GYSELA, a full-f global gyrokinetic Semi-Lagrangian code for ITG turbulence simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Crouseilles, N.; Latu, G.; Sonnendruecker, E.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.
2006-01-01
This work addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the GYSELA code. The particularity of GYSELA code is to use a fixed grid with a Semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme and this for the entire distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already showns the interest of such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation in non-linear regime as well as an accurate description of fine spatial scales. The code has been upgrated to run 5D simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence. Linear benchmarks and non-linear first results prove that semi-lagrangian codes can be a credible alternative for gyrokinetic simulations
Beyond scale separation in gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Darmet, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Angelino, P.; Bertrand, P.; Besse, N.; Gravier, E.; Morel, P.; Sonnendruecker, E.; Crouseilles, N.; Dischler, J.-M.; Latu, G.; Violard, E.; Brunetti, M.; Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Tran, T.-M.; Villard, L.; Boulet, M.
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with a set of gyrokinetic codes based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme. Several physics issues are addressed, namely, the comparison between fluid and kinetic descriptions, the intermittent behaviour of flux driven turbulence and the role of large scale flows in toroidal ITG turbulence. The question of the initialization of full-F simulations is also discussed
Gyrokinetic simulation of microtearing turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerk, Hauke
2013-01-01
In modern fusion experiments, plasma turbulence is responsible for the radial heat transport and thus determines the plasma confinement within the magnetic field of tokamak devices. Deeper theoretical understanding is needed to explain today's and future fusion experiments. The goal of fusion research is to establish nuclear fusion as a safe and sustainable energy source. In future fusion power plants, and also in large fusion experiments like the presently constructed ITER, plasma heating predominantly affects the electron species. The reason is of fundamental nature: the collisional cross section of fast ions that are produced by the heating systems is larger for thermal electrons than for thermal ions. It is thus essential to correctly predict electron thermal transport, but the overall picture still continues to evolve. Besides microinstabilities on the electron gyroradius scales, also a stochastized magnetic field can contribute to enhanced electron transport. Already since the 1970's, the so-called microtearing instability is discussed as a source of stochastic fields. This microinstability deserves its name for breaking up the magnetic field structure by forming small-scale magnetic islands. The linear microtearing instability and its nonlinear, turbulent behavior is investigated in this thesis by means of numerical simulations with the gyrokinetic turbulence code Gene. The underlying gyrokinetic equations are not only appropriate to predict turbulent transport, but also describe neoclassical transport that is drift-kinetic in nature. Besides revealing interesting physics on long time scales, solving the neoclassical equation serves as an excellent test for the numerical implementation of the collision operator in Gene. Focusing on the local limit, it is found that a modification of this implementation that considers certain symmetries is necessary to obtain a satisfactory agreement with the well-established drift-kinetic neoclassical code Neo. Also the
Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*
Nevins, William
2005-10-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits
Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchholz, Rico
2016-07-01
In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}
Visualizing Gyrokinetic Turbulence in a Tokamak
Stantchev, George
2005-10-01
Multi-dimensional data output from gyrokinetic microturbulence codes are often difficult to visualize, in part due to the non-trivial geometry of the underlying grids, in part due to high irregularity of the relevant scalar field structures in turbulent regions. For instance, traditional isosurface extraction methods are likely to fail for the electrostatic potential field whose level sets may exhibit various geometric pathologies. To address these issues we develop an advanced interactive 3D gyrokinetic turbulence visualization framework which we apply in the study of microtearing instabilities calculated with GS2 in the MAST and NSTX geometries. In these simulations GS2 uses field-line-following coordinates such that the computational domain maps in physical space to a long, twisting flux tube with strong cross-sectional shear. Using statistical wavelet analysis we create a sparse multiple-scale volumetric representation of the relevant scalar fields, which we visualize via a variation of the so called splatting technique. To handle the problem of highly anisotropic flux tube configurations we adapt a geometry-driven surface illumination algorithm that places local light sources for effective feature-enhanced visualization.
Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport: size scaling and chaotic behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L; Brunner, S; Casati, A; Aghdam, S Khosh; Lapillonne, X; McMillan, B F; Bottino, A; Dannert, T; Goerler, T; Hatzky, R; Jenko, F; Merz, F; Chowdhury, J; Ganesh, R; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Sarazin, Y; Idomura, Y; Jolliet, S
2010-01-01
Important steps towards the understanding of turbulent transport have been made with the development of the gyrokinetic framework for describing turbulence and with the emergence of numerical codes able to solve the set of gyrokinetic equations. This paper presents some of the main recent advances in gyrokinetic theory and computing of turbulence. Solving 5D gyrokinetic equations for each species requires state-of-the-art high performance computing techniques involving massively parallel computers and parallel scalable algorithms. The various numerical schemes that have been explored until now, Lagrangian, Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian, each have their advantages and drawbacks. A past controversy regarding the finite size effect (finite ρ * ) in ITG turbulence has now been resolved. It has triggered an intensive benchmarking effort and careful examination of the convergence properties of the different numerical approaches. Now, both Eulerian and Lagrangian global codes are shown to agree and to converge to the flux-tube result in the ρ * → 0 limit. It is found, however, that an appropriate treatment of geometrical terms is necessary: inconsistent approximations that are sometimes used can lead to important discrepancies. Turbulent processes are characterized by a chaotic behaviour, often accompanied by bursts and avalanches. Performing ensemble averages of statistically independent simulations, starting from different initial conditions, is presented as a way to assess the intrinsic variability of turbulent fluxes and obtain reliable estimates of the standard deviation. Further developments concerning non-adiabatic electron dynamics around mode-rational surfaces and electromagnetic effects are discussed.
Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.
2010-01-01
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Jian-Zhou; Hammett, Gregory W.
2011-01-01
A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.
COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATION OF TOKAMAK TURBULENCE AT FINITE RELATIVE GYRORADIUS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WALTZ, R.E.; CANDY, J.; ROSENBLUTH, M.N.
2002-01-01
OAK B202 COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATION OF TOKAMAK TURBULENCE AT FINITE RELATIVE GYRORADIUS. A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and allow direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite beta, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization effects which break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in a cyclic flux tube limit which allows only gyroBohm scaling and a noncyclic radial annulus with physical profile variation. The later requires an adaptive source to maintain equilibrium profiles. Simple ITG simulations demonstrate the broken gyroBohm scaling depends on the actual rotational velocity shear rates competing with mode growth rates, direct comprehensive simulations of the DIII-D ρ*-scaled L-mode experiments are presented as a quantitative test of gyrokinetics and the paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z; Rewoldt, G; Ethier, S; Hahm, T S; Lee, W W; Lewandowski, J L V; Nishimura, Y; Wang, W X
2005-01-01
Recent progress in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of turbulent plasmas using the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is surveyed. In particular, recent results for electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and their resulting transport are presented. Also, turbulence spreading, and the effects of the parallel nonlinearity, are described. The GTC code has also been generalized for non-circular plasma cross-section, and initial results are presented. In addition, two distinct methods of generalizing the GTC code to be electromagnetic are described, along with preliminary results. Finally, a related code, GTC-Neo, for calculating neoclassical fluxes, electric fields, and velocities, are described
Progress in gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevins, W.M.; Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Shumaker, D.E.
2001-01-01
The 3-D nonlinear toroidal gyrokinetic simulation code PG3EQ is used to study toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence - a key cause of the anomalous transport that limits tokamak plasma performance. Systematic studies of the dependence of ion thermal transport on various parameters and effects are presented, including dependence on E-vectorxB-vector and toroidal velocity shear, sensitivity to the force balance in simulations with radial temperature gradient variation, and the dependences on magnetic shear and ion temperature gradient. (author)
Comprehensive gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak turbulence at finite relative gyroradius
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
2003-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and allow direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite beta, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization effects which break gyro Bohm scaling. The code operates in a cyclic flux tube limit which allows only gyro Bohm scaling and a noncylic radial annulus with physical profile variation. The later requires an adaptive source to maintain equilibrium profiles. Simple ITG simulations demonstrate the broken gyro Bohm scaling paradigm of Garbet and Waltz [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1898 (1996)]. Since broken gyro Bohm scaling depends on the actual rotational velocity shear rates competing with mode growth rates, direct comprehensive simulations of the DIII-D ρ*-scaled L-mode experiments are presented as a quantitative test of gyrokinetics and the paradigm. (author)
Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grandgirard, V [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sarazin, Y [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Angelino, P [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bottino, A [Max Plank Institut fr Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM AssociationGarching (Germany); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7, rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Darmet, G [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Jolliet, S [CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Latu, G [LaBRI, 341 Cours Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7, rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Villard, L [CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2007-12-15
Critical physical issues can be specifically tackled with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Three main results are presented. First, the self-consistent treatment of equilibrium and fluctuations highlights the competition between two compensation mechanisms for the curvature driven vertical charge separation, namely, parallel flow and polarization. The impact of the latter on the turbulent transport is discussed. In the non-linear regime, the benchmark with the Particle-In-Cell code ORB5 looks satisfactory. Second, the transport scaling with {rho}{sub *} is found to depend both on {rho}{sub *} itself and on the distance to the linear threshold. Finally, a statistical steady-state turbulent regime is achieved in a reduced version of GYSELA by prescribing a constant heat source.
Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandgirard, V; Sarazin, Y; Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Crouseilles, N; Darmet, G; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Jolliet, S; Latu, G; Sonnendruecker, E; Villard, L
2007-01-01
Critical physical issues can be specifically tackled with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Three main results are presented. First, the self-consistent treatment of equilibrium and fluctuations highlights the competition between two compensation mechanisms for the curvature driven vertical charge separation, namely, parallel flow and polarization. The impact of the latter on the turbulent transport is discussed. In the non-linear regime, the benchmark with the Particle-In-Cell code ORB5 looks satisfactory. Second, the transport scaling with ρ * is found to depend both on ρ * itself and on the distance to the linear threshold. Finally, a statistical steady-state turbulent regime is achieved in a reduced version of GYSELA by prescribing a constant heat source
Gyrokinetic continuum simulations of turbulence in the Texas Helimak
Bernard, T. N.; Shi, E. L.; Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.; Taylor, E. I.
2017-10-01
We have used the Gkeyll code to perform 3x-2v full-f gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in the Texas Helimak. The Helimak is an open field-line experiment with magnetic curvature and shear. It is useful for validating numerical codes due to its extensive diagnostics and simple, helical geometry, which is similar to the scrape-off layer region of tokamaks. Interchange and drift-wave modes are the main turbulence mechanisms in the device, and potential biasing is applied to study the effect of velocity shear on turbulence reduction. With Gkeyll, we varied field-line pitch angle and simulated biased and unbiased cases to study different turbulent regimes and turbulence reduction. These are the first kinetic simulations of the Helimak and resulting plasma profiles agree fairly well with experimental data. This research demonstrates Gkeyll's progress towards 5D simulations of the SOL region of fusion devices. Supported by the U.S. DOE SCGSR program under contract DE-SC0014664, the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG
2012-01-01
Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2008-08-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ^{-1.5} or κ^{-2.0}, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
E.A. Belli, G.W. Hammett and W. Dorland
2008-01-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ∼ κ -1.5 or κ -2.0 , depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève , D. ,; Sarazin , Y.; Garbet , X.; Grandgirard , V.; Breton , S. ,; Donnel , P. ,; Asahi , Y. ,; Bourdelle , C.; Dif-Pradalier , G; Ehrlacher , C.; Emeriau , C.; Ghendrih , Ph; Gillot , C.; Latu , G.; Passeron , C.
2018-01-01
International audience; Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., Comp. Phys. Commun. 207, 35 (2016)]. A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime likely relevant for tungsten, the standard expression of the neoclassical impurity flux is shown t...
Considering fluctuation energy as a measure of gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plunk, G G; Tatsuno, T; Dorland, W
2012-01-01
In gyrokinetic theory, there are two quadratic measures of fluctuation energy, left invariant under nonlinear interactions, that constrain turbulence. In a recent work (Plunk and Tatsuno 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003) we reported on the novel consequences that this constraint has for the direction and locality of spectral energy transfer. This paper builds on that previous work. We provide a detailed analysis in support of the results of Plunk and Tatsuno (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 165003), but significantly broaden the scope and use additional methods to address the problem of energy transfer. The perspective taken here is that the fluctuation energies are not merely formal invariants of an idealized model (two-dimensional gyrokinetics (Plunk et al 2010 J. Fluid Mech. 664 407–35)) but also general measures of gyrokinetic turbulence, i.e. quantities that can be used to predict the behavior of turbulence. Although many questions remain open, this paper collects evidence in favor of this perspective by demonstrating in several contexts that constrained spectral energy transfer governs the dynamics. (paper)
Turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in low flow gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2010-01-01
We derive a self-consistent equation for the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks in the low flow ordering that only requires solving gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations correct to second order in an expansion on the gyroradius over scale length. We also show that according to our orderings the long wavelength toroidal rotation and the long wavelength radial electric field satisfy the neoclassical relation that gives the toroidal rotation as a function of the radial electric field and the radial gradients of pressure and temperature. Thus, the radial electric field can be solved for once the toroidal rotation is calculated from the transport of toroidal angular momentum. Unfortunately, even though this methodology only requires a gyrokinetic model correct to second order in gyroradius over scale length, current gyrokinetic simulations are only valid to first order. To overcome this difficulty, we exploit the smallish ratio B p /B, where B is the total magnetic field and B p is its poloidal component. When B p /B is small, the usual first order gyrokinetic equation provides solutions that are accurate enough to employ for our expression for the transport of toroidal angular momentum. We show that current δf and full f simulations only need small corrections to achieve this accuracy. Full f simulations, however, are still unable to determine the long wavelength, radial electric field from the quasineutrality equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T.S. Hahm; Z. Lin; P.H. Diamond; G. Rewoldt; W.X. Wang; S. Ethier; O. Gurcan; W.W. Lee; W.M. Tang
2004-12-21
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.X.; Ethier, S.; Lee, W.W.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Tang, W.M.
2005-01-01
An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length. (author)
A hybrid gyrokinetic ion and isothermal electron fluid code for astrophysical plasma
Kawazura, Y.; Barnes, M.
2018-05-01
This paper describes a new code for simulating astrophysical plasmas that solves a hybrid model composed of gyrokinetic ions (GKI) and an isothermal electron fluid (ITEF) Schekochihin et al. (2009) [9]. This model captures ion kinetic effects that are important near the ion gyro-radius scale while electron kinetic effects are ordered out by an electron-ion mass ratio expansion. The code is developed by incorporating the ITEF approximation into AstroGK, an Eulerian δf gyrokinetics code specialized to a slab geometry Numata et al. (2010) [41]. The new code treats the linear terms in the ITEF equations implicitly while the nonlinear terms are treated explicitly. We show linear and nonlinear benchmark tests to prove the validity and applicability of the simulation code. Since the fast electron timescale is eliminated by the mass ratio expansion, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition is much less restrictive than in full gyrokinetic codes; the present hybrid code runs ∼ 2√{mi /me } ∼ 100 times faster than AstroGK with a single ion species and kinetic electrons where mi /me is the ion-electron mass ratio. The improvement of the computational time makes it feasible to execute ion scale gyrokinetic simulations with a high velocity space resolution and to run multiple simulations to determine the dependence of turbulent dynamics on parameters such as electron-ion temperature ratio and plasma beta.
Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.
2006-01-01
A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.
Fully Electromagnetic Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Equations for Tokamak Edge Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Wang, Lu; Madsen, J.
2008-01-01
An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high E x B shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method ensures the preservation of the conservation laws of the underlying Vlasov-Maxwell system. Our generalized ordering takes ρ i θi ∼ L E ∼ L p i is the thermal ion Larmor radius and ρ θi = B/B θ ρ i ), as typically observed in the tokamak H-mode edge, with L E and L p being the radial electric field and pressure gradient lengths. We take k # perpendicular# ρ i ∼ 1 for generality, and keep the relative fluctuation amplitudes e(delta)φ/T i ∼ (delta)B/B up to the second order. Extending the electrostatic theory in the presence of high E x B shear [Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)], contributions of electromagnetic fluctuations to the particle charge density and current are explicitly evaluated via pull-back transformation from the gyrocenter distribution function in the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equation
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Breton, S.; Donnel, P.; Asahi, Y.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ehrlacher, C.; Emeriau, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gillot, C.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.
2018-03-01
Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code (Grandgirard et al 2016 Comput. Phys. Commun. 207 35). A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime that is probably relevant for tungsten, the standard expression for the neoclassical impurity flux is shown to be recovered from gyrokinetics with the employed collision operator. Purely neoclassical simulations of deuterium plasma with trace impurities of helium, carbon and tungsten lead to impurity diffusion coefficients, inward pinch velocities due to density peaking, and thermo-diffusion terms which quantitatively agree with neoclassical predictions and NEO simulations (Belli et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 015015). The thermal screening factor appears to be less than predicted analytically in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime, which can be detrimental to fusion performance. Finally, self-consistent nonlinear simulations have revealed that the tungsten impurity flux is not the sum of turbulent and neoclassical fluxes computed separately, as is usually assumed. The synergy partly results from the turbulence-driven in-out poloidal asymmetry of tungsten density. This result suggests the need for self-consistent simulations of impurity transport, i.e. including both turbulence and neoclassical physics, in view of quantitative predictions for ITER.
Linear and nonlinear verification of gyrokinetic microstability codes
Bravenec, R. V.; Candy, J.; Barnes, M.; Holland, C.
2011-12-01
Verification of nonlinear microstability codes is a necessary step before comparisons or predictions of turbulent transport in toroidal devices can be justified. By verification we mean demonstrating that a code correctly solves the mathematical model upon which it is based. Some degree of verification can be accomplished indirectly from analytical instability threshold conditions, nonlinear saturation estimates, etc., for relatively simple plasmas. However, verification for experimentally relevant plasma conditions and physics is beyond the realm of analytical treatment and must rely on code-to-code comparisons, i.e., benchmarking. The premise is that the codes are verified for a given problem or set of parameters if they all agree within a specified tolerance. True verification requires comparisons for a number of plasma conditions, e.g., different devices, discharges, times, and radii. Running the codes and keeping track of linear and nonlinear inputs and results for all conditions could be prohibitive unless there was some degree of automation. We have written software to do just this and have formulated a metric for assessing agreement of nonlinear simulations. We present comparisons, both linear and nonlinear, between the gyrokinetic codes GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] and GS2 [W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. We do so at the mid-radius for the same discharge as in earlier work [C. Holland, A. E. White, G. R. McKee, M. W. Shafer, J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, L. Schmitz, and G. R. Tynan, Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)]. The comparisons include electromagnetic fluctuations, passing and trapped electrons, plasma shaping, one kinetic impurity, and finite Debye-length effects. Results neglecting and including electron collisions (Lorentz model) are presented. We find that the linear frequencies with or without collisions agree well between codes, as do the time averages of
Kim, Kyuho; Kwon, Jae-Min; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.
2017-06-01
Flux-driven full-f gyrokinetic simulations are performed to study carbon impurity effects on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and ion thermal transport in a toroidal geometry. Employing the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1, both main ions and impurities are evolved self-consistently including turbulence and neoclassical physics. It is found that the carbon impurity profile self-organizes to form an inwardly peaked density profile, which weakens the ITG instabilities and reduces the overall fluctuations and ion thermal transport. A stronger reduction appears in the low frequency components of the fluctuations. The global structure of E × B flow also changes, resulting in the reduction of global avalanche like transport events in the impure plasma. Detailed properties of impurity transport are also studied, and it is revealed that both the inward neoclassical pinch and the outward turbulent transport are equally important in the formation of the steady state impurity profile.
Hakim, Ammar; Shi, Eric; Juno, James; Bernard, Tess; Hammett, Greg
2017-10-01
For weakly collisional (or collisionless) plasmas, kinetic effects are required to capture the physics of micro-turbulence. We have implemented solvers for kinetic and gyrokinetic equations in the computational plasma physics framework, Gkeyll. We use a version of discontinuous Galerkin scheme that conserves energy exactly. Plasma sheaths are modeled with novel boundary conditions. Positivity of distribution functions is maintained via a reconstruction method, allowing robust simulations that continue to conserve energy even with positivity limiters. We have performed a large number of benchmarks, verifying the accuracy and robustness of our code. We demonstrate the application of our algorithm to two classes of problems (a) Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of turbulence in a magnetized plasma, applicable to space plasmas; (b) Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence in open-field-line geometries, applicable to laboratory plasmas. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Study of no-man's land physics in the total-f gyrokinetic code XGC1
Ku, Seung Hoe; Chang, C. S.; Lang, J.
2014-10-01
While the ``transport shortfall'' in the ``no-man's land'' has been observed often in delta-f codes, it has not yet been observed in the global total-f gyrokinetic particle code XGC1. Since understanding the interaction between the edge and core transport appears to be a critical element in the prediction for ITER performance, understanding the no-man's land issue is an important physics research topic. Simulation results using the Holland case will be presented and the physics causing the shortfall phenomenon will be discussed. Nonlinear nonlocal interaction of turbulence, secondary flows, and transport appears to be the key.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottier, Pierre
2013-01-01
The magnetic confinement in tokamaks is for now the most advanced way towards energy production by nuclear fusion. Both theoretical and experimental studies showed that rotation generation can increase its performance by reducing the turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. The rotation influence on the heat and particle fluxes is studied along with the angular momentum transport with the quasi-linear gyro-kinetic eigenvalue code QuaLiKiz. For this purpose, the QuaLiKiz code is modified in order to take the plasma rotation into account and compute the angular momentum flux. It is shown that QuaLiKiz framework is able to correctly predict the angular momentum flux including the E*B shear induced residual stress as well as the influence of rotation on the heat and particle fluxes. The major approximations of QuaLiKiz formalisms are reviewed, in particular the ballooning representation at its lowest order and the eigenfunctions calculated in the hydrodynamic limit. The construction of the quasi-linear fluxes is also reviewed in details and the quasi-linear angular momentum flux is derived. The different contributions to the turbulent momentum flux are studied and successfully compared both against non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations and experimental data. (author) [fr
Verification of gyrokinetic microstability codes with an LHD configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nunami, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (Japan); Watanabe, T. -H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Sugama, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (Japan); Tanaka, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (Japan)
2014-11-01
We extend previous benchmarks of the GS2 and GKV-X codes to verify their algorithms for solving the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations for plasma microturbulence. Code benchmarks are the most complete way of verifying the correctness of implementations for the solution of mathematical models for complex physical processes such as those studied here. The linear stability calculations reported here are based on the plasma conditions of an ion-ITB plasma in the LHD configuration. The plasma parameters and the magnetic geometry differ from previous benchmarks involving these codes. We find excellent agreement between the independently written pre-processors that calculate the geometrical coefficients used in the gyrokinetic equations. Grid convergence tests are used to establish the resolution and domain size needed to obtain converged linear stability results. The agreement of the frequencies, growth rates and eigenfunctions in the benchmarks reported here provides additional verification that the algorithms used by the GS2 and GKV-X codes are correctly finding the linear eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations.
First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dif-Pradalier, G
2008-10-15
This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While
First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dif-Pradalier, G.
2008-10-01
This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While
Gyrokinetic Vlasov code including full three-dimensional geometry of experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunami, Masanori; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Sugama, Hideo
2010-03-01
A new gyrokinetic Vlasov simulation code, GKV-X, is developed for investigating the turbulent transport in magnetic confinement devices with non-axisymmetric configurations. Effects of the magnetic surface shapes in a three-dimensional equilibrium obtained from the VMEC code are accurately incorporated. Linear simulations of the ion temperature gradient instabilities and the zonal flows in the Large Helical Device (LHD) configuration are carried out by the GKV-X code for a benchmark test against the GKV code. The frequency, the growth rate, and the mode structure of the ion temperature gradient instability are influenced by the VMEC geometrical data such as the metric tensor components of the Boozer coordinates for high poloidal wave numbers, while the difference between the zonal flow responses obtained by the GKV and GKV-X codes is found to be small in the core LHD region. (author)
Benchmark test of drift-kinetic and gyrokinetic codes through neoclassical transport simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Idomura, Yasuhiro
2009-09-01
Two simulation codes that solve the drift-kinetic or gyrokinetic equation in toroidal plasmas are benchmarked by comparing the simulation results of neoclassical transport. The two codes are the drift-kinetic δf Monte Carlo code (FORTEC-3D) and the gyrokinetic full- f Vlasov code (GT5D), both of which solve radially-global, five-dimensional kinetic equation with including the linear Fokker-Planck collision operator. In a tokamak configuration, neoclassical radial heat flux and the force balance relation, which relates the parallel mean flow with radial electric field and temperature gradient, are compared between these two codes, and their results are also compared with the local neoclassical transport theory. It is found that the simulation results of the two codes coincide very well in a wide rage of plasma collisionality parameter ν * = 0.01 - 10 and also agree with the theoretical estimations. The time evolution of radial electric field and particle flux, and the radial profile of the geodesic acoustic mode frequency also coincide very well. These facts guarantee the capability of GT5D to simulate plasma turbulence transport with including proper neoclassical effects of collisional diffusion and equilibrium radial electric field. (author)
Parker, Jeffrey B.; LoDestro, Lynda L.; Told, Daniel; Merlo, Gabriele; Ricketson, Lee F.; Campos, Alejandro; Jenko, Frank; Hittinger, Jeffrey A. F.
2018-05-01
The vast separation dividing the characteristic times of energy confinement and turbulence in the core of toroidal plasmas makes first-principles prediction on long timescales extremely challenging. Here we report the demonstration of a multiple-timescale method that enables coupling global gyrokinetic simulations with a transport solver to calculate the evolution of the self-consistent temperature profile. This method, which exhibits resiliency to the intrinsic fluctuations arising in turbulence simulations, holds potential for integrating nonlocal gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into predictive, whole-device models.
SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2013-12-18
During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.
The implementation of a toroidal limiter model into the gyrokinetic code ELMFIRE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leerink, S.; Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Nora, M. [Euratom-Tekes Association, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [Euratom-Tekes Association, VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Ogando, F. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)
2008-03-15
The ELMFIRE full nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation code has been developed for calculations of plasma evolution and dynamics of turbulence in tokamak geometry. The code is applicable for calculations of strong perturbations in particle distribution function, rapid transients and steep gradients in plasma. Benchmarking against experimental reflectometry data from the FT2 tokamak is being discussed and in this paper a model for comparison and studying poloidal velocity is presented. To make the ELMFIRE code suitable for scrape-off layer simulations a simplified toroidal limiter model has been implemented. The model is be discussed and first results are presented. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)
2016-06-15
The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the threshold for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.
Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)
2008-07-15
Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4.
Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J
2008-01-01
Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4
An Efficient Method for Verifying Gyrokinetic Microstability Codes
Bravenec, R.; Candy, J.; Dorland, W.; Holland, C.
2009-11-01
Benchmarks for gyrokinetic microstability codes can be developed through successful ``apples-to-apples'' comparisons among them. Unlike previous efforts, we perform the comparisons for actual discharges, rendering the verification efforts relevant to existing experiments and future devices (ITER). The process requires i) assembling the experimental analyses at multiple times, radii, discharges, and devices, ii) creating the input files ensuring that the input parameters are faithfully translated code-to-code, iii) running the codes, and iv) comparing the results, all in an organized fashion. The purpose of this work is to automate this process as much as possible: At present, a python routine is used to generate and organize GYRO input files from TRANSP or ONETWO analyses. Another routine translates the GYRO input files into GS2 input files. (Translation software for other codes has not yet been written.) Other python codes submit the multiple GYRO and GS2 jobs, organize the results, and collect them into a table suitable for plotting. (These separate python routines could easily be consolidated.) An example of the process -- a linear comparison between GYRO and GS2 for a DIII-D discharge at multiple radii -- will be presented.
SciDAC GSEP: Gyrokinetic Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2017-12-30
Energetic particle (EP) confinement is a key physics issue for burning plasma experiment ITER, the crucial next step in the quest for clean and abundant energy, since ignition relies on self-heating by energetic fusion products (α-particles). Due to the strong coupling of EP with burning thermal plasmas, plasma confinement property in the ignition regime is one of the most uncertain factors when extrapolating from existing fusion devices to the ITER tokamak. EP population in current tokamaks are mostly produced by auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) heating. Remarkable progress in developing comprehensive EP simulation codes and understanding basic EP physics has been made by two concurrent SciDAC EP projects GSEP funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES), which have successfully established gyrokinetic turbulence simulation as a necessary paradigm shift for studying the EP confinement in burning plasmas. Verification and validation have rapidly advanced through close collaborations between simulation, theory, and experiment. Furthermore, productive collaborations with computational scientists have enabled EP simulation codes to effectively utilize current petascale computers and emerging exascale computers. We review here key physics progress in the GSEP projects regarding verification and validation of gyrokinetic simulations, nonlinear EP physics, EP coupling with thermal plasmas, and reduced EP transport models. Advances in high performance computing through collaborations with computational scientists that enable these large scale electromagnetic simulations are also highlighted. These results have been widely disseminated in numerous peer-reviewed publications including many Phys. Rev. Lett. papers and many invited presentations at prominent fusion conferences such as the biennial International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference and the annual meeting of the
White, A E; Schmitz, L; Peebles, W A; Carter, T A; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Gourdain, P A; Hillesheim, J C; Wang, G; Holland, C; Tynan, G R; Austin, M E; McKee, G R; Shafer, M W; Burrell, K H; Candy, J; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Staebler, G M; Waltz, R E; Makowski, M A
2008-10-01
A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w(o) approximately 1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k(theta) < or = 1.8 cm(-1) and k(r) < or = 4 cm(-1), relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5 < r/a < 0.9, increase with radius from approximately 0.5% to approximately 2%, similar to density fluctuations that are measured simultaneously with beam emission spectroscopy. After incorporating "synthetic diagnostics" to effectively filter the code output, the simulations reproduce the characteristics of the turbulence and transport at one radial location r/a = 0.5, but not at a second location, r/a = 0.75. These results illustrate that measurements of the profiles of multiple fluctuating fields can provide a significant constraint on the turbulence models employed by the code.
Comparisons of 'Identical' Simulations by the Eulerian Gyrokinetic Codes GS2 and GYRO
Bravenec, R. V.; Ross, D. W.; Candy, J.; Dorland, W.; McKee, G. R.
2003-10-01
A major goal of the fusion program is to be able to predict tokamak transport from first-principles theory. To this end, the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GS2 was developed years ago and continues to be improved [1]. Recently, the Eulerian code GYRO was developed [2]. These codes are not subject to the statistical noise inherent to particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, and have been very successful in treating electromagnetic fluctuations. GS2 is fully spectral in the radial coordinate while GYRO uses finite-differences and ``banded" spectral schemes. To gain confidence in nonlinear simulations of experiment with these codes, ``apples-to-apples" comparisons (identical profile inputs, flux-tube geometry, two species, etc.) are first performed. We report on a series of linear and nonlinear comparisons (with overall agreement) including kinetic electrons, collisions, and shaped flux surfaces. We also compare nonlinear simulations of a DIII-D discharge to measurements of not only the fluxes but also the turbulence parameters. [1] F. Jenko, et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000) and refs. therein. [2] J. Candy, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003).
Nature of turbulent transport across sheared zonal flows: insights from gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, R; Newman, D E; Leboeuf, J-N; Decyk, V K
2011-01-01
The traditional view regarding the reduction of turbulence-induced transport across a stable sheared flow invokes a reduction of the characteristic length scale in the direction perpendicular to the flow as a result of the shearing and stretching of eddies caused by the differential pull exerted in the direction of the flow. A reduced effective transport coefficient then suffices to capture the reduction, that can then be readily incorporated into a transport model. However, recent evidence from gyrokinetic simulations of the toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode suggests that the dynamics of turbulent transport across sheared flows changes in a more fundamental manner, and that the use of reduced effective transport coefficients fails to capture the full dynamics that may exhibit both subdiffusion and non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution, after briefly reviewing these results, we propose some candidates for the physical mechanisms responsible for endowing transport with such non-diffusive characteristics, backing these proposals with new numerical gyrokinetic data.
Renormalized perturbation theory: Vlasov-Poisson System, weak turbulence limit and gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1987-10-01
The Self-consistency of the renormalized perturbation theory is demonstrated by applying it to the Vlasov-Poisson System and showing that the theory has the correct weak turbulence limit. Energy conservation is proved to arbitrary high order for the electrostatic drift waves. The theory is applied to derive renormalized equations for a low-β gyrokinetic system. Comparison of our theory with other current theories is presented. 22 refs
Continuum Gyrokinetic Simulations of Turbulence in a Helical Model SOL with NSTX-type parameters
Hammett, G. W.; Shi, E. L.; Hakim, A.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.
2017-10-01
We have developed the Gkeyll code to carry out 3D2V full- F gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in open-field-line geometries, using special versions of discontinuous-Galerkin algorithms to help with the computational challenges of the edge region. (Higher-order algorithms can also be helpful for exascale computing as they reduce the ratio of communications to computations.) Our first simulations with straight field lines were done for LAPD-type cases. Here we extend this to a helical model of an SOL plasma and show results for NSTX-type parameters. These simulations include the basic elements of a scrape-off layer: bad-curvature/interchange drive of instabilities, narrow sources to model plasma leaking from the core, and parallel losses with model sheath boundary conditions (our model allows currents to flow in and out of the walls). The formation of blobs is observed. By reducing the strength of the poloidal magnetic field, the heat flux at the divertor plate is observed to broaden. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; Churchill, R. M.; Tynan, G. R.; Cziegler, I.; Greenwald, M.; Hughes, J.; Parker, S. E.; Adams, M. F.; D'Azevedo, E.; Worley, P.
2018-05-01
A fast edge turbulence suppression event has been simulated in the electrostatic version of the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC1 in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under neutral particle recycling. The results show that the sequence of turbulent Reynolds stress followed by neoclassical ion orbit-loss driven together conspire to form the sustaining radial electric field shear and to quench turbulent transport just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface. The main suppression action is located in a thin radial layer around ψN≃0.96 -0.98 , where ψN is the normalized poloidal flux, with the time scale ˜0.1 ms.
Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fahey, Mark R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Candy, Jeff [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
2013-11-07
This project initiated the development of TGYRO - a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two
Parker, Jeffrey; Lodestro, Lynda; Told, Daniel; Merlo, Gabriele; Ricketson, Lee; Campos, Alejandro; Jenko, Frank; Hittinger, Jeffrey
2017-10-01
Predictive whole-device simulation models will play an increasingly important role in ensuring the success of fusion experiments and accelerating the development of fusion energy. In the core of tokamak plasmas, a separation of timescales between turbulence and transport makes a single direct simulation of both processes computationally expensive. We present the first demonstration of a multiple-timescale method coupling global gyrokinetic simulations with a transport solver to calculate the self-consistent, steady-state temperature profile. Initial results are highly encouraging, with the coupling method appearing robust to the difficult problem of turbulent fluctuations. The method holds potential for integrating first-principles turbulence simulations into whole-device models and advancing the understanding of global plasma behavior. Work supported by US DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and the Exascale Computing Project (17-SC-20-SC).
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-09-21
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-01-01
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohana, N; Lanti, E; Tran, T M; Brunner, S; Hariri, F; Villard, L; Jocksch, A; Gheller, C
2016-01-01
With the aim of enabling state-of-the-art gyrokinetic PIC codes to benefit from the performance of recent multithreaded devices, we developed an application from a platform called the “PIC-engine” [1, 2, 3] embedding simplified basic features of the PIC method. The application solves the gyrokinetic equations in a sheared plasma slab using B-spline finite elements up to fourth order to represent the self-consistent electrostatic field. Preliminary studies of the so-called Particle-In-Fourier (PIF) approach, which uses Fourier modes as basis functions in the periodic dimensions of the system instead of the real-space grid, show that this method can be faster than PIC for simulations with a small number of Fourier modes. Similarly to the PIC-engine, multiple levels of parallelism have been implemented using MPI+OpenMP [2] and MPI+OpenACC [1], the latter exploiting the computational power of GPUs without requiring complete code rewriting. It is shown that sorting particles [3] can lead to performance improvement by increasing data locality and vectorizing grid memory access. Weak scalability tests have been successfully run on the GPU-equipped Cray XC30 Piz Daint (at CSCS) up to 4,096 nodes. The reduced time-to-solution will enable more realistic and thus more computationally intensive simulations of turbulent transport in magnetic fusion devices. (paper)
Seo, Janghoon; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Yoon, E. S.
2013-10-01
The Full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to study the details of toroidal momentum generation in H-mode plasma. Diverted DIII-D geometry is used, with Monte Carlo neutral particles that are recycled at the limiter wall. Nonlinear Coulomb collisions conserve particle, momentum, and energy. Gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons are used in the present simulation to include the effects from ion gyrokinetic turbulence and neoclassical physics, under self-consistent radial electric field generation. Ion orbit loss physics is automatically included. Simulations show a strong co-Ip flow in the H-mode layer at outside midplane, similarly to the experimental observation from DIII-D and ASDEX-U. The co-Ip flow in the edge propagates inward into core. It is found that the strong co-Ip flow generation is mostly from neoclassical physics. On the other hand, the inward momentum transport is from turbulence physics, consistently with the theory of residual stress from symmetry breaking. Therefore, interaction between the neoclassical and turbulence physics is a key factor in the spontaneous momentum generation.
Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decyk, Viktor K.
2008-01-01
The UCLA work on this grant was to design and help implement an object-oriented version of the GTC code, which is written in Fortran90. The GTC code is the main global gyrokinetic code used in this project, and over the years multiple, incompatible versions have evolved. The reason for this effort is to allow multiple authors to work together on GTC and to simplify future enhancements to GTC. The effort was designed to proceed incrementally. Initially, an upper layer of classes (derived types and methods) was implemented which called the original GTC code 'under the hood.' The derived types pointed to data in the original GTC code, and the methods called the original GTC subroutines. The original GTC code was modified only very slightly. This allowed one to define (and refine) a set of classes which described the important features of the GTC code in a new, more abstract way, with a minimum of implementation. Furthermore, classes could be added one at a time, and at the end of the each day, the code continued to work correctly. This work was done in close collaboration with Y. Nishimura from UC Irvine and Stefan Ethier from PPPL. Ten classes were ultimately defined and implemented: gyrokinetic and drift kinetic particles, scalar and vector fields, a mesh, jacobian, FLR, equilibrium, interpolation, and particles species descriptors. In the second state of this development, some of the scaffolding was removed. The constructors in the class objects now allocated the data and the array data in the original GTC code was removed. This isolated the components and now allowed multiple instantiations of the objects to be created, in particular, multiple ion species. Again, the work was done incrementally, one class at a time, so that the code was always working properly. This work was done in close collaboration with Y. Nishimura and W. Zhang from UC Irvine and Stefan Ethier from PPPL. The third stage of this work was to integrate the capabilities of the various versions of
Neoclassical simulation of tokamak plasmas using the continuum gyrokinetic code TEMPEST.
