Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...
West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C
2002-01-01
Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...
Tănase Alin-Eliodor
2014-01-01
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorodkov, S.
2009-01-01
Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorodkov, S.S.
2009-01-01
Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)
William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch
2002-01-01
It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...
Detecting isotopic ratio outliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.
1985-01-01
An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Detecting isotopic ratio outliers
Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.
An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.
Detecting isotopic ratio outliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.
1986-01-01
An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter
1995-01-01
and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PO de Wet
2005-06-01
Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.
Transformer ratio enhancement experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.
2004-01-01
Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
2017-01-01
The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...
Moyer, R.D.
A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.
The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?
Ojo, Marianne
2013-01-01
This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amano, Osamu
2007-01-01
We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)
Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.
1980-06-01
The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak
Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy
Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan
2016-12-01
There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip M. Ligrani
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.
Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-02-13
Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.
RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS
Yates, G. L.
1994-01-01
Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.
High ratio recirculating gas compressor
Weinbrecht, J.F.
1989-08-22
A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.
Output factors and scatter ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S
1979-07-01
Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.
Large aspect ratio tokamak study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.
1979-01-01
The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured
Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects
Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James
1990-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.
Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects
Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James
1990-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.
Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang
2012-01-01
In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....
Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
2016-01-01
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...
Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios
Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.
2010-12-01
Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinrath, Martin
2014-01-01
We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments
Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
2017-01-01
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...
High aspect ratio spheromak experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.
1987-05-01
The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs
Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charles Mendler
2011-03-15
Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low
Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elmore, D.
1981-01-01
The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vestbo J
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.
Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.
Minter, John; And Others
1982-01-01
The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)
Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.
Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.
2001-01-01
Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)
A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.
Kerbel, Sandra Sandor
1982-01-01
Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)
Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios
Dvoøáèek Jaroslav
1997-01-01
The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.
Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...
Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dvoøáèek Jaroslav
1997-03-01
Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.
Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleš Kresta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.
Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites
Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan
1996-05-01
Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuli Soesetio
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test, The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2, were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio
Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soekarso Soekarso
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.
Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism
Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL
2008-05-13
A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.
Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?
Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.
1994-01-01
The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in
Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio
Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.
2009-01-01
Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and
The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint
Falbo, Clement
2005-01-01
Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…
Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.
Barrett, D. R. B.
1984-01-01
Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)
Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.
Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P
1993-11-01
An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.
Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor
2003-05-22
We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)
Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio
Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.
2010-01-01
Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet
Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.
Chabotar, Kent John
1989-01-01
To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)
Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...
Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.
2014-01-01
By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models
Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexios Arvanitis
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.
Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.
Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra
2016-01-01
Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.
Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.
1985-05-01
The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs
Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. MIKKOLA
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 5473% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.141.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.151.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.140.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 1422 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;
Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.
1984-03-01
This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables
Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary
Lóránt Varga
2010-01-01
As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...
Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob
2013-01-01
analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...
Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott Garrett
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.
Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.
Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...
Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives
Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.
2009-03-01
The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.
Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platzner, I.
1992-01-01
Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)
Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2018-02-07
Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...
Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio
... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...
Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)
1986-01-01
Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references
Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.
Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise
2002-01-01
Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)
Isotopic ratios in the solar system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-01-01
This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr
From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Fiorenza
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.
Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...
Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.
1994-01-01
We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy
The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Martin van Zyl
2011-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.
A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.
Coates, John M; Page, Lionel
2009-11-25
Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.
A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John M Coates
Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.
performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)
Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.
Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G
2016-06-14
Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.
Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao
2013-01-01
Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang eWu
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu
2002-06-15
This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)
Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro
1987-08-24
In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)
Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro
1987-08-07
In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)
Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.
2002-01-01
This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)
Golden ratio beauty as scientific function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott A. Olsen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.
1989-01-01
Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references
Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoshige Uchida
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.
Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbuy, B.L.S.
1987-01-01
The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt
Transport in a small aspect ratio torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.
2005-01-01
Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)
The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...
Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.
1997-01-01
The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described
Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaarlo Tuori
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva
Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios
Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements
2013-08-20
A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.
Ratio method of measuring W boson mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2010-08-01
This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting M_{W} from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (M_{W}/M_{Z}). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb^{-1} DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives M_{W} = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.
Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.
1998-01-01
We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications
Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor
2007-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology
Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees
Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine
2006-01-01
Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...
Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures
Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.
1987-01-01
Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.
Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik
1985-06-01
We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.
Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers
Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.
2005-01-01
Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture
34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.
2010-07-01
... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...
Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies
Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.
The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is
Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance
Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.
2007-01-01
This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence
Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.
Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...
12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.
2010-01-01
... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...
Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification
Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
2002-01-01
This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.
Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification
Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.
Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...
Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amiot Volodymyr
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the
Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios
Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.
1994-12-01
Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.
Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios
Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)
1979-01-01
Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.
True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan eGarnham
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.
Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities
Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker
2013-01-01
The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...
Modelling the liquidity ratio as macroprudential instrument
Jan Willem van den End; Mark Kruidhof
2012-01-01
The Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is a microprudential instrument to strengthen the liquidity position of banks. However, if in extreme scenarios the LCR becomes a binding constraint, the interaction of bank behaviour with the regulatory rule can have negative externalities. We simulate the systemic implications of the LCR by a liquidity stress-testing model, which takes into account the impact of bank reactions on second round feedback effects. We show that a flexible approach of ...
Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey
Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence
2013-01-01
The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...
Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.
1990-01-01
The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)
MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Muhith
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.
Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.
2010-01-01
Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.
Surface area-volume ratios in insects.
Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico
2017-10-01
Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Bankruptcy Prediction Based on the Autonomy Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Brîndescu Olariu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The theory and practice of the financial ratio analysis suggest the existence of a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. Previous studies conducted on a sample of companies from Timis County (largest county in Romania confirm this hypothesis and recommend the autonomy ratio as a useful tool for measuring the bankruptcy risk two years in advance. The objective of the current research was to develop a methodology for measuring the bankruptcy risk that would be applicable for the companies from the Timis County (specific methodologies are considered necessary for each region. The target population consisted of all the companies from Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei (aprox. 2,200 Euros. The research was performed over all the target population. The study has thus included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010. The results of the study allow for the setting of benchmarks, as well as the configuration of a methodology of analysis. The proposed methodology cannot predict with perfect accuracy the state of the company, but it allows for a valuation of the risk level to which the company is subjected.
Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, H.; Bass, R.
1995-01-01
A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun
Statistical moments of the Strehl ratio
Yaitskova, Natalia; Esselborn, Michael; Gladysz, Szymon
2012-07-01
Knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the Strehl ratio is essential for the performance assessment of the existing and future adaptive optics systems. For full assessment not only the mean value of the Strehl ratio but also higher statistical moments are important. Variance is related to the stability of an image and skewness reflects the chance to have in a set of short exposure images more or less images with the quality exceeding the mean. Skewness is a central parameter in the domain of lucky imaging. We present a rigorous theory for the calculation of the mean value, the variance and the skewness of the Strehl ratio. In our approach we represent the residual wavefront as being formed by independent cells. The level of the adaptive optics correction defines the number of the cells and the variance of the cells, which are the two main parameters of our theory. The deliverables are the values of the three moments as the functions of the correction level. We make no further assumptions except for the statistical independence of the cells.
Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.
2004-01-01
Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B p /B t of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B p /B t ∼ 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B p /B t ∼ 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained
KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.
2012-01-01
Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)
Invited review: sex ratio and rheumatic disease.
Lockshin, M D
2001-11-01
Human illnesses affect men and women differently. In some cases (diseases of sex organs, diseases resulting from X or Y chromosome mutations), reasons for sex discrepancy are obvious, but in other cases no reason is apparent. Explanations for sex discrepancy of illness occur at different biological levels: molecular (e.g., imprinting, X-inactivation), cellular (sex-specific receptor activity), organ (endocrine influences), whole organism (size, age), and environmental-behavioral, including intrauterine influences. Autoimmunity represents a prototypical class of illness that has high female-to-male (F/M) ratios. Although the F/M ratios in autoimmune diseases are usually attributed to the influence of estrogenic hormones, evidence demonstrates that the attributed ratios are imprecise and that definitions and classifications of autoimmune diseases vary, rendering at least part of the counting imprecise. In addition, many studies on sex discrepancy of human disease fail to distinguish between disease incidence and disease severity. In April 2001, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences published Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (Wizemann T and Pardue M-L, editors). This minireview summarizes the section of that report that concerns autoimmune and infectious disease. Some thyroid, rheumatic, and hepatic autoimmune diseases have high F/M ratios, whereas others have low. Those that have high ratios occur primarily in young adulthood. Gonadal hormones, if they play a role, likely do so through a threshold or permissive mechanism. Examples of sex differences that could be caused by environmental exposure, X inactivation, imprinting, X or Y chromosome genetic modulators, and intrauterine influences are presented as alternate, theoretical, and largely unexplored explanations for sex differences of incidence. The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases (young, female) suggests that an explanation for sex discrepancy of
Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).
Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W
2016-02-01
We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.
FINANCIAL RATIOS – REVEAL HOW A BUSINESS IS DOING?
MIRELA MONEA
2009-01-01
The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?
Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bor HODOŠČEK
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.
Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.
Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.
Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreo, P.
1988-01-01
The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV
On the universality of knot probability ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)
2011-04-22
Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)
The transverse Poisson's ratio of composites.
Foye, R. L.
1972-01-01
An expression is developed that makes possible the prediction of Poisson's ratio for unidirectional composites with reference to any pair of orthogonal axes that are normal to the direction of the reinforcing fibers. This prediction appears to be a reasonable one in that it follows the trends of the finite element analysis and the bounding estimates, and has the correct limiting value for zero fiber content. It can only be expected to apply to composites containing stiff, circular, isotropic fibers bonded to a soft matrix material.
Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings
Parnell, L. A.
1986-01-01
Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.
High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly
Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.
1995-01-01
A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.
Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.
1997-01-01
A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.
1992-01-01
Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006
Decay ratio estimation in pressurized water reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Por, G.; Runkel, J.
1990-11-01
The well known decay ratio (DR) from stability analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR) is estimated from the impulse response function which was evaluated using a simplified univariate autoregression method. This simplified DR called modified DR (mDR) was applied on neutron noise measurements carried out during five fuel cycles of a 1300 MWe PWR. Results show that this fast evaluation method can be used for monitoring of the growing oscillation of the neutron flux during the fuel cycles which is a major concern of utilities in PWRs, thus it can be used for estimating safety margins. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs
Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies
Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.
2018-04-01
We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.
Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.
1994-01-01
The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort
Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-01-01
The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.
DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio
Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo
2015-12-01
Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay
effect of effect of blend ratio on blend ratio on characteristics
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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properties, cassava-soybean composite, wheat, bread, blend ratio ... dily growing population, an in eating and ... thermodynamic variables can produce an effect on .... these conditions. ..... Ragaee, S. et al., Pasting properties of starch and.
Hilar height ratio in normal Korea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung
1979-01-01
Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.
Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.
1982-01-01
The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)
Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar
2008-06-30
Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.
Validation of the Rotation Ratios Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foss, O.A.; Klaksvik, J.; Benum, P.; Anda, S.
2007-01-01
Background: The rotation ratios method describes rotations between pairs of sequential pelvic radiographs. The method seems promising but has not been validated. Purpose: To validate the accuracy of the rotation ratios method. Material and Methods: Known pelvic rotations between 165 radiographs obtained from five skeletal pelvises in an experimental material were compared with the corresponding calculated rotations to describe the accuracy of the method. The results from a clinical material of 262 pelvic radiographs from 46 patients defined the ranges of rotational differences compared. Repeated analyses, both on the experimental and the clinical material, were performed using the selected reference points to describe the robustness and the repeatability of the method. Results: The reference points were easy to identify and barely influenced by pelvic rotations. The mean differences between calculated and real pelvic rotations were 0.0 deg (SD 0.6) for vertical rotations and 0.1 deg (SD 0.7) for transversal rotations in the experimental material. The intra- and interobserver repeatability of the method was good. Conclusion: The accuracy of the method was reasonably high, and the method may prove to be clinically useful
Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar
2008-01-01
Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores treated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcome the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better thermal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, M.F.
1984-01-01
A programme of criticality experiments has been carried out for BNFL by the Battelle reactor facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Washington State, USA. A series of water moderated lattices of 4.3% enriched, 12.7 mm diameter, UO 2 fuel rods was studied, the fuel pitch was varied and the effects of gadolinium poison were measured. This report deals with the measurement of Fast Fission Ratios and Relative Conversion Ratios at the centre of five of the critical lattices. The Fast Fission Ratio (FFR) is defined here as the ratio of the fission rate per atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235. The Relative Conversion Ratio (RCR) is defined as the ratio of the capture rate per ,atom of U238, to the fission rate per atom of U235, in the reactor fuel, relative to the corresponding ratio in a well thermalised neutron spectrum. A major aspect of these measurements was that the packs of foils were prepared at AEEW Winfrith, despatched to the USA for irradiation and returned to Winfrith for counting. This resulted in a considerable logistics problem but by good planning and the co-operation and diligence of all concerned this problem was overcome. However, the long distance involved inevitably meant that samples were not available for measurement until about 28 hours after the irradiation. It was therefore necessary to modify the techniques that are normally used in the Reactor Physics Division Counting Laboratory, where samples are normally available about two hours after shut-down. The techniques used and the results obtained are given below
Oxygen enhancement ratio for negative pi mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, E.J.; Astor, M.
1979-01-01
Experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for the clinically used beam of negative pi mesons. V79 Chinese hamster cells, cultured in vitro, were used as the biological test system; hypoxia was produced by metabolic depletion as a result of sealing 2 million cells in 1 ml glass ampules. The Bragg peak of the pion depth dose curve was spread out to cover 10 cm by using a dynamic range shifter. Cells were irradiated at the center of the spead out Bragg peak, where the dose/rate was 0.1 Gy/min over a 6 x 6 cm field. The OER obtained was 2.2, compared with 3.8 obtained for γ rays under the same conditions
Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iftikhar, Nadeem
2012-01-01
cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...
Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valind, S.O.
1989-01-01
The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)
Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.
1982-01-01
Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence
Qubit-qutrit separability-probability ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slater, Paul B.
2005-01-01
Paralleling our recent computationally intensive (quasi-Monte Carlo) work for the case N=4 (e-print quant-ph/0308037), we undertake the task for N=6 of computing to high numerical accuracy, the formulas of Sommers and Zyczkowski (e-print quant-ph/0304041) for the (N 2 -1)-dimensional volume and (N 2 -2)-dimensional hyperarea of the (separable and nonseparable) NxN density matrices, based on the Bures (minimal monotone) metric--and also their analogous formulas (e-print quant-ph/0302197) for the (nonmonotone) flat Hilbert-Schmidt metric. With the same seven 10 9 well-distributed ('low-discrepancy') sample points, we estimate the unknown volumes and hyperareas based on five additional (monotone) metrics of interest, including the Kubo-Mori and Wigner-Yanase. Further, we estimate all of these seven volume and seven hyperarea (unknown) quantities when restricted to the separable density matrices. The ratios of separable volumes (hyperareas) to separable plus nonseparable volumes (hyperareas) yield estimates of the separability probabilities of generically rank-6 (rank-5) density matrices. The (rank-6) separability probabilities obtained based on the 35-dimensional volumes appear to be--independently of the metric (each of the seven inducing Haar measure) employed--twice as large as those (rank-5 ones) based on the 34-dimensional hyperareas. (An additional estimate--33.9982--of the ratio of the rank-6 Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability to the rank-4 one is quite clearly close to integral too.) The doubling relationship also appears to hold for the N=4 case for the Hilbert-Schmidt metric, but not the others. We fit simple exact formulas to our estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt separable volumes and hyperareas in both the N=4 and N=6 cases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erna Puspita
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Dividend policy is concerned with financial policies regarding what amount cash dividend paid to shareholders and re-invested as retained earnings. The recent research aimed to test empirically various factors is considered to affect dividend policy. The independent variables in his research included Current Ratio (CR, Return on Equity (ROE, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, and Earning Per Share (EPS. Meanwhile, the dependent variable was Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR. Quantitative research was used as the research design and the data was secondary data. Furthermore, purposive sampling was selected to get the sample. The result was 14 companies that pay dividend continuously during this research conducted on 2012 - 2014 were selected as the sample of this research. Multiple linier regression was used to analyze the data. The results showed that ROE and EPS has a contribution to the DPR, and then CR and DER has no contribution to the DPR.
Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method
De Waal, Sybrand A.
1996-07-01
A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.
Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain
Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.
2014-05-01
Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the
Concentration ratio of radon progeny in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tsuneo
2000-01-01
Investigations have been made on the concentration ratio of radon progeny in air. Data have been acquired intermittently since 1988 using alpha spectroscopic method around the author's office that is located in the northeastern part of Japan. Clarifying the behavior of radon progeny is an issue of wide importance to radiation protection, predicting earthquakes, etc. Let Rabc=ECRn(RaA)/{ECRn(RaB) + ECRn(RaC)}; the concentration ratio, Rabc, is relevant to the stability of the air. Statistical and time series analyses indicated several interesting results. To examine the log-normal distribution, Lilliefors test was made for logarithm of outdoor data every one year. Rabc passed the test 6 times for 9 years, while Radon progeny passed 8 times. Outdoor data indicated that the value of Rabc was lower in the morning, in other world, the air was more stable in the morning than in the afternoon. To see the seasonal variation, one-way layout analysis was made for four groups of data, i.e., spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February). Rabc indicated significantly higher level in spring and winter, in other word, air was stable in summer and autumn. Time series analysis was made for various variables; power spectra were estimated with autoregressive model that is equivalent to maximum entropy method. Power spectrum for Rabc was most similar to that of wind speed. One-year period, that is always remarkable for radon progeny, was not significant for Rabc. Three- to nine-day periods were often seen for Rabc, radon progeny, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. These several-day periods are probably attributed to the passage of air masses. Twenty-day to thirty-day peak may be attributed to meteorological phenomena corresponding to the rotation period of the sun. Temperature indicated no significant periodicity except overwhelming one-year period. Wind speed is well known to affect the radon progeny concentration
Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard; Dante, Giorgio; Zmijarevic, Igor
2013-01-01
We analyze piecewise homogenization with flux-weighted cross sections and preservation of averaged currents at the boundary of the homogenized domain. Introduction of a set of flux discontinuity ratios (FDR) that preserve reference interface currents leads to preservation of averaged region reaction rates and fluxes. We consider the class of numerical discretizations with one degree of freedom per volume and per surface and prove that when the homogenization and computing meshes are equal there is a unique solution for the FDRs which exactly preserve interface currents. For diffusion sub-meshing we introduce a Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method and for all cases considered obtain an 'exact' numerical solution (eight digits for the interface currents). The homogenization is completed by extending the familiar full assembly homogenization via flux discontinuity factors to the sides of regions laying on the boundary of the piecewise homogenized domain. Finally, for the familiar nodal discretization we numerically find that the FDRs obtained with no sub-mesh (nearly at no cost) can be effectively used for whole-core diffusion calculations with sub-mesh. This is not the case, however, for cell-centered finite differences. (authors)
Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornish, Neil J
2011-01-01
The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.
A ratio scale for brightness perception derived from difference and ratio judgments
Ridder, de H.; Sabourin, M.
1992-01-01
The often observed nonlinearity between magnitude estimations and category ratings has raised the question whether subjects can judge sensation differences as well as sensation ratios when instructed to do so. For brightness this will be shown to be the case; the rank order of difference judgments
26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for a...
The adenoid-nasopharynx ratio. Its clinical value in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Mingshun
1997-01-01
To evaluate the clinical usefulness of adenoid-nasopharynx ratio (A/N ratio) measured on nasopharyngeal lateral plain film, 106 clinical cases of secretory otitis media were selected to measure the A/N ratio before treatment. For patients with A/N ratio of 0.50-0.70, the symptoms improved distinctly after conservative treatment, but one half of patients with A/N ratio ≥ 0.71 required adenoidectomy. A/N ratio is a practical and convenient method for evaluation of the adenoid. A/N ratio ≥ 0.71 indicates pathological enlarged adenoid
Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.
1976-01-01
Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)
Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives
Cooper, George
2012-01-01
Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the
Disinflation in a DSGE Perspective: Sacrifice Ratio or Welfare Gain Ratio?
Guido Ascari; Tiziano Ropele
2009-01-01
When used to examine disinflation monetary policies, the current workhorse dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of business cycle fluctuations is able to quantitatively account for the main stylized facts in terms of recessionary effects and sacrifice ratio. We complement the transitional analysis of the short-run costs with a rigorous welfare evaluation and show that, despite the long-lasting economic downturn, disinflation entails non-zero overall welfare gains.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Doi, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Eiji; Kawakami, Takeo
1998-01-01
A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14 C, 3 H, 125 I and 35 S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)
Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?
Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn
2016-12-01
Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.
Reevaluation of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy.
Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Young
2009-03-01
This study was designed to reevaluate the effectiveness of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy. We studied 107 patients who underwent open door laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical myelopathy between the C3 to C7 levels. We determined the Pavlov ratio on preoperative and postoperative cervical spine lateral radiographs, the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal reconstruction CT scans, and the vertebral body-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) column ratio on T2-weighted sagittal MR images from C3 to C6. The severity of myelopathy was determined using the JOA score on both preoperative and postoperative images. The recovery rate was also calculated. The Pavlov ratio in plain radiographs from patients with myelopathy was compared with the ratio of the vertebral body to the spinal canal on CT and MRI. The average Pavlov ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.71 to 0.76. On CT scan, the average vertebral body-to-canal ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.62 to 0.66. On MRI, the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio between C3 and C6 ranged between 0.53 and 0.57. A positive correlation was noted between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal-reconstruction CT (correlation coefficient = 0.497-0.627, p = 0.000) and between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI (correlation coefficient = 0.511-0.649, p = 0.000). We demonstrated a good correlation between the Pavlov ratio and both the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on CT and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI. Therefore, the Pavlov ratio can be relied upon to predict narrowing of the cervical spinal canal in the sagittal plane.
Particle ratios, quarks, and Chao-Yang statistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chew, C K; Low, G B; Lo, S Y [Nanyang Univ. (Singapore). Dept. of Physics; Phua, K K [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)
1980-01-01
By introducing quarks into Chao-Yang statistics for 'violent' collisions, particle ratios are obtained which are consistent with the Chao-Yang results. The present method can also be extended to baryon-meson and baryon-antibaryon ratios.
Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goloskokov S.V.
2017-01-01
Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.
A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series
Groenendijk, Patrick A.; Lucas, André; Vries, de Casper G.
1998-01-01
We advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunctionwith standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle lineardependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial timeseries. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizonssimultaneously, and the
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in mood disorders: A meta-analysis.
Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Lucchi, Sara; Tringali, Agnese Grazia Maria; Rossetti, Aurora; Botti, Eugenia Rossana; Clerici, Massimo
2018-06-08
The immune and inflammatory system is involved in the etiology of mood disorders. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are inexpensive and reproducible biomarkers of inflammation. This is the first meta-analysis exploring the role of NLR and PLR in mood disorder. We identified 11 studies according to our inclusion criteria from the main Electronic Databases. Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between index and healthy controls (HC). Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) had higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC (respectively SMD = 0.672; p analysis evidenced an influence of bipolar phase on the overall estimate whit studies including subjects in manic and any bipolar phase showing a significantly higher NLR and PLR as compared with HC whereas the effect was not significant among studies including only euthymic bipolar subjects. Meta-regression showed that age and sex influenced the relationship between BD and NLR but not the relationship between BD and PLR. Meta-analysis was not carried out for MLR because our search identified only one study when comparing BD to HC, and only one study when comparing MDD to HC. Subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) had higher NLR as compared with HC (SMD = 0.670; p = 0.028; I 2 = 89.931%). Heterogeneity-based sensitivity analyses and meta-regression confirmed these findings. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that an inflammatory activation occurs in mood disorders and NLR and PLR may be useful to detect this activation. More researches including comparison of NLR, PLR and MLR between different bipolar phases and between BD and MDD are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of the Th-232/U-238 ratio on the conversion ratio of PWR's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, F.
1977-01-01
The conversion ratio, the consumption of natural uranium and separative work for current PWR lattice designs are studied as function of: the initial fraction of thorium in the fuel, the type of fuel recycling employed, and the growth rate of the system of reactors. The incentive to utilize thorium is maximum when: thorium is used together with fully enriched uranium (93%); if only uranium can be recycled; and the system of reactors is at equilibrium. Under these conditions, the comsumption of natural uranium and separative work are lower than the all-uranium-fuel case by 41% and 18%,respectively [pt
10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.
2010-01-01
... is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and non... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...
The Improved Estimation of Ratio of Two Population Proportions
Solanki, Ramkrishna S.; Singh, Housila P.
2016-01-01
In this article, first we obtained the correct mean square error expression of Gupta and Shabbir's linear weighted estimator of the ratio of two population proportions. Later we suggested the general class of ratio estimators of two population proportions. The usual ratio estimator, Wynn-type estimator, Singh, Singh, and Kaur difference-type…
7 CFR 1425.10 - Financial ratio requirement.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial ratio requirement. 1425.10 Section 1425.10... Financial ratio requirement. To be financially able to make advances to their members and to market their commodities, CMA's shall have a current ratio of at least 1 dollar of current assets for each 1 dollar of...
41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.
2010-07-01
... turnover ratio. 109-27.5002 Section 109-27.5002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property....5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual issues... comparison may be expressed either as a turnover ratio (dollar value of issues divided by dollar value of...
DC-to-AC inverter ratio failure detector
Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E.
1975-01-01
Failure detection technique is based upon input-output ratios, which is independent of inverter loading. Since inverter has fixed relationship between V-in/V-out and I-in/I-out, failure detection criteria are based on this ratio, which is simply inverter transformer turns ratio, K, equal to primary turns divided by secondary turns.
Lagoa Real design. Cachoeira mine. Uranium ratio from gamma profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juliao, B.
1984-06-01
This paper presents the satisfactory accuracy of uranium ratio from gamma profile, using an equation from simple regression. The comparative study between radiometric ratios calculated from gamma data in boreholes and uranium ratio determined by Delayed Neutron Analysis shows a good measure of correlation in Cachoeira Mines. (author)
Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen
2015-04-01
The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.
Mean platelet volume, neutrophil to lyphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in psoriasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Ünal
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Background and Design: It has been demonstrated that ratio of neutrophil and platelet count systemic inflammation and is associated with prognosis of many cardiovascular diseases, malignates and chronic inflammatory diseases.As far as it is known, there are no studies investigating neutrophil/lymphocyeratio(NLR, platelet/lymphocyte ratio(PLR and mean platelet volume(MPV values together within the context of psoriasis, a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease. Materials and Methods: 320 patients followed up in our polyclinic with psoriasis vulgaris and 200 healthy persons were evaluated in the study. Results: Leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet, MPV, NLR and PLR values in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher, and lymphocyte count, on the other hand, was significantly lower than those of the control group. No significant difference was found between MPV, NLR and PLR values of patients with or without a family history, nail and joint involvement. Conclusions: These parameters may be made use of as cheap and easily applicable methods in predicting which psoriasis patients are under the risk of cardiovascular disease. PLR is a better inflammation marker than MPV and NLR in patients with psoriasis. We did not observe a significant relationship between MPV, NLR and PLR values and such disease characteristics as severity of disease, joint involvement, nail involvement and duration of disease in patients with psoriasis. So, we believe that there is little information on the extent to which MPV,NLR and PLR might be useful regarding these characteristics.
Investigation of Pockels Cells Crystal Contrast Ratio Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giedrius Sinkevičius
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The BBO Pockel’s cell has been investigated. The investigation results of optimal operating area on the surface of the crystal dependent of intrinsic contrast ratio (ICR and voltage contrast ratio (VCR for Pockel’s cell are presented. The block diagram of Pockel’s cells contrast measurement stand and measurement methodology are introduced and discussed. The graphs of intrinsic contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface, contrast ratio with voltage dependency and voltage contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface with half-wave voltage are presented.
Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.
1984-01-01
Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus
Sulayman H. Atieh
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper
2007-01-01
An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio was...
Impact of Inflation Accounting Application on Key Financial Ratios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aydın KARAPINAR
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of inflation accounting on key financal ratios. To this end, the financial statements of 132 companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE are studied. An analyis of paired samples t test has been conducted on the financial ratios of the companies. The results show that a significant difference between adjusted cost based financial ratios and historical cost based financial ratios occurs only for current, ratios, equity ratios and noncurrent turnover ratios. The study does not cover companies operating in the financial sector. The companies reporting in accordance with IFRS for the studied periods that spans 2001-2004 are not included in the study either. The study offers valuable information as to analysing companies operating in hiper inflation economies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper
2007-01-01
An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio...... was adjusted in steps to find suitable regions of operation, and the effect of engine speed was studied at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. It was found that leaner excess air ratios require higher compression ratios to achieve satisfactory combustion. Engine speed also affects operation significantly....
PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek
2012-01-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.
Sex ratios of Mountain Plovers from egg production to fledging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margaret M. Riordan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.
[Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].
Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue
2010-05-01
To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceviz, M.A.; Kaymaz, I.
2005-01-01
The most important thermodynamic property used in heat release calculations for engines is the specific heat ratio. The functions proposed in the literature for the specific heat ratio are temperature dependent and apply at or near stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, the specific heat ratio is also influenced by the gas composition in the engine cylinder and especially becomes important for lean combustion engines. In this study, temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions were derived to minimize the error by using an equilibrium combustion model for burned and unburned mixtures separately. After the error analysis between the equilibrium combustion model and the derived functions is presented, the results of the global specific heat ratio function, as varying with mass fraction burned, were compared with the proposed functions in the literature. The results of the study showed that the derived functions are more feasible at lean operating conditions of a spark ignition engine
The impact of tissue Doppler index E/e' ratio on instantaneous wave-free ratio.
Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ri, Tonre; Otsuki, Hisao; Nakao, Masashi; Kamishima, Kazuho; Jujo, Kentaro; Minami, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa
2018-03-01
The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free, invasive pressure wire index of the functional severity of coronary stenosis and is calculated under resting conditions. In a recent study, iFR was found to be more closely linked to coronary flow reserve (CFR) than fractional flow reserve (FFR). E/e' is a surrogate marker of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and LV diastolic dysfunction. Coronary resting flow was found to be increased in patients with elevated E/e', and higher coronary resting flow was associated with lower CFR. Higher baseline coronary flow induces a greater loss of translesional pressure and may affect iFR. However, no reports have examined the impact of E/e' on iFR. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between iFR and E/e' compared with FFR. We retrospectively examined 103 consecutive patients (142 with stenosis) whose iFR, FFR, and E/e' were measured simultaneously. The mean age, LV mass index, and systolic blood pressure of patients with elevated E/e' were higher than those of patients with normal E/e'. Although no significant differences were observed in mean FFR values and % diameter stenosis, the mean iFR value in patients with elevated E/e' was significantly lower than that in patients with normal E/e'. The iFR was negatively correlated with E/e', while there was no correlation between FFR and E/e'. Multivariate analysis showed that E/e' and % diameter stenosis were independent determinants of iFR. E/e' ratio affects iFR values. Our results suggest that FFR mainly reflects the functional severity of the epicardial stenosis whereas iFR could potentially be influenced by not only epicardial stenosis but also other factors related to LV filling pressure or LV diastolic dysfunction. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence the evaluation of iFR in patients with elevated E/e'. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Financial Ratio and Its Influence to Profitability in Islamic Banks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erika Amelia
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the influence of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO to Return on Asset (ROA in Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mega. The data analysis method used in this research is multiple regression analysis. From the test results show that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR and Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO simultaneously effect to Return on Asset (ROA. Based on the test results of the t statistic was concluded that the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Non Performing Financing (NPF and the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR partially no significant effect to Return on Asset (ROA, while Biaya Operasional Pendapatan Operasional (BOPO partially significant effect to Return on Asset (ROADOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1700
Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weaver, Amelia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-01-30
Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.
Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2013-09-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.
A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.
Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C
2017-08-30
Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).
Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part
Roth, Don J. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.
Effect of H/C ratio on coal ignition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furimsky, E.
1988-09-01
The Cahn balance technique was found to be suitable for estimating ignition temperature and its dependence on the H/C ratio of the coal. This temperature decreased with increasing H/C ratio of coals. For coals a linear correlation between H/C ratio and the temperature was established. Chars derived from the coals deviated from the linear correlation established on coals. 17 refs., 4 figs.
SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width
Daniel Denegri
2001-01-01
Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.
BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES
Radivoje B Pešić; Saša T Milojević; Stevan P Veinović
2010-01-01
The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minim...
The behavior of the likelihood ratio test for testing missingness
Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Thijs, Herbert
2003-01-01
To asses the sensitivity of conclusions to model choices in the context of selection models for non-random dropout, one can oppose the different missing mechanisms to each other; e.g. by the likelihood ratio tests. The finite sample behavior of the null distribution and the power of the likelihood ratio test is studied under a variety of missingness mechanisms. missing data; sensitivity analysis; likelihood ratio test; missing mechanisms
Concentration ratios for BIOPATH: selection of the soil-to-plant concentration ratio database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grogan, H.A.
1985-01-01
In Switzerland, high-level radioactive waste is planned to be deposited in deep crystalline formations. 'BIOPATH' is the computer code which has been used to simulate the movement of radionuclides in the biosphere, in order to calculate the doses to man. The key parameter used in the model on which the code is based is the concentration ratio (CR). This specifies the transfer of individual radionuclides via the various foodchains, ultimately to man. Five types of CR are required for the model, namely soil to plant, intake by cattle to milk, intake by cattle to meat, intake by poultry to eggs and from water to fish. Each of these CR are discussed in turn; it is shown that soil to plant CR exhibit a variability that greatly exceeds that observed in the other types of CR and for this reason the report goes on to consider these in much closer detail. The different methods and experimental techniques used to derive soil to plant CR are examined and assessed, to allow evaluation of a meaningful data base for use in BIOPATH. The report concludes by examining the data available for each radionuclide in turn and listing a recommended CR for it, to input into the BIOPATH model. (author)
Zhang, Ke; Li, Huidong; Chen, Wuxi; Zhao, Minli; Cui, Haiyang; Min, Qingsong; Wang, Haijun; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao
2017-05-01
Docosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio (DPA/DHA ratio) in Schizochytrium was relatively stable. But ideally the ratio of DPA/DHA will vary according to the desired end use. This study reports several ways of modulating the DPA/DHA ratio. Incubation times changed the DPA/DHA ratio, and changes in this ratio were associated with the variations in the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) content. Propionic acid sharply increased the SFAs content in lipids, dramatically decreased the even-chain SFAs content, and reduced the DPA/DHA ratio. Pentanoic acid (C5:0) and heptanoic acid (C7:0) had similar effects as propionic acid, whereas butyric acid (C4:0), hexanoic acid (C6:0), and octanoic acid (C8:0) did not change the fatty acid profile and the DPA/DHA ratio. Transcription analyses show that β-oxidation might be responsible for this phenomenon. Iodoacetamide upregulated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase genes, reduced the DHA content, and improved the DPA content, causing the DPA/DHA ratio to increase. These results present new insights into the regulation of the DPA/DHA ratio.
Limiting density ratios in piston-driven compressions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.
1985-07-01
By using global energy and pressure balance applied to a shock model it is shown that for a piston-driven fast compression, the maximum compression ratio is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, but rather on the power pulse shape. Specific cases are considered and a maximum density compression ratio of 27 is obtained for a square-pulse power compressing a spherical pellet with specific heat ratio of 5/3. Double pulsing enhances the density compression ratio to 1750 in the case of linearly rising compression pulses. Using this method further enhancement by multiple pulsing becomes obvious. (author)
Accurate isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Some problems and possibilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bievre, P. de
1978-01-01
The review includes reference to 190 papers, mainly published during the last 10 years. It covers the following: important factors in accurate isotope ratio measurements (precision and accuracy of isotope ratio measurements -exemplified by determinations of 235 U/ 238 U and of other elements including 239 Pu/ 240 Pu; isotope fractionation -exemplified by curves for Rb, U); applications (atomic weights); the Oklo natural nuclear reactor (discovered by UF 6 mass spectrometry at Pierrelatte); nuclear and other constants; isotope ratio measurements in nuclear geology and isotope cosmology - accurate age determination; isotope ratio measurements on very small samples - archaeometry; isotope dilution; miscellaneous applications; and future prospects. (U.K.)
Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svarer, Michael
In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...
Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others
1996-06-14
Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.
Ratio superior, ratio inferior y el agustinismo de Tomás de Aquino
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moya Cañas, Patricia
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article discusses Aquinas’ reception of the Augustinian distinction between ratio inferior and superior. Though not a central aspect of Aquinas’ thought, it is a signifi cant pointer to the presence of Augustinian patterns of thought in a non-theological part of his work. After a general survey of the presence of this distinction in the opera omnia of Aquinas, his use of this topic in some specific instances is discussed: the distinction between contemplative and active life, the division of human faculties, and the moral problem of peevish delight.El artículo discute la recepción que hace Tomás de Aquino de la distinción agustiniana entre razón superior e inferior. Si bien no se trata de uno de los tópicos centrales de la doctrina tomasiana, es un elemento significativo a la hora de considerar dentro de la obra de Tomás la presencia de patrones agustinianos de pensamiento que no sean primordialmente teológicos. Tras discutir de modo general la presencia de esta distinción en la obra del aquinate, y los estudios previos sobre este binomio, se procede a discutir su uso por parte de Tomás de Aquino ante tres problemas específicos: la distinción entre géneros de vida, la división de las facultades humanas, y el problema moral de la delectación morosa.
The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems
Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan
Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic
Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica
Glawe, Grit Anja
2006-01-01
This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied
The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)
2017-02-15
In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)
Worldwide lead-isotope ratio in bivalves and sediments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte; Strand, Jakob
The lead-isotope ratio have been used to assess and identify impact of leaded gasoline, coal combustion and mineral activities[ref 1] due to the difference in 206Pb (~52%), 207Pb (~24%) and 208Pb (~23%) isotope ratios. The source of these differences is the decaying of the parent isotopes of 238U...
Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Yüksek
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.
Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.
Optimal Fisher Discriminant Ratio for an Arbitrary Spatial Light Modulator
Juday, Richard D.
1999-01-01
Optimizing the Fisher ratio is well established in statistical pattern recognition as a means of discriminating between classes. I show how to optimize that ratio for optical correlation intensity by choice of filter on an arbitrary spatial light modulator (SLM). I include the case of additive noise of known power spectral density.
Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Ratios and Normalized Data
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2013-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of ratios and normalized--or standardized--data. As researchers, we compute a ratio--a numerator divided by a denominator--to compute a…
Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
of the water and its sodium content relative to calcium and magnesium content. ... calcium and magnesium is the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). It is a measure of the ..... comparison of ANN and geo statistics methods for estimating spatial distribution of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in groundwater. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci.
Pupil – Teacher Ratio: Implication for Quality Education in Nigeria ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Significantly, pupil-teacher ratios are very essential to quality of education. They perhaps rank alongside professional knowledge, skill, as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This paper discusses pupil-teacher ratio and relevance that pupils seem to have a greater impact on ...
Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I-Wen Lee
2012-12-01
Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.
Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.
The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...
Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter
Bonneux, L.G.A.
2010-01-01
In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the
Introducing errors in progress ratios determined from experience curves
van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.
2008-01-01
Progress ratios (PRs) derived from historical data in experience curves are used for forecasting development of many technologies as a means to model endogenous technical change in for instance climate–economy models. These forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the progress ratio. As a
Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences
Buser, T.
2012-01-01
We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for
On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saralees Nadarajah
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.
Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio
Mcgroarty, J. D.
1966-01-01
Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.
12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.
2010-01-01
... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...
Updating Financial Ratios: Seeking Greater Understanding, Precision, and Practicality.
Jenny, Hans H.; Minter, W. John
1993-01-01
Modifications to current methods of calculating and reporting financial ratios are outlined for college managers. The modified ratios, felt to be more realistic, are illustrated with applications in three areas: (1) student revenues; (2) endowment and other investment income; and (3) public and private gifts, grants, and contracts revenue. (MSE)
A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series
P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
1998-01-01
textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons
Statistical validity of using ratio variables in human kinetics research.
Liu, Yuanlong; Schutz, Robert W
2003-09-01
The purposes of this study were to investigate the validity of the simple ratio and three alternative deflation models and examine how the variation of the numerator and denominator variables affects the reliability of a ratio variable. A simple ratio and three alternative deflation models were fitted to four empirical data sets, and common criteria were applied to determine the best model for deflation. Intraclass correlation was used to examine the component effect on the reliability of a ratio variable. The results indicate that the validity, of a deflation model depends on the statistical characteristics of the particular component variables used, and an optimal deflation model for all ratio variables may not exist. Therefore, it is recommended that different models be fitted to each empirical data set to determine the best deflation model. It was found that the reliability of a simple ratio is affected by the coefficients of variation and the within- and between-trial correlations between the numerator and denominator variables. It was recommended that researchers should compute the reliability of the derived ratio scores and not assume that strong reliabilities in the numerator and denominator measures automatically lead to high reliability in the ratio measures.
Risk aversion vs. the Omega ratio : Consistency results
Balder, Sven; Schweizer, Nikolaus
This paper clarifies when the Omega ratio and related performance measures are consistent with second order stochastic dominance and when they are not. To avoid consistency problems, the threshold parameter in the ratio should be chosen as the expected return of some benchmark – as is commonly done
Parental correlates of offspring sex ratio in Eurasian Oystercatchers
Heg, D.; Dingemanse, NJ; Lessells, CM; Mateman, AC
2000-01-01
We investigated hatchling and fledgling sex ratios in Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The overall hatchling (53% males, n = 374 hatchlings from 177 broods) and fledgling (49% males, n = 51) sex ratio did not differ significantly from
Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks
Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...
On efficiency of some ratio estimators in double sampling design ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, three sampling ratio estimators in double sampling design were proposed with the intention of finding an alternative double sampling design estimator to the conventional ratio estimator in double sampling design discussed by Cochran (1997), Okafor (2002) , Raj (1972) and Raj and Chandhok (1999).
Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.
2004-01-01
A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (SOI...
Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...
Sex ratio, gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt, Pomadasys jubelini in the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89+0.08%. High gonadosomatic ...
Sex ratio and Wolbachia infection in the ant Formica exsecta.
Keller, L; Liautard, C; Reuter, M; Brown, W D; Sundström, L; Chapuisat, M
2001-08-01
Sex allocation data in social Hymenoptera provide some of the best tests of kin selection, parent-offspring conflict and sex ratio theories. However, these studies critically depend on controlling for confounding ecological factors and on identifying all parties that potentially manipulate colony sex ratio. It has been suggested that maternally inherited parasites may influence sex allocation in social Hymenoptera. If the parasites can influence sex allocation, infected colonies are predicted to invest more resources in females than non-infected colonies, because the parasites are transmitted through females but not males. Prime candidates for such sex ratio manipulation are Wolbachia, because these cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria have been shown to affect the sex ratio of host arthropods by cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, male-killing and feminization. In this study, we tested whether Wolbachia infection is associated with colony sex ratio in two populations of the ant Formica exsecta that have been the subject of extensive sex ratio studies. In these populations colonies specialize in the production of one sex or the other. We found that almost all F. exsecta colonies in both populations are infected with Wolbachia. However, in neither population did we find a significant association in the predicted direction between the prevalence of Wolbachia and colony sex ratio. In particular, colonies with a higher proportion of infected workers did not produce more females. Hence, we conclude that Wolbachia does not seem to alter the sex ratio of its hosts as a means to increase transmission rate in these two populations of ants.
Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahon, J.R.P.
1986-01-01
Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt
The Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice
African Journals Online (AJOL)
design of integrated circuit boards, communication networks, power networks and pipelines of minimum cost. In such applications the Steiner ratio is an indication of how badly a minimum spanning tree performs compared to a Steiner minimal tree. In this paper a short proof is presented for the Steiner ratio for points on a ...
Exploring the possibilities for stabilizing the sex ratio in India
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The sex ratio is an important demographic indicator for a nation. A wide range of adverse social consequences have been observed because of a skewed sex ratio in India. If India as a nation is to achieve the Millennium Development Goal – 3 (which promotes gender equality and ensures the empowerment of women, the primary target should be involve all those involved, so that a collective and comprehensive approach can be developed to counter the public health menace of an asymmetrical sex ratio. In conclusion, the nation’s program managers should prioritize the issue of a skewed sex ratio and work towards developing a coordinated response.Key Words: Sex ratio, policy makers, India.
A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smits Niels
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests. Discussion When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio. Summary The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.
SOLVENCY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel BRÎNDESCU–OLARIU
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the solvency ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romania and, in particular, on Timis County. The interest for the solvency ratio was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over 2 paired samples of 1176 companies in total. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the solvency ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.646 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (64.5% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the solvency ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy.
Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...
Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...
Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation
Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.
2011-06-01
A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.
Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.
Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J
2017-06-07
Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.
Nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio using a single image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasciak, A. S.; Jones, A. Kyle
2009-01-01
The antiscatter grid is an essential part of modern radiographic systems. Since the introduction of the antiscatter grid, however, there have been few methods proposed for acceptance testing and verification of manufacturer-supplied grid specifications. The grid ratio (r) is an important parameter describing the antiscatter grid because it affects many other grid quality metrics, such as the contrast improvement ratio (K), primary transmission (T p ), and scatter transmission (T s ). Also, the grid ratio in large part determines the primary clinical use of the grid. To this end, the authors present a technique for the nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio of antiscatter grids. They derived an equation that can be used to calculate the grid ratio from a single off-focus flat field image by exploiting the relationship between grid cutoff and off-focus distance. The calculation can be performed by hand or with included analysis software. They calculated the grid ratios of several different grids throughout the institution, and afterward they destructively measured the grid ratio of a nominal r8 grid previously evaluated with the method. They also studied the sensitivity of the method to technical factors and choice of parameters. With one exception, the results for the grids found in the institution were in agreement with the manufacturer's specifications and international standards. The nondestructive evaluation of the r8 grid indicated a ratio of 7.3, while the destructive measurement indicated a ratio of 7.53±0.28. Repeated evaluations of the same grid yielded consistent results. The technique provides the medical physicist with a new tool for quantitative evaluation of the grid ratio, an important grid performance criterion. The method is robust and repeatable when appropriate choices of technical factors and other parameters are made.
Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah
2017-10-01
Association between casual and 24-h urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio is well recognized, although it has not been validated in diverse demographic groups. Our aim was to assess utility across and within populations of casual urine to estimate 24-h urinary Na/K ratio using data from the INTERSALT Study. The INTERSALT Study collected cross-sectional standardized data on casual urinary sodium and potassium and also on timed 24-h urinary sodium and potassium for 10 065 individuals from 52 population samples in 32 countries (1985-87). Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement were computed for Na/K ratio of casual urine against 24-h urinary Na/K ratio both at population and individual levels. Pearson correlation coefficients relating means of 24-h urine and casual urine Na/K ratio were r = 0.96 and r = 0.69 in analyses across populations and individuals, respectively. Correlations of casual urine Na/creatinine and K/creatinine ratios with 24-h urinary Na and K excretion, respectively, were lower than correlation of casual and 24-h urinary Na/K ratio in analyses across populations and individuals. The bias estimate with the Bland-Altman method, defined as the difference between Na/K ratio of 24-h urine and casual urine, was approximately 0.4 across both populations and individuals. Spread around, the mean bias was higher for individuals than populations. With appropriate bias correction, casual urine Na/K ratio may be a useful, low-burden alternative method to 24-h urine for estimation of population urinary Na/K ratio. It may also be applicable for assessment of the urinary Na/K ratio of individuals, with use of repeated measurements to reduce measurement error and increase precision. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
The ATP/DNA Ratio Is a Better Indicator of Islet Cell Viability Than the ADP/ATP Ratio
Suszynski, T.M.; Wildey, G.M.; Falde, E.J.; Cline, G.W.; Maynard, K. Stewart; Ko, N.; Sotiris, J.; Naji, A.; Hering, B.J.; Papas, K.K.
2009-01-01
Real-time, accurate assessment of islet viability is critical for avoiding transplantation of nontherapeutic preparations. Measurements of the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio have been recently proposed as useful prospective estimates of islet cell viability and potency. However, dead cells may be rapidly depleted of both ATP and ADP, which would render the ratio incapable of accounting for dead cells. Since the DNA of dead cells is expected to remain stable over prolonged periods of time (days), we hypothesized that use of the ATP/DNA ratio would take into account dead cells and may be a better indicator of islet cell viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. We tested this hypothesis using mixtures of healthy and lethally heat-treated (HT) rat insulinoma cells and human islets. Measurements of ATP/DNA and ADP/ATP from the known mixtures of healthy and HT cells and islets were used to evaluate how well these parameters correlated with viability. The results indicated that ATP and ADP were rapidly (within 1 hour) depleted in HT cells. The fraction of HT cells in a mixture correlated linearly with the ATP/DNA ratio, whereas the ADP/ADP ratio was highly scattered, remaining effectively unchanged. Despite similar limitations in both ADP/ADP and ATP/DNA ratios, in that ATP levels may fluctuate significantly and reversibly with metabolic stress, the results indicated that ATP/DNA was a better measure of islet viability than the ADP/ATP ratio. PMID:18374063
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, G.E.; Alfonso, F.C.; Figert, D.M.; Burggraff, J.M.
1981-01-01
A method is described for isolating vanillin from vanilla extract, followed by stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the amount of natural vanillin contained in adulterated vanilla extracts. After the potassium content is determined, the percent Madagascar and/or Java vanilla beans incorporated into the extract may then be approximated from the vanillin/potassium ratio
Patterns of Family Formation in Response to Sex Ratio Variation.
Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L
2016-01-01
The impact that unbalanced sex ratios have on health and societal outcomes is of mounting contemporary concern. However, it is increasingly unclear whether it is male- or female-biased sex ratios that are associated with family and social instability. From a socio-demographic perspective, male-biased sex ratios leave many men unable to find a mate, elevating competition among males, disrupting family formation and negatively affecting social stability. In contrast, from a mating-market perspective, males are expected to be less willing to marry and commit to a family when the sex ratio is female-biased and males are rare. Here we use U.S. data to evaluate predictions from these competing frameworks by testing the relationship between the adult sex ratio and measures of family formation. We find that when women are rare men are more likely to marry, be part of a family and be sexually committed to a single partner. Our results do not support claims that male-biased sex ratios lead to negative family outcomes due to a surplus of unmarried men. Rather, our results highlight the need to pay increased attention to female-biased sex ratios.
Correlation Between Cometary Gas/Dust Ratios and Heliocentric Distance
Harrington, Olga; Womack, Maria; Lastra, Nathan
2017-10-01
We compiled CO-based gas/dust ratios for several comets out to heliocentric distances, rh, of 8 au to probe whether there is a noticeable change in comet behavior over the range that water-ice sublimation starts. Previously, gas/dust ratios were calculated for an ensemble of comets using Q(CO2)/efp values derived from infrared measurements, which showed that the gas/dust ratio follows a rh-2 within 4 AU, but is flat at greater distances (Bauer et al. 2015). Our project focuses on gas/dust ratios for which CO is assumed to be the dominant gas, in order to test whether similar breaks in slope occur for CO. The gas/dust ratios were calculated from measurements of CO production rates (mostly from millimeter-wavelength spectroscopy) and reflected sunlight of comets (mostly via reported visual magnitudes of dusty comets). We present our new CO-based gas/dust ratios at different heliocentric distances, compare them to existing CO2-based gas/dust ratios, and discuss implications for CO-driven and CO2-driven activity. We discuss O.H. acknowledges support from the Hartmann Student Travel Grant program. M.W. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1615917.
Determinants of capital adequacy ratio in Kuwaiti banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moeidh Alajmi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the effects of seven internal factors of five conventional Kuwaiti banks on capital adequacy ratio (CAR. The five factors are: Loans to Assets, Loans to Deposits, Non-Performing Loans to Total Loans, Return on Assets, Return on Equity, Dividend Payout and Total Liability to Total Assets. The study covers the period from 2005 to 2013. The study shows that under fixed effect model, variables DIVIEDEND, LAR, LDR, NPLLR, and ROE do not have any impact on capital adequacy ratio. However, SIZE has a significant and negative relationship with capital adequacy ratio. Also, ROA shows a significant and negative relationship with capital adequacy ratio. Under random effect model, results indicate that CAR is adversely affected by bank’s SIZE (total liability to assets, and ROA has a significant and negative relationship with capital adequacy ratio, However, Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR showed a significant and positive relationship with capital adequacy ratio. On the other hand, dividend payout, loans to assets, Non-Performing Loans to Total Loans and Return on equity do not have significant effect on CAR under random effect model.
Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hande Guclu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.
The human heart: application of the golden ratio and angle.
Henein, Michael Y; Zhao, Ying; Nicoll, Rachel; Sun, Lin; Khir, Ashraf W; Franklin, Karl; Lindqvist, Per
2011-08-04
The golden ratio, or golden mean, of 1.618 is a proportion known since antiquity to be the most aesthetically pleasing and has been used repeatedly in art and architecture. Both the golden ratio and the allied golden angle of 137.5° have been found within the proportions and angles of the human body and plants. In the human heart we found many applications of the golden ratio and angle, in addition to those previously described. In healthy hearts, vertical and transverse dimensions accord with the golden ratio, irrespective of different absolute dimensions due to ethnicity. In mild heart failure, the ratio of 1.618 was maintained but in end-stage heart failure the ratio significantly reduced. Similarly, in healthy ventricles mitral annulus dimensions accorded with the golden ratio, while in dilated cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation patients the ratio had significantly reduced. In healthy patients, both the angles between the mid-luminal axes of the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta continuation and between the outflow tract axis and continuation of the inflow tract axis of the right ventricle approximate to the golden angle, although in severe pulmonary hypertension, the angle is significantly increased. Hence the overall cardiac and ventricular dimensions in a normal heart are consistent with the golden ratio and angle, representing optimum pump structure and function efficiency, whereas there is significant deviation in the disease state. These findings could have anatomical, functional and prognostic value as markers of early deviation from normality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money
Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui
2005-11-01
In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.
High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems
Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.
2018-01-01
A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.
An improved data acquisition system for isotopic ratio mass spectrometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, T.K.; Reddy, B.; Nazare, C.K.; Handu, V.K.
1999-01-01
Isotopic ratio mass spectrometers designed and fabricated to measure the isotopic ratios with a precision of better than 0.05%. In order to achieve this precision, the measurement system consisting of ion signal to voltage converters, analog to digital converters, and data acquisition electronics should be at least one order better than the overall precision of measurement. Using state of the art components and techniques, a data acquisition system, which is an improved version of the earlier system, has been designed and developed for use with multi-collector isotopic ratio mass spectrometers
Ratios of charmed and bottom meson decay constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oakes, R.J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that general features of the standard theory require the double ratio (f Bs /f Bd )/(f Ds /f Dd ) to be very nearly unity with only very small corrections. The ratios f Bs /f Bd and f Ds /f Dd are both also near unity, within small corrections which partially cancel in the double ratio. A precise measurement of f Ds /f Dd therefore provides a sensitive test of some generally accepted features of the standard Lagrangian, as well as determines the value of f Bs /f Bd , which is important for calculating the relative strengths of B s- bar B s and B d- bar B d mixing
K0/K+ ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Yu.B.; Russkikh, V.N.
1996-11-01
It is shown that ratio of production yields of K 0 and K + mesons in collisions of isotopically asymmetric nuclei at incident energies ∼ 1 GeV/nucleon is related directly enough to temperature of nuclear matter at the initial stage of the collision. Sensitivity of the K 0 /K + ratio to the temperature variation is analyzed. Ambiguities, associated with interpretation of this quantity as a probe of nuclear temperature, are discussed. It is argued that the K 0 /K + ratio is a fairly model-independent quantity, provided channels with Δ isobars dominate the kaon production. (orig.)
Measurement of the temperature coefficient of ratio transformers
Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.
1993-01-01
We have measured the temperature coefficient of the output of several ratio transformers at ratios near 0.500,000 using an ac bridge and a dual-phase, lock-in amplifier. The two orthogonal output components were each resolved to +/- ppb of the bridge drive signal. The results for three commercial ratio transformers between 20 and 50 C range from 0.5 to 100 ppb/K for the signal component in phase with the bridge drive, and from 4 to 300 ppb/K for the quadrature component.
Avoiding mandatory hospital nurse staffing ratios: an economic commentary.
Buerhaus, Peter I
2009-01-01
The imposition of mandatory hospital nurse staffing ratios is among the more visible public policy initiatives affecting the nursing profession. Although the practice is intended to address problems in hospital nurse staffing and quality of patient care, this commentary argues that staffing ratios will lead to negative consequences for nurses involving the equity, efficiency, and costs of producing nursing care in hospitals. Rather than spend time and effort attempting to regulate nurse staffing, this commentary offers alternatives strategies that are directed at fixing the problems that motivate the advocates of staffing ratios.
Ratio of νe/νμ in atmospheric neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.; Gaisser, T.K.; Tilav, S.
1988-01-01
When the effect of muon polarization is included, the calculated ratio ν e /ν μ for atmospheric neutrinos with energies above ≅ 200 MeV is increased by 10-20% compared to the result when polarization is neglected. We give an analytic derivation of this ratio for the artificial case of a power law differential spectrum of parent pions propagating in an atmosphere in which all pions and muons decay. This is sufficient to estimate the effect on the calculated ratio of electron-like to muon-like events induced by neutrino interactions in large underground detectors. (orig.)
Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics
1997-05-23
The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).
India’s Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls
Roberts, Lisa R.; Montgomery, Susanne B.
2017-01-01
Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India’s patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide. PMID:28286369
PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (62.6% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the profitability ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy and thus validate the need for further research focused on developing a methodology of analysis.
Nuclear fuel, mass balances, conversion ratio, doubling time, and uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vondy, D.R.
1976-11-01
Information on the performance aspects of nuclear power plants is presented concerning conversion ratio, criticality, primitive economic analysis, stable breeder-converter industry, doubling time, breeder industry economic benefit, defining nuclear fuel, recommendations, and uncertainty
ESRD QIP - Standardized Readmission Ratio - Payment Year 2018
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance ratio, measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the SRR measure included in the PY...
Analysis of the moderating ratio in BWR fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, A.; Xolocostli, V.; Alonso, G.
2001-01-01
In all different light water nuclear reactors is very important the fuel assembly design. It has to be designed to achieve safety and efficiency performance in an economical way. The moderating ratio plays a very important role because an adequate election can provide an optimal energy production making the fuel assembly more efficient. This work analyze the moderation ratio as a function of the fuel assembly enrichment and ifs burnup, based on this study the optimal moderation ratio are obtained. Furthermore, based on numerical relations some simulation schemes are proposed to describe the behavior of the infinite multiplication factor as a function of the moderating ratio for a given fuel assembly enrichment at zero burnup. (Author)
Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitrović Aleksandra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performance in family dairies, the basis is created for displaying techniques of financial analysis, with a special indication on the specifics of their application in agricultural enterprises focusing on companies engaged in dairying. Applied in the paper is ratio analysis on the example of a dairy enterprise, i.e. a family dairy operating in Serbia. The ratio indicators are the basis for identifying relationships based on which by comparing the actual performance and certain business standards differences or variations are identified.
Dynamic Responses of Flexible Cylinders with Low Mass Ratio
Olaoye, Abiodun; Wang, Zhicheng; Triantafyllou, Michael
2017-11-01
Flexible cylinders with low mass ratios such as composite risers are attractive in the offshore industry because they require lower top tension and are less likely to buckle under self-weight compared to steel risers. However, their relatively low stiffness characteristics make them more vulnerable to vortex induced vibrations. Additionally, numerical investigation of the dynamic responses of such structures based on realistic conditions is limited by high Reynolds number, complex sheared flow profile, large aspect ratio and low mass ratio challenges. In the framework of Fourier spectral/hp element method, the current technique employs entropy-viscosity method (EVM) based large-eddy simulation approach for flow solver and fictitious added mass method for structure solver. The combination of both methods can handle fluid-structure interaction problems at high Reynolds number with low mass ratio. A validation of the numerical approach is provided by comparison with experiments.
Heritability estimates for different Kleiber ratios obtained from growth ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Kleiber ratio is a measurement for efficiency, independent of body size ... Data included the following performance traits: birth mass, 100-day-, 205-day-, .... classes of stock, were used in the development of this simula- tion program.
Investigation into stutter ratio variability between different laboratories.
Bright, Jo-Anne; Curran, James M
2014-11-01
The determination of parameters such as stutter ratio is important to inform a laboratory's forensic DNA profile interpretation strategy. As part of a large data analysis project to implement a continuous model of DNA profile interpretation we analysed stutter ratio data from eight different forensic laboratories for the Promega PowerPlex(®) 21 multiplex. This allowed a comparison of inter laboratory variation. The maximum difference for any one laboratory from the average of the best fit determined by the model was 0.31%. These results indicate that stutter ratios calculated from samples analysed using the same profiling kit are not expected to differ between laboratories, even those using different capillary electrophoresis platforms. A common set of laboratory parameters are able to be generated and used for profile interpretation at all laboratories using the same multiplex and cycle number, potentially reducing the need for individual laboratories to determine stutter ratios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Planned Enhanced Wakefield Transformer Ratio Experiment at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator
Kanareykin, Alex; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Konecny, Richard; Power, John G
2005-01-01
In this paper, we present a preliminary experimental study of a wakefield accelerating scheme that uses a carefully spaced and current ramped electron pulse train to produce wakefields that increases the transformer ratio much higher than 2. A dielectric structure was designed and fabricated to operate at 13.625 GHz with dielectric constant of 15.7. The structure will be initially excited by two beams with first and second beam charge ratio of 1:3. The expected transformer ratio is 3 and the setup can be easily extend to 4 pulses which leads to a transformer ratio of more than 6. The dielectric structure cold test results show the tube is within the specification. A set of laser splitters was also tested to produce ramped bunch train of 2 - 4 pulses. Overall design of the experiment and initial results will be presented.
A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A financial Ratio Analysis of Commercial Bank Performance in South Africa. ... Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or ... This paper investigates the performance of South Africa's commercial banking sector for the period 2005- 2009.
Yearbook sectoral financial ratios in mexico for business benchmarking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deyanira Bernal Domínguez
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Financial analysis through ratios is a useful tool for improving organizational performance. Databases of financial information in Mexico are limited, therefore the importance of an annual publication of financial ratios per company and industry average. The objectives of this research are: describe the financial ratios with higher predictive potential and their formulas, as well as the design of a research instrument for measuring the relevance of the publication. A descriptive methodology was applied selecting through the analysis ofempirical studies, several ratios of liquidity, leverage, asset management, business cycle, performance and self-financing. The questionnaire contains 43 reagents to be applied to a statistically representative sample of 46 entrepreneurs in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.
