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Sample records for gypsy moth pinus

  1. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  2. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  3. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  4. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  5. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  6. What causes the patterns of gypsy moth defoliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive G. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is typically observed to occur on xeric ridge tops before more mesic, lowland forest, in oak-dominated habitats in the Northeast. In subsequent years defoliation may also occur in mesic forests. What causes this pattern of defoliation? Differences in the degree of defoliation may be due to differences in the density of gypsy moth populations in...

  7. Analysis of spatial density dependence in gypsy moth mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is perhaps the most widely studied forest insect in the world and much of this research has focused on various aspects of population dynamics. But despite this voluminous amount of research we still lack a good understanding of which, if any, natural enemy species regulate gypsy moth populations. The classical approach to analyzing insect population...

  8. The Homeowner and the Gypsy Moth: Guidelines for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; David R. Houston; William E. Wallner

    1979-01-01

    The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States (fig. 1). Since the turn of the century, millions of dollars have been spent in efforts to control or eliminate gypsy moth populations and to retard natural and artificial spread. In the early decades of this century, outbreaks occurred only in New England; today...

  9. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  10. Proceedings, U. S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; Shirley I. Smith; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

  11. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  12. Gypsy moth role in forest ecosystems: the good, the bad, and the indifferent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    Despite a century of attempts to control populations of the gypsy moth, it remains one of the most destructive forest pests introduced to North America. Research has yielded valuable, albeit sometimes conflicting information about the effects of gypsy moth on forests. Anecdotal accounts and scientific data indicate that impacts of gypsy moth defoliation can range from...

  13. Cost analysis and biological ramifications for implementing the gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin

    2008-01-01

    The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program aims to reduce the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), spread into new areas in the United States. The annual budget for this program has ranged from $10-13 million. Changes in funding levels can have important ramifications to the implementation of this program, and consequently affect the rate of gypsy...

  14. Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between expected defoliation and the subsequent condition and mortality rate among the defoliated trees are almost always important factors in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L. )

  15. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  16. Interactions between microbial agents and gypsy moth parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1985-01-01

    The parasite Cotesia melanoscelus attacks small gypsy moth larvae more successfully than large ones, and Bacillus thuringiensis retards the growth of caterpillars it does not kill. Together, both factors lead to higher parasitism by C. melanoscelus in areas sprayed with B. thuringiensis than...

  17. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... April 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  18. Rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Du, Qiuyang; Qin, Haiwen; Shi, Juan; Wu, Zhiyi; Shao, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The gypsy moth- Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)-is a worldwide forest defoliator and is of two types: the European gypsy moth and the Asian gypsy moth. Because of multiple invasions of the Asian gypsy moth, the North American Plant Protection Organization officially approved Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 33. Accordingly, special quarantine measures have been implemented for 30 special focused ports in the epidemic areas of the Asian gypsy moth, including China, which has imposed great inconvenience on export trade. The Asian gypsy moth and its related species (i.e., Lymantria monocha and Lymantria xylina ) intercepted at ports are usually at different life stages, making their identification difficult. Furthermore, Port quarantine requires speedy clearance. As such, it is difficult to identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species only by their morphological characteristics in a speedy measure. Therefore, this study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 pairs of specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the need for rapid identification. In addition, we determined the optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification temperature of the 10 pairs of specific primers, including three pairs of specific primers for the Asian gypsy moth ( L. dispar asiatic ), four pairs of specific primers for the nun moth ( L. monocha ), and three pairs of specific primers for the casuarina moth ( L. xylina ). In conclusion, using our designed primers, direct rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species is possible, and this advancement can help improve export trade in China.

  19. Fine structure of selected mouthpart sensory organs of gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnie D.C. Shields

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.), are major pest defoliators in most of the United States and destroy millions of acres of trees annually. They are highly polyphagous and display a wide host plant preference, feeding on the foliage of hundreds of plants, such as oak, maple, and sweet gum. Lepidopteran larvae, such as the gypsy moth, depend...

  20. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  1. Interactions between nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Nosema sp. infecting gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. S. Bauer; M. McManus; J. Maddox

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is the only entomopathogen that plays an important role in the natural regulation of North American gypsy moth populations. Recent European studies suggest that populations of gypsy moth in Eurasia are regulated primarily by the interactions between NPV and several species of microsporidia. Researchers have proposed that the...

  2. Persistent effects of aerial applications of disparlure on gypsy moth: trap catch and mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin W. Thorpe; Ksenia S. Tcheslavskaia; Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; E. Anderson Roberts

    2007-01-01

    In forest plots treated aerially with a plastic laminated flake formulation (Disrupt® II) of the gypsy moth sex pheromone disparlure to disrupt gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating was monitored the year of treatment and 1-2 years after treatment to determine the effects of the treatment on suppression of...

  3. Preparing for the gypsy moth - design and analysis for stand management Dorr Run, Wayne National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. Colbert; Phil Perry; Bradley Onken

    1997-01-01

    As the advancing front of the gypsy moth continues its spread throughout Ohio, silviculturists on the Wayne National Forest are preparing themselves for potential gypsy moth outbreaks in the coming decade. Through a cooperative effort between the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area, Forest Health Protection, the Wayne National Forest, Ohio, is...

  4. Gypsy moth in the southeastern U.S.: Biology, ecology, and forest management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce W. ​Kauffman; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Andrew M. Liebhold; David R. Coyle

    2017-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is a non-native insect that was accidentally introduced to North America in 1869 when it escaped cultivation by a French amateur entomologist living near Boston, MA. Despite early efforts to eradicate the species, it became established throughout eastern Massachusetts. Since then, the gypsy moth has...

  5. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  6. The Influence of Herbivory on the net rate of Increase of Gypsy Moth Abundance: A Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

     Harry T.  Valentine

    1983-01-01

    A differential equation model of gypsy moth abundance, average larval dry weight, and food abundance was used to analyze the effects of changes in foliar chemistry on the net per capita rate of increase in a gypsy moth population. If relative consumption rate per larva is unaffected by herbivory, a reduction in the nutritional value of foliage reduces the net rate of...

  7. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  8. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of geographic variants of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, reveals a previously undescribed genotypic entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., is one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. While the subspecies established in North America is the European gypsy moth (L. dispar dispar), whose females are flightless, the two Asian subspecies, L. dispar asiatica and L. dispar japonica, have flig...

  9. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  10. Within-population variation in response of red oak seedlings to herbivory by gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Scott Byington; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James B. McGraw

    1994-01-01

    The potential for an evolutionary response to gypsy moth (Lymantna dispar L.) herbivory was investigated in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a preferred host. Seedlings of nine open-pollinated families were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally defoliated by fourth instar larvae in the summer of 1991 to assay for intraspecific...

  11. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  12. Identification of a non-LTR retrotransposon from the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1999-01-01

    A family of highly repetitive elements, named LDT1, has been identified in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The complete element is 5.4 kb in length and lacks long-terminal repeats, The element contains two open reading frames with a significant amino acid sequence similarity to several non-LTR retrotransposons. The first open reading frame contains...

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  14. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  15. Impact of enhancin genes on potency of LdNPV in gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Jim McNeil; Alyssa Gendron; James. Slavicek

    2011-01-01

    Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) contains two enhancin genes (E1 and E2) encoding proteases that degrade key peritrophic matrix (PM) proteins, thereby promoting infection and mortality by the virus. In a previous study, gypsy moth larvae inoculated with LdNPV in which both E1 and E2 were deleted (double deletion virus) resulted in a non-...

  16. Survival of diverse bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pest insects, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. By attempting to repeatedly pass lepidopteran-active B. thuringiensis strains through gypsy moth larvae, we found that only those str...

  17. A technique for sexing fully developed embryos and early-instar larvae of the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert Levesque

    1963-01-01

    Because variation in sex ratio is an important factor in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), it is necessary to have some means of determining the ratio of males to females in a population at the beginning of the larval period as well as in the later stages. For determining the sex of fully developed embryos and early-...

  18. "Slow the spread" a national program to contain the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; E. Anderson Roberts; Willard Dickerson; Willard Dickerson

    2002-01-01

    Invasions by alien species can cause substantial damage to our forest resources. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) represents one example of this problem, and we present here a new strategy for its management that concentrates on containment rather than suppression of outbreaks. The "Slow the Spread" project is a combined federal and state...

  19. The disease complex of the gypsy moth. II. Aerobic bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; R.W. Campbell

    1972-01-01

    Eighty-six pathogenic aerobic bacterial isolates from diseased gypsy moth larvae collected in both sparse and dense populations were characterized and identified as members of the families Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Achromobacteraceae. The commonest pathogens were Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus...

  20. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    particularly forest, fruit , shade and ornamental trees [12,13]. The chemosensilla of gypsy moth L. dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae are located on...placed in water and were removed just prior to testing. This was to prevent dehydration of the leaves. Six leaf disks were arranged equidistant

  1. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  2. Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): Field studies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leellen F. Solter; Daniela K. Pilarska; Michael L. McManus; Milan Zubrik; Jan Patocka; Wei-Fone Huang; Julius. Novotny

    2010-01-01

    Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we...

  3. Response of gypsy moth larvae to homologous and heterologous nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Edward M. Dougherty

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is not particularly susceptible to baculoviruses other than the nuclear polyhedrosis virus originally isolated from the species (LdMNPV). The multiple enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV), a very virulent baculovirus that replicates in a large number of...

  4. An insect out of control? The potential for spread and establishment of the gypsy moth in new forest areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max W. McFadden; Michael E. McManus

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was introduced from Europe into North America near Boston, Massachusetts, in 1869, and is now well established as a serious defoliator of forest, shade, and fruit trees over much of the eastern United States. Despite substantial efforts to eradicate, contain, or control this pest, the gypsy moth has persisted and...

  5. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  6. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  7. r and K strategies in some larval and pupal parasitoids of the gypsy moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Pedro

    1977-12-01

    The investigations of the bionomics and parasitoid-host interactions of some gypsy moth parasitoids provide an opportunity to consider the role of r and K strategies in the life history of some tachinid and hymenopterous parasitoid species. Available historic data as well as results of recent studies are utilized in an attempt to evaluate the degree to which the data conform to this paradigm. Few studies have provided the information required to evaluate this concept particularly in a parasitoid complex. The concept of r and K also is discussed in relation to biological control strategies, and the implications of this analysis for those arguments are discussed.

  8. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2011-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the...

  9. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and related spore-forming bacteria from soil after application for gypsy moth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Elizabeth A. Mongeon; Michael B. Blackburn; Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) has been applied for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) control in forests in the northeastern U.S. for many years. The subspecies of Bt that is used (urstaki) is not common in U.S. soil. We attempted to recover Bt from...

  10. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  11. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  12. Simulations on the role of the egg parasite, Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard), in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.W.; Williams, F.M.; Cameron, E.A.

    1983-04-01

    Computer simulations were run to examine the effects of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) parasitism on gypsy moth populations. Two difference equation models were used, one, a simple theoretical model containing only a few important components, the other, a more comprehensive model with component functions based on field data. The simulations of the first model showed that O. kuvanae cannot control gypsy moth populations by itself. Egg parasitism was most important during the outbreak and collapse phase of the gypsy moth population cycle, and was of little importance in the endemic phase. The endemic phase was, however, lower and lasted longer with O. kuvanae parasitism than without. Simulations with the second model generally supported these conclusions. The second set of simulations also demonstrated that due to the non-linearity of the density dependence of O. kuvanae parasitism, the gypsy moth population could be forced into a chaotic regime (unstable, aperiodic population behavior). The variation in parasitism rate from the simulations was compared with that of field populations and found to be essentially the same, indicating that the simulation models are realistic.

  13. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  14. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  15. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the...

  17. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  18. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki for managing gypsy moth populations under the Slow the Spread Program, 1996-2010, relative to the distributional range of threatened and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2011-01-01

    The Slow the Spread Program operates along the expanding population front of the gypsy moth, from Minnesota to North Carolina. The primary objective of the program is to eliminate newly-founded colonies that form ahead of the leading edge to reduce the gypsy moth's rate of spread and delay the costs associated with infestation and outbreaks. Although the majority...

  19. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  20. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  2. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of gypsy moth BTR-270, an anionic brush border membrane glycoconjugate that binds Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with high affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Jeremy L. Jenkins; Mi Kyong Lee; Donald H. Dean; Karen J. Garner

    2001-01-01

    BTR-270, a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) brush border membrane molecule that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins with high affinity, was purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antibodies specific for the Bt toxin-binding molecule were raised. Attempts to label BTR-270 by protein-directed techniques were...

  4. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  5. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  6. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with [ 14 C]-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera

  7. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  8. Effects of temperature and dietary nitrogen on genetic variation and covariation in gypsy moth larval performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Tomanić Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the plastic and genetic components of variation in responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar 4th instar larvae to temperature and food quality, we applied a split-family four-environment experimental design where full-sibs were reared on two constant temperatures (23°C and 28°C and two concentrations of dietary nitrogen (1.5 and 3.7% dry weight. A temperature of 28°C and low dietary nitrogen decreased larval weight and prolonged larval developmental time, while viability was not affected. Only a marginally significant interaction between the two environmental factors was found for larval weight. The broad-sense heritability for larval developmental time did not change across environments, and across-environment genetic correlations were close to one. Heritability for larval weight depended on environmental and across-environmental genetic correlations that were not significant. There was no evidence of a trade-off between developmental time and larval weight. The implications of the obtained results for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in complex environments are discussed. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, grant No. 173027.

  9. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, K.W.; Podgwaite, J.D.; Slavicek, J.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantris dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (10(11) and 10(12) polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons)) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-produced strain of gypsy moth virus was tested in 1997 at the 10(11)-PIB dose; however, the effective dose was lower because in vitro-produced PIBs contained 5-fold fewer virions than Gypchek PIBs. Treatments were applied to overstory oak, Quercus spp., trees with a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer. Larval mortality was significantly greater, and larval density was significantly lower, on trees treated with both Gypchek and in vitro-produced virus than on untreated trees. Treatment with in vitro-produced virus resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher larval density than Gypchek treatment. Defoliation was significantly reduced by all treatments in 1996 but not in 1997, when overall gypsy moth population density dropped to very low levels. Mortality was significantly higher among larvae treated at the 10(12)-PIB dose in 1996, but there was no significant dose effect on larval density or defoliation. Mortality, density, and defoliation were not dose dependent in the 1997 test. The addition of sunscreen to Gypchek applied at the 10(12)-PIB dose did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters in 1996 or 1997. In 1996, the addition of an enhancer, Blankophor BBH, to the 10(11)-PIB dose increased mortality to a level that was not significantly different from that at the 10(12)-PIB dose. The level of control with the 10(12)-PIB treatment was not significantly different from that achieved with an application of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner (Foray 48B) at 36 billion international units (BIU) per 379 liters

  10. Comparing the Expression of Olfaction-Related Genes in Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar Adult Females and Larvae from One Flightless and Two Flight-Capable Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Clavijo McCormick

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In insects, flight and sophisticated olfactory systems go hand in hand and are essential to survival and evolutionary success. Females of many Lepidopteran species have secondarily lost their flight ability, which may lead to changes in the olfactory capabilities of both larval and adult stages. The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, an important forest pest worldwide, is currently undergoing a diversification process with three recognized subspecies: the Asian gypsy moth (AGM, Lymantria dispar asiatica; the Japanese gypsy moth (JGM, Lymantria dispar japonica; and the European gypsy moth (EGM, Lymantria dispar dispar. Females of EGM populations from North America have lost their flight capacity whereas the JGM and AGM females are flight capable, making this an ideal system to investigate the relationship between flight and olfaction. We used next-generation sequencing to obtain female antennal and larval head capsule transcriptomes in order to (i investigate the differences in expression of olfaction-related genes among populations; (ii identify the most similar protein sequences reported for other organisms through a BLAST search, and (iii establish the phylogenetic relationships of these sequences with respect to other insect species. Using this approach, we identified 115 putative chemosensory genes belonging to five families of olfaction-related genes. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the gene-expression patterns of female antennal transcriptomes from different subspecies were more similar to one another than to the larval head capsules of their respective subspecies supporting strong chemosensory differences between the two developmental stages. An analysis of the shared and exclusively expressed genes for three populations shows no evidence that loss of flight affects the number or type of genes being expressed. These results indicate either (a that loss of flight does not impact the olfactory gene repertoire or (b that the

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the spray zone was 739 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of air. Outdoor air concentrations decreased over time, quickly in an initial phase with a half time of 3.3 hr, and then more slowly over the following 9 days, with an overall half-time of about 2.4 days. Inside residences during spraying, average concentrations were initially 2-5 times lower than outdoors, but at 5-6 hr after spraying began, indoor concentrations exceeded those outdoors, with an average of 244 CFU/m3 vs. 77 CFU/m3 outdoors, suggesting that the initial benefits of remaining indoors during spraying may not persist as outside air moves indoors with normal daily activities. There was drift of culturable Btk throughout a 125- to 1,000-meter band outside the spray zone where measurements were made, a consequence of the fine aerosol sizes that remained airborne (count median diameters of 4.3 to 7.2 microm). Btk concentrations outside the spray zone were related to wind speed and direction, but not to distance from the spray zone.

  12. Dose responses of in vivo- and in vitro-produced strains of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) applied with and without the virus enhancer Blankophor BBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Kevin W. Thorpe; Ralph E. Webb; Roger W. Fuester; Vincent D' Amico; Randel A. Peiffer; Michael A. Valenti

    2013-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product Gypchek is a microbial pesticide produced by the USDA Forest Service. Gypchek is a mixture of LdMNPV genotypes produced in vivo. Commercial interests prefer to develop a stable, high-potency genotype that can be produced at low cost, preferably in vitro. We sprayed 2 LdMNPV...

  13. Assessing the potential of genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify the geographic origins of intercepted gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) specimens: A proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrine Picq; Melody Keena; Nathan Havill; Don Stewart; Esther Pouliot; Brian Boyle; Roger C. Levesque; Richard C. Hamelin; Michel Cusson

    2018-01-01

    Forest invasive alien species are a major threat to ecosystem stability and can have enormous economic and social impacts. For this reason, preventing the introduction of Asian gypsy moths (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica and L. d. japonica) into North America has been identified as a top priority by North American authorities....

  14. Gypsy moth IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, North American forests have been inundated by a multitude of alien pest invasions. Among these, noteworthy invaders include the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease. These species have greatly altered both the ecological and...

  15. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

  16. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of [ 35 S]-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early α phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate β phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late γ phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with [ 3 H]-mannose, [ 3 H]-N-acetyl-glucosamine or [ 32 P]-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter

  17. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  18. Response of Adult Lymantriid Moths to Illumination Devices in the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Lee M. Humble; Robert E. Levin; Yuri N. Baranchikov; Ring T. Carde; Ring T. Carde

    1995-01-01

    In field studies in the Russian Far East, five types of illuminating devices were evaluated for attracting adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), pink gypsy moth, L. mathura Moore, and nun moth, L. monacha (L.). Our objective was to determine if light from commercial lamps suited to out-of-doors floodlighting could be modified to reduce their attractiveness to moths...

  19. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi 3 H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion

  20. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be...