Xu, X Q
2008-07-01
We present gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas with a self-consistent electric field using a fully nonlinear (full- f ) continuum code TEMPEST in a circular geometry. A set of gyrokinetic equations are discretized on a five-dimensional computational grid in phase space. The present implementation is a method of lines approach where the phase-space derivatives are discretized with finite differences, and implicit backward differencing formulas are used to advance the system in time. The fully nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for electrons. The neoclassical electric field is obtained by solving the gyrokinetic Poisson equation with self-consistent poloidal variation. With a four-dimensional (psi,theta,micro) version of the TEMPEST code, we compute the radial particle and heat fluxes, the geodesic-acoustic mode, and the development of the neoclassical electric field, which we compare with neoclassical theory using a Lorentz collision model. The present work provides a numerical scheme for self-consistently studying important dynamical aspects of neoclassical transport and electric field in toroidal magnetic fusion devices.
Astrophysical gyrokinetics: turbulence in pressure-anisotropic plasmas at ion scales and beyond
Kunz, M. W.; Abel, I. G.; Klein, K. G.
2018-04-01
We present a theoretical framework for describing electromagnetic kinetic turbulence in a multi-species, magnetized, pressure-anisotropic plasma. The turbulent fluctuations are assumed to be small compared to the mean field, to be spatially anisotropic with respect to it and to have frequencies small compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. At scales above the ion-Larmor radius, the theory reduces to the pressure-anisotropic generalization of kinetic reduced magnetohydrodynamics (KRMHD) formulated by Kunz et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 81, 2015, 325810501). At scales at and below the ion-Larmor radius, three main objectives are achieved. First, we analyse the linear response of the pressure-anisotropic gyrokinetic system, and show it to be a generalization of previously explored limits. The effects of pressure anisotropy on the stability and collisionless damping of Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations are highlighted, with attention paid to the spectral location and width of the frequency jump that occurs as Alfvén waves transition into kinetic Alfvén waves. Secondly, we derive and discuss a very general gyrokinetic free-energy conservation law, which captures both the KRMHD free-energy conservation at long wavelengths and dual cascades of kinetic Alfvén waves and ion entropy at sub-ion-Larmor scales. We show that non-Maxwellian features in the distribution function change the amount of phase mixing and the efficiency of magnetic stresses, and thus influence the partitioning of free energy amongst the cascade channels. Thirdly, a simple model is used to show that pressure anisotropy, even within the bounds imposed on it by firehose and mirror instabilities, can cause order-of-magnitude variations in the ion-to-electron heating ratio due to the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence. Our theory provides a foundation for determining how pressure anisotropy affects turbulent fluctuation spectra, the differential heating of particle species and the ratio of parallel
Development of a global toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov code with new real space field solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obrejan, Kevin; Imadera, Kenji; Li, Ji-Quan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2015-01-01
This work introduces a new full-f toroidal gyrokinetic (GK) Vlasov simulation code that uses a real space field solver. This solver enables us to compute the gyro-averaging operators in real space to allow proper treatment of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects without requiring any particular hypothesis and in any magnetic field configuration (X-point, D-shaped etc). The code was well verified through benchmark tests such as toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) instability and collisionless damping of zonal flow. (author)
A Systematic Method for Verification and Validation of Gyrokinetic Microstability Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bravenec, Ronald [Fourth State Research, Austin, TX (United States)
2017-11-14
My original proposal for the period Feb. 15, 2014 through Feb. 14, 2017 called for an integrated validation and verification effort carried out by myself with collaborators. The validation component would require experimental profile and power-balance analysis. In addition, it would require running the gyrokinetic codes varying the input profiles within experimental uncertainties to seek agreement with experiment before discounting a code as invalidated. Therefore, validation would require a major increase of effort over my previous grant periods which covered only code verification (code benchmarking). Consequently, I had requested full-time funding. Instead, I am being funded at somewhat less than half time (5 calendar months per year). As a consequence, I decided to forego the validation component and to only continue the verification efforts.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-10-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-01-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2014-10-15
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idomura, Yasuhiro; Jolliet, Sebastien
2010-01-01
A gyrokinetic toroidal five dimensional Eulerian code GT5D is ported on six advanced massively parallel platforms and comprehensive benchmark tests are performed. A parallelisation technique based on physical properties of the gyrokinetic equation is presented. By extending the parallelisation technique with a hybrid parallel model, the scalability of the code is improved on platforms with multi-core processors. In the benchmark tests, a good salability is confirmed up to several thousands cores on every platforms, and the maximum sustained performance of ∼18.6 Tflops is achieved using 16384 cores of BX900. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikkelsen, D. R., E-mail: dmikkelsen@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Podpaly, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); AAAS S and T Fellow placed in the Directorate for Engineering, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Ma, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)
2015-06-15
Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.
Grid-based Parallel Data Streaming Implemented for the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klasky, S.; Ethier, S.; Lin, Z.; Martins, K.; McCune, D.; Samtaney, R.
2003-01-01
We have developed a threaded parallel data streaming approach using Globus to transfer multi-terabyte simulation data from a remote supercomputer to the scientist's home analysis/visualization cluster, as the simulation executes, with negligible overhead. Data transfer experiments show that this concurrent data transfer approach is more favorable compared with writing to local disk and then transferring this data to be post-processed. The present approach is conducive to using the grid to pipeline the simulation with post-processing and visualization. We have applied this method to the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a 3-dimensional particle-in-cell code used to study microturbulence in magnetic confinement fusion from first principles plasma theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, D.R.; Basse, N.; Bonoli, P.T.; Catto, P.J.; Fiore, C.L.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.E.; Marmar, E.S.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.E.; Zeller, K.; Zhurovich, K.; Dorland, W.
2005-01-01
Internal particle and thermal energy transport barriers are produced in Alcator C-Mod with off-axis ICRF heating, with core densities exceeding 10 21 m -3 , without core fueling, and with little change in the temperature profile. Applying on-axis ICRF heating controls the core density gradient and rate of rise. The present study employs linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence to explore mechanisms for ITB formation and control in Alcator C-Mod ITB experiments. Anomalous pinches are found to be negligible in our simulations; further, the collisional Ware pinch is sufficient to account for the slow density rise, lasting many energy confinement times. The simulations have revealed new nonlinear physics of TEM turbulence. The critical density gradient for onset of TEM turbulent transport is nonlinearly up-shifted by zonal flows. As the density profile peaks, during ITB formation, this nonlinear critical gradient is eventually exceeded, and the turbulent particle diffusivity from GS2 gyrokinetic simulations matches the particle diffusivity from transport analysis, within experimental errors. A stable equilibrium is then established when the TEM turbulent diffusion balances the Ware pinch in the ITB. This equilibrium is sensitive to temperature through gyroBohm scaling of the TEM turbulent transport, and the collisionality dependence of the neoclassical pinch, providing for control of the density rate of rise with on-axis RF heating. With no core particle fueling, and ∼1 mm between density spatial channels, the C-Mod experiments provide a nearly ideal test bed for particle transport studies. The pure TEM is the only unstable drift mode in the ITB, producing particle transport driven by the density gradient. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolliet, S.
2009-02-01
-Maxwell system is solved in the electrostatic and collisionless limit with the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) ORB5 code in global tokamak geometry. This Monte-Carlo approach suffers from statistical noise which unavoidably degrades the quality of the simulation. Consequently, the first part of this work has been devoted to the optimization of the code with a view to reduce the numerical noise. The code has been rewritten in a new coordinate system which takes advantage of the anisotropy of turbulence, which is mostly aligned with the magnetic field lines. The overall result of the optimization is that for a given accuracy, the CPU time has been decreased by a factor two thousand, the total memory has been decreased by a factor ten and the numerical noise has been reduced by a factor two hundred. In addition, the scaling of the code with respect to plasma size is presently optimal, suggesting that ORB5 could compute heat transport for future fusion devices such as ITER. The second part of this thesis presents the validation of the code with numerical convergence tests, linear (including dispersion relations) and nonlinear benchmarks. Furthermore, the code has been applied to important issues in gyrokinetic theory. It is shown for the first time that a 5D global delta-f PIC code can achieve a thermodynamic steady state on the condition that some dissipation is present. This is a fundamental result as the main criticism against delta-f PIC codes is their inability to deal with long time simulations. Next, the role of the parallel nonlinearity is studied and it is demonstrated in this work that this term has no real influence on turbulence, provided the numerical noise is sufficiently low. This result should put an end to the controversy that recently occurred, in which gyrokinetic simulations using different numerical approaches yielded contradictory results. Finally, thanks to the optimization of the code, the gyrokinetic model has been extended to include the kinetic response of trapped
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leerink, S.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Janhunen, S. J.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Nora, M.; Ogando, F.
2008-01-01
The ELMFIRE gyrokinetic simulation code has been used to perform full f simulations of the FT-2 tokamak. The dynamics of the radial electric field and the creation of poloidal velocity in the presence of turbulence are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapillonne, X.; Brunner, S.; Dannert, T.; Jolliet, S.; Marinoni, A.; Villard, L.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.
2009-01-01
In the context of gyrokinetic flux-tube simulations of microturbulence in magnetized toroidal plasmas, different treatments of the magnetic equilibrium are examined. Considering the Cyclone DIII-D base case parameter set [Dimits et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 969 (2000)], significant differences in the linear growth rates, the linear and nonlinear critical temperature gradients, and the nonlinear ion heat diffusivities are observed between results obtained using either an s-α or a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. Similar disagreements have been reported previously [Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1162 (1999)]. In this paper it is shown that these differences result primarily from the approximation made in the standard implementation of the s-α model, in which the straight field line angle is identified to the poloidal angle, leading to inconsistencies of order ε (ε=a/R is the inverse aspect ratio, a the minor radius and R the major radius). An equilibrium model with concentric, circular flux surfaces and a correct treatment of the straight field line angle gives results very close to those using a finite ε, low β MHD equilibrium. Such detailed investigation of the equilibrium implementation is of particular interest when comparing flux tube and global codes. It is indeed shown here that previously reported agreements between local and global simulations in fact result from the order ε inconsistencies in the s-α model, coincidentally compensating finite ρ * effects in the global calculations, where ρ * =ρ s /a with ρ s the ion sound Larmor radius. True convergence between local and global simulations is finally obtained by correct treatment of the geometry in both cases, and considering the appropriate ρ * →0 limit in the latter case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Doyle, E.J.; Hillesheim, J.C.; Peebles, W.A.; Schmitz, L.; Holland, C.; Smith, S.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Kinsey, J.E.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G.M.; Waltz, R.E.; White, A.E.; McKee, G.R.; Mikkelsen, D.; Parker, S.; Chen, Y.
2011-01-01
A series of carefully designed experiments on DIII-D have taken advantage of a broad set of turbulence and profile diagnostics to rigorously test gyrokinetic turbulence simulations. In this paper the goals, tools and experiments performed in these validation studies are reviewed and specific examples presented. It is found that predictions of transport and fluctuation levels in the mid-core region (0.4 < ρ < 0.75) are in better agreement with experiment than those in the outer region (ρ ≥ 0.75) where edge coupling effects may become increasingly important and multiscale simulations may also be necessary. Validation studies such as these are crucial in developing confidence in a first-principles based predictive capability for ITER.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decyk, Viktor K.
2011-01-01
computational complexity, such as electromagnetic or gyrokinetic codes should perform better. We therefore implemented an 2-1/2D electromagnetic, relativistic code, which used the same algorithms and data structures as the electrostatic code. Typical speedup achieved on the Tesla C1060 was about 40. The Fermi C2050, a newer GPU, achieved a speedup of 55, with a particle processing time of 2.2 nsec/particle/time step. These results were reported at the APS Division of Plasma Physics Meeting and the US-Japan Workshop on Development of Simulation Science in Plasma Physics.
Benchmark studies of the gyro-Landau-fluid code and gyro-kinetic codes on kinetic ballooning modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, T. F. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ma, C. H. [Fusion Simulation Center, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Bass, E. M.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)
2016-03-15
A Gyro-Landau-Fluid (GLF) 3 + 1 model has been recently implemented in BOUT++ framework, which contains full Finite-Larmor-Radius effects, Landau damping, and toroidal resonance [Ma et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 055903 (2015)]. A linear global beta scan has been conducted using the JET-like circular equilibria (cbm18 series), showing that the unstable modes are kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs). In this work, we use the GYRO code, which is a gyrokinetic continuum code widely used for simulation of the plasma microturbulence, to benchmark with GLF 3 + 1 code on KBMs. To verify our code on the KBM case, we first perform the beta scan based on “Cyclone base case parameter set.” We find that the growth rate is almost the same for two codes, and the KBM mode is further destabilized as beta increases. For JET-like global circular equilibria, as the modes localize in peak pressure gradient region, a linear local beta scan using the same set of equilibria has been performed at this position for comparison. With the drift kinetic electron module in the GYRO code by including small electron-electron collision to damp electron modes, GYRO generated mode structures and parity suggest that they are kinetic ballooning modes, and the growth rate is comparable to the GLF results. However, a radial scan of the pedestal for a particular set of cbm18 equilibria, using GYRO code, shows different trends for the low-n and high-n modes. The low-n modes show that the linear growth rate peaks at peak pressure gradient position as GLF results. However, for high-n modes, the growth rate of the most unstable mode shifts outward to the bottom of pedestal and the real frequency of what was originally the KBMs in ion diamagnetic drift direction steadily approaches and crosses over to the electron diamagnetic drift direction.
The fusion code XGC: Enabling kinetic study of multi-scale edge turbulent transport in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Azevedo, Eduardo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abbott, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koskela, Tuomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worley, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ku, Seung-Hoe [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Yoon, Eisung [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Shephard, Mark [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hager, Robert [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lang, Jianying [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Choi, Jong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Podhorszki, Norbert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Klasky, Scott [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parashar, Manish [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Chang, Choong-Seock [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
2017-01-01
The XGC fusion gyrokinetic code combines state-of-the-art, portable computational and algorithmic technologies to enable complicated multiscale simulations of turbulence and transport dynamics in ITER edge plasma on the largest US open-science computer, the CRAY XK7 Titan, at its maximal heterogeneous capability, which have not been possible before due to a factor of over 10 shortage in the time-to-solution for less than 5 days of wall-clock time for one physics case. Frontier techniques such as nested OpenMP parallelism, adaptive parallel I/O, staging I/O and data reduction using dynamic and asynchronous applications interactions, dynamic repartitioning.
Biancalani, A.; Bottino, A.; Ehrlacher, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Merlo, G.; Novikau, I.; Qiu, Z.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Garbet, X.; Görler, T.; Leerink, S.; Palermo, F.; Zarzoso, D.
2017-06-01
The linear properties of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamaks are investigated by means of the comparison of analytical theory and gyrokinetic numerical simulations. The dependence on the value of the safety factor, finite-orbit-width of the ions in relation to the radial mode width, magnetic-flux-surface shaping, and electron/ion mass ratio are considered. Nonuniformities in the plasma profiles (such as density, temperature, and safety factor), electro-magnetic effects, collisions, and the presence of minority species are neglected. Also, only linear simulations are considered, focusing on the local dynamics. We use three different gyrokinetic codes: the Lagrangian (particle-in-cell) code ORB5, the Eulerian code GENE, and semi-Lagrangian code GYSELA. One of the main aims of this paper is to provide a detailed comparison of the numerical results and analytical theory, in the regimes where this is possible. This helps understanding better the behavior of the linear GAM dynamics in these different regimes, the behavior of the codes, which is crucial in the view of a future work where more physics is present, and the regimes of validity of each specific analytical dispersion relation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Lee, W. W.; Tang, W. M.; Kaye, S. M.; Diamond, P. H.
2009-01-01
A significant inward flux of toroidal momentum is found in global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence, leading to core plasma rotation spin-up. The underlying mechanism is identified to be the generation of residual stress due to the k parallel symmetry breaking induced by global quasistationary zonal flow shear. Simulations also show a significant off-diagonal element associated with the ion temperature gradient in the neoclassical momentum flux, while the overall neoclassical flux is small. In addition, the residual turbulence found in the presence of strong ExB flow shear may account for neoclassical-level ion heat and anomalous momentum transport widely observed in experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, A.A.; Cowley, S.C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.; Howes, G.G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the 'inertial range' above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Neoclassical equilibrium in gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, Ph.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a set of model collision operators, which reproduce the neoclassical equilibrium and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on an entropy variational principle, which allows one to perform a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity. It is shown that the force balance equation is recovered at lowest order in the expansion parameter, the normalized gyroradius, hence allowing one to calculate correctly the radial electric field. Also, the conventional neoclassical transport and the poloidal velocity are reproduced in the plateau and banana regimes. The advantages and drawbacks of the various model operators are discussed in view of the requirements for neoclassical and turbulent transport.
A 3D gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of fusion plasma microturbulence on parallel computers
Williams, T. J.
1992-12-01
One of the grand challenge problems now supported by HPCC is the Numerical Tokamak Project. A goal of this project is the study of low-frequency micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas, which are believed to cause energy loss via turbulent thermal transport across the magnetic field lines. An important tool in this study is gyrokinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Gyrokinetic, as opposed to fully-kinetic, methods are particularly well suited to the task because they are optimized to study the frequency and wavelength domain of the microinstabilities. Furthermore, many researchers now employ low-noise delta(f) methods to greatly reduce statistical noise by modelling only the perturbation of the gyrokinetic distribution function from a fixed background, not the entire distribution function. In spite of the increased efficiency of these improved algorithms over conventional PIC algorithms, gyrokinetic PIC simulations of tokamak micro-turbulence are still highly demanding of computer power--even fully-vectorized codes on vector supercomputers. For this reason, we have worked for several years to redevelop these codes on massively parallel computers. We have developed 3D gyrokinetic PIC simulation codes for SIMD and MIMD parallel processors, using control-parallel, data-parallel, and domain-decomposition message-passing (DDMP) programming paradigms. This poster summarizes our earlier work on codes for the Connection Machine and BBN TC2000 and our development of a generic DDMP code for distributed-memory parallel machines. We discuss the memory-access issues which are of key importance in writing parallel PIC codes, with special emphasis on issues peculiar to gyrokinetic PIC. We outline the domain decompositions in our new DDMP code and discuss the interplay of different domain decompositions suited for the particle-pushing and field-solution components of the PIC algorithm.
ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WALTZ, R. E; CANDY, J; HINTON, F. L; ESTRADA-MILA, C; KINSEY, J.E
2004-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ * ) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated
Non-Maxwellian fast particle effects in gyrokinetic GENE simulations
Di Siena, A.; Görler, T.; Doerk, H.; Bilato, R.; Citrin, J.; Johnson, T.; Schneider, M.; Poli, E.; JET Contributors
2018-04-01
Fast ions have recently been found to significantly impact and partially suppress plasma turbulence both in experimental and numerical studies in a number of scenarios. Understanding the underlying physics and identifying the range of their beneficial effect is an essential task for future fusion reactors, where highly energetic ions are generated through fusion reactions and external heating schemes. However, in many of the gyrokinetic codes fast ions are, for simplicity, treated as equivalent-Maxwellian-distributed particle species, although it is well known that to rigorously model highly non-thermalised particles, a non-Maxwellian background distribution function is needed. To study the impact of this assumption, the gyrokinetic code GENE has recently been extended to support arbitrary background distribution functions which might be either analytical, e.g., slowing down and bi-Maxwellian, or obtained from numerical fast ion models. A particular JET plasma with strong fast-ion related turbulence suppression is revised with these new code capabilities both with linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. It appears that the fast ion stabilization tends to be less strong but still substantial with more realistic distributions, and this improves the quantitative power balance agreement with experiments.
Quantum Turbulence ---Another da Vinci Code---
Tsubota, M.
Quantum turbulence comprises a tangle of quantized vorticeswhich are stable topological defects created by Bose-Einstein condensation, being realized in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In recent years there has been a growing interest in quantum turbulence. One of the important motivations is to understand the relation between quantum and classical turbulence. Quantum turbulence is expected to be much simpler than usual classical turbulence and give a prototype of turbulence. This article reviews shortly the recent research developments on quantum turbulence.
Gyrokinetic linearized Landau collision operator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens
2013-01-01
, which is important in multiple ion-species plasmas. Second, the equilibrium operator describes drag and diffusion of the magnetic field aligned component of the vorticity associated with the E×B drift. Therefore, a correct description of collisional effects in turbulent plasmas requires the equilibrium......The full gyrokinetic electrostatic linearized Landau collision operator is calculated including the equilibrium operator, which represents the effect of collisions between gyrokinetic Maxwellian particles. First, the equilibrium operator describes energy exchange between different plasma species...... operator, even for like-particle collisions....
Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Iván
2012-01-01
The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.
Testing Gyrokinetics on C-Mod and NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Dorland, W.; Fiore, C.L.; Stutman, D.; Baumgaertel, J.A.; Davis, B.; Kaye, S.M.; McCune, D.C.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.
2005-01-01
Quantitative benchmarks of computational physics codes against experiment are essential for the credible application of such codes. Fluctuation measurements can provide necessary critical tests of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, but such require extraordinary computational resources. Linear micro-stability calculations with the GS2 [1] gyrokinetic code have been carried out for tokamak and ST experiments which exhibit internal transport barriers (ITB) and good plasma confinement. Qualitative correlation is found for improved confinement before and during ITB plasmas on Alcator C-Mod [2] and NSTX [3], with weaker long wavelength micro-instabilities in the plasma core regions. Mixing length transport models are discussed. The NSTX L-mode is found to be near marginal stability for kinetic ballooning modes. Fully electromagnetic, linear, gyrokinetic calculations of the Alcator C-Mod ITB during off-axis rf heating, following four plasma species and including the complete electron response show ITG/TEM microturbulence is suppressed in the plasma core and in the barrier region before barrier formation, without recourse to the usual requirements of velocity shear or reversed magnetic shear [4-5]. No strongly growing long or short wavelength drift modes are found in the plasma core but strong ITG/TEM and ETG drift wave turbulence is found outside the barrier region. Linear microstability analysis is qualitatively consistent with the experimental transport analysis, showing low transport inside and high transport outside the ITB region before barrier formation, without consideration of ExB shear stabilization
Limitations, insights and improvements to gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, Peter J.; Parra, Felix I.; Kagan, Grigory; Simakov, Andrei N.
2009-01-01
We first consider gyrokinetic quasineutrality limitations when evaluating the axisymmetric radial electric field in a non-turbulent tokamak by an improved examination of intrinsic ambipolarity. We next prove that the background ions in a pedestal of poloidal ion gyroradius scale must be Maxwellian and nearly isothermal in Pfirsch-Schlueter and banana regime tokamak plasmas, and then consider zonal flow behaviour in a pedestal. Finally, we focus on a simplifying procedure for our transport time scale hybrid gyrokinetic-fluid treatment that removes the limitations of gyrokinetic quasineutrality and remains valid in the pedestal.
Gyrokinetic simulations in general geometry and applications to collisional damping of zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Hahm, T.S.; Lee, W.W.; Tang, W.M.; White, R.B.
2000-01-01
A fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic particle code using magnetic coordinates for general geometry has been developed and applied to the investigation of zonal flows dynamics in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Full torus simulation results support the important conclusion that turbulence-driven zonal flows significantly reduce the turbulent transport. Linear collisionless simulations for damping of an initial poloidal flow perturbation exhibit an asymptotic residual flow. The collisional damping of this residual causes the dependence of ion thermal transport on the ion-ion collision frequency even in regimes where the instabilities are collisionless
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2009-01-01
We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.
Fluid and gyrokinetic simulations of impurity transport at JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordman, H; Skyman, A; Strand, P
2011-01-01
Impurity transport coefficients due to ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode and trapped-electron mode turbulence are calculated using profile data from dedicated impurity injection experiments at JET. Results obtained with a multi-fluid model are compared with quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic...... simulation results obtained with the code GENE. The sign of the impurity convective velocity (pinch) and its various contributions are discussed. The dependence of the impurity transport coefficients and impurity peaking factor −∇nZ/nZ on plasma parameters such as impurity charge number Z, ion logarithmic...
LDPC coded OFDM over the atmospheric turbulence channel.
Djordjevic, Ivan B; Vasic, Bane; Neifeld, Mark A
2007-05-14
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is shown to significantly outperform LDPC coded on-off keying (OOK) over the atmospheric turbulence channel in terms of both coding gain and spectral efficiency. In the regime of strong turbulence at a bit-error rate of 10(-5), the coding gain improvement of the LDPC coded single-side band unclipped-OFDM system with 64 sub-carriers is larger than the coding gain of the LDPC coded OOK system by 20.2 dB for quadrature-phase-shift keying (QPSK) and by 23.4 dB for binary-phase-shift keying (BPSK).
Global gyrokinetic simulations of TEM microturbulence
Vernay, T.; Brunner, S.; Villard, L.; McMillan, B. F.; Jolliet, S.; Bottino, A.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.
2013-07-01
Global gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic temperature-gradient-driven trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence using the δf particle-in-cell code ORB5 are presented. The electron response is either fully kinetic or hybrid, i.e. considering kinetic trapped and adiabatic passing electrons. A linear benchmark in the TEM regime against the Eulerian-based code GENE is presented. Two different methods for controlling the numerical noise, based, respectively, on a Krook operator and a so-called coarse-graining approach, are discussed and successfully compared. Both linear and non-linear studies are carried out for addressing the issue of finite-ρ*-effects and finite electron collisionality on TEM turbulence. Electron collisions are found to damp TEMs through the detrapping process, while finite-ρ*-effects turn out to be important in the non-linear regime but very small in the linear regime. Finally, the effects of zonal flows on TEM turbulence are briefly considered as well and shown to be unimportant in the temperature-gradient-driven TEM regime. Consistently, basically no difference is found between linear and non-linear critical electron temperature gradients in the TEM regime.
Gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of plasma microturbulence on advanced computing platforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ethier, S; Tang, W M; Lin, Z
2005-01-01
Since its introduction in the early 1980s, the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method has been very successfully applied to the exploration of many important kinetic stability issues in magnetically confined plasmas. Its self-consistent treatment of charged particles and the associated electromagnetic fluctuations makes this method appropriate for studying enhanced transport driven by plasma turbulence. Advances in algorithms and computer hardware have led to the development of a parallel, global, gyrokinetic code in full toroidal geometry, the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC), developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It has proven to be an invaluable tool to study key effects of low-frequency microturbulence in fusion plasmas. As a high-performance computing applications code, its flexible mixed-model parallel algorithm has allowed GTC to scale to over a thousand processors, which is routinely used for simulations. Improvements are continuously being made. As the US ramps up its support for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), the need for understanding the impact of turbulent transport in burning plasma fusion devices is of utmost importance. Accordingly, the GTC code is at the forefront of the set of numerical tools being used to assess and predict the performance of ITER on critical issues such as the efficiency of energy confinement in reactors
Numerical Tokamak Project code comparison
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.; Beer, M.A.
1994-01-01
The Numerical Tokamak Project undertook a code comparison using a set of TFTR tokamak parameters. Local radial annulus codes of both gyrokinetic and gyrofluid types were compared for both slab and toroidal case limits assuming ion temperature gradient mode turbulence in a pure plasma with adiabatic electrons. The heat diffusivities were found to be in good internal agreement within ± 50% of the group average over five codes
Advances in comprehensive gyrokinetic simulations of transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F.L.; Estrada-Mila, C.; Kinsey, J.E.
2005-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated. (author)
ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WALTZ, RE; CANDY, J; HINTON, FL; ESTRADA-MILA, C; KINSEY, JE.
2004-01-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ * ) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or a globally with physical profile variation. Rohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, plasma pinches and impurity flow, and simulations at fixed flow rather than fixed gradient are illustrated and discussed
Interaction between the neoclassical equilibrium and microturbulence in gyrokinetic simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberparleiter, Michael
2015-07-10
For the application of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen as a heat source for electricity generation understanding of the magnetic fuel confinement is crucial. Most of the cross-field transport in modern-day tokamaks is carried by turbulence driven by steep pressure gradients. Background neoclassical transport, however, provides a steady level of cross-field flux even in cases when turbulence becomes weak or suppressed. The goal of this work is to quantify how neoclassical (NC) effects and turbulence can influence each other. For this purpose the nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence code GENE is employed. Firstly, its ability to self-consistently calculate the NC radial electric field is successfully benchmarked against the radial force balance equation and NC transport in the plasma region close to the center of a tokamak is studied. In the next step a model system where a long-wavelength external potential is imposed on ion temperature gradient-driven (ITG) turbulence is investigated. It is found that the self-generated shear flow pattern of the turbulence adapts to the imposed pattern and a small external shear is sufficient to notably reduce turbulent transport. Motivated by this global ITG simulations with fixed pressure gradient profiles are performed with and without inclusion of NC effects. Their comparison reveals that the NC field enhances turbulent transport by 20-30 % for a ratio of ion gyroradius and device radius larger than 1/300. An explanation is that the NC field aligns a region of low shear with the maximum of the gradient profile where the turbulent drive is strongest. Further investigation reveals that NC effects also change the dependence of the system on collisionality or safety factor. Finally, in physically more comprehensive simulations with fixed power input and a self-consistently evolving temperature profile, the additional NC transport channel is found to reduce the frequency and amplitude of intermittent turbulent transport bursts.
Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.
2009-01-01
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes
Full-f gyrokinetic simulation over a confinement time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idomura, Yasuhiro, E-mail: idomura.yasuhiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)
2014-02-15
A long time ion temperature gradient driven turbulence simulation over a confinement time is performed using the full-f gyrokinetic Eulerian code GT5D. The convergence of steady temperature and rotation profiles is examined, and it is shown that the profile relaxation can be significantly accelerated when the simulation is initialized with linearly unstable temperature profiles. In the steady state, the temperature profile and the ion heat diffusivity are self-consistently determined by the power balance condition, while the intrinsic rotation profile is sustained by complicated momentum transport processes without momentum input. The steady turbulent momentum transport is characterized by bursty non-diffusive fluxes, and the resulting turbulent residual stress is consistent with the profile shear stress theory [Y. Camenen et al., “Consequences of profile shearing on toroidal momentum transport,” Nucl. Fusion 51, 073039 (2011)] in which the residual stress depends not only on the profile shear and the radial electric field shear but also on the radial electric field itself. Based on the toroidal angular momentum conservation, it is found that in the steady null momentum transport state, the turbulent residual stress is cancelled by the neoclassical counterpart, which is greatly enhanced in the presence of turbulent fluctuations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.
1999-08-01
The Lagrangian formulation of the gyrokinetic theory is generalized in order to describe the particles' dynamics as well as the self-consistent behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The gyrokinetic equation for the particle distribution function and the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields are both derived from the variational principle for the Lagrangian consisting of the parts of particles, fields, and their interaction. In this generalized Lagrangian formulation, the energy conservation property for the total nonlinear gyrokinetic system of equations is directly shown from the Noether's theorem. This formulation can be utilized in order to derive the nonlinear gyrokinetic system of equations and the rigorously conserved total energy for fluctuations with arbitrary frequency. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heikkinen, J.A.; Henriksson, S.; Janhunen, S.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Ogando, F.
2006-01-01
A full f nonlinear 5D gyrokinetic electrostatic particle-in-cell code ELMFIRE using an implicit direct solution method for ion polarization drift and electron parallel velocity response to electric field and its validation are described. The developed code is applied for transport analysis in a tokamak plasma at steep pressure gradient. The role of turbulence and neoclassical equilibrium in determining the flux surface averaged radial electric field component are investigated, as well as the role of the latter in affecting the saturation level of the turbulence. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Global gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furnish, G.; Horton, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.
1998-10-01
A kinetic simulation code based on the gyrokinetic ion dynamics in global general metric (including a tokamak with circular or noncircular cross-section) has been developed. This gyrokinetic simulation is capable of examining the global and semi-global driftwave structures and their associated transport in a tokamak plasma. The authors investigate the property of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or η i (η i ≡ ∂ ell nT i /∂ ell n n i ) driven drift waves in a tokamak plasma. The emergent semi-global drift wave modes give rise to thermal transport characterized by the Bohm scaling
Gyrofluid Modeling of Turbulent, Kinetic Physics
Despain, Kate Marie
2011-12-01
Gyrofluid models to describe plasma turbulence combine the advantages of fluid models, such as lower dimensionality and well-developed intuition, with those of gyrokinetics models, such as finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. This allows gyrofluid models to be more tractable computationally while still capturing much of the physics related to the FLR of the particles. We present a gyrofluid model derived to capture the behavior of slow solar wind turbulence and describe the computer code developed to implement the model. In addition, we describe the modifications we made to a gyrofluid model and code that simulate plasma turbulence in tokamak geometries. Specifically, we describe a nonlinear phase mixing phenomenon, part of the E x B term, that was previously missing from the model. An inherently FLR effect, it plays an important role in predicting turbulent heat flux and diffusivity levels for the plasma. We demonstrate this importance by comparing results from the updated code to studies done previously by gyrofluid and gyrokinetic codes. We further explain what would be necessary to couple the updated gyrofluid code, gryffin, to a turbulent transport code, thus allowing gryffin to play a role in predicting profiles for fusion devices such as ITER and to explore novel fusion configurations. Such a coupling would require the use of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) to make the modeling process fast enough to be viable. Consequently, we also describe our experience with GPU computing and demonstrate that we are poised to complete a gryffin port to this innovative architecture.
Burby, Joshua; Brizard, Alain
2017-10-01
Test-particle gyrocenter equations of motion play an essential role in the diagnosis of turbulent strongly-magnetized plasmas, and are playing an increasingly-important role in the formulation of kinetic-gyrokinetic hybrid models. Previous gyrocenter models required the knowledge of the perturbed electromagnetic potentials, which are not directly observable quantities (since they are gauge-dependent). A new gauge-free formulation of gyrocenter motion is presented, which enables gyrocenter trajectories to be determined using only measured values of the directly-observable electromagnetic field. Our gauge-free gyrokinetic theory is general enough to allow for gyroradius-scale fluctuations in both the electric and magnetic field. In addition, we provide gauge-free expressions for the charge and current densities produced by a distribution of gyrocenters, which explicitly include guiding-center and gyrocenter polarization and magnetization effects. This research was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-SC0014032 (AB) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JB).
Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2010-01-01
Up to now, the term 'transport-optimized' stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.
Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tegnered, D; Oberparleiter, M; Nordman, H; Strand, P
2016-01-01
Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/L T , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/L n region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/L n and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/L n . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. (paper)
Freethy, S. J.; Görler, T.; Creely, A. J.; Conway, G. D.; Denk, S. S.; Happel, T.; Koenen, C.; Hennequin, P.; White, A. E.; ASDEX Upgrade Team
2018-05-01
Measurements of turbulent electron temperature fluctuation amplitudes, δTe ⊥/Te , frequency spectra, and radial correlation lengths, Lr(Te ⊥) , have been performed at ASDEX Upgrade using a newly upgraded Correlation ECE diagnostic in the range of scales k⊥scale non-linear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of the outer core (ρtor = 0.75) of a low density, electron heated L-mode plasma, performed using the gyrokinetic simulation code, GENE. The ion and electron temperature gradients were scanned within uncertainties. It is found that gyrokinetic simulations are able to match simultaneously the electron and ion heat flux at this radius within the experimental uncertainties. The simulations were performed based on a reference discharge for which δTe ⊥/Te measurements were available, and Lr(Te ⊥) and αnT were then predicted using synthetic diagnostics prior to measurements in a repeat discharge. While temperature fluctuation amplitudes are overestimated by >50% for all simulations within the sensitivity scans performed, good quantitative agreement is found for Lr(Te ⊥) and αnT. A validation metric is used to quantify the level of agreement of individual simulations with experimental measurements, and the best agreement is found close to the experimental gradient values.
Citrin, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Casson, F. J.; Angioni, C.; Bonanomi, N.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; Gürcan, O.; Koechl, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Linder, O.; van de Plassche, K.; Strand, P.; Szepesi, G.; Contributors, JET
2017-12-01
Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations × {10}6-7 faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are presented, covering both ion and electron turbulence scales. The simulations are successfully compared to measured profiles, with agreement mostly in the 5%-25% range according to standard figures of merit. QuaLiKiz is now open source and available at www.qualikiz.com.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, A. E., E-mail: whitea@mit.edu; Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego (UCSD) San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Candy, J.; Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [York University, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); and others
2015-05-15
For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.
Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-01-01
The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.
Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence
Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-04-01
The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.
Gyrokinetic simulation of finite-β plasmas on parallel architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynders, J.V.W.
1993-01-01
Much research exists on the linear and non-linear properties of plasma microinstabilities induced by density and temperature gradients. There has been an interest in the electromagnetic or finite-β effects on these microinstabilities. This thesis focuses on the finite-β modification of an ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven microinstability in a two-dimensional shearless and sheared-slab geometries. A gyrokinetic model is employed in the numerical and analytic studies of this instability. Chapter 1 introduces the electromagnetic gyrokinetic model employed in the numerical and analytic studies of the ITG instability. Some discussion of the Klimontovich particle representation of the gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and a multiple scale model of the background plasma gradient is presented. Chapter 2 details the computational issues facing an electromagnetic gyrokinetic particle simulation of the ITG mode. An electromagnetic extension of the partially linearized algorithm is presented with a comparison of quiet particle initialization routines. Chapter 3 presents and compares algorithms for the gyrokinetic particle simulation technique on SIMD and MIMD computing platforms. Chapter 4 discusses electromagnetic gyrokinetic fluctuation theory and provides a comparison of analytic and numerical results. Chapter 5 contains a linear and a non-linear three-wave coupling analysis of the finite-β modified ITG mode in a shearless slab geometry. Comparisons are made with linear and partially linearized gyrokinetic simulation results. Chapter 6 presents results from a finite-β modified ITG mode in a sheared slab geometry. The linear dispersion relation is derived and results from an integral eigenvalue code are presented. Comparisons are made with the gyrokinetic particle code in a variety of limits with both adiabatic and non-adiabatic electrons. Evidence of ITG driven microtearing is presented
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model
GRILLIX. A 3D turbulence code for magnetic fusion devices based on a field line map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stegmeir, Andreas Korbinian
2015-01-01
The complex geometry in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks poses problems to existing turbulence codes. The usually employed field aligned coordinates become ill defined at the separatrix. Therefore the parallel code GRILLIX was developed, which is based on a field line map. This allows simulations in additional complex geometries, especially across the separatrix. A new discretisation, based on the support operator method, for the highly anisotropic diffusion was developed and applied to a simple turbulence model (Hasegawa-Wakatani).
Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joiner, N.; Hirose, A.; Dorland, W.
2010-01-01
At low β it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order β 2 . This is only true if effects of order β are canceled by a term in the ∇B drift also of order β[H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2[Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B || is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low β for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B || are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with η e . The effect of B || on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient β ' at constant β.
Evaluation of turbulent mixing between subchannels with a CFD code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, H.; Ha, K.; Lee, Y.; Hahn, D.; Dunn, Floyd E.; Cahalan, James E.