Analysis of cash flow ratios: A study on CMC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somnath Das
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Cash flow ratios help financial users get relevant information about financial resources for a given time. Cash flow ratios are now used more than the traditional ones because it is more effective and justified. Cash flow based ratios are especially surprising because they do not only play a significant role in the credit rating of evaluation, but also forecast the failure of a corporation. In this study, we perform an empirical investigation on a company named CMC. From the study, it is clear that the liquidity and solvency positions of the company were moderate whereas the company maintained low profitability. On the other hand, the efficiency and sufficiency ratios of the study give us a new look on financial judgement.
India's Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls.
Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B
2016-01-01
Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India's patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide.
High conversion ratio plutonium recycle in pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edlund, M.C.
1975-01-01
The use of Pu light water reactors in such a way as to minimise the depletion of Pu needed for future use, and therefore to reduce projected demands for U ore and U enrichment is envisaged. Fuel utilisation in PWRs could be improved by tightly-packed fuel rod lattices with conversion ratios of 0.8 to 0.9 compared with ratios of about 0.5 in Pu recycle designs using fuel to water volume ratios of currently operating PWRs. A conceptual design for the Babcock and Wilcox Company reactors now in operation is presented and for illustrative purposes thermalhydraulic design considerations and the reactor physics are described. Principle considerations in the mechanical design of the fuel assemblies are the effect of hydraulic forces, thermal expansion, and fission gas release. The impact of high conversion ratio plutionium recycle in separative work and natural U requirements for PWRs likely to be in operation by 1985 are examined. (U.K.)
Ratio index variables or ANCOVA? Fisher's cats revisited.
Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Gilthorpe, Mark S
2010-01-01
Over 60 years ago Ronald Fisher demonstrated a number of potential pitfalls with statistical analyses using ratio variables. Nonetheless, these pitfalls are largely overlooked in contemporary clinical and epidemiological research, which routinely uses ratio variables in statistical analyses. This article aims to demonstrate how very different findings can be generated as a result of less than perfect correlations among the data used to generate ratio variables. These imperfect correlations result from measurement error and random biological variation. While the former can often be reduced by improvements in measurement, random biological variation is difficult to estimate and eliminate in observational studies. Moreover, wherever the underlying biological relationships among epidemiological variables are unclear, and hence the choice of statistical model is also unclear, the different findings generated by different analytical strategies can lead to contradictory conclusions. Caution is therefore required when interpreting analyses of ratio variables whenever the underlying biological relationships among the variables involved are unspecified or unclear. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Collins C. Ngwakwe
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting
A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
differential embryonic mortality, nondisjunction and gene conversion that are rather irregular forms of ... Keywords. transmission ratio distortion; meiotic drive; inbred mice. ..... Sapienza 2000 Heritability of the maternal meiotic drive system.
Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for use in the Mopani ... Reports on a study conducted to quantify the overlap in ungulate resource-use on a game ranch, and to demonstrate how ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Current switching ratio optimization using dual pocket doping engineering
Dash, Sidhartha; Sahoo, Girija Shankar; Mishra, Guru Prasad
2018-01-01
This paper presents a smart idea to maximize current switching ratio of cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CGT) by growing pocket layers in both source and channel region. The pocket layers positioned in the source and channel of the device provides significant improvement in ON-state and OFF-state current respectively. The dual pocket doped cylindrical gate TFET (DP-CGT) exhibits much superior performance in term of drain current, transconductance and current ratio as compared to conventional CGT, channel pocket doped CGT (CP-CGT) and source pocket doped CGT (SP-CGT). Further, the current ratio has been optimized w.r.t. width and instantaneous position both the pocket layers. The much improved current ratio and low power consumption makes the proposed device suitable for low-power and high speed application. The simulation work of DP-CGT is done using 3D Sentaurus TCAD device simulator from Synopsys.
Magnetic Resonance Signal Intensity Ratio Measurement Before Uterine Artery Embolization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duvnjak, Stevo; Ravn, Pernille; Green, Anders
2017-01-01
, 52 patients were included in this prospective study. The SI ratio before UFE was calculated using circular region of interests placed on the dominant fibroid and the iliac muscle. The SI fibroid-to-iliac muscle ratio was calculated as SI of the dominant fibroid/SI of the iliac muscle on T1-, T2......-, and T1 post-contrast-weighted sequences. The dominant fibroid volume was measured and analyzed before and after UFE. RESULTS: In all, 46 patients who completed the three-month follow-up MRI were available for analysis. The correlation between SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio at the T2-weighted sequence...... positive correlation (r = 0.439, p T2-weighted sequence. The area under curve (AUC) for SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio on T2-weighted sequence was 0.776. For the other parameters, the AUC values were 0.512, 0.671, and 0.578, respectively. CONCLUSION: SI...
Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PRECIOUS
2010-02-01
Feb 1, 2010 ... 30 control subjects (15 men and 15 women) of comparable age. There were ... estrogens and progestins makes the brain more vulnerable to acute insults ... estrogen or ratio of progesterone to estrogen is different in ischemia ...
PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION
Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU
2016-01-01
The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663...
Gender Inequality and the Sex Ratio in Three Emerging Economies
Prabir C. Bhattacharya
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study inequality and deprivations as reflected in the human sex ratio (commonly defined as the number of males per 100 females). The particular focus is on three emerging economies, viz., Russia, India and China. The paper compares and contrasts the experiences of these countries and discusses policy issues. It is noted that while the feminist perspective on the issues surrounding the sex ratio is important, it would be wrong to view these issues always or exclusiv...
System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis
Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R
2013-07-02
A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).
Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements
Mitrović Aleksandra; Knežević Snežana; Veličković Milica
2015-01-01
The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performanc...
The labor/land ratio and India's caste system
Duleep, Harriet
2012-01-01
This paper proposes that India’s caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population/land ratios linked to anthropological measures of caste-system rigidity. Both the longit...
Isotope ratios of lead as pollutant source indicators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, T.J.; Snyder, C.B.; Earal, J.L.
1975-01-01
Each lead ore deposit has its characteristic isotope ratios which are fixed during mineral ore genesis, and this unique property can be used to indicate the source of lead pollutants in the environment. The wolld production of primary lead is tabulated, and the geochemical significances of lead isotope ratios are discussed. The manufacture of lead alkyl additives for gasoline, which is the major source of lead pollutants, utilizes about 10% of the world annual consumption of lead. The isotope ratios of lead in gasoline, aerosols, soils and plants are correlated. Lead additives in various brands of gasoline sold in one region do not have the same isotope ratios. Regional variations in isotope ratios of lead additives were observed. This reflects the fact that petroleum refineries obtained the additives from various lead alkyl manufacturers which utilized lead from different mining districts. A definite changing trend of isotope ratios of lead pollutants in the San Diego, California (USA), area was detected. The lead shows a gradual increase in its radiogenic components during the past decade. This trend can be explained by the change of lead sources used by the additive manufacturers: Lead isotope ratios of the mid-1960's gasoline additives in the United States of America reflected those of less radiogenic leads imported from Canada, Australia, Peru and Mexico. Since then, the U.S. lead production has doubled-mainly from the Missouri district of highly radiogenic lead. Meanwhile, there has been a decrease in total lead imports. These combined effects result in changes in isotope ratios, from the less to more radiogenic, of the pooled lead. (aothor)
Lead isotope ratios in artists' lead white: a progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keisch, B; Callahan, R C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)
1976-07-01
The lead isotope ratios in over four hundred samples of lead white have been determined. The samples represent various geographical sources and dates from the thirteenth century to the present. A new method for organizing this large volume of data is described which helps with the visualization of temporal and geographic patterns. A number of interesting relationships between lead isotope ratio and date or source are shown to exist. Some examples of successful applications of this methodology are described.
Framework for Financial Ratio Analysis of Audited Federal Financial Reports
1999-12-01
this period were conducted on the statistical validity of the ratio method in financial analysis. McDonald and Morris conducted a study on the... franchising operations, allowing them to lower costs and share administrative support services with other agencies. [Ref. 60:sec. 402-403] The GMRA also...Press, Washington, D.C., 1955). 21. McDonald , Bill and Morris, Michael H., "The Statistical Validity of the Ratio Method in Financial Analysis: An
A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem
Yuelin Gao; Siqiao Jin
2013-01-01
We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the c...
Ratio asymptotics of Hermite-Pade polynomials for Nikishin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aptekarev, A I; Lopez, Guillermo L; Rocha, I A
2005-01-01
The existence of ratio asymptotics is proved for a sequence of multiple orthogonal polynomials with orthogonality relations distributed among a system of m finite Borel measures with support on a bounded interval of the real line which form a so-called Nikishin system. For m=1 this result reduces to Rakhmanov's celebrated theorem on the ratio asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials on the real line.
Synchronous Condenser Allocation for Improving System Short Circuit Ratio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde
2018-01-01
With converter-based renewable energy sources increasingly integrated into power systems and conventional power plants gradually phased out, future power systems will experience reduced short circuit strength. The deployment of synchronous condensers can serve as a potential solution. This paper...... presents an optimal synchronous condenser allocation method for improving system short circuit ratio at converter point of common coupling using a modified short circuit analysis approach. The total cost of installing new synchronous condensers is minimized while the system short circuit ratios...
Lalinet status - station expansion and lidar ratio systematic measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Landulfo Eduardo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available LALINET is expanding regionally to guarantee spatial coverage over South and Central Americas. One of the network goals is to obtain a set of regional representative aerosol optical properties such as particle backscatter, extinction and lidar ratio. Given the North-South extension and influence of distinct airmass circulation patterns it is paramount to distinguish these optical parameters in order to gain better perfomance in radiation transfer models. A set of lidar ratio data is presented.
Isotopic Ratios of Samarium by TIMS for Nuclear Forensic Application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Louis Jean, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inglis, Jeremy David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-08-08
The isotopic ratio of Nd, Sm, and Gd can provide important information regarding fissile material (nuclear devices, reactors), neutron environment, and device yield. These studies require precise measurement of Sm isotope ratios, by either TIMS or MC-ICP-MS. There has been an increasing trend to measure smaller and smaller quantities of Sm bearing samples. In nuclear forensics 10-100 ng of Sm are needed for precise measurement. To measure sub-ng Sm samples using TIMS for nuclear forensic analysis.
The influence of pressure ratio on the regenerator performance
Lin, Y.; Zhu, S.
2017-12-01
For a multi-stage pulse tube refrigerator with displacer, improving the regenerator efficiency is important. A displacer can get higher operating pressure ratio compared with inertance tube. The pressure ratio and porosity influence on the regenerator performance with is discussed, and CFD simulation is done on a two-stage pulse tube refrigerator with displacer to show that mass flow rate and pressure wave relation in the regenerator can be realized by a step-displacer.
How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money
Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui
2005-01-01
In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...
Lead isotope ratios in artists' lead white: a progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keisch, B.; Callahan, R.C.
1976-01-01
The lead isotope ratios in over four hundred samples of lead white have been determined. The samples represent various geographical sources and dates from the thirteenth century to the present. A new method for organizing this large volume of data is described which helps with the visualization of temporal and geographic patterns. A number of interesting relationships between lead isotope ratio and date or source are shown to exist. Some examples of successful applications of this methodology are described. (author)
BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radivoje B Pešić
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.
Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.
Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R
2015-10-01
Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Power, J.G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.
2011-01-01
The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure (C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)). Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.
Regional sensitivity analysis using revised mean and variance ratio functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Ruan, Wenbin; Song, Jingwen
2014-01-01
The variance ratio function, derived from the contribution to sample variance (CSV) plot, is a regional sensitivity index for studying how much the output deviates from the original mean of model output when the distribution range of one input is reduced and to measure the contribution of different distribution ranges of each input to the variance of model output. In this paper, the revised mean and variance ratio functions are developed for quantifying the actual change of the model output mean and variance, respectively, when one reduces the range of one input. The connection between the revised variance ratio function and the original one is derived and discussed. It is shown that compared with the classical variance ratio function, the revised one is more suitable to the evaluation of model output variance due to reduced ranges of model inputs. A Monte Carlo procedure, which needs only a set of samples for implementing it, is developed for efficiently computing the revised mean and variance ratio functions. The revised mean and variance ratio functions are compared with the classical ones by using the Ishigami function. At last, they are applied to a planar 10-bar structure
RECENT TRENDS IN GENDER RATIO AT BIRTH IN HANGZHOU, CHINA.
Tang, L; Qiu, L Q; Yau, Kkw; Hui, Y V; Binns, C W; Lee, A H
2015-12-01
Higher than normal sex ratios at birth in China have been reported since the early 1980's. This study aimed to investigate recent trends in sex ratio at birth in Hangzhou, capital of Zhejiang Province in southeast China. Information on selected maternal and birth-related characteristics was extracted from the Hangzhou Birth Information Database for all pregnant women who delivered live births during 2005-2014. The sex ratios at birth were calculated after excluding infants with missing data on gender and those born with ambiguous genitalia. A total of 478,192 male births and 430,852 female births were recorded giving an overall ratio of 111.0. The sex ratio at birth was almost constant at around 110.7 during the period 2005-2008, followed by an increase to the peak at 113.1 in 2010 and then declined back to 109.6 in 2014. The gender ratio at birth in Hangzhou remained unbalanced for the past decade.
The reliability of four widely used patellar height ratios.
van Duijvenbode, Dennis; Stavenuiter, Michel; Burger, Bart; van Dijke, Cees; Spermon, Jacco; Hoozemans, Marco
2016-03-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability and the intra-observer reliability of four patellar height ratios: Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (MIS), Blackburne-Peel (BP) and Caton-Deschamps (CD). The patellar height ratios were assessed by four independent examiners using weight-bearing lateral knee radiographs in 30° flexion. Intra-class correlation coefficients and Fleiss' kappa's were determined. The inter-observer reliability was excellent for the IS and moderate for the other ratios. When the ratio values were categorized, the inter-observer reliability was strong for the IS, moderate for the MIS and BP, and poor for the CD. The intra-observer reliability was excellent for the IS, MIS and CD, and strong for the BP. When the ratio values were categorized, the intra-observer reliability was strong for the IS and MIS, and moderate for the other ratios. Although the IS showed best reliability, we advise to use the MIS as it showed the second best reliability but is, according to the literature, associated with better validity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gülşah Ilhan
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether systemic inflammatory markers (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR and red blood cell distribution width (RDW to platelet ratio (RPR can be used as reliable markers for the diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI and to determine if there is a relationship between these markers and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH levels.Materials and methods: Written and electronic medical records were reviewed using searches for diagnoses with the terms of 'premature ovarian failure', 'premature ovarian insufficiency'. Patients younger than the age of 40 were diagnosed to have premature ovarian insufficiency based on their menstrual history and sonographic examination and they were compared with healthy females. Complete blood counts, day-3 hormone profiles, AMH levels of all subjects were analyzed.Results: NLR was statistically higher in POI group compared with controls (p < 0.05. NLR had a positive correlation between FSH (r = 0.23, p = 0.045 and a negative association with AMH (r = - 0.27, p = 0.018. The area under ROC curve for NLR in POI was 0.66, with a threshold value 1.5 and sensitivity = 75.7 % and specificity = 46.0 %.Conclusion: NLR can be a marker for the diagnosis of POI. There is a close relationship between NLR and ovarian reserve markers such as FSH and AMH.
Influence of La/W ratio on electrical conductivity of lanthanum tungstate with high La/W ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojo, Gen; Shono, Yohei; Ushiyama, Hiroshi; Oshima, Yoshito; Otomo, Junichiro
2017-01-01
The proton-conducting properties of lanthanum tungstates (LWOs) with high La/W ratios were investigated using electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. Single phases of LWOs with high La/W ratios (6.3≤La/W≤6.7) were synthesized by high-temperature sintering at around 1700 °C. The electrical conductivity of LWO increased with increasing La/W ratio in the single-phase region. The LWO synthesized at the optimum sintering temperature and time, and with the optimum La/W ratio gave the maximum conductivity, i.e., 2.7×10 −3 S cm −1 with La/W=6.7 at 500 °C. Density functional theory calculations, using the nudged elastic band method, were performed to investigate the proton diffusion barrier. The results suggest that the proton diffusion paths around La sites have the lowest proton diffusion barrier. These findings improve our understanding of LWO synthesis and the proton-conducting mechanism and provide a strategy for improving proton conduction in LWOs. - Graphical abstract: The LWOs with high La/W ratios were synthesized for the first time. The optimum La/W ratio gave the maximum conductivity with La/W=6.7 at 500 °C. The proton diffusion paths were also considered with density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: • The proton-conducting properties of lanthanum tungstates (LWOs) were investigated. • Single phase LWOs with high La/W ratios (6.3≤La/W≤6.7) were synthesized successfully. • LWOs with the high La/W ratios showed high proton conductivity. • The DFT calculation suggested the lowest proton diffusion barrier in the path around La sites.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitty, J.P.M.; Henderson, B.; Francis, J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Incontrovertible evidence is presented that thermal stresses in cylindrical components which include nuclear reactors and containment vessels are shown to be highly dependent on the Poisson's ratio of the materials. → The key novelty is concerned with the identification of a new potential thermal applications for negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials; i.e. those that get fatter when they are stretched. → Negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials exhibit lower thermal stress build-up than conventional positive Poisson's ratio materials, this conjecture being proven using thermal surface plots. - Abstract: Analytical and numerical modelling have been employed to show that the choice of Poisson's ratio is one of the principal design criteria in order to reduce thermal stress build-up in isotropic materials. The modelling procedures are all twofold; consisting of a solution to a steady-state heat conduction problem followed by a linear static solution. The models developed take the form of simplistic thick-wall cylinders such model systems are applicable at macro-structural and micro-structural levels as the underlining formulations are based on the classical theory of elasticity. Generally, the results show that the Poisson's ratio of the material has a greater effect on the magnitude of the principal stresses than the aspect ratio of the cylinders investigated. Constraining the outside of these models significantly increases the thermal stresses induced. The most significant and original finding presented is that the for both freely expanding and constrained thick-wall cylinders the optimum Poisson's ratio is minus unity.
Assessment of the golden ratio in pleasing smiles.
Nikgoo, Arash; Alavi, Kamiar; Alavi, Kavah; Mirfazaelian, Ali
2009-01-01
The golden ratio is a guideline to help harmoniously restore or replace missing teeth. However, this concept is controversial. This study assesses the validity of the golden ratio between the widths of the maxillary anterior teeth in individuals presenting with an attractive/nonattractive smile. A double-stage random cluster sample cross-sectional study included 903 students whose ages ranged from 18 to 30 years and met the inclusion criteria. Image-measurement software was used to assess the perceived mesiodistal widths of the maxillary anterior teeth on scanned photographs. A jury of two dental professionals, a portrait photographer, and a painter, along with the respective subject as the fifth judge, determined the attractiveness of each smile on a visual analog scale. The mean value determined whether an individual was allocated to the attractive or nonattractive smile group. Finally, the prevalence of the golden ratio was investigated in these two groups. Intraobserver correlation coefficient was 0.966. Cochran's chi-square test was used for data analysis. According to the jury, 143 individuals had an attractive smile and 289 had a nonattractive smile. Maxillary central to lateral incisor ratio showed the golden proportion in 50.3% of the students with an attractive smile as compared to 38.1% in the nonattractive smile group (P =.014). However, the golden ratio between the maxillary lateral incisors and the canines existed in only 16.8% of the individuals with an attractive smile as compared to 12.1% in the nonattractive smile group (P =.223). The golden ratio can be useful to achieve esthetic restorations of the maxillary central and lateral incisors. However, the golden ratio between the perceived widths of the maxillary lateral incisors to the canines does not seem to be decisive for an attractive smile and other factors should be considered. © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.
The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe.
Muszyńska, Magdalena M; Rau, Roland
2012-09-01
The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat's population projection for the years 2010-2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010-2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010-2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15-64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat's population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.
MIR hollow waveguide (HWG) isotope ratio analyzer for environmental applications
Wang, Zhenyou; Zhuang, Yan; Deev, Andrei; Wu, Sheng
2017-05-01
An advanced commercial Mid-InfraRed Isotope Ratio (IR2) analyzer was developed in Arrow Grand Technologies based on hollow waveguide (HWG) as the sample tube. The stable carbon isotope ratio, i.e. δ13C, was obtained by measuring the selected CO2 absorption peaks in the MIR. Combined with a GC and a combustor, it has been successfully employed to measure compound specific δ13C isotope ratios in the field. By using both the 1- pass HWG and 5-path HWG, we are able to measure δ13C isotope ratio at a broad CO2 concentration of 300 ppm-37,500 ppm. Here, we demonstrate its applications in environmental studies. The δ13C isotope ratio and concentration of CO2 exhaled by soil samples was measured in real time with the isotope analyzer. The concentration was found to change with the time. We also convert the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) into CO2, and then measure the δ13C isotope ratio with an accuracy of better than 0.3 ‰ (1 σ) with a 6 min test time and 1 ml sample usage. Tap water, NaHCO3 solvent, coca, and even beer were tested. Lastly, the 13C isotope ratio of CO2 exhaled by human beings was obtained <10 seconds after simply blowing the exhaled CO2 into a tube with an accuracy of 0.5‰ (1 σ) without sample preconditioning. In summary, a commercial HWG isotope analyzer was demonstrated to be able to perform environmental and health studies with a high accuracy ( 0.3 ‰/Hz1/2 1 σ), fast sampling rate (up to 10 Hz), low sample consumption ( 1 ml), and broad CO2 concentration range (300 ppm-37,500 ppm).
