nie die toets van hierdie gebod is nie. Vir Hitler was dit nie wederregtelik om die Jode dood te maak nie, wel vir 'n Duitse burger om Hitler dood te maak. Die bedoeling van die gebod vind hy eerder in die reg om voor ...

  16. die heidelbergse kategismus en die kategesemateriaal van die ned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rede was vir die opdrag van die koning aan Zacharias Ursinus en Caspar. Oliveanus vir die skryf van 'n kategismus. Die doel van die kategismus was om nie net beter vir die jeug te sorg nie, maar om aan evangeliedienaars en skoolmeesters 'n vaste leidraad te gee sodat hulle nie willekeurig nuwe dinge leer wat met Gods ...

  17. Die Reformasie en Skrifinterpretasie: Die nuwe wat die Reformasie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    onbevangenheid sal ons, soos in die geval van baie ander stemme uit die verlede, nooit werklik klaar wees met die stem van die Reformasie nie, dit is wanneer ons die Reformasie nie in ons eie pakkie van vooropgestelde idees toevou en neutraliseer nie. Die Reformasie se stem sal aanhou gehoor word, en in aansluiting ...

  18. [Isolation and degradation characteristics of dichloromethane-degradation bacterial strain by Methylobacterium rhodesianum H13].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-xia; Zhu, Run-ye; Ouyang, Du-juan; Zhuang, Qing-feng; Chen, Dong-zhi; Chen, Jian-meng

    2013-09-01

    A dichloromethane-degrading bacterium Methylobacterium rhodesianum H13 which utilized the DCM as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated. According to the research, M. rhodesianum H13 could completely degrade 5 mmol x L(-1) DCM in 23 h with the initial cell concentration of 0.82 mg x L(-1), pH 7.0, 30 degrees C, and the cell yield rate was about 0.136 g x g(-1) DCM. With the degradation of DCM, Cl- concentration gradually raised (the release of Cl- concentration was about 2 times higher as the DCM), pH value dropped to 6.75, and the solution was weakly acidic. Temperature, pH, DCM concentration, Cl- concentration and other factors were investigated through the shake flask experiments, and the optimal conditions for DCM degradation were: temperature 30 degrees C, pH 7.0. The study also indicated that 5 mmol x L(-1) of DCM was the optimum concentration for M. rhodesianum H13 and high levels of DCM could inhibit the degradation. The research has an important application value for the DCM environmental pollution.

  19. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  20. Die rol van die bruikbaarheidsbenadering binne die e-leksikografie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André H. du Plessis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In die ontwikkeling van die teoretiese leksikografie was die primêre fokus van metaleksikograwe vroeër meestal op modelle vir die daarstelling van gedrukte woordeboeke. Soos die tegnologie vooruitgang maak, verskuif daardie fokus nou na elektroniese woordeboeke. Die ontwikkeling van woordeboeke as elektroniese produkte vestig tans die aandag op ’n leemte in die metaleksikografie. Hierdie leemte het gevolge vir die bestaande teoretiese modelle waarvolgens woordeboeke ontwerp word, asook die praktiese ontwikkeling van volwaardige leksikografiese naslaanbronne vir die toekoms. Elektroniese data- of inligtingsdraers soos woordeboeke is nie beperk tot die leksikografie nie, maar vind ook neerslag in ander velde soos inligtingstegnologie en taaltegnologie. Vir die bestaande leksikografieteorieë om suksesvol aan te pas by die elektroniese sfeer, moet daar aandag gegee word aan die fisiese en tegnologiese eienskappe van verskillende e-instrumente. Hierdie eienskappe moet aan sekere internasionale vereistes voldoen wat nie noodwendig altyd deur leksikograwe in ag geneem word nie. Deur gebruik te maak van die bruikbaarheidsbenadering en ander bruikbaarheidsteorieë kan die bestaande leksikografiese beginsels makliker en beter aangepas en toegepas word binne die elektroniese ruimte. Hierdie studie beoog daarom om die belangrikheid van die bruikbaarheidsbenadering vir (en die oorvleueling met die e-leksikografie bloot te lê en om te bewys hoe elektroniese woordeboeke nie sonder ander interdissiplinêre beginsels vanuit die tegnologiese sfeer ontwikkel behoort te word nie.

  1. Die sin en sintaksis in die Bantoetale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Breed

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Waar ek my ten doel stel om in hierdie rede die soek- lig op die sin en sintaksis te laat val, wil ek dit voorop stel dat die studie uit die aard van die saak alleen daarop gerig kan wees om die riglyne vir ’n sintaktiese beskrywing vir die Bantoetale te trek, en nie om ’n volledige beskrywing van die tale se sinsbou te gee nie. Die Departement Bantoetale het ’n tweeledige taak, nl. ’n praktiese en ’n akademiese; om die rede is die onderhawige probleem ’n dringende.

  2. DIE PROGESTEROONKONSENTRASIE IN DIE BLOEDPLASMA VAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plaasvind en alreeds binne 48 tot 72 vur voltooi is. Edgar & Ronaldson (1958) vind dat die periode vanaf die degenerasie van die corpus luteum totdat die eerste tekens van estrus waargeneem word by die ooi ongeveer. 2 dae is. Die seisoenseffek op progesteroonsekresie. Uit Fig. I is daar. 'n duidelike seisoenseffek ten ...

  3. Die volwassenheid van die bourekenaar se kontraktuele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die beginsels wat die bourekenaar ondersteun om kontraktueel effektief te kommunikeer, te identifiseer en te meet om die standaard van die volwassenheid van die bourekenaar se bourekenkundige kontraktuele kommunikasie te bepaal. Hierdie artikel vorm deel van 'n volledige studie oor ...

  4. Die Heimkunft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Romer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  5. Die funksie van die belydenis in die struktuur van die kerk en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n\\ente nie almal in dieselfde sin van die woord belangrik is nie en dat sommiges hiervan 'n prioriteit oor ander toekom. Dit is verder ook waar dat daar 'n gedurige wisselwerking tussen hierdie verskillende elemente is. Hulle vul mekaar wedersyds aan en het mekaar nodig met die gevolg dat die struktuur van die kerk nie ...

  6. Riglyne uit die verlede vir die sendingwerk van die toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cronj�

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer daar dan oor "riglyne" uit die verlede vir die sendingwerk van die "toekoms" gehandel word, is dit �n riskante onderneming. Te meer nog as gevolg van skrywer se noue kontak met die buitelandse sending van die Ned. Geref. Kerk, wat sy objektiwiteit mag be�nvloed. Te midde van die risiko's daaraan verbonde en met vermyding van bogenoemde slaggate so ver moontlik, wil ons tog probeer om sekere riglyne te trek wat moontlik ook rigtinggewend vir die uitgebreide sendingwerk van die Kerk in die toekoms kan wees.

  7. Die ouderling en die regeervergaderings in die Nederduitsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van ecn gee. Die oomblik egtcr as daar een of meer vakatures vir ouderlinge ontstaan, is die balans versteur. Die wanbalans kan natuurlik selb ook vergroot word indien soos soms gebeur, die kassier en die skriba diakens sonder wyke sou wees. 'n Groter wanbalans, wat egter waarskynlik nooit eens opgemerk word nie, ...

  8. Die casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Contents include: Indian diecasting industry, its problems and prospects; push-button locks; 9th International Diecasting conference and 8th exhibition; seminar on gating of diecasting dies and diecasting technology; and the 6th student industrial design competition--Uk. New publications and abstracts are presented.

  9. . , , die Boesmans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "made captive in early boyhood, with other children of a Bushman. Kraal, in one of the frequent incursions or commandos" (Pereira &. Chapman, 1989:157). Dit eindig met Pangóla wat sterf in 'n soortgelyke ongelyke geveg tussen berede boere en omsingelde Boesmans - gewere teen pyl-en-boë: "I die in arms against the ...

  10. Calvyn en die Calvinisme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    krasie soos by Rome afv^rys, maar daardeur het hy ons insiens dié eg-Calvynse teokrasie waarby die kerk direk betrokke is, prysgegee. Ek glo dat hier ook die wortels lê van sy afwysing van die 'volkskerk'- gedagte; nie die volkskerk in die sin dat die toebehorentheid aan die volk tegelyk toebehorentheid tot die kerk ...

  11. Effective utilization of dichloromethane by a newly isolated strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum H13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Zhi; Ouyang, Du-Juan; Liu, Hong-Xia; Chen, Jing; Zhuang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2014-01-01

    An effective dichloromethane (DCM) utilizer Methylobacterium rhodesianum H13 was isolated from activated sludge. A response surface methodology was conducted, and the optimal conditions were found to be 4.5 g/L Na2HPO4·12H2O, 0.5 g/L (NH4)2SO4, an initial pH of 7.55, and a temperature of 33.7 °C. The specific growth rate of 0.25 h(-1) on 10 mM DCM was achieved, demonstrating that M. rhodesianum H13 was superior to the other microorganisms in previous investigations of DCM utilization. DCM mineralization paralleled the production of cells, CO2, and water-soluble metabolites, as well as the release of Cl(-), whereas the carbon distribution and Cl(-) yield varied with DCM concentrations. The facts that complete degradation only occurred with DCM concentrations below 15 mM and repetitive degradation of 5 mM DCM could proceed for only three cycles were ascribed to pH decrease (from 7.55 to 3.02) though a buffer system was employed.

  12. Die universiteit en die goeie lewensorde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    op Hippocrates, Galenus en Avicenna, lettere op Aristoteles, en ná die. Reformasie sou Luther, Melanchton en Calvyn vir Petrus Lombardus aan dié universiteite vervang wat vir die Reformasie gekies het, maar sou die ander fakulteite in hoofsaak onaangeraak bly. Die universiteit het sy tradisie binne die voile stroom van ...

  13. Exsodus van die Boerevolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. van der Walt

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Groot Trek het in sekere sin begin toe in die begin van die 18e eeu die eerste veeboer-pionier sy gesin, sy huisraad en sy plaasgereedskap op sy kakebeenwaens gelaai het en na sy veepos, voortaan sy leningsplaas, verhuis het. Want alhoewel die Groot Trek nóg logies nóg histories ’n voortsetting van die 18e eeuse trekbeweging is nie, is die eerste sonder die laaste tog ondenkbaar. Die 18e eeuse verspreiding het die geharde Afrikaanse baanbreker gevorm, ’n mens met weinig behoeftes, en met die selfstandigheid en die handigheid om in daardie behoeftes self grotendeels te voorsien uit die betreklik skrale materiaal wat die bodem hom gebied het. Dit het die Afrikaanse binnelandbewoner fisies en psigologies mobiel gemaak en in hierdie mobielmaking lê die noodwendige voorwaarde vir die moontlikheid van die latere groot volksbeweging.

  14. Ensiklopedisiteit in die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    Opsomming: Die Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (voortaan WAT) het vanaf die negende deel wegbeweeg van 'n meer ensiklopediese aanbod van inligting. Hiervoor het die woordeboek heelwat lof van teoretici ontvang. Die mening is egter ook uitgespreek dat die WAT wat leksiko- grafiese funksie betref meer op die ...

  15. die effek van speenouderdom op die produksievermoe van die sog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lonsequcntty the early weaned sows produced significantly more piglets per annum (22,5 vs 20,1). OPSOMIIiING: Die effek van speenouderdom, toegepas vir die eerste vyf agtereenvolgende laktasieperiodes van die sog, op die produksievermod van ...

  16. DIE GEESTESSTRUKTUUR VAN DIE ONGELOOF In die studie van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    KARL MARX (1818-1883) en FRtEDRiCH ENGELS (1820-1895) aan vaar hierdie standpunt van FEUERBACH ten opsigte van die godsdiens as onomstootlik. FEUERBACH gaan egter nie ver genoeg nie; hy moes ook gevra het: waarom überhaupt projekteer die mens sy wese in die gestalte van 'n God? Die godsdiens is ...

  17. die sinodale verband van die nederduitse gereformeerde kerk in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    die OVS 1865-1912:10:05:1865 e.v.d.; Pro Memoria of voorwoord; Oberholzer. s.a.:73). Hoewel die eerste sinode as 'n vergadering van die verband eers van 10 tot 13 Mei 1865 in Bloemfontein gehou is, is die verband self by hierdie vergadering in Smithfield gevorm. 1. In aansluiting by Gerdener praat Oberholster van ...

  18. Die funksie van die skeppingstradisie in die boek Jeremia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dition of creation in Jeremiah' and, secondly, to discuss the relevance of the conclusions ... niskomplekse wat handel oor die groot dade van Jahwe in die geskiedenis van sy volk. • A1 hierdie gedeeites kan .... In vier hoofstukke (nl 4, 5, 27 & 31) word verwysings na die skeppingstradi sie gekombineer met verwysings na die ...

  19. DIE ROL VAN DIE TAALWETENSKAP IN DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tod'orov en Barthes ond~rsoek byvoorbeeld' verhaalstrukture in die algemeen, of hulle:nou binne.die.letterkunde voorkom of daarbuite. In sy boek, Structuralist Poetic!>, vestig Jonathan Culler weer die aandag op dit wat eie aan die letterkund'e is: literere konvensies. Dat d'aar sulke uniek-literere konvensies bestaan, kan ...

  20. Die 'verleentheid' van die teoloog voor die teodiseeprobleem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KRISIS VIR GOD SE GEREGTIGHEID? Die raaisel dat 'goeie' mense moet ly, bly steeds een van die brandenste vraagstukke onder gelowiges. Een rede is dat talle mense glo dat die. 'daad-gevolg-samehang', soos dit in die wysheidsliteratuur bekend geword het (vgl oa Schmid 1974: 64-90; Kutsch 1973: 197-214; Kaiser.

  1. Die gesigte van die neo-marxisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Boshoff

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available Ons weet nie sondermeer wat die voorsetsel ‘NEO’ beteken nie. Het Marx in ons tyd herleef of ’n ombuiging, hersiening, aanvulling of selfs ’n korrektief op die oorspronklike visie van Marx gekom? Wat hou die naam, doelstellings en gees van Karl Marx lewendig en dreig om die Westerse lewenswyse en die Christelike godsdiens te vernietig met ’n leefwyse wat die Christelike geloof op sy kardinale punte aanval?

  2. Die gesigte van die neo-marxisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Boshoff

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons weet nie sondermeer wat die voorsetsel ‘NEO’ beteken nie. Het Marx in ons tyd herleef of ’n ombuiging, hersiening, aanvulling of selfs ’n korrektief op die oorspronklike visie van Marx gekom? Wat hou die naam, doelstellings en gees van Karl Marx lewendig en dreig om die Westerse lewenswyse en die Christelike godsdiens te vernietig met ’n leefwyse wat die Christelike geloof op sy kardinale punte aanval?

  3. Development of materials for the rapid manufacture of die cast tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardro, Peter Jason

    The focus of this research is to develop a material composition that can be processed by rapid prototyping (RP) in order to produce tooling for the die casting process. Where these rapidly produced tools will be superior to traditional tooling production methods by offering one or more of the following advantages: reduced tooling cost, shortened tooling creation time, reduced man-hours for tool creation, increased tool life, and shortened die casting cycle time. By utilizing RP's additive build process and vast material selection, there was a prospect that die cast tooling may be produced quicker and with superior material properties. To this end, the material properties that influence die life and cycle time were determined, and a list of materials that fulfill these "optimal" properties were highlighted. Physical testing was conducted in order to grade the processability of each of the material systems and to optimize the manufacturing process for the downselected material system. Sample specimens were produced and microscopy techniques were utilized to determine a number of physical properties of the material system. Additionally, a benchmark geometry was selected and die casting dies were produced from traditional tool materials (H13 steel) and techniques (machining) and from the newly developed materials and RP techniques (selective laser sintering (SLS) and laser engineered net shaping (LENS)). Once the tools were created, a die cast alloy was selected and a preset number of parts were shot into each tool. During tool creation, the manufacturing time and cost was closely monitored and an economic model was developed to compare traditional tooling to RP tooling. This model allows one to determine, in the early design stages, when it is advantageous to implement RP tooling and when traditional tooling would be best. The results of the physical testing and economic analysis has shown that RP tooling is able to achieve a number of the research objectives, namely

  4. Die Afrikaanse Verklarende Musiekwoordeboek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    betroubaarheid. Ook die Duitstalige "regterhand" van die musikoloog, die. Riemann Musiklexikon (Sachteil, 1967, en twee Personenteile, asook twee Supple- mente tot 19.), is "verklarend", met literatuuropgawes. Die gewenstheid van die A VM ten spyt, is dit egter moeilik om ongekwa- lifiseerde geesdrif vir die boek te he.

  5. Die Nagmaal en broodgebrek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Word byvoorbeeld honger in die. Nagmaal, as element van die liturgie, gereflekteer en ook gekonfronteer? Moet die hartverskeurende situasie van honger gesinne nie ter sprake kom wanneer die gemeente die “maaltyd van die Here” (cdh*o mnm jtqh`jn.m) (1. Kor 11:20) eet en drink nie? Christus het immers in Matteus 25 ...

  6. DIE SLAG VAN BLOEDRIVIER~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die betekenis watdie Slag van Bloedriviervir die Suid-Afrikaansemilitere geskiedenis inhou, is Bloedrivier een van die slagvelde in die land wat die volledigste gerekonstrueer is. Voetnote. 1. J. J. Oberholster: Die Historiese Monumente van Suid-Afrika, p. 279. 2. H. J. Hofstede: Geschiedenis van den Oranje-Vrijstaat,.

  7. Die opkoms en die betekenis van die Ooste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Scholtz

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vraag ontstaan onmiddellik: wat word bedoel met die Ooste? Wanneer die saak ontleed word, blyk dit dat dit nie ’n vaste begrip is nie. Wanneer daar van die Ooste gepraat word, stel iemand hom op Europese standpunt. Alles wat ten ooste van Europa geleë is, is die Ooste. Dit beteken derhalwe dat die Ooste, Asië is. Waar begin Asië egter en waar eindig dit? Hierdie vraag is van sowel aardrykskundige as geskiedkundige belang.

  8. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  9. DIE DIALEKTIEK IN DIE WAARDES VAN DIE 1996 GRONDWET 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Steytler A Charter for Social Justice: a Contribution to the South African Bill of Rights Debate (1992). 17-18. 5 Dit geld ... As die norma nie. 'n hoek van negentig grade maak nie, is dit hoogs onwaarskynlik dat die mure van die spreekwoordelike bouwerk van 'n nuwe grondwetlike bedeling reghoekig opgetrek sal word.

  10. die rol van die eerste suid- afrikaanse infanteriedivisie tydens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rug. Hier het sy magte hulle vasgeloop in voorafbeplande gekonsentreerde vuurkrag von die Britse ortillerie en tenkvuur vanuit romponderstellings wat die Britse pantser in stoat gestel het om sy tenks in die ope aan te durf terwyl hulle agter dekking was.16. Rommel het presies opgetree soos wat Montgomery beplan het.

  11. Wat is die reg en die vryheid van die eksegeet?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voorgestaan terwyl die Antiocheense skool (Joh Chrysostemos en. Theodorus van Mopsuesta) weer as eksegese gesien het 'n meer letterlike verklaring van die Bybel. Augustinus en Hieronimus het probeer om die twee metodes te kombineer, terwyl Petrus. Lombardus, Alexander van Hailes en Thomas Aquinas 'n vier-.

  12. Rembrandt en die Bybel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dekker

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Onlangs het ek in ’n Nederlandse weekblad iets gelees wat tot diepnadenke stem. Dit was die uitspraak van ’n ontwikkelde Oosterling wat sy groot bewondering vir die Westerse kultuur betuig het en sy besef van wat dit nog vir die Ooste sal beteken. Maar, het hy besluit,wat die Weste tot daardie hoogte laat styg het, is die Christendom, en die Christelike geloof is nie ineer die bronaar van sy geestelike lewe nie.

  13. Temas uit die kerkgeskiedenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit is natuurlik 'n onbegonne taak om enigsins 'n poging aan te wend om 'n volle beeld van twee milleniums kerkgeskiedenis voor te hou. Wat die kerkgeskiedenis van Afrika betref, leef ons tans in die periode van die derde vestiging van die kerk in Afrika. Die eerste periode was aan die begin van ons Christelike jaartelling in Noord-Afrika en het groot name soos Tertullianus (+220, Cyprianus (+258 en Augustinus (+430 opgelewer. Die tweede periode was gedurende die vyftiende en sestiende eeu in Wes- en Oos-Afrika. In albei gevalle het die Christendom feitlik tot niet gegaan - iets waarna ons later weer sal verwys.

  14. Die skeppingsordeninge en homoseksualiteit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steun op Aristoteles of Descartes wat betref die Godsleer, predestina- sieleer, die natuurlike teologie en die leer van die skepping en voor- sienigheid. Barth noem dit 'n dubbele boekhouding wat die natuur en genade, skepping en verbond, skeppingsopenbaring en heilsopenba- ring van mekaar losmaak. Sy kritiek is veral ...

  15. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the Black worker can not be studied in isolation since the White worker still holds many executive positions and therefore has an influence on the Black workers' motivation. The role of the White worker in motivating the Black worker in a specific organisation and the attitude and leadership approach of the White worker on the existence/nonexistence and relative satisfaction of the needs of Black workers are discussed.Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  16. ,,Die kleur-krisis en die Weste"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Coetzee

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Wie vandag onbevange en met ’n opregte begeerte na die volle waarheid oor die sogenaamde „kleurvraagstuk” in Suid-Afrika wil skryf, moet voorwaard bid dat hom die deel van Esegiël te beurt mag val: „Jou voorhoof maak ek hard soos ’n diamant, harder as ’n rots . . . ."

  17. Die funksie van ruimte in die narratologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venter (1985: 20 vv) is van mening dat hierdie negatiewe beoorde- ling van ruimte as blote 'vulling' (Venter 1985: 20) die beginsel was waarvolgens Plato in die ouer literêre paradigma byvoorbeeld die Ilias van Homerus so beskryf het dat alle ruimtelike gegewens sover moont- lik weggelaat is. Hiervolgens kon ruimte te ...

  18. KERKWEES IN DIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KERKWEES IN DIE BRANDING: DIE NEDERDUITSE GEREFORMEERDE. KERK IN ALGEMENE SINODALE VERBAND. 1994-2011. ACTA THEOLOGICA. Supplementum 18. 2013. INHOUD. HOOFSTUK 1 Verantwoording. 1. HOOFSTUK 2 Die Sinode van versoening? 4. HOOFSTUK 3 Bestendiging in 'n nuwe bedeling.

  19. Die Institusie van Calvyn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Ek wil hier geen verhandeling oor Calvyn se onderwysing in die Christelike godsdiens skrywe nie maar net die aandag vestig op die feit dat hierdie werk van Calvyn nou ook in Afrikaans verkrygbaar is.

  20. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepshikha; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2016-04-01

    We report almost complete sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a 150-residue long calmodulin-like calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP6), as a prelude to its structural and functional characterization.

  1. Sequence specific 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of hahellin in 8 M urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul K; Chary, K V R

    2010-10-01

    The sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of hahellin in 8 M urea-denatured state have been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. Secondary chemical shift analysis reveals the native-like propensities for β-rich conformation in the denatured state.

  2. e .Kuraioriufn. DIE W ETENSKAPLIKE BETEKENIS VAN DIE W ERK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Voorts wys hy op die talryke name wat saamgestel is met die naam van die koningsfiguur, ditsy n aardse koning of n godheid. Die a!gemeen oosterse vergoddeliking van die koning het sy invloed ook laat geld op die naamgewing in die ou Babel en Assur. Geheel die proefskrif getuig van die deeglikheid en noukeurigheid.

  3. Thermal and corrosion properties of silicon nitride for copper die casting components

    OpenAIRE

    Khader, I.; Renz, A.; Kailer, A.; Haas, D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high melting temperature of copper and copper alloys, conventional die-steel components used in pressure die casting these materials exhibit short service lifetimes and undergo thermal fatigue. Thermal and corrosion properties of silicon nitride were studied to assess the material's applicability in substituting conventional die-steels in casting copper and copper alloys. In this study, experiments were conducted to test the thermal shock resistance and corrosion behaviour of a com...

  4. Effect of the Die Temperature and Blank Thickness on the Formability of a Laser-Welded Blank of a Boron Steel Sheet with Removing Al-Si Coating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions has been a major focus in the automobile industry to address various environmental issues. In particular, studies on parts comprised of high strength sheets and light car bodies are ongoing. Accordingly, this study examined the use of boron steel, which is commonly used in high strength sheets. Boron steel is a type of sheet used for hot stamping parts. Although it has high strength, the elongation is inferior, which reduces its crash energy absorption capacity. To solve this problem, two sheets of different thickness were welded so the thin sheet would absorb crash energy and the thick sheet would work as a support. Boron steel, however, may show weakening at the welding spot due to the Al-Si coating layer used to prevent oxidation from occurring during the welding process. Therefore, a certain part of the coating layer of a double-thickness boron steel sheet that is welded in the hot stamping process is removed through laser ablation, and the formability of the hot-work was examined.