2004-01-01
This study describes the procedure to determine the turbulent mixing coefficients from the numerical simulation of subchannel flow. The turbulent mixing coefficient is important to predict the detailed flow and temperature distributions in the reactor core. The mixing coefficient for the design condition of KALIMER-600 has been evaluated and compared with the results from the existing correlations. The data determined numerically are in good agreement with the correlations based on the thermal methods or the tracer methods. However, the data shows quite large deviations from the correlations obtained with the turbulent fluctuation of momentum. This discrepancy mainly comes from the confusion in the definition of eddy diffusivity. The numerically obtained data are meaningful because the data for liquid metal are scarce. The ultimate goal of the analysis is the development of a mixing correlation to improve the accuracy of the whole core thermal hydraulics model. (author)
Flux tube gyrokinetic simulations of the edge pedestal
Parker, Scott; Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang
2011-10-01
The linear instabilities of DIII-D H-mode pedestal are studied with gyrokinetic micro-turbulence simulations. The simulation code GEM is an electromagnetic δf code with global tokamak geometry in the form of Miller equilibrium. Local flux tube simulations are carried out for multiple positions of two DIII-D profiles: shot #98889 and shot #131997. Near the top of the pedestal, the instability is clearly ITG. The dominant instability of the pedestal appears at the steep gradient region, and it is identified as a low frequency mode mostly driven by electron temperature gradient. The mode propagates along the electron diamagnetic direction for low n and may propagate along the ion direction for high n. At some positions near the steep gradient region, an ion instability is found which shows some characteristics of kinetic ballooning mode (KBM). These results will be compared to the results of E. Wang et al. and D. Fulton et al. in the same session. We thank R. Groebner and P. Snyder for providing experimental profiles and helpful discussions.
Gyrokinetic simulation of internal kink modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Kenji; Lee, W.W.; Sydora, R.D.
1995-05-01
Internal disruption in a tokamak has been simulated using a three-dimensional magneto-inductive gyrokinetic particle code. The code operates in both the standard gyrokinetic mode (total-f code) and the fully nonlinear characteristic mode (δf code). The latter, a recent addition, is a quiet low noise algorithm. The computational model represents a straight tokamak with periodic boundary conditions in the toroidal direction. The plasma is initially uniformly distributed in a square cross section with perfectly conducting walls. The linear mode structure of an unstable m = 1 (poloidal) and n = 1 (toroidal) kinetic internal kink mode is clearly observed, especially in the δf code. The width of the current layer around the x-point, where magnetic reconnection occurs, is found to be close to the collisionless electron skin depth. This is consistent with the theory in which electron inertia has a dominant role. The nonlinear behavior of the mode is found to be quite similar for both codes. Full reconnection in the Alfven time scale is observed along with the electrostatic potential structures created during the full reconnection phase. The E x B drift due to this electrostatic potential dominates the nonlinear phase of the development after the full reconnection
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan
2014-03-01
We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.
2003-01-01
A brief comparison of the properties of Alfven waves that are based on the gyrokinetic description with those derived from the MHD equations is presented. The critical differences between these two approaches are the treatment of the ion polarization effects. As such, the compressional Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma can be eliminated through frequency ordering, whereas geometric simplifications are needed to decouple the shear Alfven waves from the compressional Alfven waves within the context of MHD. Theoretical and numerical procedures of using gyrokinetic particle simulation for studying microturbulence and kinetic-MHD physics including finite Larmor radius effects are also presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weir, G. M.; Faber, B. J.; Likin, K. M.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B. [HSX Plasma Laboratory, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-05-15
Stiffness measurements are presented in the quasi-helically symmetric experiment (HSX), in which the neoclassical transport is comparable to that in a tokamak and turbulent transport dominates throughout the plasma. Electron cyclotron emission is used to measure the local electron temperature response to modulated electron cyclotron resonant heating. The amplitude and phase of the heat wave through the steep electron temperature gradient (ETG) region of the plasma are used to determine a transient electron thermal diffusivity that is close to the steady-state diffusivity. The low stiffness in the region between 0.2 ≤ r/a ≤ 0.4 agrees with the scaling of the steady-state heat flux with temperature gradient in this region. These experimental results are compared to gyrokinetic calculations in a flux-tube geometry using the gyrokinetic electromagnetic numerical experiment code with two kinetic species. Linear simulations show that the ETG mode may be experimentally relevant within r/a ≤ 0.2, while the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) is the dominant long-wavelength microturbulence instability across most of the plasma. The TEM is primarily driven by the density gradient. Non-linear calculations of the saturated heat flux driven by the TEM and ETG bracket the experimental heat flux.
Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2012-03-01
Static external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the δf gyrokinetic code GYRO. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr and the corresponding plasma torque (density) R[jrBθ/c], induced by islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends previous GYRO simulations for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [1,2]. The focus is on full torus radial slice electrostatic simulations of induced q=m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius. The island torque scales with the radial electric field Er the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as wErI^1/2. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration to the small diamagnetic co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er which can be called the residual stress [2] from an externally induced island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations of a core radial slice demonstrate island unlocking and the RMP screening. 6pt[1] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007). [2] R.E. Waltz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042504 (2011).
A study on the dependency between turbulent models and mesh configurations of CFD codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang, Jungjin; Heo, Yujin; Jerng, Dong-Wook
2015-01-01
This paper focuses on the analysis of the behavior of hydrogen mixing and hydrogen stratification, using the GOTHIC code and the CFD code. Specifically, we examined the mesh sensitivity and how the turbulence model affects hydrogen stratification or hydrogen mixing, depending on the mesh configuration. In this work, sensitivity analyses for the meshes and the turbulence models were conducted for missing and stratification phenomena. During severe accidents in a nuclear power plants, the generation of hydrogen may occur and this will complicate the atmospheric condition of the containment by causing stratification of air, steam, and hydrogen. This could significantly impact containment integrity analyses, as hydrogen could be accumulated in local region. From this need arises the importance of research about stratification of gases in the containment. Two computation fluid dynamics code, i.e. GOTHIC and STAR-CCM+ were adopted and the computational results were benchmarked against the experimental data from PANDA facility. The main findings observed through the present work can be summarized as follows: 1) In the case of the GOTHIC code, it was observed that the aspect ratio of the mesh was found more important than the mesh size. Also, if the number of the mesh is over 3,000, the effects of the turbulence models were marginal. 2) For STAR-CCM+, the tendency is quite different from the GOTHIC code. That is, the effects of the turbulence models were small for fewer number of the mesh, however, as the number of mesh increases, the effects of the turbulence models becomes significant. Another observation is that away from the injection orifice, the role of the turbulence models tended to be important due to the nature of mixing process and inducted jet stream
A study on the dependency between turbulent models and mesh configurations of CFD codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang, Jungjin; Heo, Yujin; Jerng, Dong-Wook [CAU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
This paper focuses on the analysis of the behavior of hydrogen mixing and hydrogen stratification, using the GOTHIC code and the CFD code. Specifically, we examined the mesh sensitivity and how the turbulence model affects hydrogen stratification or hydrogen mixing, depending on the mesh configuration. In this work, sensitivity analyses for the meshes and the turbulence models were conducted for missing and stratification phenomena. During severe accidents in a nuclear power plants, the generation of hydrogen may occur and this will complicate the atmospheric condition of the containment by causing stratification of air, steam, and hydrogen. This could significantly impact containment integrity analyses, as hydrogen could be accumulated in local region. From this need arises the importance of research about stratification of gases in the containment. Two computation fluid dynamics code, i.e. GOTHIC and STAR-CCM+ were adopted and the computational results were benchmarked against the experimental data from PANDA facility. The main findings observed through the present work can be summarized as follows: 1) In the case of the GOTHIC code, it was observed that the aspect ratio of the mesh was found more important than the mesh size. Also, if the number of the mesh is over 3,000, the effects of the turbulence models were marginal. 2) For STAR-CCM+, the tendency is quite different from the GOTHIC code. That is, the effects of the turbulence models were small for fewer number of the mesh, however, as the number of mesh increases, the effects of the turbulence models becomes significant. Another observation is that away from the injection orifice, the role of the turbulence models tended to be important due to the nature of mixing process and inducted jet stream.
Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; TenBarge, J.; Dorland, W.
2015-12-01
We present for the first time results for the turbulence dissipation challenge, with specific focus on the linear wave portion of the challenge, using a variety of continuum kinetic models: hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell, gyrokinetic, and full Vlasov-Maxwell. As one of the goals of the wave problem as it is outlined is to identify how well various models capture linear physics, we compare our results to linear Vlasov and gyrokinetic theory. Preliminary gyrokinetic results match linear theory extremely well due to the geometry of the problem, which eliminates the dominant nonlinearity. With the non-reduced models, we explore how the subdominant nonlinearities manifest and affect the evolution of the turbulence and the energy budget. We also take advantage of employing continuum methods to study the dynamics of the distribution function, with particular emphasis on the full Vlasov results where a basic collision operator has been implemented. As the community prepares for the next stage of the turbulence dissipation challenge, where we hope to do large 3D simulations to inform the next generation of observational missions such as THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR), we argue for the consideration of hybrid Vlasov and full Vlasov as candidate models for these critical simulations. With the use of modern numerical algorithms, we demonstrate the competitiveness of our code with traditional particle-in-cell algorithms, with a clear plan for continued improvements and optimizations to further strengthen the code's viability as an option for the next stage of the challenge.
Hamiltonian reductions in plasma physics about intrinsic gyrokinetic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillebon de Resnes, L. de
2013-01-01
Gyrokinetic is a key model for plasma micro-turbulence, commonly used for fusion plasmas or small-scale astrophysical turbulence, for instance. The model still suffers from several issues, which could imply to reconsider the equations. This thesis dissertation clarifies three of them. First, one of the coordinates caused questions, both from a physical and from a mathematical point of view; a suitable constrained coordinate is introduced, which removes the issues from the theory and explains the intrinsic structures underlying the questions. Second, the perturbative coordinate transformation for gyrokinetic was computed only at lowest orders; explicit induction relations are obtained to go arbitrary order in the expansion. Third, the introduction of the coupling between the plasma and the electromagnetic field was not completely satisfactory; using the Hamiltonian structure of the dynamics, it is implemented in a more appropriate way, with strong consequences on the gyrokinetic equations, especially about their Hamiltonian structure. In order to address these three main points, several other results are obtained, for instance about the origin of the guiding-center adiabatic invariant, about a very efficient minimal guiding center transformation, or about an intermediate Hamiltonian model between Vlasov-Maxwell and gyrokinetic, where the characteristics include both the slow guiding-center dynamics and the fast gyro-angle dynamics. In addition, various reduction methods are used, introduced or developed, e.g. a Lie-transform of the equations of motion, a lifting method to transfer particle reductions to the corresponding Hamiltonian field dynamics, or a truncation method related both to Dirac's theory of constraints and to a projection onto a Lie-subalgebra. Besides gyrokinetic, this is useful to clarify other Hamiltonian reductions in plasma physics, for instance for incompressible or electrostatic dynamics, for magnetohydrodynamics, or for fluid closures including
Reducing Turbulent Transport in Toroidal Configurations via Shaping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2011-01-01
Recent progress in reducing turbulent transport in stellarators and tokamaks by 3D shaping using a stellarator optimization code in conjunction with a gyrokinetic code is presented. The original applications of the method focussed on ion temperature gradient transport in a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator design. Here, an examination of both other turbulence channels and other starting configurations is initiated. It is found that the designs evolved for transport from ion temperature gradient turbulence also display reduced transport from other transport channels whose modes are also stabilized by improved curvature, such as electron temperature gradient and ballooning modes. The optimizer is also applied to evolving from a tokamak, finding appreciable turbulence reduction for these devices as well. From these studies, improved understanding is obtained of why the deformations found by the optimizer are beneficial, and these deformations are related to earlier theoretical work in both stellarators and tokamaks.
Benchmarking and scaling studies of pseudospectral code Tarang for turbulence simulations
VERMA, MAHENDRA K
2013-09-21
Tarang is a general-purpose pseudospectral parallel code for simulating flows involving fluids, magnetohydrodynamics, and Rayleigh–Bénard convection in turbulence and instability regimes. In this paper we present code validation and benchmarking results of Tarang. We performed our simulations on 10243, 20483, and 40963 grids using the HPC system of IIT Kanpur and Shaheen of KAUST. We observe good ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ scaling for Tarang on these systems.
Benchmarking and scaling studies of pseudospectral code Tarang for turbulence simulations
VERMA, MAHENDRA K; CHATTERJEE, ANANDO; REDDY, K SANDEEP; YADAV, RAKESH K; PAUL, SUPRIYO; CHANDRA, MANI; Samtaney, Ravi
2013-01-01
Tarang is a general-purpose pseudospectral parallel code for simulating flows involving fluids, magnetohydrodynamics, and Rayleigh–Bénard convection in turbulence and instability regimes. In this paper we present code validation and benchmarking results of Tarang. We performed our simulations on 10243, 20483, and 40963 grids using the HPC system of IIT Kanpur and Shaheen of KAUST. We observe good ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ scaling for Tarang on these systems.
Some calculations using the two-dimensional turbulent combustion code flare
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, D.
1986-09-01
A brief description of the code FLARE is given. Both the model used in FLARE and the numerical scheme used to implement the model are described. Results for the simulation of an experiment are presented and discussed. An alternative turbulence model to that used in FLARE is discussed but it is concluded that the original model is better. (author)
Redistribution of energetic particles by background turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauff, T.; Jenko, F.
2007-01-01
The quest to understand the turbulent transport of particles, momentum and energy in magnetized plasmas remains a key challenge in fusion research. A basic issue being .still relatively poorly understood is the turbulent ExB advection of charged test particles with large gyroradii. Especially the interaction of alpha particles or impurities with the background turbulence is of great interest. In order to understand the dependence of the particle diffusivity on the interaction mechanisms between FLR effects and the special structure of a certain type of turbulence, direct numerical simulations are done in artificially created two dimensional turbulent electrostatic fields, assuming a constant magnetic field. Finite gyroradius effects are introduced using the gyrokinetic approximation which means that the gyrating particle is simply replaced by a charged ring. Starting from an idealized isotropic potential with Gaussian autocorrelation function, numerous test particle simulations are done varying both the gyroradius and the Kubo number of the potential. It is found that for Kubo numbers larger than about unity, the particle diffusivity is almost independent of the gyroradius as long as the latter does not exceed the correlation length of the electrostatic potential, whereas for small Kubo numbers the diffusivity is monotonically reduced. The underlying physical mechanisms of this behavior are identified and an analytic approach is developed which favorably agrees with the simulation results. The investigations are extended by introducing anisotropic structures like streamers and zonal flows into the artificial potential, leading to quantitative modulations of the gyroradius dependence of the diffusion coefficient. Analytic models are used to explain these various effects. After having developed a general overview on the behavior in simplified artificial potentials, test particle simulations in realistic turbulence created by the gyrokinetic turbulence code GENE are
Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kauffmann, Karla
2012-01-01
Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the δf method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal ITGs and
Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauffmann, Karla
2012-04-10
Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the {delta}f method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal
Fully-kinetic Ion Simulation of Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U
Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team
2017-10-01
Understanding the nature of particle and energy transport in field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is a crucial step towards an FRC-based fusion reactor. The C-2U device at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) achieved macroscopically stable plasmas and electron energy confinement time which scaled favorably with electron temperature. This success led to experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulence in C-2U, including gyrokinetic ion simulations with the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC). A primary objective of TAE's new C-2W device is to explore transport scaling in an extended parameter regime. In concert with the C-2W experimental campaign, numerical efforts have also been extended in A New Code (ANC) to use fully-kinetic (FK) ions and a Vlasov-Poisson field solver. Global FK ion simulations are presented. Future code development is also discussed.
Parallelization of a numerical simulation code for isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Shigeru; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Kaburaki, Hideo.
1996-03-01
A parallel pseudospectral code which solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation by direct numerical simulation is developed and execution time, parallelization efficiency, load balance and scalability are evaluated. A vector parallel supercomputer, Fujitsu VPP500 with up to 16 processors is used for this calculation for Fourier modes up to 256x256x256 using 16 processors. Good scalability for number of processors is achieved when number of Fourier mode is fixed. For small Fourier modes, calculation time of the program is proportional to NlogN which is ideal complexity of calculation for 3D-FFT on vector parallel processors. It is found that the calculation performance decreases as the increase of the Fourier modes. (author)
Peterson, Jayson Luc
2011-10-01
Observations in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have found electron temperature gradients that greatly exceed the linear threshold for the onset for electron temperature gradient-driven (ETG) turbulence. These discharges, deemed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), coincide with a reversal in the shear of the magnetic field and with a reduction in electron-scale density fluctuations, qualitatively consistent with earlier gyrokinetic predictions. To investigate this phenomenon further, we numerically model electron turbulence in NSTX reversed-shear plasmas using the gyrokinetic turbulence code GYRO. These first-of-a-kind nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of NSTX e-ITBs confirm that reversing the magnetic shear can allow the plasma to reach electron temperature gradients well beyond the critical gradient for the linear onset of instability. This effect is very strong, with the nonlinear threshold for significant transport approaching three times the linear critical gradient in some cases, in contrast with moderate shear cases, which can drive significant ETG turbulence at much lower gradients. In addition to the experimental implications of this upshifted nonlinear critical gradient, we explore the behavior of ETG turbulence during reversed shear discharges. This work is supported by the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and used the resources of NCCS at ORNL and NERSC at LBNL. M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000).
Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Nunami, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Watanabe, T.-H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2015-08-15
Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work are shown to include classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport fluxes which agree with those derived from conventional recursive formulations.
Gyrokinetic theory for particle and energy transport in fusion plasmas
Falessi, Matteo Valerio; Zonca, Fulvio
2018-03-01
A set of equations is derived describing the macroscopic transport of particles and energy in a thermonuclear plasma on the energy confinement time. The equations thus derived allow studying collisional and turbulent transport self-consistently, retaining the effect of magnetic field geometry without postulating any scale separation between the reference state and fluctuations. Previously, assuming scale separation, transport equations have been derived from kinetic equations by means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis and spatio-temporal averaging. In this work, the evolution equations for the moments of the distribution function are obtained following the standard approach; meanwhile, gyrokinetic theory has been used to explicitly express the fluctuation induced fluxes. In this way, equations for the transport of particles and energy up to the transport time scale can be derived using standard first order gyrokinetics.
Controlling fluctuations in an ITB and comparison with gyrokinetic simulations
Ernst, D. R.; Fiore, C. L.; Dominguez, A.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Tsujii, N.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Churchill, M.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Lee, J.; Ma, Y.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.
2011-10-01
We have modulated on-axis ICRF minority heating to trigger fluctuations and core electron transport in Alcator C-Mod Internal Transport Barriers (ITB's). Temperature swings of 50% produced strong bursts of density fluctuations, measured by phase contrast imaging (PCI), while edge fluctuations from reflectometry, Mirnov coils, and gas puff imaging (GPI) simultaneously diminished. The PCI fluctuations are in phase with sawteeth, further evidence that they originate within the ITB foot. Linear gyrokinetic analysis with GS2 shows TEMs are driven unstable in the ITB by the on-axis heating, as in Refs.,. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence in the ITB are compared with fluctuation data using a synthetic diagnostic. Strong ITB's were produced with high quality ion and electron profile data. Supported by U.S. DoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FG02-91ER54109, DE-FC02-08ER54966.
Gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamics and the associated equilibria
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
2017-12-01
The gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, related to the recent paper by W. W. Lee ["Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective," Phys. Plasmas 23, 070705 (2016)], and their associated equilibria properties are discussed. This set of equations consists of the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation, the gyrokinetic parallel Ohm's law, and the gyrokinetic Ampere's law as well as the equations of state, which are expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, A , and support both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and the associated currents. The corresponding gyrokinetic MHD equilibria can be reached when ϕ→0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇.(J∥+J⊥)=0 and the associated magnetic islands, if they exist. Examples of simple cylindrical geometry are given. These gyrokinetic MHD equations look quite different from the conventional MHD equations, and their comparisons will be an interesting topic in the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ethier, S.; Lin, Z.
2003-01-01
Several years of optimization on the super-scalar architecture has made it more difficult to port the current version of the 3D particle-in-cell code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 vector architecture. This paper explains the initial work that has been done to port this code to the SX-6 computer and to optimize the most time consuming parts. Early performance results are shown and compared to the same test done on the IBM SP Power 3 and Power 4 machines
Efficient Eulerian gyrokinetic simulations with block-structured grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarema, Denis
2017-01-01
Gaining a deep understanding of plasma microturbulence is of paramount importance for the development of future nuclear fusion reactors, because it causes a strong outward transport of heat and particles. Gyrokinetics has proven itself as a valid mathematical model to simulate such plasma microturbulence effects. In spite of the advantages of this model, nonlinear radially extended (or global) gyrokinetic simulations are still extremely computationally expensive, involving a very large number of computational grid points. Hence, methods that reduce the number of grid points without a significant loss of accuracy are a prerequisite to be able to run high-fidelity simulations. At the level of the mathematical model, the gyrokinetic approach achieves a reduction from six to five coordinates in comparison to the fully kinetic models. This reduction leads to an important decrease in the total number of computational grid points. However, the velocity space mixed with the radial direction still requires a very fine resolution in grid based codes, due to the disparities in the thermal speed, which are caused by a strong temperature variation along the radial direction. An attempt to address this problem by modifying the underlying gyrokinetic set of equations leads to additional nonlinear terms, which are the most expensive parts to simulate. Furthermore, because of these modifications, well-established and computationally efficient implementations developed for the original set of equations can no longer be used. To tackle such issues, in this thesis we introduce an alternative approach of blockstructured grids. This approach reduces the number of grid points significantly, but without changing the underlying mathematical model. Furthermore, our technique is minimally invasive and allows the reuse of a large amount of already existing code using rectilinear grids, modifications being necessary only on the block boundaries. Moreover, the block-structured grid can be
Efficient Eulerian gyrokinetic simulations with block-structured grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarema, Denis
2017-01-20
Gaining a deep understanding of plasma microturbulence is of paramount importance for the development of future nuclear fusion reactors, because it causes a strong outward transport of heat and particles. Gyrokinetics has proven itself as a valid mathematical model to simulate such plasma microturbulence effects. In spite of the advantages of this model, nonlinear radially extended (or global) gyrokinetic simulations are still extremely computationally expensive, involving a very large number of computational grid points. Hence, methods that reduce the number of grid points without a significant loss of accuracy are a prerequisite to be able to run high-fidelity simulations. At the level of the mathematical model, the gyrokinetic approach achieves a reduction from six to five coordinates in comparison to the fully kinetic models. This reduction leads to an important decrease in the total number of computational grid points. However, the velocity space mixed with the radial direction still requires a very fine resolution in grid based codes, due to the disparities in the thermal speed, which are caused by a strong temperature variation along the radial direction. An attempt to address this problem by modifying the underlying gyrokinetic set of equations leads to additional nonlinear terms, which are the most expensive parts to simulate. Furthermore, because of these modifications, well-established and computationally efficient implementations developed for the original set of equations can no longer be used. To tackle such issues, in this thesis we introduce an alternative approach of blockstructured grids. This approach reduces the number of grid points significantly, but without changing the underlying mathematical model. Furthermore, our technique is minimally invasive and allows the reuse of a large amount of already existing code using rectilinear grids, modifications being necessary only on the block boundaries. Moreover, the block-structured grid can be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.
2003-01-01
Particle simulation has played an important role for the recent investigations on turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. In this paper, theoretical and numerical properties of a gyrokinetic plasma as well as its relationship with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed with the ultimate aim of simulating microturbulence in transport time scale using massively parallel computers
Comparison of simulations and theory of low-frequency plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LoDestro, L L; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Dimits, A M; Matsuda, Y; Nevins, W M; Newcomb, W A; Williams, T J; Koniges, A E; Dannevik, W P; Crotinger, J A; Amala, P A.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Sydora, R D; Dawson, J M; Ma, S; Decyk, V K [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics; Lee, W W; Hahm, T S [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Naitou, H
1990-08-15
We use a combination of computational and analytic methods to study low-frequency turbulence and turbulent transport in a strongly magnetized plasma. We describe two major computational efforts, one based on gyrokinetic-particle simulation and the second on numerical solution of closure approximations to fluid equations. These codes are used to study instabilities on the drift timescale, and to assess the validity of qualitative predictions of energy-transport scalings based on dimensional analysis and on analytic versions of closure approximations. 27 refs., 2 figs.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Pullback Transformations in Gyrokinetic Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.
2003-01-01
The Pullback transformation of the distribution function is a key component of the gyrokinetic theory. In this paper, a systematic treatment of this subject is presented, and results from applications of the uniform framework developed are reviewed. The focus is on providing a clear exposition of the basic formalism which arises from the existence of three distinct coordinate systems in gyrokinetic theory. The familiar gyrocenter coordinate system, where the gyromotion is decoupled from the rest of particle's dynamics, is non-canonical and non-fabric. On the other hand, Maxwell's equations, which are needed to complete a kinetic system, are initially only defined in the fabric laboratory phase space coordinate system. The pullback transformations provide a rigorous connection between the distribution functions in gyrocenter coordinates and Maxwell's equations in laboratory phase space coordinates. This involves the generalization of the usual moment integrals originally defined on the cotangent fiber of the phase space to the moment integrals on a general 6D symplectic manifold, is shown to be an important step in the proper formulation of gyrokinetic theory. The resultant systematic treatment of the moment integrals enabled by the pullback transformation. Without this vital element, a number of prominent physics features, such as the presence of the compressional Alfven wave and a proper description of the gyrokinetic equilibrium, cannot be readily recovered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
2000-02-01
The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Dongjian; Zhang, Wenlu; McClenaghan, Joseph; Wang, Jiaqi; Lin, Zhihong
2014-01-01
Global gyrokinetic particle simulation of resistive tearing modes has been developed and verified in the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). GTC linear simulations in the fluid limit of the kink-tearing and resistive tearing modes in the cylindrical geometry agree well with the resistive magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue and initial value codes. Ion kinetic effects are found to reduce the radial width of the tearing modes. GTC simulations of the resistive tearing modes in the toroidal geometry find that the toroidicity reduces the growth rates
The effect of turbulent mixing models on the predictions of subchannel codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapucu, A.; Teyssedou, A.; Tye, P.; Troche, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the predictions of the COBRA-IV and ASSERT-4 subchannel codes have been compared with experimental data on void fraction, mass flow rate, and pressure drop obtained for two interconnected subchannels. COBRA-IV is based on a one-dimensional separated flow model with the turbulent intersubchannel mixing formulated as an extension of the single-phase mixing model, i.e. fluctuating equal mass exchange. ASSERT-4 is based on a drift flux model with the turbulent mixing modelled by assuming an exchange of equal volumes with different densities thus allowing a net fluctuating transverse mass flux from one subchannel to the other. This feature is implemented in the constitutive relationship for the relative velocity required by the conservation equations. It is observed that the predictions of ASSERT-4 follow the experimental trends better than COBRA-IV; therefore the approach of equal volume exchange constitutes an improvement over that of the equal mass exchange. ((orig.))
Transport modelling and gyrokinetic analysis of advanced high performance discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinsey, J.E.; Imbeaux, F.; Staebler, G.M.; Budny, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Fukuyama, A.; Garbet, X.; Tala, T.; Parail, V.
2005-01-01
Predictive transport modelling and gyrokinetic stability analyses of demonstration hybrid (HYBRID) and advanced tokamak (AT) discharges from the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database are presented. Both regimes have exhibited enhanced core confinement (above the conventional ITER reference H-mode scenario) but differ in their current density profiles. Recent contributions to the ITPA database have facilitated an effort to study the underlying physics governing confinement in these advanced scenarios. In this paper, we assess the level of commonality of the turbulent transport physics and the relative roles of the transport suppression mechanisms (i.e. E x B shear and Shafranov shift (α) stabilization) using data for select HYBRID and AT discharges from the DIII-D, JET and AUG tokamaks. GLF23 transport modelling and gyrokinetic stability analysis indicate that E x B shear and Shafranov shift stabilization play essential roles in producing the improved core confinement in both HYBRID and AT discharges. Shafranov shift stabilization is found to be more important in AT discharges than in HYBRID discharges. We have also examined the competition between the stabilizing effects of E x B shear and Shafranov shift stabilization and the destabilizing effects of higher safety factors and parallel velocity shear. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of idealized low and high safety factor cases reveal some interesting consequences. A low safety factor (i.e. HYBRID relevant) is directly beneficial in reducing the transport, and E x B shear stabilization can dominate parallel velocity shear destabilization allowing the turbulence to be quenched. However, at low-q/high current, Shafranov shift stabilization plays less of a role. Higher safety factors (as found in AT discharges), on the other hand, have larger amounts of Shafranov shift stabilization, but parallel velocity shear destabilization can prevent E x B shear quenching of the turbulent
Transport modeling and gyrokinetic analysis of advanced high performance discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinsey, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Staebler, G.; Budny, R.; Fukuyama, A.; Tala, T.; Parail, V.
2005-01-01
Predictive transport modeling and gyrokinetic stability analyses of demonstration hybrid (HYBRID) and Advanced Tokamak (AT) discharges from the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database are presented. Both regimes have exhibited enhanced core confinement (above the conventional ITER reference H-mode scenario) but differ in their current density profiles. Recent contributions to the ITPA database have facilitated an effort to study the underlying physics governing confinement in these advanced scenarios. In this paper, we assess the level of commonality of the turbulent transport physics and the relative roles of the transport suppression mechanisms (i.e. ExB shear and Shafranov shift (α) stabilization) using data for select HYBRID and AT discharges from the DIII-D, JET, and AUG tokamaks. GLF23 transport modeling and gyrokinetic stability analysis indicates that ExB shear and Shafranov shift stabilization play essential roles in producing the improved core confinement in both HYBRID and AT discharges. Shafranov shift stabilization is found to be more important in AT discharges than in HYBRID discharges. We have also examined the competition between the stabilizing effects of ExB shear and Shafranov shift stabilization and the destabilizing effects of higher safety factors and parallel velocity shear. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of idealized low and high safety factor cases reveals some interesting consequences. A low safety factor (i.e. HYBRID relevant) is directly beneficial in reducing the transport, and ExB shear stabilization can win out over parallel velocity shear destabilization allowing the turbulence to be quenched. However, at low-q/high current, Shafranov shift stabilization plays less of a role. Higher safety factors (as found in AT discharges), on the other hand, have larger amounts of Shafranov shift stabilization, but parallel velocity shear destabilization can prevent ExB shear quenching of the turbulent
Simulations of finite beta turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenko, F.
2002-01-01
One of the central open questions in our attempt to understand microturbulence in fusion plasmas concerns the role of finite beta effects. Nonlinear codes trying to investigate this issue must go beyond the commonly used adiabatic electron approximation - a task which turns out to be a serious computational challenge. This step is necessary because the electrons are the prime contributor to the parallel currents which in turn produce the magnetic field fluctuations. Results at both ion and electron space-time scales from gyrokinetic and gyrofluid models are presented which shed light on the character of finite beta turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators. (author)
Simulations of finite β turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenko, F.; Scott, B.; Kendl, A.; Strintzi, D.; Dorland, W.
2003-01-01
One of the central open questions in our attempt to understand microturbulence in fusion plasmas concerns the role of finite β effects. Nonlinear codes trying to investigate this issue must go beyond the commonly used adiabatic electron approximation - a task which turns out to be a serious computational challenge. This step is necessary because the passing electrons are the prime contributor to the parallel currents which in turn produce the magnetic field fluctuations. Results at both ion and electron space-time scales from gyrokinetic and gyro fluid models are presented which shed light on the character of finite β turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators. (author)
Direct identification of predator-prey dynamics in gyrokinetic simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, Sumire, E-mail: sumire.kobayashi@lpp.polytechnique.fr; Gürcan, Özgür D [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR7648, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Diamond, Patrick H. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0319 (United States)
2015-09-15
The interaction between spontaneously formed zonal flows and small-scale turbulence in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is explored in a shearless closed field line geometry. It is found that when clear limit cycle oscillations prevail, the observed turbulent dynamics can be quantitatively captured by a simple Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model. Fitting the time traces of full gyrokinetic simulations by such a reduced model allows extraction of the model coefficients. Scanning physical plasma parameters, such as collisionality and density gradient, it was observed that the effective growth rates of turbulence (i.e., the prey) remain roughly constant, in spite of the higher and varying level of primary mode linear growth rates. The effective growth rate that was extracted corresponds roughly to the zonal-flow-modified primary mode growth rate. It was also observed that the effective damping of zonal flows (i.e., the predator) in the parameter range, where clear predator-prey dynamics is observed, (i.e., near marginal stability) agrees with the collisional damping expected in these simulations. This implies that the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability may be negligible in this range. The results imply that when the tertiary instability plays a role, the dynamics becomes more complex than a simple Lotka-Volterra predator prey.
Turbulent transport of energetic ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dannert, Tilman; Hauff, Thilo; Jenko, Frank; Guenter, Sibylle
2006-01-01
Approaching ITER operation, the issue of anomalous transport of fast particles becomes more and more important. This is partly because the ITER heating and current drive system relies heavily on neutral beam injection. Moreover burning plasmas are heated by fast fusion α particles.Fusion α particles are characterised by a fixed energy and an isotropic velocity distribution. Therefore they have gyroradii one magnitude larger than the thermal ions. The dependency of the particle diffusion of α test particles on the Kubo number K = VExBτc/λc (VExB mean E x B velocity, τc, λc correlation time and length of the turbulent potential) is presented. For different turbulent regimes, different dependency of the diffusion on the gyroradius is found. For large Kubo numbers, the transport is found to remain constant for gyroradii up to the correlation length of the potential, whereas it is drastically reduced in the small Kubo number regime.In the second part, a model for beam ions injected along the equilibrium magnetic field is described. The beam ions are treated gyrokinetically in a self-consistent way with the equilibrium distribution function taken as a shifted Maxwellian. The implications of such a model for the Vlasov equation, the field equations, and the calculation of moments and fluxes are discussed. Linear and nonlinear results, obtained with the gyrokinetic flux tube code GENE show the existence of a new instability driven by fast beam ions. The instability has a maximum growth rate at perpendicular wave numbers of kyρs ∼ 0.15 and depends mainly on the beam velocity and the density gradient of the beam ions. This instability leads to a replacement of bulk ion particle transport by fast ion particle transport, connected to a strongly enhanced heat flux. In the presence of this instability, the turbulent particle and heat transport is dominated by fast ions
Destructive interference of TEM and ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merz, F.; Jenko, F.
2009-01-01
Full text: Turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is generally considered the key mechanism for anomalous transport in fusion devices on ion scales. But while pure ITG and, to a lesser extent, also pure TEM turbulence have been studied in detail over the last years, not much is presently known about nonlinear interactions between ITG modes and TEMs, which are often present simultaneously in experimentally relevant situations. This important issue is addressed by means of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. To examine the properties of the (linear) TEM and ITG instabilities in the (realistic) transitional regime, the GENE code is run as eigenvalue solver, which allows for a systematic study of dominant and subdominant modes. Corresponding nonlinear initial value computations show that the particle transport of the turbulent system can be completely suppressed if the two driving instabilities are active simultaneously. The direct comparison of the linear modes and the corresponding turbulent system reveals a coexistence of the two microinstabilities in a transitional regime even at the same wave number. The consequences of this dual turbulence drive for transport modeling is discussed. (author)
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Lee, W.W.
1995-03-01
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver has been developed, which employs local operations in the configuration space to compute the polarization density response. The new technique is based on the actual physical process of gyrophase-averaging. It is useful for nonlocal simulations using general geometry equilibrium. Since it utilizes local operations rather than the global ones such as FFT, the new method is most amenable to massively parallel algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyeon Il
2010-02-01
In order to demonstrate the accuracy of predictions in a turbulent mixed convection regime in which both inertia and buoyancy force compete with each other, we found out that assessments done using a single-dimensional system code with a recently updated heat transfer package have shown that this approach cannot give a reasonable prediction of the wall temperature in a case involving strong heating, where the regime falls into turbulent mixed convection regime. It has been known that the main reason of this deficiency comes from the degraded heat transfer in turbulent mixed convection regime, which is below that of convective heat transfer during turbulent forced convection. We investigated two mechanisms that cause this deterioration in convective heat transfer influenced by buoyancy: (1) modification of turbulence, also known as the direct (structural) effect, through the buoyancy-induced production of turbulent kinetic energy: and (2) an indirect (external) effect that occurs through modification of the mean flow. We investigated the Launder-Sharma model of turbulence whether it can appropriately represent the mechanisms causing the degraded heat transfer in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). We found out that this model can capture low Re effects such that a non-equilibrium turbulent boundary layer in turbulent mixed convection regime can be resolved. The model was verified and validated extensively initially with the commercial CFD code, Fluent with a user application package known as the User Defined Function (UDF). The results from this implementation were compared to a set of data that included (1) an experimental data commonly accepted as a standardized problem to verify a turbulent flow, (2) the results from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) in a turbulent forced and mixed convection regime, (3) empirical correlations regarding the friction coefficient and the non-dimensional heat transfer coefficient, the Nusselt number for a turbulent forced
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chowdhury, J.; Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
2014-11-15
The δ f particle-in-cell code GEM is used to study the transport “shortfall” problem of gyrokinetic simulations. In local simulations, the GEM results confirm the previously reported simulation results of DIII-D [Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)] and Alcator C-Mod [Howard et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 123011 (2013)] tokamaks with the continuum code GYRO. Namely, for DIII-D the simulations closely predict the ion heat flux at the core, while substantially underpredict transport towards the edge; while for Alcator C-Mod, the simulations show agreement with the experimental values of ion heat flux, at least within the range of experimental error. Global simulations are carried out for DIII-D L-mode plasmas to study the effect of edge turbulence on the outer core ion heat transport. The edge turbulence enhances the outer core ion heat transport through turbulence spreading. However, this edge turbulence spreading effect is not enough to explain the transport underprediction.
Memory-efficient optimization of Gyrokinetic particle-to-grid interpolation for multicore processors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madduri, Kamesh [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strohmaier, Erich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yelicky, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2009-01-01
We present multicore parallelization strategies for the particle-to-grid interpolation step in the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) application to study turbulent transport in magnetic-confinement fusion devices. Particle-grid interpolation is a known performance bottleneck in several PIC applications. In GTC, this step involves particles depositing charges to a 3D toroidal mesh, and multiple particles may contribute to the charge at a grid point. We design new parallel algorithms for the GTC charge deposition kernel, and analyze their performance on three leading multicore platforms. We implement thirteen different variants for this kernel and identify the best-performing ones given typical PIC parameters such as the grid size, number of particles per cell, and the GTC-specific particle Larmor radius variation. We find that our best strategies can be 2x faster than the reference optimized MPI implementation, and our analysis provides insight into desirable architectural features for high-performance PIC simulation codes.
Experimental and gyrokinetic investigation of core impurity transport in Alcator C-mod
Howard, N.; Greenwald, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J. E.; White, A. E.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Puetterich, T.
2010-11-01
A new multiple pulse laser blow-off system coupled with an upgraded high resolution x-ray spectrometer with spatial resolution allow for the most detailed studies of impurity transport on Alcator C-mod to date. Trace impurity injections created by the laser blow-off technique were introduced into plasmas with a wide range of parameters and time evolving profiles of He-like calcium were measured. The unique measurement of a single charge state profile and line integrated emission measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics were compared with the simulated emission from the impurity transport code STRAHL. A nonlinear least squares fitting routine was coupled with STRAHL, allowing for core impurity transport coefficients with errors to be determined. With this method, experimental data from trace calcium injections were analyzed and radially dependent, core values (< r/a ˜.6) of the diffusive and convective components of the impurity flux were obtained. The STRAHL results are compared with linear and global, nonlinear simulations from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Results of this comparison and an investigation of the underlying physics associated with turbulent impurity transport will be presented.
Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence Model in FUN3D and CFL3D Codes
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2015-01-01
The implementation of the k-kL turbulence model using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL model is a two-equation turbulence model based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation models. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the model as implemented in the CFD codes Fun3D and CFL3D. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence model.
A quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, A.
2009-10-01
After a presentation of some basics around nuclear fusion, this research thesis introduces the framework of the tokamak strategy to deal with confinement, hence the main plasma instabilities which are responsible for turbulent transport of energy and matter in such a system. The author also briefly introduces the two principal plasma representations, the fluid and the kinetic ones. He explains why the gyro-kinetic approach has been preferred. A tokamak relevant case is presented in order to highlight the relevance of a correct accounting of the kinetic wave-particle resonance. He discusses the issue of the quasi-linear response. Firstly, the derivation of the model, called QuaLiKiz, and its underlying hypotheses to get the energy and the particle turbulent flux are presented. Secondly, the validity of the quasi-linear response is verified against the nonlinear gyro-kinetic simulations. The saturation model that is assumed in QuaLiKiz, is presented and discussed. Then, the author qualifies the global outcomes of QuaLiKiz. Both the quasi-linear energy and the particle flux are compared to the expectations from the nonlinear simulations, across a wide scan of tokamak relevant parameters. Therefore, the coupling of QuaLiKiz within the integrated transport solver CRONOS is presented: this procedure allows the time-dependent transport problem to be solved, hence the direct application of the model to the experiment. The first preliminary results regarding the experimental analysis are finally discussed
Bao, Jian; Lau, Calvin; Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Zhihong; Fulton, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Team
2017-10-01
Collisional and turbulent transport in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is studied in global particle simulation by using GTC (gyrokinetic toroidal code). The global FRC geometry is incorporated in GTC by using a field-aligned mesh in cylindrical coordinates, which enables global simulation coupling core and scrape-off layer (SOL) across the separatrix. Furthermore, fully kinetic ions are implemented in GTC to treat magnetic-null point in FRC core. Both global simulation coupling core and SOL regions and independent SOL region simulation have been carried out to study turbulence. In this work, the ``logical sheath boundary condition'' is implemented to study parallel transport in the SOL. This method helps to relax time and spatial steps without resolving electron plasma frequency and Debye length, which enables turbulent transports simulation with sheath effects. We will study collisional and turbulent SOL parallel transport with mirror geometry and sheath boundary condition in C2-W divertor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noguchi, H.; Sawatari, Y.; Imada, T.
2000-01-01
The behavior of a large volumetrically heated melt pool is important to evaluate the feasibility of in-vessel retention by external flooding as an accident management. The COSMO (Coolability Simulation of Molten corium during severe accident) code has been developed at NUPEC to simulate turbulent natural convection heat transfer with internal heat source. The COSMO code solves thermal hydraulic conservation equations with turbulent model and can simulate melting and solidification process. The standard k-ε model has a limitation to describe the turbulent natural convection in the very high Rayleigh number condition (10 16 -10 17 ) assumed to occur in a lower plenum of RPV during a severe accident. This limitation results from the assumption of an analogy of momentum and energy transfer phenomena in the standard model. In this paper the modified turbulent model in which the turbulent number is treated, as a function of the flux Richardson number derived from the experiment, has been incorporated and verified by using the BALI experiments. It was found that the prediction of averaged Nusselt number became better than that of the standard model. In order to extend the COSMO code to the actual scale analysis under the external flooding conditions, more realistic boundary condition derived from the experiments should be treated. In this work the CHF correlation from ULPU experiment or the heat transfer coefficient correlation from CYBL experiment have been applied. The preliminary analysis of an actual scale analysis has been carried out under the condition of the TMI-2 accident. (author)
Global gyrokinetic and fluid hybrid simulations of tokamaks and stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Michael David John
2016-07-15
Achieving commercial production of electricity by magnetic confinement fusion requires improvements in energy and particle confinement. In order to better understand and optimise confinement, numerical simulations of plasma phenomena are useful. One particularly challenging regime is that in which long wavelength MHD phenomena interact with kinetic phenomena. In such a regime, global electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations are necessary. In this regime, computational requirements have been excessive for Eulerian methods, while Particle-in-Cell (PIC) methods have been particularly badly affected by the 'cancellation problem', a numerical problem resulting from the structure of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations. A number of researchers have been working on mitigating this problem with some significant successes. Another alternative to mitigating the problem is to move to a hybrid system of fluid and gyrokinetic equations. At the expense of reducing the physical content of the numerical model, particularly electron kinetic physics, it is possible in this way to perform global electromagnetic PIC simulations retaining ion gyrokinetic effects but eliminating the cancellation problem. The focus of this work has been the implementation of two such hybrid models into the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE. The two models treat electrons and the entire bulk plasma respectively as a fluid. Both models are additionally capable of considering the self-consistent interaction of an energetic ion species, described gyrokinetically, with the perturbed fields. These two models have been successfully benchmarked in linear growth rate and frequency against other codes for a Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) case in both the linear and non-linear regimes. The m=1 internal kink mode, which is particularly challenging in terms of the fully gyrokinetic cancellation problem, has also been successfully benchmarked using the hybrid models with the MHD eigenvalue code CKA. Non
Global gyrokinetic and fluid hybrid simulations of tokamaks and stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, Michael David John
2016-01-01
Achieving commercial production of electricity by magnetic confinement fusion requires improvements in energy and particle confinement. In order to better understand and optimise confinement, numerical simulations of plasma phenomena are useful. One particularly challenging regime is that in which long wavelength MHD phenomena interact with kinetic phenomena. In such a regime, global electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations are necessary. In this regime, computational requirements have been excessive for Eulerian methods, while Particle-in-Cell (PIC) methods have been particularly badly affected by the 'cancellation problem', a numerical problem resulting from the structure of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations. A number of researchers have been working on mitigating this problem with some significant successes. Another alternative to mitigating the problem is to move to a hybrid system of fluid and gyrokinetic equations. At the expense of reducing the physical content of the numerical model, particularly electron kinetic physics, it is possible in this way to perform global electromagnetic PIC simulations retaining ion gyrokinetic effects but eliminating the cancellation problem. The focus of this work has been the implementation of two such hybrid models into the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE. The two models treat electrons and the entire bulk plasma respectively as a fluid. Both models are additionally capable of considering the self-consistent interaction of an energetic ion species, described gyrokinetically, with the perturbed fields. These two models have been successfully benchmarked in linear growth rate and frequency against other codes for a Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) case in both the linear and non-linear regimes. The m=1 internal kink mode, which is particularly challenging in terms of the fully gyrokinetic cancellation problem, has also been successfully benchmarked using the hybrid models with the MHD eigenvalue code CKA. Non-linear simulations
Numerical and Theoretical Studies of Turbulence and Transport with E x B Shear Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.
1999-01-01
This paper reports: (1) substantial transport reduction by turbulence-driven E x B flows observed in 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas; (2) analytical derivation of the effective shearing rate for the time-dependent E x B flow; (3) interpretation of experimental data using linear gyrokinetic microinstability rotation models of E x B shear; and (4) other developments in gyrokinetic theory and simulation
A minimal collision operator for implementing neoclassical transport in gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Angelino, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a class of collision operators, which reproduce neoclassical transport and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on a variational entropy method, which allows a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity.
Neoclassical and gyrokinetic analysis of time-dependent helium transport experiments on MAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henderson, S.S.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H.P.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F.J.; Dickinson, D.; Fox, M.F.J.; Patel, A.; Roach, C.M.; Valovič, M.
2014-01-01
Time-dependent helium gas puff experiments have been performed on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) during a two point plasma current scan in L-mode and a confinement scan at 900 kA. An evaluation of the He II (n = 4 → 3) spectrum line induced by charge exchange suggests anomalous rates of diffusion and inward convection in the outer regions of both L-mode plasmas. Similar rates of diffusion are found in the H-mode plasma, however these rates are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The anomalous inward pinch found in the core of L-mode plasmas is also not apparent in the H-mode core. Linear gyrokinetic simulations of one flux surface in L-mode using the GS2 and GKW codes find that equilibrium flow shear is sufficient to stabilize ITG modes, consistent with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) observations, and suggest that collisionless TEMs may dominate the anomalous helium particle transport. A quasilinear estimate of the dimensionless peaking factor associated with TEMs is in good agreement with experiment. Collisionless TEMs are more stable in H-mode because the electron density gradient is flatter. The steepness of this gradient is therefore pivotal in determining the inward neoclassical particle pinch and the particle flux associated with TEM turbulence. (paper)
Gyrokinetic global analysis of ion temperature gradient driven mode in reversed shear tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idomura, Y.; Tokuda, S.; Kishimoto, Y.
2003-01-01
A new toroidal gyrokinetic particle code has been developed to study the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence in reactor relevant tokamak parameters. We use a new method based on a canonical Maxwellian distribution F CM (P φ , ε, μ), which is defined by three constants of motion in the axisymmetric toroidal system, the canonical angular momentum P φ , the energy ε, and the magnetic moment μ. A quasi-ballooning representation enables linear and nonlinear high-m,n global calculations with a good numerical convergence. Conservation properties are improved by using the optimized loading method. From comprehensive linear global analyses over a wide range of an unstable toroidal mode number spectrum (n=0∼100) in large tokamak parameters (a/ρ ti =320∼460), properties of the ITG modes in reversed shear tokamaks are discussed. In the nonlinear simulation, it is found that a new method based on F CM can simulate a zonal flow damping correctly, and spurious zonal flow oscillations, which are observed in a conventional method based on a local Maxwellian distribution F LM (ψ, ε, μ), do not appear in the nonlinear regime. (author)
Neoclassical and gyrokinetic analysis of time-dependent helium transport experiments on MAST
Henderson, S. S.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F. J.; Dickinson, D.; Fox, M. F. J.; O'Mullane, M.; Patel, A.; Roach, C. M.; Summers, H. P.; Valovič, M.; The MAST Team
2014-09-01
Time-dependent helium gas puff experiments have been performed on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) during a two point plasma current scan in L-mode and a confinement scan at 900 kA. An evaluation of the He II (n = 4 → 3) spectrum line induced by charge exchange suggests anomalous rates of diffusion and inward convection in the outer regions of both L-mode plasmas. Similar rates of diffusion are found in the H-mode plasma, however these rates are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The anomalous inward pinch found in the core of L-mode plasmas is also not apparent in the H-mode core. Linear gyrokinetic simulations of one flux surface in L-mode using the GS2 and GKW codes find that equilibrium flow shear is sufficient to stabilize ITG modes, consistent with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) observations, and suggest that collisionless TEMs may dominate the anomalous helium particle transport. A quasilinear estimate of the dimensionless peaking factor associated with TEMs is in good agreement with experiment. Collisionless TEMs are more stable in H-mode because the electron density gradient is flatter. The steepness of this gradient is therefore pivotal in determining the inward neoclassical particle pinch and the particle flux associated with TEM turbulence.
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2007-08-06
We describe a coded power-efficient transmission scheme based on repetition MIMO principle suitable for communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel, and determine its channel capacity. The proposed scheme employs the Q-ary pulse-position modulation. We further study how to approach the channel capacity limits using low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Component LDPC codes are designed using the concept of pairwise-balanced designs. Contrary to the several recent publications, bit-error rates and channel capacities are reported assuming non-ideal photodetection. The atmospheric turbulence channel is modeled using the Gamma-Gamma distribution function due to Al-Habash et al. Excellent bit-error rate performance improvement, over uncoded case, is found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yang
2012-01-01
At Colorado University-Boulder the primary task is to extend our gyrokinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation of tokamak micro-turbulence and transport to the area of energetic particle physics. We have implemented a gyrokinetic ion/massless fluid electron hybrid model in the global δf-PIC code GEM, and benchmarked the code with analytic results on the thermal ion radiative damping rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and with mode frequency and spatial structure from eigenmode analysis. We also performed nonlinear simulations of both a single-n mode (n is the toroidal mode number) and multiple-n modes, and in the case of single-n, benchmarked the code on the saturation amplitude vs. particle collision rate with analytical theory. Most simulations use the f method for both ions species, but we have explored the full-f method for energetic particles in cases where the burst amplitude of the excited instabilities is large as to cause significant re-distribution or loss of the energetic particles. We used the hybrid model to study the stability of high-n TAEs in ITER. Our simulations show that the most unstable modes in ITER lie in the rage of 10 α (0) = 0.7% for the fully shaped ITER equilibrium. We also carried nonlinear simulations of the most unstable n = 15 mode and found that the saturation amplitude for the nominal ITER discharge is too low to cause large redistribution or loss of alpha particles. To include kinetic electron effects in the hybrid model we have studied a kinetic electron closure scheme for the fluid electron model. The most important element of the closure scheme is a complete Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E || , derived by combining the quasi-neutrality condition, the Ampere's equation and the v || moment of the gyrokinetic equations. A discretization method for the closure scheme is studied in detail for a three-dimensional shear-less slab plasma. It is found that for long-wavelength shear Alfven waves the kinetic closure scheme
Turbulent and neoclassical toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abiteboul, J.
2012-10-01
The goal of magnetic confinement devices such as tokamaks is to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions in plasmas at low densities and high temperatures. Experimentally, toroidal flows have been found to significantly improve the energy confinement, and therefore the performance of the machine. As extrinsic momentum sources will be limited in future fusion devices such as ITER, an understanding of the physics of toroidal momentum transport and the generation of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks would be an important step in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Among the mechanisms expected to contribute to the generation of toroidal rotation is the transport of momentum by electrostatic turbulence, which governs heat transport in tokamaks. Due to the low collisionality of the plasma, kinetic modeling is mandatory for the study of tokamak turbulence. In principle, this implies the modeling of a six-dimensional distribution function representing the density of particles in position and velocity phase-space, which can be reduced to five dimensions when considering only frequencies below the particle cyclotron frequency. This approximation, relevant for the study of turbulence in tokamaks, leads to the so-called gyrokinetic model and brings the computational cost of the model within the presently available numerical resources. In this work, we study the transport of toroidal momentum in tokamaks in the framework of the gyrokinetic model. First, we show that this reduced model is indeed capable of accurately modeling momentum transport by deriving a local conservation equation of toroidal momentum, and verifying it numerically with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Secondly, we show how electrostatic turbulence can break the axisymmetry and generate toroidal rotation, while a strong link between turbulent heat and momentum transport is identified, as both exhibit the same large-scale avalanche-like events. The dynamics of turbulent transport are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Janghoon; Choe, W. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kwon, J. M. [National Fusion Research institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Müller, Stefan H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching 85748 (Germany); Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2014-09-15
Fluid Reynolds stress from turbulence has usually been considered to be responsible for the anomalous toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasma. Experiment by Müller et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 115001 (2011)], however, reported that neither the observed edge rotation profile nor the inward momentum transport phenomenon at the edge region of an H-mode plasma could be explained by the fluid Reynolds stress measured with reciprocating Langmuir-probe. The full-function gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to explain, for the first time, Müller et al.'s experimental observations. It is discovered that, unlike in the plasma core, the fluid Reynolds stress from turbulence is not sufficient for momentum transport physics in plasma edge. The “turbulent neoclassical” physics arising from the interaction between kinetic neoclassical orbit dynamics and plasma turbulence is key in the tokamak edge region across the plasma pedestal into core.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarnicki, R.; Sobiesiak, A.
2002-01-01
In order to solve the averaged conservation equations for turbulent reacting flow one is faced with a task of specifying the averaged chemical reaction rate. This is due to turbulence influence on the mean reaction rates that appear in the species concentration Reynolds-averaged equation. In order to investigate the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) combustion model capabilities, a CFD modeling using KIVA3V Code with the PaSR model of two very different combustion processes, was performed. Experimental results were compared with modeling
Equilibrium fluctuation energy of gyrokinetic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Oberman, C.
1985-11-01
The thermal equilibrium electric field fluctuation energy of the gyrokinetic model of magnetized plasma is computed, and found to be smaller than the well-known result (k)/8π = 1/2T/[1 + (klambda/sub D/) 2 ] valid for arbitrarily magnetized plasmas. It is shown that, in a certain sense, the equilibrium electric field energy is minimum in the gyrokinetic regime. 13 refs., 2 figs
Partially linearized algorithms in gyrokinetic particle simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1990-10-01
In this paper, particle simulation algorithms with time-varying weights for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system have been developed. The primary purpose is to use them for the removal of the selected nonlinearities in the simulation of gradient-driven microturbulence so that the relative importance of the various nonlinear effects can be assessed. It is hoped that the use of these procedures will result in a better understanding of the transport mechanisms and scaling in tokamaks. Another application of these algorithms is for the improvement of the numerical properties of the simulation plasma. For instance, implementations of such algorithms (1) enable us to suppress the intrinsic numerical noise in the simulation, and (2) also make it possible to regulate the weights of the fast-moving particles and, in turn, to eliminate the associated high frequency oscillations. Examples of their application to drift-type instabilities in slab geometry are given. We note that the work reported here represents the first successful use of the weighted algorithms in particle codes for the nonlinear simulation of plasmas.
Partially linearized algorithms in gyrokinetic particle simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimits, A.M.; Lee, W.W.
1990-10-01
In this paper, particle simulation algorithms with time-varying weights for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system have been developed. The primary purpose is to use them for the removal of the selected nonlinearities in the simulation of gradient-driven microturbulence so that the relative importance of the various nonlinear effects can be assessed. It is hoped that the use of these procedures will result in a better understanding of the transport mechanisms and scaling in tokamaks. Another application of these algorithms is for the improvement of the numerical properties of the simulation plasma. For instance, implementations of such algorithms (1) enable us to suppress the intrinsic numerical noise in the simulation, and (2) also make it possible to regulate the weights of the fast-moving particles and, in turn, to eliminate the associated high frequency oscillations. Examples of their application to drift-type instabilities in slab geometry are given. We note that the work reported here represents the first successful use of the weighted algorithms in particle codes for the nonlinear simulation of plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sung, C., E-mail: csung@physics.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Churchill, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Theiler, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SPC, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)
2016-04-15
Long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} < 0.3) are measured in the outer core region (r/a > 0.8) of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [E. S. Marmar et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104014 (2009)] with a correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. The relative amplitude and frequency spectrum of the fluctuations are compared quantitatively with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] in two different confinement regimes: linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) regime and saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regime. When comparing experiment with nonlinear simulations, it is found that local, electrostatic ion-scale simulations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} ≲ 1.7) performed at r/a ∼ 0.85 reproduce the experimental ion heat flux levels, electron temperature fluctuation levels, and frequency spectra within experimental error bars. In contrast, the electron heat flux is robustly under-predicted and cannot be recovered by using scans of the simulation inputs within error bars or by using global simulations. If both the ion heat flux and the measured temperature fluctuations are attributed predominantly to long-wavelength turbulence, then under-prediction of electron heat flux strongly suggests that electron scale turbulence is important for transport in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges. In addition, no evidence is found from linear or nonlinear simulations for a clear transition from trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient turbulence across the LOC/SOC transition, and also there is no evidence in these Ohmic L-mode plasmas of the “Transport Shortfall” [C. Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)].
A reduced model for ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.
2013-07-01
A novel reduced model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulent transport in helical plasmas is presented. The model enables one to predict nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results from linear gyrokinetic analyses. It is shown from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG turbulence in helical plasmas that the transport coefficient can be expressed as a function of the turbulent fluctuation level and the averaged zonal flow amplitude. Then, the reduced model for the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is derived by representing the nonlinear turbulent fluctuations and zonal flow amplitude in terms of the linear growth rate of the ITG instability and the linear response of the zonal flow potentials. It is confirmed that the reduced transport model results are in good agreement with those from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for high ion temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noguchi, H. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sawatari, Y.; Imada, T. [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)
2000-11-01
The behavior of a large volumetrically heated melt pool is important to evaluate the feasibility of in-vessel retention by external flooding as an accident management. The COSMO (Coolability Simulation of Molten corium during severe accident) code has been developed at NUPEC to simulate turbulent natural convection heat transfer with internal heat source. The COSMO code solves thermal hydraulic conservation equations with turbulent model and can simulate melting and solidification process. The standard k-{epsilon} model has a limitation to describe the turbulent natural convection in the very high Rayleigh number condition (10{sup 16}-10{sup 17}) assumed to occur in a lower plenum of RPV during a severe accident. This limitation results from the assumption of an analogy of momentum and energy transfer phenomena in the standard model. In this paper the modified turbulent model in which the turbulent number is treated, as a function of the flux Richardson number derived from the experiment, has been incorporated and verified by using the BALI experiments. It was found that the prediction of averaged Nusselt number became better than that of the standard model. In order to extend the COSMO code to the actual scale analysis under the external flooding conditions, more realistic boundary condition derived from the experiments should be treated. In this work the CHF correlation from ULPU experiment or the heat transfer coefficient correlation from CYBL experiment have been applied. The preliminary analysis of an actual scale analysis has been carried out under the condition of the TMI-2 accident. (author)
Chang, C S; Ku, S; Tynan, G R; Hager, R; Churchill, R M; Cziegler, I; Greenwald, M; Hubbard, A E; Hughes, J W
2017-04-28
Transport barrier formation and its relation to sheared flows in fluids and plasmas are of fundamental interest in various natural and laboratory observations and of critical importance in achieving an economical energy production in a magnetic fusion device. Here we report the first observation of an edge transport barrier formation event in an electrostatic gyrokinetic simulation carried out in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under strong forcing by a high rate of heat deposition. The results show that turbulent Reynolds-stress-driven sheared E×B flows act in concert with neoclassical orbit loss to quench turbulent transport and form a transport barrier just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2014-12-15
The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.
Befrui, Bizhan A.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.
Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2012-03-01
Static external resonant magnetic field perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr, and the corresponding j→×B→ plasma torque (density) R[jrBp/c], induced by magnetic islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends the previous GYRO formulation for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [R. E. Waltz, G. M. Staebler, J. Candy, and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)]. The focus is on electrostatic full torus radial slice simulations of externally induced q =m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius or about 20 ion gyroradii. Up to moderately strong E ×B rotation, the island torque scales with the radial electric field at the resonant surface Er, the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as Erw√I . The radial current inside the island is carried (entirely in the n =3 component) and almost entirely by the ion E ×B flux, since the electron E ×B and magnetic flutter particle fluxes are cancelled. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that while the expected magnetic braking of the toroidal plasma rotation occurs at strong co- and counter-current rotation, at null toroidal rotation, there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration up to the small diamagnetic (ion pressure gradient driven) co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er and null torque. This could be called the residual stress from an externally induced island. At zero Er, the only effect is the expected partial flattening of the electron temperature gradient within the island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations demonstrate almost complete RMP field screening and n =3 mode unlocking at strong Er.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapillonne, X.
2010-04-01
In magnetically confined fusion devices, the energy and particle transport is significantly larger than expected from purely collisional processes. This degraded confinement mostly results from small-scale turbulence and prevents from reaching self-sustained burning plasma conditions in present day experiments. A better understanding of these nonlinear phenomena is therefore of key importance on the way towards controlled fusion. The small-scale microinstabilities and associated turbulence are investigated for Tokamak plasmas by means of numerical simulations in the frame of the gyrokinetic theory. This model describes the evolution of the particle distribution functions in phase space together with self-consistent electromagnetic fields, while neglecting the fast motion associated with the Larmor orbit of particles around the magnetic field lines. In the course of this thesis work, substantial modifications to the existing Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE have been carried out in collaboration with the Max-Planck- Institute f¨ur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The code has been extended from a local approximation, which only considers a reduced volume of a fusion plasma, to a global version which fully includes radial temperature and density profiles as well as radial magnetic equilibrium variations. To this end, the gyrokinetic equations have been formulated for general magnetic geometry, keeping radial variations of equilibrium quantities, and considering field aligned coordinates, suitable for their numerical implementation. The numerical treatment of the radial direction has been modified from a Fourier representation in the local approach to real space in the global code. This has in particular required to adapt the radial derivatives, the field solver, and to implement a real space dealiasing scheme for the treatment of the nonlinearity. A heat source was in addition introduced to allow for steady state global nonlinear simulations. An important part of
Gyrokinetic Magnetohydrodynamics and the Associated Equilibrium
Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.
2017-10-01
A proposed scheme for the calculations of gyrokinetic MHD and its associated equilibrium is discussed related a recent paper on the subject. The scheme is based on the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation and parallel Ohm's law, as well as the associated gyrokinetic Ampere's law. This set of equations, in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, ϕ , supports both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and their associated currents. The MHD equilibrium can be reached when ϕ -> 0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇ . (J|| +J⊥) = 0 and the associated magnetic islands. Examples in simple cylindrical geometry will be given. The present work is partially supported by US DoE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete
Gyrokinetic energy conservation and Poisson-bracket formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizard, A.
1989-01-01
An integral expression for the gyrokinetic total energy of a magnetized plasma, with general magnetic field configuration perturbed by fully electromagnetic fields, was recently derived through the use of a gyrocenter Lie transformation. It is shown that the gyrokinetic energy is conserved by the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian flow to all orders in perturbed fields. An explicit demonstration that a gyrokinetic Hamiltonian containing quadratic nonlinearities preserves the gyrokinetic energy up to third order is given. The Poisson-bracket formulation greatly facilitates this demonstration with the help of the Jacobi identity and other properties of the Poisson brackets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armand, Patrick
1995-01-01
The aim of this work consists in the Fluid Mechanics and aerosol Physics coupling. In the first part, the order of magnitude analysis of the particle dynamics is done. This particle is embedded in a non-uniform unsteady flow. Flow approximations around the inclusion are described. Corresponding aerodynamic drag formulae are expressed. Possible situations related to the problem data are extensively listed. In the second part, one studies the turbulent particles transport. Eulerian approach which is particularly well adapted to industrial codes is preferred in comparison with the Lagrangian methods. One chooses the two-fluid formalism in which career gas-particles slip is taken into account. Turbulence modelling gets through a k-epsilon modulated by the inclusions action on the flow. The model is implemented In a finite elements code. Finally, In the third part, one validates the modelling in laminar and turbulent cases. We compare simulations to various experiments (settling battery, inertial impaction in a bend, jets loaded with glass beads particles) which are taken in the literature or done by ourselves at the laboratory. The results are very close. It is a good point when it is thought of the particles transport model and associated software future use. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pot, G.; Laurence, D.; Rharif, N.E.; Leal de Sousa, L.; Compe, C.
1995-12-01
This paper deals with the introduction of a second moment closure turbulence model (Reynolds Stress Model) in an industrial finite element code, N3S, developed at Electricite de France.The numerical implementation of the model in N3S will be detailed in 2D and 3D. Some details are given concerning finite element computations and solvers. Then, some results will be given, including a comparison between standard k-ε model, R.S.M. model and experimental data for some test case. (authors). 22 refs., 3 figs
Gyrokinetic theory and dynamics of the tokamak edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
2016-08-15
The validity of modern gyrokinetic field theory is assessed for the tokamak edge. The basic structure of the Lagrangian and resulting equations and their conservation laws is reviewed. The conventional microturbulence ordering for expansion is small potential/arbitrary wavelength. The equilibrium ordering for expansion is long wavelength/arbitrary amplitude. The long-wavelength form of the conventional Lagrangian is derived in detail. The two Lagrangians are shown to match at long wavelength if the E x B Mach number is small enough for its corrections to the gyroaveraging to be neglected. Therefore, the conventional derivation and its Lagrangian can be used at all wavelengths if these conditions are satisfied. Additionally, dynamical compressibility of the magnetic field can be neglected if the plasma beta is small. This allows general use of a shear-Alfven Lagrangian for edge turbulence and self consistent equilibrium-scale phenomena for flows, currents, and heat fluxes for conventional tokamaks without further modification by higher-order terms. Corrections in polarisation and toroidal angular momentum transport due to these higher-order terms for global edge turbulence computations are shown to be small. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Linghuai; Sofia, Sabatino; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Ventura, Paolo; Penza, Valentina; Bi Shaolan
2009-01-01
In the second paper of this series we pursue two objectives. First, in order to make the code more sensitive to small effects, we remove many approximations made in Paper I. Second, we include turbulence and rotation in the two-dimensional framework. The stellar equilibrium is described by means of a set of five differential equations, with the introduction of a new dependent variable, namely the perturbation to the radial gravity, that is found when the nonradial effects are considered in the solution of the Poisson equation. Following the scheme of the first paper, we write the equations in such a way that the two-dimensional effects can be easily disentangled. The key concept introduced in this series is the equipotential surface. We use the underlying cause-effect relation to develop a recurrence relation to calculate the equipotential surface functions for uniform rotation, differential rotation, rotation-like toroidal magnetic fields, and turbulence. We also develop a more precise code to numerically solve the two-dimensional stellar structure and evolution equations based on the equipotential surface calculations. We have shown that with this formulation we can achieve the precision required by observations by appropriately selecting the convergence criterion. Several examples are presented to show that the method works well. Since we are interested in modeling the effects of a dynamo-type field on the detailed envelope structure and global properties of the Sun, the code has been optimized for short timescales phenomena (down to 1 yr). The time dependence of the code has so far been tested exclusively to address such problems.
Developments and validation of large eddy simulation of turbulent flows in an industrial code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackermann, C.
2000-01-01
Large Eddy Simulation, where large scales of the flow are resolved and sub-grid scales are modelled, is well adapted to the study of turbulent flow, in which geometry and/or heat transfer effects lead to unsteady phenomena. To obtain an improved numerical tool, simulations of elementary test cases, Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence and Turbulent Plane Channel, were clone on both structured and unstructured grids, before moving to more complex geometries. This allowed the influence of the different physical and numerical parameters to be studied separately. On structured grids, the different properties of the numerical methods corresponding to our problem were identified, a new sub-grid model was elaborated and several laws of the wall tested: for this discretization, our numerical tool is yet validated. On unstructured grids, the construction of numerical methods with the same properties as on the structured grids is harder, especially for the convection scheme: several numerical schemes were tested, and sub-grid models and laws of the wall were adapted to unstructured grids. Simulations of the same elementary tests were clone: the results are relatively satisfactorily, even if they are not so good as the one obtained in structured grids, most probably because the numerical methods chosen cannot perfectly isolate the effects between the convection scheme, physical modelling and the mesh chosen. This work is the first stage towards the development of a practical Large Eddy Simulation tool for unstructured grid. (author) [fr
Cross-separatrix Coupling in Nonlinear Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U
Lau, Calvin; Fulton, Daniel; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Binderbauer, Michl; Tajima, Toshiki; Schmitz, Lothar; TAE Team
2017-10-01
In recent years, the progress of the C-2/C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments at Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. has pushed FRCs to transport limited regimes. Understanding particle and energy transport is a vital step towards an FRC reactor, and two particle-in-cell microturbulence codes, the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) and A New Code (ANC), are being developed and applied toward this goal. Previous local electrostatic GTC simulations find the core to be robustly stable with drift-wave instability only in the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. However, experimental measurements showed fluctuations in both regions; one possibility is that fluctuations in the core originate from the SOL, suggesting the need for non-local simulations with cross-separatrix coupling. Current global ANC simulations with gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons find that non-local effects (1) modify linear growth-rates and frequencies of instabilities and (2) allow instability to move from the unstable SOL to the linearly stable core. Nonlinear spreading is also seen prior to mode saturation. We also report on the progress of the first turbulence simulations in the SOL. This work is supported by the Norman Rostoker Fellowship.
Microinstabilities and turbulent transport in the reversed field pinch
Carmody, Daniel Richard
-analytic equilibrium, the adjusted circular model (ACM), is developed and implemented in the gyrokinetic code GENE to investigate representative PPCD discharges. The flexibility of the ACM enables it to be used for the high-theta PPCD discharges where the TBFM breaks down. The dominant linear instabilites for the discharges modeled here---ITG and the trapped electron mode (TEM)---are studied, as are their scaling properties in the PPCD regime. It is found that these instabilities are present outside of the reversal surface, where the driving gradients are strongest. Nonlinear simulations of the TEM turbulence are performed, the first such done for the RFP, and zonal flows are found to play an important role in the nonlinear saturation mechanism. These zonal flows lead to a large Dimits-like shift and suppressed transport. There is also evidence that residual global tearing mode fluctuations are a necessary part of modeling transport in the RFP, even in improved confinement PPCD discharges, and by modeling these residual fluctuations through the use of an externally imposed perpendicular magnetic field perturbation it is possible to bring simulated fluxes into agreement with experiment. Finally, the nature of the collisionless MTM, an instability seen to arise in some parameter regimes of the RFP, is investigated analytically using a fluid expansion in the drift-kinetic framework. Particular attention is paid to the role of magnetic drifts, and some evidence for their role in the collisionless instability is presented. Comparisons are made to gyrokinetic simulations and to earlier theory on the magnetic-curvature drift instability.
Transport of momentum in full f gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.
2010-01-01
Full f electrostatic gyrokinetic formulations employ two gyrokinetic equations, one for ions and the other for electrons, and quasineutrality to obtain the ion and electron distribution functions and the electrostatic potential. We demonstrate with several examples that the long wavelength radial electric field obtained with full f approaches is extremely sensitive to errors in the ion and electron density since small deviations in density give rise to large, nonphysical deviations in the conservation of toroidal angular momentum. For typical tokamak values, a relative error of 10 -7 in the ion or electron densities is enough to obtain the incorrect toroidal rotation. Based on the insights gained with the examples considered, three simple tests to check transport of toroidal angular momentum in full f simulations are proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Yilmaz, Ali Emre
2018-01-01
to match closely for all codes. The value of the Smagorinsky coefficient in the subgrid-scale turbulence model is shown to have a negligible effect on the time-averaged loads along the blades. Conversely, the breakdown location of the wake is strongly dependent on the Smagorinsky coefficient in uniform...... coefficient has a negligible effect on the wake profiles. It is concluded that for LES of wind turbines and wind farms using ALM, careful implementation and extensive cross-verification among codes can result in highly reproducible predictions. Moreover, the characteristics of the inflow turbulence appear...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.
2009-01-01
The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.
Non-physical momentum sources in slab geometry gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2010-01-01
We investigate momentum transport in the Hamiltonian electrostatic gyrokinetic formulation of Dubin et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524). We prove that the long wavelength electric field obtained from the gyrokinetic quasineutrality introduces a non-physical momentum source in the low flow ordering.
Statistical description of turbulent transport for flux driven toroidal plasmas
Anderson, J.; Imadera, K.; Kishimoto, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Nordman, H.
2017-06-01
A novel methodology to analyze non-Gaussian probability distribution functions (PDFs) of intermittent turbulent transport in global full-f gyrokinetic simulations is presented. In this work, the auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is applied to time series data of intermittent turbulent heat transport to separate noise and oscillatory trends, allowing for the extraction of non-Gaussian features of the PDFs. It was shown that non-Gaussian tails of the PDFs from first principles based gyrokinetic simulations agree with an analytical estimation based on a two fluid model.
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-09-21
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-01-01
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Local gyrokinetic study of electrostatic microinstabilities in dipole plasmas
Xie, Hua-sheng; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Zi-cong; Ou, Wei-ke; Li, Bo
2017-12-01
A linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell scheme, which is valid for an arbitrary perpendicular wavelength k⊥ρi and includes the parallel dynamic along the field line, is developed to study the local electrostatic drift modes in point and ring dipole plasmas. We find that the most unstable mode in this system can be either the electron mode or the ion mode. The properties and relations of these modes are studied in detail as a function of k⊥ρi , the density gradient κn, the temperature gradient κT, electron to ion temperature ratio τ=Te/Ti , and mass ratio mi/me . For conventional weak gradient parameters, the mode is on the ground state (with eigenstate number l = 0) and especially k∥˜0 for small k⊥ρi . Thus, the bounce averaged dispersion relation is also derived for comparison. For strong gradient and large k⊥ρi , most interestingly, higher order eigenstate modes with even (e.g., l = 2, 4) or odd (e.g., l = 1) parity can be most unstable, which is not expected in the previous studies. High order eigenstate can also easily be most unstable at weak gradient when τ>10 . This work can be particularly important to understand the turbulent transport in laboratory and space magnetosphere.
Finite element approach to global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations using magnetic coordinate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Ridder, G. de; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.M.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.; Appert, K.
1997-08-01
We present a fully-global linear gyrokinetic simulation code (GYGLES) aimed at describing the instable spectrum of the ion-temperature-gradient modes in toroidal geometry. We formulate the Particle-In-Cell method with finite elements defined in magnetic coordinates, which provides excellent numerical convergence properties. The poloidal mode structure corresponding to k // =0 is extracted without approximation from the equations, which reduces drastically the numerical resolution needed. The code can simulate routinely modes with both very long and very short toroidal wavelengths, can treat realistic (MHD) equilibria of any size and runs on a massively parallel computer. (author) 10 figs., 28 refs
CICART Center For Integrated Computation And Analysis Of Reconnection And Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2016-01-01
CICART is a partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and Dartmouth College. CICART addresses two important science needs of the DoE: the basic understanding of magnetic reconnection and turbulence that strongly impacts the performance of fusion plasmas, and the development of new mathematical and computational tools that enable the modeling and control of these phenomena. The principal participants of CICART constitute an interdisciplinary group, drawn from the communities of applied mathematics, astrophysics, computational physics, fluid dynamics, and fusion physics. It is a main premise of CICART that fundamental aspects of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in fusion devices, smaller-scale laboratory experiments, and space and astrophysical plasmas can be viewed from a common perspective, and that progress in understanding in any of these interconnected fields is likely to lead to progress in others. The establishment of CICART has strongly impacted the education and research mission of a new Program in Integrated Applied Mathematics in the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences at UNH by enabling the recruitment of a tenure-track faculty member, supported equally by UNH and CICART, and the establishment of an IBM-UNH Computing Alliance. The proposed areas of research in magnetic reconnection and turbulence in astrophysical, space, and laboratory plasmas include the following topics: (A) Reconnection and secondary instabilities in large high-Lundquist-number plasmas, (B) Particle acceleration in the presence of multiple magnetic islands, (C) Gyrokinetic reconnection: comparison with fluid and particle-in-cell models, (D) Imbalanced turbulence, (E) Ion heating, and (F) Turbulence in laboratory (including fusion-relevant) experiments. These theoretical studies make active use of three high-performance computer simulation codes: (1) The Magnetic Reconnection Code, based on extended two-fluid (or Hall MHD) equations, in an Adaptive Mesh
CICART Center For Integrated Computation And Analysis Of Reconnection And Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
2016-03-27
CICART is a partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and Dartmouth College. CICART addresses two important science needs of the DoE: the basic understanding of magnetic reconnection and turbulence that strongly impacts the performance of fusion plasmas, and the development of new mathematical and computational tools that enable the modeling and control of these phenomena. The principal participants of CICART constitute an interdisciplinary group, drawn from the communities of applied mathematics, astrophysics, computational physics, fluid dynamics, and fusion physics. It is a main premise of CICART that fundamental aspects of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in fusion devices, smaller-scale laboratory experiments, and space and astrophysical plasmas can be viewed from a common perspective, and that progress in understanding in any of these interconnected fields is likely to lead to progress in others. The establishment of CICART has strongly impacted the education and research mission of a new Program in Integrated Applied Mathematics in the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences at UNH by enabling the recruitment of a tenure-track faculty member, supported equally by UNH and CICART, and the establishment of an IBM-UNH Computing Alliance. The proposed areas of research in magnetic reconnection and turbulence in astrophysical, space, and laboratory plasmas include the following topics: (A) Reconnection and secondary instabilities in large high-Lundquist-number plasmas, (B) Particle acceleration in the presence of multiple magnetic islands, (C) Gyrokinetic reconnection: comparison with fluid and particle-in-cell models, (D) Imbalanced turbulence, (E) Ion heating, and (F) Turbulence in laboratory (including fusion-relevant) experiments. These theoretical studies make active use of three high-performance computer simulation codes: (1) The Magnetic Reconnection Code, based on extended two-fluid (or Hall MHD) equations, in an Adaptive Mesh
Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Theory With Polarization Drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, L.; Hahm, T.S.