Precise and accurate isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS.
Becker, J S; Dietze, H J
2000-09-01
The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is important for quite different application fields (e.g. for isotope ratio measurements of stable isotopes in nature, especially for the investigation of isotope variation in nature or age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, quality assurance of fuel material, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control, for tracer experiments using stable isotopes or long-lived radionuclides in biological or medical studies). Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which used to be the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements, is being increasingly replaced for isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS due to its excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy. Instrumental progress in ICP-MS was achieved by the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate many disturbing argon-based molecular ions, thermalize the ions and neutralize the disturbing argon ions of plasma gas (Ar+). The application of the collision cell in ICP-QMS results in a higher ion transmission, improved sensitivity and better precision of isotope ratio measurements compared to quadrupole ICP-MS without the collision cell [e.g., for 235U/238U approximately 1 (10 microg x L(-1) uranium) 0.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs. 0.2% RSD in short-term measurements (n = 5)]. A significant instrumental improvement for ICP-MS is the multicollector device (MC-ICP-MS) in order to obtain a better precision of isotope ratio measurements (with a precision of up to 0.002%, RSD). CE- and HPLC-ICP-MS are used for the separation of isobaric interferences of long-lived radionuclides and stable isotopes by determination of spallation nuclide abundances in an irradiated tantalum target.
Rotating spacetimes with asymptotic nonflat structure and the gyromagnetic ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, Alikram N.
2008-01-01
In general relativity, the gyromagnetic ratio for all stationary, axisymmetric, and asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell fields is known to be g=2. In this paper, we continue our previous works of examination of this result for rotating charged spacetimes with asymptotic nonflat structure. We first consider two instructive examples of these spacetimes: The spacetime of a Kerr-Newman black hole with a straight cosmic string on its axis of symmetry and the Kerr-Newman Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) spacetime. We show that for both spacetimes the gyromagnetic ratio g=2 independent of their asymptotic structure. We also extend this result to a general class of metrics which admit separation of variables for the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations. We proceed with the study of the gyromagnetic ratio in higher dimensions by considering the general solution for rotating charged black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We obtain the analytic expressions for two distinct gyromagnetic ratios of these black holes that are associated with their two independent rotation parameters. These expressions reveal the dependence of the gyromagnetic ratio on both the curvature radius of the AdS background and the parameters of the black holes: The mass, electric charge, and two rotation parameters. We explore some special cases of interest and show that when the two rotation parameters are equal to each other and the rotation occurs at the maximum angular velocity, the gyromagnetic ratio g=4 regardless of the value of the electric charge. This agrees precisely with our earlier result obtained for general Kerr-AdS black holes with a test electric charge. We also show that in the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) limit the gyromagnetic ratio for a supersymmetric black hole with equal rotation parameters ranges between 2 and 4
Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang
2013-01-01
The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TU sum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). Combined with a QSAR model of [Formula: see text]in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios.
Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding
Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun
2012-01-01
The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of
The HNC/HCN ratio in star-forming regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graninger, Dawn M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herbst, Eric; Vasyunin, Anton I.
2014-01-01
HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio show that the ratio decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN ratio and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN ratio under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitatively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemical calculations. In warm-up models, gas-grain chemistry contributes significantly to the predicted HNC/HCN ratio and understanding the dynamics of star formation is therefore key to model the HNC/HCN system.
Skewed Sex Ratios and Criminal Victimization in India
South, Scott J.; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita
2014-01-01
Although substantial research has explored the causes of India’s excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004–2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women’s empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India’s growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. PMID:24682921
D/H ratios of the inner Solar System.
Hallis, L J
2017-05-28
The original hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of different planetary bodies may indicate where each body formed in the Solar System. However, geological and atmospheric processes can alter these ratios through time. Over the past few decades, D/H ratios in meteorites from Vesta and Mars, as well as from S- and C-type asteroids, have been measured. The aim of this article is to bring together all previously published data from these bodies, as well as the Earth, in order to determine the original D/H ratio for each of these inner Solar System planetary bodies. Once all secondary processes have been stripped away, the inner Solar System appears to be relatively homogeneous in terms of water D/H, with the original water D/H ratios of Vesta, Mars, the Earth, and S- and C-type asteroids all falling between δD values of -100‰ and -590‰. This homogeneity is in accord with the 'Grand tack' model of Solar System formation, where giant planet migration causes the S- and C-type asteroids to be mixed within 1 AU to eventually form the terrestrial planets.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Authors.
Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.
2007-01-01
The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio
Calculation of the Cardiothoracic Ratio from Portable Anteroposterior Chest Radiography
Chon, Sung Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Sam Soo
2011-01-01
Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), the ratio of cardiac diameter (CD) to thoracic diameter (TD), is a useful screening method to detect cardiomegaly, but is reliable only on posteroanterior chest radiography (chest PA). We performed this cross-sectional 3-phase study to establish reliable CTR from anteroposterior chest radiography (chest AP). First, CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratios were determined at different radiation distances by manipulating chest computed tomography to simulate chest PA and AP. CDChest PA was inferred from multiplying CDChest AP by this ratio. Incorporating this CD and substituting the most recent TDChest PA, we calculated the 'corrected' CTR and compared it with the conventional one in patients who took both the chest radiographies. Finally, its validity was investigated among the critically ill patients who performed portable chest AP. CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratio was {0.00099 × (radiation distance [cm])} + 0.79 (n = 61, r = 1.00, P chest AP with an available previous chest PA. This might help physicians detect congestive cardiomegaly for patients undergoing portable chest AP. PMID:22065900
Skewed sex ratios and criminal victimization in India.
South, Scott J; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita
2014-06-01
Although substantial research has explored the causes of India's excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women's empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India's growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed.
Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".
Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant
2013-06-01
Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India.
Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?
Shah, Ajit
2011-05-01
The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.
Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61
Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël
2018-02-01
Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.
Posterior distributions for likelihood ratios in forensic science.
van den Hout, Ardo; Alberink, Ivo
2016-09-01
Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken. The posterior likelihood approach has been criticised both theoretically and with respect to applicability. This paper addresses the latter and illustrates an interesting application area. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forecasting Fire Insurance Loss Ratio in Misr Insurance Company
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarek TAHA
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.
Fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios
Turner, C. Christopher; Carman, C. Davis; Hillberry, Ben M.
1988-01-01
Fatigue crack delay behavior at high stress ratio caused by single peak overloads was investigated in two thicknesses of 7475-T731 aluminum alloy. Closure measurements indicated no closure occurred before or throughout the overload plastic zones following the overload. This was further substantiated by comparing the specimen compliance following the overload with the compliance of a low R ratio test when the crack was fully open. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that crack tunneling and possibly reinitiation of the crack occurred, most likely a result of crack-tip blunting. The number of delay cycles was greater for the thinner mixed mode stress state specimen than for the thicker plane strain stress state specimen, which is similar to low R ratio test results and may be due to a larger plastic zone for the mixed mode cased.
CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratios representing the liquidity as current assets, assets implied in the determination of liquidity ratios. The end of the paper consists of the conclusions drawn from the issues presented in the paper but also our views on this research topic.
Baryon-to-dark matter ratio from random angular fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, John
2013-01-01
We consider the baryon-to-dark matter ratio in models where the dark matter and baryon densities depend on angular fields θ d and θ b according to ρ d ∝θ d α and ρ b ∝θ b β , with all values of θ d and θ b being equally probable in a given randomly-selected domain. Under the assumption that anthropic selection depends primarily on the baryon density in galaxies at spherical collapse, we show that the probability density function for the baryon-to-dark matter ratio r = Ω B /Ω DM is purely statistical in nature and is independent of anthropic selection. We compute the probability density function for r as a function of α and β and show that the observed value of the baryon-to-dark matter ratio, r ≈ 1/5, is natural in this framework
Ultima Ratio and the Judicial Application of Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joxerramon Bengoetxea
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The nature of Ultima Ratio as a principle, its relationship to other principles in the criminal law is the first subject of this paper. After discarding approaches that deny any role to the ultima ratio principle like the criminal law of the enemy, the major readings of the justification of the ius puniendi – deontological and utilitarian – are related to the idea of a restrained resort to criminalisation and penal sanction. The role of the main protagonists in relation to punishment is next considered: transgressor, community and victim. The issues of impunity and overpunity are also considered in this part. The second part of the paper analyses the possible effects of ultima ratio, a general politico-moral principle mainly addressed to the legislator, on the application of the law by the judges. It is then turned into something closer to a general legal principle. The impact of ultima ratio on the different sub-decisions of the judicial application of the criminal law is spelt out in the decisions on qualification, evidence (inferences, interpretation and consequences in sentencing. Next, the role of ultima ratio on decisions in appeal and in cassation is analysed. The third part and conclusion deals with the main ideologies of ultima ratio and the wider issue of its role in securing a guarantee oriented criminal law in Europe. En este artículo se aborda, en primer lugar, el carácter de ultima ratio como principio, su relación con otros principios en el derecho penal. Después de descartar los enfoques que rechazan cualquier papel del principio de ultima ratio como el derecho penal del enemigo, las lecturas principales de la justificación del ius puniendi, deontológico y utilitarista, están relacionadas con la idea de un recurso restringido a la criminalización y sanción penal. A continuación, se analiza el papel de los protagonistas principales relacionados con el castigo: transgresor, comunidad y víctima. En esta parte tambi
[The sex ratio at birth: a retrospective review and commentary].
Aubenque, M
1989-01-01
Trends in the sex ratio are examined, and the possible effect of new biotechnologies on sex preselection is discussed. "We recall that this ratio is very stable, around 105 males for 100 females (live births). However, in France, a slight decreasing trend during the 19th century can be observed (from 107 to 104). At the present time this ratio seems to be maintained at a level of 105.3. The great demographic perturbations, particularly caused by wars, have been marked by a slight but notable increase in the indicator (106) when natality rises again after a deep depression. The variations, always small, of this indicator are more dependent on the male than on female natality, for reasons that are unclear." A comment by Paul Damiani is included (pp. 99-102). (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Scales of guide field reconnection at the hydrogen mass ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.
2010-01-01
We analyze the signatures of component reconnection for a Harris current sheet with a guide field using the physical mass ratio of hydrogen. The study uses the fully kinetic particle in cell code IPIC3D to investigate the scaling with mass ratio of the following three main component reconnection features: electron density cavities along the separatrices, channels of fast electron flow within the cavities, and electron phase space holes due to the Buneman instability in the electron high speed channels. The width and strength of the electron holes and of the electron cavities are studied up the mass ratio proper of hydrogen, considering the effect of the simulation box size, and of the boundary conditions. The results compare favorably with the existing data from the Cluster and Themis missions and provide quantitative predictions for realistic conditions to be encountered by the planned magnetospheric multiscale mission.
Rapid Development, Build-Out Ratio and Subsequent Neighborhood Turnover
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George O. Rogers
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Neighborhood development is primarily comprised of structural elements that include design elements, nearby amenities and ecological attributes. This paper assumes that the process of development itself also influences the character of the neighborhood—specifically, that the rate of development and build-out ratio influences neighborhood turnover. While the structural components clearly set a framework for development, the process of development expresses the character of the neighborhood in subtle messages conveyed through the market. Neighborhoods in the rapidly growing university town of College Station, Texas are analyzed in terms of neighborhood design, nearby amenities and landscape ecology components. Residential property records are used to characterize each neighborhood in terms of the rate of development and current build-out ratio. The multivariate analysis indicates that the development rate increases subsequent neighborhood turnover rates while the build-out ratio decreases it.
Meat characteristics of buffaloes fed with different roughage: concentrate ratios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sanghuayprai
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Meat characteristics of mature swamp buffalo fed with two different ratios of roughage and concentrate feed was studied. Twelve draught buffaloes with an average weight of 350 kg were randomly divided into two treatments and kept individually in pens. The concentrate:roughage ratio (based on dry matter was 50:50 (T1 or 30:70 (T2, respectively. All buffaloes were slaughtered at a body weight of 500 kg (± 25 and M. longissimus dorsi was removed in order to study meat quality. The meat quality in terms of color, pH and conductivity values were not significantly different between the groups. Meat color in terms of L* (lightness showed that LD of T2 group was significantly lighter when compared with T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, meat characteristic traits of buffalo fed concentrate to roughage in ratios of 50:50 or 30:70 were similar.
CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients.
Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Miyaji, Karina T; Hunt, Peter W; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B; Freire, Marcos S; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Hong, Marisa A; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C; Cerqueira, Natalia B; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M; Kallas, Esper G
2016-12-01
HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation-characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity-may influence vaccine response in this population. We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV-infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio.
CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients
Hunt, Peter W.; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Hong, Marisa A.; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C.; Cerqueira, Natalia B.; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M.; Kallas, Esper G.
2016-01-01
Background HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation–characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity—may influence vaccine response in this population. Methods We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. Results 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV–infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. Conclusions HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio. PMID:27941965
Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferenc Molnár
Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.
Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan, E-mail: aravinds@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: erath@iitk.ac.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)
2017-04-15
The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)
Elliptic nozzle aspect ratio effect on controlled jet propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, S M Aravindh; Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan
2017-01-01
The present study deals with the control of a Mach 2 elliptic jet from a convergent–divergent elliptic nozzle of aspect ratio 4 using tabs at the nozzle exit. The experiments were carried out for rectangular and triangular tabs of the same blockage, placed along the major and minor axes of the nozzle exit, at different levels of nozzle expansion. The triangular tabs along the minor axis promoted superior mixing compared to the other controlled jets and caused substantial core length reduction at all the nozzle pressure ratios studied. The rectangular tabs along the minor axis caused core length reduction at all pressure ratios, but the values were minimal compared to that of triangular tabs along the minor axis. For all the test conditions, the mixing promotion caused by tabs along the major axis was inferior to that of tabs along the minor axis. The waves present in the core of controlled jets were visualized using a shadowgraph. Comparison of the present results with the results of a controlled Mach 2 elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2 (Aravindh Kumar and Sathakrishnan 2016 J. Propulsion Power 32 121–33, Aravindh Kumar and Rathakrishnan 2016 J. Aerospace Eng. at press (doi:10.1177/0954410016652921)) show that for all levels of expansion, the mixing effectiveness of triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 4 nozzle is better than rectangular or triangular tabs along the minor axis of an aspect ratio 2 nozzle. (paper)
Selected financial and operating ratios of public power systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moody, D.
1993-01-01
In 1992, the American Public Power Association published its fourth report on financial and operating ratios. Based on 1990 data for the largest public power distribution systems, the report examined 21 categories of ratio indicators that can be used by public power distribution systems to assess their performance relative to the utilities of of comparable size and in the same geographic region. The 394 utilities summarized in the report are those that are required to file financial statements with the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Ratios were calculated from financial and operating data reported by utilities to the EIA. Data are presented for the following ratios: (1) revenue per kW/hr; (2) revenue for customer; (3) debt to total assets; (4) operating ratio; (5) current ratio; (6) times interest earned; (7) net income per revenue dollar; (8) uncollectible accounts per revenue dollar; (9) retail MW hr sales per manpower generation employee; (10) retail customers per nonpower generation employee; (11) total operation and maintenane expense per kW hr sold; (12) total operation and maintenance expense per retail customer; (13) total power supply expense kW hr sold; (14) purchased power cost per kW hr; (15) production expense per not kW hr; (16) retail customers for with reader; (17) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per retail customer; (18) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per circuit mile; (19) customer accounting, customer service and sales expenses per retail customers; (20) administration and general expenses per retail customer; (21) labor expense per worker-hour; (22) OSHA incidence rate; and (23) the system average interruptible duration index
Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))
1992-12-20
Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard
Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...... show that the likelihood ratio unit root test derived in a Gaussian AR(1) model with standard normal innovations is nearly efficient in that model. Moreover, these desirable properties carry over to more complicated models allowing for serially correlated and/or non-Gaussian innovations....
Mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups of galaxies
Materne, J
1980-01-01
The application of a probability density function gives the possibility of determining groups of galaxies and membership probabilities of the galaxies in a reliable unbiased way. For the five nearest groups so defined, the mean mass-to-light ratio was derived using the concept of negative energy. These groups have a mass-to- light ratio of 16 M/sub (.)//L/sub (.)/. The probability function gives also the possibility of deriving masses of groups in a direct and independent way. (22 refs).
Stability of high β large aspect ratio tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, S.C.
1991-10-01
High β(β much-gt ε/q 2 ) large aspect ratio (ε much-gt 1) tokamak equilibria are shown to be always stable to ideal M.H.D. modes that are localized about a flux surface. Both the ballooning and interchange modes are shown to be stable. This work uses the analytic high β large aspect ratio tokamak equilibria developed by Cowley et.al., which are valid for arbitrary pressure and safety factor profiles. The stability results make no assumption about these profiles or the shape of the boundary. 14 refs., 4 figs
Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests for Seasonal Unit Roots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard
In an important generalization of zero frequency autore- gressive unit root tests, Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) developed regression-based tests for unit roots at the seasonal frequencies in quarterly time series. We develop likelihood ratio tests for seasonal unit roots and show...... that these tests are "nearly efficient" in the sense of Elliott, Rothenberg, and Stock (1996), i.e. that their local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope. Currently available nearly efficient testing procedures for seasonal unit roots are regression-based and require...... the choice of a GLS detrending parameter, which our likelihood ratio tests do not....
Ratio of the dose factors of the isotopes of iodine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papadopoulos, D.; Thomas, P.
1977-12-01
The ratio of dose factors occurring during inhalation and ingestion to the respective dose factors of I-129 is calculated for the isotopes of I-123 to I-126 and I-129 to I-135. All the dose factors refer to the thyroid as the critical organ. A distinction is made between adults and infants up to 1 year of age. To calculate the ratios only the effective energies and the effective half-lives in the human body and on grass are required. Most of the data have been taken from the literature. The effective energies of I-123 and I-125 have been calculated as examples. (orig.) [de
Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Biath
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured values are substituted into the formula for the compression ratio, and the resulting evaluations are presented in the diagram in the conclusion of this paper.
Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons
Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1999-01-01
The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.
Isotope yield ratios as a probe of the reaction dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trautmann, W.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Rabe, H.J.; Sann, H.; Stelzer, H.; Trockel, R.; Wada, R.; Brummund, N.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Santo, R.; Eckert, E.M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Bock, I.; Pelte, D.
1987-04-01
Isotopically resolved yields of particles and complex fragments from 12 C and 18 O induced reactions on 53 Ni, 54 Ni, Ag, and 197 Au in the intermediate range of bombarding energies 30 MeV ≤ E/A ≤ 84 MeV were measured. The systematic variation of the deduced isotope yield ratios with projectile and target is used to determine the degree of N/Z equilibration achieved and to establish time scales for the reaction process. A quantum statistical model is employed in order to derive entropies of the emitting systems from the measured isotope yield ratios. (orig.)
Calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves from harvest age ratios
Miller, David A.; Otis, David L.
2010-01-01
We examined results from the first national-scale effort to estimate mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) age ratios and developed a simple, efficient, and generalizable methodology for calibrating estimates. Our method predicted age classes of unknown-age wings based on backward projection of molt distributions from fall harvest collections to preseason banding. We estimated 1) the proportion of late-molt individuals in each age class, and 2) the molt rates of juvenile and adult birds. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated our estimator was minimally biased. We estimated model parameters using 96,811 wings collected from hunters and 42,189 birds banded during preseason from 68 collection blocks in 22 states during the 2005–2007 hunting seasons. We also used estimates to derive a correction factor, based on latitude and longitude of samples, which can be applied to future surveys. We estimated differential vulnerability of age classes to harvest using data from banded birds and applied that to harvest age ratios to estimate population age ratios. Average, uncorrected age ratio of known-age wings for states that allow hunting was 2.25 (SD 0.85) juveniles:adult, and average, corrected ratio was 1.91 (SD 0.68), as determined from harvest age ratios from an independent sample of 41,084 wings collected from random hunters in 2007 and 2008. We used an independent estimate of differential vulnerability to adjust corrected harvest age ratios and estimated the average population age ratio as 1.45 (SD 0.52), a direct measure of recruitment rates. Average annual recruitment rates were highest east of the Mississippi River and in the northwestern United States, with lower rates between. Our results demonstrate a robust methodology for calibrating recruitment estimates for mourning doves and represent the first large-scale estimates of recruitment for the species. Our methods can be used by managers to correct future harvest survey data to generate recruitment estimates for use in
A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuelin Gao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Conversion ratio in epithermal PWR, in thorium and uranium cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, D.E.G.