  1. Tip moth parasitoids and pesticides: Are they compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. McCravy; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Effects of herbicide and insecticide applications on parasitism of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) were examined in 2-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in Georgia. Total parasitism rates varied significantly among tip moth generations, but there were no differences in parasitism rates between herbicide-treated and untreated...

  2. Metabolism of 14C-diazinon by gypsy moth larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Forgashi, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic fate of diazinon in larvae of Porthetria dispar (L.) was determined using 14 C-ring-labeled material. Following a 4-h ingestion period, 28.7 percent of the total recovered activity was present as diazinon in the larvae and 0.2 percent in the feces at 1 hr; by 12 h these amounts had changed to 1.4 and 15.4 percent, respectively. The major transformation products were 2,isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol greater than diazoxon greater than hydroxydiazinon greater than 2-(2'-hydroxy-2'-propyl)-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol. Small amounts of 5 additional products were detected but were not identified. Metabolism of topically applied diazinon was the same qualitatively as that of ingested diazinon, based on a comparison of chloroform-extractable metabolites, although quantitative differences were evident. The synergists 2,6-dichlorobenzyl-2-propynyl ether (GA4-282) and piperonyl butoxide (PB) altered the metabolism of diazinon (both ingested and topical doses) by apparently similar actions, resulting in a reduction in the formation of 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol, hydroxydiazinon, and 2-(2'-hydroxy-2'-propyl)-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol

  3. Demonstration of the gypsy moth energy budget microclimate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; W. E. Wallner

    1991-01-01

    The use of a "User friendly" version of "GMMICRO" model to quantify the local environment and resulting core temperature of GM larvae under different conditions of canopy defoliation, different forest sites, and different weather conditions was demonstrated.

  4. Learning about Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  5. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  6. "Gypsy" on asjatundjad elust maha kirjutanud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    2. dets. esietendub Vanemuises Ameerika vodevillistaari ja striptiisikuninganna Rose Louise Hovicki memuaaridel põhinev muusikal "Gypsy", lavastaja Mare Tommingas, osades Silvi Vrait ja Helena Merzin

  7. Susceptibility of parent and interspecific Fl hybrid pine trees to tip moth damage in a coastal North Carolina planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxine T. Highsmith; John Frampton; David 0' Malley; James Richmond; Martesa Webb

    2001-01-01

    Tip moth damage arnong families of parent pine species and their interspecific F1 hybrids was quantitatively assessed in a coastal planting in North Carolina. Three slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti Engelm.), two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and four interspecific F1 hybrid pine families were used. The...

  8. Gypsy stories: Narrative as a teaching stratagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of narratives as adaptive cultural beha­viors among Gypsies in Mačva county, western Serbia. Storytelling is a universal activity and may well be oldest of the arts. It has always provided a vehicle for the expression of ideas, particularly in societies relying on oral tradition. Gypsies are present in Serbia since the Middle Ages, living within a larger Serbian culture as a minority group. Mačva, an agriculturally rich county in western Serbia, is a place where local Gypsy traditions are still alive and which help distinguish between Gypsy subgroups and the larger Serbian society. The stories analyzed are part of a collec­tion made from several different Gypsy groups exhibiting varying degrees of influence from Serbian culture. Gypsies in Serbia have no written literature, but possess a rich and varied storytelling tradition delivered by word of mouth through the generations. Their stories bear testimony to the evolutionarily important mecha­nisms employed by Gypsies to make their way in the world. Gypsy stories concern many aspects of the relationship between themselves and other social groups, both in the past and the present. At the same time, the stories deal with universal adaptive problems, such as origin/ethnicity, kinship and mate acquisition. By applying the concepts and folk knowledge from their own culture, Gypsies have managed to provide for themselves the guidelines to overcome these problems within a par­ticular environment. Thus it is that these stories reflect both human universals and cultural peculiarities - by utilization of localized cultural solutions to adaptive problems. The success Gypsies have achieved in surviving harassment, and their ability to sustain themselves and their cultures despite social rejection can be attributed, in part, to the power of the traditional stories to influence the behavior of those who hear them. For the Gypsies, telling and listening to the stories

  9. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....

  10. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  11. Voices in the "Gypsy Developmental Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, Jose Luis; Crespo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this article is, What are the hegemonic models of man and woman that educational practices are orientated toward in gypsy communities (models that are often in conflict with mainstream schooling institution's models of socialization)? We do not find the collectivism/individualism approach for explaining socialization in…

  12. The Forgotten Holocaust of the Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnauer, Gabrielle

    1991-01-01

    Traces the systematic murder of 250,000-500,000 Gypsies by the Nazis in the 1930s. Concludes little scholarship has been completed on this incident. States that files documenting the systematic extermination of these people on the grounds of Nazi claims to national security, genetic health, racial purity, and crime prevention are now available at…

  13. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  14. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  15. Narratives of the gypsy awakening. Religious innovation, gypsy leadership and identity politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cantón-Delgado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roma people are the largest ethnic minority in Europe (10-12 mill. From the 1950s they began to congregate in Pentecostal churches across the continent, spreading and increasing structure and influence rapidly, especially in France and Spain. This article provides new data to analyze ethnic and religious phenomenon in the process of rapid growth, of American/African-American origin, that among the Spanish gypsy population shows its own peculiarities: a self-managed movement, alien to the conventions of Rom activism, political identity and public policies to promote minorities, and led by gypsy ministers or supported on a new narrative on primitive Gypsyism with biblical justification.

  16. Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-01-15

    A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle

    1981-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  18. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  19. "Gypsy" ehk killuke Ameerikat meie jaoks / Martin Gorris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorris, Martin

    2001-01-01

    2. dets. esietendus Vanemuises Ameerika vodevillistaari ja striptiisikuninganna Rose Louise Hovicki memuaaridel põhinev Jule Styne'i muusikal "Gypsy", lavastaja Mare Tommingas, osades Silvi Vrait ja Helena Merzin

  20. Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    treated, such as plants, soil, or water, is: • coveralls • waterproof gloves • shoes plus socks. DIMILIN 4L is an insect growth regulator which is...Handlers Must Wear: A long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes plus socks. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and maintaining PPE. If no such...EQUIPMENT Applicators and Other Handlers Must Wear: A long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes plus socks. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for

  1. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Richelieu, Le Bas-Richelieu, Le Granit, Le Haut-Richelieu, Le Haut-Saint-Francois, Le Haut-Saint-Laurent, Le... Conception; and (8) That portion of the regional county municipality of Les Pays-d'en-Haut that includes the...

  2. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Law 106-113, 113 Stat. 1501A-293; sections 301.75-15 and 301.75-16 issued under Sec. 203, Title II, Public Law 106-224, 114 Stat. 400 (7 U.S.C. 1421 note). 0 2. In Sec. 301.45-3, paragraph (a), under the... townships of Anson, Athens, Bald Mountain, Bingham, Bowtown, Brighton Plantation, Cambridge, Canaan...

  3. Growth of newly established alien populations: comparison of North American gypsy moth colonies with invasion theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin

    2006-01-01

    A common characteristic observed in many biological invasions is the existence of a lag between the time of arrival by the alien population and the time when established populations are noticed. Considerable advances have been made in modeling the expansion of invading species, and there is often remarkable congruence between the behavior of these models with spread of...

  4. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  5. Gypsy pentecostal ascetism and body management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Cabezas, Ignacio Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal religious beliefs and practices consist of a complex set of strategies of transformation and personal renewal. Among other aspects of their experiences in the Church of Philadelphia, the social construction of Gypsy reality turns on the reform of the body. The present paper lies on aspects such as the body as object and subject of biopolitical and religious practices; the relationships between religious experience and body management; new social and community interactions; and autobiographical discourse as the ideological vehicle of personal conversion and transformation. All these processes reveal how social practices remake and shape bodily behaviour and its meaning. Pentecostal charismatic practices channel and express the community and individual demands of Church of Philadelphia converts, and represent central issues in the Pentecostal management of body and spirit. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the bodily practices which provide for believers´ transformation, and which shape community rituals and the congregation's interactions.

  6. MEETING THE PENETRATING SIGHT OF THE GYPSY WOMEN SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    OpenAIRE

    BUJALSKA, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Somewhere in the Middle East during journey we can meet Gypsy women. Their penetrating sight clenches their entire existence. This stare shows their struggle with life, the everlasting roam and the mysterious knowledge contained in their nature. Who is the Gypsy woman in the Middle East? Gypsy is primarily a vagabond, a woman responsible for divination but very often the beggar and also unfortunately a thief. How we can recognize her from other women? The presence of Gypsies in the Midd...

  7. Comparative analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin binding to gypsy moth, browntail moth, and douglas-fir tussock moth midgut tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; John D. Podgwaite

    2011-01-01

    Many strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce insecticidal proteins, also referred to as Cry toxins, in crystal inclusions during sporulation. When ingested by insects, the Cry toxins bind to receptors on the brush border midgut epithelial cells and create pores in the epithelial gut membranes resulting in the death of...

  8. The stigmatization of obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Prejudice against obese people has been widely confirmed in scientific papers. Therefore, recent studies have increasingly focused on investigating the individual and cultural factors related to attitudes towards obesity. Since there have been no comparative studies involving Gypsy people, our present research aimed at exploring the possible discrepancies in children's attitudes towards obese children between Gypsy and Hungarian cultures. Our survey included 247 children aged 9-16 (108 boys and 139 girls), of which 136 considered themselves Hungarian (55.1 %), while 111 children (44.9 %) claimed themselves as Gypsy. The subjects were asked to rank six male and six female figure drawings according to their preference. Each sequence of figure drawings included a healthy child, an obese child, and four drawings depicted children with disabilities. According to our results, the drawings portraying the healthy child figure were rated most preferable and those portraying the obese child figure the least preferable amongst the subjects regardless of gender and origin. However, the obese girl figures and boy figures were rated significantly more positively by Gypsy children than Hungarian children. Our results suggest that there is a difference in attitude towards obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children. Therefore, it is worthwhile to further explore this phenomenon.

  9. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  10. Taming the Gypsy: How French Romantics Recaptured a Past

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Elizabeth Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the evolution of the Gypsy trope in Romantic French literature at a time when nostalgia became a powerful aesthetic and political tool used by varying sides of an ideological war. Long considered a transient outsider who did not view time or privilege the past in the same way Europeans did, the Gypsy, I argue, became a useful way for France's writers to contain and tame the transience they felt interrupted nostalgia's attempt to recapture a lost past. My wo...

  11. Siberian Moth: Potential New Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Michael Montgomery; Daniel Kucera

    1997-01-01

    The Siberian moth, Dendrolimus superans Butler (Family Lasiocampidae), is the most destructive defoliator of conifer forests in Northern Asia. Outbreaks defoliate millions of acres and occur at intervals of 8 to 11 years. The larvae feed on most conifers in the pine family, but outbreaks occur in fir, spruce, Siberian pine, and larch forests. The...

  12. Gypsies and Travellers: their history, culture and traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies and Travellers living in Britain today are culturally diverse and made up of differing groups. The aim of this paper is to describe the different groups and sub-groups, and look at similarities and differences between these groups while highlighting the discrimination and prejudice experienced by the Travelling community as a whole. Although there is no one culture common to all these groups, they share an ancient tradition of 'nomadism' and an oral tradition of passing on knowledge. Gypsies and Irish Travellers are recognised as ethnic minorities under the Equality Act 2010 and it is estimated that there are between 200,000 and 300,000 living in the UK. This paper offers an account of how a specialist health visitor working in the south Gloucestershire area has attempted to reduce prejudice and discrimination experienced by Gypsies and Travellers by raising awareness of their cultural issues. It will also focus on how to ensure services take into account the needs of Gypsies and Travellers.

  13. Fuzzy Mathematical Models To Remove Poverty Of Gypsies In Tamilnadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, A. D.; Ramkumar, C.; Siva, E. P.; Balaji, N.

    2018-04-01

    In the society there are several poor people are living. One of the sympathetic poor people is gypsies. They are moving from one place to another place towards survive of life because of not having any permanent place to live. In this paper we have interviewed 895 gypsies in Tamilnadu using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them to improve their life at large involve so much of feeling, uncertainties and unpredictabilitys. I felt that it deem fit to use fuzzy theory in general and fuzzy matrix in particular. Fuzzy matrix is the best suitable tool where the data is an unsupervised one. Further the fuzzy matrix is so powerful to identify the main development factor of gypsies.This paper has three sections. In section one the method of application of CEFD matrix. In section two, we describe the development factors of gypsies. In section three, we apply these factors to the CEFD matrix and derive our conclusions. Key words: RD matrix, AFD matrix, CEFD matrix.

  14. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko

    2010-01-01

    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  15. Vándorcigányok az államszocializmusban - Gypsy Travellers in the Communist Era

    OpenAIRE

    GYENGE, András

    2013-01-01

    Afterhaving recognised the social problems of settled Gypsies, we also have to turn our attention to the tensions resulting from the lack of social integration of travelling Gypsies in Hungary. Can we even talk about classical examples of travelling Gypsies in Hungary in the Communist era? The literature published so far claims that most statistics on Romani people in Hungary are unreliable. This doesn’t mean that the results of research carried out on this topic should be completely ignor...

  16. Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In Serbia, the Gypsy population tends to suffer disproportionately from higher rates of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and disease. At the same time, the Serbian Gypsy women average an infant mortality rate between 10-20%. For most of these girls/women, endogamous, arranged marriages are negotiated at an early age, usually without their consent. Among these women, a certain level of infant mortality is “expected”, following an underinvestment in some children manifested in their care, feeding, and the response to their illnesses. These juvenile arranged marriages, subsequent reproduction and child mortality are culturally self-sufficient and hence pose a challenge for international human rights: while many Gypsy girls/women are being denied the right to choose whom and when to marry, the Gypsy community itself openly accepts juvenile arranged marriage as a preservation strategy and means of cultural, economic, and societal maintenance and independence. Although efforts to improve education, health, living conditions, encourage employment and development opportunities for Gypsies/Roma are essential, these objectives cannot be attained without directing the changes needed within Gypsy/Roma culture itself. The initial point for change must come from an increased sense of responsibility among the Gypsies themselves.

  17. The Elusive Search for Nora Luca: Tony Gatlif's Adventures in Gypsy Land

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Eve Blum-Reid

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines Gypsy filmmaker Tony Gatlif and his 1997 film Gadjo Dilo (The Crazy Foreigner). The film ventures on the icy roads of Romania and casts a young French man in search for Nora Luca’s voice, a woman taped by his musicologist father. The young man is adopted by a Romanian Gypsy community and initiated to Gypsy culture. The film reverts stereotypes associated to Gypsies and questions the place of the white traveler in late 20th century Europe. Questions of otherness and exotici...

  18. The Song of the Other/Public Space as a Learning Environment and Gypsy Musicians in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ulas

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on both public musical practices of Gypsy musicians who live in the Thracian land lying within the northwest of Turkey, and musical learning that takes place here. I primarily highlight the historic dimensions of the relation between Gypsies and music and emphasized musicianship in the lives of Gypsies as a fundamental class…

  19. Ethnic Housing Segregation and the Roma/Gypsy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    during phases of advanced urban decline, the existence of ethnic enclaves and concentrated poverty has led to housing demolition and rehousing, in many cases with controversial results. The relevance of the link between ethnic segregation and integration is known. On the one hand, people create......Questions of spatial segregation and over-representation of ethnic minority groups with weak connections to the labour market are central to the political and policy agenda across Europe and academic studies in the fields of housing and urban regeneration. In some countries, the spatial...... review literature that presents the empirical results of research conducted in different locations of Portugal but has in common processes of rehousing of the Gypsy/Roma population in urban areas. I compare these results with those I obtained in field work in Porto where I interviewed Gypsy/Roma people...

  20. Marginal Groups in Marginal Times: Gypsy and Traveller Parents and Home Education in England, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of home education for Gypsy and Traveller groups in England, UK. We argue that home education is perceived in a particular historical "moment" characterised in the media and more generally throughout society by "risk". Against this backdrop this article considers Gypsy and Traveller…

  1. Engaging Gypsy and Traveller Pupils in Secondary Education in Wales: Tensions and Dilemmas of Addressing Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Despite decades of research and policy, we are still some way in the U.K. from ameliorating barriers for Gypsy and Traveller pupils. A complex set of factors exist which influence young people's engagement with secondary education. This interpretive-deductive study, which draws upon 'tensions and dilemmas of difference', presents Gypsy/Traveller…

  2. Perceptions of Behaviour and Patterns of Exclusion: Gypsy Traveller Students in English Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on a recent and unique longitudinal study of Gypsy Traveller students in fifteen local education authorities in England. Gypsy Traveller students are less likely to complete secondary education than any other minority ethnic group and it is estimated that up to 12 000 young Travellers in England are not registered at any secondary…

  3. Unlocking hidden community assets : Marginal specialization and community resilience of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Enduring social exclusion has forced Gypsy-Travelers to specialize in marginal economic activities. These marginal specializations build on specific skills, attitudes, and strategies which are valuable for the communities’ overall development. Today’s Gypsy-Traveler communities face a context of

  4. A common founder mutation in FANCA underlies the world's highest prevalence of Fanconi anemia in Gypsy families from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, Elsa; Casado, José A; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Bueren, Juan A; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard; Dasí, Angeles; Estella, Jesús M; Muñoz, Arturo; Ortega, Juan J; de Winter, Johan; Joenje, Hans; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hodgson, Shirley V; Mathew, Christopher G; Surrallés, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Here we have identified Spanish Gypsies as the ethnic group with the world's highest prevalence of FA (carrier frequency of 1/64-1/70). DNA sequencing of the FANCA gene in 8 unrelated Spanish Gypsy FA families after retroviral subtyping revealed a homozygous FANCA mutation (295C>T) leading to FANCA truncation and FA pathway disruption. This mutation appeared specific for Spanish Gypsies as it is not found in other Gypsy patients with FA from Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, and Ireland. Haplotype analysis showed that Spanish Gypsy patients all share the same haplotype. Our data thus suggest that the high incidence of FA among Spanish Gypsies is due to an ancestral founder mutation in FANCA that originated in Spain less than 600 years ago. The high carrier frequency makes the Spanish Gypsies a population model to study FA heterozygote mutations in cancer.

  5. The Elusive Search for Nora Luca: Tony Gatlif's Adventures in Gypsy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Eve Blum-Reid

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines Gypsy filmmaker Tony Gatlif and his 1997 film Gadjo Dilo (The Crazy Foreigner. The film ventures on the icy roads of Romania and casts a young French man in search for Nora Luca’s voice, a woman taped by his musicologist father. The young man is adopted by a Romanian Gypsy community and initiated to Gypsy culture. The film reverts stereotypes associated to Gypsies and questions the place of the white traveler in late 20th century Europe. Questions of otherness and exoticism are raised amidst the Western urge to preserve and collect other cultures. The essay is informed by current Gypsies studies on Gypsy law that locate the interaction Rom cultures have had with non-Rom cultures. The film may be seen as a trilingual road movie set in Eastern Europe, yet Gatlif, a man for whom “the road is his country” stretches the limits of the genre, usually situated in the vast open spaces of North America. Gender is important in the analysis of the film as Rom women encountered act as mediators between two different cultures and spaces. Last, the essay reconsiders the place of Tony Gatlif, a now recognized French filmmaker, a spokesperson for Gypsies who delocalised the story and traveled to Eastern Europe. An analysis of the reception of the film adds to the discussion of a filmmaker, born in Algeria, of Berber and Andalusian descent.