  5. Die vrede van Münster / Westfale en die betekenis daarvan vir die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedenis egter is die Vrede van Münster as epogmakende gebeure tot dusver nie net in die algemeen verwaarloos nie, maar boonop is die direkte verband tussen hierdie sentrale historiese baken aan die een kant en aan die ander kant die vestiging van die VOC se verversingspos aan die ...

  6. DIE KERKLIKE TUG * Die tug en die handhawing daarvan is n saak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Die tug en die handhawing daarvan is n saak van wesenlike belang vir die Kerk van die Here nie alleen nie, maar ook vir elke volk. Dit bepaal tot op sekere hoogte die geestelike peil van die Kerk en die sedelike peil van n volk. Van so groot belang word die tug beskou, dat die Nederlandse. Geloofsbelydenis in Art. 29 as ...

  7. Die Nuwe Testament en mitologie: Die probleem van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    29 Mei 2015 ... as verwysingsraamwerk verkondig kan word. Indien wel, moet teologie die Christusverkondiging ontmitologiseer. (Bultmann [1941] 1967:16). Wat mites tot uitdrukking bring. Mites verklaar die kragte wat op mense inwerk en hulle lewens begrens, as bonatuurlik. 'n Mitiese kosmologie of wêreldbeskouing.

  8. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die diereproduksie- bedrywe oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    merking deurdat die benodigdhede aangegee word vir lam- mers van varierende massa wat teen verskillende tempos groei. Omdat daar egter 'n nouer interverwantskap tussen proteien· en energiebenodigdhede bestaan beveel Crampton. (1964) aan dat die proteien benodigdhede uitgedruk word in terme van VRP/mkal ...

  9. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  10. Die Diepte-ondersoek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21 Aug 1971 ... Daarbenewens is die algemene lewensduurte ook verantwoordelik vir 'n stygende kostepatroon in die geneeskunde. 'n. Dekade of twee, drie gelede kon ons nog redelik verwag dat iedere pasient sy eie potjie moes krap, met die uitsondering van die werklik armes wat vry mediese dienste moes ontvang.

  11. Kinders in die erediens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roux neem in hierdie verband sterk standpunt in teen Jean Piaget en Ronald Goldman se teorieë oor kinderontwikkeling. Piaget oordeel dat kenmer- kende aspekte wat die kind se denke op 'n bepaalde stadium vertoon, die norm moet wees vir die bantering van die kind. Hy kategoriseer kinders volgens hulle intellektuele ...

  12. Die Hermeneutiek van Calvyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer ons Calvyn bestudeer dan is dit nie alleen belangrik om te luister na wat Calvyn sê nie, ons moet ook daarop let hoe hy die dinge sê. By die vak hermeneutiek is ons geneig om te spreek van ’n hermeneutiese metode. Daar word selfs gepraat van die tegniek van die eksegese.

  13. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  14. DIE KONINGSBEDE AS ELEMENT IN DIE KRONINGSRITUEEL. By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    die besonder dink ons hier aan die bekende beskrywing van Salomo se bede. Nadat die offer gebring is, lê die koning homself te slape in die heiligdom, vgl. Gen. 28:11, kennelik met die bedoeling om n droomorakel te ontvang. Dit gebeur dan ook, altans volgens die teks in Kon.; volgens die Kronis gebeur meer: God self ...

  15. Demistifikasie van die metafoor “die kerk as bruid”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    5 Sep 2007 ... Stadelmann (1993:231) is hierdie onderdanigheid van die vrou aan haar man gegrond in die gedagte dat die man van God self die opdrag en verant- woordelikheid ontvang het om die hoof van die huwelik en die gesin te wees. Dit hou in dat die man deur God tot verantwoording geroep word oor wat in en.

  16. het die reformasie die leer gered en aanbidding verloor?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die reforma- tore het die voortgaande offer verwerp. Vir Rome aktualiseer die liturgie egter ook die nuwe verbond tussen God en mens (wat die reformatore aan- vaar het). Die liturgie is in die eerste plek werk van God aan ons mense voordat mense liturgies kan antwoord (Brienen 1978:17 e.v.). Die liturgie van Rome slaag ...

  17. Metabolite Characterization in Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Using High-resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite analysis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent may provide information regarding onset and progression of complications associated with prolonged PD therapy. In this context, the NMR detectable small metabolites of PD effluent samples were characterized using high resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. The various spectra were recorded (at 800 MHz proton frequency) on PD effluent samples obtained after 4 hour (intraperitoneal) dwell time from patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF) and continuing normally on PD therapy. Inspite of devastating spectral feature of PD effluent due to the presence of intense resonances from glucose and lactate, we were able to identify about 53 small endogenous metabolites (including many complex coupled spin systems) and more than 90 % of the total CH cross peaks of 1H-13C HSQC spectrum were identified specific to various metabolites of PD effluent. We foresee that the characteristic fingerprints of various metabolites of control PD effluent samples will be us...

  18. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  19. Multi criteria decision making of machining parameters for Die Sinking EDM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM is one of the most basic non-conventional machining processes for production of complex geometries and process of hard materials, which are difficult to machine by conventional process. It is capable of machining geometrically complex or hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat-treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides, heat resistant steels etc. The present study is focusing on the die sinking electric discharge machining (EDM of AISI H 13, W.-Nr. 1.2344 Grade: Ovar Supreme for finding out the effect of machining parameters such as discharge current (GI, pulse on time (POT, pulse off time (POF and spark gap (SG on performance response like Material removal rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (Ra & Overcut (OC using Square-shaped Cu tool with Lateral flushing. A well-designed experimental scheme is used to reduce the total number of experiments. Parts of the experiment are conducted with the L9 orthogonal array based on the Taguchi methodology and significant process parameters are identified using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. It is found that MRR is affected by gap current & Ra is affected by pulse on time. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratios associated with the observed values in the experiments are determined by which factor is most affected by the responses of MRR, Ra and OC. These experimental data are further investigated using Grey Relational Analysis to optimize multiple performances in which different levels combination of the factors are ranked based on grey relational grade. The analysis reveals that substantial improvement in machining performance takes place following this technique.

  20. Editorial/Van die Redaksie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deelnemende demokrasie', is dit belangrik om die oe oop te hou vir die wyse waarop dit die tradisionele patemalisme van geneeskundige praktyk" raak, veral as die behoeftes onderling grootliks verskil, en die prioriteite streeksverskille ...

  1. Die relevansie van die boek Prediker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ook in die dogmatiek te bespeur is nie. 'n Vinnige oorsig oor die teksverwysings van. 'n paar wydgelese dogmatiekhandboeke kan dit bevestig. In Karl Barth se omvang- ryke Kirchliche Dogmatik word Prediker slegs vyf en dertig maal aangehaal en slegs sewe maal word teksgedeeltes bespreek. Emil Brunner haal Prediker ...

  2. DIE OUTESTAMENTIESE LEER AANGAANDE DIE MENS AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    verdwyn s o o s rook". Meer voorbeetde gee die genoemde grammatikas. ') Hierdie opvatting van be vind ons bv. in die Leidsche Vertaling 1899, by JoH. H EH N , Zum TermiïiMS ,,BiM Qottes" in Festschrift Sachau, 1915, BÖ H L in TeÍMt en Uitieg,.

  3. Die toepassing van die K3-model op die televisieteks Colour TV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die uitsaaier het ook geen klagtes van kykers ontvang oor die gebruik van die woord chlora nie. Inteendeel, op die sosiale netwerke Facebook en Twitter het kykers die gebruik van die woord verwelkom. Op Facebook skryf ʼn kyker (Howard 2011) die dag ná die eerste episode uitgesaai is: “Lol. Wow! Its amazing 2c how all ...

  4. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  5. Paradigmas en progressie in die teologie: *n Perspektief op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Met die ontdekking van kerne, atome, molekules en dies meer en die ontwik- keling van 'n mikro-fisika het die Newton-wette in die agtergrond geskuif. Daarmee saam het ook die sekuriteit wat dit gebring het, naamlik dat daar onder die oënskynlike chaos altyd 'n ordelike en konsekwente netwerk van wette en beginsels.

  6. P. J. N. Smal, Die Universalisme in die Psalms. Academisch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    dat die historiese element in Israel se Godsopenbaring en daarmee die insig in sy betekenis te kort gedoen word. Die betekenis van die studie vir die historia revelationis is daardeur gering; as duidelike „tydlose” sistematisering van Outestamentiese gegewens oor die betrokke onder- werpe, soos die laaste hoofstuk, bl.

  7. DIE APOSTOLAAT VAN DIE KERK IN HIERDIE TYD TEN OPSIGTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Hierdie verkondiging het net een doel en net een inhoud. Die doel ... is die vlees- geworde Woord, Christus. Die apostalaat is nie een funksie van die kerk tussen ander nie. Die kerk is apostel in alles wat hy is en doen. Die doel van die. 239 ... skawing, nie vir uitbreiding van politieke magssfere nie, ens. Selfs ten koste van ...

  8. Die bepaling van die 'sentrum van hoofbelange' by oorgrens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As die filiaal se geregistreerde kantoor en die opvatting van derde partye op die selfde plek dui (sodat die vermoede in werking tree), moet die houermaatskappy meer, beter en swaarder getuienis aanvoer om die vermoede te weerlê. Die vermoede sal egter nie sonder meer weerlê word nie. 'n Essensiële en delikate ...

  9. DIE PLEK VAN SANG EN MUSIEK IN DIE PROTESTANTSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    (a). In die behandeling van bostaande onderwerp, bevind ons ons op die gebied van die Praktiese Teologie. Die Praktiese Teologie het 'n merkwaardige tweeledige bestaan. Dit bestaan aan-die-een-kant sinvol as wetenskaplike besinning en spreke oor die „erediens”; dit bestaan aan-die-ander-kant óók sinvol.

  10. Die geskiedenis van die saw gedenkteken te Fort Klapperkop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die SAW Gedenkteken se lotgevalle is nou verbonde aan die van die. Militere Museum Fort Klapperkop aangesien die Gedenkteken op die terrein van Fort Klapperkop opgerig is. Weens rasionalisasie is die voortbestaan van Fort Klapperkop Museum onseker. Dit plaas ongetwyfeld dan ook 'n vraagteken agter die ...

  11. Die huwelik as identiteitsmerker in die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    formulier klem gelê op Genesis 2:22 se woorde dat God die vrou na die mens gebring het. Hieruit word net soos in die ..... die hoek van antropologiese teorie oor bloedverwantskap bestudeer. Sy rekonstrueer eers die sosiale ...... begrip wat vreemd is aan die pre-moderne denke rondom verwantskap. Tweedens is die.

  12. DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE HUIDIGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE. HUIDIGE SITUASIE. Sending is 'n deel van die vervulling van die apostoliese opdrag van die kerk. Dit geskied op grond van en in gehoorsaamheid aan Gods. \\C'oord. Teologiese besinning is daarom die eerste en grondliggende vereiste by die ontwerp van 'n ...

  13. Oor die onvoorwaardelike lognormaalverdeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. J. Roux

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onvoorwaardelike lognormaalverdeling wat ryk aan parameters is, word voorgestel en na ’n meervariate verdeling uitgebrei. Teoretiese eienskappe en ’n toepassing van die onvoorwaardelike lognormaalmodel word gegee.

  14. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  15. Die wonder van Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Venter

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available In die Januarie-Februarie-uitgawe van Koers het die hoofredakteur daarop gewys dat 1959 ’n gedenkjaar is, en onde randere ook vermeld dat dit die jaar is van die goue jubileum van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (gestig op 2 Julie 1909. Daarby moet ons nie vergeet dat die P.A.K. (gestig19 Desember 1929 in hierdie jaar sy dertigste bestaansjaar voltooi nie. Dit is dan ook heeltemal gepas dat ons in hierdie gedenkjaar, op versoek van hierdie twee liggame wat so ontsaglik baie gedoen het vir die handhaaf en bou van ons taal, ons aandag sal saamtrek rondom die wonder van Afrikaans.

  16. Die Koalitionsvereinbarungen zur Energiewende

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    .... Die zunachst so erfolgreich gestartete Energiewende ist ins Stolpern geraten. Das europaische Zertifikatesystem, das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz und die Energiewende mussen nun vor allem kosteneffizient neu justiert werden...

  17. Fatigue tests results of blade steels with modified surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Lebedeva, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of metallographic studies and fatigue tests of blade steel 12kH13 and EI961samples with modified nearsurface layer. Fatigue tests and studies of the samples with the modified layer were carried out using the research equipment URI (unique research installation) “Hydroshock rig Erosion-M” of NRU “MPEI”. The surface modification is found to increase the fatigue strength of blade steel up to 50%. Sample surface after modifications features a cell structure with the characteristic cell size ranging from 1÷2 μm to 4÷8 μm total thickness of the modified layer for steel samples 12kH13 and EI961 was about 40 μm.

  18. Die Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Psychologie

    OpenAIRE

    Magyar, Natascha

    2002-01-01

    'Der Benutzer soll zukünftig in der Lage sein, sich mit seinem Informationswunsch an eine fachliche Organisationseinheit - die Virtuelle Fachbibliothek - wenden zu können, in der die Nachweisfunktion, die Zuordnung und die Vermittlung fachlicher Informationen in gedruckter und elektronischer Form organisatorisch vorbereitet und in der Durchführung kooperativ sichergestellt sind. (Rutz, Reinhard: SSG-Programm, Virtuelle Fachbibliotheken und das Förderkonzept der DFG. Bonn, 1997). Um diesem Sze...

  19. Die Tempelrolle und die Struktureigenschaften des Kollagens

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Die „Schriftrollen vom Toten Meer“ stoßen seit ihrer Entdeckung Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts bei den Religionshistorikern und in der breiten Öffentlichkeit auf großes Interesse. Sie stammen aus der Zeit der Zweiten Tempelperiode - der Wiege des Christentums und dem Vorabend der Zerstörung des Tempels von Jerusalem durch die Römer. Diese Ereignisse haben den weiteren Verlauf der Menschheitsgeschichte entscheidend mitgeprägt. Dem Text der Rollen hat die Forschung sehr viel Aufmerksamkeit ...

  20. Verslikking in die Richardsbaainatuurreservaat, Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cooks

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available ’n Ondersoek na die redes en tempo van verslikking in die Richardsbaaise Natuurreservaat dui daarop dat versnelde verslikking in die reservaat die gevolg is van ’n versteuring van die natuurlike ekwilibrium deur menslike aktiwiteite tydens die ontwikkeling van die hawe. Die belangrikste redes is waarskynlik die konstruksie van ’n dyk wat die estuarium verdeel, die oopmaak van ’n nuwe monding en boerderywanpraktyke in die opvanggebied. Die tempo van verslikking het in so ’n mate toegeneem dat ongeveer 36,14 persent van die natuurreservaat reeds gedurende die eerste 11 jaar toegeslik het. ’n Projeksie van hierdie verslikkingstempo dui daarop dat die reservaat binne die bestek van ongeveer 29 jaar heeltemal sal toeslik. ’n Dramatiese toename in die plantaanwas toon dieselfde neiging.

  1. DIE OPTIMUM INSLUITINGSPEIL VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aan elkeen is een van die 35 diete ewekansig toegese. Elke vark het ad lib toegang gehad tot die dieet vanaf 8 weke ouderdom tot op 'n lewende massa van ongeveer 50 kg. Die varke is afsonderlik in hokkies van ongeveer 1,5 m X 1 m, toegerus met selfvoerders en drinktepels, aangehou. Voerinname en lewende massa.

  2. Die humanistiese mensbeeld

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liberalisme-kapitalisme vanuit die denke van Adam Smith (1723-. 1790), demokratiese-sosialisme vanuit die denke van Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-. 1778), en Marxisme-kommunisme vanuit die denke van Karl Marx (1818-1883). In elkeen van hierdie ideologiese strominge bestaan 'n mensbeeld soos dit bepaal.

  3. Die Plattform Medienbiografie

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Nosko

    2013-01-01

    Wenn die eigene Medienbiografie Nutzungsmuster und Einstellungen gegenüber Medien in hohem Maß beeinflusst, dann stellt die Beschäftigung damit in der Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildung von LehrerInnen ein unumgängliches Element dar. Christian Nosko präsentiert die Plattform "Medienbiografie".

  4. Die Gattungen der Myriangiales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arx, von J.A.

    1963-01-01

    Die Myriangiales sind ascoloculäre Ascomyceten mit bitunicaten Asci und lassen sich durch Zwischenformen mit den Dothiorales verbinden. Bei ihnen entstehen die Asci im Innern von Fruchtkörpern einzeln zerstreut und sind kugelig oder breit keulig. Die 21 anerkannten Gattungen werden schlüsselförmig

  5. DIE GELOFTEKERK. Woorc/ ^oora/.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    die gelofte kerk sou gereserveer het, aan die kerkraad van die Ned. Geref. Gemeente aldaar te ... Ms. ]2: John Bird: The Annats of Nata], Vo!. I, pr. 445. ... Zn. P.M.. Burg 1865. f yierdie vandag baie seldsame brosjure is in 1865 deur ds. P. Huet.

  6. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  7. Die onstuitbare gang van die wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten einde nie in té vae algemeenhede te verval nie, sal skrywervan hierdie standpunt hom beperk tot die natuurwetenskap, endan slegs tot enkele terreine binne hierdie bepaalde gebied.

  8. Die Onderwys en Opvoeding van die Afrikaner in die Twintigste Eeu (I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Die twintigste eeu het vir die Afrikaner waar hy ook in Suid-Afrika woonagtig was, baie donker aangebreek: In die loop van 1900 is die twee Boere-Republieke beset en al het die worstelstryd van die Boeremagte nog tot in 1902 voortgeduur, was die einde vanaf 1900 reeds beslis.

  9. Variable H13CO+ Emission in the IM Lup Disk: X-Ray Driven Time-dependent Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David; Loomis, Ryan

    2017-07-01

    We report the first detection of a substantial brightening event in an isotopologue of a key molecular ion, HCO+, within a protoplanetary disk of a T Tauri star. The H13CO+ J=3-2 rotational transition was observed three times toward IM Lup between 2014 July and 2015 May with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The first two observations show similar spectrally integrated line and continuum fluxes, while the third observation shows a doubling in the disk-integrated J=3-2 line flux compared to the continuum, which does not change between the three epochs. We explore models of an X-ray active star irradiating the disk via stellar flares, and find that the optically thin H13CO+ emission variation can potentially be explained via X-ray-driven chemistry temporarily enhancing the HCO+ abundance in the upper layers of the disk atmosphere during large or prolonged flaring events. If the HCO+ enhancement is indeed caused by an X-ray flare, future observations should be able to spatially resolve these events and potentially enable us to watch the chemical aftermath of the high-energy stellar radiation propagating across the face of protoplanetary disks, providing a new pathway to explore ionization physics and chemistry, including electron density, in disks.

  10. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  11. Effect of continuous and pulsed currents on microstructural evolution of stainless steel joined by TIG welding; Einfluss des Einsatzes von Dauerstrom und Impulsstrom auf die Mikrostrukturentwicklung bei durch das WIG-Schweissverfahren gefuegtem rostfreiem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgutlu, Ahmet; Findik, Tayfun; Guelenc, Behcet [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Cevik, Bekir [Duezce Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Welding Technology; Kaya, Yakup; Kahraman, Nizamettin [Karabuek Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2015-07-01

    In this study, AISI 316L series austenitic stainless steel sheets were joined by tungsten inert gas welding method in continuous and pulsed currents. Regarding microstructural investigation and hardness values of weld metal, samples were welded to investigate the effect of current type on grain structures of weld metal. Results showed that samples welded by using pulsed current had considerable different properties compared to the samples welded by using continuous current. While the weld metals of joinings obtained by using continuous current displayed a coarse-grained and columnar structure, weld metals obtained by using pulsed current had a finer-grained structure. It was also found that hardness values of samples, which were welded with continuous and pulsed current, were quite different.

  12. Die Voortrekker-ideale in die moderne wêreld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. du Plessis

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Terwyl ons nou die Groot Trek op die eeu-tyd weer belewe, is dit seker gepas om die vraag te stel in hoever daar in die moderne wêreld en ons hedendaagse Suid-Afrika nog plek is vir en lewenskrag is in die Voortrekker-ideale: naamlik om op die Afrikaanse hoogland die Christelike beskawing te vestig volgens suiwer Afrikaanse styl in ’n eie republikeinse staatsverband met voogdy oor die gekleurde bevolking sonder gelykstelling.

  13. DIE ONSTERFLIKHEID VAN DIE MENSLIKE SIEL') Daar is geen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    harde stemme : „Heil aan onse God wat op die troon sit, en aan die Lam." Hulle het uit die groot verdrukking gekom, en hulle leef voor Gods troon en het dus nie met die dood van die liggame ook gesterf nie. Ons kan dan ook nie anders sê nie as dat iedereen wat die onsterf likheid van die siel loën, met die Heilige Skrif en ...

  14. Die hervertolking van die paradigma in verband met die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akade- mie Drukker. Rutgers, F L 1882. Hel kerkverband der Nederlandsch Gereformeerde Kerken. Am sterdam. Schlaich, K 1969. Kollegialtlieorie: Kirche, Recht und Stoat in der Aufklaning. Jus ec- clesiasticum, Bd 8. Miinchen. Scholtz, G D sj. Geskiedenis van die Nederduitse Hervormde of Gereformeerde Kerk. Pretoria.

  15. 'n Begronde bedieningsmodel vir die diakonia van die gemeente

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Feb 2012 ... 'n model (Pastoral Family Model) (2008:235–237). Hy gee ook belangrike aspekte van die toepassing van die model weer (2008:244–247), maar .... geleenthede is gereël waar lidmate die sinodebesluite kon bespreek, asook die rigting waarin die kerkraad dink met die oog op 'n nuwe bedieningsmodel.

  16. PS Dreyer: Bakens op die pad van die wetenskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historia 3/1. 15. Die grondslae van die Westerse leefwyse, in Cronjé, G (red) 1963,. Die Westerse kultuur in Suid-Afrika. Pretoria: Van Schaik. 16. Van mite tot wetenskap, in Cronjé, G (red) 1966, Kultuurbeïnvloe- ding in die oudheid. Pretoria: Van Schaik. (Fakulteitslesings). 17. Die wysgerige Antropologie en die Teologie, ...

  17. oor die teologiese inhoud van die belydenis van belhar1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 2011 ... Die sigbare eenheid sluit 'n ryke en wonderbare verskeidenheid in, nie uit nie – dis die eerste punt. Om dié oortuiging te verwoord word 'n lang lys van assosiasies gebruik, vanuit die Bybel en die belydenisskrifte, om gelowiges te herinner aan hoe ryk en kompleks die geleefde eenheid, die onderlinge ...

  18. die doel en wese van opvoedende onderwys en die implikasies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kan word is waardevol vir die ontwikkeling en voortbestaan van die rnens. :1et die verworwe kenni s van die mens kan hy vaardighede aanleer (fisiese en psigiese). Die mens moet hom dus '' ... in die w~reld orii:!nteer •.. " volgens Harmse (1979, b1.26). Hierdie orientasie kan noodwendig nie doeltreffend plaasvind indien 'n ...

  19. Die mens as sondaar - Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satan en die Antichris gebring is. Daar was egter ook enkeles wat daarin 'n welkome nuwe geluid gehoor het met klanke wat herinner het aan die reformatoriese godgeleerdiieid. So is die nuwe gedagtes verder gedra en het dit geleidelik ver en wyd in die kerklike wêreld weerklank gevind. In die voorwoord tot die eerste ...

  20. Author: T Bekker DIE MOONTLIKE REGSHERVORMING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    written contract.17. Die gemelde bedoeling van die partye word vasgestel vanuit die dokument self, maar ook vanuit die woorde en gedrag van die partye en die ..... common intention or oral agreement, and it was that mistake in their written ... evidence rule, but in principle there seems no difference between a common.

  1. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die Duitse taal (vergelyk Deutsche Sprache 1983:382 en later), terminologie soos gebruiklik in die Duitse ..... met die bylae Sprachpraxis, asook 'n handboek met die titel Deutsch - eln Lehrbuch Eur Auslander (Duits ... en die los- en vasskryE van woorde (Duden-Grammatik ^1984:67). Die strewe na 'n ooreenkoms oor ...

  2. Die meganies-fisiese eienskappe van die trabekulêre (kanselleuse been van die femurnek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. van Papendorp

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Die drukspanning wat nodig is om die trabekulere been van die femurnek, by pasiente met femurnekfrakture, te laat swig, is 60% minder as die wat nodig is om dieselfde resultaat by pasiente met heuposteoartrose te verkry. Die kompressiesterkte van die trabekulere been toon ’n redelike korrelasie (r = 0,58 met die relatiewe digtheid van die been, ’n Analise van die helling van die spanning-vervormingkurwes en ’n bepaling van die elastisiteitsmodulus van die trabekulere been toon dat pasiente met femurnekfrakture se been 30 - 60% meer elasties is as die van pasiente met heuposteoartrose. Sowel die sterkte as die elastisiteit van die trabekulere been kan dus ’n rol in die evolusie van fermurnekfrakture speel.