2010-01-01
A set of the electrostatic toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and the Poisson equation, which explicitly includes the polarization drift, is derived systematically by using Lie-transform method. The polarization drift is introduced in the gyrocenter equations of motion, and the corresponding polarization density is derived. Contrary to the wide-spread expectation, the inclusion of the polarization drift in the gyrocenter equations of motion does not affect the expression for the polarization density significantly. This is due to modification of the gyrocenter phase-space volume caused by the electrostatic potential [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)].
Database-driven web interface automating gyrokinetic simulations for validation
Ernst, D. R.
2010-11-01
We are developing a web interface to connect plasma microturbulence simulation codes with experimental data. The website automates the preparation of gyrokinetic simulations utilizing plasma profile and magnetic equilibrium data from TRANSP analysis of experiments, read from MDSPLUS over the internet. This database-driven tool saves user sessions, allowing searches of previous simulations, which can be restored to repeat the same analysis for a new discharge. The website includes a multi-tab, multi-frame, publication quality java plotter Webgraph, developed as part of this project. Input files can be uploaded as templates and edited with context-sensitive help. The website creates inputs for GS2 and GYRO using a well-tested and verified back-end, in use for several years for the GS2 code [D. R. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 11(5) 2637 (2004)]. A centralized web site has the advantage that users receive bug fixes instantaneously, while avoiding the duplicated effort of local compilations. Possible extensions to the database to manage run outputs, toward prototyping for the Fusion Simulation Project, are envisioned. Much of the web development utilized support from the DoE National Undergraduate Fellowship program [e.g., A. Suarez and D. R. Ernst, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2005.DPP.GP1.57.
Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent flows in compound channels with a finite element code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xavier, C.M.; Petry, A.P.; Moeller, S.V.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the numerical investigation of the developing flow in a compound channel formed by a rectangular main channel and a gap in one of the sidewalls. A three dimensional Large Eddy Simulation computational code with the classic Smagorinsky model is introduced, where the transient flow is modeled through the conservation equations of mass and momentum of a quasi-incompressible, isothermal continuous medium. Finite Element Method, Taylor-Galerkin scheme and linear hexahedrical elements are applied. Numerical results of velocity profile show the development of a shear layer in agreement with experimental results obtained with Pitot tube and hot wires. (author)
A free surface algorithm in the N3S finite element code for turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nitrosso, B.; Pot, G.; Abbes, B.; Bidot, T.
1995-08-01
In this paper, we present a free surface algorithm which was implemented in the N3S code. Free surfaces are represented by marker particles which move through a mesh. It is assumed that the free surface is located inside each element that contains markers and surrounded by at least one element with no marker inside. The mesh is then locally adjusted in order to coincide with the free surface which is well defined by the forefront marker particles. After describing the governing equations and the N3S solving methods, we present the free surface algorithm. Results obtained for two-dimensional and three-dimensional industrial problems of mould filling are presented. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs
Dissipation range turbulent cascades in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Sarff, J. S.; Fiksel, G.; Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Prager, S. C.; Ren, Y.
2012-01-01
Dissipation range cascades in plasma turbulence are described and spectra are formulated from the scaled attenuation in wavenumber space of the spectral energy transfer rate. This yields spectra characterized by the product of a power law and exponential fall-off, applicable to all scales. Spectral indices of the power law and exponential fall-off depend on the scaling of the dissipation, the strength of the nonlinearity, and nonlocal effects when dissipation rates of multiple fluctuation fields are different. The theory is used to derive spectra for MHD turbulence with magnetic Prandtl number greater than unity, extending previous work. The theory is also applied to generic plasma turbulence by considering the spectrum from damping with arbitrary wavenumber scaling. The latter is relevant to ion temperature gradient turbulence modeled by gyrokinetics. The spectrum in this case has an exponential component that becomes weaker at small scale, giving a power law asymptotically. Results from the theory are compared to three very different types of turbulence. These include the magnetic plasma turbulence of the Madison Symmetric Torus, the MHD turbulence of liquid metal in the Madison Dynamo Experiment, and gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence.
Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.
2015-11-01
We describe the implementation, and application of a time-dependent, fully nonlinear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator based on the single-species work of Yoon and Chang [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032503 (2014)] in the full-function gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 [Ku et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 115021 (2009)] and XGCa. XGC simulations include the pedestal and scrape-off layer, where significant deviations of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian can occur. Thus, in order to describe collisional effects on neoclassical and turbulence physics accurately, the use of a non-linear collision operator is a necessity. Our collision operator is based on a finite volume method using the velocity-space distribution functions sampled from the marker particles. Since the same fine configuration space mesh is used for collisions and the Poisson solver, the workload due to collisions can be comparable to or larger than the workload due to particle motion. We demonstrate that computing time spent on collisions can be kept affordable by applying advanced parallelization strategies while conserving mass, momentum, and energy to reasonable accuracy. We also show results of production scale XGCa simulations in the H-mode pedestal and compare to conventional theory. Work supported by US DOE OFES and OASCR.
Turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jungpyo; Barnes, Michael; Parra, Felix I; Belli, Emily; Candy, Jeff
2015-01-01
Intrinsic toroidal rotation in a tokamak can be driven by turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flow effects breaking a symmetry of turbulence. In this paper we categorize the contributions due to neoclassical effects to the turbulent momentum transport, and evaluate each contribution using gyrokinetic simulations. We find that the relative importance of each contribution changes with collisionality. For low collisionality, the dominant contributions come from neoclassical particle and parallel flows. For moderate collisionality, there are non-negligible contributions due to neoclassical poloidal electric field and poloidal gradients of density and temperature, which are not important for low collisionality. (paper)
Gyrokinetic modelling of the quasilinear particle flux for plasmas with neutral-beam fuelling
Narita, E.; Honda, M.; Nakata, M.; Yoshida, M.; Takenaga, H.; Hayashi, N.
2018-02-01
A quasilinear particle flux is modelled based on gyrokinetic calculations. The particle flux is estimated by determining factors, namely, coefficients of off-diagonal terms and a particle diffusivity. In this paper, the methodology to estimate the factors is presented using a subset of JT-60U plasmas. First, the coefficients of off-diagonal terms are estimated by linear gyrokinetic calculations. Next, to obtain the particle diffusivity, a semi-empirical approach is taken. Most experimental analyses for particle transport have assumed that turbulent particle fluxes are zero in the core region. On the other hand, even in the stationary state, the plasmas in question have a finite turbulent particle flux due to neutral-beam fuelling. By combining estimates of the experimental turbulent particle flux and the coefficients of off-diagonal terms calculated earlier, the particle diffusivity is obtained. The particle diffusivity should reflect a saturation amplitude of instabilities. The particle diffusivity is investigated in terms of the effects of the linear instability and linear zonal flow response, and it is found that a formula including these effects roughly reproduces the particle diffusivity. The developed framework for prediction of the particle flux is flexible to add terms neglected in the current model. The methodology to estimate the quasilinear particle flux requires so low computational cost that a database consisting of the resultant coefficients of off-diagonal terms and particle diffusivity can be constructed to train a neural network. The development of the methodology is the first step towards a neural-network-based particle transport model for fast prediction of the particle flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Khaled Z.; Madduri, Kamesh; Williams, Samuel; Wang, Bei; Oliker, Leonid
2013-01-01
The Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) uses the particle-in-cell method to efficiently simulate plasma microturbulence. This paper presents novel analysis and optimization techniques to enhance the performance of GTC on large-scale machines. We introduce cell access analysis to better manage locality vs. synchronization tradeoffs on CPU and GPU-based architectures. Finally, our optimized hybrid parallel implementation of GTC uses MPI, OpenMP, and NVIDIA CUDA, achieves up to a 2× speedup over the reference Fortran version on multiple parallel systems, and scales efficiently to tens of thousands of cores.
Effects of the magnetic equilibrium on gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak microinstabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2015-06-15
The general geometry of the experimental tokamak magnetic equilibrium is implemented in the global gyrokinetic simulation code GEM. Compared to the general geometry, the well used Miller parameterization of the magnetic equilibrium is a good approximation in the core region and up to the top of the pedestal. Linear simulations indicate that results with the two geometries agree for r/a ≤ 0.9. However, in the edge region, the instabilities are sensitive to the magnetic equilibrium in both the L-mode and the H-mode plasmas. A small variation of the plasma shaping parameters leads to large changes to the edge instability.
Nonlinear gyrokinetic Maxwell-Vlasov equations using magnetic coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizard, A.
1988-09-01
A gyrokinetic formalism using magnetic coordinates is used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear Maxwell-Vlasov equations that are suitable for particle simulation studies of finite-β tokamak microturbulence and its associated anomalous transport. The use of magnetic coordinates is an important feature of this work as it introduces the toroidal geometry naturally into our gyrokinetic formalism. The gyrokinetic formalism itself is based on the use of the Action-variational Lie perturbation method of Cary and Littlejohn, and preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the original Maxwell-Vlasov system. Previous nonlinear gyrokinetic sets of equations suitable for particle simulation analysis have considered either electrostatic and shear-Alfven perturbations in slab geometry, or electrostatic perturbations in toroidal geometry. In this present work, fully electromagnetic perturbations in toroidal geometry are considered. 26 refs
Simulation of core turbulence measurement in Tore Supra ohmic regimes
Hacquin, S.; Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Sabot, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Tore Supra team,
2016-01-01
This paper reports on a simulation of reflectometry measurement in Tore Supra ohmic discharges, for which the experimental observations as well as gyrokinetic non-linear computations predict a modification of turbulence spectrum between the linear (LOC) and the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, 54 506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)
2015-10-15
This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.
2005-01-01
The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources
Turbulence and transport during electron cyclotron heating in the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Peebles, W.A.; DeBoo, J.C.; Prater, R.; Kinsey, J.E.; de Grassie, J.S.; Bravenec, R.V.; Burrell, K.H.; Lohr, J.; Petty, C.C.; Nguyen, X.V.; Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Zeng, L.; Zeeland, M.A.; Wang, G.; Makowski, M.A.; Staebler, G.M.; St John, H.E.; Solomon, W.M.
2007-01-01
The response of plasma parameters and broad wavenumber turbulence (1--40 cm -1 , kρ s = 0.1--8) to auxiliary electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is reported on. In these plasmas the electron temperature responds most strongly to the ECH while the electron density and ion temperature are kept approximately constant. Thermal fluxes and diffusivities increase appreciably with ECH for both electron and ion channels. Significant changes to the density fluctuations over the full range of measured wavenumbers are observed. This range of wavenumbers encompasses that typically associated with ion temperature gradient, trapped electron mode, and electron temperature gradient modes. Changes in linear growth rates calculated using a gyrokinetic code show consistency with observed fluctuation increases over the whole range of wavenumbers.
Nonlinear interplay of TEM and ITG turbulence and its effect on transport
Merz, F.; Jenko, F.
2010-05-01
The dominant source of anomalous transport in fusion plasmas on ion scales is turbulence driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs) and ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. While the individual properties of each of these two instabilities and the corresponding microturbulence have been examined in detail in the past, the effects of a coexistence of the two modes and the phenomena of transitions between the TEM and ITG dominated regimes are not well studied. In many experimental situations, the temperature and density gradients support both microinstabilities simultaneously, so that transitional regimes are important for a detailed understanding of fusion plasmas. In this paper, this issue is addressed, using the gyrokinetic code GENE for a detailed investigation of the dominant and subdominant linear instabilities and the corresponding nonlinear system. A simple quasilinear model based on eigenvalue computations is presented which is shown to reproduce important features of the nonlinear TEM-ITG transition.
Multiscale gyrokinetics for rotating tokamak plasmas: fluctuations, transport and energy flows.
Abel, I G; Plunk, G G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A
2013-11-01
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for studying turbulence and transport in rapidly rotating tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio ε = ρi/α of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order by order in this expansion, a set of coupled multiscale equations is developed. They describe an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the interplay between the equilibrium and the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equilibrium is obtained from the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma, determining the magnetic flux function from the mean pressure and velocity profiles of the plasma. The slow (resistive-timescale) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the 'high-flow' gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local (in space) cascade of the free energy of the fluctuations (i.e. there is no turbulence spreading). Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical and fluctuating corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived from the transport equations. Total energy, thermal, kinetic and magnetic, is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced
Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.
Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H
2011-12-09
The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wang, E.; Bell, R.E.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
HPC parallel programming model for gyrokinetic MHD simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Tokuda, Shinji; Ishii, Yasutomo; Yagi, Masatoshi
2011-01-01
The 3-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code for MHD simulation, Gpic-MHD, was installed on SR16000 (“Plasma Simulator”), which is a scalar cluster system consisting of 8,192 logical cores. The Gpic-MHD code advances particle and field quantities in time. In order to distribute calculations over large number of logical cores, the total simulation domain in cylindrical geometry was broken up into N DD-r × N DD-z (number of radial decomposition times number of axial decomposition) small domains including approximately the same number of particles. The axial direction was uniformly decomposed, while the radial direction was non-uniformly decomposed. N RP replicas (copies) of each decomposed domain were used (“particle decomposition”). The hybrid parallelization model of multi-threads and multi-processes was employed: threads were parallelized by the auto-parallelization and N DD-r × N DD-z × N RP processes were parallelized by MPI (message-passing interface). The parallelization performance of Gpic-MHD was investigated for the medium size system of N r × N θ × N z = 1025 × 128 × 128 mesh with 4.196 or 8.192 billion particles. The highest speed for the fixed number of logical cores was obtained for two threads, the maximum number of N DD-z , and optimum combination of N DD-r and N RP . The observed optimum speeds demonstrated good scaling up to 8,192 logical cores. (author)
Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M.; Heikkinen, J.A.; Ogando, F.
2010-01-01
Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.
1981-10-01
A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency
Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)
2010-05-15
Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, F. da [Associao EURATOM/IST, IPFN-LA, Instituto Superor Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Heuraux, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, BP70239, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gusakov, E.; Popov, A. [Ioffe Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2011-07-01
Forward-scattering under high level of turbulence or long propagation paths can induce significant effects, as predicted by theory, and impose a signature on the Doppler reflectometry response. Simulations using a FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) full-wave code have confirmed the main dependencies and general behavior described by theory but display a returned RMS power, at moderate amplitudes, half of the one predicted by theory due to the impossibility to reach the numerical requirements needed to describe the small wavenumber spectrum with the wanted accuracy.One justifying factor may be due to the splitting and enlargement of the probing beam. At high turbulence levels, the scattered power returning to the antenna is higher than the predicted by the theory probably due to the scattered zone being closer than the oblique cutoff. This loss of coherence of the wavefront induces a beam spreading, which is also responsible for a diminution of the wavenumber resolution. With a FDTD full-wave code we study the behavior of the probing beam under several amplitude levels of low wavenumber plasma turbulence, using long temporal simulations series to ensure statistical accuracy. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A.
2007-01-01
The present state of the theory of fluctuations in gyrokinetic (GK) plasmas and especially its application to sampling noise in GK particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations is reviewed. Topics addressed include the Δf method, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for both classical and GK many-body plasmas, the Klimontovich formalism, sampling noise in PIC simulations, statistical closure for partial differential equations, the theoretical foundations of spectral balance in the presence of arbitrary noise sources, and the derivation of Kadomtsev-type equations from the general formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John A. Krommes
2007-10-09
The present state of the theory of fluctuations in gyrokinetic GK plasmas and especially its application to sampling noise in GK particle-in-cell PIC simulations is reviewed. Topics addressed include the Δf method, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for both classical and GK many-body plasmas, the Klimontovich formalism, sampling noise in PIC simulations, statistical closure for partial differential equations, the theoretical foundations of spectral balance in the presence of arbitrary noise sources, and the derivation of Kadomtsev-type equations from the general formalism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonas, R.
1988-09-01
CONTAIN is a computer code to analyze physical, chemical and radiological processes inside the reactor containment in the sequence of severe reactor accident. Modelling of the aerosol behaviour is included. We have improved the code by implementing a subroutine for turbulent deposition of aerosols. In contrast to previous calculations in which this effect was neglected, the computer results are in good agreement with sodium release experiments. If a typical friction velocity of 1 m/s is chosen, the computed aerosol mass median diameters and aerosol mass concentrations agree with the experimental results within a factor of 1.5 or 2, respectively. We have also found a good agreement between the CONTAIN calculations and results from other aerosol codes. (orig.) [de
Suppression of turbulent transport in NSTX internal transport barriers
Yuh, Howard
2008-11-01
Electron transport will be important for ITER where fusion alphas and high-energy beam ions will primarily heat electrons. In the NSTX, internal transport barriers (ITBs) are observed in reversed (negative) shear discharges where diffusivities for electron and ion thermal channels and momentum are reduced. While neutral beam heating can produce ITBs in both electron and ion channels, High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating can produce electron thermal ITBs under reversed magnetic shear conditions without momentum input. Interestingly, the location of the electron ITB does not necessarily match that of the ion ITB: the electron ITB correlates well with the minimum in the magnetic shear determined by Motional Stark Effect (MSE) [1] constrained equilibria, whereas the ion ITB better correlates with the maximum ExB shearing rate. Measured electron temperature gradients can exceed critical linear thresholds for ETG instability calculated by linear gyrokinetic codes in the ITB confinement region. The high-k microwave scattering diagnostic [2] shows reduced local density fluctuations at wavenumbers characteristic of electron turbulence for discharges with strongly negative magnetic shear versus weakly negative or positive magnetic shear. Fluctuation reductions are found to be spatially and temporally correlated with the local magnetic shear. These results are consistent with non-linear gyrokinetic simulations predictions showing the reduction of electron transport in negative magnetic shear conditions despite being linearly unstable [3]. Electron transport improvement via negative magnetic shear rather than ExB shear highlights the importance of current profile control in ITER and future devices. [1] F.M. Levinton, H. Yuh et al., PoP 14, 056119 [2] D.R. Smith, E. Mazzucato et al., RSI 75, 3840 [3] Jenko, F. and Dorland, W., PRL 89 225001
Kinetic features of interchange turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Y; Grandgirard, V; Fleurence, E; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Bertrand, P; Depret, G
2005-01-01
Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the interchange instability are discussed. The semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme allows one to address two critical points achieved with simulations lasting several confinement times: an accurate statistical analysis of the fluctuations and the back reaction of the turbulence on equilibrium profiles. Zonal flows are found to quench a 2D + 1D interchange turbulence when one of the species has a vanishing response to zonal modes. Conversely, when streamers dominate, the equilibrium profiles are found to be stiff. In the non-linear regime and steady-state turbulence, the distribution function exhibits a significant departure from a Maxwellian distribution. This property is characterized by an expansion on generalized Laguerre functions with a slow decay of the series of moments. This justifies the use of gyrokinetic simulations since a standard fluid approach, based on a limited number of moments, would certainly require a complex closure so as to take into account the impact of these non-vanishing high order moments
Gyrokinetic particle simulation of neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.
1995-01-01
A time varying weighting (δf ) scheme for gyrokinetic particle simulation is applied to a steady-state, multispecies simulation of neoclassical transport. Accurate collision operators conserving momentum and energy are developed and implemented. Simulation results using these operators are found to agree very well with neoclassical theory. For example, it is dynamically demonstrated that like-particle collisions produce no particle flux and that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar for an ion--electron plasma. An important physics feature of the present scheme is the introduction of toroidal flow to the simulations. Simulation results are in agreement with the existing analytical neoclassical theory. The poloidal electric field associated with toroidal mass flow is found to enhance density gradient-driven electron particle flux and the bootstrap current while reducing temperature gradient-driven flux and current. Finally, neoclassical theory in steep gradient profile relevant to the edge regime is examined by taking into account finite banana width effects. In general, in the present work a valuable new capability for studying important aspects of neoclassical transport inaccessible by conventional analytical calculation processes is demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Visual interrogation of gyrokinetic particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Chad; Ma, K-L; Sanderson, Allen; Myers, Lee Roy Jr
2007-01-01
Gyrokinetic particle simulations are critical to the study of anomalous energy transport associated with plasma microturbulence in magnetic confinement fusion experiments. The simulations are conducted on massively parallel computers and produce large quantities of particles, variables, and time steps, thus presenting a formidable challenge to data analysis tasks. We present two new visualization techniques for scientists to improve their understanding of the time-varying, multivariate particle data. One technique allows scientists to examine correlations in multivariate particle data with tightly coupled views of the data in both physical space and variable space, and to visually identify and track features of interest. The second technique, built into SCIRun, allows scientists to perform range-based queries over a series of time slices and visualize the resulting particles using glyphs. The ability to navigate the multiple dimensions of the particle data, as well as query individual or a collection of particles, enables scientists to not only validate their simulations but also discover new phenomena in their data
Conservation Laws for Gyrokinetic Equations for Large Perturbations and Flows
Dimits, Andris
2017-10-01
Gyrokinetic theory has proved to be very useful for the understanding of magnetized plasmas, both to simplify analytical treatments and as a basis for efficient numerical simulations. Gyrokinetic theories were previously developed in two extended orderings that are applicable to large fluctuations and flows as may arise in the tokamak edge and scrapeoff layer. In the present work, we cast the resulting equations in a field-theoretical variational form, and derive, up to second order in the respective orderings, the associated global and local energy and (linear and toroidal) momentum conservation relations that result from Noether's theorem. The consequences of these for the various possible choices of numerical discretization used in gyrokinetic simulations are considered. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the U.S. DOE, OFES.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bell, R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Smith, D. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. Y. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2012-05-15
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.
Klein, R.; Gravier, E.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.
2009-08-01
Describing turbulent transport in fusion plasmas is a major concern in magnetic confinement fusion. It is now widely known that kinetic and fluid descriptions can lead to significantly different properties. Although more accurate, the kinetic calculation of turbulent transport is much more demanding of computer resources than fluid simulations. An alternative approach is based on a water-bag representation of the distribution function that is not an approximation but rather a special class of initial conditions, allowing one to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamics equations while keeping its kinetic character [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. In this paper, the water-bag concept is used in a gyrokinetic context to study finite Larmor radius effects with the possibility of using the full Larmor radius distribution instead of an averaged Larmor radius. The resulting model is used to study the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability.
Experimental investigations of turbulent temperature fluctuations and phase angles in ASDEX Upgrade
Freethy, Simon
2017-10-01
A complete experimental understanding of the turbulent fluctuations in tokamak plasmas is essential for providing confidence in the extrapolation of heat transport models to future experimental devices and reactors. Guided by ``predict first'' nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code, two new turbulence diagnostics were designed and have been installed on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) to probe the fundamentals of ion-scale turbulent electron heat transport. The first, a 30-channel correlation ECE (CECE) radiometer, measures radial profiles (0.5 a levels are in the range 0.3 - 0.8%. The second is formed by the addition of a reflectometer on the same line of sight to enable measurements of the phase angle between turbulent density and temperature fluctuations. Design predictions are followed by a more traditional ``post-diction'' validation study with GENE. Using a cutting edge synthetic diagnostic GENE shows a factor 1.6 - 2 over-prediction of the fluctuation amplitude, while matching both ion and electron heat fluxes within experimental error. Detailed sensitivity scans are underway to understand the robustness of this disagreement and a detailed assessment of the experimental errors has been carried out. The discrepancy opens questions about the role of multi-scale turbulence physics, but also indicates the need for the comparison of more experimental turbulence properties to have a more complete validation hierarchy. In an effort to understand the discrepancy, predictions of the nT-phase and the radial correlation length have been made along with an assessment of their sensitivity to experimental errors. Comparison to experimental measurements will be discussed. This work is supported in part by the US DOE under Grants DE-SC0006419 and DE-SC0017381. This work has also received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement number 633053.
Variational principle for nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizard, Alain J.
2000-01-01
A new variational principle for the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations is presented. This Eulerian variational principle uses constrained variations for the gyrocenter Vlasov distribution in eight-dimensional extended phase space and turns out to be simpler than the Lagrangian variational principle recently presented by H. Sugama [Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. A local energy conservation law is then derived explicitly by the Noether method. In future work, this new variational principle will be used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear, low-frequency Vlasov--Maxwell bounce-gyrokinetic equations, in which the fast gyromotion and bounce-motion time scales have been eliminated
The spectral problem of global microinstabilities in tokamak-like plasmas using a gyrokinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.
1996-01-01
Tokamak-like plasmas are modeled by a periodic cylindrical system with magnetic shear and realistic density and temperature profiles. Linear electrostatic microinstabilities in such plasmas are studied by solving the eigenvalue problem starting from gyrokinetic theory. The actual eigenvalue equation is then of integral type. With this approach, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects to all orders are taken into account. FLR effects provide for the only radial coupling in a cylinder and to lowest order correspond to polarization drift. This effectively one-dimensional problem helped us to gain useful knowledge for solving gyrokinetic equations in a curved system. When searching for the eigenfrequencies of the global modes, two different methods have been tested and compared. Either the true eigenvalue problem is solved by finding the zeros of the characteristic equation, or one considers a system driven by an antenna and looks for resonances in the power response of the plasma. In addition, mode structures were computed as well in direct as in Fourier space. The advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches are discussed. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied over a wide range of parameters and for wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field down to the scale of ion Larmor radii. Flute instabilities driven by magnetic curvature drifts are also considered. Some of these results are compared with a time evolution PIC code. Such comparisons are valuable as the convergence of PIC results is often questioned. Work considering true toroidal geometry is in progress
Achieving memory scalability in the GYSELA code to fit Exascale constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozar, Fabien; Latu, Guillaume; Roman, Jean
2014-01-01
Gyrokinetic simulations lead to huge computational needs. Up to now, the semi-Lagrangian code Gysela performed large simulations using a few thousands cores (65 k cores). But to understand more accurately the nature of the plasma turbulence, finer resolutions are wished which make Gysela a good candidate to exploit the computational power of future Exascale machines. Among the Exascale challenges, the less memory per core issue is one of the must critical. This paper deals with memory management in order to reduce the memory peak, and presents an approach to understand the memory behaviour of an application when dealing with very large meshes. This enables us to extrapolate the behaviour of Gysela for expected capabilities of Exascale machine. (authors)
Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.
2010-01-01
Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results
Dartevelle, S.
2006-12-01
Large-scale volcanic eruptions are inherently hazardous events, hence cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurements; hence, volcanic explosive phenomenology is inadequately constrained in terms of initial and inflow conditions. Consequently, little to no real-time data exist to Verify and Validate computer codes developed to model these geophysical events as a whole. However, code Verification and Validation remains a necessary step, particularly when volcanologists use numerical data for mitigation of volcanic hazards as more often performed nowadays. The Verification and Validation (V&V) process formally assesses the level of 'credibility' of numerical results produced within a range of specific applications. The first step, Verification, is 'the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the conceptual description of the model', which requires either exact analytical solutions or highly accurate simplified experimental data. The second step, Validation, is 'the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world', which requires complex experimental data of the 'real world' physics. The Verification step is rather simple to formally achieve, while, in the 'real world' explosive volcanism context, the second step, Validation, is about impossible. Hence, instead of validating computer code against the whole large-scale unconstrained volcanic phenomenology, we rather suggest to focus on the key physics which control these volcanic clouds, viz., momentum-driven supersonic jets and multiphase turbulence. We propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple but well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent these two key-phenomenology separately. Herewith, we use GMFIX (Geophysical Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange, v1.62), a set of multiphase- CFD FORTRAN codes, which have been recently redeveloped to meet the strict
Metriplectic Gyrokinetics and Discretization Methods for the Landau Collision Integral
Hirvijoki, Eero; Burby, Joshua W.; Kraus, Michael
2017-10-01
We present two important results for the kinetic theory and numerical simulation of warm plasmas: 1) We provide a metriplectic formulation of collisional electrostatic gyrokinetics that is fully consistent with the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. 2) We provide a metriplectic temporal and velocity-space discretization for the particle phase-space Landau collision integral that satisfies the conservation of energy, momentum, and particle densities to machine precision, as well as guarantees the existence of numerical H-theorem. The properties are demonstrated algebraically. These two result have important implications: 1) Numerical methods addressing the Vlasov-Maxwell-Landau system of equations, or its reduced gyrokinetic versions, should start from a metriplectic formulation to preserve the fundamental physical principles also at the discrete level. 2) The plasma physics community should search for a metriplectic reduction theory that would serve a similar purpose as the existing Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reduction theories do in gyrokinetics. The discovery of metriplectic formulation of collisional electrostatic gyrokinetics is strong evidence in favor of such theory and, if uncovered, the theory would be invaluable in constructing reduced plasma models. Supported by U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09-CH11466 (EH) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JWB) and by European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation Grant No. 708124 (MK).
Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microturbulence and Transport for NSTX and Alcator-CMOD H-modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Dorland, W.; Bell, R.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Candy, J.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Gates, D.; Hammett, G.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Rice, J.; Waltz, R.; Wukitch, S.
2003-01-01
Recent H-mode experiments on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] and experiments on Alcator-CMOD, which also exhibit internal transport barriers (ITB), have been examined with gyrokinetic simulations with the GS2 and GYRO codes to identify the underlying key plasma parameters for control of plasma performance and, ultimately, the successful operation of future reactors such as ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor]. On NSTX the H-mode is characterized by remarkably good ion confinement and electron temperature profiles highly resilient in time. On CMOD, an ITB with a very steep electron density profile develops following off-axis radio-frequency heating and establishment of H-mode. Both experiments exhibit ion thermal confinement at the neoclassical level. Electron confinement is also good in the CMOD core
Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee
2016-11-20
Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form
A Numerical Instability in an ADI Algorithm for Gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belli, E.A.; Hammett, G.W.
2004-01-01
We explore the implementation of an Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) algorithm for a gyrokinetic plasma problem and its resulting numerical stability properties. This algorithm, which uses a standard ADI scheme to divide the field solve from the particle distribution function advance, has previously been found to work well for certain plasma kinetic problems involving one spatial and two velocity dimensions, including collisions and an electric field. However, for the gyrokinetic problem we find a severe stability restriction on the time step. Furthermore, we find that this numerical instability limitation also affects some other algorithms, such as a partially implicit Adams-Bashforth algorithm, where the parallel motion operator v parallel ∂/∂z is treated implicitly and the field terms are treated with an Adams-Bashforth explicit scheme. Fully explicit algorithms applied to all terms can be better at long wavelengths than these ADI or partially implicit algorithms
Aspects of turbulence in nonlinear systems. Year one final report, February 1-October 31, 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, E.A.; Hagan, W.K.
1985-07-01
Gyrokinetic theory was developed from a pragmatic point of view. Since our interest in gyrokinetic theory is to ultimately shed some light on drift wave turbulence and anomalous transport, we have tried from the outset to incorporate into our theory some of the characteristics of these phenomena as measured in experiments. This approach has led to a theory in which two time and two space scales naturally emerge. We were also led to express the full nonlinear distribution function as an equilibrium part and pertubation part, with the equilibrium being driven by the higher order interactions of the rapid fluctuations
Gyrokinetic simulations of neoclassical transport using a minimal collision operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dif-Pradalier, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Angelino, P.
2008-01-01
Conventional neoclassical predictions are successfully recovered within a gyrokinetic framework using a minimal Fokker-Planck collision operator. This operator is shown to accurately describe some essential features of neoclassical theory, namely the neoclassical transport, the poloidal rotation and the linear damping of axisymmetric flows while interestingly preserving a high numerical efficiency. Its form makes it especially adapted to Eulerian or Semi-Lagrangian schemes.
Linear relativistic gyrokinetic equation in general magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, S.T.; Van Dam, J.W.; Chen, L.
1983-08-01
The gyrokinetic formalism for linear electromagnetic waves of arbitrary frequency in general magnetic-field configurations is extended to include full relativistic effects. The derivation employs the small adiabaticity parameter rho/L 0 where rho is the Larmor radius and L 0 the equilibrium scale length. The effects of the plasma and magnetic field inhomogeneities and finite Larmor-radii effects are also contained
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.
2015-01-01
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear
On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyato, N., E-mail: miyato.naoaki@jaea.go.jp; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-116 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-01-15
Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.
Comparison between measured and predicted turbulence frequency spectra in ITG and TEM regimes
Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Bernardo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Jenko, F.; Hacquin, S.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sabot, R.
2017-06-01
The observation of distinct peaks in tokamak core reflectometry measurements—named quasi-coherent-modes (QCMs)—are identified as a signature of trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence (Arnichand et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014037). This phenomenon is investigated with detailed linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the Gene code. A Tore-Supra density scan is studied, which traverses through a linear (LOC) to saturated (SOC) ohmic confinement transition. The LOC and SOC phases are both simulated separately. In the LOC phase, where QCMs are observed, TEMs are robustly predicted unstable in linear studies. In the later SOC phase, where QCMs are no longer observed, ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes are identified. In nonlinear simulations, in the ITG (SOC) phase, a broadband spectrum is seen. In the TEM (LOC) phase, a clear emergence of a peak at the TEM frequencies is seen. This is due to reduced nonlinear frequency broadening of the underlying linear modes in the TEM regime compared with the ITG regime. A synthetic diagnostic of the nonlinearly simulated frequency spectra reproduces the features observed in the reflectometry measurements. These results support the identification of core QCMs as an experimental marker for TEM turbulence.
Kaiser, Bryan E.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Canfield, Jesse M.; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Linn, Rodman R.
2013-11-01
The High Gradient hydrodynamics (HIGRAD) code is an atmospheric computational fluid dynamics code created by Los Alamos National Laboratory to accurately represent flows characterized by sharp gradients in velocity, concentration, and temperature. HIGRAD uses a fully compressible finite-volume formulation for explicit Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and features an advection scheme that is second-order accurate in time and space. In the current study, boundary conditions implemented in HIGRAD are varied to find those that better reproduce the reduced physics of a flat plate boundary layer to compare with complex physics of the atmospheric boundary layer. Numerical predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental, and LES data obtained by other researchers. High-order turbulence statistics are collected. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness is 120 at the inflow and the Mach number for the flow is 0.2. Results are compared at Reynolds numbers of 670 and 1410. A part of the material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A and by the Junior Faculty UNM-LANL Collaborative Research Grant.
XGC developments for a more efficient XGC-GENE code coupling
Dominski, Julien; Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Cs
2017-10-01
In the Exascale Computing Program, the High-Fidelity Whole Device Modeling project initially aims at delivering a tightly-coupled simulation of plasma neoclassical and turbulence dynamics from the core to the edge of the tokamak. To permit such simulations, the gyrokinetic codes GENE and XGC will be coupled together. Numerical efforts are made to improve the numerical schemes agreement in the coupling region. One of the difficulties of coupling those codes together is the incompatibility of their grids. GENE is a continuum grid-based code and XGC is a Particle-In-Cell code using unstructured triangular mesh. A field-aligned filter is thus implemented in XGC. Even if XGC originally had an approximately field-following mesh, this field-aligned filter permits to have a perturbation discretization closer to the one solved in the field-aligned code GENE. Additionally, new XGC gyro-averaging matrices are implemented on a velocity grid adapted to the plasma properties, thus ensuring same accuracy from the core to the edge regions.
Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A.
2001-01-01
A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations
Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John A. Krommes
2001-02-16
A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations
Simulation Of Microtearing Turbulence In NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wanag, E.; Zhang, J.; Bell, R.E.; Crocker, N.A.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Ren, Y.; Yuh, H.
2012-01-01
Thermal energy confinement times in NSTX dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future ST devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport (∼98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E-B flows as experimental values of E-B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.
''Turbulent Equipartition'' Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.D.; Rewaldt, G.
2008-01-01
The mode-independent part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density (Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)) which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of 'magnetically weighted angular momentum density', nm i U # parallel# R/B 2 , and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustrated that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.
Suppression of Phase Mixing in Drift-Kinetic Plasma Turbulence
Parker, J. T.; Dellar, P. J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Highcock, E. G.
2017-12-01
The solar wind and interstellar medium are examples of strongly magnetised, weakly collisional, astrophysical plasmas. Their turbulent fluctuations are strongly anisotropic, with small amplitudes, and frequencies much lower than the Larmor frequency. This regime is described by gyrokinetic theory, a reduced five-dimensional kinetic system describing averages over Larmor orbits. A turbulent plasma may transfer free energy, a measure of fluctuation amplitudes, from injection at large scales, typically by an instability, to dissipation at small physical scales like a turbulent fluid. Alternatively, a turbulent plasma may form fine scale structures in velocity space via phase-mixing, the mechanism that leads to Landau damping in linear plasma theory. Macroscopic plasma properties like heat and momentum transport are affected by both mechanisms. While each is understood in isolation, their interaction is not. We study this interaction using a Hankel-Hermite velocity space representation of gyrokinetic theory. The Hankel transform interacts neatly with the Bessel functions that arise from averaging over Larmor orbits, so the perpendicular velocity space is decoupled for linearized problems. The Hermite transform expresses phase mixing as nearest-neighbor coupling between parallel velocity space scales represented by Hermite mode numbers. We use this representation to study transfer mechanisms in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence, the long wavelength limit of gyrokinetic theory. We show that phase space is divided into two regions, with one transfer mechanism dominating in each. Most energy is contained in the region where the fluid-like nonlinear cascade dominates. Moreover, in that region the nonlinear cascade interferes with phase mixing by exciting an "anti phase mixing" transfer of free energy from small to large velocity space scales. This cancels out the usual phase mixing, and renders the overall behavior fluid-like. These results profoundly change our understanding
Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microinstabilities and Transport During RF H-Modes on Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Budny, R.; Dorland, W.D.; Ernst, D.; Hammett, G.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rice, J.; Wukitch, S.
2002-01-01
Physics understanding for the experimental improvement of particle and energy confinement is being advanced through massively parallel calculations of microturbulence for simulated plasma conditions. The ultimate goal, an experimentally validated, global, non-local, fully nonlinear calculation of plasma microturbulence is still not within reach, but extraordinary progress has been achieved in understanding microturbulence, driving forces and the plasma response in recent years. In this paper we discuss gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence being carried out to examine a reproducible, H-mode, RF heated experiment on the Alcator CMOD tokamak3, which exhibits an internal transport barrier (ITB). This off axis RF case represents the early phase of a very interesting dual frequency RF experiment, which shows density control with central RF heating later in the discharge. The ITB exhibits steep, spontaneous density peaking: a reduction in particle transport occurring without a central particle source. Since the central temperature is maintained while the central density is increasing, this also suggests a thermal transport barrier exists. TRANSP analysis shows that ceff drops inside the ITB. Sawtooth heat pulse analysis also shows a localized thermal transport barrier. For this ICRF EDA H-mode, the minority resonance is at r/a * 0.5 on the high field side. There is a normal shear profile, with q monotonic
Smoniewski, J.; Faber, B. J.; Sánchez, E.; Calvo, I.; Pueschel, M. J.; Likin, K. M.; Deng, C. B.; Talmadge, J. N.