  6. Sex stimulant and attractant in the Indian meal moth and in the almond moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, U E; Tumlinson, J H; Brownlee, R G; Silverstein, R M

    1971-02-26

    cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadien-1-yl acetate was isolated from the female Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and the female almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker). It is the major if not the sole component of the sex stimulatory and attractant pheromone of female Plodia. It is present in the pheromone of the female Cadra along with at least one synergist.

  7. Gypsy endogenous retrovirus maintains potential infectivity in several species of Drosophilids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Frutos Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequences homologous to the gypsy retroelement from Drosophila melanogaster are widely distributed among drosophilids. The structure of gypsy includes an open reading frame resembling the retroviral gene env, which is responsible for the infectious properties of retroviruses. Results In this study we report molecular and phylogeny analysis of the complete env gene from ten species of the obscura group of the genus Drosophila and one species from the genus Scaptomyza. Conclusion The results indicate that in most cases env sequences could produce a functional Env protein and therefore maintain the infectious capability of gypsy in these species.

  8. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides.

  9. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers). In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed. PMID:20030800

  10. Alien species, agents of global change: ecology and management of the gypsy moth in North America as a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2003-01-01

    Through out evolutionary history, water and land barriers served to isolate the world's biota into distinct compartments With the advent of greater human mobility and world trade, these barriers are breaking-down and alien species are increasingly being transported into new habitats. Many alien species have had devastating impacts on their environment resulting in...

  11. Microimaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin-binding proteins in gypsy moth larval gut using confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2010-01-01

    After ingestion by susceptible insect larvae, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells and disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane by forming...

  12. Interaction between a pair of gypsy insulators or between heterologous gypsy and Wari insulators modulates Flp site-specific recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivega, Margarita; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Krivega, Ivan; Karakozova, Marina; Parshikov, Aleksander; Golovnin, Anton; Georgiev, Pavel

    2010-08-01

    Chromatin insulators block the action of transcriptional enhancers when interposed between an enhancer and a promoter. An Flp technology was used to examine interactions between Drosophila gypsy and Wari insulators in somatic and germ cells. The gypsy insulator consists of 12 binding sites for the Su(Hw) protein, while the endogenous Wari insulator, located on the 3' side of the white gene, is independent from the Su(Hw) protein. Insertion of the gypsy but not Wari insulator between FRT sites strongly blocks recombination between Flp dimers bound to FRT sites located on the same chromatid (recombination in cis) or in sister chromatids (unequal recombination in trans). At the same time, the interaction between Wari and gypsy insulators regulates the efficiency of Flp-mediated recombination. Thus, insulators may have a role in controlling interactions between distantly located protein complexes (not only those involved in transcriptional gene regulation) on the same chromosome or on sister chromatids in somatic and germ cells. We have also found that the frequency of Flp-mediated recombination between FRT sites is strongly dependent on the relative orientation of gypsy insulators. Taken together, our results indicate that the interactions between insulators can be visualized by Flp technology and that insulators may be involved in blocking undesirable interactions between proteins at the two-chromatid phase of the cell cycle.

  13. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From Journalism to Gypsy Folk Song: The Road to Orality of an English Ballad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Pettitt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay provides an ingenious analysis of indigenous and enduring folksongs within the Gypsy oral tradition in England. It traces a brief history of scholarship on Gypsy folksong, as well as treats the inherently tricky issue of what a ballad is, before entering into a discussion of the interaction between orally transmitted folksongs and written broadsides. Ultimately, Pettitt illustrates how discernible trends may provide valuable insights into the ways in which oral tradition interacts with and influences verbal performance culture.

  15. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    OpenAIRE

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-01-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/res...

  16. Sex Pheromone of the Almond Moth and the Indian Meal Moth: cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadienyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Y; Kitamura, C; Takashi, S; Hara, H; Ishii, S; Fukami, H

    1971-02-26

    Female moths of different species but belonging to the same subfamily produce an identical compound as their sex pheromone. The sex pheromone of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker), and the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), has been isolated and identified as cis-9, trans-12-tetradecadienyl acetate.

  17. Vándorcigányok az államszocializmusban - Gypsy Travellers in the Communist Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYENGE, András

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Afterhaving recognised the social problems of settled Gypsies, we also have to turn our attention to the tensions resulting from the lack of social integration of travelling Gypsies in Hungary. Can we even talk about classical examples of travelling Gypsies in Hungary in the Communist era? The literature published so far claims that most statistics on Romani people in Hungary are unreliable. This doesn’t mean that the results of research carried out on this topic should be completely ignored, but the data have to be considered cautiously. It is especially true for surveys after 1945, since at that time highly different methods were used to determine the proportion of Romani people in the Hungarian society; hence the divergent results and obscurity of actual numbers. All we can give is estimation. My aim was to resolve contradictions and give a more precise picture of the situation of Gypsies, especially that of travelling Gypsies in Hungary, therefore I have involved in my research written sources such as reports of the MSZMP KB [Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party], case studies, qualitative field-works etc. Based on these documents, it has become possible to describe the process how the nomadic lifestyle of Gypsies in Hungary disappeared during the period from the turn of the century until the political transition. Additionally, a quite unique phenomenonis detectable in the Communist era; an institutionalised wandering controlled by the state which can be seen as the temporal extension of the former nomadism.

  18. HIV/AIDS knowledge amongst gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.K.; Sethi, S.M.; Kokab, F.; Qureshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)

  19. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  20. Hearing diversity in moths confronting a neotropical bat assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Kössl, Manfred; Mora, Emanuel C

    2017-09-01

    The tympanal ear is an evolutionary acquisition which helps moths survive predation from bats. The greater diversity of bats and echolocation strategies in the Neotropics compared with temperate zones would be expected to impose different sensory requirements on the neotropical moths. However, even given some variability among moth assemblages, the frequencies of best hearing of moths from different climate zones studied to date have been roughly the same: between 20 and 60 kHz. We have analyzed the auditory characteristics of tympanate moths from Cuba, a neotropical island with high levels of bat diversity and a high incidence of echolocation frequencies above those commonly at the upper limit of moths' hearing sensitivity. Moths of the superfamilies Noctuoidea, Geometroidea and Pyraloidea were examined. Audiograms were determined by non-invasively measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. We also quantified the frequency spectrum of the echolocation sounds to which this moth community is exposed. The hearing ranges of moths in our study showed best frequencies between 36 and 94 kHz. High sensitivity to frequencies above 50 kHz suggests that the auditory sensitivity of moths is suited to the sounds used by sympatric echolocating bat fauna. Biodiversity characterizes predators and prey in the Neotropics, but the bat-moth acoustic interaction keeps spectrally matched.

  1. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  2. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  3. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  4. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  5. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  6. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  7. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  8. Representations About Discrimination Practices in the Education System Built by Gypsies (Ciganos in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, Gypsies (Ciganos are categorized as ethnical and minority group, and they are particularly vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion. There is no doubt that they are one of the groups that rise more antipathy among the other Portuguese. In what concerns the “social images” built by the dominant society, there is a negative evaluation of the Gypsies and this image has persisted and resisted so far. Therefore, Gypsy identity and culture are considered marginal. However, the historical discrimination against Gypsies and the existence of a scarce interaction with the non-Gypsy society are some interesting results coming out from a qualitative study finished in 2006 about social representations and emotions that emerged in discriminatory contexts related with the educational system. One of the main objectives of this article is to find how Gypsies represent the school, the formal education, and the social agents that intervene in this educational context, like teachers, other school workers, and other students (non-Gypsies. It is possible to notice some discourses that revealed negative perceptions and rejection feelings incorporated by some Gypsies. They feel that they are treated like “inferior” persons and not recognized by the whole society.

  9. Transcultural nursing care values, beliefs, and practices of American (USA) Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, A; Leininger, M

    1992-01-01

    This ethnonursing qualitative investigation was focused on the domain of culture care values, expression and meanings of selected American Gypsies. The purpose of the study was to explicate culture care American Gypsy lifeways in order to help nurses understand this largely unknown culture, and to offer guidelines for providing culturally congruent nursing care. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality was the appropriate theory to use for this study, along with the ethnonursing research method to generate emic and etic grounded data. Findings substantiated that the world view, ethnohistory, religion (moral code), kinship and cultural values, and generic folk practices were powerful influences of Gypsy lifeways and supported culture congruent nursing care. Ethnohistorical facts strongly buttressed the cultural values, norms, and moral codes for culture specific care practices. Several Gypsy culture specific and dominant care meanings, expressions, and actions were confirmed and made credible from raw data and thematic analysis. They were: 1) protective in-group caring; 2) watching over and guarding against Gadje; 3) facilitating care rituals; 4) respecting Gypsy values; 5) alleviating Gadje harassment; 6) remaining suspicious of outsiders; and 7) dealing with purity and impurity moral codes and rules. Culture specific and congruent care generated from Leininger's theory with the three predicted modes were identified to guide nursing decisions and actions.

  10. Transcription of Gypsy Elements in a Y-Chromosome Male Fertility Gene of Drosophila Hydei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach, R.; Harhangi, H.; Schouren, K.; Bindels, P.; Suijkerbuijk, R.; Hennig, W.

    1996-01-01

    We have found that defective gypsy retrotransposons are a major constituent of the lampbrush loop pair Nooses in the short arm of the Y chromosome of Drosophila hydei. The loop pair is formed by male fertility gene Q during the primary spermatocyte stage of spermatogenesis, each loop being a single transcription unit with an estimated length of 260 kb. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that throughout the loop transcripts gypsy elements are interspersed with blocks of a tandemly repetitive Y-specific DNA sequence, ay1. Nooses transcripts containing both sequence types show a wide size range on Northern blots, do not migrate to the cytoplasm, and are degraded just before the first meiotic division. Only one strand of ay1 and only the coding strand of gypsy can be detected in the loop transcripts. However, as cloned genomic DNA fragments also display opposite orientations of ay1 and gypsy, such DNA sections cannot be part of the Nooses. Hence, they are most likely derived from the flanking heterochromatin. The direction of transcription of ay1 and gypsy thus appears to be of a functional significance. PMID:8852843

  11. The Gypsy Baron Operetta (1885 as a musical document of a certain age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Anna G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered a musical monument to the Austro- Hungarian Empire – The Gypsy Baron (originally Der Zigeunerbaron of 1885 composed by Johann Strauss II (1825-1899 reveals how important position Maria Theresia had in the Empire in the long nineteenth century. It is also a great example of keeping, in Vienna at the end of the nineteenth century, hold of the memory of her politics. The Gypsy Baron is clearly the work inscribed into political situation as it constituted a specific response to a concrete need to stimulate civil attitudes (so desired within the Empire at that time. Treating the Gypsy Baron as a case study, the paper suggests that although the world of operetta might be overlooked or underestimated when discussing the role of political propaganda and the issues of collective memory. It should be recognized as one of the key sites employed to promote the Habsburgs’ vision of their Empire.

  12. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  13. Douglas-fir tussock moth: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Lorna C. Youngs

    1978-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes references to 338 papers. Each deals in some way with either the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), or a related species. Specifically, 210 publications and 82 unpublished documents make some reference, at least, to the Douglas-fir tussock moth; 55 are concerned with other species in...

  14. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi. Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses.

  15. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  16. Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham David

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data provided by the social sciences as well as genetic research suggest that the 8-10 million Roma (Gypsies who live in Europe today are best described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations. The relationship between the traditional social structure observed by the Roma, where the Group is the primary unit, and the boundaries, demographic history and biological relatedness of the diverse founder populations appears complex and has not been addressed by population genetic studies. Results Recent medical genetic research has identified a number of novel, or previously known but rare conditions, caused by private founder mutations. A summary of the findings, provided in this review, should assist diagnosis and counselling in affected families, and promote future collaborative research. The available incomplete epidemiological data suggest a non-random distribution of disease-causing mutations among Romani groups. Conclusion Although far from systematic, the published information indicates that medical genetics has an important role to play in improving the health of this underprivileged and forgotten people of Europe. Reported carrier rates for some Mendelian disorders are in the range of 5 -15%, sufficient to justify newborn screening and early treatment, or community-based education and carrier testing programs for disorders where no therapy is currently available. To be most productive, future studies of the epidemiology of single gene disorders should take social organisation and cultural anthropology into consideration, thus allowing the targeting of public health programs and contributing to the understanding of population structure and demographic history of the Roma.

  17. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    ) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...... species of moths including members of the Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Geometridae and Crambidae. Males of nine species, 70%, produced broadband ultrasound close to females. Peak frequencies ranged from 38 to above 100 kHz. All sounds were of low intensity, 43-76 dB SPL at 1 cm [64+/-10 dB peSPL (mean +/- s......Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae...

  18. [Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván-Gonzalvo, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragones de Servicios Sociales [IASS]) because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by the IASS. A descriptive and comparative statistical study was performed. The Spanish gypsy children were mostly in the age group of 0-5 years, while foreign immigrants were mostly in the age group of 12-17 years. Spanish gypsy children showed a greater frequency of physical and emotional neglect and/or abandonment (p social and health risk factor (OR = 9.3; 95%CI, 3.8-22.8). Spanish gypsy children showed a greater frequency of neurological disorders, disabling diseases, absent or incomplete immunizations, and dermatologic diseases. Foreign immigrant children showed a greater frequency of physical and psychological and/or sexual abuse (p social services in charge of developing intervention strategies for the prevention and early detection of maltreatment, as well as for professionals in charge of the health of these children during their stay in a protection center.

  19. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  20. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  1. Proteolytic Processing and Assembly of gag and gag-pol Proteins of TED, a Baculovirus-Associated Retrotransposon of the Gypsy Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Kathryn L.; Friesen, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    TED (transposable element D) is an env-containing member of the gypsy family of retrotransposons that represents a possible retrovirus of invertebrates. This lepidopteran (moth) retroelement contains gag and pol genes that encode proteins capable of forming viruslike particles (VLP) with reverse transcriptase. Since VLP are likely intermediates in TED transposition, we investigated the roles of gag and pol in TED capsid assembly and maturation. By using constructed baculovirus vectors and TED Gag-specific antiserum, we show that the principal translation product of gag (Pr55gag) is cleaved to produce a single VLP structural protein, p37gag. Replacement of Asp436 within the retrovirus-like active site of the pol-encoded protease (PR) abolished Pr55gag cleavage and demonstrated the requirement for PR in capsid processing. As shown by expression of an in-frame fusion of TED gag and pol, PR is derived from the Gag-Pol polyprotein Pr195gag-pol. The PR cleavage site within Pr55gag was mapped to a position near the junction of a basic, nucleocapsid-like domain and a C-terminal acidic domain. Once released by cleavage, the C-terminal fragment was not detected. This acidic fragment was dispensable for VLP assembly, as demonstrated by the formation of VLP by C-terminal Pr55gag truncation proteins and replacement of the acidic domain with a heterologous protein. In contrast, C-terminal deletions that extended into the adjacent nucleocapsid-like domain of Pr55gag abolished VLP recovery and demonstrated that this central region contributes to VLP assembly or stability, or both. Collectively, these data suggest that the single TED protein p37gag provides both capsid and nucleocapsid functions. TED may therefore use a simple processing strategy for VLP assembly and genome packaging. PMID:9765414

  2. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  3. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  4. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  5. Wolbachia influences the maternal transmission of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, François; Terzian, Christophe

    2014-09-02

    The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in D. melanogaster through a mechanism that involves distribution at the posterior pole of mature oocytes and then incorporation into the pole cells of the embryos. In parallel, maternal transmission of several endogenous retroviruses is well documented in D. melanogaster. Notably, gypsy retrovirus is expressed in permissive follicle cells and transferred to the oocyte and then to the offspring by integrating into their genomes. Here, we show that the presence of Wolbachia wMel reduces the rate of gypsy insertion into the ovo gene. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not modify the expression levels of gypsy RNA and envelope glycoprotein from either permissive or restrictive ovaries. Moreover, Wolbachia affects the pattern of distribution of the retroviral particles and the gypsy envelope protein in permissive follicle cells. Altogether, our results enlarge the knowledge of the antiviral activity of Wolbachia to include reducing the maternal transmission of endogenous retroviruses in D. melanogaster. Animals have established complex relationships with bacteria and viruses that spread horizontally among individuals or are vertically transmitted, i.e., from parents to offspring. It is well established that members of the genus Wolbachia, maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria present mainly in arthropods, reduce the replication of several RNA viruses transmitted horizontally. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Wolbachia diminishes the maternal transmission of gypsy, an endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesize that gypsy cannot efficiently integrate into the germ

  6. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  7. Regeneration of Pinus cubensis Griseb. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raima Cantillo Ardebol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of plants from the genus Pinus has been done in several species. However, micropropagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb has not been reported. This species has a great economical importance. Then, the aim of the current research was to achieve in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. to increase the number of individuals in their natural habitat. The concentration of sodium hypochlorite and immersion time were determined for seeds disinfection and embryos establishment. The effect of the presence or absence of the seed coat was also studied. Two growth regulators and three concentrations of each one were tested to achieve the emission of axillary buds in the multiplication phase. Five subcultures every 21 days were done. Rooting and acclimatization were carried out simultaneously. Shoots were individualized and immersed in a rooting solution. Zygotic embryos of P. cubensis wer e dev el o ped in vitro. The highest percentages of disinfection and germination were obtained by introducing the seeds in a solution of sodium hypochlorite at 20% for 15 minutes, planting them after that without the seed coat. The number and length of axillary buds increased by using 22.5 µM of 6-benzylaminopurine and 5.4 µM naphthaleneacetic acid in the multiplication phase. The in vitro propagation of Pinus cubensis Griseb. from zygotic embryos was achieved for the first time. A protocol was also established, reaching 50% of survival in the acclimatization phase. Key words: acclimatization, axillary buds, forestry, multiplication, pinus

  8. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  10. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  11. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  12. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  13. The Effect of Chorus Education in Disadvantageous Groups on the Process of General Education--Cultural Awareness and Socializing: The Sample of Gypsy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Gülnihal; Eren, Bilgehan

    2018-01-01

    Many reasons such as social exclusion, economic insufficiency, and prejudice make it difficult for Gypsy children to reach qualified education and cause their expectations for the future to be minimized. Yet, it is considered that the property of "inclination to music," linked especially with Gypsies, will positively affect the…

  14. 'Caravan wives' and 'decent girls': Gypsy-Traveller women's perceptions of gender, culture and morality in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Rionach

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices that constitute gender among Gypsy-Traveller women and then attempts to discern the consequences that flow from these. It analyses gender ideology and expectations among women and the shared investment in the moral identity attached to being a good Gypsy-Traveller wife. The paper argues that 'Gypsy-Traveller woman' cannot be understood as an identity that stands apart from gender and racial oppression. It is within this context that the tension between change and permanence in gender relations is played out. It argues that the maintenance of cultural taboos embodied and symbolised in the surveillance of womens' bodies is an important issue that problematises the construction of Gypsy-Traveller women. It posits that the appeal to morality may represent as much an avoidance of anxiety as a defence of marked gendered divisions within Gypsy-Traveller society. The paper suggests that the demands of cultural survival play a significant role in framing the degree to which women are willing or able to challenge the status quo.