  3. Openbaring, teologie en die regswetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Postma

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste tyd is telkens en weer gewaarsku teen die gevare van oorspesialisasie en die hipertrofie van professionalisme. Die gemis aan ’n totaliteitsvisie wat hiermee gepaard gaan, word dan ook tereg teengegaan en wel deur aan die Wysbegeerte as die Wetenskap van die totaliteit van die kosmos in toenemende mate sy regmatige plek as wetenskapsintegreerder te gun. Hierdie grootmoedige gun van ’n plek in die son van geleerdheid kan egter ook uit bedenklike motiewe plaasvind. Die vakwetenskaplike kan nie of wil nie die plek en betekenis van sy spesifieke vak bepaal en bepeins nie en vind dit in elk geval moeilik om die verband tussen Gods Woord en sy besondere vak in duidelike perspektief te sien; vandaar dan ’n grootmoedige toelaat dat die wysbegeerte die „veritas” dien terwyl die eie ek tevrede is om die „utilitas” onderdanig te wees.

  4. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  5. Efficient production of (2)H, (13)C, (15)N-enriched industrial enzyme Rhizopus chinensis lipase with native disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Swapna, G V T; Xiao, Rong; Zheng, Haiyan; Sha, Chong; Xu, Yan; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2016-07-13

    In order to use most modern methods of NMR spectroscopy to study protein structure and dynamics, isotope-enriched protein samples are essential. Especially for larger proteins (>20 kDa), perdeuterated and Ile (δ1), Leu, and Val methyl-protonated protein samples are required for suppressing nuclear relaxation to provide improved spectral quality, allowing key backbone and side chain resonance assignments needed for protein structure and dynamics studies. Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris are two of the most popular expression systems for producing isotope-enriched, recombinant protein samples for NMR investigations. The P. pastoris system can be used to produce (13)C, (15)N-enriched and even (2)H,(13)C, (15)N-enriched protein samples, but efficient methods for producing perdeuterated proteins with Ile (δ1), Leu and Val methyl-protonated groups in P. pastoris are still unavailable. Glycosylation heterogeneity also provides challenges to NMR studies. E. coli expression systems are efficient for overexpressing perdeuterated and Ile (δ1), Leu, Val methyl-protonated protein samples, but are generally not successful for producing secreted eukaryotic proteins with native disulfide bonds. The 33 kDa protein-Rhizopus chinensis lipase (RCL), an important industrial enzyme, was produced using both P. pastoris and E. coli BL21 trxB (DE3) systems. Samples produced from both systems exhibit identical native disulfide bond formation and similar 2D NMR spectra, indicating similar native protein folding. The yield of (13)C, (15)N-enriched r27RCL produced using P. pastoris was 1.7 times higher that obtained using E. coli, while the isotope-labeling efficiency was ~15 % lower. Protein samples produced in P. pastoris exhibit O-glycosylation, while the protein samples produced in E. coli were not glycosylated. The specific activity of r27RCL from P. pastoris was ~1.4 times higher than that produced in E. coli. These data demonstrate efficient production of (2)H, (13)C, (15)N

  6. Die historiese Jesus as wondenverker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vierde en vyfde eeu dateer. Die Christelike magie-papiri in die versameling kom hoofsaaklik uit die vyfde en sesde eeu. In die nie-Christelike magie-papiri hang die effektiwiteit af van die veelvuldige goddelike name wat aangeroep word: Adonai, lao. Psyche, Eros, Osiris, Isis, Anubis, Re, Hermes, Zeus, Helios, Selene, Kore ...

  7. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  8. Wear properties of H13 with micron scale and nano scale grains bionic units processed by laser remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Cheng-tao; Liu, Yan; Ren, Lu-quan

    2013-12-01

    By simulating the cuticles of some soil animals, a combination of soft part (untreated substrate) and hard part (laser remelting area) structure was designed on metal surface to get an improved performance. Different specimens were prepared which contained units with micro and nano scale grains. The microstructures were observed by environmental field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases. The results of these tests indicate that due to the rapid solidification condition in the water, nano scale grains have a high microhardness between 1300 and 1000 HV. Retained austenite was found in it. Some of them transform to martensite in block on ring wear test. Specimens with bionic unit have a better wear resistance. Especially, the units with nano grains bring a further enhancement. The alternate soft and hard in macroscopic (substrate and laser remelting area) and microscopic (austenite and martensite) structure played a key role in improving the H13 wear resistance.

  9. DIE GELOFTEKERK. Woorc/ ^oora/.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    mus Smit dit in haar dagboek noem, en wat deur Landdros J. P.. Zietsman in n brief aan die Volksraad op 31 ... Daarom het landdros J. P. Zietsman op 28 Maart 1840 aan die Volksraad as volg geskryf^):. W elEdele .... The Diary of Dr. Andrew Smith 1834-1836 (V.R.S. 20). bis. 149, waar die skrywer verhaal hoe hy op 30 ...

  10. Die Problematik des Pauschalurteils

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Klaus P.

    2009-01-01

    Klaus P. Hansen betont in seinem Beitrag über die "Problematik des Pauschalurteils", dass sich Verallgemeinerungen über ein Kollektiv nur auf die partiellen Gemeinsamkeiten dieser Gruppe, nicht aber auf Individuen beziehen dürfen. Der Kulturtheoretiker erinnert an die menschliche Multikollektivität, plädiert für eine dichte Zuschreibung beobachteter Merkmale zu einzelnen Gruppenmitgliedschaften und entwirft eine Typologie unterschiedlicher Kollektivformen. Nationen konzipiert er als Dachkolle...

  11. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  12. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  13. Die Afrikaanse volkskultuur en die nuwe wêreld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Coetzee

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opskrif dwing die referent om te opereer met twee begrippe wat deur hulle kompleksiteit en onbelyndheid uiters moeilik bepaalbaar en hanteerbaar is. Alhoewel sommige strominge in die moderne Volkekunde die reg van hierdie wetenskap erken om alle volkskulture, ook dié van die moderne volke te bestudeer, het weinig skrywers hulle energie en vaardigheid in hierdie rigting gewaag. Dit is trouens juis die begrensdheid, homogeniteit en betreklike eenvoud van die primitiewe volkskulture wat die beoefenaars van die vak in die praktyk gedwing en verlei het om hulle aandag feitlik uitsluitend op sodanige kultuurstudies toe te spits. Die studie van die grotere en moderne volke is links gelaat aangesien die getalsterkte, interne verskeidenheid en snelle veranderinge byna onoorkoomlike eise aan die navorser stel.

  14. Optimalisering van die omskakeling van matrieksimbole vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    die gevolglike matrieksimboolpunttotaal (MST) aangetref. Die geldig- heid van matriekprestasie as voorspeller van universiteitsprestasie word dan gewoonlik ondersoek deur die MST met die gemiddelde van die persentasiepunte oor die gekose universiteitsvakke in die eerste akademiese semester of jaar te korreleer.

  15. Die rol van die US se Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Opsomming: Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na die rol van die Universiteit Stellenbosch se. Departement Afrikaans en Nederlands in die ontwikkeling van die Afrikaanse leksikografie deur hulle betrokkenheid by twee verklarende standaardwoordeboeke, te wete die Verklarende Hand- woordeboek van die Afrikaanse ...

  16. die pers as bron oor die geskiedenis van die eerste vrydeidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hy was in die kamp by kaptein Roberts toe van die soldate wat teruggeval het, by die kamp aangekom het. Kaptein Roberts het die soldate nog ammunisie aangebied wat die soldate van die hand gewys het daar hulle nag genoeg rondtes gehad het. ... De Express, De Vriend van de Souwereiniteit en. Bloemfonteinsche.

  17. A. Selms DIE TEOLOGIE VAN DIE WOORD EN DIE FIGUUR VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    deur Thomas Aquinas. Onder invloed van Augustinus vind ons by. Thomas eweeens 'n sterk beklemtoning van die genade, en sien hy die verhouding tussen God en mens van God af bepaal, maar die terminologie waarmee hy uitdrukking gee aan sy opvatting is die van die Axistoteliese metafisika, en met die terminologie ...

  18. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  19. Die invloed van liggaamsparameters op die reproduksieprestasie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body size (wither height, wither to ischium length, chest width, depth and circumference) was determined at the commencement of the .... Ooie in die drie groepe is in groepe gevoer teen verskillende voedingspeile oor 'n ..... ovulation rate and wool growth responses of light and heavy ewes to differential feeding. N. Z. J.

  20. DIE PROBLEMATIEK IN DIE NAVORSING VAN KONTEMPORERE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 Okt 1992 ... lematic. The writer suggeststhat a general amnesty for soldiers, increased flexibility with regard to security and the closer .... van sekere tipes bronne. PROBLEMA TIEK. BEKOMBAARHEID. VAN DOKUMENTE. Aile dokumente wat deur die staats- diens gebruik word isargiewe. Volgens wet word dokumente.

  1. New trends in cold-chamber die casting machine design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Larger and larger proportions of aluminium castings, especially those produced by the die casting process, can be observed during recent years in the automotive industry, house-hold articles and others. In case of the automotive industry, apart from the traditional elements produced by the die pressure method such as engine blocks or crank shaft bedplates, aluminium is displacing steel from structural parts of cars (‘body in white’. The current state and development directions of the structural solutions of cold-chamber die castings are analysed in this paper. These solutions drive the prospective development of these machines and die casting technology. The focus is mainly on essential functional systems such as: hydraulic drives of closing and locking units, as well as pressing in die machines of known companies present on the European market.

  2. Die Amphibien und Reptilien

    OpenAIRE

    Braumann, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Obgleich die Zeiten, "... in denen der einsame Wanderer von Adter (Otter) Geziesche erschreckte ... " seit Riedel nunmehr 200 Jahre zurückliegen, weist der Drömling heute mit 13 Amphibien- und 4 Reptilienarten noch eine relativ reiche Herpetofauna auf. Besonders die individuenreichen Populationen der Rote Liste-Arten Kreuzkröte, Laubfrosch und Ringelnatter besitzen dabei landesweite Bedeutung.

  3. calvyn oor die leiding van die heilige gees in die verklaring van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seellant et imprimans les promesses de salut en noz cueurs.5. 4 Bedienaar: Ontvang ons geloof uit onsself, of ontvang ons dit van God? Kind: Die. Skrif leer dat dit 'n besondere gawe van God is, en ervaring bevestig dit (CO 6,45). 5 Bedienaar: Wat bedoel jy daarmee? Kind: Ons begrip is te verdorwe om die geeste-.

  4. Die Bilder zum Text

    OpenAIRE

    Loesch, Perk

    2007-01-01

    Die ebenso glückliche, wie schöne und wertvolle Erwerbung einer Handschrift von Wilhelm Dilich (1571/72-1650) für die Handschriftensammlung der SLUB gibt Veranlassung, nicht allein diese Handschrift vorzustellen, sondern auch an ihren Verfasser zu erinnern, dessen Wirken gleichermaßen mit Hessen und Sachsen verbunden ist.

  5. Die woord vra kontak

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for general recognition of the interdisciplinary nature of modem lexico- graphical work and for a genuine will to cooperate.''! Vir sover hierdie same- werking implikasiesinhou vir die leksikografiese bedryf, moet dit aanbod kom in die AFRILEX-reeks. R.R.K. Hartmann, daardie produktiewe en goed ingeligte skrywer en.

  6. GODSBEELDE IN DIE LITURGIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Mei 2010 ... 283−301, JCB Mohr,. Tübingen. Strydom, W.M.L., 1994, Liturgie en lied: 'Sing Nuwe Sange,. Nuutgebore', NG Sendingpers, Bloemfontein. Van Heerden, E., 1987, Amulet teen die vuur, Tafelberg, Kaapstad. Vos, C.J.A., 1995, Die blye tyding, RGN Uitgewers, Pretoria. Vos, C.J.A., 2005, Theopoetry of the ...

  7. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  8. Latyn en die eenheid en verskeidenheid van die romaanse tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.H. du Plessis

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Met die afsterwe van die biskop van Avignon in 561 het die koning van die Franke, Clotharius die eerste, die vakante pos aan ’n Paryse priester aangebied. Laasgenoemde het die aanbod egter vriendelik maar ferm van die hand gewys. As rede het hy sy onkunde en veral sy gebrekkige kennis van korrekte Latyn aangevoer, waar hy in Avignon verplig sou wees om onder geleerdes te beweeg wat ’n suiwerder vorm van Latyn sou praat. Hierdie anekdote wat vir ons vertel word deur Gregorius van Tours in sy Geskiedenis van die Franke dui reeds op die duidelik waarneembare verskil in die kultuur en taal in die Suidelike en Noordelike dele van die sesde eeuse Gallië (Gregorius Turonensis, 1951:6.9.

  9. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  10. Die pastorale begeleiding van predikante van die Nederduitse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21 Jan 2013 ... Die tughandeling en pastorale begeleiding. 16. Hoe belangrik dink u is die volgende vereistes ten opsigte van die pastoraat tydens die tughandeling. Gebruik die volgende skaal: 1 = Onbelangrik; 2 =Redelik belangrik;. 3 = Nie baie belangrik, maar ook nie onbelangrik nie; 4 = Belangrik; 5 = Uiters belangrik.

  11. Die teologiese debat: Die waarde of betekenis daarvan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n gemeenskaplike waarheid te kom, nogal betreklik. In 'n poging om 'n paar groot lyne te trek oor hierdie saak, kan die volgende by wyse van oorsig en inleiding na vore gebring word. 2. lETSOORDffiAARDVANDIETEOLOGIE. Voordat iets oor die debat in die teologie gesê word, is dit tog nodig om die aard van die teologie ...

  12. Die ontmaskering van die bose: Eksegetiese perspektiewe op ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    sewentiende / agtiende eeuse Engelse skrywer van die befaamde verhaal Robinson Crusoe. Hy was ook die skrywer van 'n aanvanklik anonieme pamflet The Shortest Way with the. Dissenters. In die werk vra hy skynbaar vir 'n genadelose hantering en uitwissing van die opponente (dissenters) van die Anglikaanse kerk, ...

  13. die ouderling in twee kerkordes in die dordtse tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n koning en 'n nederige pion. Die teendeel is waar. Noordmans wys op die ironie dat die “eenvoudige” ouderling die “magtige” pous – in Roomse terme – kon skaakmat sit. Dit was by Calvyn moontlik omdat dit in 'n kerk nie om feilbare menslike mag of status gaan nie, maar die outoriteit en status van Christus deur Sy ...

  14. Enkele aspekte van kerklike dissipline uit die Kerkorde van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    1989:431). Die appèlartikel staan in die Kerkorde van die Sinode van. Dordrecht 1578 as Artikel 19 en word in die Kerkorde van Middelburg 1581 en daarna, gekombineer met Artikel 23 wat by Dordrecht 1578 nog 'n afsonderlike plek inneem. Laasgenoemde Artikel handel daaroor dat die meerderheid stemme bindend sal ...

  15. Alternatiewe vir die huwelik in die huidige permissiewe maatskappy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Barnard

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Die wereld het op elke terrein onherkenbaar verander Die mens se kennis en vermoe op elke terrein van die lewe, het onvoorstelbaar toegeneem. Hy kom in 'n posisie dat hy meen hy weet alles, kan alles deurvors en alles doen. Daarmee het die magtige mens in die sentrum van alles te staan gekom.

  16. Die konteks vir die keuse van geriefsvoedsel van bepaalde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    Dis maar die gewone rys, vleis, aartappels, pampoen en boontjies. As sy hoender berei het, sal ek 'n sousie maak.” Die feit dat 'n huiswerker die voorafbereiding van die maaltyd behartig, verklaar moontlik waarom hierdie deelnemers geredelik vars produkte aankoop vir hoof- maaltye gedurende die week, maar ook ...

  17. Vertellersperspektief en die 'temporele' funksie van die Ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1969b) het in twee afsonderlike artikels, respektiewelik oor die kruisiging en die opstanding, oortuigend aange- toon dat die 'Wende der Zeit' op hierdie punt in die Matteus-evangelie plaasvind (vgl ook Meier 1975: 207). Hy skryf in die eerste artikel: 'Dieser Text (27, 51 ff.) ist hochst bemerkenswert. Der Tod Jesu bewirkt.

  18. Die funksie van die ^danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    word die leser vir sy goeie daad bedank. Wanneer die 'danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense ontleed word, word dit duidelik dat dit nie aan hierdie reëls vir 'n danksegging voldoen nie. Alhoewel die drie. 'dankseggingsgedeeltes' 'n taalhandeling is waarin die geenkodeerde outeur sy dank uitspreek, kan die betrokke ...

  19. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  20. -Die leksikografiese hantering van woordgroepstamme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    buite die behandelingsterrein van die heersende leksikografiese praktyk val. Ondanks hierdie implikasies hoef die ~~ntering van woordgroepstamme nie vir die leksikograaf problema ties te wees nie. Die Afrikaanse leksikon bevat 'n relatief klein aantal woordgroepstamme. Hulle sal nie 'n beduidende deel van. R ep rod u.

  1. Die bevordering van geesteswetenskaplike studie*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie tema sou op ’n verskeidenheid van wyses aangepak kon word: Eerstens is dit moontlik om planne te bedink op grond waarvan die studentegetalle in die geesteswetenskappe verhoog sou kon word. Tweedens is dit moontlik om ’n soort wetenskaplike rasionalisasie te verskaf vir die feit dat die oënskynlik anachronis- tiese geesteswetenskappe nog steeds aangebied word in ’n tyd waarin die hele samelewing in die teken van die wetenskap en die tegniek staan. Dit sou natuurlik ook moontlik wees om die tema aan te pak vanuit ’n statistiese ontleding van die stand van die geesteswetenskappe en daardeur op tendense en ontwikkelingsrig- tinge te dui. Natuurlik sou daar voldoende grond wees om ook die hele kwessie van die gebrekkige finansiering van die geesteswetenskappe aan die orde te stel en ’n pleidooi te lewer vir beter salariëring van geesteswetenskaplik-geskooldes, beter beurse vir studente in die geesteswetenskappe en beslis meer geleenthede vir na- vorsing in die geesteswetenskappe. Voorts sou die uiteindelike werksituasie van die geesteswetenskaplik-geskoolde in oënskou geneem kon word. Indien daar ’n oor- skot van geesteswetenskaplik-geskooldes bestaan, sou dit geremedieer moes word en indien daar ’n tekort aan dergelike geskooldes sou bestaan, sou planne beraam moes word vir die aanmoediging van studie in hierdie rigting.

  2. Aanbid die godsdienste dieselfde God?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquinas se verstaan van die implisiete geloof. Erasmus se poging om die Chris- telike dogma tot 'n absolute minimum te reduseer en Servet se verwerping van die. Triniteitsleer, het dieselfde intensie (Galling 1961:1062). Die poging van Helena Petrofna Blavatsky se Teosofiese Vereniging wat in. 1875 in die VSA gestig is, ...

  3. Die BINGO-hulpverleningsprogram vir die begaafde seun wat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    hulpverleningprogram is empiries ondersoek nadat dit ontwerp is en die resultate word later bespreek. Probleemstelling. Dit is 'n probleem dat soveel begaafdes akademies onderpresteer en nie hul volle potensiaal bereik nie. (Kyk die bespreking van die ...

  4. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and secondary structures of cyclophilin 2 from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tesmine; Lou, Yuan-Chao; Aryal, Sarita; Tai, Jung-Hsiang; Chen, Chinpan

    2017-09-05

    Cyclophilins are peptidyl prolyl isomerases that play an important role in a wide variety of biological functions like protein folding and trafficking, intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways, nuclear translocation and in pre-mRNA splicing. Two cyclophilins have been identified in the parasitic organism Trichomonas vaginalis and were named as TvCyP1 and TvCyP2. The 2 enzymes have been found to interact with Myb transcription factors in the parasite which regulate the iron induced expression of ap65-1 gene leading to cytoadherence of the parasite to human vaginal epithelial cells to cause the disease trichomoniasis. TvCyP2 was found to interact specifically with Myb3 to regulate nuclear translocation of the transcription factor. It would be intriguing to identify the binding site of both proteins as it could pave way to newer targets for drug discovery. Here we report the 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and secondary structure information of TvCyP2 that could help us investigate the interaction between Myb3 and TvCyP2 in detail using NMR.

  5. Die Wunderkritik Immanuel Kants

    OpenAIRE

    Peddicord, Clark

    2001-01-01

    Die Problematik übernatürlicher Eingriffe in den gesetzesartigen Ablauf der Natur hat nicht nur Theologen sondern auch Naturphilosophen und Erkenntnistheoretiker immer wieder beschäftigt. Diese Frage ist nicht erst in der heutigen Diskussion entstanden. Sie hat tiefe Wurzeln, die bis in die Antike zurückreichen. Aber ihre moderne Gestalt stammt aus der Anfangszeit der modernen Naturphilosophie im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Als der prägende Philosoph der deutschen Aufklärung hat sich Im...

  6. Gadamer en die estetiese rekonstruksie van die antiaanse projek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gadamer en die estetiese rekonstruksie van die antiaanse projek: Vir 'n kontekstuele kosmopolitanisme. (Gadamer and the aesthetical reconstruction of the Kantian project. For a contextual cosmopolitanism).

  7. Die christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing en die toets van die 20e eeu.*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Heyns

    1957-03-01

    Full Text Available Dat die Christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing met die 20e eeu (bedoel word die geestesstrominge van ons tyd nie bloot deur ’n kopulatiewe,,en” maar deur die woord „toets” met mekaar verbind word, dui op die heel besondere verhouding wat daar tussen beide bestaan. Ons bedoeling is dan ook nie om ’n indringende analise van die een of van die ander te gee nie, maar om die aandag te vestig op die fundamentele antitese tussen beide.

  8. Die vestiging van die Kerk in Natal, die Vrystaat en Transvaal na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doop bedien, geleentheid is gegee vir die aflegging van geloofsbelyde- nis terwyl Lindley ook 'n lidmaatregister aangelê het. Lindley sou die Transvaal weer 'n keer in Mei en Junie 1844 besoek. Tydens die geleentheid sou hy so ver gaan as die Magaliesberge en moontlik ook die oostelike buitev^ryke van Marico besoek.

  9. Die inhoud en die doel van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk se ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sie (Barth 1967:667). Sekularisasie bedreig die kerk telkens wanneer hy uit die oog verloor dat hy dienskneg van Christus is. Dit is dan wanneer die kerk nie ... Daarmee bedoel Barth nie 'n wesensidentifikasie nie, maar dat Christus ..... kan die ampte op geen ander wyse doen nie as deur die Woord te bedien, in sy ap-.

  10. Die Bibliothek des Bezirksmuseums Josefstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ettl

    2016-02-01

    Josefstadt in Wien werden die Herkunft der Bibliotheksbestände und die beengte Raumsituation beschrieben. Abschließend wird auf die Erfassung der Medien mittels der Bibliothekssoftware „Biblioweb“ eingegangen.

  11. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  12. The day Madiba died

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... geweld (“Utopia” [129–41]—Christina van Deventer), die seksuele misbruik van kinders (“Een, twee, drie, blok myself”. [98–103]—Ilisna Nel), posttraumatiese stres (“Ontspoor” [117–22]—Tanya van. Buuren) en geestestoornisse (“Lettie se verlies” [150–5]—Elani Venter) word ondersoek. In die satiriese ...

