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Sample records for gypsum

  1. Hydrogeology of Gypsum formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchouk A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed explanation of hydrogeological characteristics of gypsum aquifers is given in various situations: deep-seated karst-confined conditions, subjacent, entrenched and denuded karst types-semi-confined, phreatic and vadose conditions. The hydrogeological evolution of barren exposed gypsum karst and flow velocities in gypsum karst aquifers is also discussed.

  2. MODIFIED GYPSUM BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONDRATEVA N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Statement of the problem. A disadvantage of the gypsum binder is the limited water resistance of products that historically led to the use of gypsum products mostly for internal construction and finishing works. To regulate the process of hydration and structure formation of the use of chemical additives that are introduced with the mixing water or in the production of the binder. As a rule, substances that increase the solubility of the gypsum binder referred to as the hardening accelerator, and substances which retard the solubility of the inhibitors of hardening of the mixture. Most accelerators and retarders hardening affect adversely on the final strength of the mixture. More effective impact on gypsum binder additives have plasticizers. The purpose of the article. Getting gypsum binder modified with the aim of improving its water resistance and improvement of some technological factors (the time of hardening, water gypsum ratio, etc. would reduce its shortcomings and expand the scope of application of the binder. Conclusion. The result of the research reviewed changes in the basic properties of the gypsum binder with the introduction of additives, plasticizers, and selected the most effective supplements to significantly reduce water gypsum ratio, to improve strength properties and to obtain gypsum binder more dense structure.

  3. Compaction of FGD-gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.T.J.; Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to produce compacted gypsum with a low porosity and a high strength on a laboratory scale by uniaxial compaction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD-) gypsum powder. Compacted FGD-gypsum cylinders were produced at a compaction pres-sure between 50 and 500 MPa yielding

  4. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  5. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  6. Mechanism of gypsum hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an hypothesis that the mechanism o f gypsum hydration and dehydration is performed through two simultaneous phenomena. In this study we try to clear up this phenomenon using chlorides as accelerators or a mixture of ethanol-methanol as retarders to carry out the gypsum setting. Natural Mexican gypsum samples and a hemihydrate prepared in the laboratory are used. The following analytical techniques are used: MO, DRX, DTA, TG and DTG. In agreement with the obtained results, it can be concluded: that colloid formation depends on the action of accelerators or retarders and the crystals are a consequence of the quantity of hemihydrate formed.

    En el mecanismo de hidratación y deshidratación del yeso existe la hipótesis de que éste se efectúa por dos fenómenos simultáneos. Este estudio intenta esclarecer estos fenómenos, empleando: cloruros como aceleradores o mezcla etanol-metanol como retardadores para efectuar el fraguado del yeso. Se emplean muestras de yeso de origen natural mexicano y hemihydrate preparado en laboratorio; se utilizan técnicas analíticas: MO, DRX, DTA, TG y DTG. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se puede deducir: que la formación del coloide depende de la acción de los agentes aceleradores o retardadores y que los cristales son consecuencia de la cantidad de hemihidrato formado.

  7. Mineral of the month: gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founie, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The earliest known use of gypsum as a building material was in Anatolia (in what is now Turkey) around 6000 B.C. It has been found on the interiors of the great pyramids in Egypt, which were erected in about 3700 B.C. Now an average new American home contains more than 7 metric tons of gypsum in the form of more than 6,000 square feet of wallboard.

  8. Economics of Gypsum Production in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the economics of gypsum production in Iran. The trend in production cost, selling price and profit are used to investigate economics of gypsum production. In addition, the multivariate time series method is used to determine factors affecting gypsum price in domestic market. The results indicated that due to increase in production and inflation, profitability of gypsum production has decreased during recent years. It is concluded that tariff and non-tariff barriers on mines machinery are among reasons for increasing production cost in Iranian gypsum mines. Decreasing such barriers could increase profitability of gypsum production in Iran.

  9. Growth of indoor fungi on gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Frank J J; van Laarhoven, Karel A; Wosten, Han; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To have a better understanding of fungal growth on gypsum building materials to prevent indoor fungal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gypsum is acquired by mining or as a by-product of flue-gas desulfurization or treatment of phosphate ore for the production of fertilizer. Natural gypsum,

  10. Growth of indoor fungi on gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, F J J; van Laarhoven, K A; Wösten, H A B; Dijksterhuis, J

    2017-08-01

    To have a better understanding of fungal growth on gypsum building materials to prevent indoor fungal growth. Gypsum is acquired by mining or as a by-product of flue-gas desulphurization or treatment of phosphate ore for the production of fertilizer. Natural gypsum, flue-gas gypsum and phosphogypsum therefore have different mineral compositions. Here, growth of fungi on these types of gypsum was assessed. Conidia of the indoor fungi Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium halotolerans and Penicillium rubens were inoculated and observed using microscopic techniques including low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. Elemental analysis of gypsum was done using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and segmented flow analysis. Moisture content of the gypsum was determined using a dynamic vapour sorption apparatus. Aspergillus niger, C. halotolerans and P. rubens hardly germinated on natural gypsum and flue-gas gypsum. The latter two fungi did show germination, outgrowth, and conidiation on phosphogypsum, while A. niger hardly germinated on this substrate. Other experiments show that C. halotolerans and P. rubens can develop in pure water, but A. niger does not. The observations show that the lack of germination of three indoor fungi is explained by the low amount of phosphor in natural, flue-gas and laboratory-grade gypsum. Additionally, C. halotolerans and P. rubens can develop in pure water, while conidia of A. niger do not show any germination, which is explained by the need for organic molecules of this species to induce germination. Indoor fungal growth is a potential threat to human health and causes damage to building materials. This study possibly helps in the application of the right type of gypsum in buildings. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Attenuation characteristics of gypsum wallboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Ralph C.; Sayeg, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Increased cost of lead is promoting enhanced usage of common building materials for shielding in diagnostic medical and dental facilities where only a few half value layers (HVLs) are needed. We have measured attenuation of x-rays in gypsum wallboard as a function of kVp, filtration, and wallboard thickness. Our findings, obtained using a Victoreen 555 with an 0.1 DAS probe in poor geometry, are in agreement with the sparse data in the literature (Gross and McCullough (1977), Radiology 122: 825. Moos et al. (1961), Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology 14: 569) but extend to thicker wall configurations and different kVp and filtration parameters. We conclude that gypsum wallboard as sole shielding material should be used with great caution. These findings are of value in maximizing the benefit/cost ratio for diagnostic shielding, and strengthen the conviction that, where used for shielding purposes, common building materials must be installed carefully and HVL-depth dependence considered thoroughly. (author)

  12. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  13. Effects of gypsum on trace metals in soils and earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mined gypsum has been beneficially used for many years as an agricultural amendment. Currently a large amount of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is produced by removal of SO2 from flue gas streams when fuels with high S content are burned. The FGD gypsum, similar to mined gypsum, can enhance c...

  14. Gypsum ground: a new occurrence of gypsum sediment in playas of central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Yang Chen; Bowler, James M.; Magee, John W.

    1991-06-01

    There are many playas (dry salt lakes) in arid central Australia (regional rainfall about 250 mm/y and pan evaporation around 3000 mm/y). Highly soluble salts, such as halite, only appear as a thin (several centimetres thick), white, ephemeral efflorescent crust on the dry surface. Gypsum is the major evaporite precipitating both at present and preserved in sediment sequences. One type of gypsum deposit forms a distinctive surface feature, which is here termed "gypsum ground". It consists of a thick (up to 80 cm) gypsum zone which rises from the surrounding smooth white playa surface and is overlain by a heaved brown crust. The gypsum zone, with an average gypsum content above 60%, consists of pure gypsum sublayers and interlayered clastic bands of sandy clay. The gypsum crystals are highly corroded, especially in the direction parallel to the c-axis and on the upper sides where illuviated clay has accumulated in corrosion hollows. Overgrowth parallel to the a- and b-axes is very common, forming highly discoidal habits. These secondary changes (corrosion and overgrowth) are well-developed in the vadose zone and absent from crystals below the long-term watertable (depth around 40 cm). These crystal characteristics indicate a rainwater leaching process. At Lake Amadeus, one of the largest playas (800 km 2) of central Australia, such gypsum ground occupies 16% of the total area. The gypsum ground is interpreted as an alteration of a pre-existing gypsum deposit which probably extended across the whole playa before breaking down, leaving a playa marginal terrace and several terrace islands within the gypsum ground. This pre-existing gypsum deposit, preserved in the residual islands, consists of pure, pale, sand-sized lenticular crystals. It is believed to have been deposited during an episode of high regional watertable, causing active groundwater seepage and more frequent surface brine in the playa. A later fall in watertable, probably resulting from climatic change

  15. GYPSUM DEPOSITS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

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    Anto Gabrić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurences and deposits of gypsum can be found in big karst poljes (Sinjsko, Vrličko, Petrovo, Kosovo and Kninsko as well as in tectonnically predestined river valleys of Zrmanja, Butišnica and Una. There also appear spatially localized occurences on the island of Vis and in the vicinity of Samobor. Evaporites (gypsum and anhydrite with adjoining overlying clastic rocks (red sandstones, siltites and pelites, carbonate rocks (dolomites and limestones and porous carbonate breccias (Rauhwackes were deposited during the period of Upper Permian. The recent position of the Upper Permian beds is a result of complex tectonic, particularly neotectonic, movements and diapiric displacements. Evaporites were deposited in marginal areas of the epicontinental marine basin, in a period of favourable conditions for the sabkha and playa sedimentation due to the continuous shoreline progradation. The Upper Permian age of these sediments in Dalmatio is proved by the characteristic mineral paragenesis and palinological determinations in elastics rocks, as well as by isotope analyses of sulphure in gypsum. Gypsum is a significant ore mineral resource in building, cement production, as well as in a number of tehnological processes used in chemical industry and elsewhere. According to the recent investigations gypsum is predestined to serve as an ore mineral resource of significant perspectives (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Gypsum crystals observed in experimental and natural sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, N.-X.; Galley, R. J.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Hare, A.; Wang, F.; Søgaard, D. H.; Rysgaard, S.

    2013-12-01

    gypsum has been predicted to precipitate in sea ice, it has never been observed. Here we provide the first report on gypsum precipitation in both experimental and natural sea ice. Crystals were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on their apparent distinguishing characteristics, the gypsum crystals were identified as being authigenic. The FREeZing CHEMistry (FREZCHEM) model results support our observations of both gypsum and ikaite precipitation at typical in situ sea ice temperatures and confirms the "Gitterman pathway" where gypsum is predicted to precipitate. The occurrence of authigenic gypsum in sea ice during its formation represents a new observation of precipitate formation and potential marine deposition in polar seas.

  17. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  18. Mechanical properties of gypsum board at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Cramer; O.M. Friday; R.H. White; G. Sriprutkiat

    2003-01-01

    Gypsum board is a common fire barrier used in house and general building construction. Recently, evaluation of the collapses of the World Trade Center Towers highlighted the potential role and failure of gypsum board in containing the fires and resisting damage. The use of gypsum board as primary fire protection of light-flame wood or steel construction is ubiquitous....

  19. Gypsum crystals observed in experimental and natural sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, Ryan; Cooper, Marc

    2013-01-01

    , the gypsum crystals were identified as being authigenic. The FREeZing CHEMistry (FREZCHEM) model results support our observations of both gypsum and ikaite precipitation at typical in situ sea ice temperatures and confirms the “Gitterman pathway” where gypsum is predicted to precipitate. The occurrence...

  20. Comparison of the surface roughness of gypsum models constructed using various impression materials and gypsum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chih Chang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The surface roughness of stone models was mainly determined by the type of alginate impression material, and was less affected by the type of silicone rubber impression material or gypsum product, or the storage time before repouring.

  1. Tunisian gypsums: Characteristics and use in cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Salah; Bennour, Ali; Chalwati, Youssef; Souidi, Khouloud; Thabet, Manel; Srasra, Ezzedine; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-09-01

    Gypsum materials of hundred meters thickness and interbedded with marine claystones and limestones from different paleogeographic sectors in the Tunisian territory are studied to assess their suitability for cement production. For this reason, thirty representative samples are analysed by chemical, physical and geotechnical tests. The obtained results for the studied gypsum materials are compared to Tunisian and European norms and with the local cements, currently marketed and which obey international norms. Indeed, for all samples hydraulic modulus HM, silica modulus SM and alumina modulus AM vary from (2.37-2.44), (2.48-2.68) and (1.45-2.5), respectively; whereas the required values for these modulus are (1.5-2.5), (2-3) and (1.5-2.5). The same behavior is observed for mineralogical analyses of C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF and compressive strength at different ages. Briefly, Tunisia contains important reserves of gypsum scattered and spread over the Tunisian territory and can be used for cement production.

  2. Simulating the structure of gypsum composites using pulverized basalt waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryanov Аleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of simulating the structure of gypsum composite modified with basalt dust waste to make materials and products based on it. Structural simulating of the topological space in gypsum modified composite by optimizing its grain-size composition highly improves its physical and mechanical properties. Strength and density tests have confirmed the results of the simulation. The properties of modified gypsum materials are improved by obtaining of denser particle packing in the presence of hemihydrate of finely dispersed basalt and plasticizer particles in the system, and by engaging basalt waste in the structuring process of modified gypsum stone.

  3. Efficiency of sulfuric acid, mined gypsum, and two gypsum by-products in soil crusting prevention and sodic soil reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezketa, E.; Aragues, R.; Gazol, R. [Gobierno Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Agricultural Resources Evaluation Center

    2005-06-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of four amendments (sulfuric acid, mined-gypsum, and the by-products coal-gypsum and lacto-gypsum) in crusting prevention of two calcareous nonsodic and sodic soils and in sodic soil reclamation. Treatments for crust prevention consisted of surface-applied amendments at equivalent rates of 5 Mg pure-gypsum ha{sup -1}. Treatments for sodic soil reclamation consisted of surface-applied acid and soil-incorporated gypsums at rates of 1 pure-gypsum requirement. The efficiency of these amendments was evaluated by comparing the final infiltration rates (FIR) of the amended vs. the nonamended soils measured in disturbed-soil columns pounded with low-salinity irrigation water. Electrical conductivity (EC) and Na in the leachates of the sodic soil were measured. In the crusting prevention experiment, FIRs (mm h{sup -1) of the nonsodic soil were 21 (nonamended), 33 to 35 (gypsum materials), and 53 (sulfuric acid), whereas those for the sodic soil were 0 (nonamended), 9 (lacto-gypsum), 15 to 17 (coal- and mined-gypsum), and 21 (sulfuric acid). In the sodic-soil reclamation experiment, FIRs were 0 (nonamended), 8 to 9 (gypsum-materials), and 17 (sulfuric acid) mm h{sup -1}. All amendments were effective in crusting prevention and soil reclamation, but sulfuric acid was the most efficient due to the fastest EC and Na reductions in the leachates. The three gypsum-materials were equally effective in the reclamation process and in the nonsodic soil crusting-prevention, whereas lacto-gypsum was less efficient in the sodic-soil crusting-prevention.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  5. Soil management and application of agricultural gypsum in a Planosol for soybean cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesan, Enio; Tonetto, Felipe; Teló, Gustavo Mack; Coelho, Lucas Lopes; Aramburu, Bruno Behenck; Trivisiol, Vinicius Severo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of soil management systems, tillage, and application of gypsum agricultural to soil, on soybean development in lowland areas. The experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement. The two soil tillage practices were without deep tillage and with deep tillage. Gypsum treatments were no gypsum application, 500kg of gypsum ha-1, 1000kg of gypsum ha-1, and 1500kg of gypsum ha-1. Deep tillage res...

  6. MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1985 marketing potential of byproduct gypsum from utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD), for the area east of the Rocky Mountains, using the calculated gypsum production rates of 14 selected power plants. The 114 cement plants and...