  15. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  16. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  17. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  18. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  19. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  20. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  1. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  2. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Xu

    Full Text Available Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R, blue (B and ultraviolet (UV opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity and minor CYP1B1 involvement in the molecular basis of primary congenital glaucoma in Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadorai, P; Cherninkova, S; Bouwer, S; Kamenarova, K; Angelicheva, D; Seeman, P; Hollingsworth, K; Mihaylova, V; Oscar, A; Dimitrova, G; Kaneva, R; Tournev, I; Kalaydjieva, L

    2008-07-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, with mutations in the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene detected in an average of approximately 50% of cases worldwide. The Roma/Gypsies are considered to be a rare example of a single founder CYP1B1 mutation, E387K (identified in the Slovak Roma), accounting for 100% of disease alleles. Contrary to this concept, unusual genetic heterogeneity was revealed in this study of 21 Gypsy PCG patients from Bulgaria and 715 controls from the general Gypsy population. In our small sample of affected subjects, we identified five different CYP1B1 mutations - four known (E229K, R368H, E387K and R390C) and one novel and potentially pathogenic (F445I), which together accounted for approximately 30% of disease alleles. E387K was rare in both the patient and the control group, indicating that its high frequency in the Slovak Roma is the product of local founder effect not representative of the overall molecular pattern of PCG in the Gypsy population. Data on other Mendelian disorders and on the population genetics of the Gypsies suggest that a true founder mutation is likely to exist and has remained undetected. Our analysis of another candidate gene, MYOC, and the GLC3B and GLC3C loci did not provide support for their involvement. The molecular basis of PCG in the Gypsies is thus unresolved, and diagnostic analyses should be extended beyond the E387K mutation.

  4. Cadmium and copper change root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arduini, I.; Onnis, A. (Dipart. di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agro-Ecosistema, Univ. degli Studi Pisa, Pisa (Italy)); Boldbold, D.L. (Forstbotanishces Institut, Univ. Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Heavy metal loads in forest soils have been increasing over time due to atmospheric inputs. Accumulation in the upper soil layers could affect establishment of seedlings and forest regeneration. Mediterranean species show a high initial root development, allowing seedlings to reach the moisture of deeper soil layers. In the present work seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), were grown in culture solution supplied with 0.0, 0.1, 1 or 5 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] or with 1 [mu]M CdSO[sub 4] and 1 [mu]M CuSO[sub 4] combined. In both species tap-root elongation was drastically reduced in the 5 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] and in the (Cd[sup 2+] - Cu[sup 2+]) treatments. A supply of 0.1 or 1 [mu]M Cd[sup 2+] however, enhanced root elongation in Pinus pinea without significantly influencing root elongation in Pinus pinaster. In both species the root density (weight per unit length) and the width of the cortex increased in response to Cd[sup 2+] exposure. In Pinus pinaster the mitotic index decreased at the higher Cd[sup 2+] concentrations and when Cd[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+] were combined. The data suggest that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cd[sup 2+] than cell division. The number and length of the lateral roots were also affected by Cd[sup 2+] treatment to a higher degree in Pinus pinaster than in Pinus pinea, reflecting the different Cd-tolerance of the two species. (au)

  5. Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae): a redescription and taxonomic revision of Thelohania disparis Timofejeva 1956, a microsporidian parasite of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Pilarska, D. K.; Linde, A.; Weiser, Jaroslav; McManus, M. L.; Hoch, G.; Solter, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 292-304 ISSN 1066-5234 Grant - others:Karlova Univerzita v Praze a USDA US Forest Service(CZ) 161/79-982111; USDA FS Cooperative Agreement(US) AG 01CA-11242343-107; Grant US Agricultural Experimental Station(US) ILLU-65-0344; Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft(BG) 436 BUL 17/8/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : microsporidia * parasitology * biological control Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  6. Proactive restoration: planning, implementation, and early results of silvicultural strategies for increasing resilience against gypsy moth infestation in upland oak forests on the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Schweitzer; Stacy L. Clark; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Jeff Stringer; Robbie Sitzlar

    2014-01-01

    Determining targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that can be facilitated by cooperative partnerships. Too often restoration plans are implemented after adverse events that cause widespread tree mortality, such as drought or insect outbreaks, have occurred. Reactive management precludes the use of preemptive management techniques that can result in more...

  7. Studies on population dynamic of diamondback moth in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakrong, A.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Keawchoung, P.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population dynamic of diamondback moth larva in the field was studied at Khao Khor High-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The distribution patterns of diamondback moth larva was clumped when population was low and would change to be random when population was high. The maximun and minimum number of diamondback moth in the field were 71,203 and 2,732 larva/rai during March and September. Temperature, rainfall and age of cabbage were slightly relative with number of larva (r=-0.2891, p=0.30; r=-0.2816, p=0.31 and r=0.2931, p=0.29 respectively) but relative humidity has no effect on number of larva

  8. Characterization of a nucleocapsid-like region and of two distinct primer tRNALys,2 binding sites in the endogenous retrovirus Gypsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Caroline; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Depollier, Julien; Bucheton, Alain; Pelisson, Alain; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Mobile LTR-retroelements comprising retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons form a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Their mode of replication and abundance favour the notion that they are major actors in eukaryote evolution. The Gypsy retroelement can spread in the germ line of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster via both env-independent and env-dependent processes. Thus, Gypsy is both an active retrotransposon and an infectious retrovirus resembling the gammaretrovirus MuLV. However, unlike gammaretroviruses, the Gypsy Gag structural precursor is not processed into Matrix, Capsid and Nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. In contrast, it has features in common with Gag of the ancient yeast TY1 retroelement. These characteristics of Gypsy make it a very interesting model to study replication of a retroelement at the frontier between ancient retrotransposons and retroviruses. We investigated Gypsy replication using an in vitro model system and transfection of insect cells. Results show that an unstructured domain of Gypsy Gag has all the properties of a retroviral NC. This NC-like peptide forms ribonucleoparticle-like complexes upon binding Gypsy RNA and directs the annealing of primer tRNA(Lys,2) to two distinct primer binding sites (PBS) at the genome 5' and 3' ends. Only the 5' PBS is indispensable for cDNA synthesis in vitro and in Drosophila cells.

  9. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  10. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  11. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  12. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  13. Contenido de carotenos en el follaje de Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quert Álvarez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis del material vegetal de las especies Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet, con el objetivo de determinar su contenido de caroteno tomando como base las condiciones y tiempo de exposición del follaje de las especies objeto de estudio al sol y a la sombra, y teniendo en cuenta la extracción del aceite esencias como factores influyentes en la variación de las concentraciones de caroteno. Para determinar el contenido de caroteno se tomaron muestras del follaje entre 1 y 20 d, expuesto a las condiciones de trabajo en intervalos de 1, 3, 6, 10 y 20 d, tanto antes como después de extraer el aceite esencial. Los resultados obtenidos para ambas especies demostraron que el follaje expuesto a la sombra contiene un mayor porcentaje de caroteno que el expuesto al sol, como era de esperar; el tiempo de exposición influye significativamente en este contenido, así como la extracción del aceite esencial que aumenta el contenido de caroteno; los valores máximos fueron de 130,7 y 157,2 mg/kg de follaje y los mínimos de 55,3 y 57,2 mg/kg de follaje para Pinus caribaea Morelet y Pinus tropicalis Morelet respectivamente.An analysis of the vegetable material from the species Pinus cariabaea Morelet and Pinus tropicalis Morelet was carried out and their content of carotene was determined taking as the basis the conditions and time of exposure of the foliage of the species studied to the sun and shade, and also taking into account the extraction of the essential oil as factors influencing on the variation of carotene concentrations. For the determination of the carotene content, samples of the foliage between 1 and 20 exposed to working conditions at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 10 and 20 d were taken, both before and after the extraction of the essential oil. Results obteined from both species showed that the foliage exposed to shade contains a higher percentage of carotene than the one exposed to the sun, as it was expected to

  14. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  15. "What's the Plan?" "What Plan?" Changing Aspirations among Gypsy Youngsters, and Implications for Future Cultural Identities and Group Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering data from a research project with two Gypsy communities (2010-2012) in South West England, this article explores issues of education and identity. The two communities have contrasting experiences within the education system. Informed by inter-disciplinary perspectives on identity and assimilation theories, the article explores these…

  16. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school"…

  17. Promoting the Social Inclusion and Academic Progress of Gypsy, Roma and Traveller Children: A Secondary School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify support strategies used to promote "social inclusion" and "academic progress" of Key Stage 3 and 4 Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (GRT) pupils. The study used an interpretivist approach, incorporating an embedded single case study with several participant groups, namely GRT pupils, GRT parents,…

  18. Insights into the Shifting Perspectives of Members of the Gypsy and Traveller Community on Schooling, and Implications for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions and experiences of education of two female adult members of the Gypsy and Traveller community and one female adult member of the settled community who works closely with Travellers. Narrative interviews were conducted in England in 2016, to gain some understanding of the factors contributing to the…

  19. Diversity, distribution and dynamics of full-length Copia and Gypsy LTR retroelements in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Kozaczek, Melisa Eliana; Rosli, Hernán Guillermo; Andino, Natalia Pilar; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Virginia

    2017-10-01

    Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements. The dispersion level across the 12 chromosomes, the diversity and tissue-specific expression of those elements were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis based on the retrotranscriptase region revealed the presence of 12 major lineages of LTR retroelements in the tomato genome. We identified 97 families, of which 77 and 20 belong to the superfamilies Copia and Gypsy, respectively. Each retroelement family was characterized according to their element size, relative frequencies and insertion time. These analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in tomato.

  20. Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.

  1. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  2. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  3. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...

  4. selected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    464-8601, Japan. Present address: K. D. Ninsin, Animal Health and Food Safety Division, CSIR-Animal. Research Institute, Post Office Box AH 20, Achimota. Ghana. Email: kdninsin@hotmail.com. Abstract. Effective control of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) has become critical ...

  5. Data from: Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Fijen, T.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  6. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. Annotated Bibliography for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Wilkin, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This annoted bibliography relays a range of issues and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Show People. This is an accompanying document to the literature review report, ED501860.

  7. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Growth and dynamic modulus of elasticity of Pinus patula × Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field establishment of South Africa's most important commercial pine species, Pinus patula, is severely hampered by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Importantly, hybrids between P. patula and other pine species tolerant to the pitch canker fungus, such as P. tecunumanii and P. oocarpa, have been identified ...

  9. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  10. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  11. "It's because it's cancer, not because you're a Traveller"-exploring lay understanding of cancer in English Romany Gypsy and Irish Traveller communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jenni; Smith, David; Newton, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The lay understanding of cancer among English Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers, has not been studied in depth before. Lay understandings of cancer, and illness in general, varies between different ethnic groups suggesting that procedures that work for one community may not work for another. Therefore, the measures that are in place in the UK to educate and treat people with cancer may not work for the - often hard to reach - Gypsy and Traveller communities. This study explores Gypsies and Travellers lay perceptions of cancer. In collaboration with community interviewers, 18 Gypsies and Travellers were recruited to take part in this study. Data comes from four semi-structured focus groups that were transcribed and thematically analysed using data-driven coding. A lack of trust of the wider society has contributed to some Gypsies and Travellers' health related practices as has the persistence of old customs that negatively influence their health. As a reticence towards seeking outside help often exists, information about cancer is sought from family members. When engaged with cancer services however, Gypsies and Travellers generally feel them to be non-discriminative. Health professionals need to develop a better understanding of Gypsy and Travellers' health beliefs and practices in order to successfully interact with them. Information about cancer has to be delivered in an understandable form and to places where it reaches these communities. Because of historical societal discrimination, including by some health services, engaging with Gypsies and Travellers may require considerably more time and effort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-01-01

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the no...

  13. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  14. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  15. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  16. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  17. Morphological evaluation of the Pinus kesiya complex (Pinaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Businský, R.; Frantík, Tomáš; Vít, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 2 (2014), s. 273-285 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : morphological var iation * Pinus densata ssp. tibetica * Pinus kesiya complex Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  18. An evaluation of wood properties of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of within tree variation on wood density, ring width and anisotropic shrinkage of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) among tree partitions in Oluwa pine plantation. Five 15-year old Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in three partitions were randomly selected from the plantation and felled for the study. Wood ...

  19. Conifer Diterpene Resin Acids Disrupt Juvenile Hormone-Mediated Endocrine Regulation in the Indian Meal Moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Woo; Yun, Chan-Seok; Jeon, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Ji-Ae; Park, Doo-Sang; Ryu, Hyung Won; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Shin, Yunhee; Jung, Chan Sik; Shin, Sang Woon

    2017-07-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are important components of oleoresin and greatly contribute to the defense strategies of conifers against herbivorous insects. In the present study, we determined that DRAs function as insect juvenile hormone (JH) antagonists that interfere with the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC). Using a yeast two-hybrid system transformed with Met and SRC from the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella, we tested the interfering activity of 3704 plant extracts against JH III-mediated Met-SRC binding. Plant extracts from conifers, especially members of the Pinaceae, exhibited strong interfering activity, and four active interfering DRAs (7α-dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, and sandaracopimaric acid) were isolated from roots of the Japanese pine Pinus densiflora. The four isolated DRAs, along with abietic acid, disrupted the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of P. interpunctella Met and SRC, although only 7-oxodehydroabietic acid disrupted larval development. These results demonstrate that DRAs may play a defensive role against herbivorous insects via insect endocrine-disrupting activity.

  20. Influencia de la poda en el desarrollo de masas de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia Cabal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis evaluó la influencia de diferentes intensidades de poda sobre el crecimiento, desarrollo y persistencia de masas regulares jóvenes de Pinus radiata D. Don y Pinus pinaster Aiton en Asturias, dentro de una selvicultura sostenible enfocada a la producción de madera de calidad.

  1. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  2. Sexual communication in day-flying Lepidoptera with special reference to castniids or 'butterfly-moths'

    OpenAIRE

    Sarto, Víctor; Quero, Carmen; Santa-Cruz, M.C.; Rosell Pellisé, Glòria; Guerrero Pérez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth f...

  3. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. POTENSI ALELOPAT DAUN PINUS (Pinus spp. SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PRA TUMBUH PADA GULMA KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effectof pine leaf as allelophaty on purslane germination. Theexperiment were conducted at screen house Departmentof Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, BrawijayaUniversity. The research is experimental design by nonfactorial Completely Randomized Blok Design, with threereplications, consisted of eleven levels. Purslane seeds sprout with control treatment, signifi cantly different from seedssprout ability in treatment solution leaves Pinus merkusii 2000ppm, and solution leaves of P. longaeva 2000 ppm. The resultshowed that 2000 ppm of P. merkusii extraction signifi cantlysuppressed 46% of purslane germination whereas 2000 ppmPinus longeava extraction signifi cantly suppressed of 41%campared to without any treatments (control.

  5. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Buchmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  6. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  7. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallara Janardhanan Wills

    Full Text Available Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155 with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6% for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala.

  8. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  9. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  10. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Raut, Josna; Deo, Akash; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2013-01-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  11. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  12. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  13. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  14. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  16. Hourly and seasonable variation in catch of winter moths and bruce spanworm in pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; Natalie Leva; George Boettner; Roy Hunkins; Marinko. Sremac

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which, as far as it is known, consists of a single compound that is also used by Bruce spanworm, the North American congener of winter moth, O....

  17. Analisis Komponen Kimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Daun Pinus (Pinus Merkusii Jungh.Et Devries) Dari Kabupaten Samosir

    OpenAIRE

    Siringo-Ringo, Mawar

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of pinus leaves (Pinus merkusii Jungh.et deVries) have been isolated by hydrodestilation method using Stahl. Pinus leaves have destilated for five hours roduced essential oil 0.1531% (w/w). The results of the analyse use GC-MS showed 23 peaks and can be identified 20 compounds and have five major compounds are Limonene (22.72%), α-Pinene (17.53%), β-Caryophyllene (16.76%), β-Ocimene (14.68%), and Germacren-d (11.24%). Antibacterial activity of the test have been done using ag...

  18. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology and timing of insecticide spray applications in seven Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a common pest of Christmas tree and pine plantations throughout much of the Eastern United States. The moth completes two to five generations annually, and insecticide spray timing models are currently available for controlling populations where three or...

  19. Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Zeng

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40-60 kHz than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5-6%.

  20. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate.

  1. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2001-12-01

    Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  2. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  3. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, Å.K; Liénard, M.A.; Groot, A.T.; Hedenström, E; Löfstedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major

  4. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M

    2013-01-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than ...

  5. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth

  6. Spread ability of diamondblack moth (Plutella xylotella L) steriled by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Fang Julian; Xia Darong; Chu Jiming; Feng Chunsheng

    1990-01-01

    The spread ability of the radiation steriled diamondblack moth (DBM) is reported. It shows that the 94.2% of DBM is spread in 40 m duration of 10 days and a few of moths are 120 m. It indicates that the spread of steriled DBM is definitely time limit, the spread area is withinca. 700 m 2 in the first three days

  7. The effects of the pine processionary moth on the increment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... sycophanta L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) used against the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in biological control. T. J. Zool. 30:181-185. Kanat M, Sivrikaya F (2005). Effect of the pine processionary moth on diameter increment of Calabrian ...

  8. A piece of the mosaic: Gypsies in the building of an intercultural Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sidoti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical approach to the notion of interculturality in the context of the geopolitical and social transformations that marked the transition from the nation-state system to the birth of a common European identity.In the European society the demarginalisation of  territorial and identification borders raises the question of cultural differences and the need to redefine the new criteria for social inclusion. In this perspective, the process of European integration finds its own testing ground in social policies designed to cultural minority. The article focuses precisely on the case of Gypsy communities, exploring the symbolic and political mechanisms that have historically compromised public image of Gypsies through the ‘nomad theory’ by considering nomadism as part of an inherent identity. The reproduction of this stereotype is at the basis of a social stigma of Gypsy groups, perceived as a public order problem that is reflected in national and supranational politics according to the tendency to consider Gypsies as incapable of decision making and not interlocutors on issues such as health, education and housing. In this text, the author aims to examine these aspects of social exclusion of Gypsy communities and the fault lines of their Europeanisation process, emphasizing their deep roots in the historical and social structure of Europe and their political migration as a creative adaptation strategy to the historical-economic conjunctures. In this framework of reference, interculturality becomes an analytical and political tool that is capable of overcoming the conflicts between the majority society and minorities and a project able to oppose to the ideologies of difference that transform the cultures into abstract and incommunicable entities.El artículo propone un acercamiento crítico a la noción de interculturalidad en el cuadro de las transformaciones sociales y geopolíticas que han

  9. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  10. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  11. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  12. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  13. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped and heterologous (coccoid-shaped expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species.