  13. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  14. Complete genome sequencing of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, the former Rhizobium lupini H13-3, reveals a tripartite genome consisting of a circular and a linear chromosome and an accessory plasmid but lacking a tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberg, Daniel; Blom, Jochen; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Kollin, Florian; Rupp, Oliver; Scharf, Birgit; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Sczcepanowski, Rafael; Goesmann, Alexander; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Schmitt, Rüdiger; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2011-08-20

    Agrobacterium sp. H13-3, formerly known as Rhizobium lupini H13-3, is a soil bacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Lupinus luteus. The isolate has been established as a model system for studying novel features of flagellum structure, motility and chemotaxis within the family Rhizobiaceae. The complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 has been established and the genome structure and phylogenetic assignment of the organism was analysed. For de novo sequencing of the Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 genome, a combined strategy comprising 454-pyrosequencing on the Genome Sequencer FLX platform and PCR-based amplicon sequencing for gap closure was applied. The finished genome consists of three replicons and comprises 5,573,770 bases. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the isolate could be assigned to the genus Agrobacterium biovar I and represents a genomic species G1 strain within this biovariety. The highly conserved circular chromosome (2.82 Mb) of Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 mainly encodes housekeeping functions characteristic for an aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium. Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 is a motile bacterium driven by the rotation of several complex flagella. Its behaviour towards external stimuli is regulated by a large chemotaxis regulon and a total of 17 chemoreceptors. Comparable to the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 possesses a linear chromosome (2.15 Mb) that is related to its reference replicon and features chromosomal and plasmid-like properties. The accessory plasmid pAspH13-3a (0.6 Mb) is only distantly related to the plasmid pAtC58 of A. tumefaciens C58 and shows a mosaic structure. A tumor-inducing Ti-plasmid is missing in the sequenced strain H13-3 indicating that it is a non-virulent isolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  16. Die opleiding van bedryfsielkundiges aan die universiteit van die Oranje-Vrystaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Langenhoven

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Departement Bedryfsielkunde is in 1968 as 'n volwaardige departement in die Fakulteit van Ekonomiese en Administratiewe Wetenskappe aan die Vrystaatse Universiteit ingestel. Voorheen is die vak vir etlike jare deur die Departement Sielkunde aangebied. Bedryfsielkunde kan vir die B.Com., B.Admin., B.Soc.Sc. en B.P.L. (Baccalaureus in Personeelleiding graadrigtings geneem word. Die opleidingspersoneel bestaan tans uit 'n Professor, 2 Senior Lektore en 2 Lektore. Daar is ook 'n Senior Lektor/Navorser en Senior Vakkundige Beampte in die Afdeling Personeelnavorsing, wat onder leiding van die hoof van die departement funksioneer. Verder beskik die departement oor die dienste van twee dames wat albei halfdag werk, naamlik 'n Akademiese Assistent en 'n Tikster.

  17. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    . Developing a Hegelian inspired historical-sociological approach this paper however argues that national and transnational societies emerged simultaneously and in a co-evolutionary and mutually supportive fashion. In most European settings national societies did not become the central horizon of individuals...... of the European steel industry....

  18. Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En dis 'n klein treetjie van klagte na aanklag en na protes teen die gode, die heersers wat die mens vernietig deur hom oor sy ware lewe te bedrieg. Die ideologie eis dan ook dienooreenkomstig die bevryding en emansipasie van die mens van die gode en van God (1983: 118—119). Volgens die Jahwis is dit die slang wat, ...

  19. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE JEUG IN VOORTREKKERTYDPERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was dit 'n groot avontuur en in hulle verbeelding het hulle die aantreklikste visioene geskilder. Die groter kinders, wat gehard was deur die gevare wat gedurig die grensboere bedreig het, sou 'n beter besef van die ems van die Groot Trek gehad het.3. Die ouers, veral die moeders, het die kinders nie toegelaat om wild en ...

  20. Die benutting van vraelyste met die oog op meer effektiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    dat individue nie altyd eenders dink en doen ten opsigte van sekere sake nie, ontstaan daar soms misverstande wat kan lei tot konflik. Konflikhantering is dus 'n uiters ... “extended family issues” onder die mees problematiese sake in die vroeë jare van die huwelik. Pretorius (1996:200) bespreek die saak van emosionele.

  1. Besinning oor die apostolaat in die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dink onder andere aan sy artikels oor die Bybelse argeologie, artikels en publikasies op die terrein van die etiek soos byvoorbeeld oor selfmoord, eutanasie, sterwensbegeleiding, aborsie, padverkeer en so meer. Professioneel is hy formeel dogmatikus. Nogtans het hy, behalwe 'n besondere aanvoeling vir die pas-.

  2. voorveronderstellings in die hantering van die verhouding tussen ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is en sy hele siening van die Ou-Testamentiese hermeneutiek kleur. So beoog hierdie artikel om na aanleiding van Baumgärtel 'n aantal voorveronderstellings op die tafel te plaas wat bepalend is vir die wyse waarop die verhouding tussen Ou en Nuwe Testament beskryf kan word. Dus, na aanleiding van Baumgärtel word ...

  3. DIE EINDE VAN SENDING Fases in die Sendingbedryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ontwikkeling vir die verskeie rasse woonagtig in Suid-Afrika, beter bekend as die beleid van apartheid. (Inderdaad was hierdie gewraakte gedagtes nogal 'n integrale deel van die Kerk se Sendingbeleid soos wat dit in die vroeë 20ste eeu ontwikkel is.) Maar terwyl hierdie kritiek in feitlik alle opsigte toegegee kan word, is dit ...

  4. Die 'postmoderne' stempel in die Nuwe-Testamentiese hermeneutiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27; vgl De Beer 1986:436). Betekenis bestaan nie suiwer in die idee en ook nie in die verwysing tussen teken en idee nie. In die dekonstruksie verval die metafisiese, se- manties-referensiele verhouding tussen betekenaar en betekende (Van ...

  5. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Oorlogsekonomie gedurende die Tweede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is daar on- middellik stappe gedoen om die staalfabriek te. Pretoria uit te brei met die doel om die produksie .... artikels soos seep, kerse, aptekersgoedere, verf, poli- toer, ens ingesluit. 'n Groot persentasie hiervan sowel as veeartsenykundige middels en insekte- middels vir die bestryding is plaaslike vervaar- dig.37. Hout.

  6. die doeltreffendheid van die afrikaanse woordelys en spelreels as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit is die doel van hierdie artikel. eireels. Volgens die AWS word die Afrikaanse spelreels op .... beperkte getal eenvoudige 'reels saamgevat kan word nie. Dit geld van alle terreine van taalgebruik: Anglisisraes en ander -ismes, woordgebruike, sinsbou, die gebruik van hoofletters, koppel- tekens, spelling, ens.'" Alhoewel ...

  7. Die inkortingsneller moet en die woordeboek | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die AfrikaanSe hulpwerkwoord mod kan binne sekere kontekste as inkortingsneller ten opsigte van 'n saamgestelde hoofwerkwoord 'optree, waardeur laasgenoemde ingekort word sander dat die semantiese inhoud van die sin verander ('n voorwaarde, trouens, van alle inkorting). Die omstandighede waaronder dit ...

  8. besonderhede aangaande in aantal geboue op die terrein van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 'n Militere Kamp. Op 4 Mei 1877 het die eerste gereelde Britse troepe op Pretoria aangekom. 'n Kamp is opgeslaan ten suide van die dorp en op 'n kaart van Pretoria wat van. 14 November ... korps van de Zuid-Afrikaa115che. Republiek, ... Hierdie eenheid is op die terrein van die v00rmalige Britse militere kamp en aan-.

  9. die aard, studieveld en funksie van die krygsgeskiedenis1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hede dit geskied het en wat die resul- toot daarvan was, sal minder gene~ wees om die foute van die verlede te herhaal of hulpeloos in die donker rond te tas wanneer hulle met 'n pro- bleem gekonfronteer word.29 Historiese. 20. M. Howard. 'The Useand Abuse of Military History'. 4 - 5: T.EGriess. 'A Perspective on Military ...

  10. Die funksie van die ^danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vanwee die problema- tiek rondom die genre word die genre van 1 Tessalonisense dus nie in hierdie artikel as vertrekpunt geneem nie. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word 'retoriese situasie' soos volg verstaan: '[A] complex of persons, events, objects and relations presenting an actual or potential. ISSN 0259 9422 = HTS ...

  11. Stuttgart, 1952. DIE HUIDIGE STAND VAN DIE ONDERSOEK TEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    hy hom rig teen sekere gnostici (die Valentiniane?) wat II Tim. 2:2 uitlê as verwysing na 'n esoteriese evangelie wat slegs aan ingewydes oorgelewer moet word. Op grond van hierdie skrale berigte het die gissings oor wat die Evangelie van die Waarheid was en wat dit bevat het, begin. Ene J ohannes K reyenbuhl het ...

  12. die waarde van die ou testament volgens hf kohlbrugge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - skrif met die grootste bekwaamheid. Juis in die tyd waarin hy met die doktorale studie besig was, was hy lank siek. Hierdie beproewing sou egter ryk vrugte dra. In die geestelike krisis wat daarmee gepaard gegaan het, is Kohlbrugge — so ...

  13. Die uniform van die Transvaalse staatsartillerie | Bouch | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die Transvaalse Staatsartillerie (TSA), as 'n gereelde en voltydse militêre eenheid van die ou Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek, het gespog met sy eie kenmerkende uniform. Keywords: Die Transvaalse Staatsartillerie (TSA); militêre eenheid van die ou Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek; velddiens- of someruniform; parade- of ...

  14. Die mens as sondaar - Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is no longer situated in the heart of human being, but in social, economical and political structures. In this ...... openbaring van die eintlikheid van die mens: jy is die man. Aan hierdie verwyt kan 'n mens jou nog .... juis net SÓ gered lean word, is kenbaar in eie persoon 'n verlore mens. Só ken die mens-van-sonde homself.

  15. Thermal fatigue cracking of die-casting dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thermal fatigue cracking of die-casting dies

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die-casting dies are exposed to high thermal and mechanical loads. Thermal fatigue cracking of dies due to thermal cycling may importantly shorten the life-time of the die. Cracks degrade the surface quality of dies and consequently the surface of castings. In this study, thermal fatigue cracking of dies was analyzed during the process of die casting aluminium alloys. During the process cracks were observed and measured and their location and size were determined. Thermal and mechanical loads cause high local stresses and consequently surface cracks. First cracks occur as early as after 2000 cycles and propagate progressively with cycles.

  16. Diskussie oor die millenium en die herstel van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Engelbrecht van Waverley

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit verheug my dat daar eindelik gereageer word op my boekie. Behalwe telefoonoproepe en briewe van medechiliaste was daar tot dusver geen kommentaar van anti-chiliastiese kant. Ek het die boekie aan ongeveer 1800 predikante en professore gestuur en vriendelik uitgenooi tot nuwe besinning. Net soos oor die soteriologie, is die Bybel nêrens in teëspraak met homself oor die eskatologie nie. God gee in sy Woord nie vir ons drie verskillende toekomsbeelde om uit te kies nie. God is een en sy profetiese Woord is deurgaans eenstemmig m.b.t. die raad van God oor Israel, die nasies en die kerk.

  17. DIE BETREKKING TUSSEN JESUS EN JOHANNES DIE DOPER Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    353 die Septuagint-lesing van. I Kon. 19:20 inderdaad ook herstel. Nou is dit opvallend dat die. Septuagint, waar dit gaan om die navolging van God, by voorkeur pebruik maak van die uitdrukking, aÁro/ouíAem opisö byvoorbeeld in. Josua 14:9 maar van poreuesiAa: opisö waar uitdrukking gegee wil word aan die naloop ...

  18. AFRIKAANS EN DIE EERSTE VRYHEIDSOORLOt ..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    en 'n paar van die opgevoede. Afrikaners praat nag suiwer. Nederlands. b. Die Afrikaners het almal by deftige geleent- hede soas in die gebed, op politieke vergaderings en in gemeensame briefwissel- ing 'n geleentheids-Nederlands gebruik, wat egter reeds 'n stylvorm van Afrikaans was. In die gewone omgang het hulle, ...

  19. Voedingsnavorsing met die weidende dier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van veral beeste (Bisschop, 1964; Niemann, Lombard & Van. Schalkwyk, 1963). In teenstelling met die relatiewe groot hoeveelheid inligting oor die chemiese samestelling van natuurlike weidings, is daar betreklik min bekend oor die verteerbaarheid en vrywillige in- name daarvan deur herkouers. 'n Skerp daling in die ...

  20. PRETORIA GEDURENDE DIE EERSTE VRYDEIDSOORLOG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teen die einde van 1880 het hierdie oplewing onder die. Transvalers 'n hoogtepunt bereik toe tydens die vergadering by Paardekraal op 8 Desember 1880 besluit is om tot die ... hulle in Transvaal en veral in Pretoria gevestig sodat daar teen Maart ..... admiration, for they have the additional anxiety to bear in knowing that ...

  1. Aanbid die godsdienste dieselfde God?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Derhalwe is. Christus dan die voile Selfmeedeling van God. In Hom is die bonatuurlike eksisten- siaal finaal en onherroeplik meegedeel. Hieruit kan Rahner nou vier stellings stcl: * die Christendom verstaan homself as die eintlike godsdiens;. * ander godsdienste het nietemin bonatuurlike waarheidselemente en is daarom.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOPING MATRIX FOR CREATION OF THE BELORUSSIAN INSTRUMENTAL STEELS ON THE BASIS OF STEEL 70K(Y7A PRODUCED BY RUP “BMZ” (view and investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical aspects of production of the Belorussian instrumental steels on the base of the steel of type 70K are considered. The ways of working out of the alloy complex for receiving of the die steels in the conditions of RUP “BMZ” are shown.

  3. Die Bantoe indie gevorderde arbeidsvorme*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Coetzee

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Die inhoud van hierdie voordrag is in hoofsaak ’n verwerking van ’n lesing oor The Bantu as a White Collar Worker wat ek vroeër vanjaar voor ’n byeenkoms van die Johannesburgse afdeling van die National Development Foundation gehou het. Derhalwe wil ek ook my erkentlikheid teenoor die liggaam betuig vir die verlof om dieselfde stof te gebruik ten bate (hopelik van die Afrika-Seminaar en terselfdertyd ook vir nuwe insigte waartoe die bespreking op genoemde byeenkoms my gelei het.

  4. Die inszenierte Autorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Mae

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available chs wird in seinem Aufbau durch die drei Phasen des Selbstfindungsprozesses, genauer der Selbsterfindung der ‚Schriftstellerin Yū Miri‘ in ihren Werken und ihren medialen Selbstinszenierungen strukturiert. Es gelingt Iwata-Weickgenannt sehr überzeugend, das Sichtbarmachen der performativen Konstruiertheit von Identität im Werk und Leben Yūs herauszuarbeiten. Sie zeigt dabei auch, dass das Konzept der Performativität ein sehr geeigneter Bezugsrahmen für die Analyse von Identitätsbildungsprozessen ist.

  5. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of an unusual Ca2+-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica in its apo form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepshikha; Sakuntala, Mutyala; Murmu, Aruna; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2017-04-01

    We report almost complete sequence specific 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of an unusual Ca2+-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP6) in its apo form as a prelude to its structural and functional characterization.

  6. Estimation of procyanidin/prodelphinidin and cis/trans flavanol ratios of condensed tannin fractions by 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy: Correlation with thiolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of cross-peak contours of H/C-2’,6’ signals from prodelphinidin (PD) and of H/C-6’ signals from procyanidin (PC) units in 1H-13C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of condensed tannins yielded nuclei-adjusted PC/PD estimates that were highly correlated with PC/PD ratios obtain...

  7. Sequence specific 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of Hahellin from Hahella chejuensis, a putative member of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul K; Sharma, Yogendra; Chary, K V R

    2008-12-01

    The sequence specific (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments of Hahellin, a putative member of betagamma-crystallin family, from Hahella Chejuensis, have been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. The resonance assignments reveal that the protein adopts predominantly a beta-sheet conformation as in the case of betagamma-crystallin folds.

  8. Die implikasies van artikel 2 (1 (a van die wet op die nasionale onderwysbeleid, 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bekker

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Op 31 Maart 1967 is die veelbesproke Wet op die Nasionale Onderwysbeleid, 1967 gepromulgeer. Daar is ’n raamwerk van tien beginsels neergelê wat onder meer handel oor sake soos Christelike karakter, nasionale karakter, moedertaalonderwys, die plek van die ouergemeenskap, vry onderwys, koordinasie op nasionale grondslag van leerplanne en kursusse, ens.

  9. Die uitbouing van die Bybelse kanon in antieke Judaïsme en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 2015 ... Vergelyk Eusebius, 'n anti-Marcionitiese skrywer wat in 192/3 n.C. werk; Historia. Ecclesiasfica V 17, 2. verder gestimuleer is. Talle nuwe geskrifte het die lig gesien waaroor die kerk besluite moes neem en waarteen die kerk afgrensings moes doen. Vroeë omlyning van die versameling van boeke.

  10. enkele fasette van die problematiek van die akademikus by die skryf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    we, konferensies vir terugrapportering ens. ens. Op die oog of kan dit voor- kom asof die akademikus met soveel bronne te doen het dot hy eerder 'n oorvloed as te min inligting goon verkry. Hierdie aanname is egter van aile ... Feitlik aile dokumente in die SAWword opgestel met die uitsluitlike doel om vir weermagoptrede.

  11. liturgiese afleidings uit die kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die Nagmaal, om telkens liturgiese afleidings daaruit te probeer maak. 2. DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN DIE PASGA VAN DIE. EKSODUS TOT DIE TyD VAN ChRISTUS. Die Pasga is waarskynlik die een Ou-Testamentiese fees wat van belang is vir die navorsing oor die Nagmaal, juis omdat Jesus die Pasga doelbewus gekies.

  12. DIE OPENBARINGSLEER VAN SCHILDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23 Volgens Schilder: ...maar God wil geen openbaring geven, die den mensch als't ware onder hypnose brengt en hem in dien zin overweldig (Om Woord en kerk III 1951:11). 24 Volgens Schilder: Maar de onuitputtelijkheid van het teeken komt u herinneren, dat heden Gods zelfopenbaring haar voltooiing begint; dat ge nu ...

  13. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  14. Deutschland und die Araber

    OpenAIRE

    Maguid Saad Salamah

    2014-01-01

    Die traditionellen Freundschaftsbande zwischen Deutschen und Arabern haben sich in den letzten Jahren fester geschlossen, bis sie eine aktive Teilnahme seitens Deutschlands bei der Industrialiserung der arabischen Länder und der Gewährung jeder gewünschten technischen oder kulturellen Hilfe wurden. 

  15. When Somebody Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who we are. No one really knows what happens to a person's soul after death. There are many different beliefs about that, and it's best to talk with your family to find out what they believe happens after our bodies die. Then you can decide ...

  16. Tegnologie en die mens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hellriegel en Slocum vat egter verskeie teoriee saam wanneer hulle se daar 'n indiwiduele en organisasie weerstandsproses is en dat organi- satoriese verandering slegs teweeg gebring kan word indien bestuur hierdie prosesse kan her- ken en verstaan. Die indiwiduele weerstands- proses word gekenmerk deur kragte ...

  17. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  18. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  19. Dying at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanda, Brigitte Gagnon; Dechêne, Geneviève; Marchand, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To demonstrate that it is possible for a team of palliative care nurses in an urban centre to care for more than 50% of their terminally ill patients at home until they die, and that medical care delivered in the home is a determining factor in death at home versus death in a hospital. Design Analysis of place of death of terminally ill patients who died in 2012 and 2013 (N = 212) and who had been cared for by palliative care nurses, by type of medical care. Setting The centre local de services communautaires (CLSC) in Verdun, Que, an urban neighbourhood in southwest Montreal. Participants A total of 212 terminally ill patients. Main outcome measures Rate of deaths at home. Results Of the 212 patients cared for at home by palliative care nurses, 56.6% died at home; 62.6% received medical home care from CLSC physicians, compared with 5.0% who did not receive medical home care from any physician. Conclusion Combined with a straightforward restructuring of the nursing care delivered by CLSCs, development of medical services delivered in the home would enable the more than 50% of terminally ill patients in Quebec who are cared for by CLSCs to die at home—something that most of them wish for. PMID:25873716

  20. Wat wil die apologetiek?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Buys

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Oor die Apologetiek bestaan daar veel verwarring. “Men krijgt het gevoel, alsof men de hand gestoken heeft in een wespennest. Geen enkel vak der godgeleerdheid toont zulk een beeld van volslagen wanorde als dit” (Hepp, 1922, p. 16.

  1. Die skeppingsmites as simbole van psigiese prosesse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dig aangedui met 'n tekening van die Uroboros, die slang wat sy eie stert eet. Die antieke kaart word verder versier met tekeninge van diere, monsters en demoniese figure. Vier koppe met monde wat die wind uit die vier windrigtings blaas, word in die hoeke van die kaart geteken. Die Uroboros, diere, monsters en demone ...

  2. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE KAPELAANSDIENS (SAKD) EN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    het. Die strategiese oorname van die Kaap deur Brittanje in 1806 het hierdie band bekragtig. Die Kerk van Engeland (Anglikaanse Kerk) het in 1534 as staatskerk van die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk afgeskei ná 'n twis tussen die Britse koning en die pous. Die Britse monarg is as konstitusionele hoof van die Anglikaanse Kerk ...

  3. Modelle in die onderrig van fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. Smit

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Die rol van modelle in die onderrig van fisika is sedert die vroeë tagtigerjare erken. In die onderrig word die absent op die kwantitaiewe aspekte van die vak geplaas, terwyl die kwatitatiewe aspekte min aandag kry.

  4. Die ontwikkeling van 'n instrument vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepte-orientasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. De Jager

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of an instrument (the RD-Depth Questionnaire, Form B for measuring the construct psychological depth orientation is discussed. Results show that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal consistency and that the items of the questionnaire in general measure the same characteristic. Further research is needed to refine and improve the questionnaire until it meets all the psychometric requirements of a good measuring instrument.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling van 'n instrument (die RD-Diepte Vraelys, Vorm B vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepteoriëntasie word bespreek. Resultate dui daarop dat die vraelys bevredigende interne bestendigheid toon en dat die items van die vraelys oor die algemeen dieselfde eienskap meet. Verdere navorsing word egter nog vereis om die vraelys te verfyn en te verbeter sodat dit aan al die psigometriese vereistes van 'n goeie meetinstrument sal voldoen.

  5. Failures of dies for die-casting of aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Die-casting dies for casting of aluminum alloys fail because of a great number of different and simultaneously operating factors. Material selection, die design, and thermal stress fatigue generated by the cyclic working process (heat checking, as well as to low and inhomogeneous initial die temperature contribute to the failures and cracks formation on/in dies for die-casting of aluminium alloys. In the frame of the presented investigation work the intensity and homogeneity of the temperature fields on the working surface of the testing die were checked through thermographic measurements, and failures and cracks on the working surface of the die were analysed with non-destructive metallographic examination methods.

  6. Die betrokkenheid van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bybelse geskiedenis - Ou Testament, Bybelvertaling, Skrifverklaring (metodo- logie, Ou en Nuwe Testament), Teologie (Ou en Nuwe Testament). • Bybelkunde 310. Bybelse geskiedenis - Ou Testament, kultuurhistories agtergrond van die Bybel, literatuursoorte en inleiding, hermeneutiek, Skrifverklaring en Teologie van die.

  7. Die wonder van Afrikaans: Totius en die bybelvertalers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dekker

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available In die kort tydjie tot my beskikking kan ek slegs probeer om oor hierdie heel belangrike onderwerp, eintlik die sentrale onderwerp, van ons taalfees, enkele essensiële aspekte kortliks aan te raak.

  8. SEGREGATION OF SOLUTE ELEMENTS IN CRUCIBLE DURING DIE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Yong Sohn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the segregation of solute elements in magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM60B in a crucible during hot-chamber die casting process has been investigated. The sampling of molten metal for chemical composition analysis was carried out at three positions within a crucible of 600 mm in depth. The picked molten metal was poured into a steel mold to cast into a rod 40mm diameter and 120mm length.

  9. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  10. Die eerste vertalings van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolf Britz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel diep die geskiedenis van die eerste vertalings van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in Afrikaans uit die primêre bronne op. Die Belydenisskrifte (insluitende die Kategismus is gedurende die eerste helfte van die twintigste eeu in Afrikaans oorgesit tydens ’n vertalingsprojek waaraan die drie Hollands-Afrikaanse Kerke van gereformeerde belydenis saamgewerk het. In hierdie geskiedenis kan drie fases onderskei word. Die aanvanklike fase (1913–1927 eindig in die gemeenskaplike oortuiging dat die werk aan die Bybelvertalers oorgelaat moet word. Daarmee is beslag gegee aan ’n tweede fase (1927–1936. In 1936 is die vertaling voltooi en in ’n Formulierboek vir die ‘drie Hollandse Kerke’ gepubliseer. Die derde fase (1936–1950 behels die ontvangs van die Formulierboek. Slegs die Gereformeerde Kerk in Suid-Afrika (GKSA het die vertaling amptelik aanvaar, omdat dit op die Nederlandse teksuitgawe berus het wat F.L. Rutgers in samewerking met Herman Bavinck en Abraham Kuyper in 1897 vir die Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland besorg het. Die ander twee Kerke het aansluiting gevind by hulle eie negentiende-eeuse tekstradisie. In 1945 het die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHK ’n eie vertaling asBelydenisskrifte, gebede en formuliere die lig laat sien. Hierdie vertaling is gebaseer op die (Nederlandse krities bewerkte teksuitgawe wat Van Toornenbergen in sy boek, De symbolische schriften (1895, opgeneem het. Die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK het in 1950 sy vertaling van die Belydenisskrifte en Formuliere voltooi. Dit is hoofsaaklik geanker in die (Nederlandse tekste van die Formulierboek der N.G. Kerk in Z. Afrika (1907, wat op sy beurt ook in ooreenstemming was met die tekstradisie waarmee Van Toornenbergen gewerk het. This article traces the history of the first Afrikaans translations of the Heidelberg Catechism from primary sources. In a mutual project the three Dutch-Afrikaans and reformed churches translated their

  11. Dying Is Unexpectedly Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Amelia; Ritter, Ryan S; Waytz, Adam; Norton, Michael I; Gray, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    In people's imagination, dying seems dreadful; however, these perceptions may not reflect reality. In two studies, we compared the affective experience of people facing imminent death with that of people imagining imminent death. Study 1 revealed that blog posts of near-death patients with cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were more positive and less negative than the simulated blog posts of nonpatients-and also that the patients' blog posts became more positive as death neared. Study 2 revealed that the last words of death-row inmates were more positive and less negative than the simulated last words of noninmates-and also that these last words were less negative than poetry written by death-row inmates. Together, these results suggest that the experience of dying-even because of terminal illness or execution-may be more pleasant than one imagines.