2017-10-01
The Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) has demonstrated reduced neoclassical transport in the plasma core with quasi-symmetry [Lore Thesis 2010], while outside this region the electron thermal diffusivity is well above the neoclassical level, likely due to the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) [Weir PoP 2015, Faber PoP 2015]. We compare gyrokinetic simulations of the TEM to experimental heat flux and density fluctuation measurements for two configurations: Quasi-Helical Symmetry (QHS) and broken symmetry (Mirror). Both experiment and simulation show that the heat flux for Mirror is larger than for QHS by about a factor of two. Initial interferometer measurements provide evidence that density-gradient-driven TEMs are driving turbulence. Calculations of the collisionless damping of zonal flows provide another perspective into the difference between geometries. Similar to other stellarators [Monreal PPCF 2016], the zonal flow residual goes to zero at long wavelengths in both configurations. Additionally, the very short time decay of the zonal flow due to neoclassical polarization is constant between configurations. However, the collisionless damping time is longer and the zonal flow oscillation frequency is smaller in QHS than Mirror, consistent with reduced radial particle drifts. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.; van de Water, W.
2015-01-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villard, L.; Allfrey, S.J.; Bottino, A.
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to report on recent advances made on global gyrokinetic simulations of Ion Temperature Gradient modes (ITG) and other microinstabilities. The nonlinear development and saturation of ITG modes and the role of E x B zonal flows are studied with a global nonlinear δ f formulation that retains parallel nonlinearity and thus allows for a check of the energy conservation property as a means to verify the quality of the numerical simulation. Due to an optimised loading technique the conservation property is satisfied with an unprecedented quality well into the nonlinear stage. The zonal component of the perturbation establishes a quasi-steady state with regions of ITG suppression, strongly reduced radial energy flux and steepened effective temperature profile alternating with regions of higher ITG mode amplitudes, larger radial energy flux and flattened effective temperature profile. A semi-Lagrangian approach free of statistical noise is proposed as an alternative to the nonlinear δf formulation. An ASDEX-Upgrade experiment with an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) is analysed with a global gyrokinetic code that includes trapped electron dynamics. The weakly destabilizing effect of trapped electron dynamics on ITG modes in an axisymmetric bumpy configuration modelling W7-X is shown in global linear simulations that retain the full electron dynamics. Finite β effects on microinstabilities are investigated with a linear global spectral electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation. The radial global structure of electromagnetic modes shows a resonant behaviour with rational q values. (author)
Bao, J.; Liu, D.; Lin, Z.
2017-10-01
A conservative scheme of drift kinetic electrons for gyrokinetic simulations of kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic processes in toroidal plasmas has been formulated and verified. Both vector potential and electron perturbed distribution function are decomposed into adiabatic part with analytic solution and non-adiabatic part solved numerically. The adiabatic parallel electric field is solved directly from the electron adiabatic response, resulting in a high degree of accuracy. The consistency between electrostatic potential and parallel vector potential is enforced by using the electron continuity equation. Since particles are only used to calculate the non-adiabatic response, which is used to calculate the non-adiabatic vector potential through Ohm's law, the conservative scheme minimizes the electron particle noise and mitigates the cancellation problem. Linear dispersion relations of the kinetic Alfvén wave and the collisionless tearing mode in cylindrical geometry have been verified in gyrokinetic toroidal code simulations, which show that the perpendicular grid size can be larger than the electron collisionless skin depth when the mode wavelength is longer than the electron skin depth.
Kinetic turbulence simulations at extreme scale on leadership-class systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bei [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Tang, William [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Williams, Timothy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Madduri, Kamesh [The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2013-01-01
Reliable predictive simulation capability addressing confinement properties in magnetically confined fusion plasmas is critically-important for ITER, a 20 billion dollar international burning plasma device under construction in France. The complex study of kinetic turbulence, which can severely limit the energy confinement and impact the economic viability of fusion systems, requires simulations at extreme scale for such an unprecedented device size. Our newly optimized, global, ab initio particle-in-cell code solving the nonlinear equations underlying gyrokinetic theory achieves excellent performance with respect to "time to solution" at the full capacity of the IBM Blue Gene/Q on 786,432 cores of Mira at ALCF and recently of the 1,572,864 cores of Sequoia at LLNL. Recent multithreading and domain decomposition optimizations in the new GTC-P code represent critically important software advances for modern, low memory per core systems by enabling routine simulations at unprecedented size (130 million grid points ITER-scale) and resolution (65 billion particles).
Asymptotic expansion and statistical description of turbulent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagan, W.K. III.
1986-01-01
A new approach to studying turbulent systems is presented in which an asymptotic expansion of the general dynamical equations is performed prior to the application of statistical methods for describing the evolution of the system. This approach has been applied to two specific systems: anomalous drift wave turbulence in plasmas and homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in fluids. For the plasma case, the time and length scales of the turbulent state result in the asymptotic expansion of the Vlasov/Poisson equations taking the form of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. Questions regarding this theory and modern Hamiltonian perturbation methods are discussed and resolved. A new alternative Hamiltonian method is described. The Eulerian Direct Interaction Approximation (EDIA) is slightly reformulated and applied to the equations of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. Using a similarity transformation technique, expressions for the thermal diffusivity are derived from the EDIA equations for various geometries, including a tokamak. In particular, the unique result for generalized geometry may be of use in evaluating fusion reactor designs and theories of anomalous thermal transport in tokamaks. Finally, a new and useful property of the EDIA is pointed out. For the fluid case, an asymptotic expansion is applied to the Navier-Stokes equation and the results lead to the speculation that such an approach may resolve the problem of predicting the Kolmogorov inertial range energy spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. 45 refs., 3 figs
Electron thermal transport in tokamak: ETG or TEM turbulences?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Chen, L.; Nishimura, Y.; Qu, H.; Hahm, T.S.; Lewandowski, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.X.; Diamond, P.H.; Holland, C.; Zonca, F.; Li, Y.
2005-01-01
This paper reports progress on numerical and theoretical studies of electron transport in tokamak including: (1) electron temperature gradient turbulence; (2) trapped electron mode turbulence; and (3) a new finite element solver for global electromagnetic simulation. In particular, global gyrokinetic particle simulation and nonlinear gyrokinetic theory find that electron temperature gradient (ETG) instability saturates via nonlinear toroidal couplings, which transfer energy successively from unstable modes to damped modes preferably with longer poloidal wavelengths. The electrostatic ETG turbulence is dominated by nonlinearly generated radial streamers. The length of streamers scales with the device size and is much longer than the distance between mode rational surfaces or electron radial excursions. Both fluctuation intensity and transport level are independent of the streamer size. These simulations with realistic plasma parameters find that the electron heat conductivity is much smaller than the experimental value and in contrast with recent findings of flux-tube simulations that ETG turbulence is responsible for the anomalous electron thermal transport in fusion plasmas. The nonlinear toroidal couplings represent a new paradigm for the spectral cascade in plasma turbulence. (author)
Optimized Loading for Particle-in-cell Gyrokinetic Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2004-01-01
The problem of particle loading in particle-in-cell gyrokinetic simulations is addressed using a quadratic optimization algorithm. Optimized loading in configuration space dramatically reduces the short wavelength modes in the electrostatic potential that are partly responsible for the non-conservation of total energy; further, the long wavelength modes are resolved with good accuracy. As a result, the conservation of energy for the optimized loading is much better that the conservation of energy for the random loading. The method is valid for any geometry and can be coupled to optimization algorithms in velocity space
Global gyrokinetic simulation of Tokamak edge pedestal instabilities.
Wan, Weigang; Parker, Scott E; Chen, Yang; Yan, Zheng; Groebner, Richard J; Snyder, Philip B
2012-11-02
Global electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations show the existence of near threshold conditions for both a high-n kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) and an intermediate-n kinetic version of peeling-ballooning mode (KPBM) in the edge pedestal of two DIII-D H-mode discharges. When the magnetic shear is reduced in a narrow region of steep pressure gradient, the KPBM is significantly stabilized, while the KBM is weakly destabilized and hence becomes the most-unstable mode. Collisions decrease the KBM's critical β and increase the growth rate.
Tokamak electron heat transport by direct numerical simulation of small scale turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labit, B.
2002-10-01
In a fusion machine, understanding plasma turbulence, which causes a degradation of the measured energy confinement time, would constitute a major progress in this field. In tokamaks, the measured ion and electron thermal conductivities are of comparable magnitude. The possible sources of turbulence are the temperature and density gradients occurring in a fusion plasma. Whereas the heat losses in the ion channel are reasonably well understood, the origin of the electron losses is more uncertain. In addition to the radial velocity associated to the fluctuations of the electric field, electrons are more affected than ions by the magnetic field fluctuations. In experiments, the confinement time can be conveniently expressed in terms of dimensionless parameters. Although still somewhat too imprecise, these scaling laws exhibit strong dependencies on the normalized pressure β or the normalized Larmor radius, ρ * . The present thesis assesses whether a tridimensional, electromagnetic, nonlinear fluid model of plasma turbulence driven by a specific instability can reproduce the dependence of the experimental electron heat losses on the dimensionless parameters β and ρ * . The investigated interchange instability is the Electron Temperature Gradient driven one (ETG). The model is built by using the set of Braginskii equations. The developed simulation code is global in the sense that a fixed heat flux is imposed at the inner boundary, leaving the gradients free to evolve. From the nonlinear simulations, we have put in light three characteristics for the ETG turbulence: the turbulent transport is essentially electrostatic; the potential and pressure fluctuations form radially elongated cells called streamers; the transport level is very low compared to the experimental values. The thermal transport dependence study has shown a very small role of the normalized pressure, which is in contradiction with the Ohkama's formula. On the other hand, the crucial role of the
Edge-core interaction of ITG turbulence in Tokamaks: Is the Tail Wagging the Dog?
Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.
2010-11-01
A full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation of ITG turbulence, together with the neoclassical dynamics without scale separation, has been performed for the whole-volume plasma in realistic diverted DIII-D geometry. The simulation revealed that the global structure of the turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas results from a synergy between edge-driven inward propagation of turbulence intensity and the core-driven outward heat transport. The global ion confinement and the ion temperature gradient then self-organize quickly at turbulence propagation time scale. This synergy results in inward-outward pulse scattering leading to spontaneous production of strong internal shear layers in which the turbulent transport is almost suppressed over several radial correlation lengths. Co-existence of the edge turbulence source and the strong internal shear layer leads to radially increasing turbulence intensity and ion thermal transport profiles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, S.
1997-08-01
Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs
Regulation of ETG turbulence by TEM driven zonal flows
Asahi, Yuuichi; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2013-10-01
Anomalous heat transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It is found that the ETG turbulence can be suppressed by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs). The TEMs appear in a statistically steady state of ETG turbulence and generate zonal flows, while its growth rate is much smaller than those of ETGs. The TEM-driven zonal flows with lower radial wave numbers are more strongly generated than those driven by ETG modes, because of the higher zonal flow response to a density source term. An ExB shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is strong enough to suppress the long-wavelength ETG modes which make the main contribution to the turbulent transport.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chebli, Rezki
2014-01-01
Cavitation is one of the most demanding physical phenomena influencing the performance of hydraulic machines. It is therefore important to predict correctly its inception and development, in order to quantify the performance drop it induces, and also to characterize the resulting flow instabilities. The aim of this work is to develop an unsteady 3D algorithm for the numerical simulation of cavitation in an industrial CFD solver 'Code Saturne'. It is based on a fractional step method and preserves the minimum/maximum principle of the void fraction. An implicit solver, based on a transport equation of the void fraction coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. A specific numerical treatment of the cavitation source terms provides physical values of the void fraction (between 0 and 1) without including any artificial numerical limitation. The influence of RANS turbulence models on the simulation of cavitation on 2D geometries (Venturi and Hydrofoil) is then studied. It confirms the capability of the two-equation eddy viscosity models, k-epsilon and k-omega-SST, with the modification proposed by Reboud et al. (1998) to reproduce the main features of the unsteady sheet cavity behavior. The second order model RSM-SSG, based on the Reynolds stress transport, appears able to reproduce the highly unsteady flow behavior without including any arbitrary modification. The three-dimensional effects involved in the instability mechanisms are also analyzed. This work allows us to achieve a numerical tool, validated on complex configurations of cavitating flows, to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the three-dimensional unsteady effects involved in the mechanisms of instability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byers, J.A.; Williams, T.J.; Cohen, B.I.; Dimits, A.M.
1994-01-01
One of the programs of the Magnetic fusion Energy (MFE) Theory and computations Program is studying the anomalous transport of thermal energy across the field lines in the core of a tokamak. We use the method of gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation in this study. For this LDRD project we employed massively parallel processing, new algorithms, and new algorithms, and new formal techniques to improve this research. Specifically, we sought to take steps toward: researching experimentally-relevant parameters in our simulations, learning parallel computing to have as a resource for our group, and achieving a 100 x speedup over our starting-point Cray2 simulation code's performance
Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapillonne, X; Brunner, S; Sauter, O; Villard, L [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fable, E; Goerler, T; Jenko, F; Merz, F, E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2011-05-15
Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} < 0.5, k{sub p}erpendicular being the characteristic perpendicular wavenumber and {rho}{sub i} the ion Larmor radius) and shorter wavelength ion temperature gradient modes (ITG, k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} > 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.
Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers
Lapillonne, X.; Brunner, S.; Sauter, O.; Villard, L.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.
2011-05-01
Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k⊥ρi 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narita, Emi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Honda, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Urano, Hajime; Ide, Shunsuke
2015-01-01
Tokamak plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB) are capable of maintaining improved confinement performance. The ITBs formed in plasmas with the weak magnetic shear and the weak radial electric field shear are often observed to be modest. In these ITB plasmas, it has been found that the electron temperature ITB is steeper when toroidal rotation is in a co-direction with respect to the plasma current than when toroidal rotation is in a counter-direction. To clarify the relationship between the direction of toroidal rotation and heat transport in the ITB region, we examine dominant instabilities using the flux-tube gyrokinetic code GS2. The linear calculations show a difference in the real frequencies; the counter-rotation case has a more trapped electron mode than the co-rotation case. In addition, the nonlinear calculations show that with this difference, the ratio of the electron heat diffusivity χ_e to the ion's χ_i is higher for the counter-rotation case than for the co-rotation case. The difference in χ_e /χ_i agrees with the experiment. We also find that the effect of the difference in the flow shear between the two cases due to the toroidal rotation direction on the linear growth rate is not significant. (author)
Large Eddy Simulation of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poullet, P.; Sancandi, M.
1994-12-01
Results of Large Eddy Simulation of 3D isotropic homogeneous turbulent flows are presented. A computer code developed on Connexion Machine (CM5) has allowed to compare two turbulent viscosity models (Smagorinsky and structure function). The numerical scheme influence on the energy density spectrum is also studied [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.; Fahey, M.
2007-01-01
Electron temperature gradient (ETG) transport is conventionally defined as the electron energy transport at high wave number (high-k) where ions are adiabatic and there can be no ion energy or plasma transport. Previous gyrokinetic simulations have assumed adiabatic ions (ETG-ai) and work on the small electron gyroradius scale. However such ETG-ai simulations with trapped electrons often do not have well behaved nonlinear saturation unless fully kinetic ions (ki) and proper ion scale zonal flow modes are included. Electron energy transport is separated into ETG-ki at high-k and ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode (ITG/TEM) at low-k. Expensive (more computer-intensive), high-resolution, large-ion-scale flux-tube simulations coupling ITG/TEM and ETG-ki turbulence are presented. These require a high effective Reynolds number R≡[k(max)/k(min)] 2 =μ 2 , where μ=[ρ si /ρ si ] is the ratio of ion to electron gyroradii. Compute times scale faster than μ 3 . By comparing the coupled expensive simulations with (1) much cheaper (less compute-intensive), uncoupled, high-resolution, small, flux-tube ETG-ki and with (2) uncoupled low-resolution, large, flux-tube ITG/TEM simulations, and also by artificially turning ''off'' the low-k or high-k drives, it appears that ITG/TEM and ETG-ki transport are not strongly coupled so long as ETG-ki can access some nonadiabatic ion scale zonal flows and both high-k and low-k are linearly unstable. However expensive coupled simulations are required for physically accurate k-spectra of the transport and turbulence. Simulations with μ≥30 appear to represent the physical range μ>40. ETG-ki transport measured in ion gyro-Bohm units is weakly dependent on μ. For the mid-radius core tokamak plasma parameters studied, ETG-ki is about 10% of the electron energy transport, which in turn is about 30% of the total energy transport (with negligible ExB shear). However at large ExB shear sufficient to quench the low-k ITG
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Biskamp, Dieter
2003-01-01
This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi
Interactive exploration of tokamak turbulence simulations in virtual reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerbel, G.D.; Pierce, T.; Milovich, J.L.; Shumaker, D.E.
1996-01-01
We have developed an immersive visualization system designed for interactive data exploration as an integral part of our computing environment for studying tokamak turbulence. This system of codes can reproduce the results of simulations visually for scrutiny in real time, interactively and with more realism than ever before. At peak performance, the VR system can present for view some 400 coordinated images per second. The long term vision this approach targets is a open-quote holodeck-like close-quote virtual-reality environment in which one can explore gyrofluid or gyrokinetic plasma simulations interactively and in real time, visually, with concurrent simulations of experimental diagnostic devices. In principle, such a open-quote virtual tokamak close-quote computed environment could be as all encompassing or as focussed as one likes, in terms of the physics involved. The computing framework in one within which a group of researchers can work together to produce a real and identifiable product with easy access to all contributions. This could be our version of NASA's next generation Numerical Wind Tunnel. The principal purpose of this VR capability for Numerical Tokamak simulation is to provide interactive visual experience to help create new ways of understanding aspects of the convective transport processes operating in tokamak fusion experiments. The effectiveness of the visualization method is strongly dependent on the density of frame-to-frame correlation. Below a threshold of this quantity, short term visual memory does not bridge the gap between frames well enough for there to exist a strong visual connection. Above the threshold, evolving structures appear clearly. The visualizations show the 3D structure of vortex evolution and the gyrofluid motion associated with it. We discovered that it was very helpful for visualizing the cross field flows to compress the virtual world in the toroidal angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgaertel J.A., Redi M.H., Budny R.V., Rewoldt G., Dorland W.
2005-01-01
Insight into plasma microturbulence and transport is being sought using linear simulations of drift waves on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), following a study of drift wave modes on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. Microturbulence is likely generated by instabilities of drift waves, which cause transport of heat and particles. Understanding this transport is important because the containment of heat and particles is required for the achievement of practical nuclear fusion. Microtearing modes may cause high heat transport through high electron thermal conductivity. It is hoped that microtearing will be stable along with good electron transport in the proposed low collisionality International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Stability of the microtearing mode is investigated for conditions at mid-radius in a high density NSTX high performance (H-mode) plasma, which is compared to the proposed ITER plasmas. The microtearing mode is driven by the electron temperature gradient, and believed to be mediated by ion collisions and magnetic shear. Calculations are based on input files produced by TRXPL following TRANSP (a time-dependent transport analysis code) analysis. The variability of unstable mode growth rates is examined as a function of ion and electron collisionalities using the parallel gyrokinetic computational code GS2. Results show the microtearing mode stability dependence for a range of plasma collisionalities. Computation verifies analytic predictions that higher collisionalities than in the NSTX experiment increase microtearing instability growth rates, but that the modes are stabilized at the highest values. There is a transition of the dominant mode in the collisionality scan to ion temperature gradient character at both high and low collisionalities. The calculations suggest that plasma electron thermal confinement may be greatly improved in the low-collisionality ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1988-01-01
Most flows of fluids, in nature and in technology, are turbulent. Since much of the energy expended by machines and devices that involve fluid flows is spent in overcoming drag caused by turbulence, there is a strong motivation to understand the phenomena. Surprisingly, the peculiar, quantum-mechanical form of turbulence that can form in superfluid helium may turn out to be much simpler to understand that the classical turbulence that forms in normal fluids. It now seems that the study of superfluid turbulence may provide simplified model systems for studying some forms of classical turbulence. There are also practical motivations for studying superfluid turbulence. For example, superfuid helium is often used as a coolant in superconducting machinery. Superfluid turbulence is the primary impediment to the transfer of heat by superfluid helium; an understanding of the phenomena may make it possible to design more efficient methods of refrigeration for superconducting devices. 8 figs
Simulation of microtearing turbulence in national spherical torus experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Nevins, W. M.; Wang, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 04551 (United States); Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A. [University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2012-05-15
Thermal energy confinement times in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future spherical tokamak (ST) devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport ({approx}98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E Multiplication-Sign B flows as experimental values of E Multiplication-Sign B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.
Turbulence spectra, transport, and E × B flows in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.; Sugama, H.; Satake, S.; Matsuoka, S.; Ishizawa, A.; Tanaka, K.; Maeyama, Shinya
2012-11-01
Gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence and zonal flows for helical plasmas has been validated against the Large Helical Device experiments with high ion temperature, where a reduced modeling of ion heat transport is also considered. It is confirmed by the entropy transfer analysis that the turbulence spectrum elongated in the radial wavenumber space is associated with successive interactions with zonal flows. A novel multi-scale simulation for turbulence and zonal flows in poloidally-rotating helical plasmas has demonstrated strong zonal flow generation by turbulence, which implies that turbulent transport processes in non-axisymmetric systems are coupled to neoclassical transport through the macroscopic E × B flows determined by the ambipolarty condition for neoclassical particle fluxes. (author)
Saturation mechanism of decaying ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with kinetic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idomura, Yasuhiro
2016-01-01
We present full-f gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence including kinetic electrons. By comparing decaying ITG turbulence simulations with adiabatic and kinetic electron models, an impact of kinetic electrons on the ITG turbulence is investigated. It is found that significant electron transport occurs even in the ITG turbulence, and both ion and electron temperature profiles are relaxed. In steady states, both cases show upshifts of nonlinear critical ion temperature gradients from linear ones, while their saturation mechanisms are qualitatively different. In the adiabatic electron case, the ITG mode is stabilized by turbulence driven zonal flows. On the other hand, in the kinetic electron case, passing electrons transport shows fine resonant structures at mode rational surfaces, which generate corrugated density profiles. Such corrugated density profiles lead to fine radial electric fields following the neoclassical force balance relation. The resulting E × B shearing rate greatly exceeds the linear growth rate of the ITG mode. (author)
Turbulence models development and engineering applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groetzbach, G.; Ammann, T.; Dorr, B.; Hiltner, I.; Hofmann, S.; Kampczyk, M.; Kimhi, Y.; Seiter, C.; Woerner, M.; Alef, M.; Hennemuth, A.
1995-01-01
The FLUTAN code is used for analyzing the decay heat removal in new reactor concepts. The turbulence models applied in FLUTAN are improved by the development of the TURBIT code. TURBIT serves for a numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. (orig.)
Up-down symmetry of the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Peeters, Arthur G.
2011-01-01
Two symmetries of the local nonlinear δf gyrokinetic system of equations in tokamaks in the high flow regime are presented. The turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum changes sign under an up-down reflection of the tokamak and a sign change of both the rotation and the rotation shear. Thus, the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum must vanish for up-down symmetric tokamaks in the absence of both rotation and rotation shear. This has important implications for the modeling of spontaneous rotation.
Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Diamond, P.H.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
2010-01-01
Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E - B shear. The ITG turbulence driven 'intrinsic' torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by 'intrinsic' torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a 'flow pinch' in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.
Turbulence Spreading into Linearly Stable Zone and Transport Scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2003-01-01
We study the simplest problem of turbulence spreading corresponding to the spatio-temporal propagation of a patch of turbulence from a region where it is locally excited to a region of weaker excitation, or even local damping. A single model equation for the local turbulence intensity I(x, t) includes the effects of local linear growth and damping, spatially local nonlinear coupling to dissipation and spatial scattering of turbulence energy induced by nonlinear coupling. In the absence of dissipation, the front propagation into the linearly stable zone occurs with the property of rapid progression at small t, followed by slower subdiffusive progression at late times. The turbulence radial spreading into the linearly stable zone reduces the turbulent intensity in the linearly unstable zone, and introduces an additional dependence on the rho* is always equal to rho i/a to the turbulent intensity and the transport scaling. These are in broad, semi-quantitative agreements with a number of global gyrokinetic simulation results with zonal flows and without zonal flows. The front propagation stops when the radial flux of fluctuation energy from the linearly unstable region is balanced by local dissipation in the linearly stable region
A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ku, S., E-mail: sku@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hager, R.; Chang, C.S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kwon, J.M. [National Fusion Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Parker, S.E. [University of Colorado Boulder (United States)
2016-06-15
In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles provide scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. The numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.
Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators
Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.
2017-10-01
Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.
Verniero, J. L.; Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.
2018-02-01
In space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is responsible for transferring energy from large scales driven by violent events or instabilities, to smaller scales where turbulent energy is ultimately converted into plasma heat by dissipative mechanisms. The nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, denoted Alfvén wave collisions, drives this turbulent energy cascade, as recognized by early work with incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Recent work employing analytical calculations and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén wave collisions in an idealized periodic initial state have demonstrated the key properties that strong Alfvén wave collisions mediate effectively the transfer of energy to smaller perpendicular scales and self-consistently generate current sheets. For the more realistic case of the collision between two initially separated Alfvén wavepackets, we use a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation to show here that these key properties persist: strong Alfvén wavepacket collisions indeed facilitate the perpendicular cascade of energy and give rise to current sheets. Furthermore, the evolution shows that nonlinear interactions occur only while the wavepackets overlap, followed by a clean separation of the wavepackets with straight uniform magnetic fields and the cessation of nonlinear evolution in between collisions, even in the gyrokinetic simulation presented here which resolves dispersive and kinetic effects beyond the reach of the MHD theory.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-11-01
interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k 7/4. Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-01-01
interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k (sup 7/4). Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Contributions for the optimization of the extensibility of parallel programing of turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozar, F.
2015-01-01
The work realized through this thesis focuses on the optimization of the Gysela code which simulates a plasma turbulence. Optimization of a scientific application concerns mainly one of the three following points: 1) the simulation of larger meshes, 2) the reduction of computing time and 3) the enhancement of the computation accuracy. The first part of this manuscript presents the contributions relative to the simulation of larger mesh. Alike many simulation codes, getting more realistic simulations is often analogous to rene the meshes. The finer the mesh the larger the memory consumption. Moreover, during these last few years, the supercomputers had trend to provide less and less memory per computer core. For these reasons, we have developed a library, the libMTM (Modeling and Tracing Memory), dedicated to study precisely the memory consumption of parallel softwares. The libMTM tools allowed us to reduce the memory consumption of Gysela and to study its scalability. As far as we know, there is no other tool which provides equivalent features which allow the memory scalability study. The second part of the manuscript presents the works relative to the optimization of the computation time and the improvement of accuracy of the gyro-average operator. This operator represents a corner stone of the gyrokinetic model which is used by the Gysela application. The improvement of accuracy emanates from a change in the computing method: a scheme based on a 2D Hermite interpolation substitutes the Pade approximation. Although the new version of the gyro-average operator is more accurate, it is also more expensive in computation time than the former one. In order to keep the simulation in reasonable time, different optimizations have been performed on the new computing method to get it competitive. Finally, we have developed a MPI parallelized version of the new gyro-average operator. The good scalability of this new gyro-average computer will allow, eventually, a reduction
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.
2011-07-01
Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)
Turbulence in high-beta ASDEX upgrade advanced scenarios
Doerk, H.; Bock, A.; Di Siena, A.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Stober, J.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team
2018-01-01
Recent experiments at ASDEX Upgrade achieve non-inductive operation in full tungsten wall conditions by applying electron cyclotron and neutral beam current drive. These discharges are characterised by a well-measured safety factor profile, which does not drop below one, and a good energy confinement. By reproducing the experimental heat fluxes, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the observed strong peaking of the ion temperature in the core is caused by the stabilising impact of a significant beam ion content, as well as strong electromagnetic effects on turbulent transport. Quasilinear transport models are not yet applicable in this interesting and reactor relevant parameter regime, but available simulation data may serve as a testbed for improvements. As the present plasma is close to the kinetic ballooning (KBM) threshold, elevating the safety factor profile under otherwise identical conditions is proposed to clarify, whether profiles are ultimately limited by KBM turbulence, or by global stability constraints.
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u parallel, T parallel, and T perpendicular along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ''FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping ∝ k perpendicular 2 |Φ rvec k rvec k x rvec k'| which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k perpendicular ρ which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory
Gyrokinetic Electron and Fully Kinetic Ion Particle Simulation of Collisionless Plasma Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu Lin; Xueyi Wang; Liu Chen; Zhihong Lin
2009-08-11
Fully kinetic-particle simulations and hybrid simulations have been utilized for decades to investigate various fundamental plasma processes, such as magnetic reconnection, fast compressional waves, and wave-particle interaction. Nevertheless, due to disparate temporal and spatial scales between electrons and ions, existing fully kinetic-particle codes have to employ either unrealistically high electron-to-ion mass ratio, me/mi, or simulation domain limited to a few or a few ten's of the ion Larmor radii, or/and time much less than the global Alfven time scale in order to accommodate available computing resources. On the other hand, in the hybrid simulation, the ions are treated as fully kinetic particles but the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The electron kinetic effects, e.g., wave-particle resonances and finite electron Larmor radius effects, are completely missing. Important physics, such as the electron transit time damping of fast compressional waves or the triggering mechanism of magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas is absent in the hybrid codes. Motivated by these considerations and noting that dynamics of interest to us has frequencies lower than the electron gyrofrequency, we planned to develop an innovative particle simulation model, gyrokinetic (GK) electrons and fully kinetic (FK) ions. In the GK-electron and FK-ion (GKe/FKi) particle simulation model, the rapid electron cyclotron motion is removed, while keeping finite electron Larmor radii, realistic me/mi ratio, wave-particle interactions, and off-diagonal components of electron pressure tensor. The computation power can thus be significantly improved over that of the full-particle codes. As planned in the project DE-FG02-05ER54826, we have finished the development of the new GK-electron and FK-ion scheme, finished its benchmark for a uniform plasma in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D systems against linear waves obtained from analytical theories, and carried out a further convergence
Gyrokinetic Electron and Fully Kinetic Ion Particle Simulation of Collisionless Plasma Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong
2009-01-01
Fully kinetic-particle simulations and hybrid simulations have been utilized for decades to investigate various fundamental plasma processes, such as magnetic reconnection, fast compressional waves, and wave-particle interaction. Nevertheless, due to disparate temporal and spatial scales between electrons and ions, existing fully kinetic-particle codes have to employ either unrealistically high electron-to-ion mass ratio, me/mi, or simulation domain limited to a few or a few ten's of the ion Larmor radii, or/and time much less than the global Alfven time scale in order to accommodate available computing resources. On the other hand, in the hybrid simulation, the ions are treated as fully kinetic particles but the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The electron kinetic effects, e.g., wave-particle resonances and finite electron Larmor radius effects, are completely missing. Important physics, such as the electron transit time damping of fast compressional waves or the triggering mechanism of magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas is absent in the hybrid codes. Motivated by these considerations and noting that dynamics of interest to us has frequencies lower than the electron gyrofrequency, we planned to develop an innovative particle simulation model, gyrokinetic (GK) electrons and fully kinetic (FK) ions. In the GK-electron and FK-ion (GKe/FKi) particle simulation model, the rapid electron cyclotron motion is removed, while keeping finite electron Larmor radii, realistic me/mi ratio, wave-particle interactions, and off-diagonal components of electron pressure tensor. The computation power can thus be significantly improved over that of the full-particle codes. As planned in the project DE-FG02-05ER54826, we have finished the development of the new GK-electron and FK-ion scheme, finished its benchmark for a uniform plasma in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D systems against linear waves obtained from analytical theories, and carried out a further convergence test
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Huang, Z.; Coda, S.; Görler, T.; Villard, L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Dominski, J.; Fontana, M.; Jenko, F.; Porte, L.; Told, D.
2018-03-01
Axisymmetric (n = 0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f 0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper (Z Huang et al, this issue). Given that f 0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f 0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency {f}{GAM}. In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature and properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. Simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.
Introducing a distributed unstructured mesh into gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code, XGC
Yoon, Eisung; Shephard, Mark; Seol, E. Seegyoung; Kalyanaraman, Kaushik
2017-10-01
XGC has shown good scalability for large leadership supercomputers. The current production version uses a copy of the entire unstructured finite element mesh on every MPI rank. Although an obvious scalability issue if the mesh sizes are to be dramatically increased, the current approach is also not optimal with respect to data locality of particles and mesh information. To address these issues we have initiated the development of a distributed mesh PIC method. This approach directly addresses the base scalability issue with respect to mesh size and, through the use of a mesh entity centric view of the particle mesh relationship, provides opportunities to address data locality needs of many core and GPU supported heterogeneous systems. The parallel mesh PIC capabilities are being built on the Parallel Unstructured Mesh Infrastructure (PUMI). The presentation will first overview the form of mesh distribution used and indicate the structures and functions used to support the mesh, the particles and their interaction. Attention will then focus on the node-level optimizations being carried out to ensure performant operation of all PIC operations on the distributed mesh. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation (EPSI) Grant No. DE-SC0008449 and Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) Grant No. DE-SC0006618.
2013-03-01
34Blind" Code Evaluation/Validation Michael S. Holden, Timothy P. Wadhams, Matthew G. MacLean, Aaron Dufrene CUBRC , Inc March 2013 Final...298 Back (Rev. 8/98) *Fellow, AIAA, Vice President-Hypersonics, CUBRC , 4455 Genesee Street, Buffalo, NY 14225 ** Member, AIAA, Project Engineers... CUBRC , 4455 Genesee Street, Buffalo, NY 14225 This work was supported by AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-11-1-0290 MEASUREMENTS IN REGIONS OF SHOCK WAVE
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Turbulence models in supersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirani, E.; Ahmadikia, H.; Talebi, S.
2001-05-01
The aim of this paper is to evaluate five different turbulence models when used in rather complicated two-dimensional and axisymmetric supersonic flows. They are Baldwin-Lomax, k-l, k-ε, k-ω and k-ζ turbulence models. The compressibility effects, axisymmetric correction terms and some modifications for transition region are used and tested in the models. Two computer codes based on the control volume approach and two flux-splitting methods. Roe and Van Leer, are developed. The codes are used to simulate supersonic mixing layers, flow behind axisymmetric body, under expanded jet, and flow over hollow cylinder flare. The results are compared with experimental data and behavior of the turbulence models is examined. It is shown that both k-l and k-ζ models produce very good results. It is also shown that the compressibility correction in the model is required to obtain more accurate results. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Ruiz, J.; White, A. E. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2015-12-15
Theory and experiments have shown that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence on the electron gyro-scale, k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub e} ≲ 1, can be responsible for anomalous electron thermal transport in NSTX. Electron scale (high-k) turbulence is diagnosed in NSTX with a high-k microwave scattering system [D. R. Smith et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 123501 (2008)]. Here we report on stabilization effects of the electron density gradient on electron-scale density fluctuations in a set of neutral beam injection heated H-mode plasmas. We found that the absence of high-k density fluctuations from measurements is correlated with large equilibrium density gradient, which is shown to be consistent with linear stabilization of ETG modes due to the density gradient using the analytical ETG linear threshold in F. Jenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4096 (2001)] and linear gyrokinetic simulations with GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)]. We also found that the observed power of electron-scale turbulence (when it exists) is anti-correlated with the equilibrium density gradient, suggesting density gradient as a nonlinear stabilizing mechanism. Higher density gradients give rise to lower values of the plasma frame frequency, calculated based on the Doppler shift of the measured density fluctuations. Linear gyrokinetic simulations show that higher values of the electron density gradient reduce the value of the real frequency, in agreement with experimental observation. Nonlinear electron-scale gyrokinetic simulations show that high electron density gradient reduces electron heat flux and stiffness, and increases the ETG nonlinear threshold, consistent with experimental observations.
TenBarge, J. M.; Shay, M. A.; Sharma, P.; Juno, J.; Haggerty, C. C.; Drake, J. F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hakim, A.
2017-12-01
Turbulence and magnetic reconnection are the primary mechanisms responsible for the conversion of stored magnetic energy into particle energy in many space and astrophysical plasmas. The magnetospheric multiscale mission (MMS) has given us unprecedented access to high cadence particle and field data of turbulence and magnetic reconnection at earth's magnetopause. The observations include large guide field reconnection events generated within the turbulent magnetopause. Motivated by these observations, we present a study of large guide reconnection using the fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell component of the Gkeyll simulation framework, and we also employ and compare with gyrokinetics to explore the asymptotically large guide field limit. In addition to studying the configuration space dynamics, we leverage the recently developed field-particle correlations to diagnose the dominant sources of dissipation and compare the results of the field-particle correlation to other energy dissipation measures.
Nonlinear entropy transfer in ETG-TEM turbulence via TEM driven zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asahi, Yuuichi; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Sugama, Hideo; Watanabe, Tomohiko
2015-01-01
Nonlinear interplay of the electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and the trapped electron modes (TEMs) was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulation. Focusing on the situation where both TEMs and ETG modes are linearly unstable, the effects of TEM-driven zonal flows on ETG turbulence were examined by means of entropy transfer analysis. In a statistically steady turbulence where the TEM driven zonal flows are dominant, it turned out that the zonal flows meditate the entropy transfer of the ETG modes from the low to high radial wavenumber regions. The successive entropy transfer broadens the potential fluctuation spectrum in the radial wavenumber direction. In contrast, in the situation where ETG modes are unstable but TEMs are stable, the pure ETG turbulence does not produce strong zonal flows, leading to a rather narrow spectrum in the radial wavenumber space and a higher transport level. (author)
Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.
2014-05-01
Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O.; Stewart, J.M.
1976-01-01
A generalization of a transformation due to Kurskov and Ozernoi is used to rewrite the usual equations governing subsonic turbulence in Robertson-Walker cosmological models as Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent viscosity. This paper first rederives some well-known results in a very simple way by means of this transformation. The main result however is that the establishment of a Kolmogorov spectrum at recombination appears to be incompatible with subsonic turbulence. The conditions after recombination are also discussed briefly. (author)
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2016-03-15
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo
2016-03-01
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Neoclassical Simulation of Tokamak Plasmas using Continuum Gyrokinetc Code TEMPEST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X Q
2007-01-01
We present gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas with self-consistent electric field for the first time using a fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST in a circular geometry. A set of gyrokinetic equations are discretized on a five dimensional computational grid in phase space. The present implementation is a Method of Lines approach where the phase-space derivatives are discretized with finite differences and implicit backwards differencing formulas are used to advance the system in time. The fully nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for electrons. The neoclassical electric field is obtained by solving gyrokinetic Poisson equation with self-consistent poloidal variation. With our 4D (ψ, θ, ε, μ) version of the TEMPEST code we compute radial particle and heat flux, the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode (GAM), and the development of neoclassical electric field, which we compare with neoclassical theory with a Lorentz collision model. The present work provides a numerical scheme and a new capability for self-consistently studying important aspects of neoclassical transport and rotations in toroidal magnetic fusion devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Statistical theory of resistive drift-wave turbulence and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, G.; Krommes, J.A.; Bowman, J.C.