  7. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesárek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 

  8. Occurrence and geochemistry of Nafada Gypsum, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum deposits occur in numerous locations within the Senonian Fika Shale at Nafada, northeastern Nigeria. Geologic investigations at Baro Winde and Wuro Dabo mines indicate the occurrence of three varieties of gypsum namely, Balatino laminated, Alabaster and Satin Spar. These are interlayered within shale and ...

  9. Gypsum as a bedding source for broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials examined the feasibility of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a bedding material for raising broilers. Gypsum was used alone, under or on top of pine shavings and pine bark. Test materials were placed as bedding in pens to simulate commercial broiler production through three growout cy...

  10. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  11. Gypsum-anhydrites in 2 Ga Vempalle Formation, Cuddapah basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    69

    In fact high solubility in water leads to removal of gypsum in suficial environment. ... with presence of evaporite gypsum in the upper as well as lower part of the ..... created with shallow inlet or a slightly permeable seal with main water body.

  12. Permeability of gypsum samples dehydrated in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike; Blöcher, Guido

    2011-09-01

    We report on changes in rock permeability induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air (dry) for up to 800 h at ambient pressure and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Subsequently, the reaction kinetics, so induced changes in porosity, and the concurrent evolution of sample permeability were constrained. Weighing the heated samples in predefined time intervals yielded the reaction progress where the stoichiometric mass balance indicated an ultimate and complete dehydration to anhydrite regardless of temperature. Porosity showed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% to 30%, whilst the initial bulk volume remained unchanged. Within these limits permeability significantly increased with porosity by almost three orders of magnitude from approximately 7 × 10-19 m2 to 3 × 10-16 m2. We show that - when mechanical and hydraulic feedbacks can be excluded - permeability, reaction progress, and porosity are related unequivocally.

  13. Measuring the gypsum content of C&D debris fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Stephen E; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2008-11-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) debris recycling facilities often produce a screened material intended for use as alternative daily cover (ADC) at active landfills or for shaping and grading at closed landfills. This product contains soil and small pieces of wood, concrete, gypsum drywall, shingles and other components of C&D debris. Concerns have been raised over the contribution of gypsum drywall in C&D debris fines to odor problems at landfills where the product is used. To address such concerns, limitations may be placed on the percentage of gypsum (or sulfate) that can occur, and standardized testing procedures are required to permit valid compliance testing. A test procedure was developed for measuring the gypsum content in C&D debris fines. The concentration of sulfate leached in an aqueous solution was used to estimate the initial gypsum content of the sample. The impact of sample size and leaching time were evaluated. Precision and accuracy increased with increasing gypsum content. Results from replicate samples had an average relative standard deviation of 9%. The gypsum content of fines obtained from different facilities in the US varied widely from 1% to over 25%. These variations not only occurred between differing facilities, but within batches produced within a single facility.

  14. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Zhao Qinglin; Yao Chukang; Zhou Mingkai

    2012-01-01

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV–VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C 3 A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration. Highlights: ► Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C 3 A and ettringite have been studied. ► C 3 A–gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. ► Welan gum retards the process of C 3 A–gypsum hydration. ► The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  15. Interaction of gypsum with lead in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astilleros, J.M.; Godelitsas, A.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D.; Fernandez-Diaz, L.; Prieto, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S.

    2010-01-01

    Sorption processes on mineral surfaces are a critical factor in controlling the distribution and accumulation of potentially harmful metals in the environment. This work investigates the effectiveness of gypsum (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) to sequester Pb. The interaction of gypsum fragments with Pb-bearing solutions (10, 100 and 1000 mg/L) was monitored by performing macroscopic batch-type experiments conducted at room temperature. The aqueous phase composition was periodically determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Regardless of the [Pb aq ] initial , a [Pb aq ] final aq ] initial ≥ 100 mg/L and significantly slower (t > 1 week) for [Pb aq ] initial = 10 mg/L. Speciation calculations revealed that after a long time of interaction (1 month), all the solutions reached equilibrium with respect to both gypsum and anglesite. For [Pb aq ] initial ≥ 100 mg/L, sorption takes place mainly via the rapid dissolution of gypsum and the simultaneous formation of anglesite both on the gypsum surface and in the bulk solution. In the case of [Pb aq ] initial = 10 mg/L, no anglesite precipitation was observed, but surface spectroscopy (proton Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, p-RBS) confirmed the formation of Pb-bearing surface layers on the (0 1 0) gypsum surface in this case also. This study shows that the surface of gypsum can play an important role in the attenuation of Pb in contaminated waters.

  16. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  18. Assessment of Natural Exposure From Some kinds of Egyptian Gypsum Using Low Background Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity of natural gypsum and gypsum derived products are examined investigated due to their importance as element of building materials and agricultural gypsum. the natural gypsum and its product may constitute an additional source of radiation exposure to workers and members of public from radiation produced by radioactive decaying. thirty natural gypsum samples from different quarries and 32 fabricated gypsum samples from commercial companies were analyzed using low background HPGe detector. the natural concentration of Ra-226, 232 Th and 40 K activities in all samples were determined in Bq/Kg dry weight. it was found that radioactivity of natural gypsum is less than the fabricated gypsum, so it can be used as agricultural gypsum. fabricated gypsum is suitable for use as an element of building material in egypt

  19. Radium uptake by recrystallized gypsum: an incorporation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestini, Leslie; Beaucaire, Catherine; Vercouter, Thomas; Descostes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Batch experiments of 226 Ra uptake by recrystallized gypsum CaSO 4 .2H 2 O(s), monitored over 200 days, have shown that the published value for the distribution coefficient of 226 Ra between gypsum and an aqueous phase, 0.03 (Gnanapragasam and Lewis, 1995), is an upper limit. This suggests that this value needs to be confirmed. A solid solution between gypsum and radium sulfate (Ca,Ra)SO 4 .2H 2 O(s) cannot be considered per se, which is not surprising considering gypsum's high solubility product (lg Ks = -4.58) and the ionic radius of VIII Ra (1.48 A), when compared to that of VIII Ca (1.12 A). (authors)

  20. Uranium-series dating of gypsum speleothems: methodology and examples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Laura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical problems of dating gypsum speleothems with the U-series technique are reviewed. Gypsum speleothems are, in general, very low in U content, challenging the limits of detection methods. Various approaches to dissolving gypsum and isolation of actinides from the matrix include ion-pairing dissolution with magnesium salts and using nitric acid. The most precise dating technique is Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS, combined with Fe(OH3 scavenging and anionic exchange chromatography. Less satisfactory, but much quicker, is direct retention of actinides from HNO3 by means of TRU resin and MC-ICP-MS detection. We have tested these methods on gypsum speleothems from the Sorbas karst in Spain and from the Naica caves in Mexico.

  1. Gypsum crystals in the inner shelf sediments off Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Ambre, N.V.

    Gypsum crystals have been found in the inner shelf silty clay/clayey silt off the Maharashtra Coast between Vengurla and Bombay. Generally these occur as euhedral single or twinned crystals of selenite. Very often shells are found embedded within...

  2. Preliminary Estimate of Gypsum Deposit Based on Wenner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara M. D. and Aloa J. O.

    estimating the quantity of some possible deposits of gypsum. Just ... exploitation is an everyday activity that is currently going on, but, on a 'wild cat' ... important source of wealth for a nation, but before they are harnessed ..... REFERENCES.

  3. Direct and indirect dating of gypsum occurrences in deserts using luminescence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Y.C.; Juyal, N.; Singhyi, A.K.; Kocurek, G.; Wadhawan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we have made an attempt to directly date gypsum or provide indirect age estimate for gypsum formation through dating the associated sediments (quartz) using the luminescence dating technique. In the direct dating of gypsum, we explored the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TL) behaviour of gypsum. The associated sediments (indirect dating) were dated using the traces of quartz extract from gypsum (concentration 0.1% ) and the underlying and overlying quartz sand in playa

  4. Interaction of gypsum with lead in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astilleros, J.M., E-mail: jmastill@geo.ucm.es [Dpto. Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Jose Antonio Novais, 2, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Godelitsas, A. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D. [School of Earth and Environments, Faculty of Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Diaz, L. [Dpto. Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Jose Antonio Novais, 2, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, M. [Dpto. de Geologia, Universidad de Oviedo, E-30005 Oviedo (Spain); Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , GR-15310 Attiki (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    Sorption processes on mineral surfaces are a critical factor in controlling the distribution and accumulation of potentially harmful metals in the environment. This work investigates the effectiveness of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) to sequester Pb. The interaction of gypsum fragments with Pb-bearing solutions (10, 100 and 1000 mg/L) was monitored by performing macroscopic batch-type experiments conducted at room temperature. The aqueous phase composition was periodically determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Regardless of the [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial}, a [Pb{sub aq}]{sub final} < 4 mg/L was always reached. The uptake process was fast (t < 1 h) for [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} {>=} 100 mg/L and significantly slower (t > 1 week) for [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} = 10 mg/L. Speciation calculations revealed that after a long time of interaction (1 month), all the solutions reached equilibrium with respect to both gypsum and anglesite. For [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} {>=} 100 mg/L, sorption takes place mainly via the rapid dissolution of gypsum and the simultaneous formation of anglesite both on the gypsum surface and in the bulk solution. In the case of [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} = 10 mg/L, no anglesite precipitation was observed, but surface spectroscopy (proton Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, p-RBS) confirmed the formation of Pb-bearing surface layers on the (0 1 0) gypsum surface in this case also. This study shows that the surface of gypsum can play an important role in the attenuation of Pb in contaminated waters.

  5. Unravelling the mechanisms for plant survival on gypsum soils: an analysis of the chemical composition of gypsum plants from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, A; Kurt, L; Palacio, S

    2016-03-01

    Depending on their specificity to gypsum, plants can be classified as gypsophiles (gypsum exclusive) and gypsovags (non-exclusive). The former may further be segregated into wide and narrow gypsophiles, depending on the breadth of their distribution area. Narrow gypsum endemics have a putative similar chemical composition to plants non-exclusive to gypsum (i.e. gypsovags), which may indicate their similar ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plant refugees on gypsum. However, this hypothesis awaits testing in different regions of the world. We compared the chemical composition of four narrow gypsum endemics, one widely distributed gypsophile and six gypsovags from Turkey. Further, we explored the plasticity in chemical composition of Turkish gypsovags growing on high- and low-gypsum content soils. Differences were explored with multivariate analyses (RDA) and mixed models (REML). Narrow gypsum endemics segregated from gypsovags in their chemical composition according to RDAs (mainly due to higher K and ash content in the former). Nevertheless, differences were small and disappeared when different nutrients were analysed individually. All the gypsovags studied accumulated more S and ash when growing on high-gypsum than on low-gypsum soils. Similar to narrow gypsum endemics from other regions of the world, most local gypsum endemics from Turkey show a similar chemical composition to gypsovags. This may indicate a shared ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plants not specifically adapted to gypsum. Nevertheless, the narrow gypsum endemic Gypsophila parva showed a chemical composition typical of gypsum specialists, indicating that various strategies are feasible within narrowly distributed gypsophiles. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Synthesis on research results of FGD gypsum briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosturkiewicz Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available FGD gypsum products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water and soil. Among many approaches of preparing utilization of this waste, the process of compaction using briquetting has proved to be very effective. Using FGD gypsum products a new material of fertilizers characteristics has been acquired and this material is resistant to the conditions of transportation. This paper presents results of experimental briquetting of flue gas desulphurisation products in a roll press. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory roll presses LPW 450 and LPW 1100 equipped with two interchangeable forming rings that form material into saddle-shaped briquettes with volume 6,5 cm3 and 85 cm3. The experiments were conducted with various percentage amounts of FGD gypsum moisture. The results provided information regarding influence of moisture and roll press configuration on quality of briquettes. On the basis of obtained results, technological process and a general outline of technological line for FGD gypsum were developed. Two roll presses of own construction with different outputs were identified as appropriate for this purpose. A range of necessary works related to their adaptation for the FGD gypsum briquetting were pointed out.

  7. Converting SDAP into gypsum in a wet limestone scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F [Faelleskemikerne, Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The ELSAM power pool has an installed electrical capacity of approx. 5 GW{sub e}, mainly firing import coal. The major base load units are equipped with desulphurization units and three different desulphurization technologies are used: the wet limestone gypsum process, the spray dry absorption process and a sulphuric acid process. Gypsum and sulphuric acid are commercialized, whereas it has been difficult to utilize the spray dry absorption product (SDAP). The main constituents of SDAP are calcium sulphide, calcium chloride, hydrated lime and impurities mainly originating from fly ash. Sulphide can be oxidized into sulphate in acidic solution - the reaction is utilized in the wet limestone gypsum process - and the possibility of using any spare capacity in the wet limestone gypsum units to oxidize the sulphide content of SDAP into sulphate and produce usable gypsum has been investigated in the laboratory and in a 400 MW{sub e} equivalent wet limestone unit. The limestone inhibition effect of the addition of SDAP is currently being studied in the laboratory in order to determine the effect of different SDAP types (plant/coal sources) on limestone reactivity before further long-term full-scale tests are performed and permanent use of the process planned. (EG)

  8. [The effect of disinfectant soaking on dental gypsum model size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cao-yun; Xu, Yun-wen; Xu, Kan

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of disinfectant soaking on the dimensional stability of three kinds of dental gypsum model. Three commonly used gypsums ( type III,IV,Vtype) in clinic were used to make 24 specimens for 50 mm×15 mm×10 mm in size. One hour after release, the specimens were placed for 24 h. A digital caliper was used to measure the size of the gypsum model. Distilled water immersion was as used control, glutaraldehyde disinfectant and Metrix CaviCide disinfectant soaking were used for the experimental group. After soaking for 0.5h, the gypsum models were removed and placed for 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 24 h. The size of the models was measured again using the same method. The data was analyzed with SPSS10.0 software package. The initial gypsum model length was (50.07±0.017) mm, (50.048±0.015) mm and (50.027±0.015) mm. After soaking for different times, the size of the model changed little, and the dimensions changed less than 0.01%. The results show that disinfectant soaking has no significant effect on dental model dimensions.

  9. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  10. Triple oxygen isotope systematics of structurally bonded water in gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Surma, Jakub; Voigt, Claudia; Assonov, Sergey; Staubwasser, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum mother water (gmw) is recorded in structurally bonded water in gypsum (gsbw). Respective fractionation factors have been determined experimentally for 18O/16O and 17O/16O. By taking previous experiments into account we suggest using 18αgsbw-gmw = 1.0037; 17αgsbw-gmw = 1.00195 and θgsbw-gmw = 0.5285 as fractionation factors in triple oxygen isotope space. Recent gypsum was sampled from a series of 10 ponds located in the Salar de Llamara in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in these ponds show a gradual increase from 23 g/l to 182 g/l that is accompanied by an increase in pond water 18O/16O. Gsbw falls on a parallel curve to the ambient water from the saline ponds. The offset is mainly due to the equilibrium fractionation between gsbw and gmw. However, gsbw represents a time integrated signal biased towards times of strong evaporation, hence the estimated gmw comprises elevated 18O/16O compositions when compared to pond water samples taken on site. Gypsum precipitation is associated with algae mats in the ponds with lower salinity. No evidence for respective vital effects on the triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum hydration water is observed, nor are such effects expected. In principle, the array of δ18Ogsbw vs. 17Oexcess can be used to: (1) provide information on the degree of evaporation during gypsum formation; (2) estimate pristine meteoric water compositions; and (3) estimate local relative humidity which is the controlling parameter of the slope of the array for simple hydrological situations. In our case study, local mining activities may have decreased deep groundwater recharge, causing a recent change of the local hydrology.