  12. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  13. Die waarde en uitdagings van diensleer vir tolkopleiding: die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studente behoort op so ʼn wyse na te dink oor die diensleeraktiwiteit dat hulle verdere begrip van en groter waardering vir die dissipline kry, sowel as ʼn verhoogde bewustheid van persoonlike eiewaarde en verantwoordelikheid teenoor die burgerlike samelewing ontwikkel (Bringle en Hatcher 1995:12). Teen hierdie ...

  14. op die veranderinge wat in die onderrig van Afrikaans plaasgevind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... gaan dink; “E toep”, wat toon hoe die rekenaar prakties in die klaskamer ge bruik kan word en “Toep”, wat praktiese toepassings van kernkonsepte in die klaskamer illustreer. Voorts word in elke hoofstuk vetgedrukte kernkonsepte; interessante en bruikbare tekste en uit gebreide oefeninge verskaf.

  15. Die kairos van die New Age: 'n Kultuurhistoriese skets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prophetic dreams, etc., are merely manifestations of the activity of those finer sen ses. Unreliable at first, like the infant's vision, they can be developed and trained, until the subtler worlds stand as an open book before the man.' Die ontvouing van die mens se kragte geskied volgens die teosowe stadig en geleidelik. Daarom ...

  16. 'n Verkenning van die soorte vennootskappe in die Amerikaanse reg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Amerikaanse literatuur word talle verwysings gevind na die vennootskap in mynbou ("mining partnership"), familievennootskap ("family partnership", vennootskap in vaste eiendom ("partnership in real estate") en vennootskap vir boerdery ("farming partnership"). Hierdie onderskeiding is primer gebaseer op die tipe ...

  17. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  18. voorveronderstellings in die hantering van die verhouding tussen ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986. Teologie as kritiese geloofsverantwoording. Teorievorming in die sistematiese teologie. Pretoria: RGN. VAN ZYL A H. 1970. Die verhouding van die Ou en Nuwe Testament. In: W.D. Jonker, J.H.. Roberts & A.H. van Zyl (reds.), Hermeneutica. Erebundel aangebied aan Prof. E.P.. Groenewald by geleentheid van sy 65e ...

  19. 'n Vergelyking tussen die teologie van die Nederlandse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Denken wij niet te weinig aan de engelen?' Miskien moet ons ook vra: Denken wij niet te weinig aan de hemelvaart?' veral ^ 'n mens sien watter ryke en troosryke betekenis die Heidelbergse Kategismus daaraan gee. Kort en kragtig stel die. Heidelbergse Kategismus die feit van Jesus Christus sc hemelvaart, maar voeg.

  20. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    so^hoi) was nie dog sterrewiggelaars. EDGAR J. GooDPSEBD stel inderdaad ook voor om magoi in die engels te vertaal met "astro logers"^). Om die bekende wyses uit die Ooste nou te vervang met,. „sterre-wiggelaars" of selfs „astroloë" skyn ...

  1. n Oorsig van die huidige stand van navorsing oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... duidelike beskrywing van die opponente nie (kyk Schmid. 2002; Van der Merwe 2007 vir volledige besprekings). In 'n poging om die opponente te identifiseer, word die direkte opmerkings wat wél oor hulle gemaak word met sekere indirekte opmerkings gekombineer ten einde 'n volledige prentjie te skets.

  2. Kweekskool teenoor teologiese fakulteit: Die ervaring van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    office, who have enjoyed the benefits of a liberal education' (Bullock 1955:18). Die predikant moet 'an educated man' wees (Bullock 1955:67). Aan die ...... Crafford, D 1982. Aan God die dank. Pretoria: NG Kerk Uitgewers. De Graaf, W 1955. Een monument der afscheiding. Kampen: Kok. 90. HTS SO/I A 2 (1994) ...

  3. Die gebruik van Afrikaans vir die notulering van hofverrigtinge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daar word tans nog van beide Afrikaans en Engels vir die notulering van verrigtinge in Suid-Afrikaanse howe gebruik gemaak. Sowel regeringswoordvoerders as die Minister van Justisie het egter te kenne gegee dat 'n eentalige Engelse bedeling ingevoer mag word. Hierdie artikel ontleed die saak vir en teen so 'n ...

  4. die ontstaan en ontwikkeling van die kwartiermeester-generaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Okt 1976 ... (insluitende teg- niese voorrade, voertuie en ammunisie) be- hartig. Dit het die organisasie en werking van krygsbehoeftedepots ingesluit. Daar was geen tegniese voorraad depots nie. (ii) Die SA Intendans onder KMG se beheer het die kommissariaat en transportfunksies ver- rig, insluitende brandstof en ...

  5. duele verse sowel as die somtotaal die leser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... byt word aan manuskripte van ingesetenes in hierdie genre nie. Maar nog verblydender is die gehalte van die verse waarmee Gil- bert Gibson met Boomplaats sy formele in- trede tot die Afrikaanse poësie maak (hoe- wel hy reeds in Nuwe Stemme 2 – Tafelberg,. 2001 – gepubliseer het), want vir 'n debu-.

  6. Die aanspraak op Goddelike steun in 'n konfliksituasie volgens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit geld veral met betrekking tot goddelike 'eienskappe', waarvan ons hipoteties moet afsien, want die tekste self noem dit in concreto net binne konkrete relasies tussen God en mense. Verder sal ons die hermeneutiese benadering, wat ons die analogie-model genoem het, nie sonder baie goeie redes kan veronderstel nie ...

  7. Die ontwikkeling van menslike potensiaal in die Republiek van Suid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    :93). Die “Poverty Index Report” van die huidige rege- ring dui aan dat nagenoeg 50% van alle Suid-Afrikaners in armoede leef. Meer as 70% van alle armes word in die plattelandse gebiede aangetref en 61% van alle swartes is armes (Paton ...

  8. Die verhoudíng 'kerk en volk' in die jare 1835-1900 in die Oorvaalse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daaruit voongevloei het, het die verhouding van die kerk en die volk verander, óók omdat die inhoude van dié begrippe verander het. As op die veranderinge gelet word, is dit nogal opvallend dat in die situasie self nie altyd skerp onderskei is tussen kerk en volk nie en dat die onderskeidings dikwels nogal naief hanteer is.

  9. Studie van die letterkunde: Waarom?

    OpenAIRE

    D. H. Steenberg

    1981-01-01

    Sy woorde laat super-novae uitbars, blink, blink en straal deur ringe en lig-ure. Maar die blink die word deur ons gesien: anders nooit en nooit as blink geweet nie. (NP van Wyk Louw: Groot Ode, Tristia)

  10. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W. de Wet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale tipering van die verhouding tussen die teks, hoorders en prediker waarin al drie faktore ’n regmatige plek het; die maniere waarop die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die spanningsveld tussen teks, hoorders en prediker kan skeeftrek; en pneumatologiese verankering van die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die kragveld van die verbondsruimte, waarin Jesus Christus versoenend (integrerend teenwoordig is. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die prediker in die kragveld van die verbond in staat gestel word om getrou te bly aan die teks (waarin God aan die Woord kom, aan die hoorders (as mededeelgenote in die genade van God sowel as – in missionêre konteks – mense wat geroep word om deelgenote in hierdie genade te word en aan hom- of haarself (as nuwe mens in Christus sonder dat die verbintenis aan een element in die  kommunikatiewe driehoek die verbintenis aan die ander versteur of laat disintegreer.Reckoning with the force field of the covenant in aligning the communicative triangle between text, listener and preacher. In this article the communicative triangular relationship between the Biblical text, the listeners and the preacher is reflected upon from a homiletic point of view. The problem statement deals with potential distortions in this triangular relationship when the listeners and preacher (in their human finitude are brought into contact with the eternal Word of God as it proceeds from the Biblical text. In the course of the article the

  11. Friction and wear behaviour of tool steels sliding against 22MnB5 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gracia-Escosa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Boron steels are used in hot stamping process due to their good mechanical properties. During the stamping process, the dies are exposed to aggressive conditions including adhesive wear, abrasion, thermal stresses and fatigue. In the present work, QRO 90 and UNIMAX slid against 22MnB5 steel in four conditions: with and without hardening treatment and, with and without Al–10%Si coating, in order to evaluate the influence of both coating and austenitization treatment on friction and wear of tool steels. The results showed that Al–10%Si reduces the friction coefficient, while the hardening treatment results in an increase of COF due to Fe2Al5 brittle compounds. Wear mechanism of both tool steels is adhesive and oxidative when tested against coated and uncoated 22MnB5, respectively.

  12. Mutational Analysis of the Rhizobium lupini H13-3 and Sinorhizobium meliloti Flagellin Genes: Importance of Flagellin A for Flagellar Filament Structure and Transcriptional Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Birgit; Schuster-Wolff-Bühring, Henriette; Rachel, Reinhard; Schmitt, Rüdiger

    2001-01-01

    Complex flagellar filaments are unusual in their fine structure composed of flagellin dimers, in their right-handed helicity, and in their rigidity, which prevents a switch of handedness. The complex filaments of Rhizobium lupini H13-3 and those of Sinorhizobium meliloti are composed of three and four flagellin (Fla) subunits, respectively. The Fla-encoding genes, named flaA through flaD, are separately transcribed from ς28-specific promoters. Mutational analysis of the fla genes revealed tha...

  13. "Einfach anders als die anderen"

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Stefanie Müller erfasst in ihrem Text die Biographie von Anna, einer jungen Frau, die von ihrer Zeit vor, während und nach dem Verlassen der Gemeinschaft der Zeugen Jehovas berichtet. Der Essay ist halbfiktional und entstand aus verschiedenen Interviews mit ehemaligen Zeugen Jehovas. Die Autorin fasst gemeinsame Aussagen der Akteure zusammen und kreiert eine fiktionale Person dessen Leben vor und nach den Zeugen Jehovas geschildert wird. Die Fragestellung ist diskursiv in den Text integriert ...

  14. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  15. Narratiwiteit en die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kosmologie wat die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe ten grondslag lê, van mitologiese samelewings verskil. Die belangrikste verskil is daarin gelee dat daar in die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe met 'n lineêre geskiedsiening en monoteisme in kontras met ...

  16. IRAN IN DIE INTERNASIONALE MAGSTRYD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which enjoy significant support in the workforce of the manufacturing and oil industries. Inleiding. The comparison of force is not only ... suide, Afganistan en Pakistan in die ooste be}:lrens. Iran vorm tans 'n buffertussen die ..... sive, militant on oil prices and conservationist in production policy. Ten einde Iran se'posisle in die ...

  17. DIE AANWENDING VAN VOEDSELHULPBRONNE VIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (b) Grane en proteibne moet verkieslik aangewend word in die rantsoene van spesies wat dit meer doeltreffend kan benut te wete melkkoeie en enkelmaagdiere. Namate die hoender en vark meer direk met die mens vir hierdie voedsels gaan begin nreeding, sal hulle outomaties begin terugtree, in orde van belangrikheid.

  18. DIE PROBLEMATIEK VAN MILITERE OPLEIDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bevolkingsgroepe, bestaan daar ook verskeie subkulture binne die SAW. So vorm elke weer- magsdeel 'n eie unieke subkultuur wat opgebou is deur kollektiewe ervaring en bestaan uit ele- mente van onderlinge verhoudinge en eensge- sindheid (Hoof van die SAW: KINGSROW-ver- slag 1987: F-5). Die weermagsdele.

  19. DIE LEWE VAN JOAO ALBASINI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    noord van Lourenco Marques, waar hy as jagter en ivoorhandelaar 'n bestaan gemaak het. In sy hoedanigheid as handelaar en jagter was hy oak in die posisie am latere jare die Voortrekkers van lewensmiddele te voorsien. In 1840 besluit hy am verder die binneland in te trek op soek na nuwe jagvelde. Gedurende sy.

  20. Die Vorritzungen der Etruskischen Grabmalerei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1930-01-01

    Die vorliegende Untersuchung will dem Problem der etruskischen Grabmaleri im ganzen dienen. Es scheint mir, als ob die Vernachlässigung der Grabgemälde in Etrurien, die zu einem bedeutenden Teil noch immer sehr gut erhalten sind, einen bestimmten nachweisbaren Grund hat. Obwohl wir hier eine

  1. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... Aktiewe Burgermag en 'n Kadetorganisasie, Die totstandkoming van die mediese diens is aan It- kol M,C, Roland (onder-sekretaris van Verdedi- ging) opgedra,. Die stigting van die SAGO is vergemaklik van- wee die feit dat daar reeds 3 mediese korpse (in. Transvaal, Natal en die Kaap) in die Unie was,.

  2. Die onkunde van die Jode en hulle verwerping van die evangelie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kontras uitgewys tussen die misdaad van die Jode en die doel van God wat in vers 18 uitgedruk word (Metzger ... ens (1978: 28) dat ons ons nie kan vrypleit deur ons te beroep op die verborge raad van God nie - ons ... volk mislei het deur hulle vir hulle eie doel teen Jesus te gebruik. SÓ gesien, kom Lukas 24: 20 tot sy reg, ...

  3. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  4. Dying with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Die effek van "oefening op verskillende tye van die dag" op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die effek van "oefening op verskillende tye van die dag" op die bloedglukosevlakke van Tipe 2 diabete. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home ... This paper reports on the effect of the time of the day of exercise on the blood glucose levels of Type 2 diabetic patients.

  6. die bou van die st aa tsartilleriekaserne, potgieterstraa t, pretoria: die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die Republiek, op. 12.4.1877, het die korps verdwyn en het 'n Britse militere kamp sy verskyning aan die suidekant ... in 'n voormalige Britse militere kamp, aan Potgie- terstraat gehuisves, op dieselfde plek waar tans ... drilplein (zynde het hart van de Scheiding- straat), en met den achtergevel 200 voet uit de verlengde ...

  7. Die ideaal van die spreker in die satiriese gedig: M.M. Walters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Cameron

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer van die satirikus gepraat word, word eintlik die spreker in die satiriese gedig veronderstel. “For the Muse ought always to be our reminder that it is not the author as man who casts these shadows on our printed page, but the author as poet” (Mack, 1971:193.

  8. Die konvensie van Sandrivier as die afsluiting van die Groot Trek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Xhosastropers en ander rowers bly; wantroue in die regering se verdraagsame en onrealistiese houding teenoor die grensstamme. Daar was wantroue in die regering se bereidwilligheid en vermoe om hulle te beskerm of hulle besittings te waarborg, wat onvoldoende troepe vir hulle verdediging beskikbaar gestel het, ...

  9. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  10. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het. Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  11. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  12. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  13. Die gebruik van metode in die filosofie, spesiaal in die reformatoriese tra­disie 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. van der Merwe

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onderw erp van my voordrag, Die gebruik van metode in die fílosofie, verg ’n paar verduidelikende opinerkings vooraf. Ek dink u verm oed alreeds dat hierdie fomulering ’n versuikerde pil is om u in so ’n mate nuuskierig te maak dat una ’n heerlike vrye filosofiese ‘onderonsie’ gedurende die teepouse darem vir ’n tw eede sessie terugkeer. Want is dit nie twee smaaklike heuningdruppels nie: filosofie en sy metode’ en ‘metode in die Reformatoriese filosofiese tradisie'?! Veral as in gedagte gehou word dat in teenstelling met wat ’n mens sou verw ag, daaroor dié onderwerp as sodanig relatief maar heel weinig geskrywe is en word, selfs as die ‘Inleidings in die Metodologie’ daarby gereken word.

  14. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  15. DIE BETREKKING TUSSEN JESUS EN JOHANNES DIE DOPER Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Erange/ium des /oAannes, Gött. t lte AufL 1950. 3) Vgl. HEGEStPPUS by Eus. H. E. IV. 22. Dit word tans algemeen aange- neem dat die Mandeërs nie die direkte voortsetting van die Doperdissipels was nie. In 56 n.C. het Paulus hulle nog aangetref te Efese en was hulle skynbaar ook verteenwoordig in Alexandrië.

  16. oor die inhoud en boodskap van die heidelbergse kategismus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gesê word dié artikels handel oor God die Vader “en ons skepping”, oor. God die Seun “en ons verlossing” en oor God die Heilige Gees “en ons heiligmaking”. ...... Catechism, whose single pages cannot be paid for even with tons of gold.' The love for the Catechism will remain as long as there are people who seek their.

  17. Minimum Requirements of Flagellation and Motility for Infection of Agrobacterium sp. Strain H13-3 by Flagellotropic Bacteriophage 7-7-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun Y.; Broadway, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 specifically adsorbs to Agrobacterium sp. strain H13-3 (formerly Rhizobium lupini H13-3) flagella for efficient host infection. The Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 flagellum is complex and consists of three flagellin proteins: the primary flagellin FlaA, which is essential for motility, and the secondary flagellins FlaB and FlaD, which have minor functions in motility. Using quantitative infectivity assays, we showed that absence of FlaD had no effect on phage infection, while absence of FlaB resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in infectivity. A flaA deletion strain, which produces straight and severely truncated flagella, experienced a significantly reduced infectivity, similar to that of a flaB flaD strain, which produces a low number of straight flagella. A strain lacking all three flagellin genes is phage resistant. In addition to flagellation, flagellar rotation is required for infection. A strain that is nonmotile due to an in-frame deletion in the gene encoding the motor component MotA is resistant to phage infection. We also generated two strains with point mutations in the motA gene resulting in replacement of the conserved charged residue Glu98, which is important for modulation of rotary speed. A change to the neutral Gln caused the flagellar motor to rotate at a constant high speed, allowing a 2.2-fold-enhanced infectivity. A change to the positively charged Lys caused a jiggly motility phenotype with very slow flagellar rotation, which significantly reduced the efficiency of infection. In conclusion, flagellar number and length, as well as speed of flagellar rotation, are important determinants for infection by phage 7-7-1. PMID:22865074

  18. Proton-detected 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H correlation experiment for structural analysis in rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS above 60 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-28

    A proton-detected 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H chemical shift correlation experiment is proposed for the assignment of chemical shift resonances, identification of (13)C-(1)H connectivities, and proximities of (13)C-(1)H and (1)H-(1)H nuclei under ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (ultrafast-MAS) conditions. Ultrafast-MAS is used to suppress all anisotropic interactions including (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings, while the finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used to recouple dipolar couplings among protons and the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer technique is used to transfer magnetization between heteronuclear spins. The 3D experiment eliminates signals from non-carbon-bonded protons and non-proton-bonded carbons to enhance spectral resolution. The 2D (F1/F3) (1)H/(1)H and 2D (13)C/(1)H (F2/F3) chemical shift correlation spectra extracted from the 3D spectrum enable the identification of (1)H-(1)H proximity and (13)C-(1)H connectivity. In addition, the 2D (F1/F2) (1)H/(13)C chemical shift correlation spectrum, incorporated with proton magnetization exchange via the fp-RFDR recoupling of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings, enables the measurement of proximities between (13)C and even the remote non-carbon-bonded protons. The 3D experiment also gives three-spin proximities of (1)H-(1)H-(13)C chains. Experimental results obtained from powder samples of L-alanine and L-histidine ⋅ H2O ⋅ HCl demonstrate the efficiency of the 3D experiment.

  19. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  20. 2,9-Dichloro-6H,13H-5:12,7:14-dimethanodibenzo[d,i][1,3,6,8]tetraazecine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rivera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H14Cl2N4, is isomorphous with 2,9-dimethyl-6H,13H-5:12,7:14-dimethanodibenzo[d,i]-[1,3,6,8]tetraazecine [Rivera et al. (2009. Acta Cryst. E65, o2553] and has twofold symmetry, with two carbon atoms located on a twofold axis. Only van der Waals forces occur between molecules in the crystal. In the isomorphous compound the crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π interactions.

  1. Die ontwerp van ʼn Afrikaanse taakgebaseerde rekenaaronderrig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Beginner Afrikaans Vlak 1 te illustreer. Die navorsing val binne twee breë vakgebiede, waarvan die eerste een die taakgebaseerde benadering tot leer en onderrig is en die tweede een rekenaargesteunde taalonderrig (RGTO). Taakgebaseerde leer en onderrig is ʼn onderrig- benadering waar die fokus van die studente op ...

  2. NORMERING IN DIE AFRIKAANSE RADIO- EN TELEVISIEDIENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Van die jonger Anglisismes kan moontlik met sukses geweer word, byvoorbeeld soveel so dat... (in so 'n mate dat...), die aandele is minder duur (... is goedkoper), die partye ontaoet nekaar halfpad. (... kom mekaar tegemoet), rat race (trapmeul), red tape (rompslomp), die sewentigs (die sewentiger- jare, die jare sewentig), ...

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5" from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die

  4. Die Moosgesellschaften des Nationalparks Harz

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Die Auswertung der in den Jahren 2002–2007 erarbeiteten Vegetationsaufnahmen im Nationalpark Harz ergab ihre Einordnung in 77 unterschiedliche Moosgesellschaften. 17 Moosgesellschaften gehören zu den bedrohten Lebensgemeinschaften der Länder Niedersachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt, womit die Bedeutung des Nationalparks Harz für die Erhaltung und den Schutz der Moosflora des Harzes deutlich wird. The evaluation of vegetation mapping of moss-communities in the National Park Harz in 2002–2007 result...

  5. Die winder van Afrikaans III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit was ’n gelukkige gedagte om vir hierdie feeste as tema te kies: die wonder van Afrikaans. Inderdaad het daar ’n wonder gebeur — die geboorte van ’n nuwe taal. Maar ’n taal kan nie bestaan sonder dat daar ’n nasie is wat dit praat en skryf nie. Die geboorte van ’.n nuwe nasie is net so ’n wonder.

  6. Die Smart Library UB Hildesheim

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Ewald; Schrader, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Der Beitrag benennt die aufgrund überholter Gebäudetechnik erforderlichen Modernisierungsmaßnahmen auf der Grundlage netzbasierter Steuerungstechniken, umgesetzt im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojekts und in Zusammenarbeit mit Studierenden der Studiengänge "Umweltsicherung" und "Umweltwissenschaft und Naturschutz" der Universität Hildesheim und zwei mittelständischen Firmen. Ziel ist die Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und die Erhöhung der Lern- und Arbeitsqualität durch den Einsatz digit...

  7. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  8. Structural changes of radial forging die surface during service under thermo-mechanical fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nematzadeh, Fardin [Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mreza.akbarpour@gmail.com [Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, Amir Hosein; Sadrnezhaad, Seyed Khatiboleslam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Radial forging is one of the modern open die forging techniques and has a wide application in producing machine parts. During operation at high temperatures, severe temperature change associated with mechanical loads and the resultant wearing of the die surface lead to intense variation in strain on the die surface. Therefore, under this operating condition, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) occurs on the surface of the radial forging die. TMF decreases the life of the die severely. In the present research, different layers were deposited on a 1.2714 steel die by SMAW and GTAW, with a weld wire of UDIMET 520. The microstructure of the radial forging die surface was investigated during welding and service using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that, after welding, the structure of the radial forging die surface includes the {gamma} matrix with a homogeneous distribution of fine semi-spherical carbides. The weld structure consisted mostly of columnar dendrites with low grain boundaries. Also, microstructural investigation of the die surface during operation showed that the weld structure of the die surface has remained without any considerable change. Only dendrites were deformed and broken. Moreover, grain boundaries of the dendrites were revealed during service.