  14. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  15. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: Conserved karyotypes with diverged features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e64520 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) GAJU 059/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) GAJU137/2010/P; IAEA, Viennna(AT) 15838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tortricid moths Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064520

  16. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  17. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-russe: new autosomal recessive neuropathy in Balkan Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P K; Kalaydjieva, L; Youl, B; Rogers, T; Angelicheva, D; King, R H; Guergueltcheva, V; Colomer, J; Lupu, C; Corches, A; Popa, G; Merlini, L; Shmarov, A; Muddle, J R; Nourallah, M; Tournev, I

    2001-10-01

    A novel peripheral neuropathy of autosomal recessive inheritance has been identified in Balkan Gypsies and termed hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe (HMSN-R). We investigated 21 affected individuals from 10 families. Distal lower limb weakness began between the ages of 8 and 16 years, upper limb involvement beginning between 10 and 43 years, with an average of 22 years. This progressive disorder led to severe weakness of the lower limbs, generalized in the oldest subject (aged 57 years), and marked distal upper limb weakness. Prominent distal sensory loss involved all modalities, resulting in neuropathic joint degeneration in two instances. All patients showed foot deformity, and most showed hand deformity. Motor nerve conduction velocity was moderately reduced in the upper limbs but unobtainable in the legs. Sensory nerve action potentials were absent. There was loss of larger myelinated nerve fibers and profuse regenerative activity in the sural nerve. HMSN-R is a new form of autosomal recessive inherited HMSN caused by a single founder mutation in a 1 Mb interval on chromosome 10q.

  18. Evolutionary characterization of Ty3/gypsy-like LTR retrotransposons in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An

    2016-11-01

    Cyclophyllidean cestodes including Echinococcus granulosus have a smaller genome and show characteristics such as loss of the gut, a segmented body plan, and accelerated growth rate in hosts compared with other tissue-invading helminths. In an effort to address the molecular mechanism relevant to genome shrinkage, the evolutionary status of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which are known as the most potent genomic modulators, was investigated in the E. granulosus draft genome. A majority of the E. granulosus LTR retrotransposons were classified into a novel characteristic clade, named Saci-2, of the Ty3/gypsy family, while the remaining elements belonged to the CsRn1 clade of identical family. Their nucleotide sequences were heavily corrupted by frequent base substitutions and segmental losses. The ceased mobile activity of the major retrotransposons and the following intrinsic DNA loss in their inactive progenies might have contributed to decrease in genome size. Apart from the degenerate copies, a gag gene originating from a CsRn1-like element exhibited substantial evidences suggesting its domestication including a preserved coding profile and transcriptional activity, the presence of syntenic orthologues in cestodes, and selective pressure acting on the gene. To my knowledge, the endogenized gag gene is reported for the first time in invertebrates, though its biological function remains elusive.

  19. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  20. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  2. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  3. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  4. Virtuozita a performance maskulinity: Hudební etnografie jednoho pražského neromského gypsy jazzového uskupení

    OpenAIRE

    Kašparová, Žofie

    2015-01-01

    Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta Ústav hudební vědy Virtuosity and Performance of Masculinity: Music Ethnography of a Non-Roma Gypsy Jazz Group in Prague Žofie Kašparová 2014 Abstract In this ethnography I examine the gypsy jazz band Sylvanio Orchestra which is based in Prague, Czech Republic. This research consists largely of my observations at their performances, interviews with the band members as well as my personal experience of being a musician and a woman in this predomi...

  5. “It's because it's cancer, not because you're a Traveller”-exploring lay understanding of cancer in English Romany Gypsy and Irish Traveller communities

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Jenni; Smith, David; Newton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The lay understanding of cancer among English Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers, has not been\\ud studied in depth before. Lay understandings of cancer, and illness in general, varies between different ethnic\\ud groups suggesting that procedures that work for one community may not work for another. Therefore, the\\ud measures that are in place in the UK to educate and treat people with cancer may not work for the - often hard to\\ud reach - Gypsy and Traveller communities. This study ...

  6. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proverbs, M.D.; Newton, J.R.; Logan, D.M.; Brinton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  7. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  8. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  9. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis for control of Indian meal moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schesser, J H

    1976-10-01

    Doses of four commercial formulations and one experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were mixed with the diet used to rear colonies of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Indian meal moth eggs were introduced to the treated diet, and the resultant adult emergence was tabulated. The experimental formulations ranked as follows in efficacy in controlling the Indian meal moth: Dipel (50% lethal concentration [LC50], 25 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine WP (LC50, 100 mg/kg) greater than Thuricide (LC50, 150 mg/kg) greater than IMC 90007 (LC30, 180 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine Flowable (LC50, 440 mg/kg).

  11. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  12. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  13. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as espécies estudadas, com exceção para inchamento em espessura das chapas coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído. As chapas de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa, apresentaram melhores resultados de módulos de elasticidade. Para o módulo de ruptura, as chapas de Pinus maxininoi, Pinus oocarpa e Pinus taeda, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, apresentaram valores estatisticamente superiores em relação às demais espécies. Quanto a resistência da linha de cola, as chapas de Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda e Pinus chiapensis, foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho. Com base nos resultados gerais da pesquisa, pode-se destacar a potencialidade da madeira de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa para produção de chapas de madeira compensada.

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  15. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  16. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  17. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  18. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  19. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  20. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Andreas; Theißen, Bernhard; Dolek, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM) crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were develope...

  1. Frequency of adult type-associated lactase persistence LCT-13910C/T genotypes in the Czech/Slav and Czech Roma/Gypsy populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav A. Hubácek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactase non-persistence (leading to primary lactose intolerance is a genetically dependent inability to digest lactose in adulthood. As part of the human adaptation to dairying, the human lactase LCT-13910C/T mutation (which propagates adult expression of lactase developed, spread and participated in the adaptation to dairying. This variant is associated with lactase activity persistence, and its carriers are able to digest lactose. We compared the frequencies of lactase 13910C/T (rs4988235 genotypes in Czechs/Slavs (N = 288 and Czech Gypsies/Roma (N = 300, two ethnically different groups where this polymorphism has not yet been analysed. Allelic frequencies significantly differed between the populations (p < 0.0001. In Czechs/Slavs, the lactase persistence T allele was present in 76% of the individuals, which is in agreement with frequencies among geographically neighbouring populations. In the Czech Gypsy/Roma population, only 27% of the adults were carriers of at least one lactase persistence allele, similar to the Indian population. In agreement with this result, dairy product consumption was reported by 70.5% of Czechs/Slavs and 39.0% of the Czech Gypsy/Roma population. Both in the Czech Gypsy/Roma and in the Czech/Slavs populations, the presence of carriers of the lactase persistence allele was similar in subjects self-reporting the consumption of unfermented/fresh milk, in comparison to the others.

  2. I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. By Yaron Matras. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books, 2014, 276 pp.; ISBN 978-1-846-14481-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Friedman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of I met lucky people: The story of the Romani Gypsies, by Yaron Matras. The work is oriented for a general reading public, but it can be highly recommended for academics and policy makers as well.

  3. An Exploration of Training and Support Issues For Those Working with Children, Young People and Families from Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Haines, Ben; Kinder, Kay; Wilkin, Anne; Derrington, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown the extent of social exclusion among children and young people of Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Showpeople (GRT) communities, in terms of education, health, and accommodation, and that many mainstream services have little experience of working effectively with these communities. The Every Child Matters (ECM) agenda…

  4. Studies on population fluctuation of diamondback moth, plutella xylostella L. at the Khao khor high-land agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawchoung, P.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Malakrong, A.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population Fluctuation of diamondback moth were studied by using the yellow sticky trap at Khao Khor high-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The maximum and minimum number of diamondback moth were 24.89 and 0.1 adult/trap/6 days. When number of diamondback moth was low, they distributed in clump pattern. But the distribution would change to be clump or random pattern when number of diamondback moth was high. Temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and age of cabbage had no effects on number of caugh moth. The number of moth was highly relative with number of larva 7th day later

  5. Comparative life tables of leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, W H; Kuhlmann, U; Mason, P G; Cappuccino, N

    2010-02-01

    Leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), is an invasive alien species in eastern Canada, the larvae of which mine the green tissues of Allium spp. This study was designed to construct and analyse life tables for leek moth within its native range. Stage-specific mortality rates were estimated for the third leek moth generation at three sites in Switzerland from 2004 to 2006 to identify some of the principle factors that inhibit leek moth population growth in areas of low pest density. The contribution of natural enemies to leek moth mortality was measured by comparing mortality on caged and uncaged leeks. Total pre-imaginal mortality on uncaged plants was 99.6%, 99.1% and 96.4% in 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Variation in mortality was greater among years than among sites. Total larval mortality was greater than that in the eggs and pupae. This was due largely to the high mortality (up to 83.3%) of neonates during the brief period between egg hatch and establishment of the feeding mine. Leek moth pupal mortality was significantly greater on uncaged than on caged leeks, indicating an impact by natural enemies, and this pattern was consistent over all three years of study. In contrast, the other life stages did not show consistently higher mortality rates on uncaged plants. This observation suggests that the pupal stage may be particularly vulnerable to natural enemies and, therefore, may be the best target for classical biological control in Canada.

  6. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  7. Produção de chapas de madeira compensada de cinco espécies de pinus tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with ureaformaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenolformaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  8. Atmospheric pollution and melanic moths in Manchester and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askew, R R; Cook, L M; Bishop, J A

    1971-01-01

    Samples of moths have been taken in the Manchester area at sites in localities with moderate to extreme atmospheric pollution. The majority of species collected are dark in color, many typically pale species being represented by dark variants. Four species polymorphic for melanic and non-melanic morphs have been examined in more detail. In Biston betularia the melanic frequency is over 93% at all stations, but the frequency of typicals appears to have increased over the past 15 years. This coincides with a period of extensive smoke control zonation. Gondontis bidentata has a higher frequency of melanics than has been recorded elsewhere in the country. There is significant variation between sites, the higher frequencies occurring in the more polluted localities. Non-melanics segregate into a pale and a dark category. In reared samples males exhibit a greater frequency of melanics than females.

  9. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  10. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as ...

  11. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  12. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  13. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  14. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  15. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully ... tabulaeformis, the main species of tree for forestation, ... Biomass in different artificial P. tabulaformis stands ..... The change of plant diversity during natural ... elements and stand biomass in forest communities in Hilly Loess.

  16. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  17. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  18. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  19. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  20. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  1. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  2. evaluation of the leave and bud decoctions pinus halepensis mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2014 ... L'espèce Pinus halepensis Mill (ou pin d'Alep), appartenant à la famille des Pinaceae, a ... au moyen d'un moulin électrique à usage domestique (model Moulinex D5001) au niveau du ..... central ltaly Flavour Frag. J., 2003 ...

  3. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  4. Growth models for Pinus patula in Angola | Delgado-Matas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham. for the Central Highlands of Angola for simulating the development of stand characteristics. The model set included dominant height, individual-tree diameter increment, individual-tree height and self-thinning models. The study was based ...

  5. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  6. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  7. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  8. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  9. A study on the spreading ability of radiation-sterilized male moth of bombyx mandarin in field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Xia Darong; Gu Weiping; Zhang Yanjun

    1998-01-01

    The mulberry wild silkworm (MWS), belong to the Bombycidae of Lepidoptera, is serious pest of sericulture. The female moth of MWS is sterile and the male moth is sub-sterile when they were treated with 250 Gy 60 Co γ-ray (dose rate: 1.05 Gy/min), and their filial generations was sterile. The spreading ability of male moth of MWS in field and retrieving the marked MWS male moth with the trapping method was studied. The trapping solution was composed of sugar, vinegar, wine and alive female moth. The retrieving rate of MWS male moth amounted to 12.6%∼13.5% of released moth in field. The spreading range in 24 hours for sterile MWS male moth reached to 700 m, and 90.8% of MWS male moth was in an area of 5 m radius from the releasing centre. It is concluded that thirty releasing centres per hectare are needed to make the irradiated sterilized insects spread for controlling the MWS in field

  10. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  11. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  12. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  13. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  14. Antibacterial effects of the artificial surface of nanoimprinted moth-eye film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Minoura

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of a nanostructured film, known as "moth-eye film," was investigated. The moth-eye film has artificially formed nano-pillars, consisting of hydrophilic resin with urethane acrylate and polyethylene glycol (PEG derivatives, all over its surface that replicates a moth's eye. Experiments were performed to compare the moth-eye film with a flat-surfaced film produced from the same materials. The JIS Z2801 film-covering method revealed that the two films produced a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichia coli titers of over 5 and 3 logs, respectively. There was no marked difference in the antibacterial effects of the two surfaces. However, the antibacterial effects were reduced by immersion of the films in water. These results indicated that a soluble component(s of the resin possessed the antibacterial activity, and this component was identified as PEG derivatives by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. When a small volume of bacterial suspension was dropped on the films as an airborne droplet model, both films showed antibacterial effects, but that of the moth-eye film was more potent. It was considered that the moth-eye structure allowed the bacteria-loaded droplet to spread and allow greater contact between the bacteria and the film surface, resulting in strong adherence of the bacteria to the film and synergistically enhanced bactericidal activity with chemical components. The antibacterial effect of the moth-eye film has been thus confirmed under a bacterial droplet model, and it appears attractive due to its antibacterial ability, which is considered to result not only from its chemical make-up but also from physical adherence.

  15. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae among Three Neotropical Ecoregions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mario Beccacece

    Full Text Available Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano. Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor.

  16. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. The Nantucket pine tip moth: old problems, new research. Proceedings of an informal conference, the Entomological Society of America, annual meeting. 1999 December 12-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford; Donald M. Grosman; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) has become a more prevalent pest in the South as pine plantation management has intensified. The Pine Tip Moth Research Consortium was formed in 1995 to increase basic knowledge about the moth and to explore ways to reduce damage. A conference was held in 1999 at the Entomological Society...

  18. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  19. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Åsa K; Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-12-13

    Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different

  20. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  1. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  2. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-09-01

    Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human papillomavirus were most evident in

  3. KAJIAN KONSERVASI Pinus merkusii strain Tapanuli DI SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendi Suhendi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Pinus yang tumbuh secara alami hanyalah Pinus merkusii di Sumatera yang terdiri dari strain Tapanuli, strain Kerinci dan strain Aceh. Berdasarkan persebarannya, strain Tapanuli tidak banyak dijumpai karena tercampur dengan jenis-jenis kayu daun lebar. Secara alami, strain Tapanuli ditemukan di Cagar Alam Dolok Sipirok dan Cagar Alam Dolok Saut. Dalam bentuk hutan tanaman, strain Tapanuli dibuat oleh masyarakat atau rakyat dengan anakan alam dan diambil secara cabutan di Tegakan Benih Dolok Tusam, dan sekarang sudah habis ditebang karena digantikan oleh tanaman kopi. Di wilayah kerja Dinas Kehutanan Propinsi Sumatera Utara hampir tidak pernah didapatkan informasi tentang keberadaan strain Tapanuli. Konservasi in situ dalam bentuk Cagar Alam perlu dilengkapi dengan konservasi ex situ. Sebagai langkah awal konservasi, terlebih dahulu perlu dikaji permudaan alamnya. Di samping itu, analisis kebijakan berkaitan dengan pentingnya eksplorasi dengan metode sensus pada semua kawasan konservasi di Sumatera perlu dipertimbangkan, dan pertemuan formal antar pengambil kebijakan di Departemen Kehutanan perlu direkomendasikan

  4. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Whipple, Amy V; Gehring, Catherine A; Domínguez, C A

    2013-03-01

    Even though dioecy is a dominant sexual system among gymnosperms, little is known about its evolutionary history. Pinus johannis may represent a model system because unisexual and monoecious individuals compose its populations. The presence of unisexual individuals in other Pinus species is a consequence of sexual lability. Here we determined whether P. johannis represents the first example of a dioecious or nearly dioecious reproductive system in conifers by evaluating its sexual stability. • To assess the stability of sexual expression, we quantified the proportion of male vs. female reproductive structures produced by trees over multiple years and tested for the presence of sexual dimorphism. Sexual lability hypotheses were also examined by looking at the relationship between environmental factors and sexual expression and by comparing the reproductive behavior of P. johannis with its closest labile relative, P. edulis. • Pinus johannis is nearly dioecious: ~99% of individuals are unisexual or express a low proportion of the opposite gender with few changes in sexual expression through time. We found sexual dimorphism consistent with sexual stability. Sexual expression did not vary with tree size/age, abiotic environment, or herbivore removal, providing evidence against sexual lability. Individuals of P. johannis tended to produce only male or female strobili, whereas those of P. edulis were mainly monoecious with a gradient in the female to male strobili ratio. • This study represents the first report of a nearly stable dioecious Pinus species. The variety of sexual morphs coexisting in the same population makes P. johannis a model for studying the evolution of dioecy in gymnosperms.

  5. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashish

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, .... DNA as a template. PCR was performed on a thermal cycler. (Biorad, Mycycler) incorporating 10 ng genomic DNA to a 25 µl reaction mix containing 1X Taq buffer, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM each of dNTPs ...

  6. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Shevtsova; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Ján Brindza; Kateryna Garkava

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species...

  7. Multiple mating of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and recovering fertility of its progeny after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jiming; Yang Rongxin; Xian Darong; Feng Chunsheng

    1986-01-01

    The maximum multiple mating of the male diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) was 30 times in its life, and the average was 16 times. The maximum multiple mating of the male moth irradiated with a substerilizing dose (35 kR) was 14 times, and the average was 7.2 times. The maximum multiple mating of the female moth was 8 times, and the average was 4 times. The rates of egg sterility in F 1 and F 2 were 57.3% and 99.1% respectively, when the normal female diamondback moths were mated with male moths irradiated with 35 kR dose. However, the fertility was recovered in F 3 as the rate of egg sterility was 0.7%

  8. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  9. Biological invasion of Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta: case study of a forest plantation in Northwestern Patagonia; Invasion biologica de Pinus ponderosa y Pinus contorta: estudio de caso de una plantacion en la Patagonia noroccidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezzotti, A.; Sbrancia, R.; Mortoro, A.; Monte, C.

    2009-07-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, Pinus species from plantations can bring about processes of biological invasion that cause significant and permanent changes on the structure and functioning of surrounding natural ecosystems. The invasive character of Pinus ponderosa (P) and Pinus contorta (C) was examined for a 20-year old plantation located in the Alicura Forest Station (40 degree centigrade 40' S and 71 degree centigrade 00' W), through the analysis of abundance, age and spatial structures, and dispersal of natural regeneration. Seedlings and saplings were located largely within the plantation boundaries, and exhibited a density of 6.9 ind / ha (41 % for P and 59 % for C), a clustered spatial pattern with clumps dispersed not randomly, and a mean dispersal rate of 9.5 m / yr for P. ponderosa and 5.4 m / yr for P. contorta. Both species were invading the adjacent area, according to technical criteria based on ecological responses. However, regeneration niche is strongly hindering tree establishment and dispersal, probably due to high plant cover, presence of vertic soils, and absence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. These results can contribute to predict the capability of P. contorta and P. ponderosa to become invasive, in order to maximize the positive balance of forestry based on these species in northwestern Patagonia. (Author) 50 refs.