1982-01-01
Results obtained for the conversion ratio in PWR reactors with close lattices, operating in thorium and uranium cycles, are presented. The study of those reactors is done in an unitary fuel cell of the lattices with several ratios V sub(M)/V sub(F), considering only the equilibrium cycles and adopting a non-spatial depletion calculation model, aiming to simulate mass flux of reactor heavy elements in the reactor. The neutronic analysis and the cross sections generation are done with Hammer computer code, with one critical apreciation about the application of this code in epithermal systems and with modifications introduced in the library of basic data. (E.G.) [pt
Conversion ratio and consumption of fissile material in PWR reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiba, C.
1977-01-01
It has been shown that the uranium resources will be insufficient for future projected demand. The many solutions to this problem are considered and, in particular, the effect of enrichment on the conversion ratio and hence total uranium comsumption is studied. The developed computacional method employs the one-group neutron diffusion theory. The model is verified by calculating typical burn-up, conversion ratio, U-235 comsumption and plutonium production values in PWR's, and comparing results with those in the published literature. The associated costs of U and U-Pu fuel cycles are also studied for various enrichment values [pt
Determination of thoron and radon ratio by liquid scintillation spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, H.; Nakanishi, T.; Nakahara, H.
2006-01-01
A portable liquid scintillation counter was applied for the analysis of alpha-ray energy spectrum to determine the ratio of 220 Rn/ 222 Rn in fumarolic gas in the field. A surface-polished vial was developed, by which a Gaussian distribution could be approximated for the alpha-ray energy spectra and the peak areas of the nuclides could be estimated independently, because of the wide FWHM in the liquid scintillation pulse. A fumarolic gas sample was collected in Mt. Kamiyama (Hakoneyama geothermal field in Japan) having low 220 Rn/ 222 Rn ratio of 2.20 ± 0.13. (author)
Likelihood ratio decisions in memory: three implied regularities.
Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andrew; Maloney, Laurence T
2009-06-01
We analyze four general signal detection models for recognition memory that differ in their distributional assumptions. Our analyses show that a basic assumption of signal detection theory, the likelihood ratio decision axis, implies three regularities in recognition memory: (1) the mirror effect, (2) the variance effect, and (3) the z-ROC length effect. For each model, we present the equations that produce the three regularities and show, in computed examples, how they do so. We then show that the regularities appear in data from a range of recognition studies. The analyses and data in our study support the following generalization: Individuals make efficient recognition decisions on the basis of likelihood ratios.
Cytokine ratios in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath; Muddapur, M V; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D
Chronic periodontitis may influence systemic cytokines in type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine ratios in type 2 diabetes with, and without chronic periodontitis. Gingival status, periodontal, glycemic parameters and serum cytokines were evaluated in participants grouped as healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 diabetes with, and without chronic periodontitis. Cytokine ratios showed significant differences in type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, were highest in participants having both type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, with a statistically significant cut-off point and area under curve by receiver operating characteristic. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maruyama, Yoko; Inoue, Keita; Mori, Keita; Gorai, Katsuya; Shimamoto, Ryo; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Masahiro
2017-01-01
In microsurgical head and neck reconstruction, a higher rate of post-operative wound complication could be predicted by a lower pre-operative neutrophil ratio (wound complications in microsurgical head and neck reconstruction. Patients who were undergoing tumor ablation and microsurgical reconstruction from April 2011 to March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The pre-operative hematological data, age, sex, co-morbidities, body mass index (BMI), adjuvant therapies, smoking, operation time, blood loss, total protein, T-stage, and Anesthesiologists Performance Status (ASA-PS) score were collected. Cases of post-operative wound healing failure were reviewed. One hundred and three consecutive patients were enrolled. Among these, the results of 77 patients who were younger than 70 years of age were analyzed. The distributions of the neutrophil ratio (p = .0005), lymphocyte ratio (p = .0166), monocyte ratio (p = .0341), NLR (p = .005), and PLR (p = .008) differed significantly between the patients with and without post-operative wound healing failure. Neutrophil ratio, NLR, and PLR cut-off values of 64.9, 3.5, and 160 were significantly associated with the rate of wound healing failure rate (p = .0002, .00021, .0042, respectively).
Landslide Prediction Capability by Comparison of Frequency Ratio ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
8
3.2.2.1.4 Curvature: The surface curvature at a point is the curvature of a line formed .... (Pham et al, 2017) or by saturating the lower part of the material in a .... In order to fuzzy analysis, at first, the weights of frequency ratio was standardized.
The Golden ratio, ionic and atomic radii and bond lengths
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Heyrovská, Rajalakshmi
2005-01-01
Roč. 103, 6-8 (2005), s. 877-882 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Bohr radius * bond lengths * axial ratios Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2005
26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.
2010-04-01
... applicable fraction of zero (0/$2,000 = 0) and an inclusion ratio of one (1 − 0 = 1). ... subtracting the applicable fraction (rounded to the nearest one-thousandth (.001)) from 1. In rounding the applicable fraction to the nearest one-thousandth, any amount that is midway between one one-thousandth and...
Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.
1998-01-01
Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...
Understanding the properties of diagnostic tests - Part 2: Likelihood ratios.
Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh
2018-01-01
Diagnostic tests are used to identify subjects with and without disease. In a previous article in this series, we examined some attributes of diagnostic tests - sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. In this second article, we look at likelihood ratios, which are useful for the interpretation of diagnostic test results in everyday clinical practice.
Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory - Improving a Practical for Academic Development Students. ... Analysis of data collected in 2001 shows that the changes made a significant impact on the effectiveness of the laboratory session. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.56 2003: 47-53 ...
RpA ratio: total shadowing due to running coupling
Iancu, E.; Triantafyllopoulos, D. N.
2007-01-01
We predict that the RpA ratio at the most forward rapidities to be measured at LHC should be strongly suppressed, close to "total shadowing'' (RpA = A^(-1/3)), as a consequence of running coupling effects in the nonlinear QCD evolution.
THE CONFLUENCE RATIO OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN RIVERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ROŞIAN GH.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available There are many possibilities to assess the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of a territory. Among them, one remarks the confluence ratio of the rivers belonging to different catchment areas. The values of this indicator may provide information regarding the stage of evolution of the fluvial landforms in the Transylvanian Basin. Also, the values may serve for the calculation of other parameters of catchment areas like: the degree of finishing of the drainage basin for its corresponding order, the density of river segments within a catchment area etc. To calculate the confluence ratio, 35 catchment areas of different orders have been selected. The confluence ratio varies between 3.04 and 6.07. The large range of values demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous lithology and of morphological and hydrographical contrasts from one catchment area to the other. The existence of values above 5, correlated also with observations in the field, reveals an accelerated dynamics of the geomorphological processes in those catchment areas. This dynamic is mainly supported by the high landform fragmentation due to the first order rivers. In contrast, the catchment areas that have a confluence ratio below 5 are in a more advanced stage of evolution with stable slopes, unable to initiate new first order river segments.
Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurosawa, Tsuneo.
1991-01-01
Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)
Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio
1997-04-01
For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)
Adult sex ratio variation : Implications for breeding system evolution
Szekely, T.; Weissing, F. J.; Komdeur, J.
Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to
Is Hedging a Habit? Hedging Ratio Determination of Cotton Producers
Dorfman, J.H.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.
2010-01-01
We examine the role that habit plays when producers determine their hedge ratio. Data were collected from U.S. cotton growers in which they indicated their hedging position in 2001 and 2002 as well as their perceived profitability, land ownership structure, and income. To account for heterogeneity,
Examining the validity of numerical ratios in loudness fractionation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zimmer, Karin
2005-01-01
was to adjust the loudness of a 1-kHz tone so that it reached a certain prespecified fraction of the loudness of a reference tone. The results of the first experiment suggest that the listeners were indeed able to make adjustments on a ratio scale level. It was not possible, however, to interpret the nominal...
42 CFR 403.256 - Loss ratio supporting data.
2010-10-01
... individual or a group policy. (2) The earliest age at which policyholders can purchase the policy. (3) The... service. (vi) Interest. (vii) Expected distribution, by age and sex, of persons who will purchase the...) The past loss ratio experience for the policy, including the experience of all riders and endorsements...
Stress ratio determination from the core-disking phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnhoff, T.F.; Stefansson, B.; Thirumalai, K.
1982-08-01
The ability to predict in situ stress conditions from standard core samples offers planning and site-selection advantages for most underground facilities. This paper presents an empirical relation for estimating the horizontal to vertical stress ratio in basalt. The resulting estimates can then be used to help assess the extent to which measurement of in situ stress is required. The core disking phenomenon has long been used as an indicator of high in situ stress. It is concluded that disks form as the result of tensile failure initiation rather than shear failure initiation of the core. It is deduced that the tensile failure begins at the edge of the core and propagates toward the center in shear rather than beginning at the center and propagating outward. An empirical relation for horizontal to vertical stress ratio variation with depth has been developed and is shown to agree substantially with previous measured horizontal to vertical stress ratios for locations in several areas of the world. The stress-ratio predictions are justified based on finite-element studies using linear elastic analysis and also nonlinear (tension cut-off) analysis. Indications of fracture propagation paths were determined from the analyses. The shape of the predicted propagation path agrees well with physical observations
Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar
2015-01-01
We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached...
Glucorticoids/insulin ratio in irradiated animal blood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizina, T.Yu.
1990-01-01
Similar changes in blood levels of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and glucocorticoids (GC) were observed in rats, mice and dogs after X-irradiation with lethal doses. The use of the blood GC/IRI ratio indices in estimating the functional status of the exposed organism is discussed
Does Size Matter? The Impact of Student-Staff Ratios
McDonald, Gael
2013-01-01
Student-staff ratios (SSRs) in higher education have a significant impact on teaching and learning and critical financial implications for organisations. While SSRs are often used as a currency for quality both externally for political reasons and internally within universities for resource allocations, there is a considerable amount of ambiguity…
Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania
2013-01-01
This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...
Second to Fourth Digit Ratio and Numerical Competence in Children
Fink, Bernhard; Brookes, Helen; Neave, Nick; Manning, John T.; Geary, David C.
2006-01-01
The ratio between the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D)--a potential proxy for prenatal testosterone (T) exposure--shows a sex difference, with males usually having lower mean values; the latter potentially indicates higher prenatal T exposure. We studied relations between 2D:4D and competencies in the domains of counting, number knowledge, and…
The relative worst order ratio applied to paging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boyar, Joan; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Larsen, Kim Skak
2007-01-01
The relative worst order ratio, a new measure for the quality of on-line algorithms, was recently defined and applied to two bin packing problems. Here, we apply it to the paging problem and obtain the following results: We devise a new deterministic paging algorithm, Retrospective-LRU, and show...
A simplification of the likelihood ratio test statistic for testing ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The traditional likelihood ratio test statistic for testing hypothesis about goodness of fit of multinomial probabilities in one, two and multi – dimensional contingency table was simplified. Advantageously, using the simplified version of the statistic to test the null hypothesis is easier and faster because calculating the expected ...
The Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids
Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.
1972-01-01
Under the assumption that the coupling between the sound modes and modes associated with heat and mass diffusion can be neglected, an expression for the Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids is derived using thermodynamic fluctuation theory. Applications of the general formula to ternary
Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqian J Chai
Full Text Available The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.
Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.
Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F
2012-01-01
The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing) cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects) cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.
Carbon isotope ratios in field Population II giant stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sneden, C.; Pilachowski, C.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Victoria Univ., Canada)
1986-01-01
Carbon isotope ratios have been derived from high-resolution spectra of the CH G-band in 15 very metal-poor Population II giant stars and two similar dwarf stars. Many of the giants possess very low C-12/C-13 ratios, some approaching the CN cycle equilibrium value. The metal-poor dwarfs do not have detectable CH-13 features; thus the low carbon isotope ratios in the giants probably are due to their internal evolutions. These results strongly support the idea that at least part of the anomalously low C/N values in Population II giants arises from very efficient mixing of their envelopes into the CN cycle burning layers. Detailed calculations of the expected CNO surface abundances in Population II giants in different evolutionary states have been performed. These computations demonstrate that the observed carbon isotope ratios cannot be produced during the first dredge-up mixing phases in low-mass, low metal abundance stars. Numerical experiments show that theoretical and observational results can be brought into agreement with artificially induced extra mixing. An agent to provoke this additional mixing has not been identified with certainty yet, although internal stellar rotation is a promising candidate. 63 references
Ratio of Pions to Protons & Neutral to Charged Interacting
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In Table I values for the NP ratio calculated on the basis of formula (2) are given in the second column within brackets. It is seen that the values obtained according to formula (2) are always higher than those according to formula (). It is seen from Table that the observed value of () 99 . . for NIP excludes the probability of ...
Platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with ...
Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...
Spatial age-length key modelling using continuation ratio logits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Casper W.; Kristensen, Kasper
2012-01-01
-called age-length key (ALK) is then used to obtain the age distribution. Regional differences in ALKs are not uncommon, but stratification is often problematic due to a small number of samples. Here, we combine generalized additive modelling with continuation ratio logits to model the probability of age...
Uncertainty importance analysis using parametric moment ratio functions.
Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Song, Jingwen
2014-02-01
This article presents a new importance analysis framework, called parametric moment ratio function, for measuring the reduction of model output uncertainty when the distribution parameters of inputs are changed, and the emphasis is put on the mean and variance ratio functions with respect to the variances of model inputs. The proposed concepts efficiently guide the analyst to achieve a targeted reduction on the model output mean and variance by operating on the variances of model inputs. The unbiased and progressive unbiased Monte Carlo estimators are also derived for the parametric mean and variance ratio functions, respectively. Only a set of samples is needed for implementing the proposed importance analysis by the proposed estimators, thus the computational cost is free of input dimensionality. An analytical test example with highly nonlinear behavior is introduced for illustrating the engineering significance of the proposed importance analysis technique and verifying the efficiency and convergence of the derived Monte Carlo estimators. Finally, the moment ratio function is applied to a planar 10-bar structure for achieving a targeted 50% reduction of the model output variance. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis
Ding, Suining
2008-01-01
This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
Novel Ratio Subtraction and Isoabsorptive Point Methods for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To develop and validate two innovative spectrophotometric methods used for the simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride and doxycycline in their binary mixture. Methods: Ratio subtraction and isoabsorptive point methods were used for the simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride ...
Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)
1994-06-01
Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.
Comparison CCEM-K8 of DC voltage ratio: results
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Marullo-Reedtz, G
2003-04-01
Full Text Available , he has been with VNIIM where he has been involved in inves- tigation and development of electrical standards of dc voltage and dc current, using quantum effects in LT- and HT-superconductors and ratio voltage mea- surement up to 1000 V. Ronald...
Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone
Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.
2010-07-01
Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.
The rectilinear Steiner ratio | de Wet | ORiON
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104–114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result. Key words: ...
Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers
Meijer, H.A.J.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Visser, G.H.
2000-01-01
Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas land vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages
THE ENIGMA OF ETHIOPIAN SEX RATIOS AT BIRTH.
Garenne, Michel
2017-09-01
This study analysed sex ratios at birth (defined as the number of male births per 100 female births) using data on children ever-born from three censuses conducted in Ethiopia in 1984, 1994 and 2007. The results showed very high values by any standard, with an average of 108.4 for a sample of some 8.2 million births, with somewhat lower values in urban areas. Analysis of socioeconomic correlates revealed that the sex ratio varied very much by household wealth, from about 110 for very poor women to about 102 for wealthier women. The high value of the sex ratio at birth in Ethiopia could be explained by poverty, used as a proxy for poor nutritional status. In multivariate analysis, the effects of living in urban areas and of maternal education were less important than household wealth. Among the many ethno-linguistic groups, the Nilotic family had higher sex ratios than other groups. The results were confirmed using data from DHS surveys conducted in the country, and by the analysis of children still living at time of census.
Ortho-to-para ratio of interstellar heavy water
Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; Coutens, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Bottinelli, S.; Demyk, K.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Scribano, Y.; Bacmann, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Maret, S.; Walters, A.; Bergin, E.A.; Blake, G.A.; Castets, A.; Crimier, N.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gérin, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Melnick, G.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Wakelam, V.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Helmich, F.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kama, M.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F.; van der Wiel, M.H.D.; Viti, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Cais, P.; Krieg, J.M.; Olberg, M.; Ravera, L.
2010-01-01
Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims. The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key
Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp
Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.
Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This
Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reginia H Y Yan
Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.
On the Approximation Ratio of Lempel-Ziv Parsing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gagie, Travis; Navarro, Gonzalo; Prezza, Nicola
2018-01-01
in the text. Since computing b is NP-complete, a popular gold standard is z, the number of phrases in the Lempel-Ziv parse of the text, where phrases can be copied only from the left. While z can be computed in linear time, almost nothing has been known for decades about its approximation ratio with respect...
Burst-Suppression Ratio on Electrocorticography Depends on Interelectrode Distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moldovan, Mihai; Calin, Alexandru; Kumaraswamy, Vishakhadatta M.
2016-01-01
Introduction: With deepening of anesthesia-induced comatose states, the EEG becomes fragmented by increasing periods of suppression. When measured from conventional EEG recordings, the binary burst-suppression signal (BS) appears similar across the scalp. As such, the BS ratio (BSR), quantifying...
Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.
1999-01-01
Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...
Effects of Mineral Admixtures, Water Binder Ratio and Curing on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Suitable addition of mineral admixtures like fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), metakaolin (MK) etc., in concrete improves strength and durability characteristics of concrete. This paper presents the laboratory investigation on the effects of mineral admixtures and water binder ratio on compressive strength is discussed. The study ...
Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium
Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris
2017-01-01
Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling
A Journal-Neutral Ratio for Marketing Faculty Scholarship Assessment
Elbeck, Matt; Baruca, Arne
2015-01-01
This article proposes a journal-neutral Publication to Citation Ratio (PCR) to complement qualitative methods to evaluate a marketing educator's scholarship for reappointment, promotion, tenure, and post-tenure review (RPTP) decisions. We empirically establish a minimum time period to evaluate scholarship data, then benchmark publication and…
Adaptive Nonparametric Variance Estimation for a Ratio Estimator ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kernel estimators for smooth curves require modifications when estimating near end points of the support, both for practical and asymptotic reasons. The construction of such boundary kernels as solutions of variational problem is a difficult exercise. For estimating the error variance of a ratio estimator, we suggest an ...
Delays help German utilities maintain self-financing ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radtke, G.
1979-01-01
Estimates of electricity consumption have been substantially reduced and nuclear plant is now expected to be 22% of total generating capacity in 1985 instead of the earlier forecast of 36%. The decline in the ordering of new plant has benefited the financial position of the electricity utilities and the expected fall in self-financing ratios has not occurred. (U.K.)
Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...
Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon
2011-05-01
This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.
Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Infiltration measurements using a double-ring infiltrometer were conducted on a sandy-loam soil located in Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed for an undisturbed soil. The effect of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electric conductivity (EC) of the applied water on infiltration rate was examined. The infiltration ...
The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); von Hippel, Matt [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States)
2016-01-11
We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q^{-} differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N^{3}LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.
Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios
Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan
2012-02-01
This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.
Effect of Blend Ratio on Thermo-Physical and Sensory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Thermo-physical properties of bread made from wheat, cassava and soybean blends were investigated. During investigation, the organoleptic acceptance of the composite wheat, cassava and soy bread was determined. All the blend ratios were exposed to equal heating rate during baking at set temperature of 230oC. The ...
Diagnostic Role of Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Oral Cavity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2018-02-07
Feb 7, 2018 ... operating characteristics curve analysis suggested cutoff value of ... helpful in identifying the oral cavity lesions at high risk for harboring malignancy. ... After taking approval from local ethics committee, ... used for comparison of gender distributions. ... difference in M/F ratio revealed between groups (P =.
Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.
Eastaugh, Steven R.
1980-01-01
The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)
Sex ratio distribution and fecundity of the claroteid catfish Clarotes ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sex ratio distribution and fecundity of Clarotes laticeps were investigated between January 2010 and December 2012 in the lower River Niger. Samples were collected every two weeks for 36 months from six sampling sites, using a combination of baited longlines, gill nets and cast nets. Sexes of captured specimens were ...
Sex ratio of lambs born from assisted reproductive technologies ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The objective of the present study was to investigate sex ratio of offspring resulting from superstimulated donors from two different breeds and artificially inseminated ewes from three different breeds. Romanov (n = 5) and Charollais (n = 6) (2 - 7 years of age) donors were superovulated using FSH-p with 400 mg ...
Poisson's Ratio and Auxetic Properties of Natural Rocks
Ji, Shaocheng; Li, Le; Motra, Hem Bahadur; Wuttke, Frank; Sun, Shengsi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Salisbury, Matthew H.
2018-02-01
Here we provide an appraisal of the Poisson's ratios (υ) for natural elements, common oxides, silicate minerals, and rocks with the purpose of searching for naturally auxetic materials. The Poisson's ratios of equivalently isotropic polycrystalline aggregates were calculated from dynamically measured elastic properties. Alpha-cristobalite is currently the only known naturally occurring mineral that has exclusively negative υ values at 20-1,500°C. Quartz and potentially berlinite (AlPO4) display auxetic behavior in the vicinity of their α-β structure transition. None of the crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks (e.g., amphibolite, gabbro, granite, peridotite, and schist) display auxetic behavior at pressures of >5 MPa and room temperature. Our experimental measurements showed that quartz-rich sedimentary rocks (i.e., sandstone and siltstone) are most likely to be the only rocks with negative Poisson's ratios at low confining pressures (≤200 MPa) because their main constituent mineral, α-quartz, already has extremely low Poisson's ratio (υ = 0.08) and they contain microcracks, micropores, and secondary minerals. This finding may provide a new explanation for formation of dome-and-basin structures in quartz-rich sedimentary rocks in response to a horizontal compressional stress in the upper crust.
Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis
Poling, Alan
2010-01-01
Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…
concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the effects of dietary roughage: concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia ... several factors which include the potential rate and extent of degradation of the test feedstuff and the prevailing rate of ... diet effects have be,en designed to examine either the influence of dietary ...
12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615.5335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net...
12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...
The effect of financial ratios on systematic risk index
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Faez
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between financial ratios and indicator of systemic risk in the Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects 73 manufacturing companies of the Tehran Stock Exchange market over the period 2003-2010. The study first calculates the independent variables in the form of financial ratios and then the ratios affecting the systematic risk index are extracted using entropy method. The output of this stage is the introduction of five influential financial indicators as the independent variables of the study. Using t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient the rate of independent variables effect on the systematic risk index is evaluated and finally, using stepwise regression method, the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable is examined. According to results of our survey, the correlation coefficient of such indices as “the ratio of stock price to the profit of each share”, “Current ratio”, “each share profit ratio” and “the stockholders rights return ratio” have respectively the highest correlation with the systematic risk index.
Interference patterns and extinction ratio of the diatom Coscinodiscus granii
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maibohm, Christian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Ellegaard, M.
2015-01-01
We report experimental and theoretical verification of the nature and position of multiple interference points of visible light transmitted through the valve of the centric diatom species Coscinodiscus granii. Furthermore, by coupling the transmitted light into an optical fiber and moving...... the diatom valve between constructive and destructive interference points, an extinction ratio of 20 dB is shown...
Sideband ratio in double sideband receivers with a Michelson interferometer
Romanini, M.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Wild, W.
2007-01-01
Terahertz heterodyne receivers typically use double sideband (DSB) mixers. The precise knowledge of the receiver sideband ratio (SBR) is a fundamental requirement for the calibration of the data taken with this type of receivers. At the moment the spectroscopic techniques developed for submillimeter
Lead isotope ratios in Japanese galena ores and archaeological objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamasaki, Kazuo; Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Hinata, Makoto; Yuasa, Mitsuaki.
1978-01-01
Lead isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in Japanese galena ores and archaeological bronze objects were determined by a Hitachi RMU-6 mass spectrometer using a rhenium single filament as a surface ionization device. Basic experimental conditions including detection limit, fractionation effect, memory effect, etc. were examined, and the accuracy of determination was checked using the CIT shelf standard No. 1. Archaeological bronze objects were dissolved in nitric acid and lead was extracted by the dithizone method using specially purified reagents in a so-called clean laboratory. When 0.5 μg lead was loaded on the rhenium filament with phosphoric acid and silica gel as stabilizers, an ion current of 10 -13 -- 10 -15 A due to Pb + was obtained and maintained stable for several hours. Coefficients of variation found for the isotope ratios 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb were 0.1 -- 0.5%. Lead isotope ratios are given for 17 Japanese galena ores and for archaeological bronze objects such as bronze bells, halberds (Yayoi period), Horyuji pagoda spire (7th century), and Northern Sung coins (11th century). A close resemblance of the isotope ratios was found between Japanese galena ores and some Japanese bronze objects of the 7th century, suggesting the use of the former as raw materials of the latter. (auth.)
Fetal omphalocele ratios predict outcomes in prenatally diagnosed omphalocele.
Montero, Freddy J; Simpson, Lynn L; Brady, Paula C; Miller, Russell S
2011-09-01
The objective of the study was to evaluate whether ratios considering omphalocele diameter relative to fetal biometric measurements perform better than giant omphalocele designation at predicting inability to achieve neonatal primary surgical closure. Cases of fetal omphalocele that underwent evaluation between May 2003 and July 2010 were identified. Inclusion was restricted to live births with plan for postnatal repair. Omphalocele diameter upon antenatal ultrasound was compared with abdominal circumference, femur length, and head circumference, yielding the respective omphalocele (O)/abdominal circumference (AC), O/femur length (FL), and O/head circumference (HC) ratios. The absolute measurements were used to classify giant lesions. Omphalocele ratios and giant omphalocele designations were evaluated as predictors of inability to achieve primary repair. Among 25 included cases, staged or delayed closure occurred in 52%. With an optimal cutoff of 0.21 or greater, O/HC best predicted the primary outcome (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 58.3%; odds ratio, 7.7). The O/HC of 0.21 or greater outperformed giant designations. The O/HC of 0.21 or greater best predicted staged or delayed omphalocele closure. Giant omphalocele designation, regardless of definition, poorly predicted outcome. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zooplankton biomass to chlorophyll ratios in relation to trophic status ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Rising eutrophication in South African reservoirs is of major concern, leading to the consideration of top-down biomanipulation as a management option – reducing zooplankton-eating fish to sustain zooplankton grazing pressure and thus restrict autotrophic plankton that proliferate with nutrient increases. The biomass ratio ...
Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija
2012-01-01
stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications...... of these findings for auditors and every stakeholder of business firms are considered....
Note on different digestible energy concentrations and ratios of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
balanced according to the ideal protein concept. The piglets performed best on the diets with a high lysine: DE ratio, resulting in better performance (P<0,01) in all parameters. The most prominent improvement being the 42'/" for average daily gain (ADG),32"/" for final mass and 25"/" for feed conversion. Feed costs per unit of ...
Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...
The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hippel, Matt von [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)
2016-01-11
We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q̄ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi-Regge predictions at NNLL and N{sup 3}LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. We also provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.
The Mass-Ratio Distribution of Visual Binary Stars
Hogeveen, S.J.
1990-01-01
The selection effects that govern the observations of Visual Binary Stars are in- vestigated, in order to obtain a realistic statistical distribution of the mass-ratio q = Msec=Mprim. To this end a numerical simulation programme has been developed, which `generates' binary stars and `looks' at
The Golden Ratio in Time-based Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emily Verba
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Measure and proportion manifest themselves in all areas of beauty and virtue.–Socrates Mathematics and visual communication share a long historical, symbiotic relationship. In their pursuit of achieving order and beauty, they find common ground through geometry. The golden ratio is a mathematic and aesthetic phenomenon inherent in nature that has consistently evoked sensory enjoyment since antiquity. It may be assumed that the manifestation of the golden ratio in nature accounts for human’s innate enjoyment of it. Throughout the ages, the conscious application of the golden ratio to proportions found in art, architecture, poetry, literature and musical composition has consistently evoked subconscious sensory pleasure. However, the application of the golden ratio to visual temporal proportion, or time-based media, has seldom been investigated. This thesis investigates various applications of the golden ratio as a mathematical framework for choreographing visually harmonious temporal compositions through time-based media. The proliferation of moving images we face on a daily basis is cause for great concern, as we have increasingly less free time in our days. Informative and pleasing images are buried in an avalanche of visual rubbish, constantly streaming into our physical and virtual worlds. Time-based media has the ability to expand and contract movement, thus directing the way viewers experience and spend their time. This investigation presupposes that editing moving images via increments of time determined by the golden ratio may streamline messages, isolating what is most symbolic and effectively communicative within a mathematical framework. A physiological and psychological benefit is created for viewers; there is no wasted time or space. Image-makers and visual communicators have a responsibility to create only that which is useful and/or aesthetically pleasing. An investigation into the temporal structure of time-based media, using
Ratios of involved nodes in early breast cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Royce, Melanie; Verschraegen, Claire; Promish, Donald I; Cserni, Gábor; Van de Steene, Jan; Tai, Patricia; Vlastos, Georges; Voordeckers, Mia; Storme, Guy
2004-01-01
The number of lymph nodes found to be involved in an axillary dissection is among the most powerful prognostic factors in breast cancer, but it is confounded by the number of lymph nodes that have been examined. We investigate an idea that has surfaced recently in the literature (since 1999), namely that the proportion of node-positive lymph nodes (or a function thereof) is a much better predictor of survival than the number of excised and node-positive lymph nodes, alone or together. The data were abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of women diagnosed with nonmetastatic T1–T2 primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997, in whom axillary node dissection was performed. The end-point was death from breast cancer. Cox models based on different expressions of nodal involvement were compared using the Nagelkerke R 2 index (R 2 N ). Ratios were modeled as percentage and as log odds of involved nodes. Log odds were estimated in a way that avoids singularities (zero values) by using the empirical logistic transform. In node-negative cases both the number of nodes excised and the log odds were significant, with hazard ratios of 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.986–0.997) and 1.150 (1.058–1.249), respectively, but without improving R 2 N . In node-positive cases the hazard ratios were 1.003–1.088 for the number of involved nodes, 0.966–1.005 for the number of excised nodes, 1.015–1.017 for the percentage, and 1.344–1.381 for the log odds. R 2 N improved from 0.067 (no nodal covariate) to 0.102 (models based on counts only) and to 0.108 (models based on ratios). Ratios are simple optimal predictors, in that they provide at least the same prognostic value as the more traditional staging based on counting of involved nodes, without replacing them with a needlessly complicated alternative. They can be viewed as a per patient standardization in which the number of involved nodes is standardized
Heterogeneity in the 238U/235U Ratios of Angrites.
Tissot, F.; Dauphas, N.; Grove, T. L.
2016-12-01
Angrites are differentiated meteorites of basaltic composition, of either volcanic or plutonic origin, that display minimal post-crystallization alteration, metamorphism, shock or impact brecciation. Because quenched angrites cooled very rapidly, all radiochronometric systems closed simultaneously in these samples. Quenched angrites are thus often used as anchors for cross-calibrating short-lived dating methods (e.g., 26Al-26Mg) and the absolute dating techniques (e.g, Pb-Pb). Due to the constancy of the 238U/235U ratio in natural samples, Pb-Pb ages have long been calculated using a "consensus" 238U/235U ratio, but the discovery of resolvable variations in the 238U/235U ratio of natural samples, means that the U isotopic composition of the material to date also has to be determined in order to obtain high-precision Pb-Pb ages. We set out (a) to measure at high-precision the 238U/235U ratio of a large array of angrites to correct their Pb-Pb ages, and (b) to identify whether all angrites have a similar U isotopic composition, and, if not, what were the processes responsible for this variability. Recently, Brennecka & Wadhwa (2012) suggested that the angrite-parent body had a homogeneous 238U/235U ratio. They reached this conclusion partly because they propagated the uncertainties of the U isotopic composition of the various U double spikes that they used onto the final 238U/235U ratio the sample. Because this error is systematic (i.e., it affects all samples similarly), differences in the δ238U values of samples corrected by the same double spike are better known than one would be led to believe if uncertainties on the spike composition are propagated. At the conference, we will present the results of the high-precision U isotope analyses for six angrite samples: NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555. We will show that there is some heterogeneity in the δ238U values of the angrites and will discuss the possible processes by
Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Otto Appenzeller
Full Text Available Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.
Association of secondary sex ratio with smoking and parity.
Beratis, Nicholas G; Asimacopoulou, Aspasia; Varvarigou, Anastasia
2008-03-01
To assess the sex ratio in offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers in relationship to parity. Prospective study. University hospital. The authors studied 2,108 term singleton neonates born between 1993 and 2002, 665 from smoking mothers and 1,443 from nonsmoking mothers. A prospective recording of maternal age, parity and smoking status, and gender of neonates delivered over a 10-year period. Secondary sex ratio in regard to maternal smoking and parity. The offspring sex ratio in the total sample studied was 1.09; in the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers, it was 1.26 and 1.03, respectively, a statistically significant difference. In the offspring of smoking women who had parity 1, 2, and >or=3, it was 1.47, 1.35, and 0.92, whereas in those of nonsmoking women, it was 1.04, 1.00, and 1.03, respectively (the differences of the parity 1 and 2 groups between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were statistically significant). Logistic regression analysis showed that the possibility of a boy being delivered by a mother who smoked was significantly greater in primiparous women than in women who had parity >or=3, independent of the maternal age. Conversely, parity did not affect significantly the sex ratio in the offspring of nonsmoking women. The findings suggest that among women who smoked, significantly more male than female offspring are born from primiparous women, whereas women who had parity >or=3 gave birth to more female offspring; biparous women give birth to significantly more male offspring, but the offspring sex ratio declined with the number of cigarettes when the mothers smoked >or=10 cigarettes per day.
LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HOLDEN, N.E.
2005-01-01
Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS
Financial ratios in diagnostic radiology practices: variability and trends.
Hogan, Christopher; Sunshine, Jonathan H
2004-03-01
To evaluate variation in financial ratios for radiology practices nationwide and trends in these ratios and in payments. In 1999, the American College of Radiology surveyed radiology practices by mail. The final response rate was 66%. Weighting was used to make responses representative of all radiology practices in the United States. Self-reported financial ratios (payments, charges, accounts receivable turnover) were analyzed; 449 responses had usable data on these ratios. Comparison with results of a similar 1992 survey and combined analysis with Medicare data on billed charges provided information on trends. All measures of payment collections declined sharply from 1992 to 1999, with the gross collections rate (revenues as percentage of billed charges) decreasing from 71% to 55%. Average payment for a typical radiology service decreased approximately 4% in dollar terms or approximately 19% in inflation-adjusted terms. In 1999, nonmetropolitan practices appeared to fare better than others. Among insurers, Medicaid stood out as a low and slow payer, but neither managed care nor Medicare had a consistent effect on financial ratios. The gross collections rate varied substantially across geographic areas, as did, in an inverse pattern, the level of billed charges. One-quarter of practices had accounts receivable equal to 90 or more days of billings. The opposing geographic pattern of billed charges and gross collection rate suggests that geographic variation in the latter is driven more by variation in billed charges than by variation in payment levels. Radiologists saw a substantial decrease in the real (inflation-adjusted) value of payment per service during the 1990s. The large fraction of practices with accounts receivable of 90 or more days of billings-a level considered potentially imprudent by financial management advisors-suggests that many practices should improve financial management and that state prompt-payment laws have not had a substantial positive
Asymmetric Lévy flight in financial ratios.
Podobnik, Boris; Valentinčič, Aljoša; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-11-01
Because financial crises are characterized by dangerous rare events that occur more frequently than those predicted by models with finite variances, we investigate the underlying stochastic process generating these events. In the 1960s Mandelbrot [Mandelbrot B (1963) J Bus 36:394-419] and Fama [Fama EF (1965) J Bus 38:34-105] proposed a symmetric Lévy probability distribution function (PDF) to describe the stochastic properties of commodity changes and price changes. We find that an asymmetric Lévy PDF, L, characterized by infinite variance, models several multiple credit ratios used in financial accounting to quantify a firm's financial health, such as the Altman [Altman EI (1968) J Financ 23:589-609] Z score and the Zmijewski [Zmijewski ME (1984) J Accounting Res 22:59-82] score, and models changes of individual financial ratios, ΔX(i). We thus find that Lévy PDFs describe both the static and dynamics of credit ratings. We find that for the majority of ratios, ΔX(i) scales with the Lévy parameter α ≈ 1, even though only a few of the individual ratios are characterized by a PDF with power-law tails X(i)(-1-α) with infinite variance. We also find that α exhibits a striking stability over time. A key element in estimating credit losses is the distribution of credit rating changes, the functional form of which is unknown for alphabetical ratings. For continuous credit ratings, the Altman Z score, we find that P(ΔZ) follows a Lévy PDF with power-law exponent α ≈ 1, consistent with changes of individual financial ratios. Estimating the conditional P(ΔZ|Z) versus Z, we demonstrate how this continuous credit rating approach and its dynamics can be used to evaluate credit risk.
Lead isotope ratios of ancient Chinese and Japanese glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamasaki, Kazuo; Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Yuasa, Mitsuaki; Watarai, Motohiko.
1980-01-01
Lead isotope ratios of 29 archaeological glass samples (5 samples excavated in China, 10 samples excavated in Japan, and 14 samples made in Japan) were determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry with a HITACHI RMU-6 spectrometer. Of these glass samples, 28 were made of high lead glass, and one, of alkali-lime glass. Glass samples were decomposed in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids, and lead was separated from other elements by extraction with dithizone-chloroform. The lead nitrate solution thus prepared (corresponding to 0.5 μg Pb) was loaded on the rhenium single filament. The coefficients of variation of the determined ratios, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, were 0.1 -- 0.3%. Among the glasses excavated in Japan, some samples of the Yayoi period (ca. 3 rd C. B.C. -- ca. 3 rd C. A.D.) contained a large amount of barium in addition to lead, and resembled closely Chinese pre-Han glasses not only in chemical compositions, but also in lead isotope ratios. This means that pre-Han glasses were brought to Japan and then re-cast into glass beads characteristic of Japan. The lead isotope ratios of the glasses were compared with those of Chinese (2 samples), Korean (2) and Japanese (17) galena orea, and it was found that 12 glass beads made in the 8th century at Nara and 2 fine glass tubes made at Saga in the 18 th -- 19 th centuries showed similar lead isotope ratios with those of the Japanese galena ores. Consequently it is considered that the Japanese galena ores were already used as one of raw materials at manufacturing of these glass beads in ancient centuries. (author)
Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steimke, J.L.
2002-01-01
HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results
MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN ω CENTAURI RED GIANTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David
2013-01-01
We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R ∼ 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R ∼ 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven ω Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = –1.78 to –0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The ω Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both ω Cen and M4 show ( 25 Mg, 26 Mg)/ 24 Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the ω Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the 26 Mg/ 24 Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] 26 Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of 25 Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The 25 Mg/ 24 Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.
Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael;
2016-01-01
We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.
Plutonium isotopes/137Cs activity ratios for soil in Montenegro
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antovic, N. M.; Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, N.; Andrukhovich, S.K.
2011-01-01
Plutonium isotopes/ 137 Cs activity ratios were determined for six soil samples from Montenegro, using the results of alpha-spectrometric measurements of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu, as well as gamma-spectrometric cesium measurements. An average 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio is found to be 0.02, as the 238 Pu/ 137 Cs and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu one - 0.0006 and 0.03, respectively. It follows from the results that the source of plutonium in Montenegro soil is nuclear weapon testing during the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. On the other hand, there is a contribution of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to the soil contamination with 137 Cs isotope. [sr
Determination of uranium, thorium and radium isotope ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolova, Z.A.
1983-01-01
The problems connected with the study of isotope composition of natural radioactive elements in natural objects are considered. It is pointed out that for minerals, ores and rocks the following ratios are usually determined: 234 U/ 238 U, 230 Th/ 238 U, 226 Ra/ 238 U, 228 Th/ 230 Th, 228 Th/ 232 Th and lead isotopes; for natural waters, besides the enumerated - 226 Ra/ 228 Ra. General content of uranium and thorium in the course of isotope investigations is determined from separate samples, most frequently by the X-ray spectral method, radium content - by usual radiochemical method, uranium and radium content in waters -respectively by calorimetric and emanation methods. Radiochemical preparation of geologic powder and aqueous samples for isotope analysis is described in detail. The technique of measuring and calculating isotope ratios (α-spectrometry for determining isotope composition of uranium and thorium and emanation method for determining 226 Ra/ 228 Ra) is presented
Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.
1984-01-01
Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles
A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.
1991-01-01
A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs
Ceruloplasmin/Transferrin Ratio Changes in Alzheimer's Disease
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosanna Squitti
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The link between iron and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been mainly investigated with a focus on the local accumulation of this metal in specific areas of the brain that are critical for AD. In the present study, we have instead looked at systemic variations of markers of iron metabolism. We measured serum levels of iron, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin and calculated the transferrin saturation and the ceruloplasmin to transferrin ratio (Cp/Tf. Cp/Tf and transferrin saturation increased in AD patients. Cp/Tf ratios also correlated positively with peroxide levels and negatively with serum iron concentrations. Elevated values of ceruloplasmin, peroxides, and Cp/Tf inversely correlated with MMSE scores. Isolated medial temporal lobe atrophy positively correlated with Cp/Tf and negatively with serum iron. All these findings indicate that the local iron accumulation found in brain areas critical for AD should be viewed in the frame of iron systemic alterations.
The Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PO de Wet
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The study of spanning trees and Steiner trees arises naturally in applications, such as in the design of integrated circuit boards, communication networks, power networks and pipelines of minimum cost. In such applications the Steiner ratio is an indication of how badly a minimum spanning tree performs compared to a Steiner minimal tree. In this paper a short proof is presented for the Steiner ratio for points on a triangular lattice in the Euclidean plane. A Steiner tree in two dimensions is "lifted" to become a rectilinear tree in three dimensions, where it is altered. The rectilinear tree is then projected back into the plane and the result readily follows. A short note at the end of the paper compares our three-dimensional rectilinear trees to "impossible objects" such as Escher's "Waterfall."
Deriving Light Interception and Biomass from Spectral Reflectance Ratio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Svend; Goudriaan, J.