  11. Chemical properties of an Oxisol after gypsum application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Roncaratti de Moraes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum utilization is a critical practice in agriculture because of the high solubility and consequent relative neutralization of subsurface toxic aluminum. However, it has been observed that in most cases, gypsum is being randomly utilized without scientifically established parameters or even the need to use it as a soil amendment at all. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and electrical conductivity of an Oxisol’s saturation extract under different gypsum doses (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 Mg ha-1. This experiment was conducted in a greenhouse environment. Soil columns (V = 1.57 dm3 were filled with sifted (2 mm soil collected from the upper layer (0-20 cm. The experimental design adopted was completely randomized with five repetitions. The treatments consisted of a 5 × 2 factorial through five gypsum doses (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum consisting of 224.1 g kg-1 S, 314.8 g kg-1 CaO, and 7 g kg-1 P2O5 and two depth evaluations (0-10 and 10-20 cm. After the treatments, soil from both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers was removed from the columns, sifted once (2 mm, and subjected to vacuum extraction to assess the saturation extract. The data acquired was processed and submitted to variance analysis (when due and adjusted to regression equations when statistically relevant. Significant increases were observed for Ca, Mg, K, P, and S, although Al, Si, and pH presented no statistically significant difference. The electrical conductivity value of this soil in particular is directly related to the gypsum dose.

  12. Characterization of quality recycled gypsum and plasterboard with maximized recycled content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Rivero, J.; García-Navarro, J.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of secondary materials is imperative to promote a circular economy. In order to improve the way in which the quality of recycled gypsum is assessed, European guidelines on recycled gypsum (RG) quality criteria have been outlined in the framework of the Life+ Gypsum to Gypsum (GtoG) project. Such GtoG guidelines, along with the European Standard on gypsum plasterboard EN 520, provided the basis for this study. During the GtoG project, gypsum recycling and plasterboard manufacturing processes were monitored by testing the gypsum feedstock and the plasterboard produced. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results obtained on relevant parameters that characterize gypsum as a secondary raw material, as well as the resulting product. The minimum requirements were fulfilled by 56% of the RG samples and 86% of the plasterboard with increased RG. [es

  13. Development of gypsum alteration on marble and limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Blackened alteration crusts of gypsum plus particulates that form on sheltered areas on marble and limestone buildings pose a challenge for rehabilitation and cleaning. Fresh marble and limestone samples exposed at monitored exposure sites present conditions of simple geometry and well-documented exposures but have short exposure histories (one to five years). The gypsum alteration crusts that develop on these samples provide insight into the early stages and rate of alteration crust formation. Alteration crusts from buildings give a longer, but less well known exposure history and present much more complex surfaces for gypsum accumulation. Integrated observations and measurements of alteration crusts from exposure samples and from buildings identify four factors that are important in the formation and development of alteration crusts on marble and limestone: (1) pollution levels, (2) exposure to rain or washing, (3) geometry of exposure of the stone surface, and (4) permeability of the stone. The combination of these factors contributes to both the distribution and the physical characteristics of the gypsum crusts which may affect cleaning decisions.

  14. Composite Gypsum Binders with Silica-containing Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, N. V.; Lesovik, V. S.; Drebezgova, M. Yu; Shatalova, S. V.; Alaskhanov, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    New types of fine mineral additives are proposed for designing water-resistant Composite Gypsum Binders (CGB); these additives significantly differ from traditional quartz feed: wastes from wet magnetic separation of Banded Iron Formation (BIF WMS waste), nanodispersed silica powder (NSP), chalk. Possibility of their combined use has been studied as well.

  15. Preparation of gypsum/polymer composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Z.

    2007-05-01

    Gypsum composites have been prepared with different monomers using Gamma radiation: acrylamide, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and methyl acrylate. The conversion of polymerization was determined as a function of absorbed dose. The data show that conversion of polymerization increases by increasing the dose.(author)

  16. Influence of gypsum on efflorescence in ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, C.M.O.L.; Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The red ceramic industry is recognized as of major importance in Piaui State. The State capital, Teresina, is the greatest producer of this material, which is used mainly for masonry sealing blocks. One of the most frequent problems in this kind of products is the efflorescence.This paper has the main objective of studying the influence of gypsum on tiles, using the local industry production standards. The raw materials were characterized by FRX, DRX, thermal analysis and sulfates. Extruded test specimens were made with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of gypsum in the ceramic paste, burned at 850 deg C, 950 deg C and 1050 deg C and submitted to further technological and analysis for MEV. The reference ceramic paste did not show tendency to efflorescence formation after burning for samples with 1% gypsum added to the paste. The reference ceramic paste showed tendency to efflorescence formation after drying and consolidated efflorescence after burning for samples with 5% gypsum added to the paste. (author)

  17. Evaluation of gypsum rates on greenhouse crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was to determine the potential of an added value distribution channel for gypsum waste by evaluating various greenhouse crops with captious pH and calcium needs. Three studies consisting of: Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida); tomato (Solanum lycoper...

  18. Gypsum Formation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis: an Alternative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Sangiorgi, F.; Vasiliev, I.; Baak, C. V.; Wolthers, M.; Stoica, M.; Reichart, G. J.; Davies, G.

    2016-12-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.97 - 5.33 Myr ago), thick packages of evaporites (gypsum and halite) were deposited in the Mediterranean Basin. Traditionally, the occurrence of these evaporites is explained by the so-called "desiccation-model", in which evaporites are considered to result from a (partly) desiccated basin. In the last decade, it was thought that changes in the Mediterranean-Atlantic connectivity could explain the formation of gypsum. Stable isotope studies, however, show that the gypsum formed under influence of large freshwater input. Here we present new strontium isotope data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian Seas. Our Sr isotope records suggest a persistent Mediterranean-Black Sea connection throughout the salinity crisis, which implies a large additional freshwater source to the Mediterranean. We claim that low saline waters from the Black Sea region are a prerequisite for gypsum formation in the Mediterranean and speculate about the mechanisms explaining this apparent paradox.

  19. Physicochemical Properties and Cellular Responses of Strontium-Doped Gypsum Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Pouria, Amir; Bandegani, Hadis; Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Milad; Hesaraki, Saeed; Alizadeh, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes some physical, structural, and biological properties of gypsum bioceramics doped with various amounts of strontium ions (0.19–2.23 wt%) and compares these properties with those of a pure gypsum as control. Strontium-doped gypsum (gypsum:Sr) was obtained by mixing calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and solutions of strontium nitrate followed by washing the specimens with distilled water to remove residual salts. Gypsum was the only phase found in the composition of both pu...

  20. The Gypsum: White gold of Rajasthan, introduction, uses and future prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gayatri

    2013-06-01

    Rajasthan is mineral based state and Bikaner and its surrounding district have been gifted with Gypsum. Mt of Gypsum is available in these districts. Gypsum has multiple uses including basic raw material for POP industry, addition in cement and a natural fertilizer. This mineral has changes the economic scenario in the remote areas of Bikaner, Nagaur, Hanumangarh, Sanchore, Shriganganagar etc. Gypsum and selenite are mined about 3.0 million tons per year. There is huge demand from cement industry as Gypsum is added for improving setting time of cement. Gypsum is a natural fertilizer for alkaline land and it role is vital in state like India where alkaline land is major role. Its high use as fertilizer has potential to change millions of poor farmer families and improving in crop production. Cement Industry has started importing Gypsum from Thailand, Bankong, Pakistan, Iran etc. The mining of gypsum of purity of 70% CaSO4.2H2O is cooperative effort between the land owners and Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Limited. Gypsum fulfills the demand of POP and Cement industry in Rajasthan and powder gypsum used in agriculture for recon dining of alkaline soil. This paper deals with multiple uses, availability, and future prospective of Gypsum, a white gold of Rajasthan.

  1. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  2. Basic Properties of Flue-Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Ferenc

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several hundred thousand of FGD gypsum is produced annually at the Matra Power Plant (Hungary as a byproduct of generating electricity and protecting the environment. Chemical and mechanical characteristics of this material were studied of the Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering, University of Miskolc (Hungary. The material in question was found dead gypsum which can be calcined easily to obtain a relatively high-strength (15-25 MPa and clean binding material. Furthermore, grain composites were made of it by adding fly ash, which the power plant can provide the expected producers with, thus decreasing the energy consumption of calcining and utilizing a small part of coal combustion wastes.

  3. Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell Using Gypsum Based Electrolyte And Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Nagai, Masayuki; Katagiri, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    The proton conductive electrolyte membrane and the electrodes for intermediate temperature fuel cell were made from the phosphoric acid treated gypsum as a proton conductor. The membrane and the electrodes were built into single cell and tested at intermediate temperature region. The power density of the fuel cell was 0.56 mW/cm -2 at 150 deg. C without any humidification and 1.38 mW/cm -2 at 150 deg. C, 5% relative humidity. The open circuit voltage of the cell was increased higher than 0.7 V when the electrodes were annealed at 150 deg. C, 5%R.H., however the reasons for this are still to be further investigated. The results show that the potential of the phosphoric acid treated gypsum for the intermediate temperature proton conductor.

  4. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lime and gypsum application on the wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caires Eduardo Fávero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Root growth and crop yield can be affected by chemical modifications of the soil profile owing to lime and gypsum applications. A field trial was carried out on a dystrophic Clayey Rhodic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil, aiming to evaluate lime (without or with incorporation into the soil and gypsum effects on root growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of wheat (cv. OR 1. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot experiment. Treatments with dolomitic limestone (without lime and 4.5 t ha-1 of lime applied on the surface, in total rate and 1/3 of the requirement per year during 3 years, or incorporated into the soil were applied in July 1998 (main plots and the rates of gypsum (0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 in October 1998 (subplots. Wheat was evaluated in the 2000 winter season. In conditions of water deficit absence, there was no limitation in root growth in depth, for exchangeable Ca of 6 mmol c dm-3. Lime incorporation of lime increased the Mg concentration in the leaves, but wheat yield was not influenced by the correction of soil acidity through liming treatments. Gypsum increased the concentrations of Ca and S in wheat leaves, with significant effects on grain yield. The critical level of S-SO4(2- in the 0-20 cm soil layer, extracted by ammonium acetate 0.5 mol L-1 in acetic acid 0.25 mol L-1, was 25.8 mg dm-3.

  6. occurrence and geochemistry of nafada gypsum, north-eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2010-03-18

    Mar 18, 2010 ... The container was placed in a. “HERZOG” palletizing machine for 10 seconds after which a pellet was produced. The procedure was repeated for each gypsum sample. Each pellet was analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, K2O, Na2O,. MgCO3, combine water and purity, using X-ray spectrometer.

  7. Comparison of Energy Dissipation, Stiffness, and Damage of Structural Oriented Strand Board (OSB, Conventional Gypsum, and Viscoelastic Gypsum Shearwalls Subjected to Cyclic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Blasetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A key element in the seismic load resisting system of a wood framed structure is the shear wall which is typically sheathed on one side with plywood or oriented strand board (OSB and gypsum on the other. The shear capacity of gypsum sheathed shear walls is typically neglected in high seismic areas due to the susceptibility of conventional drywall screw connections to damage caused by earthquakes. The earthquake resistance of an innovative viscoelastic (VE gypsum shearwall is evaluated and compared to conventional structural and non-structural walls. Ten 8 ft × 8 ft wood framed wall specimens of three configurations [nailed-OSB, screw-gypsum, and VE polymer-gypsum] were subjected to a cyclic test protocol. The energy dissipation, stiffness, and damage characteristics of all shearwalls are reported herein. Testing results indicate the VE-gypsum walls can dissipate more energy than the OSB structural panels and 500% more energy that the conventional gypsum sheathed walls and contains a constant source of energy dissipation not seen in the structural and non-structural walls. The wall stiffness of the OSB wall degrades at a far greater rate that the VE gypsum wall and at continued cycling degrades below the VE wall stiffness. Unlike both of the conventional wall types, the VE wall showed no visible or audible signs of damage when subjected to shear displacements up to 1.

  8. Manufacturing of calcium phosphate scaffolds by pseudomorphic transformation of gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Batista, H. de.; Batista Cardoso, M.; Sales Vasconcelos, A.; Vinicius Lia Fook, M.; Rodriguez Barbero, M. A.; Garcia Carrodeguas, R.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been employed for decades as constituents of scaffolds for bone regeneration because they chemically resemble bone mineral. In this study, the feasibility to manufacture CHAp/β-TCP scaffolds by pseudomorphic transformation of casted blocks of gypsum was investigated. The transformation was carried out by immersing the precursor gypsum block in 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}/1.33 M NH{sub 4}OH solution with liquid/solid ratio of 10 mL/g and autoclaving at 120 degree centigrade and 203 kPa (2 atm) for 3 h at least. Neither shape nor dimensions significantly changed during transformation. The composition of scaffolds treated for 3 h was 70 wt.% CHAp and 30 wt.% β-TCP, and their compressive and diametral compressive strengths were 6.5 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ±0.7 MPa, respectively. By increasing the time of treatment to 6 h, the composition of the scaffold enriched in β-TCP (60 wt.% CHAp and 40 wt.% β-TCP) but its compressive and diametral compressive strengths were not significantly affected (6.7 ± 0.9 and 5.4 ± 0.6 MPa, respectively). On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that this route is a good approach to the manufacturing of biphasic (CHAp/β-TCP) scaffolds from previously shaped pieces of gypsum. (Author)

  9. Sails: a new gypsum speleothem from Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The caves of Naica (Chihuahua, Mexico are perhaps the most famous mine caves of the world due to the presence of giganticgypsum crystals. Nevertheless, very little research has been carried out on this karst area until now. A multidisciplinary investigationstarted in 2006 with the aim not only to define the genesis and the age of the Naica gypsum crystals, but also on other scientificaspects of these caves.This paper describes a completely new type of gypsum speleothem: the “sails”, observed only inside the Cueva de las Velas, one ofthe caves of the Naica system. This speleothem consists of extremely thin, elongated skeleton crystals that have grown epitaxiallyonly on the tips of the gypsum crystals pointing upward. The genesis of sails is strictly related to the environmental conditions setup inside the cave just after the artificial lowering of the groundwater by mine dewatering (less than 20 yr ago. In a few years sail speleothems will disappear entirely and therefore this study is fundamental to preserve at least the memory of them.

  10. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N.; Einstein, H. H.

    2007-12-01

    This research investigates the fracturing and coalescence behavior in prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens, which consist of either one or two pre-existing open flaws, under uniaxial compression. The tests are monitored by a high speed video system with a frame rate up to 24,000 frames/second. It allows one to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms, in particular if shear or tensile fracturing takes place. Seven crack types and nine crack coalescence categories are identified. The flaw inclination angle, the ligament length and the bridging angle between two flaws have different extents of influence on the coalescence patterns. For coplanar flaws, as the flaw inclination angle increases, there is a general trend of variation from shear coalescence to tensile coalescence. For stepped flaws, as the bridging angle changes from negative to small positive, and further up to large positive values, the coalescence generally progresses from categories of no coalescence, indirect coalescence to direct coalescence. For direct coalescence, it generally progresses from shear, mixed shear-tensile to tensile as the bridging angle increases. Some differences in fracturing and coalescence processes are observed in gypsum and marble, particularly the crack initiation in marble is preceded by the development of macroscopic white patches, but not in gypsum. Scanning Electron Microprobe (SEM) study reveals that the white patches consist of zones of microcracks (process zones).

  11. Suitability of Gypsum for the Production of Gypsum Plaster an Example from the Abu-Ruweis Evaporites (Upper Triassic), as Subayhi Area, Northwest Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqqa, W.; Arikat, M.