  9. Application of permeable metal die for non-ferrous alloy casting; Tsukisei kanagata no keigokin kanagata chuzo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [Shinto Kogyo Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-05-25

    This paper introduces a permeable metal die developed to apply to casting non-ferrous alloys. Gas is discharged through micropores distributed uniformly on a die material. The die is classified into a die having pores with a diameter of 7 {mu}m used for die-casting, and another having pores with a diameter of 30 {mu}m used for gravity casting and low-pressure casting. Cr/Mo-based high-alloy special steel powder is mixed with high-alloy special steel short fibers of the same system for reinforcement to make a die material through compressive formation and sintering. The material undergoes cutting and grinding to fabricate a metal die. Its structure is martensite. Basic tests were given on the die to test heat check resisting performance, molten metal running performance, and mechanical properties of casts. In addition, discussions were given on effects of coating of die release agent and refractories on air permeability. The following effects were verified: inadequate molten metal run is improved; gas defects are eliminated; transcribability of die shape is enhanced; surface grade of casts is improved; and casting cycle time is shortened. Aluminum automotive parts and aluminum containers are mass-produced by using this metal. 4 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Experimental research results of solid particle erosion resistance of blade steel with protective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Seleznev, L. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of metallographic studies and solid particle erosion tests of uncoated blade steel 20kH13 samples and samples with a protective coating based on chromium carbide (Cr-CrC) at a flow (air) velocity CA = 180 m/s, flow temperature tA = 25 °C, attack angle α = 30° and consumption of solid abrasive particles GP = 5·10-4 kg/s. It was found that the coating has a granular structure, a thickness is about 11 μm, the microhardness of the surface is 1520 ± 50 HV0.05. Processing of the obtained data by statistical analysis methods showed that the protective coating based on Cr-CrC increases the solid particle erosion resistance of the blade steel 20kH13 by the incubation-transitional period duration more than 2.5 times.

  11. Osteoporose - die Sicht des Radiologen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grampp S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Die frühe Diagnose der Osteoporose und eine akkurate Beurteilung von Behandlungserfolgen stehen im Mittelpunkt der radiologischen Bemühungen. Die häufigsten angewendeten Methoden, um das periphere Skelett sowie das Achsenskelett zu beurteilen, sind die Zwei-Spektren-Röntgenabsorptiometrie, die quantitative Computertomographie und der quantitative Ultraschall. Generell werden die Meßergebnisse eines Individuums mit einer alters-, geschlechts-, und rassenspezifischen Kontrollgruppe verglichen. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse ein Indikator des künftigen Frakturrisikos eines Patienten. Die radiologische Diagnose der Osteoporose kann durch die Bestimmung der Knochenmasse erfolgen, auch wenn keine prävalenten Frakturen vorliegen. Das Frakturrisiko für den Meßwert eines Individuums steigt um etwa das 1,5 bis 2,5-fache für jede Standardabweichung (SD unter der Spitzenknochenmasse der Normbevölkerung (T-score. Die Wahl des Meßortes und der Untersuchungstechnik zur Bestimmung der Knochenmasse oder des Frakturrisikos muß sich nach individuellen Gegebenheiten des Patienten sowie den Stärken und Limitationen der Techniken richten.

  12. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Preez, Johan J.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal-holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  13. Influence of chemical heat treatment on the mechanical properties of paper knife-edge die

    OpenAIRE

    K. Dybowski; Ł. Kaczmarek; Pietrasik, R.; Smolik, J; Ł. Kołodziejczyk; D. Batory; Gzik, M; M. Stegliński

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this article mechanical properties together with wear mechanism of paper knife-edge die made of A 681 steel with TiN, TiCN and DLC coating were analyzed. A Paper knife-edge die using in stamping machine, serves a map of complicated graphical projects. However wear resistance is strongly dependent on chemical composition of a paper mainly on the TiO2 content.Design/methodology/approach: In order to optimize the wear resistance of analyzed paper knife-edge die, influence of HS6-5-2 ...

  14. 1/38 GEBEURLIKHEDE EN DIE BEWYSLAS IN DIE DELIKTUELE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    Gebeurlikhede1 in die deliktuele skadevergoedingsreg2 kan omskryf word as onsekere3 omstandighede4 van positiewe of negatiewe aard wat, onafhanklik van die verweerder se optrede5 en indien dit sou realiseer,6 waarskynlik7 'n persoon se gesondheid, inkomste, verdienvermoë, lewenskwaliteit, lewens- verwagting ...

  15. BOEKBESPREKING. Djakarta 1954, 103 blz. Die boeke oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    hierdie ,,Inleidings”-van-grotereromvang, is dat hulle eintlik monografië oor inleidingsvraagstukke (bv. Uitgangspunt, Grondslae, Gesindheid,. Oordeel, Handeling, Wet van God e.s.m.) gee. Die beginner vind hier weinig oriëntering, omdat 'n sodanige „Inleiding” alreeds 'n aansienlike vordering op die weg van Teologie en ...

  16. Die WAT en etimologie: Word die kringloop voltooi?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The WAT and etymology: Will the cycle be completed? Afrikaans historical lexicography is a neglected discipline and to a large extent metalexicographers hold the overall-descriptive Afrikaans dictionary, Die Woordeboek van die Ajri1cJumse Taal, responsible for this state of affairs. The WAT, however, describes ...

  17. Die vlugtige taal van vergeet: Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From his first book of poetry, die ysterkoei moet sweet (“the iron cow must sweat”, 1964), till his most recent one, die windvanger (“the windcatcher”, 2007), metaphor has been a central means towards the creation of meaning for Breytenbach. This article will investigate the use of metaphor particularly in this recent book.

  18. Die indianische Moderne : mit Traditionen die Zukunft gestalten

    OpenAIRE

    Behrend, Olaf; Carstensen, Christian; Kammler, Henry; Schlottner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Können sich die indianischen Kulturen Nordamerikas im 21. Jahrhundert anders behaupten als nur in der Pflege von Folklore? Wie können Stammesangehörige mit den überlieferten Kenntnissen umgehen und damit ihr Leben in der modernen amerikanischen Gesellschaft gestalten? Wie bestehen Kulturen, die nur knapp der Ausrottung entgangen sind, als Minderheiten im eigenen Land?

  19. die assimilasie van lidmate in die plaaslike geloofsgemeenskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13 Sep 2010 ... dui dus op 'n verskeidenheid formele en informele prosesse wat mense in staat stel om deel te word van die geloofsgemeenskap (Dudley 1998:114). Wanneer 'n geloofsgemeenskap 'n missionale identiteit ontdek, is groei die uitkoms (Basson 2006:37). Groei kan egter nie doeltreffend plaasvind as daar ...

  20. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...

  1. Demistifikasie van die metafoor “die kerk as bruid”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    5 Sep 2007 ... Boston, MA: Beacon. Barth, K 1939-67. Die kirchliche Dogmatik, 4. Zollikon: Evangelicher Verlag. Barth, K 1958. Die kirchliche Dogmatik, 2. Zollikon: Evangelischer Verlag. Batey, R 1961. The church, the bride of Christ. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. Baumann, G 2003. Love and violence: Marriage as ...

  2. Die rol van moreel in die militêre konflik

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Die rol van moreel in die militêre konflik.

  3. Die onderwysmanifes oor waardes en demokrasie in die onderwys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    28 Aug 2001 ... In die verband stel John Locke dit dat die mens 'n reg het op lewe, vry- heid, gesondheid, en besittings en dat ander hierdie regte moet respek- teer. As ons aanvaar dat sekere regte met menswees gegee is, dan vloei dit voort dat sodanige regte. • natuurlik is (met menswees gegee) in sover as wat hulle ...

  4. die museum se rolin die aankweek van 'n omgewingsbewustheid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIE MUSEUM SE ROLIN DIE AANKWEEK VAN 'N. OMGEWINGSBEWUSTHEID. Martie van der Merwe. THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS. The aim of this paper is to stress the importance and urgency of educating about the environment in the South African context.

  5. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    , „Want Herodes vreesde Johannes' . Die griekse woord wat hier vertaal word as „bang wees", beteken ook iets anders, ^melik ,,om ontsag te hê" soos byvoorbeeld in Ef. 5 :33 en Lev. 19:3 (Septuaginta) Die sinsverband vra in hierdie teks ook.

  6. Die totstandkoming en bedrywighede van die ASAF-koor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Komposisies soos Elia van Mendelssohn, die Requiems van Mozart en Verdi, Beethoven se Negende Simfonie, Bach se Mattheuspassie en Händel se Messias was deel van hulle repertorium. Koorsang is ook deur Keet in ander sentrums aan die Witwatersrand aangemoedig. Danie van den Heever het Keet in 1963 as ...

  7. Die teologiese eie-aardigheid van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christus leeft in mij, en daartoe prediken wij de heden ten dage levende persoonlijkheid van Christus, niet alleen den historischen. Christus, die 1900 jaar geleden op aarde gewandeld heeft, maar Jezus. Christus, die nu nog elken dag naast ons staat.... Deze persoonlijke verhouding tot omgang met Jezus Christus komt tot ...

  8. Verkondig Christus totdat hy kom! Die huidige denke binne die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verkondig Christus totdat hy kom! Die huidige denke binne die Evangeliese Beweging. J J Kritzinger. Universiteit van Pretoria. Abstract. World evangelisation within the Lausanne movement. This article considers a number of key themes regarding world evangelisation. The point of departure is the second general ...

  9. die suid-afrikaanse blanke jeug in die tweede vryheidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blik gekondenseerde melk. "Undesirables" (B-skaal per dag). ~ Ib vars vleis. ~ Ib meel, rys of gestampte mielies. ~ ons koffie. 1 ons suiker. 1 ons sout. ,Je blik gekondenseerde melk19. Uit die bogenoemde rantsoenskale is dit duide- lik dat daar nie noodsaaklike voedsels soos groente, vrugte of vars melk verskaf is nie. Die.

  10. 'n Algoritme vir die minimum van die konkawe knapsakprobleem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Algoritme vir die minimum van die konkawe knapsakprobleem. G Venter∗. JS Wolvaardt†. Ontvang: 15 Januarie 1999; Hersien: 3 Desember 2004; Aanvaar: 27 Maart 2005. Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of resource allocation among activities where the cost of each is described by a concave function.

  11. Bullinger en die verbond na aanleiding van die Tweede Switserse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    novum testamentum zusammengefast und durch seinen Tod vol- lendet oder ratifiziert hat ... Die botschaft der Evangelien ist es gerade, Christum leseum aliud nihil esse quam aetemi foederis aeternum obsidem atque misericordiae et veritatis Dei testem'. (Koch 1968: 399). Hiermee het duidelik geword dat Bullinger die ...

  12. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voudige daad, woord of gedagte nie, maar beskuldig ons dat ons ons hele lewe op die basis van hoogmoed voer en ons van begin tot end uit hierdie bodem voed. Die Woord beskuldig ons dat ons oral en altyd daaraan skuldig is, dat ons op God se genade nie met ooreenstemmende dankbaarheid nie, maar in een of.

  13. Single-Dish Observations of H(13) CO(+) and SiO in the Circumnuclear Molecular Disk of the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Leslie A.; Marr, Jonathan M.

    1995-03-01

    We will present the results from observations with the 37-meter telescope at the Haystack Observatory of H(13) CO(+) (J=1->0) and SiO (J=2->1, v=0) in two particular clumps of the circumnuclear molecular disk at the Galactic Center. The H(13) CO(+) intensity is used in conjuction with previous data of H(12) CO(+) and HCN (Marr, Wright, and Backer 1993) to estimate the abundance ratio of HCO(+) to HCN in one clump. Marr, Wright, and Backer (1993) had found this abundance ratio to be exceptionally low throughout the disk. In the brightest clump of the circumnuclear disk, where enhanced emission by shocked H_2 is also seen (DePoy, Gatley, and McLean 1989), we obtain an upper limit to the opacity of SiO, which when compared to that of HCN (Marr, Wright, and Backer 1993) is a good indicator of shocked regions (Ziurys et al. 1989). We are grateful to the William Keck foundation for providing primary support for this research, including summer salary for LES, through the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium.

  14. Die wortels en kenmerke van die tradisionele Afrikaanse lewenstyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coetzee

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In ons tydsgewrig kan dit moontlik vreemd opklink om by 'n akademiese fees te begin met ’n verwysing na ’n Bybelwoord, maar hier, vandág, waar ons die honderdste bestaansja a r feestelik gedenk van 'n hoëronderwysinrigting wat onbevange in sy naamvaandel die stempel „Christelik” dra, sal dit niemand verbaas as ek my reiaas vanmore plaas onder ’n Bybelteks nie: Matt. 7:16 — ... ’n Mens pluk tog nie druiwe van dorings of vye van distels nie? Matt. 12:33 — Julie moet of die boom goed maak en sy vrugte goed, of julle moet die boom sleg maak en sy vrugte sleg; want aan sy vrugte word die boom geken.

  15. SUSCEPTOBILITY TO THERMAL FATIGUE OF CLOSED DIE HOT FORGING DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Castro Magalhães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot forging dies providing high productive performance reduce production costs. The lifetime of the dies is expressed by the number of forgings (production cycle produced before being rejected by the presence of a failure mechanism, associated with unacceptable dimensions and or geometry of the end product or even breakage of the dies. One of the failure mechanisms of hot forging dies is thermal fatigue, caused by cyclic heating and cooling. A subroutine, based on the work of Maim and Norstrom [1], was developed for the DEFORM 2D numerical software, using the finite element method, in order to predict die regions susceptible to thermal fatigue. The use of adequate coefficients for the description of the heat transfer phenomena allowed the validation of the proposed subroutine.

  16. Pylstertmotte (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. van den Berg

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available 'n Totaal van 42 spesies van pylstertmotte is in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin versamel. Die bekendste hiervan is die patatrusper (Herse convolvuli (L en die dood-skedelmot (Acherontia atropos (L. Die volgende spesies wat versamel is, se voorkoms is nog nie voorheen vir die Republiek van Suid-Afrika aangemeld nie nl. Pemba flavillacea (Walk., Praedora plagiata (R. &J., Leptoclanis basalis (Walk., Polyptychus calcareus (R. &J., Polyptychus compar (R. &J., Nephele aequivalens (Walk., Nephele peneus (Cram., Hippotion roseipennis (Butler en Xenosphingia jansei (Jord.. Die verspreiding van Oligographa juniperi (Bsd. wat langs die kusgebiede van Natal en die Oos-Kaap aangetrefword, is op verskeie plekke in die Krugerwildtuin versamel.

  17. Die Presbiter by Lukas en Paulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste navorsing oor Lukas word die skrywer van die derde evangelieverhaal en die Handelinge van die Apostels aan ons bekend gestel as ’n teoloog wat uit die ‘Sitz im Leben’ (uit die situasie van sy eie tyd die boodskap aangaande Christus interpreteer . Lukas sou hom by sy interpretasie van die Christusboodskap laat lei het deur ’n bepaalde dogmatiese ‘Verstandnis’ waardeur hy homself verraai as ’n teoloog van die na-apostoliese tyd.

  18. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  19. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  20. Development and Demonstration of Adanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Enrique J. Lavernia

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research results in the project Development and Demonstration of Advanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies. Molds, dies and related tooling are used to manufacture most of the plastic and metal products we use every day. Conventional fabrication of molds and dies involves a multiplicity of machining, benching and heat treatment unit operations. This approach is very expensive and time consuming. Rapid Solidifcation Process (RSP) Tooling is a spray-forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The appraoch combines rapid solidifcation processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. An atomized spray of a tool-forming alloy, typically a tool steel, is deposited onto an easy-to-form tool pattern to replicate the pattern's shape and surface features. By so doing, the approach eliminates many machining operations in conventional mold making, significantly reducing cost, lead time and energy. Moreover, rapid solidification creates unique microstructural features by suppressing carbide precipitation and growth, and creating metastable phases. This can result in unique material properties following heat treatment. Spray-formed and aged tool steel dies have exhibited extended life compared to conventional dies in many forming operations such as forging, extrusion and die casting. RSP Tooling technolocy was commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC in Solon, Oh.

  1. Statues Also Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Philippe Fraiture

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “African thinking,” “African thought,” and “African philosophy.” These phrases are often used indiscriminately to refer to intellectual activities in and/or about Africa. This large field, which sits at the crossroads between analytic philosophy, continental thought, political philosophy and even linguistics is apparently limitless in its ability to submit the object “Africa” to a multiplicity of disciplinary approaches. This absence of limits has far-reaching historical origins. Indeed it needs to be understood as a legacy of the period leading to African independence and to the context in which African philosophy emerged not so much as a discipline as a point of departure to think colonial strictures and the constraints of colonial modes of thinking. That the first (self-appointed exponents of African philosophy were Westerners speaks volumes. Placide Tempels but also some of his predecessors such as Paul Radin (Primitive Man as Philosopher, 1927 and Vernon Brelsford (Primitive Philosophy, 1935 were the first scholars to envisage this extension of philosophy into the realm of the African “primitive.” The material explored in this article – Statues Also Die (Marker, Resnais, and Cloquet, Bantu Philosophy (Tempels, The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa (Cheikh Anta Diop, and It For Others (Duncan Campbell - resonates with this initial gesture but also with the ambition on part of African philosophers such as VY Mudimbe to challenge the limits of a discipline shaped by late colonialism and then subsequently recaptured by ethnophilosophers. Statues Also Die is thus used here as a text to appraise the limitations of African philosophy at an early stage.  The term “stage,” however, is purely arbitrary and the work of African philosophers has since the 1950s often been absorbed by an effort to retrieve African philosophizing practices before, or away from, the colonial matrix. This activity has gained momentum and has been

  2. D r. E. S. M ulder, Die Teologie van die Jesaja-apokalipse (Jes.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    In 26:15 is dit nogal gewaag om die vier perfecta met vier futurums weer te gee; as mens met die Afrikaanse vertaling die perfecta wil behou nie, sou 'n praesens- vertaling die regte wees. Of 26:20 die weergawe „vervloeking” beter is as die gebruiklike „toorn” lyk my baie twyfelagtig, vgl. die aan gehaalde parallelle op bl.

  3. Die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A) aan die Universiteit van Pretoria; Vrae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dié opsig het die vestiging en onderhoud van die Fakulteit ryke vrugte afgewerp. Oor die 75 jaar is meer as 500 predikante aan die kerk gelewer en het 56 die dokto- rale studie voltooi. Onder die genoemde 12 predikante van 1917 was daar twee wat die doktorale eksamen afgelê het (Van Belkum en Fourie) maar geen ...

  4. Dying and 'euthanasia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, S R

    1992-07-01

    Medical progress, secularisation of life, growing acceptance of individual human rights (including the right to refuse medical treatment) and of shared decision-making in medicine have focused public attention on the ways in which life may, and perhaps even ought to, be allowed to end in our complex modern era. Intense and thoughtful bio-ethical debate over many years has 'unpacked' the many different understandings and interpretations of the word euthanasia. The consequent conceptual clarification together with recognition and acknowledgement of psychological implications has facilitated a growing rational consensus on openly accepting the withholding and withdrawing of treatment (under defined conditions) within the realm of sound medical practice. This is clearly distinct from assisted suicide and active euthanasia which are generally considered unacceptable perversions of medical practice. Given the ability to sustain life for prolonged periods, often in a permanent state of unconsciousness, the unrealistic expectations of some medical personnel and the lay public, the severe constraints on health care facilities in South Africa and the totally inadequate allocation of resources for highly effective medical treatments, it is appropriate to re-open public debate on the limits of 'striving officiously to keep alive' and on the distinction between 'allowing to die' and 'killing'. Concern that 'rational' arguments reflect moral decay rather than moral progress keeps the debate open and focuses attention on some 'slippery slope' consequences.

  5. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nach den Parlamentswahlen vom März 2008 in Malaysia deutet manches auf einen politischen Umbruch hin: Die regierende Barisan Nasional (BN), die sich bislang einer komfortablen Zweidrittelmehrheit von 91,4 Prozent der Sitze im Parlament des Landes erfreut hatte, rutschte auf 63,1 Prozent ab und das...

  6. Electric steering; Die elektrische Lenkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, J. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Modern industrial trucks already have a large number of electronic systems. With electric steering systems, all steering systems have electronic interfaces, which will influence the safety, functionality and cost of a vehicle. Optimization of the driver workplace, the installation of active safety systems, and the optimization of the failure characteristics can improve passive and active safety. With electronic interfaces to all vehicle control system, the truck can be integrated easily in automatic transport processes. Finally, the simplified interfaces in the vehicle will reduce the overall cost. Failure management is an indispensable precondition for the introduction of electric steering systems, as are correct specifications. A status report is presented. [German] Eine Vielzahl von Systemen sind im modernen schweren Nutzfahrzeug bereits elektronisch (by Wire) realisiert. Mit der elektrischen Lenkung sind saemtliche Systeme zur Laengs- und Querregelung des Fahrzeuges mit elektronischen Schnittstellen versehen. Dies hat Auswirkungen auf die Sicherheit, die Funktionalitaet und die Kosten des Gesamtfahrzeuges. Durch Optimierung des Fahrerarbeitsplatzes, Einfuehrung aktiver Sicherheitssysteme und Optimierung des Ausfallverhaltens koennen die passive wie aktive Sicherheit des Fahrzeuges verbessert werden. Mit den elektronischen Schnittstellen zu allen Fahrzeugfuehrungssystemen kann das Nutzfahrzeug in hervorragender Weise in automatisierte Transportaufgaben integriert werden. Schliesslich lassen sich durch die vereinfachten Schnittstellen im Fahrzeug Kosten im Gesamtfahrzeug reduzieren. Die Beherrschung des Ausfallverhaltens ist aber ebenso wie eine angepasste Vorschriftenlage Voraussetzung fuer die Einfuehrung der elektrischen Lenkung. Ueber den Stand der Entwicklung wird berichtet. (orig.)

  7. Noodgevalle ID die Mediese Praktyk*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20 Jan 1973 ... pasient-geneesheer kontak, om deur soortgelyke hipo- tetiese drilprosedures te gaan? Om jouself moontlikc praktiese situasies voor te skilder, foute en tekortkoming~ in jou kennis op te spoor, en die leemtes aan te vul? 'n Paar willekeurige voorbeelde kan genoem word: I. 'n long man le in die straat met 'n ...

  8. DIE KERKLIKE STIMULASIE VAN EIETYDSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22 Nov 2010 ... and far-reaching possibilities within the industrial environment. INLEIDING. In die eerste artikel is as medewerker .... 1969, 1975) inspireer die Pan African Christian Leadership. Assembly (PACLA) in Nairobi (tydens 1976), ..... 1983, 'The process of contextualization and its limits', Verbum SVD 24, 163–171.

  9. Die etiek van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Die etiek van Barth kan nie reg verstaan word sonder begrip van sy ganse teologiese agtergrond en opset, en ek wil byvoeg: sonder die besondere tydsomstandighede (oorlog! waarin hy geleef en gewerk het nie. Dit is verder bekend dat in sy teologiese ontwikkeling verskillende figure groot invloed op hom uitgeoefen het.

  10. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  11. OPMERKINGS OOR DIE MOONTLIKE HERSIENING VAN ONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    niks in hulle liturgie opneem wat nie vervat is in die geloofsbelydenis en wat nie bekend is uit die Kategismus nie. In hierdie sin is die reforma- toriese Kerk gekant teen „nuwighede” , d.w.s. teen die invoering van dinge wat nie bekend is uit die Kategismus van die Kerk nie. Daarom is die drie groot vaste liturgiese stukke van ...

  12. Leierskapstyl en die lerende organisasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style and the learning organisation. In the present highly competitive environment, it has become increasingly important for organisational leaders to establish a learning organisation. In this study the focus was on the extent of influence that the evolution of organisations, as determined by their relative level of leadership practises (leadership style, has on the establishment of a learning organisation. Opsomming Die daarstel van ’n lerende organisasie deur bedryfsleiers word toenemend belangrik in die hedendaagse hoogskompeterende omgewing. In hierdie studie is gefokus op die mate van beinvloeding wat die evolusie van organisasies, soos deur hul relatiewe vlak van demokratiese leierskapspraktyke (leierskapstyl bepaal, op die daarstelling van’n lerende organisasie het.

  13. Die betekenis wat kommunikasiekunde vir die prediking kan hê

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Fourie

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Kommunikasiekunde is een van die jongste wetenskappe wat in die area van geesteswetenskappe ontstaan het. Dit is ’n vak wat eintlik ontstaan het uit die samevoeging van verskeie vertakkings wat vandag almal as onderafdelings van die Kommunikasiekunde beskou word. Die heel oudste hiervan is die retoriek soos dit al van voor Christus af deur die Grieke geleer is. In die meer resente verlede was Joernalistiek meer as dikwels die voorloper van huidige kommunikasiekunde-departement gewees.

  14. An overview of high thermal conductive hot press forming die material development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zulhishamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the automotive industries are using high strength steel components, which are produced via hot press forming process. This process requires die material with high thermal conductivity that increases cooling rate during simultaneous quenching and forming stage. Due to the benefit of high quenching rate, thermal conductive die materials were produced by adding carbide former elements. This paper presents an overview of the modification of alloying elements in tool steel for high thermal conductivity properties by transition metal elements addition. Different types of manufacturing processes involved in producing high thermal conductive materials were discussed. Methods reported were powder metallurgy hot press, direct metal deposition, selective laser melting, direct metal laser sintering and spray forming. Elements likes manganese, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten and chromium were proven to increase thermal conductivity properties. Thermal conductivity properties resulted from carbide network presence in the steel microstructure. To develop feasible and low cost hot press forming die material, casting of Fe-based alloy with carbide former composition can be an option. Current thermal conductivity properties of hot press forming die material range between 25 and 66 W/m.K. The wide range of thermal conductivity varies the mechanical properties of the resulting components and lifetime of HPF dies.