1993-01-01
was calculated as the ratio between infrared (790–810 nm) and red (640–660 nm) reflectance. The cultivars form a different canopy structure. However, a regression analysis did not show any cultivar effect on the relation between RVI and fPAR The predicted fPAR from frequently measured RVI was used to calculate...... the product of daily fPAR and incoming PAR (cumulative PAR interception) in all spring barley cultivars grown in monoculture and in mixture with oil seed rape (Brassica napus). A regression analysis showed that the relation between cumulative intercepted PAR and total above ground biomass was the same in all...... monocultures and mixtures. The ratio α of incremental dry matter and intercepted PAR was normally 2.4 g MJ−1, but it declined below this value when temperatures fell below 12°C....
The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: the critical positivity ratio.
Brown, Nicholas J L; Sokal, Alan D; Friedman, Harris L
2013-12-01
We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the "positivity ratio." We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these equations and their incorrect application lead us to conclude that Fredrickson and Losada's claim to have demonstrated the existence of a critical minimum positivity ratio of 2.9013 is entirely unfounded. More generally, we urge future researchers to exercise caution in the use of advanced mathematical tools, such as nonlinear dynamics, and in particular to verify that the elementary conditions for their valid application have been met. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
High aspect ratio channels in glass and porous silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, H.D. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Dang, Z.Y. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu, J.F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Kan, J.A. van; Qureshi, S. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ynsa, M.D.; Torres-Costa, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco Edif. 22, Faraday 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Maira, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Venkatesan, T.V. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H., E-mail: phymbhb@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2017-03-01
We have developed a micromachining process to produce high-aspect-ratio channels and holes in glass and porous silicon. Our process utilizes MeV proton beam irradiation of silicon using direct writing with a focused beam, followed by electrochemical etching. To increase throughput we have also developed another process for large area ion irradiation based on a radiation-resistant gold surface mask, allowing many square inches to be patterned. We present a study of the achievable channel width, depth and period and sidewall verticality for a range of channels which can be over 100 μm deep or 100 nm wide with aspect ratios up to 80. This process overcomes the difficulty of machining glass on a micro- and nanometer scale which has limited many areas of applications in different fields such as microelectronics and microfluidics.
Determination of uranium and its isotopic ratios in environmental samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flues Szeles, M.S.M.
1990-01-01
A method for the determination of uranium and its isotopic ratios ( sup(235)U/ sup(238)U and sup(234U/ sup(238)U) is established in the present work. The method can be applied in environmental monitoring programs of uranium enrichment facilities. The proposed method is based on the alpha spectrometry technique which is applied after a purification of the sample by using an ionic exchange resin. The total yield achieved was (91 + 5)% with a precision of 5%, an accuracy of 8% and a lower limit of detection of 7,9 x 10 sup(-4)Bq. The uranium determination in samples containing high concentration of iron, which is an interfering element present in environmental samples, particularly in soil and sediment, was also studied. The results obtained by using artificial samples containing iron and uranium in the ratio 1000:1, were considered satisfactory. (author)
First measurement of the Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios
Bourquin, M; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, D; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, J M; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow, H; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, H W; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J; Tovey, Stuart N
1979-01-01
In an experiment in the CERN-SPS charged-hyperon beam, the main Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios have been measured to be Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Lambda K/sup -/)/ Gamma (all)=0.686+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/ pi /sup -/)/ Gamma (all) =0.234+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)/ Gamma (all)=0.080+or-0.008. The relative branching ratio of the two Xi pi modes provides a test of the Delta I=1/2 rule in decuplet-octet transitions. A search has also been made for the rare decay modes Omega /sup -/ to Lambda pi /sup -/, Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ gamma , Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/e/sup -/ nu . (6 refs).
Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines
Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)
2018-01-01
A gas turbine engine includes a bypass flow passage that has an inlet and defines a bypass ratio in a range of approximately 8.5 to 13.5. A fan is arranged within the bypass flow passage. A first turbine is a 5-stage turbine and is coupled with a first shaft, which is coupled with the fan. A first compressor is coupled with the first shaft and is a 3-stage compressor. A second turbine is coupled with a second shaft and is a 2-stage turbine. The fan includes a row of fan blades that extend from a hub. The row includes a number (N) of the fan blades, a solidity value (R) at tips of the fab blades, and a ratio of N/R that is from 14 to 16.
In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.
1985-01-01
Dissolution of [ 111 In]labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of [ 111 In]lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a [ 111 In]salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system
Safeguarding a Lunar Rover with Wald's Sequential Probability Ratio Test
Furlong, Michael; Dille, Michael; Wong, Uland; Nefian, Ara
2016-01-01
The virtual bumper is a safeguarding mechanism for autonomous and remotely operated robots. In this paper we take a new approach to the virtual bumper system by using an old statistical test. By using a modified version of Wald's sequential probability ratio test we demonstrate that we can reduce the number of false positive reported by the virtual bumper, thereby saving valuable mission time. We use the concept of sequential probability ratio to control vehicle speed in the presence of possible obstacles in order to increase certainty about whether or not obstacles are present. Our new algorithm reduces the chances of collision by approximately 98 relative to traditional virtual bumper safeguarding without speed control.
Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in nuclear multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Subrata
2010-01-01
Nuclear multifragmentation in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions has long been associated with liquid-gas phase transition. We calculate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s for an equilibrated system of nucleons and fragments produced in multifragmentation within an extended statistical multifragmentation model. The temperature dependence of η/s exhibits behavior surprisingly similar to that of H 2 O. In the coexistence phase of fragments and light particles, the ratio η/s reaches a minimum of depth comparable to that for water in the vicinity of the critical temperature for liquid-gas phase transition. The effects of freeze-out volume and surface symmetry energy on η/s in multifragmentation are studied.
Magnetically-charged black branes and viscosity/entropy ratios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics,Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lü, H. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)
2016-12-19
We consider asymptotically-AdS n-dimensional black brane solutions in a theory of gravity coupled to a set of Np-form field strengths, in which the field strengths carry magnetic charges. For appropriately chosen charges, the metrics are isotropic in the (n−2) transverse directions. However, in general the field strength configurations break the full Euclidean symmetry of the (n−2)-dimensional transverse space, and the shear viscosity tensor in the dual theory is no longer isotropic. We study the linearised equations for transverse traceless metric perturbations in these backgrounds, and by employing the Kubo formula we obtain expressions for the ratios η/S of the shear viscosity components divided by the entropy density. We find that the KSS bound on the ratios η/S is generally violated in these solutions. We also extend the discussion by including a dilatonic scalar field in the theory, leading to solutions that are asymptotically Lifshitz with hyperscaling violation.
Measurement of boron isotope ratios in groundwater studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porteous, N.C.; Walsh, J.N.; Jarvis, K.E.
1995-01-01
Boron is present at low levels in groundwater and rainfall in the UK, ranging between 2 and 200 ng ml -1 . A sensitive technique has been developed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure boron isotope ratios at low concentrations with a precision (s r ) of between 0.1 and 0.2%. Samples were evaporated to increase elemental boron concentrations to 200 ng ml -1 and interfering matrix elements were removed by an adapted cation-exchange separation procedure. The validity of measuring boron isotopic ratios by ICP-MS at this concentration level is discussed in relation to the theoretical instrument precision attainable based on counting statistics. (author)
3He/4He production ratios by tetrahedral symmetric condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Akito
2006-01-01
The present paper treats application of the Electronic Quasi-Particle Expansion Theory (EQPET) model for Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) of H/D mixed systems for Pd host metal. Production ratios of 3 He/ 4 He for multi-body fusion reactions in H/D mixed TSC systems are calculated as a function of H/D mixing ratio. The model is further extended to treat direct nuclear interactions between host-metal nucleus and TSC of pure four protons (or four deuterons), since TSC can become very small (far less than 1 pm radius) charge-neutral pseudo-particle. Results for the case of Ni + 4p/TSC are discussed with Ni + p capture reactions and Ni + 4p fission reactions. (authors)
Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis
2014-01-01
This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.
Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.
Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan
2017-11-01
we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.
Alternative Observers for SI Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Elbert; Poulsen, Jannik; Olsen, Mads Bruun
1996-01-01
In earlier work it has been shown that a nonlinear observer based on the use of the manifold pressure state equation and a nonlinear fuel film compensator can maintain accurate A/F ratio control during both steady state and transient operation. This observer may be called a manifold absolute pres...... engine control system designer with a variety of robust control systems which can easily be made redundant in order to satisfy newer engine emissions and diagnosis requirements and legislation...
Thorium utilization: conversion ratio and fuel needs in thermal reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosterkamp, W.J.
1975-01-01
As a preparatory study for thorium utilization in thermal reactors a study has been made of the fuel comsumption in existing reactor types. A quantitative description is given of the influence of enrichment, burnup, amount of structural material, choise of coolant and control requirements on the convertion ratio. The enrichment is an important factor and a low fuel comsumption can be achieved by increasing the enrichment
On Chern ratios for surfaces with ample cotangent bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis Conduché
2006-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of density in (1, 3 for the Chern ratio of surfaces with ample cotangent bundle. In particular we prove density in (1, 2 by constructing a family of complete intersection surfaces in a product of varieties with big cotangent bundle. We also analyse the case of complete intersections in a product of curves of genus at least 2.
Determination of fission gas yields from isotope ratios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg
1983-01-01
This paper describes a method of calculating the actual fission yield of Kr and Xe in nuclear fuel including the effect of neutron capture reactions and decay. The bases for this calculation are the cumulative yields (ref. 1) of Kr and Xe isotopes (or pairs of isotopes) which are unaffected...... by neutron capture reactions, and measured Kr and Xe isotope ratios. Also the burnup contribution from the different fissile heavy isotopes must be known in order to get accurate fission gas yields....
Exclusion probabilities and likelihood ratios with applications to mixtures.
Slooten, Klaas-Jan; Egeland, Thore
2016-01-01
The statistical evidence obtained from mixed DNA profiles can be summarised in several ways in forensic casework including the likelihood ratio (LR) and the Random Man Not Excluded (RMNE) probability. The literature has seen a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of likelihood ratios and exclusion probabilities, and part of our aim is to bring some clarification to this debate. In a previous paper, we proved that there is a general mathematical relationship between these statistics: RMNE can be expressed as a certain average of the LR, implying that the expected value of the LR, when applied to an actual contributor to the mixture, is at least equal to the inverse of the RMNE. While the mentioned paper presented applications for kinship problems, the current paper demonstrates the relevance for mixture cases, and for this purpose, we prove some new general properties. We also demonstrate how to use the distribution of the likelihood ratio for donors of a mixture, to obtain estimates for exceedance probabilities of the LR for non-donors, of which the RMNE is a special case corresponding to L R>0. In order to derive these results, we need to view the likelihood ratio as a random variable. In this paper, we describe how such a randomization can be achieved. The RMNE is usually invoked only for mixtures without dropout. In mixtures, artefacts like dropout and drop-in are commonly encountered and we address this situation too, illustrating our results with a basic but widely implemented model, a so-called binary model. The precise definitions, modelling and interpretation of the required concepts of dropout and drop-in are not entirely obvious, and we attempt to clarify them here in a general likelihood framework for a binary model.
Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan
2011-01-01
We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.
[Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].
Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong
2014-06-01
This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.
Inverse participation ratio and localization in topological insulator phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calixto, M; Romera, E
2015-01-01
Fluctuations of Hamiltonian eigenfunctions, measured by the inverse participation ratio (IPR), turn out to characterize topological-band insulator transitions occurring in 2D Dirac materials like silicene, which is isostructural with graphene but with a strong spin–orbit interaction. Using monotonic properties of the IPR, as a function of a perpendicular electric field (which provides a tunable band gap), we define topological-like quantum numbers that take different values in the topological-insulator and band-insulator phases. (paper)
Net Stable Funding Ratio: Impact on Funding Value Adjustment
Siadat, Medya; Hammarlid, Ola
2017-01-01
In this paper we investigate the relationship between Funding Value Adjustment (FVA) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR). FVA is defined in a consistent way with NSFR such that the new framework of FVA monitors the costs due to keeping NSFR at an acceptable level, as well. In addition, the problem of choosing the optimal funding strategy is formulated as a shortest path problem where the proposed FVA framework is applied in the optimization process. The solution provides us with the optimal f...
Combustion engine variable compression ratio apparatus and method
Lawrence,; Keith, E [Peoria, IL; Strawbridge, Bryan E [Dunlap, IL; Dutart, Charles H [Washington, IL
2006-06-06
An apparatus and method for varying a compression ratio of an engine having a block and a head mounted thereto. The apparatus and method includes a cylinder having a block portion and a head portion, a piston linearly movable in the block portion of the cylinder, a cylinder plug linearly movable in the head portion of the cylinder, and a valve located in the cylinder plug and operable to provide controlled fluid communication with the block portion of the cylinder.
Multiple Improvements of Multiple Imputation Likelihood Ratio Tests
Chan, Kin Wai; Meng, Xiao-Li
2017-01-01
Multiple imputation (MI) inference handles missing data by first properly imputing the missing values $m$ times, and then combining the $m$ analysis results from applying a complete-data procedure to each of the completed datasets. However, the existing method for combining likelihood ratio tests has multiple defects: (i) the combined test statistic can be negative in practice when the reference null distribution is a standard $F$ distribution; (ii) it is not invariant to re-parametrization; ...
Likelihood ratio sequential sampling models of recognition memory.
Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon; Heathcote, Andrew
2017-02-01
The mirror effect - a phenomenon whereby a manipulation produces opposite effects on hit and false alarm rates - is benchmark regularity of recognition memory. A likelihood ratio decision process, basing recognition on the relative likelihood that a stimulus is a target or a lure, naturally predicts the mirror effect, and so has been widely adopted in quantitative models of recognition memory. Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (2009) demonstrated that likelihood ratio models, assuming Gaussian memory strength, are also capable of explaining regularities observed in receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs), such as greater target than lure variance. Despite its central place in theorising about recognition memory, however, this class of models has not been tested using response time (RT) distributions. In this article, we develop a linear approximation to the likelihood ratio transformation, which we show predicts the same regularities as the exact transformation. This development enabled us to develop a tractable model of recognition-memory RT based on the diffusion decision model (DDM), with inputs (drift rates) provided by an approximate likelihood ratio transformation. We compared this "LR-DDM" to a standard DDM where all targets and lures receive their own drift rate parameters. Both were implemented as hierarchical Bayesian models and applied to four datasets. Model selection taking into account parsimony favored the LR-DDM, which requires fewer parameters than the standard DDM but still fits the data well. These results support log-likelihood based models as providing an elegant explanation of the regularities of recognition memory, not only in terms of choices made but also in terms of the times it takes to make them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth
Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
2008-01-01
We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...
Isotope ratios and chemical fractionation of CO in Lynds 134
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickman, R.L.; Langer, W.D.
1977-01-01
Mahoney, McCutcheon and Shuter (1976) reported observations of the J = 1 → 0 transition of three isotopes of CO in the dust cloud Lynds 134 using the 4.6 m telescope at Aerospace Corporation. In this paper a new observation of 12 C 17 O is discussed and the question of the ratio 13 C 16 O/ 12 C 18 O across the dust cloud is considered further. (Auth.)
Split thickness skin graft meshing ratio indications and common practices.
Pripotnev, Stahs; Papp, Anthony
2017-12-01
Split thickness skin grafting is a commonly used technique in burn surgery for resurfacing wounds that are unlikely to heal without scarring. Meshing and expanding skin grafts allow for reconstruction of larger wounds with smaller donor sites. A retrospective chart review was performed of 210 patients with burns equal to or greater than 20% total body surface area admitted to Vancouver General Hospital between 1998 and 2014. Charts were reviewed to collect data on patient and burn demographics. A survey was sent to Canadian plastic surgeons registered with the CSPS to collect data on common practices in burn surgery nationwide. The patients that received 3:1 or higher meshed grafts were all flame burns, had a significantly higher average TBSA (51.89%±14.87 vs 29.13%±9.48, p=0.001), and a significantly higher full thickness burn TBSA (25.76%±21.97 vs 6.20%±9.04, p=0.001). We found no significant differences in gender, age, or burn location between the less than 2:1 and 3:1 or greater meshing ratio groups. The survey of plastic surgeons performing burn surgery in Canada revealed that 60% of responders had experience with skin grafts using meshing ratios of 3:1 or higher. Of these surgeons, 100% felt that burn size and 36% felt that burn location would influence their decision to use a 3:1 or higher meshing ratio. A larger burn size is the major influencing factor for the use of higher skin graft meshing ratios by Canadian burn surgeons. Furthermore, burn location determines the choice of donor and recipient sites in these cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Maternal serum ratio of ghrelin to obestatin decreased in preeclampsia.
Wu, Weiguang; Fan, Xiaobin; Yu, Yuecheng; Wang, Yingchun
2015-10-01
Ghrelin, an endogenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in blood pressure regulation. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We hypothesized that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance played a role in the pathogenesis. This study was designed to determine the alterations of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum in preeclampsia. This retrospective case-control study included 31 preeclampsia and 31 gestational week-matched normal pregnancies. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in maternal serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, and the ghrelin/obestatin ratio was calculated. The ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio in maternal serum were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (214.34±14.27pg/mL vs 251.49±16.15pg/mL, P=0.041, 1.07±0.09 vs 0.82±0.08, P=0.023). The obestatin concentration in maternal serum was significantly higher in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies (276.35±15.38pg/mL vs 223.53±18.61pg/mL, P=0.019). The systolic blood pressure in preeclampsia was negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration and ghrelin/obestatin ratio (r=-0.549, P=0.003; r=-0.491, P=0.004) and was positively correlated with obestatin concentrations in preeclampsia (r=0.388, P=0.013). The findings of this study suggested disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in maternal serum in preeclampsia, and ghrelin/obestatin imbalance might play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Measuring liquidity on stock market: impact on liquidity ratio
Siniša Bogdan; Suzana Bareša; Saša Ivanović
2012-01-01
The purpose – It is important to emphasize that liquidity on Croatian stock market is low, the purpose of this paper is to test empirically and find out which variables make crucial role in decision making process of investing in stocks. Design – This paper explores the impact of various liquidity variables on liquidity ratio since it is still insufficiently researched topic. Methodology –This research uses secondary and primary data available from Croatian stock market. Considering pri...
CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO
ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUSANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU
2012-01-01
The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...
LIPID RATIOS: AS A PREDICTOR OF METABOLIC SYNDROME
Pushpa; Mahadeva; Raghunath; Hamsa
2015-01-01
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a group of disorders characterized by obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. This study was undertaken to determine whether lipid ratios calculated by routinely measured lipid profile can be used as predictor of MetS and which among them could be used as better predictor. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data consisting of anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory parameters like fasting blood sugar, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycer...
The RATIO method for time-resolved Laue crystallography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppens, P.; Pitak, M.; Gembicky, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scheins, S.; Benedict, J.; Adachi, S.-I.; Sato, T.; Nozawa, S.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Chollet, M.; Koshihara, S.-Y.
2009-01-01
A RATIO method for analysis of intensity changes in time-resolved pump-probe Laue diffraction experiments is described. The method eliminates the need for scaling the data with a wavelength curve representing the spectral distribution of the source and removes the effect of possible anisotropic absorption. It does not require relative scaling of series of frames and removes errors due to all but very short term fluctuations in the synchrotron beam.
The metallic ratios as limits of complex valued transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falcon, Sergio; Plaza, Angel
2009-01-01
We study the presence of the metallic ratios as limits of two complex valued transformations. These complex variable functions are introduced and related with the two geometric antecedents for each triangle in a particular triangle partition, the four-triangle longest-edge (4TLE) partition. In this way, the fractality of a geometric diagram for the classes of dissimilar generated triangles is also explained.
Fundamental ratios and stock market performance : evidence from Turkey
Parlak, Deniz
2013-01-01
The fundamental analysis strives to determine the approximate future market value of a firm and an important step in a fundamental analysis is the computation of basic ratios which provide an indication of firms' financial performance in several key areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the financial performance of Turkish manufacturing companies and the impact of this performance on common stock returns for the three years from 2009 to 2012. The sample consisted of 20 chemical-s...
Critical thickness ratio for buckled and wrinkled fruits and vegetables
Dai, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yang
2014-11-01
This work aims at establishing the geometrical constraint for buckled and wrinkled shapes by modeling a fruit/vegetable with exocarp and sarcocarp as a hyperelastic layer-substrate structure subjected to uniaxial compression. A careful analysis on the derived bifurcation condition leads to the finding of a critical thickness ratio which separates the buckling and wrinkling modes, and remarkably, which is independent of the material stiffnesses. More specifically, it is found that if the thickness ratio is smaller than this critical value a fruit/vegetable should be in a buckled shape (under a sufficient stress); if a fruit/vegetable is in a wrinkled shape the thickness ratio is always larger than this critical value. To verify the theoretical prediction, we consider four types of buckled fruits/vegetables and four types of wrinkled fruits/vegetables with three samples in each type. The geometrical parameters for the 24 samples are measured and it is found that indeed all the data fall into the theoretically predicted buckling or wrinkling domains.