  10. Assessing Pine Processionary Moth Defoliation Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine processionary moth (PPM is one of the most destructive insect defoliators in the Mediterranean for many conifers, causing losses of growth, vitality and eventually the death of trees during outbreaks. There is a growing need for cost-effective monitoring of the temporal and spatial impacts of PPM in forest ecology to better assess outbreak spread patterns and provide guidance on the development of measures targeting the negative impacts of the species on forests, industry and human health. Remote sensing technology mounted on unmanned aerial systems (UASs with high-resolution image processing has been proposed to assess insect outbreak impacts at local and forest stand levels. Here, we used UAS-acquired RGB imagery in two pine sites to quantify defoliation at the tree-level and to verify the accuracy of the estimates. Our results allowed the identification of healthy, infested and completely defoliated trees and suggested that pine defoliation estimates using UASs are robust and allow high-accuracy (79% field-based infestation indexes to be derived that are comparable to those used by forest technicians. When compared to current field-based methods, our approach provides PPM impact assessments with an efficient data acquisition method in terms of time and staff, allowing the quantitative estimation of defoliation at tree-level scale. Furthermore, our method could be expanded to a number of situations and scaled up in combination with satellite remote sensing imagery or citizen science approaches.

  11. Radiopacity of household deodorizers, air fresheners, and moth repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, A D; Saperstein, A; Zawin, J; Cappock, R; Sue, Y J

    1993-01-01

    Household deodorizers and moth repellents are common agents implicated in many childhood poisonings. Their ingredients usually include either paradichlorobenzene or naphthalene compressed into a solid ball or another shape, sometimes with added essential oils and fragrances. Because medically naphthalene is a more important toxin than paradichlorobenzene, with hematologic and nervous system effects, clinicians often seek to discern which product has been ingested. We discovered fortuitously that a mothball swallowed by a retarded adult was radiopaque, and so designed an in vitro experiment to study the radiopacity of a variety of household deodorizers and products. Of 10 products screened for radiopacity by two radiologists, those containing paradichlorobenzene were consistently strongly radiopaque; those containing naphthalene were radiolucent. A third alternative ingredient which is used in some toilet bowl deodorizers, cetrimonium bromide, was also radiopaque. Radiopacity of paradichlorobenzene or cetrimonium bromide-containing products did not dissipate with time. We speculate that the halogen within the chemical structure of these compounds accounts for their radiopacity. We conclude that paradichlorobenzene-containing commercial products can be distinguished clinically from those containing naphthalene by the performance of an abdominal radiograph.

  12. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)(3). The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)(9), (AT)(8) elements.

  14. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. To females of a noctuid moth, male courtship songs are nothing more than bat echolocation calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Skals, Niels

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that intraspecific ultrasonic communication observed in some moths evolved, through sexual selection, subsequent to the development of ears sensitive to echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Given this scenario, the receiver bias model of signal evolution argues that acou......It has been proposed that intraspecific ultrasonic communication observed in some moths evolved, through sexual selection, subsequent to the development of ears sensitive to echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Given this scenario, the receiver bias model of signal evolution argues...... production in the male moth, and subsequently the role of the sound with reference to the female's ability to discriminate male courtship songs from bat calls. We found that males have sex-specific tymbals for ultrasound emission, and that the broadcast of either male songs or simulated bat calls equally...

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the egg stage of the meal moth, Pyralis Farinalis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.H.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Two days-old eggs of the meal moth, Pyralis Farinalis L. Were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ranged from 10 to 150 gray. Reduction in egg hatch was highly correlated with the given dose. At control, 83.2% of the eggs hatched and 75.6% of the eggs reached adult stage, whereas egg hatch was reduced to 21.8 , 16.1 and 5.8% after exposures to 100,120 and 150 gray, respectively. No adults emerged after egg irradiation to 150 gray. Gamma irradiation had almost slight effect on larval pupal duration without significant differences. Irradiation of eggs could alter the reproductive ability of the emerged moths. The doses 10, 20 and 40 gray delivered to the egg stage reduced egg production and fertility of the emerging moths. The greatest reduction was obtained when both sexes had been irradiated at 40 gray and paired together. Females were more radiosensitive than males. 2 tab

  17. Radiobiological studies on the angoumois moth sitotroga cerealella (oliv.) (lepidoptera - Celechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshra, S A

    1983-12-31

    Grain in bins or ear corn in storage has small buff moths flying about the bins or cramling rapidly over the surface of the grain when it is disturbed. One or two small round holes are eaten in the kernels of infested corn or in other grain. This insect is the most destructive grain moth occurring in our country casing great damage to corn in cribs and also destroying ripening grain, especially wheat, in the field. The present study deals with the effects of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of the angoumois grain moth sitotroga cerealella (olivier) with special reference to the effects of sterilizing dosage on sexual competition. 15 tabs., 9 figs., 116 refs.

  18. Biomimetic Moth-eye Nanofabrication: Enhanced Antireflection with Superior Self-cleaning Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyao; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chong; Shen, Jingjing; Cooper, Merideth A; Zheng, Xiuting; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhaogang; Wu, Daming

    2018-04-03

    Sub-wavelength antireflection moth-eye structures were fabricated with Nickel mold using Roll-to-Plate (R2P) ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) on transparent polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Samples with well replicated patterns established an average reflection of 1.21% in the visible light range, 380 to 760 nm, at normal incidence. An excellent antireflection property of a wide range of incidence angles was shown with the average reflection below 4% at 50°. Compared with the unpatterned ultraviolet-curable resin coating, the resulting sub-wavelength moth-eye structure also exhibited increased hydrophobicity in addition to antireflection. This R2P method is especially suitable for large-area product preparation and the biomimetic moth-eye structure with multiple performances can be applied to optical devices such as display screens, solar cells, or light emitting diodes.

  19. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  20. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  1. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  2. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on the melanization process in larvae of stored product moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupa, D.

    1998-01-01

    Non-irradiated larvae of the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella Hbn.), the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia (Anagasta) kuehniella Zell.), and the almond moth (Cadra cautella Wlk.) showed strong melanization after killing by freezing. However, there were some insects which showed lack of melanization or melanized only partly, sometimes like those that have been irradiated. A part of the larval body was dark black while the rest body was of natural color or only slightly gray. Also, black and gray patches were observed in the larvae. After the irradiation treatment, the number of non-melanized larvae and larvae exhibiting a slight melanization usually increased. The degree of melanization in the treated larvae was significantly different from the untreated insects. Generally, it decreased with increasing dose and time elapsed after the treatment. The melanization test for detecting irradiated moth larvae may produce inconsistent results because (a) irradiation does not completely prevent melanization in mature moth larvae, and (b) the untreated larvae, killed by freezing and examined at room temperature, often show incomplete melanization. An ideal method for detection of irradiated insects should be: (1 ) specific for irradiation and not influenced by other processes, (2) accurate and reproducible, (3) have a detection limit below the minimum dose likely to be applied to agricultural commodity as a quarantine treatment, (4) applicable to a range of pests, (5) quick and easy to perform, and (6) capable of providing an estimate of irradiation dose. The melanization test to detect irradiated larvae of the stored product moths fulfills only some of these requirements. Therefore, additional studies were performed to improve this test before it is recommended for quarantine inspection. Because visual assessment of the effects of irradiation on melanization of the moth larvae is very subjective and difficult to perform, a trial to determine the activity of

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  5. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  6. Identification of a Gypsy SHOX mutation (p.A170P) in Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca-Tierno, Verónica; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Barroso, Eva; Heine-Suner, Damia; Azmanov, Dimitar; Rosell, Jordi; Ezquieta, Begoña; Montané, Lucia Sentchordi; Vendrell, Teresa; Cruz, Jaime; Santos, Fernando; Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gracía, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Heath, Karen E

    2011-12-01

    We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 12 Spanish families with multiple members affected with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) or Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), who present the SHOX (short stature homeobox gene) mutation p.A170P (c.508G>C) in heterozygosity or homozygosity, respectively. In all studied families, the A170P mutation co-segregated with the fully penetrant phenotype of mesomelic limb shortening and Madelung deformity. A shared haplotype around SHOX was observed by microsatellite analysis, confirming the presence of a common ancestor, probably of Gypsy origin, as 11 of the families were of this ethnic group. Mutation screening in 359 Eastern-European Gypsies failed to identify any carriers. For the first time, we have shown SHOX expression in the human growth plate of a 22-week LMD fetus, homozygous for the A170P mutation. Although the mutant SHOX protein was expressed in all zones of the growth plate, the chondrocyte columns in the proliferative zone were disorganized with the chondrocytes occurring in smaller columnal clusters. We have also identified a novel mutation at the same residue, c. 509C>A (p.A170D), in two unrelated Spanish LWD families, which similar to A170P mutation impedes nuclear localization of SHOX. In conclusion, we have identified A170P as the first frequent SHOX mutation in Gypsy LWD and LMD individuals.

  7. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílá, Karolína; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, JUN (2016), č. článku e2094. ISSN 2167-8359 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : hruby jesenik mts * erebia-epiphron * species richness * lepidoptera * population * europe * assemblages * vegetation * gradients * patterns * Afforestation * Alpine tundra * Lepidoptera * Dwarf pine * Postglacial development * Central European mountains * Biodiversity loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  8. A unique tortricid moth, Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976), associated with the endemic pine (Pinus canariensis) in the Canary Islands, Spain (Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 129 (2005), s. 45-47 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. The anti-bat strategy of ultrasound absorption: the wings of nocturnal moths (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) absorb more ultrasound than the wings of diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntelezos, Athanasios; Guarato, Francesco; Windmill, James F C

    2017-01-15

    The selection pressure from echolocating bats has driven the development of a diverse range of anti-bat strategies in insects. For instance, several studies have proposed that the wings of some moths absorb a large portion of the sound energy contained in a bat's ultrasonic cry; as a result, the bat receives a dampened echo, and the moth becomes invisible to the bat. To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to bat predation drives the development of higher ultrasound absorbance, we used a small reverberation chamber to measure the ultrasound absorbance of the wings of nocturnal (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) and diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae). The absorption factor of the nocturnal saturniids peaks significantly higher than the absorption factor of the diurnal chalcosiines. However, the wings of the chalcosiines absorb more ultrasound than the wings of some diurnal butterflies. Following a phylogenetic analysis on the character state of diurnality/ nocturnality in the Zygaenidae, we propose that diurnality in the Chalcosiinae is plesiomorphic (retained); hence, the absorbance of their wings is probably not a vestigial trait from an ancestral, nocturnal form but an adaptation to bat activity that overlaps their own. On a within-species level, females of the saturniids Argema mittrei and Samia cynthia ricini have significantly higher absorption factors than the males. In the female S. c. ricini, the higher absorption factor corresponds to a detection distance by bats that is at best 20-30% shorter than that of the male. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Weber; J.L. Hart; C. Schweitzer; D.C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Quercus-Pinus forests of the eastern USA cover millions of hectares and span a variety of ecoregions. Understanding the influence of natural disturbance on developmental and successional pathways is important for managers that wish to sustain Pinus spp. in these mixtures. Quantifying developmental and successional patterns in this...

  11. Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines. RIC Lumbres, YJ Lee, YO Seo, FG Calora JR. Abstract. This study was conducted to develop a height–age growth model and site index curves for site quality evaluation of old secondary-growth stands of Pinus kesiya in the northern Philippines.

  12. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  13. CONTINUIDADE ESPACIAL DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DENDROMÉTRICAS DE PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton E DE ATRIBUTOS DO SOLO / SPATIAL CONTINUITY OF DENDROMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS OF PINUS (Pinus pinaster Aiton AND SOIL ATTRIBUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLÉCIO M. SIQUEIRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação e a continuidade espacial de características dendrométricas de pinus (Pinus pinaster Aiton e de atributos do solo. As amostragens foram realizadas em uma área de 0,25 ha cultivada com Pinus pinaster em Muras (Província de Lugo, Galícia, Espanha. Os atributos amostrados foram: o diâmetro da base das árvores (DB; o diâmetro a 0,30 m acima da base (D30; o diâmetro a altura do peito (a 1,3 m de altura, DAP, altura das árvores (ALT, profundidade do perfil do solo (PROF e a condutividade elétrica aparente do solo a 0,3 m de profundidade (CEa-H e a 1,5 m de profundidade (CEa-V. O uso da geoestatística permitiu caracterizar a variabilidade espacial de todos os atributos em estudo, com exceção da profundidade da rocha que apresentou efeito pepita puro. Os dados apresentaram moderada razão de dependência espacial entre amostras. Os mapas de variabilidade espacial não demonstram uma relação entre os mapas dos atributos de solo e planta estudados.Palavras-Chave: geoestatística; silvicultura de precisão; condutividade elétrica aparente do solo.

  14. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  15. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  16. Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia Frustrana, lures and traps: What is the optimum combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. DeBarr; J. wayne Brewer; R. Scott Cameron; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Pheromone traps are used to monitor flight activity of male Nantucket pine tip moths, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), to initialize spray timing models, determine activity periods, or detect population trends. However, a standardized trapping procedure has not been developed. The relative efficacies of six types of lures and eight commercial pheromone traps were...

  17. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like

  18. Effects of Nantucket pine tip moth insecticide spray schedules on loblolly pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Kenneth W. McCravy; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Frequent and prolonged insecticide applications to control the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera:Torticidae) (NPTM), although effective, may be impractical and uneconomica1, for commercial timber production. Timed insecticide sprays of permethrin (Polmce 3.2® EC) were applied to all possible combinations of spray...

  19. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  20. Genetic patterns in European Geometrid Moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, A.; Godfray, H.C.J.; Huemer, J.; Mutane, M.; Rougerie, R.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species

  1. Field Attraction of Carob Moth to Host Plants and Conspecific Females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Menken, S.B.J.; van Wijk, M.; Roessingh, P.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a devastating pest in high-value crops around the world. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is still missing for the management of this pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. Host plant volatiles attract

  2. Codling moth cytogenetics: karyotype, chromosomal location of rDNA, and molecular differentiation of sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuková, Iva; Nguyen, Petr; Marec, František

    Roč. 48, - ( 2005 ), s. 1083-1092 ISSN 0831-2796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Grant - others:IAEA(AT) 12055/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : CGH * codling moth * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2005

  3. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  4. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  5. Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, P.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on different stages of Indian meal moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner is one of the most important stored products pests in the world. In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation was studied on different developmental stages of this pest and the doses required to prevent each of these developmental stages was investigated. From the results ...

  7. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth

  8. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  9. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J

    2012-08-23

    Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.

  10. Development of two related endoparasitoids in larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malčická, Mima; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the growth and development of two related solitary endoparasitoids (Braconidae, Microgastinae) in different instars (second and third) of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Cotesia vestalis is a well-studied parasitoid whose larvae feed primarily on host hemolymph and fat body

  11. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in Argentina and Chile during 2010-11 evaluated a new trap (Ajar) for monitoring the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Ajar trap was delta-shaped with a jar filled with a terpinyl acetate plus brown sugar bait attached to the bottom center of the trap. The screened lid of ...

  12. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  13. Arabidopsis genotypes resistant and susceptible to diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Putellidea): No net effects on insect growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutella xylostella (L.), diamondback moth (DBM) is a destructive pest of the Brassicaceae including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis vary in the amounts of leaf area consumed when fed on by DBM, which has been used as a measure of resistance to DBM. Recombinant inbred lin...

  14. Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.T.; Classen, A.; Inglis, O.; Blanco, C.A.; López Jr., J.; Vargas, A.T.; Schal, C.; Heckel, D.G.; Schöfl, G.

    2011-01-01

    The two moth species Heliothis virescens (Hv) and H. subflexa (Hs) are closely related, but have vastly different feeding habits. Hv is a generalist and an important pest in many crops in the USA, while Hs is a specialist feeding only on plants in the genus Physalis. In this study, we conducted a

  15. Major outbreaks of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in Oregon and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; C.G. Thompson

    1973-01-01

    Case histories of five tussock moth outbreaks that occurred in California and Oregon between 1935 and 1965 are discussed. Information is given on the size and duration of the outbreaks, the presence of natural control agents and the damage caused. Most of the outbreaks were eventually treated with DDT. However, enough information was available from untreated portions...

  16. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  17. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-09-30

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia. 

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  19. Effects of 60Co irradiation on the genetics of indian meal moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Changju; Liu Ganming; Deng Wangxi; Yang Zhihui; Hu Jianfang

    1993-01-01

    4 ∼ 5 days old male pupae of Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hubner were irradiated with 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 krad of 60 Co γ-ray. The male moths developed from treated pupae and their F 1 generation were put together with normal female moths for copulation separately. The genetic effects of irradiation was studied and the results showed that the effects of irradiation were significant, which related to the irradiation dosage, on both parental and filial generations. Only 40% of the pupae was emerged, when they were irradiated at 10 krad. The effects on deformation rates, survival rates, copulation abilities, fecundities, hatching rates and genetic sterilities varied with different irradiation dosage treatment. With consideration of the total irradiation effect, the dosage lower than 5 krad is desirable for inducing the sterility of adults and sex chain recessive lethal gene. With 1, 5 and 7 krad of irradiation, a mutant of P. interpunctella with transparent wings was induced, which provides a marking feature in control of Indian meal moth by sex chain recessive lethal gene

  20. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Ettema, J.A.; Donners, M.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Groenendijk, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of

  1. Flavonoids from cabbage are feeding stimulants for diamondback moth larvae additional to glucosinolates : chemoreception and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.; Nielsen, J.K.; Gols, R.; Qiu, Y.T.

    2002-01-01

    In caterpillars two styloconic contact chemoreceptors on the maxillary galea are assumed to contain the main taste receptors involved in host plant selection. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. is a specialist feeder of plants in the Brassicaceae, a plant family characterized by the

  2. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  3. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-10-11

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  4. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  5. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  6. Composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest respond to spatial climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased precipitation.

  7. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1 has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  8. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  9. Chlorantraniliprole as a candidate pesticide used in combination with the attracticides for lepidopteran moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Gao, Yu; Liang, Gemei; Lu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    Methomyl is currently used as a toxicant for the attracticide BioAttract in cotton and vegetables in China. However, methomyl is highly toxic to non-target organisms and a more environmental friendly acceptable alternative is required. Larvae of three lepidopteran insects Helicoverpa armigera, Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera litura are important pests of these crops in China. In the present study, the toxicity of 23 commonly used insecticides were tested on H. armigera, then tested the susceptibility of A. ipsilon and S. litura moths to the insecticides which were the most toxic to H. armigera, and the acute toxicity of the most efficacious insecticides were further investigated under laboratory conditions. Chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, spinosad and methomyl exhibited high levels of toxicity to H. armigera moths with a mortality of 86.67%, 91.11%, 73.33%, 57.78% and 80.00%, respectively, during 24 h period at the concentration of 1 mg a.i. L-1. Among these five insecticides, A. ipsilon and S. litura moths were more sensitive to chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate and methomyl. The lethal time (LT50) values of chlorantraniliprole and methomyl were shorter than emamectin benzoate for all three lepidopteran moth species at 1000 mg a.i. L-1 compared to concentrations of 500, 100 and 1 mg a.i L-1. Chlorantraniliprole was found to have similar levels of toxicity and lethal time on the three lepidopteran moths tested to the standard methomyl, and therefore, can be used as an alternative insecticide to methomyl in the attracticide for controlling these pest species.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  11. Rapid assessment on macro-moth fauna at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve: a low diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Sutrisno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assessment on moth faunas with focus on macro-moths was conducted at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve. The aims of the study were to acquire information of macro-moth diversity and to access the composition of the species at this area by comparing data from Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest. The results showed that the number of species at Nusa Barong, Meru Betiri, Sebangau and Busang were 47, 75, 97 and 297, respectively. The diversity of macro-moth fauna based on William’s α index at Nusa Barong was the lowest as compared to Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest, which were 34.58, 65.01, 50.91 and 102.08, respectively. The results also show that the similarity based on Jaccard’s index of the binary comparison varies from 0.029 to 0.089. The highest value was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Meru Betiri while the lowest was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Sebangau. In addition, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Noctuidae were dominant across all sites. At Nusa Barong, only 10 species that have been known their host plants; three of them caused damage to some crops, namely, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydalima laticostalis and Achaea janata. There might be more species that have not been found during this study as indicated by the species numbers across all sites have not reach a plateau. This study clearly showed us that floral diversity and size of area determined the diversity of macro-moths at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve.