  15. die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die nuwe testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    na die Evangelies gekyk het, dink jy vir altyd anders oor hulle tot- standkoming. Inderdaad, nuwe metodes ... het nie hierdie twee benaderings gekies omdat ek dink dat dit die beste beskikbare leesstrategieë is ...... Family of the King: dynamics of metaphor in the Gospel according to John. Leiden/. Boston: Brill. VAN ZYL H C.

  16. Die toepassing van die Q-metode van die NIPN vir poswaardering by kooperasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barnard

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Q-method of job evaluation in 13 small, medium and big co-operatives, is discussed. Specific attention is given to the purpose and method of investigation; the findings and recommendations made to the various boards of directors as well as the specific problems encountered in the application of the Q-method and the establishment of an integrated salary structure. Differences between the three categories of cooperatives regarding pay curves, the under or over payment of comparable job grades etc., are discussed.OpsommingDie toepassing van die Q-metode van poswaardering by 13 koöperasies, bestaande uit klein, middelslag en groot koöperasies, word bespreek. Aandag word veral aan die doel en metode van ondersoek gewy. Verder word bevindinge en aanbevelings aan die verskillende direksies bespreek rakende spesifieke probleme wat ervaar is met betrekking tot die toepassing van die Q-metode en die koppeling van posgrade met salarisskale. Verskille tussen die drie kategorieë koöperasies ten opsigte van salariskurwes, oor- of onderbetaling van vergelykbare posgrade, ens. word aangedui.

  17. Reformasie: John Knox, Die Skotse Calvinis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. d'Assonville

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available As ons aan John Knox, die Skotse Hervormer, dink, dan sien ons voor ons oprys die beeld van die Ou-Testamentiese profeet wat sy stem in die woestyn verhef en gekleed gaan met ’n harige mantel en ’n leergord om sy heupe. John Knox het die byl aan die wortel van elke afgodsboom gelê. Soos ’n Luther het hy in die taal van die volk gespreek en daar was by hom geen vrees om selfs in paleise die oordeel van God oor konings aan te kondig nie.

  18. A. VAN SELMS. LUKAS SE SEGSMAN VIR DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    wek dit die gewaarwording by die leser dat een van die Emmaüsgangers. -self hierdie geskiedenis aan die skrywer van die derde Evangelie vertel het. Hierdie gewaarwording van die onmiddellikheid van die oorlewe- ring berus op verskillende gronde. Die eerste is die merkwaardige palestynse kleur van die geskiedenis ...

  19. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  20. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for the protein coded by gene locus BB0938 of Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Xiao, Rong; Ho, Chi K.; Ma, LiChung; Acton, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The product of gene locus BB0938 from Bordetella bronchiseptica (Swiss-Prot ID: Q7WNU7-BORBR; NESG target ID: BoR11; Wunderlich et al., 2004; Pfam ID: PF03476) is a 128-residue protein of unknown function. This broadly conserved protein family is found in eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 98% of backbone and 94% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a b topology with a seven-residue helical insert, ??????????. BMRB deposit with accession number 6693. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  1. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for Escherichia coli ytfP, a member of the broadly conserved UPF0131 protein domain family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramini, James M.; Swapna, G.V.T.; Huang, Yuanpeng; Rajan, Paranji K.; Xiao, Rong; Shastry, Ritu; Acton, Thomas; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    Protein ytfP from Escherichia coli (Swiss-Prot ID: YTFP-ECOLI; NESG target ID: ER111; Wunderlich et al., 2004) is a 113-residue member of the UPF0131 protein family (Pfam ID: PF03674) of unknown function. This domain family is found in organisms from all three kingdoms, archaea, eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 97% of backbone and 91% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a mixed a/b topology,????????. BMRB deposit with Accession No. 6448. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  2. KAAPSE PREDIKANTE VAN DIE SEWENTIENDE EN AGTIENDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    'n vark en 'n buffel geslag is/). Later het dit egter beter geword, veral nadat die Klassis Amster dam in Maart 1621 'n liggaam in die lewe geroep het wat bekend gestaan het onder die naam van Depufai: ad. /nJ:*cas wat onder toesig van die Klassis die Indiese kerksake moes behartig. Hierdie ou sieketroosters het, wat ook ...

  3. pastorale begeleiding aan die persoon met dissosiatiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although dissociative identity disorder is described as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV, there are still unresolved issues regarding the .... dat dit die sensasie van die media aangryp;. • dat dit 'n gewilde onderwerp van bespreking op die ..... misleiding van die slang (Satan). Die mens was aan God ongehoorsaam en het sy ...

  4. Die ontwikkeling van 'n groeiende bevrydingsbediening: 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die gegewens dui daarop dat hierdie bediening in die meeste kerklike denominasies sowel as deur sommige medici en ander professionele verwante gesondheidsvakkundiges beoefen word. Die noodsaaklikheid daarvan om die resultaat van die ondersoek in teorievorming te benut, word aangedui. (Acta Theologica, 21 ...

  5. Die Klein Begin 1916−1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Oberholzer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Die opleiding neem ‘n aanvang met een kerklike dosent, J.H.J.A. Greyventein, en ‘n aantal universiteitsdosente. Die studentetal groei stadig. Die vertrek van professor Paterson en die koms van S.P. Engelbrecht in 1921 bring ‘n belangrike wending. Wanneer B. Gemser in 1926 toetree, is daar drie dosente wat tegelyk ampsdraers van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk is. Gemser is dosent in Teologie sowel as in Lettere en Wysbegeerte waar hy begin met die vestiging van ‘n sterk departement Semitiese Tale. Engelbrecht se kundigheid omvat Kerkgeskiedenis sowel as ‘n unieke kennis van die Voortrekker- en ou Tansvaalse geskiedenis en dit kom die Departement Geskiedenis ten goede. Die akademiese gehalte van die opleiding neem toe, en so ook die studentetal. ‘n Bedreiging vir die voortbestaan van die Fakulteit teologie is afgeweer deur die tydige optrede van S.P. Engelbrecht en die tussenkoms van die Eerste Minister. Die selfstandigwording van die Universiteit van Pretoria en die Afrikaanswording van die Universiteit bring ‘n veranderde konteks.

  6. Die kliniese kindersielkundige as diagnostikus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strümpfer

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Die benaming „Kliniese Kindersielkunde” is nog onbekend en gevolglik betreklik onbemind. Dit is in 1951 die eerste keer gebruik. Die werk van die Kliniese Kindersielkunde is egter so oud as die werk van die algemene Kliniese Sielkunde, waarvan die geskiedenis gewoonlik teruggevoer word tot die begin van sielkundige toetsing vroeg in die tagtigerjare. Tot ’n aansienlike mate is hierdie vroeë werk op kinders uitgevoer, bv. dié van Galton en later die van Binet en Simon. Witmer het in 1896 die eerste sielkundige kliniek geopen en het ook die term „Kliniese Sielkunde” ingevoer; die meerderheid van sy pasiënte was egter ook kinders. Tot voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was klinies-sielkundige werk hoofsaaklik op kinders toegespits. Sedertdien het die kliniese sielkundige tot ’n belangrike mate toegetree tot die gebied van die diagnose en terapie van psigiese afwykings by volwassenes, tot so ’n mate dat in die gedagtes en geskrifte van baie werkers die terrein van die Kliniese Sielkunde byna tot werk met volwassenes beperk word.

  7. Die wêreld en ons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Kruger

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die jaar 1949 het Sowjet-Rusland twee groot suksesse behaal, n.l. die oorwinning van die Komniunisnie in China en die vervaardiging van die atoombom, albei gebeurtenisse wat vir sy westerse teenstanders ’n groot ontngtering was.

  8. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    The utilization of aluminum die casting as enclosures where internal equipment is rotating inside of the casting and could fracture requires a strong housing to restrain the fractured parts. A typical example would be a supercharger. In case of a failure, unless adequately contained, fractured parts could injure people operating the equipment. A number of potential reinforcement materials were investigated. The initial work was conducted in sand molds to create experimental conditions that promote prolonged contact of the reinforcing material with molten aluminum. Bonding of Aluminum bronze, Cast iron, and Ni-resist inserts with various electroplated coatings and surface treatments were analyzed. Also toughening of A354 aluminum cast alloy by steel and stainless steel wire mesh with various conditions was analyzed. A practical approach to reinforcement of die cast aluminum components is to use a reinforcing steel preform. Such performs can be fabricated from steel wire mesh or perforated metal sheet by stamping or deep drawing. A hemispherical, dome shaped casting was selected in this investigation. A deep drawing die was used to fabricate the reinforcing performs. The tendency of aluminum cast enclosures to fracture could be significantly reduced by installing a wire mesh of austenitic stainless steel or a punched austenitic stainless steel sheet within the casting. The use of reinforcements made of austenitic stainless steel wire mesh or punched austenitic stainless steel sheet provided marked improvement in reducing the fragmentation of the casting. The best strengthening was obtained with austenitic stainless steel wire and with a punched stainless steel sheet without annealing this material. Somewhat lower results were obtained with the annealed punched stainless steel sheet. When the annealed 1020 steel wire mesh was used, the results were only slightly improved because of the lower mechanical properties of this unalloyed steel. The lowest results were

  9. DIE EINDE VAN SENDING Fases in die Sendingbedryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questions are focused on the situation in the mission work of the Dutch ..... opmerkings gemaak wat relevant is vir ons argument. ... onafhanklik sou funksioneer (“self support”), en self met die verdere sending ... (“the euthanasia of mission”).

  10. Die Dankesrede bei der Preisverleihung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenmari Pletikos Olof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Festliche Preisverleihungen sind Gelegenheiten, bei denen von den Preisträgerneine kurze Rede erwartet wird. Obwohl die Dankesrede eine kleinere Randgattung innerhalb des epideiktischen Genres ist, steht sie im Mittelpunkt des Ereignisses. Rhetorikhandbücher geben zahlreiche Ratschläge, wie eine gute Festrede vorbereitet werden soll, um zu unterhalten, zu bewegen und zu belehren. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es festzustellen, welche Eigenschaften der Dankesrede die Zuhörer als erwünscht oder unerwünscht wahrnehmen und welche Charakteristika am meisten zur Qualität festlicher Dankesreden beitragen. Das Korpus der gesprochenen Texte bilden 30 Dankesreden anlässlich kroatischer Preisverleihungen in den Bereichen Schauspiel, Sport, Musik, Fernsehen, Literatur und Wirtschaft. Die Audio-Aufnahmen der Dankesreden wurden einer Gruppe von Hörern zur Bewertung in folgenden Kategorien vorgelegt: interessant, geistreich, hoher Sprachstil, feierlich, emotiv, persönlich, originell, bescheiden, vorbereitet und spontan. Zusätzlich wurde zu jeder Rede die offene Frage gestellt, was dem Zuhörer an der Rede gefallen oder nicht gefallen habe. Die Resultate der Perzeptionsanalye lassen erkennen, dass die Interessantheit einer Rede mit der Eigenschaft des Geistreichen, des Originellen, des Emotionalen und des Persönlichen in Verbindung gebracht wird und die Eigenschaft des Festlichen im Wesentlichen nur mit dem hohen Sprachstil und der Vorbereitetheit des Textes korreliert. Einige Eigenschaften können sowohl erwünscht als auch unerwünscht sein, z. B. Dialekt, Persönliches und Kürze. Die besten Dankesreden haben Eigenschaften, die im Grunde schwer miteinander zu verbinden sind: Einerseits soll der Text vorbereitet sein (hoher Stil, Wortwahl, Figuren, Originalität der Geschichte, Humor, andererseits wird bei der Ausführung Spontaneität (Aufrichtigkeit, Emotionalität, Persönlichkeit erwartet.

  11. GUEST LECTURES Die Koue Oorlog: Die Wereid se Langste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were able to bring about, kept the world on the brink of war, a nuclear war that was gener- ally believed would be the ... nuclear physicist Bernard Baruch when he referred to the fact that we are in the midst of a cold war.2. In that same .... "its fusion of imperialist motive and anti-communist ideology"9. Die Nuwe Realisme: die ...

  12. Springback compensation for a vehicle's steel body panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Paweł; Świątoniowski, Andrzej; Szostak, Janusz; Kiełbasa, Bartłomiej

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a structural element of a vehicle, that is made from High Strength Steels. Application of this kind of materials considerably reduces construction mass due to high durability. Nevertheless, it results in appearance of springback that depends mainly on used material as well as part. Springback reduction helps to reach the reference geometry of the element by using the Finite Element Method software. Authors compared two methods of optimization of die shape. The first method defines the compensation of the die shape only for OP-20 and the second multi-operation method defines the compensation of the die shape for the OP-20 and OP-50 operations. Prediction of springback by the trial-and-error method is difficult and labor-intensive. Designing of dies requires using of appropriate FEM software to make them more economic and less time-consuming. Virtual compensation methods make it possible to receive precise result in a short time. Die compensation with software application was experimentally verified by the prototype die. Therefore, springback deformation becomes a critical problem especially for the HSS steel when the geometry is complex.

  13. Sintaksis in Duits-onderrig: die plasing van die onderwerp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn, E.C.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of strong similarities between German and Afrikaans syntax, there are also considerable differences, such as the positioning of the subject, which frequently appears much later in German sentences than in Afrikaans. This is evident, for example, in the comparison of a few parallel texts. An empirical investigation showed that the defennent of the subject undeniably creates problems for Afrikaans speaking students learning German. They find sentences with a deferred subject difficult to understand and find it even more difficult to construct their own sentences in this way. A few practical suggestions for teaching methods aimed at resolving these difficulties are presented here. Ten spyte van sterk ooreenkomste tussen die Duitse en Afrikaanse sintaksis bestaan daar ook wesenlike verskille, soos bv. ten opsigte van die plasing van die onderwerp, wat in Duitse sinskonstruksies dikwels later verskyn as in Ajrikaans. Dit blyk onder andere uit die vergelyking van 'n paar parallelle tekste. 'n Empiriese ondersoek het getoon dat hierdie vertraging van die onderwerp vir Afrikaanssprekendes wat Duits leer, heelwat probleme skep. Hulle vind dit moeilik om sinne met 'n vertraagde onderwerp te verstaan en nfJg moeiliker om self sulke sinne te konstrueer. Enkele praktiese wenke word aan die hand gedoen om hierdie probleme deur doelgerigte onderrig te bekamp.

  14. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  15. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  16. die ontwikkeling van die menslike bewussyn ken wilber se aqal-teorie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sosiale sisteem'. Die eksterne individuele kwadrant (die eksterne enkelvoud) verteenwoordig die uiterlike fisieke ontwikkeling van die individu. Navorsers en teoretici in dié kwadrant is BF Skinner, John Watson, John Locke, en.

  17. Nuwe patogene in die voedselbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ehlers

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n “Nuwe generasie” voedselpatogene het die afgelope jare hul verskyning gemaak en kan 'n ernstige gevaar vir die voedselbedryf inhou. Hierdie organismes is uiters aanpasbaar en bestaande voedselprosesseringstegnieke, veral die verkoeling van voedsel, is nie altyd volkome effektief om hul groei te voorkom nie. Clostridium botulinum tipe E, enterotoksigeniese Eschsrichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes en Aeromonas hydrophila is in staat om in voedsel by 5 °C te groei. Campylobacter jejuni en Brucella kan weer by 5 °C oorleef en 'n derde groep organismes, naamlik Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus en Vibrio vulnificus kan by temperature tussen 5 °C en 12 °C groei en hul teenwoordigheid is ’n aanduiding dat die koueketting verbreek is.

  18. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  19. P J Hoedemaker: 'Wat ék bedoel, is die behoud van die kerk'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dit bly egter die moeite werd om die passie wat uit die lewe van hierdie man vir die kerk van Christus gestraal het, na te vors. Die laaste 20 jaar van die vorige eeu was 'n besonder gespanne tyd in. Nederland, in die Nederlandse kerkgeskiedenis en veral in die Nederlandse. Hervormde Kerk. 1 S S H m X 9 iC n -H T S 16/4 ...

  20. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  1. Einfaches Ortungssystem fuer die Schallemissionspruefung

    OpenAIRE

    Greiff, R.

    1982-01-01

    Zur Ortung von Schallemissionssignalen, auch in dicken Koerpern und ohne Kenntnis der Schallgeschwindigkeit, werden an dem Koerper eine Anzahl von Schallaufnehmern in offener, vorzugsweise linearer Anordnung und/oder in geschlossener, vorzugsweise kreisfoermiger Anordnung befestigt und die Ankunftszeiten der Schallsignale an den einzelnen Aufnehmern gemessen und miteinander verglichen. Fuer die Schallquelle ergibt sich bei n Schallaufnehmern in offener Anordnung eine Ortsaufloesung von 2n-2, ...

  2. Geskiedenis van die Geneeskunde in Pretoria*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 1971 ... hou en 'n verbod ingestel op die goOl van afval en mtspan van diere in die strate. Pretorius het daarop die Kerkplein uitgewys wat die middel- punt van die nuwe dorp moes word en Louis Devereux en Jan. H. Visagie het begin om die plein uit te le en 'n kerk bou. Lydenburg het egter nou afgestig en sy eie ...

  3. Ursínus, die opsteller van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, Olevianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In hierdie hoedanigheid het hy 'n leidende aandeel aan die gestal- tegewing van die Calvinistiese kerk van die Palts. Veral met die opstel van die uitgebreide kerkordelike maatreels het sy regsopleiding goed te pas gekom. Met sy uitstaande organisatoriese bekwaamhede het hy in die kerkordenende werk 'n gro-.

  4. Die funksie en boodskap van die 'voorwoord' in 1 Korintiërs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - ging van die evangelie). Soos in 2 Korintiërs en Galasiers ontbreek die getuigskrif oor die gemeente se lewe. Maar ten spyte van die leemte verkry Paulus die ge meente se goedgesindheid met die verwysing na God se ryke gawes aan hulle ...

  5. Die impak en grondwetlikheid van die reg om te staak met ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    6 Jul 2009 ... verandering in die werkplek ingestel het verplig word om toe te laat dat die werknemers só voortgaan met hul werk as wat hul sou voordat die verandering ingestel is, tydens die dispuutbeslegting. 84 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 138. 85 Art 1 en 2 van die Conciliation Act 1896; art 95 van die Employment Protection ...

  6. Die geheim van die prediking: om mondig te word | Cilliers | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hierdie artikel gaan uit van die oortuiging dat prediking 'n spraakgebeure is waarin die stem van die prediker - simbool van sy of haar persoonlikheid en spiritualiteit - 'n belangrike rol het om te speel. Die stem van die prediker mag nie misken word in die dinamiese struktuur van kommunikasie nie, en moet inteendeel op 'n ...

  7. Manifestasies van die liefde in Langsaan die vuur (A. H. M. Scholtz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Jan 2010 ... “regeer ”, waardeur van die liefdelose paradigmas elders in die verhaal op hulle kop gekeer word. Teenoor die motief van die moederlike liefde is hy 'n eksponent van die vaderlike liefde, soos geïllustreer deur sy verhouding met Chris. Teacher du Toit is 'n rassis, wat dan ook die rasseklassifikasiesisteem ...

  8. SPE DIE OORNAME VAN DIE HAREM DEUR 'N NUWE KONING. In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    voormalige byvrou van Saul; die Septuaginta in die Lucianus-recensie lees egter in vers 7: ,,Saul het n bywyf gehad, wie se naam was Rispa die dogter van Aja, en hy het haar geneem." Die gespasieerde woorde, wat in die Hebreeuse teks nie voorkom nie, is die gewone aanduiding van 'n wettige huwelik, vgl. I Sam.

  9. Die invloed van klimaatverandering op die Suid-Afrikaanse stad en voorgestelde aanpassings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available intense sonstraling, veral in die somer, wat Suid-Afrika baie geskik maak vir die opwekking van fotovoltaïese krag aan die positiewe kant, maar aan die ander kant moet die straling effektief beheer word in stedelike ruimtes en in geboue. Die...

  10. Die beeld van die opvoeder — 'n groep Opvoedkunde-studente se ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Leerders bring 'n groot deel van die dag tydens hulle belangrike vormingsjare in die skool deur — jare wat vir leerders se karaktervor- ming, lewensuitkyk en sukses op die pad vorentoe van deurslag- gewende belang is. Opvoeders het dus deel aan die slypingsproses waar die toekomsgeluk van 'n medemens op die spel ...

  11. oordrag van eiendomsreg in die vulgêre reg in die wes-romeinse ryk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr F Schutte

    Alhoewel algemeen aanvaar word dat die saaklike ooreenkoms sy ontstaan aan Savigny te danke het, kom die vraag by mens op of sy teorie op die Romeinse reg gegrond is. Om vas te stel of enige kenmerke van die saaklike ooreenkoms op enige stadium in die geskiedenis van die Romeinse reg aangetref kan word, ...

  12. Die groot drie: 'n Eeu van spotprente in Die Burger 1915–2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Zapiro) het hul eie webruimtes waarop hul werk ook te koop is. Die voortbestaan van spotprente is dus hopelik nie bloot gekoppel aan die lewensvatbaarheid van die gedrukte koerant nie. Die groot drie laat 'n mens met die gevoel dat die hartklop van 'n gemeenskap, hul sosiale omstandighede en politieke ingesteld-.

  13. Die potensiaal van chemies behandelde fluitjiesriet ( Phragmites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die potensiaal van chemies behandelde fluitjiesriet ( Phragmites australis )-hooi in onderhoudsdiete vir skape. 1. Die effek van NaOH-behandeling en ureuminkuiling op inname, verteerbaarheid en rumenkinetika.

  14. Tool steels. 5. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.

    1998-12-31

    The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

  15. BORONIZING OF STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    ULUKÖY, Arzum; CAN, Ahmet Çetin

    2006-01-01

    Boride layer has many advantages in comparison with traditional hardening methods. The boride layer has high hardening value and keeps it's hardeness at high temperatures, and it also shows favorible properties, such as the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion. The process can be applied at variety of materials, for instance steel, cast iron, cast steel, nickel and cobalt alloys and cermets. In this rewiew, boronizing process properties, boride layer on steel surfaces and specification...

  16. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Jordaan

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  17. Die eerste siklus. Etienne Leroux. Kaapstad: Human & Rous- seau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waarop dit die stryd teen die waardes en prak- tyke van die kapitalisme aanspreek deur die karakter van die anargis Juliana Doepels, wat lyk na 'n voorganger van die Occupy Wall. Street-protesteerders. Die roman se slottoneel. (onder andere beïnvloed deur die James Dean- film Rebel Without a Cause), waarin die mugu.

  18. Ortopedie in die Grieks - Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Die gevorderde hantering van afwykings van bene en gewrigte, Ortopedie, het in Mesopotamië en veral in antieke Egipte sy ontstaan gehad. Dit was egter die Griekse geneeshere wat in die laat 5de eeu v.C. in die Hippokratiese Korpus ’n merkwaardig doeltreffende samevatting van die ortopediese beroep vasgelê het, waarop vir minstens ’n 1 000 jaar nie beduidend verbeter sou word nie. Gebaseer op die onderskeiding tussen toe en oop frakture en ontwrigtings (lg. met oorliggende velwond, en aansienlik swakker prognose is hierdie afwykings so spoedig moontlik gereduseer (selfs deur middel van meganiese tegnieke, die oorliggende vel met seraatsalf gesmeer en dan met kompresse en verbande geïmmobiliseer. Gedurende die eerste 12 dae is die letsel herhaaldelik weer oopgemaak om die fraktuur of ontwrigting te herbelyn indien nodig. Eers hierna is ferm immobilisasie met onder andere spalke aangebring. Beduidende druk op die letsel is vermy omdat daar geglo is dat dit sepsis en gangreen aanbring. Dit is aanvaar dat genesing 20 dae (by byvoorbeeld voet-, rib- en sleutelbeenfrakture en 40 dae (by been- en bo-armfrakture sou duur. Benewens algemeen geldende prosedures is die spesifi  eke hantering van 18 verskillende frakture en ’n groot aantal ontwrigtings in besonderhede uitgespel. Oor ander ortopediese afwykings soos degeneratiewe artritis en jig verskyn daar min in die Hippokratiese werke, maar later geneeshere in die Romeinse era (bv. Celsus, Soranus, Aretaeus en Galenus het dit wel beskryf. Daar is aanduiding dat die hantering van siektes van gewrigte en bene by die mens (die dissipline van ortopedie in moderne terminologie reeds in antieke Egipte deeglik bestudeer en aangeteken is. 1 Tydens die klassieke era en die Romeinse tyd is beduidende verdere bydraes gelewer. In hierdie studie word die ewolusionêre ontwikkeling van ortopedie as kliniese studierigting in die antieke tyd, onder die loep geneem.