1997-01-01
Resistive drift-wave turbulence in a slab geometry is studied by statistical closure methods and direct numerical simulations. The two-field Hasegawa endash Wakatani (HW) fluid model, which evolves the electrostatic potential and plasma density self-consistently, is a paradigm for understanding the generic nonlinear behavior of multiple-field plasma turbulence. A gyrokinetic derivation of the HW model is sketched. The recently developed Realizable Markovian Closure (RMC) is applied to the HW model; spectral properties, nonlinear energy transfers, and turbulent transport calculations are discussed. The closure results are also compared to direct numerical simulation results; excellent agreement is found. The transport scaling with the adiabaticity parameter, which measures the strength of the parallel electron resistivity, is analytically derived and understood through weak- and strong-turbulence analyses. No evidence is found to support previous suggestions that coherent structures cause a large depression of saturated transport from its quasilinear value in the hydrodynamic regime of the HW model. Instead, the depression of transport is well explained by the spectral balance equation of the (second-order) statistical closure when account is taken of incoherent noise. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groetzbach, G.; Ammann, T.; Dorr, B.; Hiltner, I.; Hofmann, S.; Kampczyk, M.; Kimhi, Y.; Seiter, C.; Woerner, M.; Alef, M.; Hennemuth, A.
1995-08-01
The FLUTAN code is used for analyzing the decay heat removal in new reactor concepts. The turbulence models applied in FLUTAN are improved by the development of the TURBIT code. TURBIT serves for a numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labit, B
2002-10-01
In a fusion machine, understanding plasma turbulence, which causes a degradation of the measured energy confinement time, would constitute a major progress in this field. In tokamaks, the measured ion and electron thermal conductivities are of comparable magnitude. The possible sources of turbulence are the temperature and density gradients occurring in a fusion plasma. Whereas the heat losses in the ion channel are reasonably well understood, the origin of the electron losses is more uncertain. In addition to the radial velocity associated to the fluctuations of the electric field, electrons are more affected than ions by the magnetic field fluctuations. In experiments, the confinement time can be conveniently expressed in terms of dimensionless parameters. Although still somewhat too imprecise, these scaling laws exhibit strong dependencies on the normalized pressure {beta} or the normalized Larmor radius, {rho}{sub *}. The present thesis assesses whether a tridimensional, electromagnetic, nonlinear fluid model of plasma turbulence driven by a specific instability can reproduce the dependence of the experimental electron heat losses on the dimensionless parameters {beta} and {rho}{sub *}. The investigated interchange instability is the Electron Temperature Gradient driven one (ETG). The model is built by using the set of Braginskii equations. The developed simulation code is global in the sense that a fixed heat flux is imposed at the inner boundary, leaving the gradients free to evolve. From the nonlinear simulations, we have put in light three characteristics for the ETG turbulence: the turbulent transport is essentially electrostatic; the potential and pressure fluctuations form radially elongated cells called streamers; the transport level is very low compared to the experimental values. The thermal transport dependence study has shown a very small role of the normalized pressure, which is in contradiction with the Ohkama's formula. On the other hand
ENERGY DISSIPATION AND LANDAU DAMPING IN TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PLASMA TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Tak Chu; Howes, Gregory G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Klein, Kristopher G. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); TenBarge, Jason M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2016-12-01
Plasma turbulence is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, playing an important role in plasma energization, but the physical mechanisms leading to dissipation of the turbulent energy remain to be definitively identified. Kinetic simulations in two dimensions (2D) have been extensively used to study the dissipation process. How the limitation to 2D affects energy dissipation remains unclear. This work provides a model of comparison between two- and three-dimensional (3D) plasma turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations; it also explores the dynamics of distribution functions during the dissipation process. It is found that both 2D and 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a low-beta plasma generate electron velocity-space structures with the same characteristics as that of the linear Landau damping of Alfvén waves in a 3D linear simulation. The continual occurrence of the velocity-space structures throughout the turbulence simulations suggests that the action of Landau damping may be responsible for the turbulent energy transfer to electrons in both 2D and 3D, and makes possible the subsequent irreversible heating of the plasma through collisional smoothing of the velocity-space fluctuations. Although, in the 2D case where variation along the equilibrium magnetic field is absent, it may be expected that Landau damping is not possible, a common trigonometric factor appears in the 2D resonant denominator, leaving the resonance condition unchanged from the 3D case. The evolution of the 2D and 3D cases is qualitatively similar. However, quantitatively, the nonlinear energy cascade and subsequent dissipation is significantly slower in the 2D case.
Full-f gyrokinetic simulation of edge pedestal in Textor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiviniemi, Timo [Aalto Univ. (Finland)
2016-11-01
In ongoing simulations we have noticed that change phase angle between electric field and density oscillation may be important for changes in particle transport for different isotopes which could explain part of the so-called isotope-effect. Even the present database from the PRACE simulation (about 20 cases and some 4 TB of data) can still be further explored for this as the 3D data for both electric field and density exists. After finishing the PRACE project the code has been updated to include scrape-off-layer (SOL) which has opened several possibilities for future research.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besse, Nicolas, E-mail: Nicolas.Besse@oca.eu [Laboratoire J.-L. Lagrange, UMR CNRS/OCA/UCA 7293, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Bd de l’Observatoire CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS/UL 7198, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Coulette, David, E-mail: David.Coulette@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS/UL 7198, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR CNRS/US 7504, Université de Strasbourg, 23 Rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France)
2016-08-15
Achieving plasmas with good stability and confinement properties is a key research goal for magnetic fusion devices. The underlying equations are the Vlasov–Poisson and Vlasov–Maxwell (VPM) equations in three space variables, three velocity variables, and one time variable. Even in those somewhat academic cases where global equilibrium solutions are known, studying their stability requires the analysis of the spectral properties of the linearized operator, a daunting task. We have identified a model, for which not only equilibrium solutions can be constructed, but many of their stability properties are amenable to rigorous analysis. It uses a class of solution to the VPM equations (or to their gyrokinetic approximations) known as waterbag solutions which, in particular, are piecewise constant in phase-space. It also uses, not only the gyrokinetic approximation of fast cyclotronic motion around magnetic field lines, but also an asymptotic approximation regarding the magnetic-field-induced anisotropy: the spatial variation along the field lines is taken much slower than across them. Together, these assumptions result in a drastic reduction in the dimensionality of the linearized problem, which becomes a set of two nested one-dimensional problems: an integral equation in the poloidal variable, followed by a one-dimensional complex Schrödinger equation in the radial variable. We show here that the operator associated to the poloidal variable is meromorphic in the eigenparameter, the pulsation frequency. We also prove that, for all but a countable set of real pulsation frequencies, the operator is compact and thus behaves mostly as a finite-dimensional one. The numerical algorithms based on such ideas have been implemented in a companion paper [D. Coulette and N. Besse, “Numerical resolution of the global eigenvalue problem for gyrokinetic-waterbag model in toroidal geometry” (submitted)] and were found to be surprisingly close to those for the original
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch
Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.
2017-12-01
The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Y.; Wang, W. X.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ethier, S.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2015-11-15
In this letter, we report the first observation of the fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The observation was made in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas with toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T and plasma current of 300 kA. It is observed that electron-scale turbulence spectral power (measured with a high-k collective microwave scattering system) decreases significantly following fast cessation of RF heating that occurs in less than 200 μs. The large drop in the turbulence spectral power has a short time delay of about 1–2 ms relative to the RF cessation and happens on a time scale of 0.5–1 ms, much smaller than the energy confinement time of about 10 ms. Power balance analysis shows a factor of about 2 decrease in electron thermal diffusivity after the sudden drop of turbulence spectral power. Measured small changes in equilibrium profiles across the RF cessation are unlikely able to explain this sudden reduction in the measured turbulence and decrease in electron thermal transport, supported by local linear stability analysis and both local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The observations imply that nonlocal flux-driven mechanism may be important for the observed turbulence and electron thermal transport.
Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas
Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-05-01
The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
Characterisation of temperature gradient driven turbulence and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottaviani, M.A.
2002-01-01
We report on extensive numerical studies aimed at characterising various aspects of temperature gradient driven turbulence. We specifically discuss results from 3D fluid models of ETG and of ITG turbulence, and results from a 2D+2D gyrokinetic model of trapped ion turbulence. Global transport exhibits gyro-Bohm scaling in both the ETG and the ITG model. The conductivity of the ETG model decreases weakly with beta. The heat transport is due to the EXB advection, the effect of the magnetic flutter is negligible. However the transport level is much lower than experimentally observed. In both 3D models the correlation lengths scale with the gyroradius, but they are typically a factor 10 larger. Vortices are elongated but their aspect ratio is independent of the gyroradius. Their radial size is limited by LD. The trapped ion model gives larger vortices due to the absence of LD from passing ions. Avalanches are observed in all the models, the weakest occurring in the ITG system. Their range increases with gyroradius, but more weakly than linearly. Finally, ZFs can limit the range of the avalanches, which explains why avalanches are weaker in the ITG model which is more sensitive to ZFs. (author)
Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Zakharov, L.E.
2011-01-01
Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode.
Isotope and fast ions turbulence suppression effects: Consequences for high-β ITER plasmas
Garcia, J.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.
2018-05-01
The impact of isotope effects and fast ions on microturbulence is analyzed by means of non-linear gyrokinetic simulations for an ITER hybrid scenario at high beta obtained from previous integrated modelling simulations with simplified assumptions. Simulations show that ITER might work very close to threshold, and in these conditions, significant turbulence suppression is found from DD to DT plasmas. Electromagnetic effects are shown to play an important role in the onset of this isotope effect. Additionally, even external ExB flow shear, which is expected to be low in ITER, has a stronger impact on DT than on DD. The fast ions generated by fusion reactions can additionally reduce turbulence even more although the impact in ITER seems weaker than in present-day tokamaks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Hatzky, R; Jolliet, S; Sauter, O; Tran, T M; Villard, L
2006-01-01
The mutual interactions of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes, zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in tokamak plasmas are investigated using a global nonlinear gyrokinetic formulation with totally unconstrained evolution of temperature gradient and profile. A series of numerical simulations with the same initial temperature and density profile specifications is performed using a sequence of ideal MHD equilibria differing only in the value of the total plasma current, in particular with identical magnetic shear profiles and shapes of magnetic surfaces. On top of a bursty or quasi-steady state behaviour the zonal flows oscillate at the GAM frequency. The amplitude of these oscillations increases with the value of the safety factor q, resulting in a less effective suppression of ITG turbulence by zonal flows at a lower plasma current. The turbulence-driven volume-averaged radial heat transport is found to scale inversely with the total plasma current
Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.; Umansky, M.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P.
2008-05-01
The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T e ; T i ) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics
Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Sauter, O.; Camenen, Y.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Marinoni, A.; Told, D.; Villard, L.
2015-05-01
The experimental observation made on the TCV tokamak of a significant confinement improvement in plasmas with negative triangularity (δ TEMs) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes are the dominant microinstabilities, with the latter providing a significant contribution to the non-linear electron heat fluxes near the plasma edge. Two series of simulations with different levels of realism are performed, addressing the question of profile stiffness at various radial locations. Retaining finite collisionality, impurities and electromagnetic effects, as well as the physical electron-to-ion mass ratio are all necessary in order to approach the experimental flux measurements. However, flux-tube simulations are unable to fully reproduce the TCV results, pointing towards the need to carry out radially nonlocal (global) simulations, i.e. retaining finite machine size effects, in a future study. Some conclusions about the effect of triangularity can nevertheless be drawn based on the flux-tube results. In particular, the importance of considering the sensitivity to both temperature and density gradient is shown. The flux tube results show an increase of the critical gradients towards the edge, further enhanced when δ < 0, and they also appear to indicate a reduction of profile stiffness towards plasma edge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.; Snodin, A. P.; Casson, F. J.; Camenen, Y.; Szepesi, G.; Siccinio, M.; Poli, E.
2010-01-01
The interaction between small scale turbulence (of the order of the ion Larmor radius) and mesoscale magnetic islands is investigated within the gyrokinetic framework. Turbulence, driven by background temperature and density gradients, over nonlinear mode coupling, pumps energy into long wavelength modes, and can result in an electrostatic vortex mode that coincides with the magnetic island. The strength of the vortex is strongly enhanced by the modified plasma flow response connected with the change in topology, and the transport it generates can compete with the parallel motion along the perturbed magnetic field. Despite the stabilizing effect of sheared plasma flows in and around the island, the net effect of the island is a degradation of the confinement. When density and temperature gradients inside the island are below the threshold for turbulence generation, turbulent fluctuations still persist through turbulence convection and spreading. The latter mechanisms then generate a finite transport flux and, consequently, a finite pressure gradient in the island. A finite radial temperature gradient inside the island is also shown to persist due to the trapped particles, which do not move along the field around the island. In the low collisionality regime, the finite gradient in the trapped population leads to the generation of a bootstrap current, which reduces the neoclassical drive.
Effects of parallel dynamics on vortex structures in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
2011-01-01
Vortex structures and related heat transport properties in slab electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are comprehensively investigated by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations, with the aim of elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms of the transition from turbulent to coherent states. Numerical results show three different types of vortex structures, i.e., coherent vortex streets accompanied with the transport reduction, turbulent vortices with steady transport, and a zonal-flow-dominated state, depending on the relative magnitude of the parallel compression to the diamagnetic drift. In particular, the formation of coherent vortex streets is correlated with the strong generation of zonal flows for the cases with weak parallel compression, even though the maximum growth rate of linear ETG modes is relatively large. The zonal flow generation in the ETG turbulence is investigated by the modulational instability analysis with a truncated fluid model, where the parallel dynamics such as acoustic modes for electrons is incorporated. The modulational instability for zonal flows is found to be stabilized by the effect of the finite parallel compression. The theoretical analysis qualitatively agrees with secondary growth of zonal flows found in the slab ETG turbulence simulations, where the transition of vortex structures is observed.
Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence
Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.
2018-03-01
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.
Gyrokinetic analysis of linear microinstabilities for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
Xanthopoulos, P.; Jenko, F.
2007-04-01
A linear collisionless gyrokinetic investigation of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes—considering both adiabatic and full electron dynamics—and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is presented for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) [G. Grieger et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 3, p. 525]. The study of ITG modes reveals that in W7-X, microinstabilities of distinct character coexist. The effect of changes in the density gradient and temperature ratio is discussed. Substantial differences with respect to the axisymmetric geometry appear in W7-X, concerning the relative separation of regions with a large fraction of helically trapped particles and those of pronounced bad curvature. For both ITG modes and TEMs, the dependence of their linear growth rates on the background gradients is studied along with their parallel mode structure.
A comprehensive gyrokinetic description of global electrostatic microinstabilities in a tokamak
Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.; Angelino, P.
2009-05-01
It is believed that low frequency microinstabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes and trapped electron modes (TEMs) are largely responsible for the experimentally observed anomalous transport via the ion and electron channels in a tokamak. In the present work, a comprehensive global linear gyrokinetic model incorporating fully kinetic (trapped and passing) electrons and ions, actual ion to electron mass ratio, radial coupling, and profile variation is used to investigate the ITG driven modes and pure TEMs. These modes are found to exhibit multiscale structures in the presence of nonadiabatic passing electrons. The multiscale structure is related to the large nonadiabaticity of electrons in the vicinity of mode rational magnetic surfaces and leads to reduced mixing length estimates of transport compared to those obtained from adiabatic electron models.
Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John E.
2010-01-01
Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution - although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.
Nonlinear gyrokinetics: a powerful tool for the description of microturbulence in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A
2010-01-01
Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a 'pull-back' (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and difficulties) of deriving nonlinear gyrofluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution-although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.
Langmuir turbulence in space plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldman, M.V. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Newman, D.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, J.G. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Muschietti, L. [California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Space Sciences Lab.
1996-11-01
Recent developments in theoretical and numerical modeling of Langmuir turbulence in space and laboratory plasmas are addressed. Kinetic effects, which have been missing from (fluid) traditional Zakharov equation models are explored using Vlasov code simulations. These studies are motivated by beam-driven Langmuir waves and particle distributions measured in earth`s foreshock region, and by beam-driven Langmuir waves and beams that underlie type III solar radio emission in the solar wind. The nonlinear physical processes studied in these 1-D Vlasov simulations include both wave-wave interactions and acceleration of particles by waves-leading to electron-beam flattening. We study bump-on-tail instabilities as boundary value problems, and determine the interplay in space and time between beam plateau formation, stimulated wave-wave backscatter cascades, and strong turbulence wave-packet collapse. (orig.).
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)
1996-09-01
The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)
Flux surface shaping effects on tokamak edge turbulence and flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendl, A.; Scott, B.D.
2004-01-01
The influence of shaping of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks on gyro-fluid edge turbulence is studied numerically. Magnetic field shaping in tokamaks is mainly due to elongation, triangularity, shift and the presence of a divertor X-point. A series of tokamak configurations with varying elongation 1 ≤ κ ≥ 2 and triangularity 0 ≤ δ ≤ 0.4, and an actual ASDEX Upgrade divertor configuration are obtained with the equilibrium code HELENA and implemented into the gyro-fluid turbulence code GEM. The study finds minimal impact on the zonal flow physics itself, but strong impact on the turbulence and transport. (authors)
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
2001-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and nite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Por, G.D. ter; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
1999-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the E x B drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Flux surface shaping effects on tokamak edge turbulence and flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kendl, A. [Innsbruck Univ., Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM (Austria); Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2004-07-01
The influence of shaping of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks on gyro-fluid edge turbulence is studied numerically. Magnetic field shaping in tokamaks is mainly due to elongation, triangularity, shift and the presence of a divertor X-point. A series of tokamak configurations with varying elongation 1 {<=} {kappa} {>=} 2 and triangularity 0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.4, and an actual ASDEX Upgrade divertor configuration are obtained with the equilibrium code HELENA and implemented into the gyro-fluid turbulence code GEM. The study finds minimal impact on the zonal flow physics itself, but strong impact on the turbulence and transport. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hager, Robert, E-mail: rhager@pppl.gov; Chang, C. S., E-mail: cschang@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2016-04-15
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. A new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1966-09-01
This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Fuchs, V.; Dendy, R.O.
1993-01-01
A full-wave equation has been obtained from the gyrokinetic theory for the fast wave traversing a minority cyclotron resonance [Phys. Fluids B 4, 493 (1992)] with the aid of the fast wave approximation [Phys. Fluids 31, 1614 (1988)]. This theory describes the transmission, reflection, and absorption of the fast wave for arbitrary values of the parallel wave number. For oblique propagation the absorption is due to both ion cyclotron damping by minority ions and mode conversion to the ion Bernstein wave. The results for a 3 He minority in a D plasma indicate that for perpendicular propagation and minority temperatures of a few keV the power lost by the fast wave is all mode converted whereas for minority temperatures ∼100 keV∼30% of the incident power is dissipated by the minority ions due to the gyrokinetic correction. The gyrokinetic correction also results in a significant reduction in the reflection coefficient for low field side incidence when k zLB approx-lt 1 and the minority and hybrid resonances overlap
Effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading: A fluctuation intensity transport analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States); Hahm, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
This paper studies effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading. It reports results of numerical experiments using global gyrokinetic simulations. We examine propagation of turbulence, triggered by an identical linear instability in a source region, into an adjacent, linearly stable region with variable q-profile. The numerical experiments are designed so as to separate the physics of turbulence spreading from that of linear stability. The strength of turbulence spreading is measured by the penetration depth of turbulence. Dynamics of spreading are elucidated by fluctuation intensity balance analysis, using a model intensity evolution equation which retains nonlinear diffusion and damping, and linear growth. It is found that turbulence spreading is strongly affected by magnetic shear s, but is hardly altered by the safety factor q itself. There is an optimal range of modest magnetic shear which maximizes turbulence spreading. For high to modest shear values, the spreading is enhanced by the increase of the mode correlation length with decreasing magnetic shear. However, the efficiency of spreading drops for sufficiently low magnetic shear even though the mode correlation length is comparable to that for the case of optimal magnetic shear. The reduction of spreading is attributed to the increase in time required for the requisite nonlinear mode-mode interactions. The effect of increased interaction time dominates that of increased mode correlation length. Our findings of the reduction of spreading and the increase in interaction time at weak magnetic shear are consistent with the well-known benefit of weak or reversed magnetic shear for core confinement enhancement. Weak shear is shown to promote locality, as well as stability.
First steps towards modeling of ion-driven turbulence in Wendelstein 7-X
Warmer, F.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Proll, J. H. E.; Beidler, C. D.; Turkin, Y.; Wolf, R. C.
2018-01-01
Due to foreseen improvement of neoclassical confinement in optimised stellarators—like the newly commissioned Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experiment in Greifswald, Germany—it is expected that turbulence will significantly contribute to the heat and particle transport, thus posing a limit to the performance of such devices. In order to develop discharge scenarios, it is thus necessary to develop a model which could reliably capture the basic characteristics of turbulence and try to predict the levels thereof. The outcome will not only be affordable, using only a fraction of the computational cost which is normally required for repetitive direct turbulence simulations, but would also highlight important physics. In this model, we seek to describe the ion heat flux caused by ion temperature gradient (ITG) micro-turbulence, which, in certain heating scenarios, can be a strong source of free energy. With the aid of a relatively small number of state-of-the-art nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, an initial critical gradient model (CGM) is devised, with the aim to replace an empirical model, stemming from observations in prior stellarator experiments. The novel CGM, in its present form, encapsulates all available knowledge about ion-driven 3D turbulence to date, also allowing for further important extensions, towards an accurate interpretation and prediction of the ‘anomalous’ transport. The CGM depends on the stiffness of the ITG turbulence scaling in W7-X, and implicitly includes the nonlinear zonal flow response. It is shown that the CGM is suitable for a 1D framework turbulence modeling.
Inflow turbulence generation for eddy-resolving simulations of turbomachinery flows
Arolla, Sunil K.
2014-01-01
A simple variant of recycling and rescaling method to generate inflow turbulence using unstructured grid CFD codes is presented. The method has been validated on large eddy simulation of spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer. The proposed rescaling algorithm is based on the momentum thickness which is more robust and essentially obviates the need of finding the edge of the turbulent boundary layer in unstructured grid codes. Extension of this algorithm to hybrid RANS/LES ty...
Progress in turbulence research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradshaw, P.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence......Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
Turbulent resistivity driven by the magnetorotational instability
Fromang, S.; Stone, J. M.
2009-11-01
Aims: We measure the turbulent resistivity in the nonlinear regime of the MRI, and evaluate the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number. Methods: We perform a set of numerical simulations with the Eulerian finite volume codes Athena and Ramses in the framework of the shearing box model. We consider models including explicit dissipation coefficients and magnetic field topologies such that the net magnetic flux threading the box in both the vertical and azimuthal directions vanishes. Results: We first demonstrate good agreement between the two codes by comparing the properties of the turbulent states in simulations having identical microscopic diffusion coefficients (viscosity and resistivity). We find the properties of the turbulence do not change when the box size is increased in the radial direction, provided it is elongated in the azimuthal direction. To measure the turbulent resistivity in the disk, we impose a fixed electromotive force on the flow and measure the amplitude of the saturated magnetic field that results. We obtain a turbulent resistivity that is in rough agreement with mean field theories like the Second Order Smoothing Approximation. The numerical value translates into a turbulent magnetic Prandtl number Pmt of order unity. Pmt appears to be an increasing function of the forcing we impose. It also becomes smaller as the box size is increased in the radial direction, in good agreement with previous results obtained in very large boxes. Conclusions: Our results are in general agreement with other recently published papers studying the same problem but using different methodology. Thus, our conclusion that Pmt is of order unity appears robust.
Richardson effects in turbulent buoyant flows
Biggi, Renaud; Blanquart, Guillaume
2010-11-01
Rayleigh Taylor instabilities are found in a wide range of scientific fields from supernova explosions to underwater hot plumes. The turbulent flow is affected by the presence of buoyancy forces and may not follow the Kolmogorov theory anymore. The objective of the present work is to analyze the complex interactions between turbulence and buoyancy. Towards that goal, simulations have been performed with a high order, conservative, low Mach number code [Desjardins et. al. JCP 2010]. The configuration corresponds to a cubic box initially filled with homogeneous isotropic turbulence with heavy fluid on top and light gas at the bottom. The initial turbulent field was forced using linear forcing up to a Reynolds number of Reλ=55 [Meneveau & Rosales, POF 2005]. The Richardson number based on the rms velocity and the integral length scale was varied from 0.1 to 10 to investigate cases with weak and strong buoyancy. Cases with gravity as a stabilizer of turbulence (gravity pointing up) were also considered. The evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and the total kinetic energy was analyzed and a simple phenomenological model was proposed. Finally, the energy spectra and the isotropy of the flow were also investigated.
An NPARC Turbulence Module with Wall Functions
Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.
1997-01-01
The turbulence module recently developed for the NPARC code has been extended to include wall functions. The Van Driest transformation is used so that the wall functions can be applied to both incompressible and compressible flows. The module is equipped with three two-equation K-epsilon turbulence models: Chien, Shih-Lumley and CMOTR models. Details of the wall functions as well as their numerical implementation are reported. It is shown that the inappropriate artificial viscosity in the near-wall region has a big influence on the solution of the wall function approach. A simple way to eliminate this influence is proposed, which gives satisfactory results during the code validation. The module can be easily linked to the NPARC code for practical applications.
Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.
1986-01-01
Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastović Danilo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In earlier Rastovic's papers [1] and [2], the effort was given to analyze the stochastic control of tokamaks. In this paper, the deterministic control of tokamak turbulence is investigated via fractional variational calculus, particle in cell simulations, and fuzzy logic methods. Fractional integrals can be considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. The turbulent media could be of the fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pusztai, I. [Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Landreman, M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mollen, A.; Fueloep, T. [Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kazakov, Ye.O. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, Association ' EURATOM-Belgian State' , TEC Partner, BE-1000 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-06-15
Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can be generated by radio frequency heating in the core and by neoclassical effects in the edge of tokamak plasmas. In a pedestal case study, using global neoclassical simulations we find that finite orbit width effects can generate significant poloidal variation in the electrostatic potential, which varies on a small radial scale. Gyrokinetic modeling shows that these poloidal asymmetries can be strong enough to significantly modify turbulent impurity peaking. In the pedestal the E x B drift in the radial electric field can give a larger contribution to the poloidal motion of impurities than that of their parallel streaming. Under such circumstances we find that up-down asymmetries can also affect impurity peaking. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Gyrokinetic theory of perpendicular cyclotron resonance in a nonuniformly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Dendy, R.O.
1989-01-01
The extension of gyrokinetic theory to arbitrary frequencies by Chen and Tsai [Phys. Fluids 26, 141 (1983); Plasma Phys. 25, 349 (1983)] is used to study cyclotron absorption in a straight magnetic field with a perpendicular, linear gradient in strength. The analysis includes the effects of magnetic field variation across the Larmor orbit and is restricted to propagation perpendicular to the field. It yields the following results for propagation into the field gradient. The standard optical depths for the fundamental O-mode and second harmonic X-mode resonances are obtained from the absorption profiles given in this paper, without invoking relativistic mass variation [see also Antonsen and Manheimer, Phys. Fluids 21, 2295 (1978)]. The compressional Alfven wave is shown to undergo perpendicular cyclotron damping at the fundamental minority resonance in a two-ion species plasma and at second harmonic resonance in a single-ion species plasma. Ion Bernstein waves propagating into the second harmonic resonance are no longer unattenuated, but are increasingly damped as they approach the resonance. It is shown how the kinetic power flow affects absorption profiles, yielding information previously obtainable only from full-wave theory. In all cases, the perpendicular cyclotron damping arises from the inclusion of magnetic field variation across the Larmor orbit
Global gyrokinetic simulations of the H-mode tokamak edge pedestal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, Weigang; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Yan, Zheng [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kruger, Scott E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
2013-05-15
Global gyrokinetic simulations of DIII-D H-mode edge pedestal show two types of instabilities may exist approaching the onset of edge localized modes: an intermediate-n, high frequency mode which we identify as the “kinetic peeling ballooning mode (KPBM),” and a high-n, low frequency mode. Our previous study [W. Wan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 185004 (2012)] has shown that when the safety factor profile is flattened around the steep pressure gradient region, the high-n mode is clearly kinetic ballooning mode and becomes the dominant instability. Otherwise, the KPBM dominates. Here, the properties of the two instabilities are studied by varying the density and temperature profiles. It is found that the KPBM is destabilized by density and ion temperature gradient, and the high-n mode is mostly destabilized by electron temperature gradient. Nonlinear simulations with the KPBM saturate at high levels. The equilibrium radial electric field (E{sub r}) reduces the transport. The effect of the parallel equilibrium current is found to be weak.
Turbulence generation by waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.
2009-01-01
A recent publication [F. I. Parra and P. J. Catto, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)] warned against the use of the lower order gyrokinetic Poisson equation at long wavelengths because the long wavelength, radial electric field must remain undetermined to the order the equation is obtained. Another reference [W. W. Lee and R. A. Kolesnikov, Phys. Plasmas 16, 044506 (2009)] criticizes these results by arguing that the higher order terms neglected in the most common gyrokinetic Poisson equation are formally smaller than the terms that are retained. This argument is flawed and ignores that the lower order terms, although formally larger, must cancel without determining the long wavelength, radial electric field. The reason for this cancellation is discussed. In addition, the origin of a nonlinear term present in the gyrokinetic Poisson equation [F. I. Parra and P. J. Catto, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)] is explained.
Plasma Turbulence General Topics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)
1965-06-15
It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.
Electromagnetic radiation from strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimoto, K.; Rowland, H.L.; Papadopoulos, K.
1988-01-01
A series of computer simulations is reported showing the generation of electromagnetic radiation by strong Langmuir turbulence. The simulations were carried out with a fully electromagnetic 2 1/2 -dimensional fluid code. The radiation process takes place in two stages that reflect the evolution of the electrostatic turbulence. During the first stage while the electrostatic turbulence is evolving from an initial linear wave packet into a planar soliton, the radiation is primarily at ω/sub e/. During the second stage when transverse instabilities lead to the collapse and dissipation of the solitons, 2ω/sub e/ and ω/sub e/ radiation are comparable, and 3ω/sub e/ is also present. The radiation power at ω = 2ω/sub e/ is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for electromagnetic emissions by collapsing solitons
Toward the Theory of Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boldyrev, Stanislav
2013-01-01
The goal of the project was to develop a theory of turbulence in magnetized plasmas at large scales, that is, scales larger than the characteristic plasma microscales (ion gyroscale, ion inertial scale, etc.). Collisions of counter-propagating Alfven packets govern the turbulent cascade of energy toward small scales. It has been established that such an energy cascade is intrinsically anisotropic, in that it predominantly supplies energy to the modes with mostly field-perpendicular wave numbers. The resulting energy spectrum of MHD turbulence, and the structure of the fluctuations were studied both analytically and numerically. A new parallel numerical code was developed for simulating reduced MHD equations driven by an external force. The numerical setting was proposed, where the spectral properties of the force could be varied in order to simulate either strong or weak turbulent regimes. It has been found both analytically and numerically that weak MHD turbulence spontaneously generates a 'condensate', that is, concentration of magnetic and kinetic energy at small kllel)). A related topic that was addressed in the project is turbulent dynamo action, that is, generation of magnetic field in a turbulent flow. We were specifically concentrated on the generation of large-scale magnetic field compared to the scales of the turbulent velocity field. We investigate magnetic field amplification in a turbulent velocity field with nonzero helicity, in the framework of the kinematic Kazantsev-Kraichnan model
Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.
Natural Convection Analysis with Various Turbulent Models Using FLUENT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Yu Sun
2007-01-01
The buoyancy driven convective flow fields are steady circulatory flows which were made between surfaces maintained at two fixed temperatures. They are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in many engineering applications. Especially, in last decades, natural convection in a close loop or cavity becomes the main issue in the molecular biology for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Application of a natural convection can reduce the costs and efforts remarkably. This paper focuses on the sensitivity study of turbulence analysis using CFD for a natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity. Using commercial CFD code, FLUENT, various turbulent models were applied to the turbulent flow. Results from each CFD model will be compared each other in the viewpoints of flow characteristics. This work will suggest the best turbulent model of CFD for analyzing turbulent flows of the natural convection in an enclosure system
Spectral properties of electromagnetic turbulence in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Shaikh
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD fluctuations in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear whistler mode turbulence study in a magnetized plasma involves incompressible electrons and immobile ions. Two-dimensional turbulent interactions and subsequent energy cascades are critically influenced by the electron whisters that behave distinctly for scales smaller and larger than the electron skin depth. It is found that in whistler mode turbulence there results a dual cascade primarily due to the forward spectral migration of energy that coexists with a backward spectral transfer of mean squared magnetic potential. Finally, inclusion of the ion dynamics, resulting from a two fluid description of the H-MHD plasma, leads to several interesting results that are typically observed in the solar wind plasma. Particularly in the solar wind, the high-time-resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of the MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high-frequency regime. In the latter, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD model and a finite frequency effect (in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency arising from the ion inertia is essentially included to discern the dynamics of the smaller length scales (in comparison with the ion skin depth. This leads to a nonlinear H-MHD model, which is presented in this paper. With the help of our 3-D H-MHD code, we find that the characteristic turbulent interactions in the high-frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic-Alfvén time-scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic-Alfvén interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of the kinetic and magnetic energies.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pope, Stephen B
2006-01-01
.... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J; Malico, I
2009-01-01
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J [Mechanical Engineering Department, IDMEC/LAETA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malico, I [Physics Department, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)], E-mail: carlos.silva@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: imbm@uevora.pt, E-mail: pedro.coelho@ist.utl.pt
2009-09-15
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorotyntsev, M.A.
1991-01-01
Key problems of turbulent mass transfer at a solid wall are reviewed: closure problem for the concentration field, information on wall turbulence, applications of microelectrodes to study the structure of turbulence, correlation properties of current fluctuations. (author). 26 refs
Turbulence modelling; Modelisation de la turbulence isotherme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurence, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)
1997-12-31
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-{epsilon} two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the `standard` (R{sub ij}-{epsilon}) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called `feasible`. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author). 37 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Z. X.; Tynan, G. [Center for Energy Research and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization and Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization and Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Gao, C.; Rice, J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-05-15
Intrinsic torque, which can be generated by turbulent stresses, can induce toroidal rotation in a tokamak plasma at rest without direct momentum injection. Reversals in intrinsic torque have been inferred from the observation of toroidal velocity changes in recent lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments. This work focuses on understanding the cause of LHCD-induced intrinsic torque reversal using gyrokinetic simulations and theoretical analyses. A new mechanism for the intrinsic torque reversal linked to magnetic shear (s{sup ^}) effects on the turbulence spectrum is identified. This reversal is a consequence of the ballooning structure at weak s{sup ^}. Based on realistic profiles from the Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments, simulations demonstrate that the intrinsic torque reverses for weak s{sup ^} discharges and that the value of s{sup ^}{sub crit} is consistent with the experimental results s{sup ^}{sub crit}{sup exp}≈0.2∼0.3 [Rice et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 125003 (2013)]. The consideration of this intrinsic torque feature in our work is important for the understanding of rotation profile generation at weak s{sup ^} and its consequent impact on macro-instability stabilization and micro-turbulence reduction, which is crucial for ITER. It is also relevant to internal transport barrier formation at negative or weakly positive s{sup ^}.
Nagendra Prakash, Vivek
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in
Dynamic paradigm of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedov, Alfred M.
2006-01-01
In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced
Turbulence-combustion interaction in direct injection diesel engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bencherif Mohamed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The experimental measures of chemical species and turbulence intensity during the closed part of the engine combustion cycle are today unattainable exactly. This paper deals with numerical investigations of an experimental direct injection Diesel engine and a commercial turbocharged heavy duty direct injection one. Simulations are carried out with the kiva3v2 code using the RNG (k-ε model. A reduced mechanism for n-heptane was adopted for predicting auto-ignition and combustion processes. From the calibrated code based on experimental in-cylinder pressures, the study focuses on the turbulence parameters and combustion species evolution in the attempt to improve understanding of turbulence-chemistry interaction during the engine cycle. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate are taken as representative parameters of turbulence. The results indicate that chemistry reactions of fuel oxidation during the auto-ignition delay improve the turbulence levels. The peak position of turbulent kinetic energy coincides systematically with the auto-ignition timing. This position seems to be governed by the viscous effects generated by the high pressure level reached at the auto-ignition timing. The hot regime flame decreases rapidly the turbulence intensity successively by the viscous effects during the fast premixed combustion and heat transfer during other periods. It is showed that instable species such as CO are due to deficiency of local mixture preparation during the strong decrease of turbulence energy. Also, an attempt to build an innovative relationship between self-ignition and maximum turbulence level is proposed. This work justifies the suggestion to determine otherwise the self-ignition timing.
Gyrokinetic analysis of ion temperature gradient modes in the presence of sheared flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1992-01-01
The linearized gyrokinetic equation governing electrostatic microinstabilities in the presence of sheared equilibrium flow in both the z and y directions has been systematically derived for a sheared slab geometry, where in the large aspect ratio limit z and y directions correspond to the toroidal and poloidal directions respectively. In the familiar long perpendicular wavelength regime (κ perpendicular ρi > 1), the analysis leads to a comprehensive kinetic differential eigenmode equation which is solved numerically. The numerical results have been successfully cross-checked against analytic estimates in the fluid limit. For typical conditions, the Ion Temperature Gradient (ηi) modes are found to be stabilized for y-direction flows with a velocity shear scale comparable to that of the ion temperature gradient and velocities of a few percent of the sound speed. Sheared flows in the z-direction taken along are usually destabilizing, with the effect being independent of the sign of the flow. However, when both types are simultaneously considered, it is found that in the presence of shared z-direction flow, sheared y-direction flow can be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the relative sign of these flows. However, for sufficiently large values of υ' y the mode is completely stabilized regardless of the sign of υ' z υ' y . The importance of a proper kinetic treatment of this problem is supported by comparisons with fluid estimates. In particular, when such effects are favorable, significantly smaller values of sheared y-direction flow are required for stability than fluid estimates would indicate
Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ku, S.; Abiteboul, J.; Dimond, P.H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kwon, J.M.; Sarazin, Y.; Hahm, T.S.; Garbet, X.; Chang, C.S.; Latu, G.; Yoon, E.S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Yi, S.; Strugarek, A.; Solomon, W.; Grandgirard, V.
2012-01-01
Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity
Fast-ion stabilization of tokamak plasma turbulence
Di Siena, A.; Görler, T.; Doerk, H.; Poli, E.; Bilato, R.
2018-05-01
A significant reduction of the turbulence-induced anomalous heat transport has been observed in recent studies of magnetically confined plasmas in the presence of a significant fast-ion fractions. Therefore, the control of fast-ion populations with external heating might open the way to more optimistic scenarios for future fusion devices. However, little is known about the parameter range of relevance of these fast-ion effects which are often only highlighted in correlation with substantial electromagnetic fluctuations. Here, a significant fast ion induced stabilization is also found in both linear and nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic simulations which cannot be explained with the conventional assumptions based on pressure profile and dilution effects. Strong wave-fast particle resonant interactions are observed for realistic parameters where the fast particle trace approximation clearly failed and explained with the help of a reduced Vlasov model. In contrast to previous interpretations, fast particles can actively modify the Poisson field equation—even at low fast particle densities where dilution tends to be negligible and at relatively high temperatures, i.e. T < 30T e . Further key parameters controlling the role of the fast ions are identified in the following and various ways of further optimizing their beneficial impact are explored. Finally, possible extensions into the electromagnetic regime are briefly discussed and the relevance of these findings for ITER standard scenarios is highlighted.