    2003-01-01

    The gypsum of Abu Ruweis Formation (Upper Triassic) of the northwestern Jordan was chemically, physically and mechanically assessed for likely industrial uses. Chemical results indicate that the investigated gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) is highly pure. This is confirmed by the high ratios of CaO (32-33%) andSO 3 (41-43%) and the very low content of other elements such as Mg, Al and Si. Trace elements are also negligible. The CaSO 4 % (86-88%), purity ratio (CaO/SO 3 ) (0.85) , and combined water (≅5%) for β-hemihydrate gypsum agree well with the jordanian standards for gypsum plaster. Thermal analyses indicate that the temperature required to obtain hemihydrate gypsum falls between 175deg-200deg. A significant mass variation or maximum loss on weight (-20%) was achieved after initial dehydration by heating to 200deg. Heating to 225deg is far enough to evolve all combined water molecules. The results of fineness, consistency, setting time, compressive strength and flexural strength for β-hemilhydrate agree, in most of the case, with the local and international standards intended for gypsum building components. The study showed that the absorption and consistency ratios for final gypsum product are proportional to porosity, whilst the consistency itself decreases with the increase of applied stresses. (author)

  12. Light in the darkening on Naica gypsum crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Sandoval, I.; Fuentes-Cobas, L. E.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Carreno-Márquez, J.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109, México (Mexico); Fuentes-Montero, M. E. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Campus Universitario#2, Circuito Universitario, C.P.31125, Chihuahua, Chih. México (Mexico); Reyes-Cortes, M. [Facultad de Ingeniería. Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Campus Universitario#2, Circuito Universitario, C.P.31125, Chihuahua, Chih. México (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    Naica mine is located in a semi-desertic region at the central-south of Chihuahua State. The Cave of Swords was discovered in 1910 and the Cave of Crystals 90 years later at Naica mines. It is expected that during the last century the human presence has changed the microclimatic conditions inside the cave, resulting in the deterioration of the crystals and the deposition of impurities on gypsum surfaces. As a contribution to the clarification of the mentioned issues, the present work refers to the use of synchrotron radiation for the identification of phases on these surfaces. All the experiments were performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and radiography-aided X-ray diffraction (RAXRD) experiments were performed at beamline 11-3. X-Ray micro-fluorescence (μ-SXRF) and micro-X-ray absorption (μ-XANES) were measured at beamline 2-3. Representative results obtained may be summarized as follows: a) Gypsum, galena, sphalerite, hematite and cuprite at the surface of the gypsum crystals were determined. b) The samples micro-structure is affected by impurities. c) The elemental distributions and correlations (0.6-0.9) of Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Ca and S were identified by μ-SXRF. The correlations among elemental contents confirmed the phase identification, with the exception of manganese and potassium due to the amorphous nature of some impurity compounds in these samples. The compounds hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), β-MnO{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO and/or MnCO{sub 3}, PbS, PbCO{sub 3} and/or PbSO4, ZnO{sub 4}, ZnS and/or smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}), CuS + Cu Oxide were identified by XANES. Plausibly, these latter compounds do not form crystalline phases.

  13. Light in the darkening on Naica gypsum crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Sandoval, I.; Fuentes-Cobas, L. E.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Carreno-Márquez, J.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Fuentes-Montero, M. E.; Reyes-Cortes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Naica mine is located in a semi-desertic region at the central-south of Chihuahua State. The Cave of Swords was discovered in 1910 and the Cave of Crystals 90 years later at Naica mines. It is expected that during the last century the human presence has changed the microclimatic conditions inside the cave, resulting in the deterioration of the crystals and the deposition of impurities on gypsum surfaces. As a contribution to the clarification of the mentioned issues, the present work refers to the use of synchrotron radiation for the identification of phases on these surfaces. All the experiments were performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and radiography-aided X-ray diffraction (RAXRD) experiments were performed at beamline 11-3. X-Ray micro-fluorescence (μ-SXRF) and micro-X-ray absorption (μ-XANES) were measured at beamline 2-3. Representative results obtained may be summarized as follows: a) Gypsum, galena, sphalerite, hematite and cuprite at the surface of the gypsum crystals were determined. b) The samples micro-structure is affected by impurities. c) The elemental distributions and correlations (0.6-0.9) of Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Ca and S were identified by μ-SXRF. The correlations among elemental contents confirmed the phase identification, with the exception of manganese and potassium due to the amorphous nature of some impurity compounds in these samples. The compounds hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), β-MnO 2 , Mn 2 O 3 , MnO and/or MnCO 3 , PbS, PbCO 3 and/or PbSO4, ZnO 4 , ZnS and/or smithsonite (ZnCO 3 ), CuS + Cu Oxide were identified by XANES. Plausibly, these latter compounds do not form crystalline phases

  14. Nucleation and growth of the Naica giant gypsum crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, Fermín; García-Ruiz, JuanMa

    2014-04-07

    The Cave of Giant Crystals in the Naica mine (Mexico) is one of the most amazing displays of mineral beauty ever created in nature. In addition to the colossal crystals of gypsum, which in some cases exceed eleven meters in length and one meter in thickness, the scenery fashioned by the crystalline beams that thrust through the darkness of the cave from floor to ceiling with a luster like moonlight is a unique example of harmony based on crystal symmetry. We review the crystallogenesis of this remarkable and challenging phenomenon of mineralization near equilibrium that can be used to teach the basics of nucleation and crystal growth.

  15. Synthesis of partial stabilized cement-gypsum as new dental retrograde filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhasivam, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jung-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,Taiwan (China); Savitha, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ming-Xiang; Hsu, Chung-King [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Pin [School of Dentistry and Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    The study describes the sol-gel synthesis of a new dental retrograde filling material partial stabilized cement (PSC)-gypsum by adding different weight percentage of gypsum (25% PSC + 75% gypsum, 50% PSC + 50% gypsum and 75% PSC + 25% gypsum) to the PSC. The crystalline phase and hydration products of PSC-gypsum were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The handling properties such as setting time, viscosity, tensile strength, porosity and pH, were also studied. The XRD and microstructure analysis demonstrated the formation of hydroxyapatite and removal of calcium dihydrate during its immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on day 10 for 75% PSC + 25% gypsum. The developed PSC-gypsum not only improved the setting time but also greatly reduced the viscosity, which is very essential for endodontic surgery. The cytotoxic and cell proliferation studies indicated that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible. The increased alkaline pH of the PSC-gypsum also had a remarkable antibacterial activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new dental retrograde filling material PSC-gypsum was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PSC-gypsum cement has shown excellent initial and final setting time as 15-35 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It not only improved the setting time but also retain the viscosity, 2 Pa{center_dot}s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High alkaline pH of the cement had a remarkable antibacterial activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible.

  16. Investigation and dating of gypsum crystals from Sivrihisar region in Eskisehir by ESR and TL techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Gypsum crystals taken from Sivrihisar-Eskisehir district were investigated and dated by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The natural ESR spectra of gypsum samples had also the signals of Mn 2 + in addition to the signal at g=2.009. It was observed that the intensity of ESR signal at g=2.009 increased with gamma irradiation dose. This ESR signal (g=2.009) was used as a dating signal in dating of gypsum samples. The only one TL peak at about 278 degree Celsius was observed in TL glow curves of nonirradiated gypsum sample. In the case of irradiated sample, TL peak at 157 degree Celsius was observed in addition of TL peak at 278 degree Celsius. Gypsum samples were irradiated with a 6 0Co gamma source. The ESR spectra and TL glow curve of gypsum samples were recorded by X-band ESR spectrometer and Risφ TL/OSL reader, respectively. For samples, ESR/TL dose-response curves was constructed. Dose-response curves were fitted with an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) values for dating are determined. 2 38U, 2 32Th and 4 0K analysis was carried out for gypsum crystals and dolomite which enveloped these gypsum crystals. The internal dose rate was calculated from 2 38U, 2 32Th and 4 0K analysis results of gypsum sample. The external dose rate was calculated by using 2 38U, 2 32Th and 4 0K analysis results of dolomite and cosmic dose rate. Internal and external gamma dose-rate was used for dating calculations. Because of successive recrystallization of gypsum sample after formation, calculated age values of gypsum is smaller than expected formation age.

  17. Reaction mechanism of reductive decomposition of FGD gypsum with anthracite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Da; Lu, Hailin; Sun, Xiuyun; Liu, Xiaodong; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The reaction mechanism was different if the molar ratio of C/CaSO 4 was different. • The yield of CaO rises with an increase in temperature. • The optimal ratio of C/CaSO 4 = 1.2:1. • The decomposition process is mainly apparent solid–solid reaction with liquid-phase involved. - Abstract: The process of decomposition reaction between flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum and anthracite is complex, which depends on the reaction conditions and atmosphere. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the experiment in a tubular reactor were used to characterize the decomposition reaction in a nitrogen atmosphere under different conditions. The reaction mechanism analysis showed that the decomposition reaction process and mechanism were different when the molar proportion of C/CaSO 4 was changed. The experiment results showed that appropriate increase in the C/CaSO 4 proportion and higher temperatures were suitable for the formation of the main production of CaO, which can help us to understand the solid state reaction mechanism better. Via kinetic analysis of the reaction between anthracite and FGD gypsum under the optimal molar ratio of C/CaSO 4 , the mechanism model of the reaction was confirmed and the decomposition process was a two-step reaction which was in accordance with apparent solid–solid reaction

  18. Radiological properties of a wax-gypsum compensator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, F.C.P. du; Willemse, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the radiological properties of a compensator material consisting of wax and gypsum is presented. Effective attenuation coefficients (EACs) have been determined from transmission measurements with an ion chamber in a Perspex phantom. Measurements were made at 80 and 100 cm source-to-skin distance (SSD) for beam energies of 6, 8, and 15 MV, for field sizes ranging from narrow beam geometries up to 40x40 cm 2 , and at measurement depths of maximum dose build-up, 5 and 10 cm. A parametrization equation could be constructed to predict the EAC values within 4% uncertainty as a function of field size and depth of measurement. The EAC dependence on off-axis position was also quantified at each beam energy and SSD. It was found that the compensator material reduced the required thickness for compensation by 26% at 8 MV when compared to pure paraffin wax for a 10x10 cm 2 field. Relative surface ionization (RSI) measurements have been made to quantify the effect of scattered electrons from the wax-gypsum compensator. Results indicated that for 80 cm SSD the RSI would exceed 50% for fields larger than 15x15 cm 2 . At 100 cm SSD the RSI values were below 50% for all field sizes used

  19. Incorporation of arsenic into gypsum: Relevant to arsenic removal and immobilization process in hydrometallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Danni; Yuan, Zidan [Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Shaofeng, E-mail: wangshaofeng@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jia, Yongfeng, E-mail: yongfeng.jia@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Demopoulos, George P. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Quantitatively studied the incorporation of arsenic into the structure of gypsum. • Arsenic content in the solid increased with pH and initial arsenic concentration. • Calcium arsenate phase precipitated in addition to gypsum at higher pH values. • The structure of gypsum and its morphology was altered by the incorporated arsenate. • The incorporated arsenate formed sainfeldite-like local structure in gypsum. - Abstract: Gypsum precipitates as a major secondary mineral during the iron-arsenate coprecipitation process for the removal of arsenic from hydrometallurgical effluents. However, its role in the fixation of arsenic is still unknown. This work investigated the incorporation of arsenic into gypsum quantitatively during the crystallization process at various pHs and the initial arsenic concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the coprecipitated solids. The results showed that arsenate was measurably removed from solution during gypsum crystallization and the removal increased with increasing pH. At lower pH where the system was undersaturated with respect to calcium arsenate, arsenate ions were incorporated into gypsum structure, whereas at higher pH, calcium arsenate was formed and constituted the major arsenate bearing species in the precipitated solids. The findings may have important implications for arsenic speciation and stability of the hydrometallurgical solid wastes.

  20. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  1. Hydrology of marginal evaporitic basins during the Messinian Salinity Crisis: isotopic investigation of gypsum deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kilany, Aida; Caruso, Antonio; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Natalicchio, Marcello; Rouchy, Jean-Marie; Pierre, Catherine; Balter, Vincent; Aloisi, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The deposition of gypsum in Messinian Mediterranean marginal basins is controlled by basin restriction and the local hydrological cycle (evaporation/precipitation rates and relative importance of continental vs marine water inputs). We are using the stable isotopic composition of gypsum as a proxy of the hydrological cycle that dominated at the moment of gypsum precipitation. We studied the Messinian Caltanissetta (Sicily) and Tertiary Piedmont (north western Italy) basins where we carried out a high-resolution isotopic study of gypsum layers composing gypsum-marl cycles. These cycles are thought to be the sedimentary expression of astronomical precession cycles, lasting approximately 20 kyr, during which the marginal basins experienced a succession of arid and a wet conditions. We determined the isotopic composition of gypsum hydration water (18O and D), of the sulphate ion (34S, 18O) and of Strontium (87/86Sr), all of which are potentially affected by the hydrological cycle. In our samples, the mother water from which gypsum precipitated is considerably lighter (-4.0 micro-scale. This is an essential step in interpreting the isotopic signals of gypsum because we can expect the 18O and D composition of Messinian continental input to be not too dissimilar from that of modern meteoric waters involved in diagenetic processes.

  2. The Growth of Gypsum in the Presence of Hexavalent Chromium: A Multiscale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of dissolved inorganic pollutants into the structure of minerals is an important process that controls the mobility and fate of these pollutants in the Earth’s crust. It also modifies the surface structure and composition of the host mineral, affecting its crystallization kinetics. Here, we investigate the effect of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, on the nucleation and growth of gypsum by conducting two types of experiments: (i in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM observations of the growth of gypsum {010} surfaces in the presence of Cr(VI and (ii gypsum precipitation experiments by mixing aqueous solutions containing variable amounts of Cr(VI. Gypsum precipitation is progressively delayed when occurring from solutions bearing increasing Cr(VI concentrations. Chemical analyses of gypsum precipitates show that gypsum incorporates small Cr(VI amounts that correlate with the content of this ion in the aqueous solution. Gypsum cell parameters variation reflects this incorporation. At the molecular scale, Cr(VI induces a slowdown of step advance rates on gypsum {010} surfaces accompanied by the roughening of nanostep edges and the so-called “template effect”. This effect involves the reproduction of the original nanotopography after the completion of individual advancing monolayers and appears as a general nanoscale phenomenon occurring during growth of solid solutions from aqueous solutions even in the case of compositionally-restricted solid solutions.

  3. Pre-contamination of new gypsum wallboard with potentially harmful fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dosen, Ina; Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Gypsum wallboard is a popular building material, but is also very frequently overgrown by Stachybotrys chartarum after severe and/or undetected water damage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Stachybotrys and other fungi frequently isolated from wet gypsum wallboard are already...

  4. Thermal conductivity of gypsum plasterboards : at ambient temperature and exposed to fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Wald, F.; Kallerova, P.; Chlouba, J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the more complicated thermal properties to calculate for gypsum plasterboard is the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity is important because it plays an important role in the fire behaviour of gypsum plasterboards. Plasterboard often protects steel structures of buildings, because

  5. Use of FGD gypsum on a bermudagrass pasture in the Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of industrial by-products from coal fired power plants (FGD gypsum and FGD gypsum + fly ash) are thought to increase plant production. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of industrial by-products as a soil amendment on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) yield. The study was...

  6. ESR Studies and Dating of Egyptian Gypsum at Ras Mala'ab, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A. A.; Abdei-Razek, Y. A.; Rasheed, N. M.; Hassan, G.M.; Eissa, H.M.; El-Morsy, M.