  12. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  13. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  14. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  15. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  16. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Margot N.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  17. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  18. Chemical ecology of moths: Role of semiochemicals in host location by Ectomyelois ceratoniae and mate guarding by Heliothis virescens

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Semiochemical-based behavioral manipulation has been increasingly implemented in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as an environmentally friendly strategy. For many pest species, however, efficient methods have yet to be developed. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is missing in management of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a devastating fruit pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable. To explore the use of host-plant volatiles to attract carob moths, the pomegranate-...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic...

  20. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  1. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  2. Fabrication of moth-eye structure on p-GaN layer of GaN-based LEDs for improvement of light extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Eun-Ju; Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Park, Hyoungwon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Jung, Gun Young

    2009-01-01

    Moth-eye structures were produced on a p-GaN top cladding layer by UV imprint and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch processes in order to improve the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The height and shape of moth-eye structures were adjusted by controlling the thickness of Cr mask layer and ICP etching time. The transmittance of LED device stacks with moth-eye structure was increased up to 1.5-2.5 times, compared to identical LED sample without moth-eye structure and the intensity of photoluminescence from the InGaN multi-quantum well layer of LED sample with moth-eye structure was 5-7 times higher than that of the LED sample without the moth-eye structure.

  3. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  4. Understanding predation: implications toward forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey R. Smith

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that when gypsy moths rest in the litter survival is low due to predation by ground-foraging generalist predators and that predation can maintain these populations indefinitely. Forest Service research on predators of gypsy moth continues to focus on population dynamics, the mechanisms of predation and forest management implications.

  5. The treatment implementation advisor: a component of the GypsES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Saunders; Michael A. Foster

    1991-01-01

    The treatment implementation advisor is one of the knowledge based advisory modules of GypsES, a knowledge system environment for decision support in gypsy moth management. Its function is to provide detailed advice on intervention tactics for gypsy moth: e.g. aerial and ground application of insecticides and microbials, inundative or augmentative releases of...

  6. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  9. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  10. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Ferrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i the short term (one to three months and medium term (three years effects of prescribed burning, and ii the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  11. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio needles and their responses to prescribed burnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannac, Magali; Pasqualini, Vanina; Greff, Stéphane; Fernandez, Catherine; Ferrat, Lila

    2007-07-30

    Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i) the short term (one to three months) and medium term (three years) effects of prescribed burning, and ii) the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  12. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesi...

  13. Productivity and adaptation of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Rezende, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The productivity and climatic adaptation of two species of Pinus in the north litoral of Bahia State has been studied through the variability of wood density in a comercial plantation. The gamma-ray attenuation method of the 100 mCi 241-Am source, 59,6 KeV, was used for density variability analysis. The results show that Pinus caribaea hondurensis is better adapted to the region than Pinus caribaea caribaea, with a superior mean productivity of 26% at 8 years. (Author) [pt

  14. Needles, Jabs and Jags: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to child and adult immunisation uptake among Gypsies, Travellers and Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Jackson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers are less likely to access health services including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, it is necessary to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. This study had two aims. 1. Investigate the views of Travellers in the UK on the barriers and facilitators to acceptability and uptake of immunisations and explore their ideas for improving immunisation uptake; 2. Examine whether and how these responses vary across and within communities, and for different vaccines (childhood and adult. Methods This was a qualitative, cross-sectional interview study informed by the Social Ecological Model. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma, English Gypsy/Irish Travellers (Bristol, English Gypsy (York, Romanian/Slovakian Roma, Scottish Show people (Glasgow and Irish Traveller (London. The focus was childhood and selected adult vaccines. Data were analysed using the Framework approach. Results Common accounts of barriers and facilitators were identified across all six Traveller communities, similar to those documented for the general population. All Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men and women described similar barriers and facilitators although women spoke more of discrimination and low literacy. There was broad acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation across and within communities, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough and described barriers to booking and attending immunisation. Cultural concerns about antenatal vaccines and HPV vaccination were most evident in the Bristol English Gypsy/Irish Traveller community. Language, literacy, discrimination, poor

  15. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  16. Protein synthesis in the embryo of Pinus thunbergii seed, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Sasaki, Satohiko.

    1977-01-01

    14 C-Amino acid incorporating activity in the absence of exogenous mRNA was found in a cell-free system from embryos of light-germinated Pinus thunbergii seeds, but not in that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. Template activity in the cell-free system from the light-germinated seed embryos was observed in the ribosome fraction, especially the polyribosome fraction, but not in the 100,000 x g supernatant fraction (s100). These facts suggest that the nature of the block in protein synthesis during the imbibition of seeds in the dark is due to the lack or inactivity of mRNA. The s100 from light-germinated seed embryos was found to be less active in amino acid incorporation than that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. (auth.)

  17. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  18. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  19. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Iravani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  20. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  1. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  2. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. R. Judd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE, with either acetic acid (AA or sex pheromone, (E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone, might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT and mating disruption (MD. Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild, AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA, and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg and MD (10 mg programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  3. Lethality of gamma radiation and malathion to the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eesa, N.M.; Moursy, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The lethality of gamma radiation and the organo phosphorous insecticide, malathion, as well as the combined action of both was determined for the five larval instars of the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella (Hubner). The younger instars were more susceptible to both gamma radiation and malathion. The L D 50 values of gamma radiation increased gradually with the instar. Malathion was highly toxic to the first four instars, but the fifth instar required a much larger dose. Gamma radiation combined with malathion at the L D 25 values was antagonistic when evaluated against each of the five larval instars of the indian meal moth. Thus, the use of gamma radiation with malathion does not seem to be a promising control strategy. However, further research investigations are needed to confirm this finding.3 tab

  4. Effect of substerilization doses of radiation on the biology of diamondback moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, D.; Mansor, M.

    1993-01-01

    The pupae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were exposed to four substerilizing doses (100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy) of gamma radiation. The fecundity, sterility and progeny development of parental crosses and certain F 1 backcrosses (progeny of irradiated males) were studied in the laboratory. All doses caused sterility in the parental crosses and F 1 backcrosses. Doses above 20 Gy greatly affected the development of larvae in parental crosses of irradiated females with normal males and of irradiated males with irradiated females, as no pupation was observed. The study indicated that a dose between 150 and 200 Gy would be suitable for inherited sterility of the diamondback moth. However, the backcross of progeny from irradiated males showed no significant increase in inheritance of deleterious effects. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  5. Phenology of the adult angel lichen moth (Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the phenology of adult angel lichen moths (Cisthene angelus) along a 364-km long segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, using a unique data set of 2,437 light-trap samples collected by citizen scientists. We found that adults of C. angelus were bivoltine from 2012 to 2014. We quantified plasticity in wing lengths and sex ratios among the two generations and across a 545-m elevation gradient. We found that abundance, but not wing length, increased at lower elevations and that the two generations differed in size and sex distributions. Our results shed light on the life history and morphology of a common, but poorly known, species of moth endemic to the southwestern United States and Mexico.

  6. Fluorescent SiC with pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Aijaz, Imran; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of a nitride-based blue LED chip and phosphor are very promising candidates for the general lighting applications as energy-saving sources. Recently, donor-acceptor doped fluorescent SiC has been proven as a highly efficient wavelength converter...... to enhance the extraction efficiency, we present a simple method to fabricate the pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures on the surface of the fluorescent SiC. A thin gold layer is deposited on the fluorescent SiC first. Then the thin gold layer is treated by rapid thermal processing. After annealing, the thin...... gold layer turns into discontinuous nano-islands. The average size of the islands is dependent on the annealing condition which could be well controlled. By using the reactive-ion etching, pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures would be obtained using the gold nano-islands as a mask layer. Reactive...

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly and its annotation for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Galarza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the public availability of transcriptome resources for the aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis. A comprehensive assembly methods, quality statistics, and annotation are provided. This reference transcriptome may serve as a useful resource for investigating functional gene activity in aposematic Lepidopteran species. All data is freely available at the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena under study accession number: PRJEB14172.

  8. Synthesis of the Sex Pheromone of the Tea Tussock Moth Based on a Resource Chemistry Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the sex pheromone of the tea tussock moth in 33% overall yield over 10 steps was achieved. Moreover, the chiral pool concept was applied in the asymmetric synthesis. The synthesis used a chemical available on a large-scale from recycling of wastewater from the steroid industry. The carbon skeleton was constructed using the C4+C5+C8 strategy. Based on this strategy, the original chiral center was totally retained.

  9. Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

    2014-10-01

    Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. The LDPE-PP laminate film developed using microencapsulated cinnamon oil was effective to protect the model foods from the invasion of Indian meal moth larvae. The microencapsulated ink coating did not significantly change the tensile and barrier properties of the LDPE-PP laminate film, implying that replacement of the uncoated with coated laminate would not be an issue with current packaging equipment. The films showed the potential to be produced in commercial film production lines that usually involve high temperatures because of the improved thermal stability of cinnamon oil due to microencapsulation. The microencapsulated system may be extended to other food-packaging films for which the same ink-printing platform is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Moth and carabid beetle species associated with two ecological phases in northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work; Deborah G. McCullough; William J. Mattson

    1998-01-01

    More than 12,300 moths and 2,500 carabid beetles were trapped during 3 years (1993 through 1995) in two different ecological land type phases (ELTP's) in the Huron-Manistee National Forest in Michigan. One ELTP (no. 20) was dominated by oaks, and the other (no. 45) was dominated by sugar maple; each had distinctive kinds of insects, in spite of the fact that many...

  11. Postglacial recolonization shaped the genetic diversity of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jeremy C; Havill, Nathan P; Caccone, Adalgisa; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2017-05-01

    Changes in climate conditions, particularly during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, have long been recognized to be important for shaping patterns of species diversity. For species residing in the western Palearctic, two commonly observed genetic patterns resulting from these cycles are as follows: (1) that the numbers and distributions of genetic lineages correspond with the use of geographically distinct glacial refugia and (2) that southern populations are generally more diverse than northern populations (the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm). To determine whether these patterns hold true for the widespread pest species the winter moth ( Operophtera brumata ), we genotyped 699 individual winter moths collected from 15 Eurasian countries with 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We find strong evidence for the presence of two major genetic clusters that diverged ~18 to ~22 ka, with evidence that secondary contact (i.e., hybridization) resumed ~ 5 ka along a well-established hybrid zone in Central Europe. This pattern supports the hypothesis that contemporary populations descend from populations that resided in distinct glacial refugia. However, unlike many previous studies of postglacial recolonization, we found no evidence for the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm. We also find evidence for ongoing gene flow between populations in adjacent Eurasian countries, suggesting that long-distance dispersal plays an important part in shaping winter moth genetic diversity. In addition, we find that this gene flow is predominantly in a west-to-east direction, suggesting that recently debated reports of cyclical outbreaks of winter moth spreading from east to west across Europe are not the result of dispersal.

  12. Phase-dependent outbreak dynamics of geometrid moth linked to host plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jane U; Hagen, Snorre B; Karlsen, Stein-Rune; Ims, Rolf A

    2009-12-07

    Climatically driven Moran effects have often been invoked as the most likely cause of regionally synchronized outbreaks of insect herbivores without identifying the exact mechanism. However, the degree of match between host plant and larval phenology is crucial for the growth and survival of many spring-feeding pest insects, suggesting that a phenological match/mismatch-driven Moran effect may act as a synchronizing agent. We analyse the phase-dependent spatial dynamics of defoliation caused by cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in northern boreal birch forest in Fennoscandia through the most recent massive outbreak (2000-2008). We use satellite-derived time series of the prevalence of moth defoliation and the onset of the growing season for the entire region to investigate the link between the patterns of defoliation and outbreak spread. In addition, we examine whether a phase-dependent coherence in the pattern of spatial synchrony exists between defoliation and onset of the growing season, in order to evaluate if the degree of matching phenology between the moth and their host plant could be the mechanism behind a Moran effect. The strength of regional spatial synchrony in defoliation and the pattern of defoliation spread were both highly phase-dependent. The incipient phase of the outbreak was characterized by high regional synchrony in defoliation and long spread distances, compared with the epidemic and crash phase. Defoliation spread was best described using a two-scale stratified spread model, suggesting that defoliation spread is governed by two processes operating at different spatial scale. The pattern of phase-dependent spatial synchrony was coherent in both defoliation and onset of the growing season. This suggests that the timing of spring phenology plays a role in the large-scale synchronization of birch forest moth outbreaks.

  13. Studies on F1 radiation sterilization of diamondback moth and mulberry wild silkworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxing; Xia Darong; Cu Weiping; Chu Jiming; Zhang Yanjun

    1993-01-01

    The study began in 1988 under the aegis of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control. During the following four years the control of the mulberry wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina Moore) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) by means of radiation induced sterility was studied. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Five functional adipokinetic peptides expressed in the corpus cardiacum of the moth genus Hippotion (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Marco, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 184, JUN 10 (2013), s. 85-95 ISSN 0167-0115 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant - others:National Research Foundation(ZA) FA2008071500048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphingidae * common striped hawk moth * Hippotion eson Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.014, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167011513000670

  15. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis D(delta)-endotoxins against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncheva, R.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.; Naimov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Solubilized protoxins of nine Cry1 and one hybrid Cry1 ¿-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against larvae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L). Cry1Da was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Ab, Cry1Ba, and Cry1Ac, while Cry1Aa, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ia, and SN19 were still

  16. Risk assessment of the jasmine moth Palpita vitrealis (Rossi) amplified by a contaminant ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Helena; Pereira, Cândido; Cardoso, Miguel; Manteigas, Ana; Sequeira, Manuel; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Luz, João Pedro; Mexia, António

    2012-01-01

    Jasmine moth population was monitored in olive groves in Cova da Beira, using traps baited with three commercial formulations of pheromone: Russell (in tricoloured funnel traps), SEDQ and Suterra (both in delta traps). Counts were carried out weekly from March to November 2010 for SEDQ’s pheromone and from September to November for Russell’s and Suterra´s pheromones. The scouts ranged among 0 and 4 insects/trap/ week. A contaminant Lepidoptera species, not yet...

  17. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baker

    Full Text Available The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L. (Malpighiales: Salicaceae. Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005 with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas.

  18. KONAGAbase: a genomic and transcriptomic database for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Jouraku, Akiya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Urio, Masahiro; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Kurita, Kanako; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Noda, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests for crucifer crops worldwide. DBM has rapidly evolved high resistance to most conventional insecticides such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, fipronil, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diamides. Therefore, it is important to develop genomic and transcriptomic DBM resources for analysis of genes related to insecticide resistance, both to clarify the mechanism of resistance of DBM and to fa...

  19. Do saproxylic beetles respond numerically to rapid changes in dead wood availability following moth outbreaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of defoliating insects periodically cause mass mortality of trees, thereby generating pulses of dead wood resources for saproxylic (i.e. dead-wood dependent) organisms. This study investigated the responses of saproxylic beetles to a dead wood resource pulse caused by recent (2001-2009) outbreaks of geometrid moths in the subarctic mountain birch forest of the Varanger region in northern Norway. A large scale (20 km) transect design, implementing window (flight interception) traps a...

  20. Flight Synchrony among the Major Moth Pests of Cranberries in the Upper Midwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn A. Steffan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The cranberry fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii Riley, sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens, and blackheaded fireworm (Rhopobota naevana Hübner are historically significant pests of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton in the Upper Midwest (Wisconsin, USA. Their respective natural histories are well documented but correlations between developmental benchmarks (e.g., larval eclosion and degree-day accruals are not yet known. Treatment timings are critical to the optimization of any given control tactic, and degree-day accrual facilitates optimization by quantifying the developmental status of pest populations. When key developmental benchmarks in the pest life cycle are linked to degree-days, real-time weather data can be used to predict precise treatment timings. Here, we provide the degree-day accumulations associated with discrete biological events (i.e., initiation of flight and peak flight for the three most consistent moth pests of cranberries in Wisconsin. Moths were trapped each spring and summer from 2003 to 2011. To characterize flight dynamics and average timing of flight initiation, pheromone-baited trap-catch data were tallied for all three pest species within each of seven growing seasons. These flight dynamics were then associated with the corresponding degree-day accumulations generated using the cranberry plant’s developmental thresholds. Finally, models were fit to the data in order to determine the peak flight of each species. The initiation of the spring flight among all three moth species was highly synchronous, aiding in the timing of control tactics; however, there were substantial differences in the timing of peak flight among the moth species. Characterization of the relationship between temperature and pest development allows pest management professionals to target specific life stages, improving the efficacy of any given pest control tactic.

  1. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  2. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  3. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... review the historical phytogeography and highlight the phytogeographic implication of this genus. Keywords. ... In the present paper, winged seeds of Pinus are described ..... the Himalayas and the onset and development of.

  4. Short-chain alkanes synergise responses of moth pests to their sex pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurba, Alexandre; Guerin, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    The use of sex pheromones for mating disruption of moth pests of crops is increasing worldwide. Efforts are under way to augment the efficiency and reliability of this control method by adding molecules derived from host plants to the sex attractants in dispensers. We show how attraction of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff., and the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., males to underdosed levels of their sex pheromones is increased by adding heptane or octane over a range of release rates. Pheromone-alkane mixtures enhance male recruitment by up to 30%, reaching levels induced by calling females, and shorten the flight time to the sex attractant by a factor of 2. The findings show the promise of using short-chain alkanes as pheromone synergists for mating disruption of insect pests of food crops. Alkane-pheromone combinations are expected to increase the competitiveness of dispensers with females, and to reduce the amount of pheromone needed for the control of these pests. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Sex-specific consequences of an induced immune response on reproduction in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Andrea; Staudacher, Heike; Schmaltz, Antje; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

    2015-12-16

    Immune response induction benefits insects in combatting infection by pathogens. However, organisms have a limited amount of resources available and face the dilemma of partitioning resources between immunity and other life-history traits. Since males and females differ in their life histories, sex-specific resource investment strategies to achieve an optimal immune response following an infection can be expected. We investigated immune response induction of females and males of Heliothis virescens in response to the entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia entomophila, and its effects on mating success and the female sexual signal. We found that females had higher expression levels of immune-related genes after bacterial challenge than males. However, males maintained a higher baseline expression of immune-related genes than females. The increased investment in immunity of female moths was negatively correlated with mating success and the female sexual signal. Male mating success was unaffected by bacterial challenge. Our results show that the sexes differed in their investment strategies: females invested in immune defense after a bacterial challenge, indicating facultative immune deployment, whereas males had higher baseline immunity than females, indicating immune maintenance. Interestingly, these differences in investment were reflected in the mate choice assays. As female moths are the sexual signallers, females need to invest resources in their attractiveness. However, female moths appeared to invest in immunity at the cost of reproductive effort.