Behaviour of turbulence models near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrey, P.; Aupoix, B.
2006-01-01
The behaviour of turbulence models near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface is investigated. The analysis holds as well for two-equation as for Reynolds stress turbulence models using Daly and Harlow diffusion model. The behaviour near the interface is shown not to be a power law, as usually considered, but a more complex parametric solution. Why previous works seemed to numerically confirm the power law solution is explained. Constraints for turbulence modelling, i.e., for ensuring that models have a good behaviour near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface so that the solution is not sensitive to small turbulence levels imposed in the irrotational flow, are drawn
Global and kinetic MHD simulation by the Gpic-MHD code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Kenji; Lee, Wei-li; Tokuda, Shinji; Yagi, Masatoshi
2011-01-01
In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vortex equation and the generalized ohm's law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential φ and the longitudinal component of the vector potential A z . Particle information is mainly used to estimate second order moments in the generalized ohm's law. Because the lower order moments of the charge density and the longitudinal current density are not used explicitly to determine φ and A z , the numerical noise induced by the discreteness of particle quantities reduces drastically. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, E Tz =-∂A z /∂t, is explicitly estimated by the generalized ohm's law and used in the equations of motion. The particle velocities along the magnetic field are used (v z -formulation) instead of generalized momentums (p z -formulation), hence there is no problem of 'cancellation', which appear when estimating A z from the Ampere's law in the p z -formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by new Gpic-MHD with the realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta, revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm. (author)
Rogers, Barrett N.; Zhu, Ben; Francisquez, Manaure
2018-05-01
A gyrokinetic linear stability analysis of a collisionless slab geometry in the local approximation is presented. We focus on k∥=0 universal (or entropy) modes driven by plasma gradients at small and large plasma β. These are small scale non-MHD instabilities with growth rates that typically peak near k⊥ρi˜1 and vanish in the long wavelength k⊥→0 limit. This work also discusses a mode known as the Gradient Drift Coupling (GDC) instability previously reported in the gyrokinetic literature, which has a finite growth rate γ=√{β/[2 (1 +β)] }Cs/|Lp| with Cs2=p0/ρ0 for k⊥→0 and is universally unstable for 1 /Lp≠0 . We show that the GDC instability is a spurious, unphysical artifact that erroneously arises due to the failure to respect the total equilibrium pressure balance p0+B02/(8 π)=constant , which renders the assumption B0'=0 inconsistent if p0'≠0 .
A description of the two-dimensional combustion code FLARE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, D.
1986-07-01
This report gives details of the computer code FLARE. The model used for the turbulent combustion of premixed gases is described. Details of the numerical scheme used to solve the resulting equations are discussed. The input and output for the code are also described. Details of the coding are given in the Appendices together with sample input and output. (author)
Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)
2016-08-15
Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Turbulent current drive mechanisms
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
2017-08-01
Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.
Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM
2005-01-01
The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K S [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B J [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)
Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.
1994-01-01
The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction
Lane, Todd
2016-01-01
Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Sydora, R.D.; Groebner, R.J.; Doyle, E.J.; McKee, G.R.; Peebles, W.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Zeng, L.; Wang, G.
2002-01-01
Measured turbulence characteristics (correlation lengths, spectra, etc.) in low-confinement (L-mode) and high-performance plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak [Luxon et al., Proceedings Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] show many similarities with the characteristics determined from turbulence simulations. Radial correlation lengths Δr of density fluctuations from L-mode discharges are found to be numerically similar to the ion poloidal gyroradius ρ θ,s , or 5-10 times the ion gyroradius ρ s over the radial region 0.2 θ,s or 5-10 times ρ s , an experiment was performed which modified ρ θs while keeping other plasma parameters approximately fixed. It was found that the experimental Δr did not scale as ρ θ,s , which was similar to low-resolution UCAN simulations. Finally, both experimental measurements and gyrokinetic simulations indicate a significant reduction in the radial correlation length from high-performance quiescent double barrier discharges, as compared to normal L-mode, consistent with reduced transport in these high-performance plasmas
Optimizing fusion PIC code performance at scale on Cori Phase 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koskela, T. S.; Deslippe, J.
2017-07-23
In this paper we present the results of optimizing the performance of the gyrokinetic full-f fusion PIC code XGC1 on the Cori Phase Two Knights Landing system. The code has undergone substantial development to enable the use of vector instructions in its most expensive kernels within the NERSC Exascale Science Applications Program. We study the single-node performance of the code on an absolute scale using the roofline methodology to guide optimization efforts. We have obtained 2x speedups in single node performance due to enabling vectorization and performing memory layout optimizations. On multiple nodes, the code is shown to scale well up to 4000 nodes, near half the size of the machine. We discuss some communication bottlenecks that were identified and resolved during the work.
Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes
Rodi, Wolfgang
The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Burderi
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.
Turbulence Generation in Combustion.
1987-07-22
flame length . This work is summarized in this section. I1.1 Model for Turbulent Burning Velocity For a range of turbulence conditions including...Variable density effects have been added in an approximation, and an expression for the length of jet flames has been developed. The flame length expression...of jet mixing and jet flame length data using fractals, College of Engineering, Energy Report E-86-02, Comell University, Ithaca, NY, 1986. Results
Stochastic tools in turbulence
Lumey, John L
2012-01-01
Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldreich, P.; Sridhar, S.
1997-01-01
In 1965, Kraichnan proposed that MHD turbulence occurs as a result of collisions between oppositely directed Alfvacute en wave packets. Recent work has generated some controversy over the nature of nonlinear couplings between colliding Alfvacute en waves. We find that the resolution to much of the confusion lies in the existence of a new type of turbulence, intermediate turbulence, in which the cascade of energy in the inertial range exhibits properties intermediate between those of weak and strong turbulent cascades. Some properties of intermediate MHD turbulence are the following: (1) in common with weak turbulent cascades, wave packets belonging to the inertial range are long-lived; (2) however, components of the strain tensor are so large that, similar to the situation in strong turbulence, perturbation theory is not applicable; (3) the breakdown of perturbation theory results from the divergence of neighboring field lines due to wave packets whose perturbations in velocity and magnetic fields are localized, but whose perturbations in displacement are not; (4) three-wave interactions dominate individual collisions between wave packets, but interactions of all orders n≥3 make comparable contributions to the intermediate turbulent energy cascade; (5) successive collisions are correlated since wave packets are distorted as they follow diverging field lines; (6) in common with the weak MHD cascade, there is no parallel cascade of energy, and the cascade to small perpendicular scales strengthens as it reaches higher wavenumbers; (7) for an appropriate weak excitation, there is a natural progression from a weak, through an intermediate, to a strong cascade. copyright 1997 The American Astronomical Society
MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.
2011-01-01
It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.
Modeling water droplet condensation and evaporation in DNS of turbulent channel flow
Russo, E.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Geurts, B.J.
2011-01-01
In this paper a point particle model for two-way coupling in water droplet-laden incompressible turbulent flow of air is proposed. The model is based on conservation laws and semi-empirical correlations. It has been implemented and tested in a DNS code based for turbulent channel flow with an
Modeling water droplet condensation and evaporation in DNS of turbulent channel flow
Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.
In this paper a point particle model for two-way coupling in water droplet-laden incompressible turbulent flow of air is proposed. The model is based on conservation laws and semi-empirical correlations. It has been implemented and tested in a DNS code based for turbulent channel flow with an
Modeling of turbulent bubbly flows; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents a bulles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellakhal, Ghazi
2005-03-15
The two-phase flows involve interfacial interactions which modify significantly the structure of the mean and fluctuating flow fields. The design of the two-fluid models adapted to industrial flows requires the taking into account of the effect of these interactions in the closure relations adopted. The work developed in this thesis concerns the development of first order two-fluid models deduced by reduction of second order closures. The adopted reasoning, based on the principle of decomposition of the Reynolds stress tensor into two statistically independent contributions turbulent and pseudo-turbulent parts, allows to preserve the physical contents of the second order relations closure. Analysis of the turbulence structure in two basic flows: homogeneous bubbly flows uniform and with a constant shear allows to deduce a formulation of the two-phase turbulent viscosity involving the characteristic scales of bubbly turbulence, as well as an analytical description of modification of the homogeneous turbulence structure induced by the bubbles presence. The Eulerian two-fluid model was then generalized with the case of the inhomogeneous flows with low void fractions. The numerical results obtained by the application of this model integrated in the computer code MELODIF in the case of free sheared turbulent bubbly flow of wake showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and made it possible to analyze the modification of the characteristic scales of such flow by the interfacial interactions. The two-fluid first order model is generalized finally with the case of high void fractions bubbly flows where the hydrodynamic interactions between the bubbles are not negligible any more. (author)
Global gyrokinetic simulations of intrinsic rotation in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas
Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Lu, Z. X.; Fable, E.; Erofeev, I.; McDermott, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Lebschy, A.; Peeters, A. G.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team
2018-05-01
Non-linear, radially global, turbulence simulations of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) plasmas are performed and the nonlinear generated intrinsic flow shows agreement with the intrinsic flow gradients measured in the core of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at nominal parameters. Simulations utilising the kinetic electron model show hollow intrinsic flow profiles as seen in a predominant number of experiments performed at similar plasma parameters. In addition, significantly larger flow gradients are seen than in a previous flux-tube analysis (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). Adiabatic electron model simulations can show a flow profile with opposing sign in the gradient with respect to a kinetic electron simulation, implying a reversal in the sign of the residual stress due to kinetic electrons. The shaping of the intrinsic flow is strongly determined by the density gradient profile. The sensitivity of the residual stress to variations in density profile curvature is calculated and seen to be significantly stronger than to neoclassical flows (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). This variation is strong enough on its own to explain the large variations in the intrinsic flow gradients seen in some AUG experiments. Analysis of the symmetry breaking properties of the turbulence shows that profile shearing is the dominant mechanism in producing a finite parallel wave-number, with turbulence gradient effects contributing a smaller portion of the parallel wave-vector.
Particle-turbulence interaction; Partikkelitihentymien ja turbulenssin vuorovaikutus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karvinen, R.; Savolainen, K. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Technology
1997-10-01
In this work the interaction between solid particles and turbulence of the carrier fluid in two-phase flow is studied. The aim of the study is to find out prediction methods for the interaction of particles and fluid turbulence. Accurate measured results are needed in order to develop numerical simulations. There are very few good experimental data sets concerning the particulate matter and its effect on the gas turbulence. Turbulence of the gas phase in a vertical, dilute gas-particle pipe flow has been measured with the laser-Doppler anemometer in Tampere University of Technology. Special attention was paid to different components of the fluctuating velocity. Numerical simulations were done with the Phoenics-code in which the models of two-phase flows suggested in the literature were implemented. It has been observed that the particulate phase increases the rate of anisotropy of the fluid turbulence. It seems to be so that small rigid particles increase the intensity of the axial and decrease the intensity of the radial component in a vertical pipe flow. The change of the total kinetic energy of turbulence obviously depends on the particle size. In the case of 150 ,{mu} spherical glass particles flowing upwards with air, it seems to be slightly positive near the centerline of the pipe. This observation, i.e. the particles decrease turbulence in the radial direction, is very important; because mass and heat transfer in flows is strongly dependent on the component of fluctuating velocity perpendicular to the main flow direction
A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows
Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.
1984-01-01
To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.
Turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehme, K.
1978-04-01
The turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle was investigated experimentally by means of hotwires und Pitot-tubes. The aim of this investigation was to get experimental information on the transport properties of turbulent flow especially on the momentum transport. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities and, hence the kinetic of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.15, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 1.23.10 5 . On the basis of the measurements the eddy viscosities normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. The eddy viscosities observed showed a considerable deviation from the data known up-to-now and from the assumptions introduced in the codes. (orig.) [de
The gyro-radius scaling of ion thermal transport from global numerical simulations of ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.
1998-12-01
A three-dimensional, fluid code is used to study the scaling of ion thermal transport caused by Ion-Temperature-Gradient-Driven (ITG) turbulence. The code includes toroidal effects and is capable of simulating the whole torus. It is found that both close to the ITG threshold and well above threshold, the thermal transport and the turbulence structures exhibit a gyro-Bohm scaling, at least for plasmas with moderate poloidal flow. (author)
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ku, S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Chang, C-S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Adams, M [Columbia University (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology (United States); Hinton, F [Hinton Associates (United States); Keyes, D [Columbia University (United States); Klasky, S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Lee, W [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Lin, Z [University of California at Irvine (United States); Parker, S [University of Colorado at Boulder (United States)
2006-09-15
A gyrokinetic neoclassical solution for a diverted tokamak edge plasma has been obtained for the first time using the massively parallel Jaguar XT3 computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The solutions show similar characteristics to the experimental observations: electric potential is positive in the scrape-off layer and negative in the H-mode layer, and the parallel rotation is positive in the scrape-off layer and at the inside boundary of the H-mode layer. However, the solution also makes a new physical discovery that there is a strong ExB convective flow in the scrape-off plasma. A general introduction to the edge simulation problem is also presented.
Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows
Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M
2016-01-01
This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.
Numerical simulation of random stresses on an annular turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marti-Moreno, Marta
2000-01-01
The flow along a circular cylinder may induce structural vibrations. For the predictive analysis of such vibrations, the turbulent forcing spectrum needs to be characterized. The aim of this work is to study the turbulent fluid forces acting on a single tube in axial flow. More precisely we have performed numerical simulations of an annular flow. These simulations were carried out on a cylindrical staggered mesh by a finite difference method. We consider turbulent flow with Reynolds number up to 10 6 . The Large Eddy Simulation Method has been used. A survey of existent experiments showed that hydraulic diameter acts as an important parameter. We first showed the accuracy of the numerical code by reproducing the experiments of Mulcahy. The agreement between pressure spectra from computations and from experiments is good. Then, we applied this code to simulate new numerical experiments varying the hydraulic diameter and the flow velocity. (author) [fr
Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, David
1977-01-01
A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)
A mathematical model of turbulence for turbulent boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira Filho, H.D.V.
1977-01-01
Equations to the so called Reynolds stress-tensor (kinetic turbulent energy) and dissipation rate are developed and a turbulence flux approximation used. Our ideia here is to use those equations in order to develop an economical and fast numeircal procedure for computation of turbulent boundary layer. (author) [pt
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)
Scaling gysela code beyond 32K-cores on bluegene/Q***
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bigot J.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Gyrokinetic simulations lead to huge computational needs. Up to now, the semi- Lagrangian code Gysela performed large simulations using a few thousands cores (8k cores typically. Simulation with finer resolutions and with kinetic electrons are expected to increase those needs by a huge factor, providing a good example of applications requiring Exascale machines. This paper presents our work to improve Gysela in order to target an architecture that presents one possible way towards Exascale: the Blue Gene/Q. After analyzing the limitations of the code on this architecture, we have implemented three kinds of improvement: computational performance improvements, memory consumption improvements and disk i/o improvements. As a result, we show that the code now scales beyond 32k cores with much improved performances. This will make it possible to target the most powerful machines available and thus handle much larger physical cases.
Turbulence Intensity Scaling: A Fugue
Basse, Nils T.
2018-01-01
We study streamwise turbulence intensity definitions using smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. Scaling of turbulence intensity with the bulk (and friction) Reynolds number is provided for the definitions. The turbulence intensity is proportional to the square root of the friction factor with the same proportionality constant for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow. Turbulence intensity definitions providing the best description of the measurements are i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boudjemadi, R.
1996-03-01
The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends
Turbulent wakes of fractal objects
Staicu, A.D.; Mazzi, B.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Water, van de W.
2003-01-01
Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are
Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.
1991-01-01
Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Kolesnikov, R.A.
2009-01-01
We show in this Response that the nonlinear Poisson's equation in our original paper derived from the drift kinetic approach can be verified by using the nonlinear gyrokinetic Poisson's equation of Dubin et al. (Phys. Fluids 26, 3524 (1983)). This nonlinear contribution in φ 2 is indeed of the order of k # perpendicular# 4 in the long wavelength limit and remains finite for zero ion temperature, in contrast to the nonlinear term by Parra and Catto (Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)), which is of the order of k # perpendicular# 2 and diverges for T i → 0. For comparison, the leading term for the gyrokinetic Poisson's equation in this limit is of the order of k # perpendicular# 2 φ.
Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosetto, A.
2014-01-01
of non-linear turbulence simulations performed with the GBS code, a flux-driven, 3D code that solves the drift-reduced Braginskii equations without separation between background and fluctuations. We find that drift waves drive transport at low resistivity and negative magnetic shear, while ballooning modes dominate at high resistivity and positive magnetic shear. The ion temperature gradient instability plays a negligible role in the SOL dynamics, since the ion temperature gradient is generally below the threshold necessary for the development of this instability. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cox, Geoff
Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...
Flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in typical rod bundles at rolling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Binghuo; Yu Lei; Gu Hanyang
2011-01-01
The influence mechanism of rolling motion on the flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in typical four rod bundles was investigated with Fluent code. The flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in rod bundles can be affected by rolling motion. But the flowing similarity of turbulent flow in adiabatic and non-adiabatic can not be affected. If the rolling period is small, the radial additional force can make the parameter profiles, the turbulent flowing and heat transfer change greatly. At rolling motion, as the pitch to diameter ratio decreases, especially if it is less than 1.1, the flowing and heat transfer of turbulent flow at rolling motion change significantly. The variation of pitch to diameter ratio can change the profiles of secondary flow and turbulent kinetic energy in cross-section greatly. (authors)
Anomalous diffusion, clustering, and pinch of impurities in plasma edge turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Priego, M.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.
2005-01-01
The turbulent transport of impurity particles in plasma edge turbulence is investigated. The impurities are modeled as a passive fluid advected by the electric and polarization drifts, while the ambient plasma turbulence is modeled using the two-dimensional Hasegawa-Wakatani paradigm for resistive...... drift-wave turbulence. The features of the turbulent transport of impurities are investigated by numerical simulations using a novel code that applies semi-Lagrangian pseudospectral schemes. The diffusive character of the turbulent transport of ideal impurities is demonstrated by relative...... orientation determined by the charge of the impurity particles. Second, a radial pinch scaling linearly with the mass-charge ratio of the impurities is discovered. Theoretical explanation for these observations is obtained by analysis of the model equations. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
2012-01-01
Dagobert, and C. Franchis . Atmospheric tur- bulence restoration by diffeomorphic image registration and blind deconvolution. In ACIVS, 2008. 1 [4] S...20] V. Tatarskii. Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium. McGraw-Hill Books, 1961. 2 [21] Y. Tian and S. Narasimhan. A globally optimal data-driven
van der Veen, Roeland
2016-01-01
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study
Turbulence and Flying Machines
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...
Turbulence and particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, J.S.
1975-01-01
A model for the production of high energy particles in the supernova remnant Cas A is considered. The ordered expansion of the fast moving knots produce turbulent cells in the ambient interstellar medium. The turbulent cells act as magnetic scattering centers and charged particles are accelerated to large energies by the second order Fermi mechanism. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with the observed shape and time dependence of the radio spectrum, and with the scale size of magnetic field irregularities. Assuming a galactic supernova rate at 1/50 yr -1 , this mechanism is capable of producing the observed galactic cosmic ray flux and spectrum below 10 16 eV/nucleon. Several observed features of galactic cosmic rays are shown to be consistent with model predictions. A model for the objects known as radio tall galaxies is also presented. Independent blobs of magnetized plasma emerging from an active radio galaxy into an intracluster medium become turbulent due to Rayleigh--Taylor and Kelvin--Helmholz instabilities. The turbulence produces both in situ betatron and 2nd order Fermi accelerations. Predictions of the dependence of spectral index and flux on distance along the tail match observations well. Fitting provides values of physical parameters in the blobs. The relevance of this method of particle acceleration for the problem of the origin of x-ray emission in clusters of galaxies is discussed
Nature of interstellar turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altunin, V.
1981-01-01
A significant role in producing the pattern of interstellar scintillation observed in discrete radio sources may be played by the magnetoacoustic turbulence that will be generated as shock waves are propagated at velocity V/sub sh/roughly-equal 20--100 km/sec through the interstellar medium, as well as by irregularities in stellar wind emanating from type OB stars
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
previously been shown to be closely connected to the energy dissipation. The incorporation of the small scale dynamics into the spatial model opens the door to a fully fledged stochastic model of turbulence. Concerning the interaction of wind and wind turbine, a new method is proposed to extract wind turbine...
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, P.
1979-01-01
By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath
Turbulence measurements in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conway, G D
2008-01-01
Turbulence measurements in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas have a long history and relevance due to the detrimental role of turbulence induced transport on particle, energy, impurity and momentum confinement. The turbulence-the microscopic random fluctuations in particle density, temperature, potential and magnetic field-is generally driven by radial gradients in the plasma density and temperature. The correlation between the turbulence properties and global confinement, via enhanced diffusion, convection and direct conduction, is now well documented. Theory, together with recent measurements, also indicates that non-linear interactions within the turbulence generate large scale zonal flows and geodesic oscillations, which can feed back onto the turbulence and equilibrium profiles creating a complex interdependence. An overview of the current status and understanding of plasma turbulence measurements in the closed flux surface region of magnetic confinement fusion devices is presented, highlighting some recent developments and outstanding problems.
Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow
Kühnen, Jakob; Song, Baofang; Scarselli, Davide; Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Riedl, Michael; Willis, Ashley P.; Avila, Marc; Hof, Björn
2018-04-01
Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities1-3, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism4,5 measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.
Benchmarking and scaling studies of pseudospectral code Tarang ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tarang is a general-purpose pseudospectral parallel code for simulating flows involving fluids, magnetohydrodynamics, and Rayleigh–Bénard convection in turbulence and instability regimes. In this paper we present code validation and benchmarking results of Tarang. We performed our simulations on 10243, 20483, and ...
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-03
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandgirard, V [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fleurence, E [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bertrand, P [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Besse, N [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Latu, G [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France); Violard, E [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France)
2006-12-15
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Y; Grandgirard, V; Dif-Pradalier, G; Fleurence, E; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Bertrand, P; Besse, N; Crouseilles, N; Sonnendruecker, E; Latu, G; Violard, E
2006-01-01
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport
Numerical calculation of two-phase turbulent jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saif, A.A.
1995-05-01
Two-phase turbulent round jets were numerically simulated using a multidimensional two-phase CFD code based on the two-fluid model. The turbulence phenomena were treated with the standard k-{epsilon} model. It was modified to take into account the additional dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy by the dispersed phase. Within the context of the two-fluid model it is more appropriate and physically justified to treat the diffusion by an interfacial force in the momentum equation. In this work, the diffusion force and the additional dissipation effect by the dispersed phase were modeled starting from the classical turbulent energy spectrum analysis. A cut-off frequency was proposed to decrease the dissipation effect by the dispersed phase when large size particles are introduced in the flow. The cut-off frequency combined with the bubble-induced turbulence effect allows for an increase in turbulence for large particles. Additional care was taken in choosing the right kind of experimental data from the literature so that a good separate effect test was possible for their models. The models predicted the experimental data very closely and they were general enough to predict extreme limit cases: water-bubble and air-droplet jets.
Experimental study of parametric dependence of electron-scale turbulence in a spherical tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Domier, C. W.; Lee, K. C. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2012-05-15
Electron-scale turbulence is predicted to drive anomalous electron thermal transport. However, experimental study of its relation with transport is still in its early stage. On the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX), electron-scale density fluctuations are studied with a novel tangential microwave scattering system with high radial resolution of {+-}2 cm. Here, we report a study of parametric dependence of electron-scale turbulence in NSTX H-mode plasmas. The dependence on density gradient is studied through the observation of a large density gradient variation in the core induced by an edge localized mode (ELM) event, where we found the first clear experimental evidence of density gradient stabilization of electron-gyro scale turbulence in a fusion plasma. This observation, coupled with linear gyro-kinetic calculations, leads to the identification of the observed instability as toroidal electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes. It is observed that longer wavelength ETG modes, k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub s} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 ({rho}{sub s} is the ion gyroradius at electron temperature and k{sub Up-Tack} is the wavenumber perpendicular to local equilibrium magnetic field), are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in electron thermal diffusivity. Comparisons with nonlinear ETG gyrokinetic simulations show ETG turbulence may be able to explain the experimental electron heat flux observed before the ELM event. The collisionality dependence of electron-scale turbulence is also studied by systematically varying plasma current and toroidal field, so that electron gyroradius ({rho}{sub e}), electron beta ({beta}{sub e}), and safety factor (q{sub 95}) are kept approximately constant. More than a factor of two change in electron collisionality, {nu}{sub e}{sup *}, was achieved, and we found that the spectral power of electron-scale turbulence appears to increase as {nu}{sub e}{sup *} is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony McCosker
2014-03-01
Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.
Edge Turbulence Imaging on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
S.J. Zweben; R.A. Maqueda; J.L. Terry; B. Bai; C.J. Boswell; C.E. Bush; D. D'Ippolito; E.D. Fredrickson; M. Greenwald; K. Hallatschek; S. Kaye; B. LaBombard; R. Maingi; J. Myra; W.M. Nevins; B.N. Rogers; D.P. Stotler; J. Wilgen; and X.Q. Xu
2002-01-01
Edge turbulence images have been made using an ultra-high speed CCD camera on both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the D-alpha or HeI (587.6 nm) line emission from localized deuterium or helium gas puffs was viewed along a local magnetic field line near the outer midplane. Fluctuations in this line emission reflect fluctuations in electron density and/or electron temperature through the atomic excitation rates, which can be modeled using the DEGAS-2 code. The 2-D structure of the measured turbulence can be compared with theoretical simulations based on 3-D fluid models
Eddylicious: A Python package for turbulent inflow generation
Mukha, Timofey; Liefvendahl, Mattias
2018-01-01
A Python package for generating inflow for scale-resolving computer simulations of turbulent flow is presented. The purpose of the package is to unite existing inflow generation methods in a single code-base and make them accessible to users of various Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers. The currently existing functionality consists of an accurate inflow generation method suitable for flows with a turbulent boundary layer inflow and input/output routines for coupling with the open-source CFD solver OpenFOAM.
Simulation of ROCOM Experiment using CUPID Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Yun Je; Lee, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
KAERI has developed CUPID, which is a three dimensional thermal hydraulics code for the transient analysis of two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components. To validate the capability of CUPID for simulation of multi-dimensional flow mixing behavior, ROCOM (ROssenforf COolant Mixing) test was simulated. ROCOM test has been conducted in the OECD PKL2 Project to investigate in more detail the thermal hydraulic behavior inside the RPV. Thus far, many researchers used the ROCOM data to validate the CFD code capability of thermal mixing behavior. In this study, a hybrid grid was generated using SALOME software and the ROCOM simulation was performed using CUPID. In addition, the effect of turbulence model was also investigated. Test ROCOM 2.1 and 1.2 cases were simulated using the CUPID code. It was shown that CUPID had capabilities to properly simulate the thermal mixing behavior in the case where the cold water is injected asymmetrically. As the result of calculations, it was found that the mixing efficiency in the downcomer and lower plenum was varied according to the turbulence model. In particular, the calculation results showed that the low Reynolds number turbulence model resulted in good agreement with the experimental data. The further works may involve the finer grid generation and the test of other turbulence models.
Anaïs Schaeffer
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed. The last day of data collection, tired but satisfied after seven intense days of measurements. Around the cryostat, from left to right: Philippe-E. Roche, Éléonore Rusaouen (CNRS), Olivier Pirotte, Jean-Marc Quetsch (CERN), Nicolas Friedlin (CERN), Vladislav Benda (CERN). Not in the photo: Laurent Le Mao (CERN), Jean-Marc Debernard (CERN), Jean-Paul Lamboy (CERN), Nicolas Guillotin (CERN), Benoit Chabaud (Grenoble Uni), and Gregory Garde (CNRS). CERN has a unique cryogenic facility in hall SM18, consisting of 21 liquid-helium-cooled test stations. While this equipment was, of course, designed for testing parts of CERN's acce...
Review of turbulence modelling for numerical simulation of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, J.P.; Haapalehto, T.
1996-01-01
The report deals with the modelling of turbulent flows in nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic applications. The goal is to give tools and knowledge about turbulent flows and their modelling in practical applications for engineers, and especially nuclear engineers. The emphasize is on the theory of turbulence, the existing different turbulence models, the state-of-art of turbulence in research centres, the available models in the commercial code CFD-FLOW3D, and the latest applications of turbulence modelling in nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics. It turns out that it is difficult to elaborate an universal turbulence model and each model has its advantages and drawbacks in each application. However, the increasing power of computers can permit the emergence of new methods of turbulence modelling such as Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) which open new horizons in this field. These latter methods are beginning to be available in commercial codes and are used in different nuclear applications such as 3-D modelling of the nuclear reactor cores and the steam generators. (orig.) (22 refs.)
Modelling of turbulence and combustion for simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arntzen, Bjoern Johan
1998-12-31
This thesis analyses and presents new models for turbulent reactive flows for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries like offshore modules. The course of a gas explosion in a complex geometry is largely determined by the development of turbulence and the accompanying increased combustion rate. To be able to model the process it is necessary to use a CFD code as a starting point, provided with a suitable turbulence and combustion model. The modelling and calculations are done in a three-dimensional finite volume CFD code, where complex geometries are represented by a porosity concept, which gives porosity on the grid cell faces, depending on what is inside the cell. The turbulent flow field is modelled with a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Subgrid models are used for production of turbulence from geometry not fully resolved on the grid. Results from laser doppler anemometry measurements around obstructions in steady and transient flows have been analysed and the turbulence models have been improved to handle transient, subgrid and reactive flows. The combustion is modelled with a burning velocity model and a flame model which incorporates the burning velocity into the code. Two different flame models have been developed: SIF (Simple Interface Flame model), which treats the flame as an interface between reactants and products, and the {beta}-model where the reaction zone is resolved with about three grid cells. The flame normally starts with a quasi laminar burning velocity, due to flame instabilities, modelled as a function of flame radius and laminar burning velocity. As the flow field becomes turbulent, the flame uses a turbulent burning velocity model based on experimental data and dependent on turbulence parameters and laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity is modelled as a function of gas mixture, equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature in reactant. Simulations agree well with experiments. 139
Assessment of the computer code COBRA/CFTL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baxi, C.B.; Burhop, C.J.
1981-07-01
The COBRA/CFTL code has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for thermal-hydraulic analysis of simulated gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) core assemblies to be tested in the core flow test loop (CFTL). The COBRA/CFTL code was obtained by modifying the General Atomic code COBRA*GCFR. This report discusses these modifications, compares the two code results for three cases which represent conditions from fully rough turbulent flow to laminar flow. Case 1 represented fully rough turbulent flow in the bundle. Cases 2 and 3 represented laminar and transition flow regimes. The required input for the COBRA/CFTL code, a sample problem input/output and the code listing are included in the Appendices
Simplified computational simulation of liquid metal behaviour in turbulent flow with heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, E.B. da.
1992-09-01
The present work selected the available bibliography equations and empirical relationships to the development of a computer code to obtain the turbulent velocity and temperature profiles in liquid metal tube flow with heat generation. The computer code is applied to a standard problem and the results are considered satisfactory, at least from the viewpoint of qualitative behaviour. (author). 50 refs, 21 figs, 3 tabs
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe
2015-07-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations
Turbulence and fossil turbulence lead to life in the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, Carl H
2013-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than all the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Fossil turbulence is a perturbation produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid ceases to be turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Because vorticity is produced at small scales, turbulence must cascade from small scales to large, providing a consistent physical basis for Kolmogorovian universal similarity laws. Oceanic and astrophysical mixing and diffusion are dominated by fossil turbulence and fossil turbulent waves. Observations from space telescopes show turbulence and vorticity existed in the beginning of the universe and that their fossils persist. Fossils of big bang turbulence include spin and the dark matter of galaxies: clumps of ∼10 12 frozen hydrogen planets that make globular star clusters as seen by infrared and microwave space telescopes. When the planets were hot gas, they hosted the formation of life in a cosmic soup of hot-water oceans as they merged to form the first stars and chemicals. Because spontaneous life formation according to the standard cosmological model is virtually impossible, the existence of life falsifies the standard cosmological model. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD
1998-05-08
Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the
Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng
2014-01-01
In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...
EVOLUTION OF SHOCKS AND TURBULENCE IN MAJOR CLUSTER MERGERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, S.; Mannheim, K.; Iapichino, L.; Miniati, F.; Bagchi, J.
2011-01-01
We performed a set of cosmological simulations of major mergers in galaxy clusters, in order to study the evolution of merger shocks and the subsequent injection of turbulence in the post-shock region and in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The computations have been performed with the grid-based, adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, using a refinement criterion especially designed for refining turbulent flows in the vicinity of shocks. When a major merger event occurs, a substantial amount of turbulence energy is injected in the ICM of the newly formed cluster. Our simulations show that the shock launched after a major merger develops an ellipsoidal shape and gets broken by the interaction with the filamentary cosmic web around the merging cluster. The size of the post-shock region along the direction of shock propagation is of the order of 300 kpc h -1 , and the turbulent velocity dispersion in this region is larger than 100 km s -1 . We performed a scaling analysis of the turbulence energy within our cluster sample. The best fit for the scaling of the turbulence energy with the cluster mass is consistent with M 5/3 , which is also the scaling law for the thermal energy in the self-similar cluster model. This clearly indicates the close relation between virialization and injection of turbulence in the cluster evolution. As for the turbulence in the cluster core, we found that within 2 Gyr after the major merger (the timescale for the shock propagation in the ICM), the ratio of the turbulent to total pressure is larger than 10%, and after about 4 Gyr it is still larger than 5%, a typical value for nearly relaxed clusters. Turbulence at the cluster center is thus sustained for several gigayears, which is substantially longer than typically assumed in the turbulent re-acceleration models, invoked to explain the statistics of observed radio halos. Striking similarities in the morphology and other physical parameters between our simulations and the
Bruno, Roberto
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...
4th European Turbulence Conference
1993-01-01
The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.
2017-09-01
This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)
2016-06-23
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0277 Experimental Investigation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in High- Reynolds -Number Turbulent Partially Premixed...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE [U] Experimental investigation of turbulence-chemistry interaction in high- Reynolds -number 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER turbulent...for public release Final Report: Experimental investigation of turbulence-chemistry interaction in high- Reynolds -number turbulent partially premixed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Dendy, R.O.
1990-01-01
The gyrokinetic theory of ion cyclotron resonance is extended to include propagation at arbitrary angles to a straight equilibrium magnetic field with a linear perpendicular gradient in strength. The case of the compressional Alfven wave propagating in a D( 3 He) plasma is analyzed in detail, for arbitrary concentrations of the two species. A self-consistent local dispersion relation is obtained using a single mode description; this approach enables three-dimensional effects to be included and permits efficient calculation of the transmission coefficient. The dependence of this quantity on the species density ratio, minority temperature, plasma density, magnetic field and equilibrium scale length is obtained. A self-consistent treatment of the variation of the field polarization across the resonant region is included. Families of transmission curves are given as a function of the normalized parallel wave number for parameters relevant to Joint European Torus. Perpendicular absorption by the minority ions is also discussed, and shown to depend on a single parameter, the ratio of the ion thermal velocity to the Alfven speed. (author)
Kwon, Jae-Min; Ku, S.; Choi, M. J.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; Yoon, E. S.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, H. S.
2018-05-01
We perform gyrokinetic simulations to study the effects of a stationary magnetic island on neoclassical flow and micro-instability in a realistic KSTAR plasma condition. Through the simulations, we aim to analyze a recent KSTAR experiment, which was to measure the details of poloidal flow and fluctuation around a stationary (2, 1) magnetic island [M. J. Choi et al., Nucl. Fusion 57, 126058 (2017)]. From the simulations, it is found that the magnetic island can significantly enhance the equilibrium E × B flow. The corresponding flow shearing is strong enough to suppress a substantial portion of ambient micro-instabilities, particularly ∇Te -driven trapped electron modes. This implies that the enhanced E × B flow can sustain a quasi-internal transport barrier for Te in an inner region neighboring the magnetic island. The enhanced E × B flow has a (2, 1) mode structure with a finite phase shift from the mode structure of the magnetic island. It is shown that the flow shear and the fluctuation suppression patterns implied from the simulations are consistent with the observations on the KSTAR experiment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff
2018-01-01
a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rattan, D.S.
1993-11-01
NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Analysis of turbulent conical diffuser flow using second moment closures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adane, K.K.; Tachie, M.F.; Ormiston, S.J.
2004-01-01
A commercial CFD code, CFX-TASCflow, is used to predict a turbulent conical diffuser flow. The computation was performed using a low-Reynolds number k-ω model, a low-Reynolds number k-ω based non-linear algebraic Reynolds stress model, and a second moment closure with a wall-function. The experimental data of Kassab are used to validate the numerical results. The results show that all the turbulence models reproduce the static pressure coefficient distribution reasonably well. The low Reynolds number k-ω models give better prediction of the friction velocity than the second moment closure. The models also predict the Reynolds shear stress reasonably well but fail to reproduce the correct level of the turbulent kinetic energy. (author)
EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN THE NEOCLASSICAL OHM's LAW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HINTON, F.L; WALTZ, R.E; CANDY, J.
2003-01-01
OAK-B135 An Ohm's law for tokamak plasmas has been derived, which includes the effect of electromagnetic turbulence as well as the neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current. The most important current-driving effects of the turbulence have been identified, expressions for the driven (dynamo) current have been derived and these have been evaluated using the GYRO electromagnetic turbulence code. The most important current drive mechanism, the divergence of the radial flux of parallel electron momentum induced by magnetic flutter, drives a current density which have positive peaks on low order rational surfaces, with compensating negative dips nearby, thus driving zero total current. Another current drive mechanism, the beating of the parallel electric field fluctuations with the electron density fluctuations, drives a current density which is much smaller than that driven by the magnetic flutter mechanism, but could drive a nonzero total current
Large-Eddy-Simulation of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woelck Johannes
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A magnetohydrodynamic turbulent channel flow under the influence of a wallnormal magnetic field is investigated using the Large-Eddy-Simulation technique and k-equation subgrid-scale-model. Therefore, the new solver MHDpisoFoam is implemented in the OpenFOAM CFD-Code. The temporal decay of an initial turbulent field for different magnetic parameters is investigated. The rms values of the averaged velocity fluctuations show a similar, trend for each coordinate direction. 80% of the fluctuations are damped out in the range between 0 < Ha < < 75 at Re = 6675. The trend can be approximated via an exponential of the form exp(−a·Ha, where a is a scaling parameter. At higher Hartmann numbers the fluctuations decrease in an almost linear way. Therefore, the results of this study show that it may be possible to construct a general law for the turbulence damping due to action of magnetic fields.
Computational fluid mechanics qualification calculations for the code TEACH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrazia, M.C.; Fitzsimmons, L.B.; Reynolds, J.T.
1979-11-01
KAPL is developing a predictive method for three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent fluid flow configurations typically encountered in the thermal-hydraulic design of a nuclear reactor. A series of experiments has been selected for analysis to investigate the adequacy of the two-equation turbulence model developed at Imperial College, London, England for predicting the flow patterns in simple geometries. The analysis of these experiments is described with the two-dimensional (2-D) turbulent fluid flow code TEACH. This work qualifies TEACH for a variety of geometries and flow conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delbecq, J.M
1999-07-01
The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala
Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...
Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio
2007-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.