    2007-01-01

    A gypsum sample from the famous gypsum-anhydrite evaporitic deposit composing the Ras Mala'ab Formation, Upper Miocene, occurring at Ras Mala'ab, on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, was subjected to (ESR) dosimetric studies. Also, (ESR) was used to date the formation or most recent recrystallization of that gypsum. The gypsum derivative (ESR) spectrum is characterized by the large broad Fe 2+ signal (g=2.50) and HF-sixtet Mn 2+ signals. Only the characteristic gypsum signal (G l, g=2.0040) was detected between the third and fourth lines of the HF-Mn 2+ which is attributed to the electron-center SO 3 - . This signal was sensitive to artificial γ-irradiation and showed significant enhancement using a γ-dose of 550 Gy. Also, the signal was very stable up to 400 o C. The gypsum sample with a total dose (TD) of 1500 Gy, determined graphically by extrapolating the linear relationship between defect concentration and the artificial γ-doses for (G l, g=2.0040) and an annual dose (D) due to cosmic rays (0.3 mGy), yielded an age of 5.00 Ma. This could mean the age of formation or latest recrystallization of this gypsum deposit. The geologic age assignment of the Ras Mala'ab Group including the evaporitic gypsum unit, is Middle to Late Miocene. It is directly overlain by the Pliocene elastics at the locality of Ras Mala'ab. This might suggest that these evaporitic gypsum facies represent the top of the Miocene in the Gulf of Suez area, since the Miocene-Pliocene boundary is now put at 5.00-5.50 Ma ago. Therefore, the ESR age of the Ras Mala'ab gypsum is consistent with the geologic age assignment

  7. PPF-reinforced, ESP-lightened gypsum plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Santos, A.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new construction material has been obtained by adding aggregate to gypsum plaster which, without reducing the bending strength of plain gypsum plaster without aggregates, lowers its density, and consequently the weight of the construction elements made from the agglomerated material, by half.The aggregates used were expanded polystyrene beads and short polypropylene fibre.The new material addresses one of the issues of cardinal interest in construction materials and construction element research, namely the need to lighten materials so as to ease the burden on buildings’ bearing structures while facilitating assembly of construction units, by a single worker wherever possible.With a water / binder ratio of 0.7 and 2% (by weight of plaster of expanded polystyrene and 2% of polypropylene fibre aggregates, the decline in density achieved was 50,88% over plain gypsum plaster and 32.88% over plasterboard.Se ha obtenido un nuevo material de construcción aditivando el yeso o la escayola, mediante la incorporación de agregados, de modo que sin reducir la resistencia a flexotracción de una escayola sin ningún tipo de adición, reduce su densidad a la mitad, y por tanto, el peso de los elementos constructivos que puedan realizarse basándose en él.El material está compuesto por una adición de gránulos de poliestireno expandido y fibras cortadas de polipropileno.El nuevo material incide sobre aquellos aspectos de más interés en el campo de la investigación en construcción, en donde se intenta reducir el peso de los materiales, de modo que se grave lo menos posible la estructura resistente de las edificaciones, a la par que se facilitan los procedimientos de montaje de las unidades constructivas, al poder ser manejadas por un solo operario.La escayola, con relación de agua/conglomerante de 0,7, y con adiciones del 2% en peso (sobre la cantidad de escayola, tanto de poliestireno expandido como de fibras de polipropileno, permite reducir la

  8. Constructive applications of composite gypsum reinforced with Typha Latifolia fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Santos, A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research analyses the possibility to reinforce gypsum using enea fibres (Typha Latifolia creating a compound material in wich the fibres contribute to increase mechanical resistance, producing as well a reduction of the weight and a possible regulation of the set time.

    La investigación presente analiza la posibilidad de reforzar los morteros de escayola mediante la utilización dé fibras de Typha Latifolia, creando un material compuesto en el que las fibras contribuyen al aumento de resistencia mecánica, a la vez que se produce una reducción del peso y una regulación de los tiempos de fraguado. Las propiedades de estos materiales hacen que, en determinadas aplicaciones, su utilización resulte ventajosa con respecto a materiales tradicionales.

  9. Corrosion of bare and galvanized steel in gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, Mercedes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is a relatively low-cost building material much abounding in our country. When it is put in contact with steel, it may produce high corrosion rates due to its pH value (close to 7. This work reports the results obtained in studying the corrosion rates of bare and galvanized steel in contact with gypsum and plaster, as well as the influence curing thermal treatment applied to gypsum, enviromental relative humidity and addition of compounds with different natures and purposes may have in such process. In-situ observations, as well as the measurement of the Polarization Resistance and the weight loss have been used as measurement technics. From the results obtained it has been possible to deduce that galvanized steel has better behaviour in dry enviroments than bare steel in the same conditions and moist atmosphere induces proportionally more corrosion in galvanized steel than in bare one. Additions to gypsum do not modified these conclusions, though it may be pointed out that addition of nitrites or lime improves the behaviour of bare steel, while galvanized behaviour is not modified. The addition of lime is not recommended because phenomena of dilated along time expansion may take place.

    El yeso es un material de construcción de relativo bajo coste y que, además, es muy abundante en nuestro país. Debido a su pH cercano a la neutralidad, cuando entra en contacto con el acero, este puede corroerse a elevadas velocidades. En esta comunicación se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre la velocidad de corrosión del acero desnudo y galvanizado en contacto con yeso y escayola y la influencia que tienen: el tratamiento térmico del curado del yeso, la humedad relativa ambiental y la adición de aditivos de diversa naturaleza y finalidad. Como técnicas de medida se han utilizado la medida de la Resistencia de Polarización y de la pérdida de peso, así como observaciones visuales. De los resultados se puede deducir que en

  10. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry with gypsum wallboard (drywall)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J. W.; Burdette, K. E.; Inrig, E. L.; Dewitt, R.; Mistry, R.; Rink, W. J.; Boreham, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Gypsum wallboard (drywall) represents an attractive target for retrospective dosimetry by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in the event of a radiological accident or malicious use of nuclear material. In this study, wallboard is shown to display a radiation-induced luminescence signal (RIS) as well as a natural background signal (NS), which is comparable in intensity to the RIS. Excitation and emission spectra show that maximum luminescence intensity is obtained for stimulation with blue light-emitting diodes (470 nm) and for detection in the ultraviolet region (290-370 nm). It is necessary to decrease the optical stimulation power dramatically in order to adequately separate the RIS from the interfering background signal. The necessary protocols are developed for accurately measuring the absorbed dose as low as 500 mGy and demonstrate that the RIS decays logarithmically with storage time, with complete erasure expected within 1-4 d. (authors)

  11. Influence of gypsum amendment on methane emission from paddy rice soil affected by saline irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei eTheint

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of gypsum application on methane (CH4 emission from paddy rice soil affected by saline irrigation water, two pot experiments with the rice cultivation were conducted. In pot experiment (I, salinity levels 30 mMNaCl (S30 and 90 mMNaCl (S90, that showed maximum and minimum CH4 production in an incubation experiment, respectively, were selected and studied without and with application of 1 Mg gypsum ha-1(G1. In pot experiment (II, CH4 emission was investigated under different rates of gypsum application: 1 (G1, 2.5 (G2.5 and 5 (G5 Mg gypsum ha-1 under a non-saline and saline condition of 25 mMNaCl (S25. In experiment (I, the smallest CH4 emission was observed in S90. Methane emission in S30 was not significantly different with the non-saline control. The addition of gypsum showed significant lower CH4 emission in saline and non-saline treatments compared with non-saline control. In experiment (II, the CH4 emissions in the saline treatments were not significantly different to the non-saline treatments except S25-G5. However, our work has shown that gypsum can lower CH4 emissions under saline and non-saline conditions. Thus, gypsum can be used as a CH4 mitigation option in non-saline as well as in saline conditions.

  12. Use of gypsum residues as a corrective for saline-sodic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Medeiros dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the hugest problems faced by the civil construction sector is the final destination of residues, especially gypsum, which presents recycling restrictions. However, these residues present a high amount of calcium in their composition, and can be alternatively used for replacing mined gypsum as a saline-sodic soil corrective. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of gypsum residues from the civil construction, when compared to mined gypsum, for correcting a saline-sodic soil. A randomized blocks design was used, in a factorial arrangement consisting of two kinds of corrective (gypsum residue and mined gypsum and five leaching depths (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 times the soil pores volume, with three replications. Electric conductivity, soluble cations and sodium adsorption ratio were evaluated in the soil saturation extract. The use of gypsum residue proved to be effective in leaching salts and soluble sodium in saline-sodic soil, and can be recommended as a calcium source for recovering from sodicity.

  13. Initiation and growth of gypsum piercement structures in the Zechstein Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Stroud, S. C.; Paul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of tectonic processes in initiating halite diapirs has become much better understood in recent years. Less well understood is the development of diapiric structures involving rocks composed predominantly of gypsum. Below about 1000 m, gypsum dehydrates to anhydrite, which often obscures primary sedimentary textures. If the strain associated with diapiric rise in the rock induces the transition to anhydrite, obliteration of primary features in the gypsum can be expected. In our study, we infer that the diapiric movement in the Werra Anhydrite member of cycle 1 of the Zechstein Formation of Europe occurred before the initial transition of gypsum to anhydrite based on the presence of pseudomorphs of bedded primary gypsum crystals, the overburden lithologies and depositional environment, and the mechanical properties of gypsum, anhydrite and carbonate rocks. Faulting and differential loading of a shallow overburden were the key components in initiating the gypsum diapirism. The transition to anhydrite occurred after burial and after cessation of diapirism. In comparison, the diapirism of calcium sulfate of the Leine Anhydrite into the Leine Halite members of cycle 3 of the Zechstein Formation probably occurred much later after burial and appears to have been triggered by halite diapirism, which in turn triggered the dehydration reaction, causing the calcium sulfate to become the incompetent phase relative to the halite. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. UTILIZATION OF MINERAL FIBER WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF GYPSUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solov'ev Vitaliy Nikolaevich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the effectiveness of using compositions with the use of basalt fibers is proven, but the composition must be selected depending on the binder and additives chosen. Research objectives: we examine the possibility of waste recycling of basalt fiber production during manufacturing of modified gypsum composite material with improved characteristics. Materials and methods: as a raw material, a gypsum binder of Samara production was used. As a reinforcement additive, a disperse waste of basalt fiber production of Tver region was used. Studying characteristics of the gypsum binder and modified mixture, and also comparative analysis of these characteristics by average density, total porosity, strength in compression and flexure of the gypsum composite were carried out using standard techniques. Results: dependence of physical and mechanical properties of the modified gypsum material on the content of the basalt fiber additive is established. It was found that an increase in concentration of the additive requires an increased water content or additional use of plasticizer. Conclusions: modification of gypsum stone with a mineral basalt additive will increase the strength, density and durability of thin-walled gypsum products, and, consequently, the demand for products due to ensuring their high quality in transportation and installation.

  15. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038

  16. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-06-01

    Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline-alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation.

  17. Influence of shelf life on the setting time of type IV gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, M. L.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Although expired materials can exhibit a deterioration in their properties, expired type IV gypsum can still be found on the market. In order to evaluate the influence of the shelf life on its setting time, two groups of type IV gypsum (GC Fuji rock EP) with different expiration dates were used in this research. The setting time tests were done in a mold using a Vicat Needle apparatus. The results of the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (pshelf life did influence the setting time of the type IV gypsum.

  18. Investigation of the gypsum quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants and a pilot plant were examined and compared. Gypsum quality can be expressed in terms of moisture content (particle size and morphology dependent) and the concentration of residual......, low moisture content and low impurity content). An episode concerning a sudden deterioration in the gypsum dewatering properties was furthermore investigated, and a change in crystal morphology, as well as an increased impurity content (aluminium, iron and fluoride), was detected....

  19. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez A, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The 226 Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of 226 Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the 226 Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that 226 Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The 226 Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 -4 - 10 -5 μg g -1 . (Author)

  20. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  1. Primary Evaporites for the Messinian Salinity Crisis: the shallow gypsum vs. deep dolomite formation paradox solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2014-05-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is a dramatic event that took place ~ 5.9 Ma ago, and resulted in the deposition of 0.3-3 km thick evaporites at the Mediterranean seafloor. A considerable and long-lasting controversy existed on the modes of their formation. During the CIESM Almeria Workshop a consensus was reached on several aspects. In addition, remaining issues to be solved were identified, such as for the observed shallow gypsum versus deep dolostone deposits for the early phase of MSC. The onset of MSC is marked by deposition of gypsum/sapropel-like alternations, thought to relate to arid/humid climate conditions. Gypsum precipitation only occurred at marginal settings, while dolomite containing rocks have been reported from deeper settings. A range of potential explanations have been reported, most of which cannot satisfactorily explain all observations. Biogeochemical processes during MSC are poorly understood and commonly neglected. These may, however, explain that different deposits formed in shallow versus deep environments without needing exceptional physical boundary conditions for each. We present here a unifying mechanism in which gypsum formation occurs at all shallow water depths but its preservation is mostly limited to shallow sedimentary settings. In contrast, ongoing anoxic organic matter (OM) degradation processes in the deep basin result in the formation of dolomite. Gypsum precipitation in evaporating seawater takes place at 3-7 times concentrated seawater; seawater is always largely oversaturated relative to dolomite but its formation is thought to be inhibited by the presence of dissolved sulphate. Thus the conditions for formation of gypsum exclude those for the formation of dolomite and vice versa. Another process that links the saturation states of gypsum and dolomite is that of OM degradation by sulphate reduction. In stagnant deep water, oxygen is rapidly depleted through OM degradation, then sulphate becomes the main oxidant for OM

  2. Coal Combustion Residual Beneficial Use Evaluation: Fly Ash Concrete and FGD Gypsum Wallboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the evaluation of coal combustion residual beneficial use of fly ash concrete and FGD gypsum wallboard including the evaluation itself and the accompanying appendices

  3. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Screw Connections with Gypsum Sheathing at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Load-bearing cold-formed steel (CFS walls sheathed with double layers of gypsum plasterboard on both sides have demonstrated good fire resistance and attracted increasing interest for use in mid-rise CFS structures. As the main connection method, screw connections between CFS and gypsum sheathing play an important role in both the structural design and fire resistance of this wall system. However, studies on the mechanical behavior of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing are still limited. In this study, 200 monotonic tests of screw connections with single- or double-layer gypsum sheathing at both ambient and elevated temperatures were conducted. The failure of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing in shear was different from that of single-layer gypsum sheathing connections at ambient temperature, and it could be described as the breaking of the loaded sheathing edge combined with significant screw tilting and the loaded sheathing edge flexing fracture. However, the screw tilting and flexing fracture of the loaded sheathing edge gradually disappear at elevated temperatures. In addition, the influence of the loaded edge distance, double-layer sheathing and elevated temperatures is discussed in detail with clear conclusions. A unified design formula for the shear strength of screw connections with gypsum sheathing is proposed for ambient and elevated temperatures with adequate accuracy. A simplified load–displacement model with the post-peak branch is developed to evaluate the load–displacement response of screw connections with gypsum sheathing at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  4. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  5. NOx photocatalytic degradation on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,C photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In presented studies the photocatalytic decomposition of NOx on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,Cphotocatalysts were presented. The gypsum plates were obtained by addition of 10 or 20 wt.% of different types of titanium dioxide, such as: pure TiO2 and carbon and nitrogen co-modified TiO2 (TiO2-N,C to gypsum. TiO2-N,C photocatalysts were obtained by heating up the starting TiO2 (Grupa Azoty Zakłady Chemiczne Police S.A in the atmosphere of ammonia and carbon at the temperature: 100, 300 i 600ºC. Photocatalyst were characterized by FTIR/DRS, UVVis/DR, BET and XRD methods. Moreover the compressive strength tests of modified gypsum were also done. Photocatalytic activity of gypsum plates was done during NOx decomposition. The highest photocatalytic activity has gypsum with 20 wt.% addition of TiO2-N,C obtained at 300ºC.