  19. Characterization of isolated 1-aza-adamantan-4-one (C9H13NO) from microwave, millimeter-wave and infrared spectroscopy supported by electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, O.; Goubet, M.; Boudon, V.; D'Accolti, L.; Fusco, C.; Annese, C.

    2017-08-01

    We have synthesized 1-aza-adamantan-4-one (C9H13NO) starting from commercial 1,4-cyclohexanedionemonoethylene acetal and tosylmethylisocianide, following a procedure already described in the literature. The high degree of sample purity was demonstrated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric measurements and its structure evidenced by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Among numerous interests in physical chemistry, this target molecule is of high relevance for mechanistic evaluation and the synthesis of novel pharmaceutical compounds. We present a thorough spectroscopic study of this molecule by gas phase vibrational and rotational spectroscopy. Accurate vibrational frequencies have been determined from infrared and far-infrared spectra. The pure rotational spectrum of the molecule has been recorded both by cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 2-20 GHz region by supersonically expanding the vapor pressure of the warm sample and by room-temperature absorption spectroscopy in the 140-220 GHz range. Accurate sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters of 1-aza-adamantan-4-one in its ground state and in five vibrationally excited states have been derived from these measurements and compared to accurate quantum chemical calculations. The hyperfine parameters have been discussed in terms of molecular structure around the nitrogen quadrupole nucleus.

  20. Genomic analysis of a 1 Mb region near the telomere of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and avirulence gene vH13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To have an insight into the Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly genome, we performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis utilizing genetic mapping, genomic sequence and EST sequence data along with data available from public databases. Results Chromosome walking and FISH were utilized to identify a contig of 50 BAC clones near the telomere of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and near the avirulence gene vH13. These clones enabled us to correlate physical and genetic distance in this region of the Hessian fly genome. Sequence data from these BAC ends encompassing a 760 kb region, and a fully sequenced and assembled 42.6 kb BAC clone, was utilized to perform a comparative genomic study. In silico gene prediction combined with BLAST analyses was used to determine putative orthology to the sequenced dipteran genomes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Conclusion This initial effort enables us to advance our understanding of the structure, composition and evolution of the genome of this important agricultural pest and is an invaluable tool for a whole genome sequencing effort.

  1. 2D 1H -13C Heteronuclear Shift Correlation Of 2a - Hydroxy Aiantolactone From Pulicaria Undulata C.A. Mey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rustaiyan

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reported recently the isolation and characterization of several sesquiterpene lactones from Pulicaria undulata (1."nThe lactones were isolated from an Et20 - Petrol (1:3 fraction by different chromatographic techniques including HPLC (RP 8, MeOH - H2O, 13:7."nIn this way three eudesmanolides 1 - 3, a guaianolide 4, a nor -guaianolide 5, as well as the pseudoguaianolide 6 and the xanthanolide 7 were isolated. One of the eudesmanolides (2a - hydroxy aiantolactone, 1, was present as the main component."nSuch lactones being known as biologically active substances, we have decided to describe for the first time a detailed interpretation of proton, 1H -NMR, 13C - NMR and 2D lH -13C - heteronuclear shift correlation spectra of 2a - hydroxy aiantolactone. The stereochemistry of C - 2 , C - 7 and C - 8 was determined by the NOESY experiments, H - 7 and H - 8 are in the a configuration and H - 2 is in the b configuration.

  2. Die Meting van die verband tussen geslag en konformiteit as groepdinamiese veranderlikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. de Villiers

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount and kind of conformity induced by group pressure depend upon the nature of the situation. The nature of the group and the characteristics of the individual. In this particular study the experimental measurement of conformity developed by Asch and Crutchfield was repeated. Confirmation was found that sex operates as one of the determinants of conformity. OpsommingIn die sosiale bedryfsielkunde is die invloed van die groep op die individu een van die vernaamste studieterreine. Die mate waarin ‘n individu konformeer tot groepsdruk hang af van die aard van die situasie, die aard van die groep en die eienskappe van die individu. In hierdie studie is die eksperimentele meting van konformiteit soos ontwikkel deur Asch en Crutchfield herhaal en bevestiging is gevind dat geslag een van die individuele determinante van konformiteit is.

  3. Die spook van Afrikaneridentiteit in Toorberg, Die stoetmeester en Die swye van Mario Salviati (Etienne van Heerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtte van Graan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spookkarakters is ’n kenmerkende aspek van Etienne van Heerden se roman-oeuvre, maar tot op hede is weinig navorsing gedoen waarin daar spesifiek na die aard en funksie van hierdie spookkarakters ondersoek ingestel is. In hierdie artikel bespreek ek Van Heerden se gebruik van spookkarakters diachronies, met verwysing na die romans Toorberg (1986, Die stoetmeester (1993 en Die swye van Mario Salviati (2000. Ten einde die aard van spookkarakters uit te klaar, word daar van die sogenaamde paranormale wetenskap gebruik gemaak. Die spoke in die drie betrokke romans word hiervolgens geklassifiseer en binne die konteks van die roman waarin hulle verskyn, bespreek. Hierdeur sal ek aantoon hoe die spookkarakters in dié romans as ’n voortdurend veranderende vergestalting van Afrikaneridentiteit (’n sentrale tema in Van Heerden se oeuvre gelees kan word. Van Heerden se Afrikaner verander oor tyd: in Toorberg vorm die spookkarakters ’n kollektief wat ’n gefragmenteerde beeld van die stereotipiese, argaïese, manlike Afrikaneridentiteit vergestalt; in Die stoetmeester word ’n liminale karakter in ’n liminale historiese tydperk juis só geskryf om ’n liminale Afrikaneridentiteit te vergestalt; en in Die swye van Mario Salviati word daar wegbeweeg van ’n eksklusiewe Afrikaneridentiteit na ’n meer omvattende Suid-Afrikaanse identiteit deur die gebruik van spookkarakters wat ten opsigte van agtergrond en herkoms verskil. Ten slotte sal die historiese kontekste van die romans en die identiteite daarin vergelyk en bespreek word ten einde die funksie van Van Heerden se spookkarakters as voortdurende herskrywings van Suid-Afrikaanse identiteite uit te lig.

  4. In die grot van die sibille. Juanita Louw. Kaapstad: Queillerie, 2016 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ook op die program die harlekinade. Die nar in reënboogtooisel werwel sy Al Debbo-oë elk om 'n spil. Ons skater vir sy bont mimiek, sy hart oor sy hele lyf gespeld. In die derde afdeling is die gedig “Sirkel” bewys van Louw se verstegniese vaar- dighede. In die gedig verwoord die sprek- er haar nadoodse metamorfose van ...

  5. Die resepsie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 17 en 22 insake die opstanding in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk sedert 2000 (Deel 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes W. Hofmeyr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Met die 450e herdenking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus as vertrekpunt, word met die huidige en die vorige artikel gepoog om lig te werp op die plek, die rol en die interpretasie van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in veral Sondag 17 en 22, spesifiek in die konteks van twee besondere eras in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde (NG Kerk. In die vorige artikel is allereers ’n bespreking gevoer oor die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK. Daar is gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die era van Andrew Murray, spesifiek teen die agtergrond van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in Nederland. In die huidige artikel word soortgelyk gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die NG Kerk na 2000, teen die agtergrond van die herverskyning van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in die vorm van die Jesus Seminaar, die Nuwe Hervorming en ondersteuners daarvan binne die NG Kerk. Sowel die negentiende-eeuse liberale stryd in die NG Kerk asook die stryd oor die opstanding in die NG Kerk van die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu, soos verder in hierdie artikel sal blyk, was gekenmerk deur kontekstueelbepaalde uniekhede. Die gemene deler was dat albei deel was van tye van teologiese vrysinnigheid. In die lig van hierdie bespreking word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die NG Kerk tans, betreffende haar identiteit as gereformeerde kerk waarskynlik in ’n kritieke geloofs- en toekomskrisis verkeer. Dit impliseer kommerwekkende gevolge vir haar Skrifverstaan en getuienis as belydenis en belydende kerk van Jesus Christus en haar toekoms. Alleen duidelike visie, verantwoordelike leierskap en ’n herontdekking van die verlossingskrag van Christus se kruis en opstanding sal herstellende, positiewe en dinamiese oplossings kan bied om sodoende die NG Kerk te red van ’n snelwentelende afwaartse spiraal.With the 450th celebrations of the origin of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC in mind, the main aim of this and the

  6. die helikopter as troepedraer in konvensionele lugoperasies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tiese scenario World War 3 word 'n geringe rol aan die transporthelikopter toegeken; hiervolgens sal helikopters in die Lynx-reeks gebruik work vir klein vegspanne se taktiese aanwending.27. Hierdie beskouing stem feitlik ooreen met die van sir John Hackett wat die helikopter hoofsaaklik as lugmobiele geskut tipeer.28.

  7. Kerkreg? Die plek van Kerkreg en Kerkregering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    25 Jul 2006 ... Artikel XXX). Die verhouding tussen plaaslike gemeente en sinode het een van die mees brandende kwessies in kerkregtelike sin gebly tot op hede. Soms word die gemeente swaarder beklemtoon en andersyds raak sinodes en hulle kommissies nie maklik gewoond aan die gesag wat hulle meen om.

  8. Art. XXIX van die Nederlandse geloofsbelydenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. van der Waal

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Daar word allereers gespreek oor die noodsaak om ‘diligemment’ en ‘avec bonne prudence par la parole de Dieu’ te onderskei wat die ware kerk is. Die eerste Nederlandse teks gee die belydenis aldus: “Wy ghelooven, dat men moet neerstelicken onderscheiden met goeder wijsheyt by den woorde Gods, welcke de rechte ende ware kerk sy”.

  9. Apologie vir die Christelike lewenswyse en etiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    'n Lewe in twee ryke. • 'n Eskatologiese bestaan (konsentrasie op die eindoordeel). • 'n Lewe van liefde wat minstens die volgende insluit: Diakonale deernis en sorg en die verwerping van 'n aristokratiese lewenshouding. 3.1.2 Verdere aspekte van die Christelike lewe uit ander vroeg-. Christelike geskrifte. •. Bereidheid tot ...

  10. Eenheid en verskeidenheid in die insek legioene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A.J. Ryke

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available Geen ander groep diere is so intiem ingeweef in die ingewikkelde kompleks van die biologiese wêreld as die insektenie. Die oorgrote meerderheid vanhulle het ’n terrestriële leefwyse, maarsommige het hulle tog ook in varswater-habitatte tuisgemaak.

  11. Die verhouding Bybelse teologie en dogmatiese teologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mente verkry is nie. Hierdie ontwikkeling het natuurlik die vraag na die verhouding tussen die testamente akuut gemaak en tot vandag toe steeds brandend gehou. Verskeie antwoorde is aangebied waarmee of vir algehele diskontinuïteit of vir kontinuiteit besluit is, of na 'n mid- deweg gesoek is met die aanvaarding van ...

  12. DIE MAPOCH.OORLOG,1882-1883

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skate is oor en weer geskiet, maar sander groat lewensverliese aan Boerekant. Heelwat Nd- zundza-krygers is deur die Boere in die klip- skeure vasgekeer wat suksesvol met dinamiet toegeskiet is.43Die kop self kon nie ingeneem word nie. Veldkornet S.J. Roos, 'n Amajuba- held, is tydens die skermutselings doodgeskiet.

  13. uniform van die staatspresidentswag - herkoms en tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    het grof en lelik vertoon, en daar is op die fyner offisierste- wels besluit. Aangesien daar nie sulke stewels beskikbaar was nie, is bruin stewels swart ge- maak vir gebruik deur die skildwagte. 'n Bruin skynsel was egter steeds sigbaar, en daar moes dus spesiaal swart stewels vir die SP Wag ver- vaardig word. Aangesien die ...

  14. Die verband tussen kreatinienopruiming en glomerulere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Sep 1990 ... die ondersoek was om die gebruik van radio-isotope, en wel radio-gemerkte natriumchromaat etileendiamientetra-asynsuur. (51Cr-EDTA) in kritiek siek pasiente te evalueer. Metode. Studieformaat. In die studie is gebruik gemaak van 10 paslente in die eenheid by Pelonomi-hospitaal, wat elkeen in 3 fases ...

  15. Walter Schmithals se ^Die Gnosis in Korinth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hy nie kan voorstel nie, die onmoontlikheid te bewys nie. Die onvoorstelbare liggaamlose lewe hoef nie nog ontken te word nie, want die onvoorstelbaarheid ontken dit klaar. Indien Paulus sou probeer om die onmoontlikheid van 'n lewe sender liggaam te bewys, sou sy opf)onente hom van 'n gebrek aan gnosis beskuldig,.

  16. Die «ASEAN-Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2014-01-01

    Entwicklungsstufen, wie sie unterschiedlicher kaum sein können. Der Autor, Bonn Juego, nimmt die ASEAN Vision 2020 sowie die Debatten, die diesbezüglich in den einzelnen Ländern geführt werden, unter die Lupe. Er geht dem Potenzial des ASEANAnsatzes zu sozialer Teilhabe und wirtschaftlicher Verteilungsgerechtigkeit...

  17. DIE NORMERING VAN AFRIKAANSE TAALGEBRUIK SOOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toe te sien dat die leerlinge teg spel en skryE. Die taalonderwyser het ge«oonlik minstens 'n wootdeboek wat a^j^bcon gebruik word. VecaL in die hoer standerds word allerlei woordeboeke gebcuik asook die Afrikaanse woordelys en spclreels van S.A. Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, en dikwels ook lyste spelwoorde en ...

  18. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  19. Is kerkvereniging vandag of in die toekoms 'n doelwit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die eenheid van die kerk bestaan in die geloof. Vir die ongelowige (= die wêreld) is die eenheid van die kerk onsigbaar, maar vir hom wat met ems kan sê credo unam sactam ecclesia is die kerk één. Die Reformatore het egter geëis dat elkeen hom by die ware kerk moes voeg. Dit beteken dat die kerk tog ook sigbaar moet ...

  20. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  1. Die teologiese debat: Die waarde of betekenis daarvan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conciliorum oecumenicorum decreta. Herder: Basel. Baigent, M & Leigh, R 1992. The Dead Sea scrolls deception. Reading: Cox & Wy man Ltd. Bernhart, J (Hrsg) 1954. Thomas von Aquino. SummederTheologie. Stuttgart: Al fred Kroner Verlag. Von Campenhausen, H F 1956. Die Griechische Kirchenvater. Stuttgart: Kohl-.

  2. Protesoptogte en die rol van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spruch und in einer Rechtspraxis und Gesetzgebung zu bewáhren, die Freiheit und. Lebensmóglichkeit der schwáchsten Glieder der Gemeinschaft respektiert und sichert. In ihrer Unabdingbarkeit ist diese Forderung fiir sie alle gottlichen Ur- sprungs. Ihre Verletzung fiihrt daher zu Heimsuchung und Untergang der Gesell-.

  3. die eerste vrydeidsoorlog: enkele aspekte mbt die britse siening van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of obstinate, almost fanatical, old Dutchmen, whom one cannot help rather admiring, and who will sacrifice everything and abandon their farms rather than to live under the British flag, or, indeed under any form of government but their own'.? Toe die eerste skate op 16 Desember 1880 by. Scientia Militaria, South African ...

  4. Die ontmaskering van die bose: Eksegetiese perspektiewe op ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    te kommunikeer.9 Wanneer hierdie vermoëns ontleed word, gee hulle in die .... The language of the text – its discourse, the word of God – is the ..... analysis of the content. ...... Revelation unsealed: A narrative critical approach to John's.

  5. Die funksie van die ^danksegging(s)' in 1 Tessalonisense

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die besonder van 1 Tessalonisense 2:13-16, gee Schmidt (1983:269-279), Pearson. (1971:79-94), Best ...... exigence which can be completely or partially removed if discourse, introduced into .... The form critical study of Paul's letters: 1 Thessalonians as a ... Toward an interactional model for the analysis of letters. Neo-.

  6. Die plek van Empedokles in die metafisies-mistieke tradisie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Peter Kingsley which seems to draw Empedocles closer to. Buddhism, but without explicating this implication of his reception. 1. PROBLEEM EN BENADERING ... fragmente (ongeveer 450 reëls). Dit is nie bekend in welke volgorde hierdie twee gedigte ontstaan het nie. Wat wel vas staan, is dat die eerste (esoteriese.

  7. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  8. DEVELOPING A KNOWLEDGE-DASED DECISION STEM TO SELECT THE STEELS OF DIESFOR SHEET-METAL FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMİN GÜNDOĞAR

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a problem solving and decison making process. In the selection of die materials, some points are very important. For this reasons, daıabases are not enough to select the steels of dies for sheet metal in themselves. They do not incorporate data relating to all of the contributin g factors needed for quantitive interpretations. To solve the user's problem are requried expertises and knowledge obtained from experts. In this study, a knowledg e-hased decision making system is introduced which is included the knowledge and experiences of the experts that subject fo ı med from rules and there is a database inc l uding the cbaracterictics of die steels. · In this syste m also comprises �ision making mechanizm that selects suitable die steels by using user inte rface.

  9. Die Freunde im und die Freude am Fernsehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Ovcina Cajacob

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht darin, die Wirkungen von Popstars und Popbands auf Jugendliche (13- bis 17-Jährige zu erforschen. Im Mittelpunkt der Interessen steht die Frage, welche Wirkungen aus der Rezeption von Musiksendungen (bzw. Videoclips von Musiksendern entstehen und welche Charakteristika innerhalb der aufgebauten Beziehungen zu den Stars bemerkbar sind. Andererseits wurden die Unterschiede und Parallelen zwischen parasozialen Beziehungen zu den Stars und orthosozialen Beziehungen aufgezeigt. Im Zusammenhang mit der empirischen Untersuchung bezieht sich die Autorin auf den Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach, wobei die bedürfnissbefriedigenden Wirkungen von Musikkanälen und den dazu gehörigen Popstars im Mittelpunkt stehen. Mit Hilfe des Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach wird angenommen, dass das Konsumieren der Musiksendungen und der Musikstars von den Jugendlichen gezielt zur Befriedigung bestimmter Bedürfnisse eingesetzt wird.The objective of this study is to explore the effects of pop stars on adolescents (aged between 13 and 17. The focus of interest is the question what effect music channels (i.e. video clips from music channels produce and what characteristics are noticeable from the formed relationship between adolescents and pop stars. On the other side, parallels and differences have been drawn between the para-social relationships to pop stars and ortho-social relationships. In connection with empirical study, the author also refers to Uses-and Gratification-Approach where the need satisfying effects of music channels and pop stars are in focus. With the help of Uses-and Gratification-Approach it will be assumed, that aim of watching music channels and therefore pop stars will be pointed toward the gratification of specific needs.

  10. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P. Retief

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  11. Reformasie: John Knox, Die Skotse Calvinis* 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. d'Assonville

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Na negentien maande van onophoudelike stryd en nood, word John Knox gedurende Februarie 1549 van die wrede Franse galeiskip losgelaat. Hierop begeef die liggaamlik gebroke hervormer hom na Engeland, omdat Skotland nog te onveilig was, Die Rooms-Katolieke party het sake aldaar so onder die kiel gehad, dat ’n deurbraak van die Hervorming menslik gesproke op hierdie tydstip onmoontlikwas.

  12. Laser-assisted machining process simulation for precision mould/die manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Quanren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-assisted machining (LAM is a kind of thermally assisted manufacturing process which preheats workpiece material with a highly-localized laser beam and then is followed by a conventional machining operation. It could greatly improve the machinability and gives better machining quality, especially suitable for hard-to-cut materials such as superalloys, tool steels. For manufacturing the high-precision moulds/dies that could fabricate micro and precision components, the thermal assistance at the local cutting zone, will help to lower the cutting force and consequently improve the internal surface quality of the machined moulds/dies. In this paper, a numerical study of the laser-assisted cutting of plastic mould steel NAK80 is reported. The simulation of LAM of NAK80 is realized by combining two procedures: simulation of moving laser heat source applied on the local surface of workpiece which causes the corresponding temperature field arise and material soften, and simulation of the subsequent cutting processes. This research will offer the die/mould manufacturers a more efficient planning tool for the fabrication of the micro, precision dies/moulds of high surface quality, and hence, for forming the high-quality micro components as well as for longer die/mould life.

  13. Normatiwiteit versus neutraliteit in die handelswetenskappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Venter

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Die sondeval van die mens het ’n tydperk van stryd ontsluit; dit is die stryd tussen die mag van die lig en die mag van die duisiternis wat hom telkens in nuwe en meer manifestasies openbaar het. Daarom kon die Collegium Studiosorum Veritas van die Utrechtse Universiteit in die voorwoord tot die bundel voordragte wat by geleentheid van sy 12e lustrum onder die titel „Geloof en Wetenschap” gehou is, as volg verwys na die openbaring van hierdie stryd op wetenskapsterrein: „Sinds tientallen jaren immers is de verhouding tussen geloof en wetenschap het vraagstuk, waarmee generaties van Christelijke wetenschapsbeoefenaars en studenten hebben geworsteld. Aan dit onderwerp zijn tallose redevoeringen en eindeloze debatten gewijd sedert de natuurwetenschappen in de laatste helft van de vorige eeu zulk een overweldigende vlucht namen. De verbazing, die de mens vervulde toen hij ontdekte welke mogelijkheden er in de natuur verborgen lagen, zwol aan tot een hybris, die God dood verklaarde en de hemel onbewoond”.

  14. Die Eigenschaft der Violinspielstechnik von C.Flesch : "Die allgemeine Technik" auf den Schwerpunkt legend

    OpenAIRE

    髙旗, 健次

    2015-01-01

    Um die Behauptung über die Kunst des Violinspiels von Carl Fresch zu systematisieren und anzuordnen, fokussiere ich mich auf “Die allgemeine Technik” als den Ausgangspunkt der von ihm vorgeschlagenen drei Säulen, “Die allgemeine Technik”, “Die angewandte Technik” und “Das künstlerische Spiel”. Über die Technik mit dem linken Arm hat er entdeckt, dass zwar das Geigenspiel “selbst das Intervall zu bestimmen fordert”, aber die linken Finger dies nicht bestimmen, sondern die Formen oder Bewegunge...

  15. TYD AS GAWE – GOD SE TYD: DIE POLSSLAG VAN DIE KERKJAAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    middel van simbole, kleur en beelde geskied, word die Woord verkondig deur variasie én 'n geheel van kommunikasie op verskillende vlakke. So word die wesenlike van ons geloof binne die verloop van tyd verkondig en sigbaar gemaak – tot gestalte gebring. Die Kerkjaar bied dus die basis en struktuur vir verskeidenheid ...

  16. Die taak van akademiese geletterdheid/hede binne die konteks van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streit der Fakultäten2 wat in 1798 deur Immanuel Kant gepubliseer is. Kant se teks dateer uit. 'n tydperk van groot sosiale verandering gedurende die vroeë fases van die industriële revolusie toe die onderwysstelsel van die Middeleeue uitgedien geraak het en vernuwing nodig was. Een van die belangrikste veranderings ...

  17. Ses van die een en 'n halfdosyn van die ander? | van Dyk | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uit die studie behoort dit duidelik te wees of daar grootskaalse oorvleueling tussen CAPS aan die een kant en TAG en die AGLA121-module aan die ander kant is en of ʼn module in Akademiese Geletterdheid noodsaaklik is vir alle leerders op eerstejaarsvlak, omdat dit fokus op aspekte wat nie deur die skoolsillabus gedek ...

  18. die lewenswyse yan die suid. afrikaanse jeug yanaf 1652 tot yoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sigheid van aile militere-operasies vanwee die rustiger toestande wat geheers het. Vanaf April het 'n brutale gees hom onder sommige van die rowerbendes geopenbaar. Op 8 Mei 1811 word berig ontvang van die moord op die twee Slab- ber broers. Pieter en Nicolaas was op die trek- pad toe hulle deur 'n bende swartes ...

  19. Die beeld van die opvoeder — 'n groep Opvoedkunde-studente se ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    ders geskenk het, en "almal, al was jy nie 'n Picasso nie, spesiaal laat voel het." Dit is vir die deelnemers belangrik dat opvoeders moeite moet doen om die leerders werklik te leer ken. Sewe van die deelnemers noem dat die opvoeders al die leerders in hulle klas as unieke mense met eie persoonlikhede gesien het.

  20. die kasteel••de goede hoop" (1921.1923): die verhaal van in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oor die beoogde opknapping van die Kat-pui of portico, soos dit in die in Engels opgestelde argiefstukke genoem is. begin met 'n skrywe van die Kaapstadse distrikingenieur,. Departement van Openbare. Werke. aan die sekretaris van genoemde departement van 30 November 1922 waarin eersgenoemde o.m. na mnr.