  6. Power distribution in the hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Deng Xinyan

    2009-01-01

    We investigated inertial and aerodynamic power consumption during hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The aerodynamic power was estimated based on the aerodynamic forces and torques measured on model hawk-moth wings and hovering kinematics. The inertial power was estimated based on the measured wing mass distribution and hovering kinematics. The results suggest that wing inertial power (without consideration of muscle efficiency and elastic energy storage) consumes about half of the total power expenditure. Wing areal mass density was measured to decrease sharply from the leading edge toward the trailing edge and from the wing base to the wing tip. Such a structural property helps to minimize the wing moment of inertia given a fixed amount of mass. We measured the aerodynamic forces on the rigid and flexible wings, which were made to approximate the flexural stiffness (EI) distribution and deformation of moth wings. It has been found that wings with the characteristic spanwise and chordwise decreasing EI (and mass density) are beneficial for power efficiency while generating aerodynamic forces comparative to rigid wings. Furthermore, negative work to aid pitching in stroke reversals from aerodynamic forces was found, and it showed that the aerodynamic force contributes partially to passive pitching of the wing

  7. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  8. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

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    Yong-Biao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  9. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-12-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  10. Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae

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    Raheleh Dolati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae, is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI. A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.

  11. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-02

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  12. A major gene controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J.; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan; Saenko, Suzanne V.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Wu, Grace C.; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J.; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard; Dowling, Andrea; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection1,2. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and if there is any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we identify a gene, cortex, through fine-scale mapping using population genomics and gene expression analyses, which regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell cycle regulators3, suggesting that it most likely regulates pigmentation patterning through regulation of scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia)4, our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  13. Os ciganos entre perseguição e emancipação The gypsies between persecution and emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Moscovici

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toda sociedade que classifica os homens e separa os grupos autóctones dos grupos "estrangeiros" inclui um sistema de crenças, religiosas ou outras. Suas representações obedecem a uma norma que dá a seus atos um sentido ético. Esses atos não são cometidos por criminosos ou loucos, mas por pessoas que sabem o que é permitido ou proibido, qual é a diferença entre o bem e o mal. O ponto de partida das reflexões apresentadas é que estereótipos - categorias discriminando grupos em brancos e negros, cristãos e judeus, franceses e alemães, indígenas e espanhóis, ciganos e romenos, etc. - constituem, em suma, um modo de conhecimento com a função de opor os "semelhantes" preferidos aos "diferentes" desprezíveis, de distinguir aqueles que não são como nós.Every society that classifies mankind and separates the autochthonous groups from the "foreign" groups includes a system of beliefs, being it religious or of another kind. Their representations obey a norm that gives their actions an ethical sense. Those actions are not committed by criminals or crazy people, but by the ones who know what it is allowed or forbidden, or what the difference between good and evil is. The starting point of the presented reflections is that stereotypes categories which discriminate groups in whites and blacks, Christians and Jews, Frenchmen and Germans, indigenous and Spaniards, gypsies and Rumanians etc. constitute, in short, a way of knowledge with the function of opposing the favorite "fellow creatures" to the despicable "different ones", to distinguish those who are not like us.

  14. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  15. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. A Literature Review Report for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Children's Workforce Development Council (CWDC) commissioned this literature review as the first part of a project exploring issues around and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Showpeople, and the support, training and other programs available to staff involved. The project is intended to contribute to…

  16. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  17. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  18. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Genetics of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the Spanish Gypsy population: the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, T; Martínez-Rubio, D; Márquez, C; Paradas, C; Colomer, J; Jaijo, T; Millán, J M; Palau, F; Espinós, C

    2013-06-01

    Four private mutations responsible for three forms demyelinating of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) have been associated with the Gypsy population: the NDRG1 p.R148X in CMT type 4D (CMT4D/HMSN-Lom); p.C737_P738delinsX and p.R1109X mutations in the SH3TC2 gene (CMT4C); and a G>C change in a novel alternative untranslated exon in the HK1 gene causative of CMT4G (CMT4G/HMSN-Russe). Here we address the findings of a genetic study of 29 Gypsy Spanish families with autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT. The most frequent form is CMT4C (57.14%), followed by HMSN-Russe (25%) and HMSN-Lom (17.86%). The relevant frequency of HMSN-Russe has allowed us to investigate in depth the genetics and the associated clinical symptoms of this CMT form. HMSN-Russe probands share the same haplotype confirming that the HK1 g.9712G>C is a founder mutation, which arrived in Spain around the end of the 18th century. The clinical picture of HMSN-Russe is a progressive CMT disorder leading to severe weakness of the lower limbs and prominent distal sensory loss. Motor nerve conduction velocity was in the demyelinating or intermediate range. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  1. Diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in the non-photosynthetic flowering plants Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2007-01-31

    We present the first study on the diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in a group of non-photosynthetic flowering plants. To this end partial sequences of the reverse transcriptase (rt) gene were obtained from 20 clones for each retroelement type from seven and six accessions of Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae), respectively. Overall sequence similarity is higher in Ty3-gypsy elements than in Ty1-copia elements in agreement with the results from other angiosperm groups. Higher sequence diversity and stronger phylogenetic structure, especially of Ty1-copia sequences, in Orobanche species compared to Phelipanche species support the previously suggested hypothesis (based on karyological and cytological data) that genomes of Orobanche species are more dynamic than those of Phelipanche species. No evidence was found for intraspecific differences of retroelement diversity nor for differences between pest taxa and their putative wild relatives, e.g., O. crenata and O. owerini. The occurrence of a few sequences from Phelipanche species in clades otherwise comprising sequences from Orobanche species might be due to horizontal gene transfer, but the alternative of vertical transmission cannot be rejected unambiguously.

  2. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  3. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  4. Synergistic Effect of Combining Plutella xylostella Granulovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis at Sublethal Dosages on Controlling of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Li, Chuanming; Liu, Qin; Xu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are both entomo-pathogens to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The purpose of the present study was to measure the effect of the combination of PxGV and Bt at sublethal dosages on the development and mortality of diamondback moth in a laboratory setting. Bt and PxGV exhibited synergistic effect on diamondback moth larval mortality and effectively controlled diamondback moth populations with low dose combination treatment. The combination of three parts per million Bt and 1.3 × 10(3) occlusion bodies per milliliter of PxGV revealed a higher larval mortality compared with the treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. Combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal concentrations also increased larval duration, reduced oviposition and decreased adult longevity remarkably, resulting in the lowest population trend index among the treatments. The results suggested that the combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal dosages might provide a valuable way to improve the control efficacy of diamondback moth compared with treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes.

  6. Fabrication of flexible silver nanowire conductive films and transmittance improvement based on moth-eye nanostructure array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chengpeng; Zhu, Yuwen; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as touch screens, liquid-crystal displays and light-emitting diodes. To date, the material of the most commonly used TCEs was indium-tin oxide (ITO), which had several intrinsic drawbacks that limited its applications in the long term, including relatively high material cost and brittleness. Silver nanowire (AgNW), as one of the alternative materials for ITO TCEs, has already gained much attention all over the world. In this paper, we reported a facile method to greatly enhance the transmittance of the AgNW TCEs without reducing the electrical conductivity based on moth-eye nanostructures, and the moth-eye nanostructures were fabricated by using a roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography process. Besides, the effects of mechanical pressure and bending on the moth-eye nanostructure layer were also investigated. In the research, the optical transmittance of the flexible AgNW TCEs was enhanced from 81.3% to 86.0% by attaching moth-eye nanostructures onto the other side of the flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate while the electrical conductivity of the AgNW TCEs was not sacrificed. This research can provide a direction for the cost-effective fabrication of moth-eye nanostructures and the transmittance improvement of the flexible transparent electrodes. (paper)

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  8. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  9. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  10. Extraction of cellulose nanofibers from Pinus oocarpa residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrich, Anny; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: anny@daad-alumni.de [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Jheyce Cristina; Pasquoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Pinus oocarpa, which wood is moderately hard and tough, is planted in Brazil for reforestation and employed for timber production used in constructions. The wood residues, such as shavings, bark and sawdust represent 30% to 50% of the total volume of wood production, of which the sawdust is 10%{sup 1}. Cellulose nanofibers is nanomaterials having a diameter between 5 nm and 20 nm and a length of up to hundreds of nm. To obtain nanofibers from cellulose sources, such as sisal and sugarcane bagasse, is used chemical processes, in which the lignocellulosic material initially undergoes pre-treatments to promote partial separation of the cellulose, such as mercerisation and bleaching thus disposing lignin and hemicellulose components. Sequentially, by controlled acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions of the cellulose are removed, and crystalline cellulose is isolated in the form of cellulose nanofibers. In this work, nanofibers from sawdust of Pinnus oocarpa, containing 44.8 wt% of cellulose 20.6 wt% hemicellulose and 30.0 wt% insoluble lignin were isolated by mercerisation (NaOH 5%, 80°C, 120 min), followed by bleaching (NaOH + acetic acid + NaClO{sub 2}, 80 deg C, 240min) and acid hydrolysis (60 wt% sulfuric acid, 45 °C, 40min). Nanofibers obtained were characterized by DRX and SEM-FEG. Results showed that, for used conditions, fiber acid hydrolysis was not complete, therefore a biphasic suspension was formed. Crystallinity index achieved was not much higher than that from pinus fiber itself, increasing from 62% to 65% and signs of cellulose type II were observed. SEM images showed elongated fibers, which have diameter of 15 ± 5 nm and length of hundreds of nm, what means that they have a large L/D aspect ratio. Nanofiber extraction yield was very low (1.3 wt% of initial residue). All steps of the process are being reviewed aiming at better results. 1) Morais, S. A. L.; Nascimento E. A. e D. C. Melo, 2005, R. Árvore, 29, 3, 461-470. (author)

  11. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez

    2001-01-01

    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152),...

  12. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss. 2002 Heron Publishing--Victoria, Canada

  13. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  14. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  15. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

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    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  16. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion.

  17. Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Cohen, Shabtai; Yakir, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Drought-induced tree mortality has increased over the last decades in forests around the globe. Our objective was to investigate under controlled conditions the hydraulic adjustments underlying the observed ability of Pinus halepensis to survive seasonal drought under semi-arid conditions. One hundred 18-month saplings were exposed in the greenhouse to 10 different drought treatments, simulating combinations of intensities (fraction of water supply relative to control) and durations (period with no water supply) for 30 weeks. Stomata closed at a leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) of -2.8 MPa, suggesting isohydric stomatal regulation. In trees under extreme drought treatments, stomatal closure reduced CO(2) uptake to -1 µmol m(-2) s(-1), indicating the development of carbon starvation. A narrow hydraulic safety margin of 0.3 MPa (from stomatal closure to 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) was observed, indicating a strategy of maximization of CO2 uptake in trees otherwise adapted to water stress. A differential effect of drought intensity and duration was observed, and was explained by a strong dependence of the water stress effect on the ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration T/ET and the larger partitioning to transpiration associated with larger irrigation doses. Under intense or prolonged drought, the root system became the main target for biomass accumulation, taking up to 100% of the added biomass, while the stem tissue biomass decreased, associated with up to 60% reduction in xylem volume.

  18. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  19. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  20. Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with declined Pinus pinaster stands in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied the presence of fungi and distribution patterns in relation to the health status of declining Pinus pinaster trees. Area of study: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes. Material and Methods: Trees in two declining stands in Central Spain were allotted to three declining classes (healthy, declining and recently dead and 3 trees of each class were felled in each stand. Wood slides (phloem and xylem were taken at six positions along the trees and samples collected from fungal identification. Main results: A total of 21 fungal taxa were isolated and identified; eleven of these species belonged to the Ophiostomatoid group. Ophiostoma minus was the most frequently isolated fungus and was identified in 22% of the samples, mainly associated to dead and diseased trees. Research highlights: Together these results suggest a putative association of O. minor with the decline in this area, and thus we suggest paying more attention to this fungus as a potential agent of decline in P. pinaster stands.

  1. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Pinus massoniana Lamb. microstrobili during sexual reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The normal megastrobilli and microstrobilli before and after the sexual reversal in Pinus massoniana Lamb. were studied and classified using a transcriptomic approach. In the analysis, a total of 190,023 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 595 bp. The annotated unigenes were divided into 56 functional groups and 130 metabolic pathways involved in the physiological and biochemical processes related to ribosome biogenesis, carbon metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. Analysis revealed 4,758 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the polycone twig. The DEGs between the mega- and microstrobili from the normal twig were 5,550. In the polycone twig, 1,188 DEGs were identified between the microstrobili and the sexually reversed megastrobili. Concerning plant hormone signal transduction pathways, the DEGs from both the normal and polycone twigs displayed distinct male or female associated expression patterns. There were 36 common hormone-related DEGs from the two types of twigs of P. massoniana. Interestingly, expression of these DEGs was up-regulated in the bisexual strobili, which underwent the sexual reversal. A portion of MADS-box genes in the bisexual strobili were up-regulated relative to expression in microstrobili.

  3. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  4. [Cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksian and P. tabulaeformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuehua; Zhou, Yongxue; Fan, Junfeng; Liu, Yingzhou; Pang, Kejia

    2006-08-01

    By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksiana and P. tabulaeformis, with their inherent mechanisms approached. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P. banksiana > P. tabulaeformis > P. ponderosa. P. banksiana had high bound water/free water ratio (7.0) and ABA content (164.3 microg x g(-1) FW) but low K+ (2450 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (12.0%) , P. tabulaeformis had higher contents of ABA (95.8 microg x g(-1) FW), K+ (4538 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (18.68%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.58), while P. ponderosa had high soluble sugar content (18.05%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.18) and K+ (2275 microg x g(-1) DW) and ABA (63.3 microg x g(-1) FW) contents. These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Low chlorophyll content and high carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio might also contribute to the cold hardiness of P. banksiana. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different.

  5. Aboveground Tree Biomass for Pinus ponderosa in Northeastern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for spatial or temporal variability. Individual-tree aboveground biomass allometric equations are presented from an analysis of 79 felled trees from four separate management units at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: one unthinned and three separate thinned units. A simultaneous set of allometric equations for foliage, branch and bole biomass were developed as well as branch-level equations for wood and foliage. Foliage biomass relationships varied substantially between units while branch and bole biomass estimates were more stable across a range of stand conditions. Trees of a given breast height diameter and crown ratio in thinned stands had more foliage biomass, but slightly less branch biomass than those in an unthinned stand. The observed variability in biomass relationships within Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest suggests that users should consider how well the data used to develop a selected model relate to the conditions in any given application.

  6. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  7. MICROBIOTA OF PINUS POLLEN AS ADJUVANT FACTOR OF ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shevtsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, their endotoxin and mold found on pollen can be a reason of respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. This question concerns an anemophilous pollen more acute. In this work quantitative by dilution plating method and qualitative microbial analysis by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper of pollen and other plants organs of Pinus sylvestris L., P. nigra Arnold, P. mugo Turra, P. armandii Franch., P. wallichiana A.B. Jacks from Nitra, Slovakia are performed which shows quantitative and species differences in mesophilic aerobic (0.00-6.27 log cfu/g and anaerobic bacteria (0.00-3.70 log cfu/g, enterococci (0.00 log cfu/g, coliform bacteria (0.00-5.29 log cfu/g, lactobacilli (0.00-4.20 log cfu/g, microscopic fungi and yeasts (2.60-5.29 log cfu/g content. Representatives of Pseudomonas (14, Bacillus (2, Acinetobacter (1, Arthrobacter (1, Pantoea (1, Klebsiella (1, Penicillium (6, Aspergillus (4, Cladosporium (1, Debaryomyces (1 genera were revealed on pine trees. The allergenic potential of the identified association of microorganisms on pollen has been evaluated based on published data. The results may be useful for aerobiologists, allergists and microbiologists, at least at the local level.

  8. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Pinus roxburghii Sargent: a plant review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Pawan; Kaushik, Dhirender; Khokra, Sukhbir Lal

    2013-11-01

    Traditional medicine is a blend of information gathered over generations from various communities and cultures. Pinus roxburghii Sargent (Pinaceae) commonly known as "chir pine" is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. The all parts of the plant are believed to possess medicinal qualities in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In these traditional systems of medicine, the plant is used to heal many diseases, including afflictions of the eyes, ears, throat, blood, and skin. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as α-pinene, abietic acid, quercetin and xanthone. Resin acids and flavanoid form a major portion of these bioactive compounds. This review presents examples of traditional medicinal uses for P. roxburghii, and subsequently explores the current understanding of the chemical, pharmacological, and biochemical properties of the extracts and the main active constituents found in each tissue of the plant. Clinical trial information is also included where available. Careful evaluation of these data may be helpful for scientists and researchers to discover and evaluate the specific chemical entities responsible for the traditional medicinal uses of P. roxburghii.

  9. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  10. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O 2 ) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O 2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  11. Diet-mediated effects of heavy metal pollution on growth and immune response in the geometrid moth Epirrita autumnata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooik, Tapio van; Rantala, Markus J.; Saloniemi, Irma

    2007-01-01

    The potential capacity of larval growth and immune response traits of the autumnal moth to adapt to heavy metal polluted environment was tested experimentally. Both the relative growth rate (RGR) and pupal weight were significantly higher in control trees than on polluted trees, indicating that metal pollution prevented the insect from achieving maximal growth on birch leaves. Larval growth rates of different broods differed significantly between metal contaminated and control birches. However, pupal weight of broods, which is considered more important for fitness than growth rate, in response to pollution did not differ. Immune response was significantly higher in moths exposed to pollution than in moths that were exposed to control environment suggesting that pollution enhances the immune defense of defoliators. Encapsulation rate tended to differ between broods indicating that the immune function has potential to respond to selection. - Immune function of an insect herbivore increased in heavy metal polluted environment and some insect traits showed potential to adapt to polluted environment

  12. Full-spectrum light management by pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures for thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-08-07

    In this paper, the role of pseudo-disordered moth-eye structures on the optical features for application to thin-film solar cells is investigated to realize the superior light management for the full-spectrum solar energy utilization, compared with some ordered structures. Without loss of generality, the c-Si thin film solar cell is taken as the example. The results demonstrate that the fluctuations introduced into the geometry parameters of moth-eye elements can lead to the remarkable absorption enhancement in the wavelength region of 0.3-1.1 μm and high transmission in the wavelength range of 1.1-2.5 μm. Two mechanisms including the increasing spectral density of modes and the intensive forescattering intensity are identified to be responsible for the absorption enhancement. In addition, the optical characteristics of the moth-eye surface with both disordered height and disordered diameter are insensitive to the incident angle.

  13. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  14. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  15. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  16. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  17. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

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    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  18. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  19. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

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    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  20. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.