  6. Field studies with radioactive sulphur-labelled gypsum fertiliser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.M.; Gregg, P.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the sizes of different sulphur (S) cycling pools in the soil-pasture system have been determined in soils belonging to the recent and yellow-brown earth soil groups. Several field trials were conducted, involving applications of 35 S-labelled gypsum fertiliser. An equilibrium was attained in the specific activity of the pasture herbage at about 240 days after fertiliser application. This was used to estimate pool sizes. At all sites, the amount of S involved in cycling ranged from 105 to 292 kg S/ha, which was sufficiently large to sustain active plant growth if cycled rapidly. However, most of the S was in the inert fraction (80-90% of total soil S) which appeared not to enter the active S cycling pool. At 3 of the sites studied, the major contributor to the cycling S pool was the residues pool of plant residues and soil organisms. No relationship was found between the size of the cycling S pool and topdressing responses of pastures. The significance of the results obtained is discussed in relation to the availability of S to pasture plants. (auth)

  7. Gypsum amendment to soil can reduce selenium uptake by alfalfa grown in the presence of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Woodbury, P.B.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in the field and greenhouse were conducted in the presence of coal fly ash to determine whether gypsum can reduce Se concentration in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In the field experiment, conducted at a coal fly ash landfill, 11.2 t ha -1 gypsum was applied to soil as a top dressing to test the effect of gypsum in reducing selenium (Se) concentration in aboveground plant tissue. There were four treatment combinations of gypsum over a two year period, 1990, and 1991: (0, 0), (0, 11.2) (11.2, 0) and (11.2, 11.2). In 1991, the Se concentration was lower in alfalfa grown with gypsum, regardless of whether the gypsum was applied in both years or in only one year, indicating that the effect of gypsum application in the first year persisted into the second year. Since there was no increase in aboveground biomass with added gypsum, differences in Se concentration reflect a competitive interaction between S and Se. In the greenhouse experiment, 12 soil treatments were tested: three levels of fly ash (0, 10 and 20%) in combination with each of four levels of gypsum (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%). The Se concentration in alfalfa grown in 10% fly ash declined linearly with increasing gypsum dose, resulting in a reduction in Se concentration of 0.04 ± 0.02 μg g -1 for each 1% gypsum added for the first harvest and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg g -1 for each 1% gypsum added in the second harvest. Based on these results, gypsum may prove useful as a management tool to reduce the uptake of Se by plants growing on coal fly ash landfills

  8. CHEMICAL SOIL ATTRIBUTES AS AFFECTED BY LIME AND GYPSUM SURFACE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mantovani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gypsum is a soil condition end it has to function contribute to the elimination or reduction of aluminum in the soil in depth. Still, it can contribute to the distribution of nutrients in the soil profile more uniformly and thus increasing the productivity of crops. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of gypsum application, with and without lime, on soil chemical properties and soybean yield, in a no-till system. The experiment was carried in Campos Novos, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, with a randomized block design and split plot design with four replications, the main portion was distributed gypsum doses (1000, 2000, 4000 and 6000 kg ha-1 without incorporation, and the split plot (with and without lime and the liming was 2,000 kg ha-1. We evaluated the performance of components and productivity of soybeans. It was also analyzed the soil pH and Ca, Mg, S and Al at 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The application of gypsum at the rates tested surface with and without lime did not affect the yield components and soybean productivity. At 0-20 cm soil depth lime application increased soil pH by 0.3 units on the average rates of gypsum, but in the 20-40 cm layer was not found effect of lime and gypsum in pH ground due to the short time between application and evaluation. In areas with and without lime contents of Ca and S in the two layers evaluated increased with increasing rates of gypsum, since Mg has difference with the lime application on a 0-20 cm to dose 4000 kg ha-1 and the lime in the gypsum rates and Al decreased with increasing dose gypsum average in the 20-40 cm layer depth. The application of gypsum and limestone softened the negative effects of soil acidity and the increase mainly of calcium and sulfur at 0-20 cm, with less efficient effects in the 20-40 cm layer due to the soil is clayey and the period between the implementation and evaluation be 120 days.

  9. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shiyun; Ni Kun; Li Jinmei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. ► The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ► The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ► The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C–S–H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563–938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO 4 2- from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO 4 2- releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO 4 2- from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m −2 , which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

  10. Constraining the origin of the Messinian gypsum deposits using coupled measurement of δ^{18}O$/δD in gypsum hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Gázquez, Fernando; McKenzie, Judith A.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Hodell, David A.

    2016-04-01

    We used oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum hydration water (GHW) coupled with salinity deduced from ice melting temperatures of primary fluid inclusions in the same samples (in tandem with 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S and other isotopic measurements) to determine the composition of the mother fluids that formed the gypsum deposits of the Messinian Salinity Crisis from shallow and intermediate-depth basins. Using this method, we constrain the origin of the Messinian Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) of the Sorbas basin (Betic foreland) and both the Upper Gypsum (UG) and the Lower Gypsum of the Sicilian basin. We then compare these results to measurements made on UG recovered from the deep Ionian and Balearic basins drilled during DSDP Leg 42A. The evolution of GHW δ18O/δD vs. salinity is controlled by mixing processes between fresh and seawater, coupled with the degree of evaporation. Evaporation and subsequent precipitation of gypsum from fluids dominated by freshwater will result in a depressed 87Sr/86Sr values and different trajectory in δ18O/δD vs. salinity space compared to fluids dominated by seawater. The slopes of these regression equations help to define the end-members from which the fluid originated. For example, salinity estimates from PLG cycle 6 in the Sorbas basin range from 18 to 51ppt, and after correction for fractionation factors, estimated δ18O and δD values of the mother water are low (-2.6 meteoric water during gypsum deposition, while 87Sr/86Sr (0.708942 fall below those expected from the evaporation of seawater alone, the slope of the regression equation is similar to that of seawater evaporation. This implies that there is a change up-section from a dominantly marine environment in cycle 2 to a greater influence of meteoric water in cycle 6. The UG from the Sicilian basin display greater δ18O/δD values (2.9 meteoric water that subsequently underwent intense evaporation. This observation concurs with the low values of 87Sr/86Sr from the same UG

  11. Experienced materials in wet limestone-gypsum FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Hiroshima (Japan). Hiroshima Research and Development Center; Iwashita, K.; Ochi, E.; Higuchi, T. [Mitsubishi heavy Industry, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    This study was made on the corrosion resistivity evaluation method used for material selection in the Wet Limestone-Gypsum FGD system with examples of various process configuration, their corrosion environment, and the materials used in them. The wet limestone-gypsum process FGD plant is broadly divided into two types-ash-separated (dual-loop) process, and ash-mixed (single-loop) process-depending on whether the flue gas is separated from ash before being led into the absorber or led as it is into the absorber mixed with ash. Presently, the single-loop process has become the mainstream process however. The dual -loop process comprises a dedusting tower (quencher) and an absorption tower (absorber). In the quencher ash is removed with sprayed water where most of the HCl, HF etc., and a part of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} contained in the flue gas are also removed with absorption. On the contrary, in the single-loop process which is configured of only the absorber, the flue gas is introduced into it as it is contained with ash, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, HCl, HF etc. The corrosion environment in these plants largely differs depending on the process type and condition. The absorber recirculated liquid has various ion inclusions among which Cl{sup {minus}} promotes pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion while SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} inhibits these corrosions. Both Cl{sup {minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} cover an extremely large range between 25 to 100,000 ppm and 564 to 73,600 ppm respectively, and their influence on the corrosion is related to their activity which is decided by Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +} and liquid temperature. The balance of these ions is decided by the gas composition, limestone composition, make-up water and wastewater mass balance etc., of individual plants. Accordingly, materials of FGD plant are selected on the basis of evaluated results of corrosion resistivity test made under such simulated process conditions of

  12. The hydrophobic modification of gypsum binder by peat products: physico-chemical and technological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Misnikov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum binder is a quick-setting and fast-hardening material that is used widely in the construction industry for plastering and as an ingredient of concrete, other binding materials, etc. The issue addressed here is its short shelf life (around three months which arises because it is hygroscopic, i.e. it readily absorbs moisture and begins to set during transport and storage. The main methods that are currently available for protecting gypsum binder against unwanted exposure to moisture and water vapour are considered, and hydrophobic modification with the bitumen released during peat thermolysis (a method previously considered for cement is proposed as a promising alternative. Because there is overlap in the temperature ranges used in the manufacture of gypsum binder and those required for the initial stages of thermal decomposition of the organic matter in peat, it is expected that hydrophobisation could be achieved during the established manufacturing process without any changes to plant or procedures. The optimum concentration of organic (peat additive for gypsum rock mined from the Shushokskoye deposit in Russia is derived experimentally. With 0.5–1 % of peat additive, the strength grading of the gypsum plaster is preserved and its storage time without caking and hydration increases, even under adverse conditions (100 % relative humidity. The proposed method is compatible with current gypsum production technology, it does not require any changes in equipment, and the prices of mineral raw materials and semi-finished peat products are approximately the same. Thus, the incorporation of hydrophobic modification using peat into the manufacturing process for gypsum binder is unlikely to increase the cost of the product.

  13. Soil composition and nutritional status of apple as affected by long-term application of gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Nava

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum does not affect the soil negative charges and maintains sulfate in the soil solution, making it one of the cheapest products to increase Ca activity in soil solution, especially in the deeper soil layers. Higher Ca levels in the soil solution can increase the uptake of this nutrient by apple trees, reducing the risk of physiological disorders caused by Ca deficiency. This study assessed the effect of long-term gypsum application on some soil properties and on the chemical composition of leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to fruit disorders associated with low Ca. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, in the South of Brazil, from 2001 to 2009. Gypsum rates of 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 t ha-1 were annually broadcast over the soil surface, without incorporation, in an apple orchard with cultivar ´Catarina´, planted in 1997. Gypsum application over eight consecutive years had no effect on soil exchangeable K and Al to a depth of 80 cm, but increased exchangeable Ca in the sampled layers (0-10, 10-20, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, while exchangeable Mg decreased only in the surface layer (0-20 cm. Gypsum did not affect the concentration of any nutrient in the fruits, including Ca. The same was verified in the leaves, except for Mg which decreased with increased gypsum rate. Despite increasing the availability of Ca in the soil profile to a depth of 80 cm, gypsum was not effective to increase the Ca content in leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to Ca deficiency grown in an appropriately limed soil.

  14. Surface Coating of Gypsum-Based Molds for Maxillofacial Prosthetic Silicone Elastomeric Material: The Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Salah; Ariffin, Zaihan; Husein, Adam; Reza, Fazal

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone elastomers fabricated in noncoated and coated gypsum materials. This study was also conducted to characterize the silicone elastomer specimens after surfaces were modified. A gypsum mold was coated with clear acrylic spray. The coated mold was then used to produce modified silicone experimental specimens (n = 35). The surface roughness of the modified silicone elastomers was compared with that of the control specimens, which were prepared by conventional flasking methods (n = 35). An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for surface roughness measurement of silicone elastomer (unmodified and modified), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the topographic conditions of coated and noncoated gypsum and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) groups. After the gypsum molds were characterized, the fabricated silicone elastomers molded on noncoated and coated gypsum materials were evaluated further. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of gypsum materials (noncoated and coated) and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) was performed to evaluate the elemental changes after coating was conducted. Independent t test was used to analyze the differences in the surface roughness of unmodified and modified silicone at a significance level of p SEM analysis results showed evident differences in surface smoothness. EDX data further revealed the presence of the desired chemical components on the surface layer of unmodified and modified silicone elastomers. Silicone elastomers with lower surface roughness of maxillofacial prostheses can be obtained simply by coating a gypsum mold. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Urea Hydrolysis and Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Gypsum-Amended Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2018-01-01

    Broiler () litter is subject to ammonia (NH) volatilization losses. Previous work has shown that the addition of gypsum to broiler litter can increase nitrogen mineralization and decrease NH losses due to a decrease in pH, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not well understood. Therefore, three laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of gypsum addition to broiler litter on (i) urease activity at three water contents, (ii) calcium carbonate precipitation, and (iii) pH. The addition of gypsum to broiler litter increased ammonium concentrations ( litter pH by 0.43 to 0.49 pH units after 5 d ( litter only increased on Day 0 for broiler litter with low (0.29 g HO g) and high (0.69 g HO g) water contents, and on Day 3 for litter with medium (0.40 g HO g) water content ( litter with gypsum also caused an immediate decrease in litter pH (0.22 pH units) due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO) from gypsum-derived calcium and litter bicarbonate. Furthermore, as urea was hydrolyzed, more urea-derived carbon precipitated as CaCO in gypsum-treated litter than in untreated litter ( litter with gypsum favors the precipitation of CaCO, which buffers against increases in litter pH that are known to facilitate NH volatilization. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Messinian Salinity Crisis' Primary Evaporites: the shallow gypsum vs. deep dolomite formation paradox solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, G. J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is a dramatic event that took place ~ 5.9 Ma ago, resulting in deposition of 1-3 km thick evaporites at the Mediterranean seafloor. A considerable, long-lasting controversy existed on the modes of their formation, including the observed shallow gypsum versus deep dolostone deposits for the early phase of MSC. The onset of MSC is marked by deposition of gypsum/sapropel-like alternations, thought to relate to arid/humid climate conditions at a precessional rhythm. Gypsum precipitation only occurred at marginal- and dolomite formation at deeper settings. A range of potential explanations was given, most of which cannot satisfactorily explain all observations. Biogeochemical processes during MSC are commonly neglected but may explain that different deposits formed in shallow vs deep environments without exceptional physical boundary conditions for each. A unifying mechanism is presented in which gypsum formation occurs at all shallow water depths but its preservation is limited to shallow sedimentary settings. In contrast, ongoing deep-basin anoxic organic matter (OM) degradation processes result in dolomite formation. Gypsum precipitation in evaporating seawater takes place at 3-7 times concentrated seawater; seawater is always oversaturated relative to dolomite but its formation is inhibited by the presence of dissolved sulphate. Thus conditions for formation of gypsum exclude those for formation of dolomite and vice versa. Another process linking the saturation states of gypsum and dolomite is that of OM degradation by sulphate reduction. In stagnant deep water, ongoing OM-degradation may result in reducing the sulphate and enhancing the dissolved carbonate content. Such low-sulphate / high carbonate conditions in MSC deepwater are. unfavorable for gypsum preservation and favorable for dolomite formation, and always coincide with anoxic, i.e. oxygen-free conditions. Including dynamic biogeochemical processes in the thusfar static

  18. Effects of gypsum and bulk density on neutron probe calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Awadis; Razzouk, A.K.

    1993-10-01

    The effects of gypsum and bulk density on the neutron probe calibration curve were studied in the laboratory and in the field. The effect of bulk density was negligible for the soil studied in the laboratory, while it was significant for the field calibration. An increase in the slope of moisture content on a volume basis vs. count ratio with increasing gypsum content at the soil was observed in the laboratory calibration. A simple method for correction of the calibration curve for gypsum content was adopted to obtain a specific curve for each layer. The adapted method requires the gypsum fraction to be estimated for each layer and then incorporated in the calibration curve to improve the coefficient of determination. A field calibration showed an improvement of the determination coefficient by introducing bulk density and gypsum fraction, in addition to count ratio using moisture content on a volume basis as a dependent variable in multi linear regression analysis. The same procedure was successful with variable gravel fractions. (author). 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Al-Dowah, Omir S; Gana, Naif S; Al-Hytham, Abdullah

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 213). Gypsum cast (type III) were made from all the impression. Impressions and gypsum cast were swabbed in mid palatal region for bacterial culture. Bacterial colony counting done after 3 days of incubation at 37℃ in blood agar media. The data obtained was analyzed by one way ANOVA test at a significant difference level of 0.05. Group I and Group II showed significantly more bacteria compared to Group III and Group IV. Bacterial colonies on the alginate impression and gypsum cast in group disinfected with Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) were 0.18, 0.82 respectively compared to group treated with iodophor (1 : 213). There was an increase in bacterial count on dental cast compared to source alginate impressions. Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) was found to be better disinfectant for alginate impression. There was an indication of increase in number of bacteria from alginate impression to making of dental cast. Additional gypsum cast disinfectant procedures need to be encouraged to completely eliminate cross infection to dental laboratory.

  20. Gypsum-permineralized microfossils and their relevance to the search for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J William; Farmer, Jack D; Foster, Ian S; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Gallardo, Victor A; Espinoza, Carola

    2012-07-01

    Orbital and in situ analyses establish that aerially extensive deposits of evaporitic sulfates, including gypsum, are present on the surface of Mars. Although comparable gypsiferous sediments on Earth have been largely ignored by paleontologists, we here report the finding of diverse fossil microscopic organisms permineralized in bottom-nucleated gypsums of seven deposits: two from the Permian (∼260 Ma) of New Mexico, USA; one from the Miocene (∼6 Ma) of Italy; and four from Recent lacustrine and saltern deposits of Australia, Mexico, and Peru. In addition to presenting the first report of the widespread occurrence of microscopic fossils in bottom-nucleated primary gypsum, we show the striking morphological similarity of the majority of the benthic filamentous fossils of these units to the microorganisms of a modern sulfuretum biocoenose. Based on such similarity, in morphology as well as habitat, these findings suggest that anaerobic sulfur-metabolizing microbial assemblages have changed relatively little over hundreds of millions of years. Their discovery as fossilized components of the seven gypsiferous units reported suggests that primary bottom-nucleated gypsum represents a promising target in the search for evidence of past life on Mars. Key Words: Confocal laser scanning microscopy-Gypsum fossils-Mars sample return missions-Raman spectroscopy-Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument-Sulfuretum.

  1. A DOC coagulant, gypsum treatment can simultaneously reduce As, Cd and Pb uptake by medicinal plants grown in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck Soo; Seo, Byoung-Hwan; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Yang, Jae-E; Owens, Gary; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of gypsum, as a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) coagulator, for the simultaneous immobilization of two heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and one metalloid (As) in agricultural soils near an abandoned mining site was examined. The agricultural soil was defined as long-term contaminated as As (1540mgkg -1 ), Cd (55mgkg -1 ) and Pb (1283mgkg -1 ) concentrations exceeded the Korean guideline values for As (25mgkg -1 ), Cd (4mgkg -1 ), and Pb (200mgkg -1 ). Gypsum was incorporated into the contaminated soil at 3% (w/w). In comparison two commonly using immobilizing agents (lime and compost), together with a mixture (lime+gypsum) were also included in the pot trial for the cultivation of two medical plants (A. gigas and A. macrocephala) and to evaluate the effectiveness of gypsum on As, Cd and Pb immobilization. The results showed that even though pH change-induced immobilizing agents such as lime were more effective than gypsum at immobilizing Cd and Pb, addition of gypsum also effectively reduced heavy metal phytoavailability as indicated by decreases in the concentration of Cd and Pb in medicinal plants. Furthermore, gypsum and gypsum+ lime were also most effective in reducing As concentrations in both plants studied. This was mainly attributed to significant decreases in soil DOC (48-64%) when gypsum and gypsum+lime were applied to the soil. Consequently, it was concluded that enhanced DOC coagulation with gypsum, could be considered as a promising technique for the immobilization of both metals (Cd and Pb) and metalloids (As) in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of EDTA and gypsum on self diffusion coefficient of zinc in alkali soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.N.; Deb, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of EDTA and gypsum application on the rate of zinc diffusion was studied in an alkali soil. Gypsum application at the rate of half gypsum requirement (GR) increased the apparent self diffusion coefficient of zinc (DaZn) and decreased the capacity factor (B) of soil. The higher rates (full GR and double GR) depressed the rate of zinc diffusion and increased the B value. Application of EDTA at the rate of 0.77 μeg -1 of soil produced 1600 and 24 fold increase in DaZn and DpZn values respectively and 100 times drop in B value. Addition of 55 ppm Zn to the soil significantly increased the DaZn and DpZn values. (author)

  3. Dimensional accuracy and surface property of titanium casting using gypsum-bonded alumina investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Fumio

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dimensional accuracy and surface property of titanium casting obtained using a gypsum-bonded alumina investment. The experimental gypsum-bonded alumina investment with 20 mass% gypsum content mixed with 2 mass% potassium sulfate was used for five cp titanium castings and three Cu-Zn alloy castings. The accuracy, surface roughness (Ra), and reaction layer thickness of these castings were investigated. The accuracy of the castings obtained from the experimental investment ranged from -0.04 to 0.23%, while surface roughness (Ra) ranged from 7.6 to 10.3microm. A reaction layer of about 150 microm thickness under the titanium casting surface was observed. These results suggested that the titanium casting obtained using the experimental investment was acceptable. Although the reaction layer was thin, surface roughness should be improved.

  4. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL BASED ON GYPSUM BINDER AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUMAK Anastasia Gennadievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a number of studies in the area of nanomodi­fication of gypsum binder matrix and to investigate the influence of multilayer carbon nanotubes on the structure, physical and mechanical properties of obtained compos­ites. The study of the gypsum binders structure formation mechanisms with the use of nanoadditives makes it possible to control the production processes of gypsum materi­als and articles with the given set of properties. The main tasks of the binder nanomodification are: even distribution of carbon nanostructures over the whole volume of material and provision of stability for the nanodimensional modifier during production process of the construction composite.

  5. Effect of shelf life on compressive strength of type iv gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, K. S.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Type IV gypsum, as a dental material for an indirect restoration’s working model, should have strength and abrasive-resistant properties. These properties depend on the product’s shelf life and its proper storage, which sometimes are easily missed by sellers. The aim of this research was to observe the effect of shelf life on the compressive strength of type IV gypsum with different production dates. Twenty cylindrical specimens were separated into two groups with different production dates and tested with a universal testing with the crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute and a load of 2,500 kgf. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the compressive strength between the two groups with an increase in compressive strength seen in the gypsum that was stored longer.

  6. Application of gypsum as shielding against low-energy X-radiation in the radiodiagnosis area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, J.A.G.; Lima, F.R.A.; Santos, M.A.P. dos; Oliveira, D.N.S. de; Silva, V.H.F.F. da

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, materials such as lead, concrete and iron have been studied for use as shielding for ionizing radiations of different energies in radiative installations. In the radiodiagnosis area, lead and barite are the most used materials as shielding. However, for beams of low energy X-radiation, such as in mammography and dentistry, the gypsum material may be used. This study aims to verify the feasibility of the use of gypsum as shielding for low-energy X-ray using standardized dental X-ray beams in a metrology laboratory. The project will allow a better understanding in the study of gypsum used as shielding, certifying its use as a good attenuator for low-energy X-ray

  7. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2009-02-26

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  8. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.; Fernà ndez-Altable, V.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Dal Molin, D. C. C.; Casanova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  9. Petroleum Sludge as gypsum replacement in cement plants: Its Impact on Cement Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, Ali; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Khodja, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Due to high cost of cement manufacturing and the huge amount of resources exhaustion, companies are trying to incorporate alternative raw materials or by-products into cement production so as to produce alternative sustainable cement. Petroleum sludge is a dangerous waste that poses serious imparts on soil and groundwater. Given that this sludge contains a high percentage of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the main component of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), it may play the same gypsum role in strength development. In this research, a total replacement of gypsum (100%) has been substituted by petroleum sludge in cement production and has led to an increase of 28.8% in UCS values after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, the burning of this waste has emitted a considerable amount of carbon monoxide (CO) gas that needs to be carefully considered prior to use petroleum sludge within cement plants.

  10. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology to recycle disintegrated waste gypsum boards; 1999 nendo kaitai haisekko board no saishigenka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and researches have been made on disintegrated waste gypsum boards generated in building demolishing sites, with a target of recycling them as a raw material for boards. In the investigations, the actual status of discarding the disintegrated gypsum boards was identified, whereas the harmful substance contents such as of heavy metals were verified to be below the environmental criteria. As a method to remove impurities and foreign materials from the disintegrated waste gypsum boards, the hydration crushing method was established, in which volumetric change when hemihydrate gypsum returns to gypsum dehydrate is utilized, and bond of gypsum particles with each other and with impurities is destructed to separate them into simple substances. Furthermore, discussions were given on the reforming conditions to reform in an energy saving manner the disintegrated waste gypsum boards into high-quality large-size hemihydrate gypsum by using the wet-type process that utilizes the reversible reaction between hemihydrate gypsum and gypsum dehydrate in the disintegrated waste gypsum boards. A manufacturing process to put the recycled gypsum into practical use was also discussed. Prototype board fabrication and tests were performed by using the reformed gypsum board materials, wherein good results were obtained from all of the practical, chemical, and physical tests. (NEDO)

  12. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  13. The solidification of low level radioactive organic fluids with Envirostone Gypsum Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstiel, T.L.; Lange, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The primary method for the management of low level radioactive waste (LLW) has been and continues to be the isolation of the waste in a solid mass. Of the four typical LLW streams, organic fluids pose the most significant waste isolation problem. The organic fluids comprised of lubrication oils, hydraulic fluids, sludges, scintillation fluids, etc., result from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power generating stations, research activities, tooling operations, and diagnostic analyses. The United States Gypsum Company developed the patented Envirostone Gypsum Cement system for the solidification of all types of low level radioactive wastes to facilitate handling and transportation to regulated LLW disposal sites. For the solidification of organic fluids, Envirostone Gypsum Cement is used in conjunction with Envirostone Emulsifier, selected for its ability to emulsify a broad range of organic fluids in aqueous solutions. In the solidification process it is theorized that as the crystalline matrix of the gypsum forms, the micelles of the emulsifier behave as a chemical bridge which draws the organic fluid into the crystalline structure via the hydration water. Initial testing of physical properties of solidified waste forms, including leachability, per the requirements and the procedures specified for 10 CFR Part 61 as outlined in the Branch Technical Position Report from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission were in progress as of the writing of this paper. Upon completion of this testing a Topical Report will be submitted to the USNRC for review and approval. The presentation reviews field experience in the use of Envirostone Gypsum Cement for the solidification of low level radioactive organic fluids from nuclear power generating stations and makes an economic comparison between Envirostone Gypsum Cement and portland cement systems

  14. Competition between reaction-induced expansion and creep compaction during gypsum formation: Experimental and numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbek, R. M.; Savage, H. M.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Kelemen, P. B.; Yancopoulos, D.

    2017-12-01

    Deformation and cracking caused by reaction-driven volume increase is an important process in many geological settings, however the conditions controlling these processes are poorly understood. The interaction of rocks with reactive fluids can change permeability and reactive surface area, leading to a large variety of feedbacks. Gypsum is an ideal material to study these processes. It forms rapidly at room temperature via bassanite hydration, and is commonly used as an analogue for rocks in high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. We conducted uniaxial strain experiments to study the effects of applied axial load on deformation and fluid flow during the formation of gypsum from bassanite. While hydration of bassanite to gypsum involves a solid volume increase, gypsum exhibits significant creep compaction when in contact with water. These two volume changing processes occur simultaneously during fluid flow through bassanite. We cold-pressed bassanite powder to form cylinders 2.5 cm in height and 1.2 cm in diameter. Samples were compressed with a static axial load of 0.01 to 4 MPa. Water infiltrated initially unsaturated samples through the bottom face and the height of the samples was recorded as a measure of the total volume change. We also performed experiments on pure gypsum samples to constrain the amount of creep observed in tests on bassanite hydration. At axial loads 1 MPa, creep in the gypsum dominates and samples exhibit monotonic compaction. At intermediate loads, samples exhibit alternating phases of compaction and expansion due to the interplay of the two volume changing processes. We observed a change from net compaction to net expansion at an axial load of 0.250 MPa. We explain this behavior with a simple model that predicts the strain evolution, but does not take fluid flow into account. We also implement a 1D poro-visco-elastic model of the imbibition process that includes the reaction and gypsum creep. We use the results of these models, with

  15. Experimental Shock Transformation of Gypsum to Anhydrite: A New Low Pressure Regime Shock Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The shock behavior of gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Paleogene event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets (e.g., Mars Exploration Rover Spirit detected sulfate at Gusev crater, [1]). Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of SO2 to better understand its role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [2,3]. Kondo and Ahrens [4] measured induced radiation emitted from single crystal gypsum shocked to 30 and 40 GPa. They observed greybody emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 K that are a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than calculated pressure-density energy equation of state temperatures (Hugoniot) and are high enough to melt gypsum. Chen et al. [5] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of these phases with silica. Their observations indicated little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, Badjukov et al. [6] observed only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa but have not experimentally shocked gypsum in a step-wise manner to constrain possible incipient transformation effects. Schmitt and Hornemann [7] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa and report the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggested that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid-state transformation. They concluded that significant decomposition of anhydrite requires shock pressures higher than 60 GPa. Gupta et al. [8

  16. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  17. Process for fabrication of dry flue gas gypsum. Verfahren zur Herstellung von trockenem Rauchgasgips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F.; Hueller, R.; Limmer, B.

    1984-06-20

    According to the invention gypsum from flue gas wet desulfurization is dried without loss of crystallization water by a 1-4% sidestream of the flue gas in a suspended bed dryer and is subsequently separated in a cyclone. The sidestream is removed after the electrostatic precipitator, where the gas temperature is 100-130 degrees, and returned to the main gas stream prior to desulfurization, thus preventing the dehydration of the gypsum and eliminating the energy costs of reheating the gas stream to prevent acid condensation.

  18. GE`s worldwide experience with IFO based gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, A. [GE Environmental Systems, Lebanon, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The In-Situ Forced Oxidation (IFO) process to produce gypsum in a commercial scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system was first demonstrated by GE Environmental Systems in 1980 at the Monticello Generating Station of Texas Utilities. Since then, the IFO technology developed and demonstrated by GE has become the industry standard and is used extensively on a world-wide basis to produce both commercial and disposable-grade gypsum. The paper gives an overview of the development, demonstration, commercial design and current status of the IFO technology.

  19. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  20. Gypsum and organic matter distribution in a mixed construction and demolition waste sorting process and their possible removal from outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, A; Tojo, Y; Matsuo, T; Matsuto, T; Yamada, M; Asakura, H; Ono, Y

    2010-03-15

    With insufficient source separation, construction and demolition (C&D) waste becomes a mixed material that is difficult to recycle. Treatment of mixed C&D waste generates residue that contains gypsum and organic matter and poses a risk of H(2)S formation in landfills. Therefore, removing gypsum and organic matter from the residue is vital. This study investigated the distribution of gypsum and organic matter in a sorting process. Heavy liquid separation was used to determine the density ranges in which gypsum and organic matter were most concentrated. The fine residue that was separated before shredding accounted for 27.9% of the waste mass and contained the greatest quantity of gypsum; therefore, most of the gypsum (52.4%) was distributed in this fraction. When this fine fraction was subjected to heavy liquid separation, 93% of the gypsum was concentrated in the density range of 1.59-2.28, which contained 24% of the total waste mass. Therefore, removing this density range after segregating fine particles should reduce the amount of gypsum sent to landfills. Organic matter tends to float as density increases; nevertheless, separation at 1.0 density could be more efficient. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    of impurities (0.002 M Al2F6; 50 g quartz/L; 0.02 M Al3+, and 0.040 M Mg2+) were investigated. In addition, slurry from a full-scale wet FGD plant, experiencing formation of flat shaped crystals and poor gypsum dewatering properties, was transferred to the pilot plant to test if the plant would now start...... to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied. The influence of holding tank residence time (10–408 h), solids content (30–169 g/L), and the presence...... to produce low quality gypsum. The crystals formed in the pilot plant, on the basis of the full-scale slurry did, however, show acceptable filtration rates and crystal morphologies closer to the prismatic crystals from after pilot plant experiments with demineralized water. The gypsum slurry filtration rates...

  2. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  3. Development of a self-compacting gypsum-based lightweight composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses experiments and theories of a self-compacting gypsum-based lightweight composite (SGLC). A ß-hemihydrate is used as binder and lightweight aggregate (LWA, 0–2 mm in different size ranges) is used as aggregate into this composite. The mix of the new composite is designed based

  4. Composition of gypsum from the Koběřice quarry (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Pavel; Plevová, Eva; Vaculíková, Lenka; Kožušníková, Alena; Peterková, J.; Hundáková, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 145-156 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : gypsum * Kobeřice quarry * spectroscopy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/5_Konecny.pdf

  5. Morphology and stability of aggregates of an Oxisol according to tillage system and gypsum application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régis de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization and aggregate stability is an important factor in evaluating management systems. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the stability and morphology of the aggregates of a dystrophic Oxisol managed with no-tillage and conventional tillage with and without the residual action of gypsum. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in split-split plot, where the treatments were two soil management systems (plots with 0 and 2000 kg ha-1 of gypsum (subplots and five depths (0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15, 0.15-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m as the subsubplots, with four replications. The aggregate morphology was determined through images and later evaluated by the Quantporo software. Stability was determined by the wet method. The results showed that the no-tillage system, with or without gypsum residual effect, provided the aggregates with the largest geometric diameters. The combination of no-tillage system and the gypsum residual effect provided rougher aggregates.

  6. Two distinctive new species of Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae) from gypsum outcrops in eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile

    2016-01-01

    During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new...

  7. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  8. Palaeoclimatic significance of gypsum pseudomorphs in the inner shelf sediments off Machalipatnam bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Pseudo-gypsum crystals have been found in the coarse fraction of the sediments from the inner continental shelf off Machilipatnam Bay. They range in size from 3 to 7 mm are elongate and lenticular in shape. Bassanite and calcite are pseudomorphs...

  9. Results using flue gas desulfurization gypsum in soilless substrates for greenhouse crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent availability of Flue Gas Desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has led to interested in its possible use in horticulture greenhouse production. Three studies were conducted to determine the effects of increasing rates of FGDG on six greenhouse crops. In the first study, substrates (6:1 pine bark:san...

  10. Seepage Analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam Concerning Gypsum Karstification (2D and 3D Approaches)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrekarimi, Jamshid; Kiyani, Majid; Fakhri, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation...

  11. Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with phase change materials: A fire safety assessment using experimental and computational techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaitis Dionysios I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials (PCM can be used for thermal energy storage, aiming to enhance building energy efficiency. Recently, gypsum plasterboards with incorporated paraffin-based PCM blends have become commercially available. In the high temperature environment developed during a fire, the paraffins, which exhibit relatively low boiling points, may evaporate and, escaping through the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerge to the fire region, where they may ignite, thus adversely affecting the fire resistance characteristics of the building. Aiming to assess the fire safety behaviour of such building materials, an extensive experimental and computational analysis is performed. The fire behaviour and the main thermo-physical physical properties of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of standard tests and devices (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Cone Calorimeter. The obtained results are used to develop a dedicated numerical model, which is implemented in a CFD code. CFD simulations are validated using measurements obtained in a cone calorimeter. In addition, the CFD code is used to simulate an ISO 9705 room exposed to fire conditions, demonstrating that PCM addition may indeed adversely affect the fire safety of a gypsum plasterboard clad building.

  12. Assessment of Mercury in Soils, Crops, Earthworms, and Water when Soil is Treated with Gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from fossil fuel combustion has many potential uses in agriculture, but there is concern about the potential environmental effects of its elevated mercury (Hg) concentration. The wet limestone scrubbing process that removes sulfur from flue gas (and produces gyp...

  13. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...

  14. Characterization of gypsum crystals exposed to a high CO2 concentration fog using x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Márquez, I. J. A.; Castillo-Sandoval, I.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Fuentes-Cobas, L.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    In Chihuahua State, a little town called Naica has the largest gypsum single crystals in the world. The growth of these structures has been described as a long and stable process developed over thousands of years. Due to the change in the environmental conditions, these crystals could suffer alterations on their surface. In this project we study the cause of possible deterioration of the giant crystals and intend to suggest measures for their preservation. For this sake, our first experiment consists on several gypsum crystals that have been subjected in a climate chamber to a fog at high CO 2 concentration and 51 °C for a period of time of six months, extracting two crystals every 15 days. Then the crystals have been characterized through Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction using a diffractometer PanAlytical X’PertPro with two different detectors; Xe-filled proportional detector and a Pixel 3D detector. The results were compared to determine which technique is the most suitable to study the degradation of gypsum single crystals. In the two cases, we have identified only the gypsum phase, but with different crystal plane orientations

  15. Inflammatory potential of low doses of airborne fungi from fungal infested damp and dry gypsum boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sofie Marie; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    chrysogenum. Bacillus infantis and Paenibacillus sp. were found on the gypsum boards, but not recovered in the aerosols. A significant correlation was found between the TIP of diluted and undiluted samples of fungal aerosols. However, diluted samples had a higher TIP than undiluted samples, and no significant...

  16. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  17. Investigation on the Permeability Evolution of Gypsum Interlayer Under High Temperature and Triaxial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng; Yechao, You; Jie, Chen; Yaoqing, Hu

    2017-08-01

    The permeability of the surrounding rock is a critical parameter for the designing and assessment of radioactive waste disposal repositories in the rock salt. Generally, in the locations that are chosen for radioactive waste storage, the bedded rock salt is a sedimentary rock that contains NaCl and Na2SO4. Most likely, there are also layers of gypsum ( {CaSO}_{ 4} \\cdot 2 {H}_{ 2} {O)} present in the salt deposit. Radioactive wastes emit a large amount of heat and hydrogen during the process of disposal, which may result in thermal damage of the surrounding rocks and cause a great change in their permeability and tightness. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the permeability evolution of the gypsum interlayer under high temperature and high pressure in order to evaluate the tightness and security of the nuclear waste repositories in bedded rock salt. In this study, a self-designed rock triaxial testing system by which high temperature and pressure can be applied is used; the μCT225kVFCB micro-CT system is also employed to investigate the permeability and microstructure of gypsum specimens under a constant hydrostatic pressure of 25 MPa, an increasing temperature (ranging from 20 to 650 °C), and a variable inlet gas pressure (1, 2, 4, 6 MPa). The experimental results show: (a) the maximum permeability measured during the whole experiment is less than 10-17 m2, which indicates that the gypsum interlayer has low permeability under high temperature and pressure that meet the requirements for radioactive waste repository. (b) Under the same temperature, the permeability of the gypsum specimen decreases at the beginning and then increases as the pore pressure elevates. When the inlet gas pressure is between 0 and 2 MPa, the Klinkenberg effect is very pronounced. Then, as the pore pressure increases, the movement behavior of gas molecules gradually changes from free motion to forced directional motion. So the role of free movement of gas molecules gradually

  18. Effect of temperature and concentration principle on gypsum scaling in desalination units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ahmed, Samia; Tlili, Mohamed; Ben Amor, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Tunisia (North Africa) is currently confronted to the crucial problem of the public, agricultural and industrial feed water supply, in particular in the center and south areas. Production of fresh water by seawater and brackish water desalination has proved to be an alternative for these regions. However, all the desalination processes are based on the concentration principle of waters already presented higher salinity. So, scale problem can occurs by the accumulation of minerals such as CaCO 3 and CaSO 4 . These salts form hard and strongly adhering deposits on the surfaces and their formation is favoured by the decrease of their solubility with increasing temperature. The main object of this investigation is the study and the control of calcium sulphate deposition causes and conditions in the thermal desalination plant. For this purpose, the effect of different water temperatures (30-90 degree) and saturation states (3-10), on homogeneous nucleation and growth of gypsum, variety usually met, was examined. Gypsum was precipitated by mixing aqueous CaCl 2 and Na 2 SO 4 solutions. It was found that, with increasing temperature or supersaturation, the induction time decreases and the growth rate increases. At the same saturation state, the effect of temperature on reducing induction time is more significant for T<50 degree whereas the growth rate of gypsum crystals is more influenced when the temperature exceeds 50 degree. This value can be considered as a critical temperature; once reached the gypsum scaling threat becomes serious. By using classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension and the nucleation rate values were estimated. It was shown that the interfacial tension is, as well, temperature dependent. The calculation of nucleation rate showed that: i) by increasing temperature, the number of formed nuclei does not change. The effect of this parameter is limited at the kinetic of formation and growth of these nuclei, ii) the water concentration

  19. IMPACT OF NANOMODIFIERS ON MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GYPSUM BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. In the next 10 years, more than 90% of materials will be replaced with new materials – nanocomposites [1]. The nanocomponents application will allow manufacture of high-strength materials with reduced production cost and will ensure demand for products [2]. Researches aimed to determination of carbon nanotube type nanomodifier concentration impact on the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum binders are important today and must result in creation of competitive strong nano-materials. Purpose. Research of carbon nanotube (CNT type nanomodifier concentration impact on the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum binders. Conclusion. Sample microstructure analysis revealed that the non-modified gypsum sample structure is dominated by prismatic and lamellar crystals randomly distributed throughout the matrix volume. In this case, loose structure with increased porosity is formed, which results in sample mechanical strength reduction. In the CNT-modified gypsum matrix, well-ordered and homogeneous structure is formed with larger needle-shaped crystals, which results in the phase-contacting area increase, porosity reduction and thus the physical and mechanical characteristics improvement. It is experimentally proved that at the identical nano-modifier content in the gypsum matrix (0.035 %, maximum compression strength gain is achieved with the use of CNT and makes 28- 30%. At the use of initial carbon nanotubes, increase in strength at the same nano-modifier content makes 13-15%. The Ca2+ ions interaction with the graphene-like carbon surface was investigated by the DFT method. Capability is demonstrated of the covalent calcium bonding with the hexagonal carbon surface cell as a result of overlap of Ca2+ valence 3p orbitals and carbon 2р orbitals.

  20. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  1. Crop Response to Gypsum Application to Subtropical Soils Under No-Till in Brazil: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of gypsum to improve the root environment in tropical soils in the southeastern and central-western regions of Brazil is a widespread practice with well-established recommendation criteria. However, only recently gypsum began to be used on subtropical soils in South of Brazil, so available knowledge of its effect on crop yield is incipient and mainly for soils under no-till (NT systems. Avaiable studies span a wide range of responses, from a substantial increase to a slight reduction in crop yield. Also, the specific conditions leading to a favorable effect of gypsum application on crop yield are yet to be accurately identified. The primary objectives of this study were to examine previously reported results to assess the likelihood of a crop response to gypsum and to develop useful recommendation criteria for gypsum application to subtropical soils under NT in Brazil. For this purpose, we examined the results of a total of 73 growing seasons, reported in 20 different scientific publications that assessed grain yield as a function of gypsum rates. Four different scenarios were examined, by the occurrence or not of high subsurface acidity (viz., Al saturation >20 % and/or exchangeable Ca 3 cmolc dm-3 failed to increase crop yield, irrespective of the soil water status. Under these conditions, high gypsum rates (6-15 Mg ha−1 may even reduce grain yield, possibly by inducing K and Mg deficiency. On the other hand, applying gypsum to soils with high subsurface acidity increased yield by 16 % in corn (87 % of cases and by 19 % in winter cereals (83 % of cases, whether or not the soil was water-deficient. By contrast, soybean yield was only increased by gypsum applied in the simultaneous presence of high soil subsurface acidity and water deficiency (average increase 27 %, 100 % of cases.

  2. Effect of amino acids on the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harouaka, Khadouja; Kubicki, James D.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2017-12-01

    Stirred gypsum (CaSO4 · 2H2O) precipitation experiments (initial Ωgypsum = 2.4 ± 0.14, duration ≈ 1.0-1.5 h) were conducted in the presence of the amino acids glycine (190 μM), L-alanine (190 μM), D- and L-arginine (45 μM), and L-tyrosine (200 μM) to investigate the effect of simple organic compounds on both the precipitation kinetics and Ca isotopic composition of gypsum. Relative to abiotic controls, glycine, tyrosine, and alanine inhibited precipitation rates by ∼22%, 27%, and 29%, respectively, while L- and D-arginine accelerated crystal growth by ∼8% and 48%, respectively. With the exception of tyrosine, amino acid induced inhibition resulted in fractionation factors (αs-f) associated with precipitation that were no more than 0.3‰ lower than amino acid-free controls. In contrast, the tyrosine and D- and L-arginine experiments had αs-f values associated with precipitation that were similar to the controls. Our experimental results indicate that Ca isotopic fractionation associated with gypsum precipitation is impacted by growth inhibition in the presence of amino acids. Specifically, we propose that the surface-specific binding of amino acids to gypsum can change the equilibrium fractionation factor of the bulk mineral. We investigate the hypothesis that amino acids can influence the growth of gypsum at specific crystal faces via adsorption and that different faces have distinct fractionation factors (αface-fluid). Accordingly, preferential sorption of amino acids at particular faces changes the relative, face-specific mass fluxes of Ca during growth, which influences the bulk isotopic composition of the mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the energetic favorability of glycine sorption onto gypsum crystal faces occurs in the order: (1 1 0) > (0 1 0) > (1 2 0) > (0 1 1), while glycine sorption onto the (-1 1 1) face was found to be energetically unfavorable. Face-specific fractionation factors constrained by

  3. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan-Jiang; ZHENG Hai-Fei

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC).The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa.With increasing temperature,the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250 320℃ in the pressure range of 1.0 1.5 GPa,indicating that under a saturated water condition,both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite.A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) =0.0068T - 0.7126 (250℃≤T≤320℃).Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber,showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature.%An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 Mpa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250-320℃ in the pressure range of 1.0-1.5 Gpa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(Gpa) = 0.0068T - 0.7126 (250℃≤T≤320℃). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is

  4. Gypsum (CaSO42H2O) scaling on polybenzimidazole and cellulose acetate hollow fiber membranes under forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO42H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI

  5. Crystallisation of Gypsum and Prevention of Foaming in Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun

    The aim of this project is to investigate two operational problems, which have been experienced during wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) operation, i.e. poor gypsum dewatering properties and foaming. The results of this work can be used for the optimization of wet FGD-plants in terms of reliabi......The aim of this project is to investigate two operational problems, which have been experienced during wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) operation, i.e. poor gypsum dewatering properties and foaming. The results of this work can be used for the optimization of wet FGD-plants in terms....... Experiments in a falling film wet FGD pilot plant have shown a strong non-linear behaviour (in a ln(n(l)) vs. l plot) at the lower end of the particle size range, compared to the well-known linear “mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR)” model. A transient population balance model, fitted...

  6. Visible and Mid-Infrared Gypsum Optical Constants for Modeling of Martian Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Esposito, Francesca; Rossmann, George R.; Colangeli, Luigi

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: Recent and on-going remote and in situ observations indicate that sulfates are present in significant abundances at various locations on Mars [1-7]. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaging spectrometer (CRISM) is returning hyperspectral data at higher spatial resolution [8] than the OMEGA instrument on the Mars Express Mission [3]. Data from both OMEGA and CRISM have provided spectral evidence for the presence of gypsum and various hydrated sulfates on the Martian surface [e.g. 3-7] Thus, the optical properties of sulfates, in general, are of interest to quantitative interpretation of this increasing volume of remotely sensed data. This is because optical constants describe how a material interacts with electromagnetic radiation and represent the fundamental values used in radiative transfer calculations describing a variety of physical environments. Such environments include atmospheres where aerosols are present, planetary and satellite regoliths, and circumstellar dust clouds. Here we focus upon gypsum because of its applicability due to its identification on Mars. Also, gypsum is a mineral that is readily available in samples sizes that are suitable for study using a variety of spectral measurements. In the infrared (>5 μm) several studies reporting the optical constants of gypsum can be used in evaluating the approach used here. Most importantly, there is a general lack of data regarding the optical constants for gypsum at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) that are being observed by OMEGA and CRISM. Background: In the infrared, there have been several studies focused at determining the optical constants of gypsum using classical dispersion models [9-11]. These have used a variety of samples including; crystals, compressed pellets of pure materials, and grains suspended in a KBr matrix. Spectral measurements of gypsum, and other sulfates, have existed for about 100 years at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) [e

  7. Dehydration reactions of gypsum: A neutron and X-ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriel, W.; Reisdorf, K.; Pannetier, J.

    1990-03-01

    The kinetics of the dehydration of gypsum was investigated by powder diffraction methods. Using the incoherent scattering effect of H with the neutron beam, the background intensity as a measure of the water content was checked in the temperature range 295-623 K. The superposed Bragg peaks yielded four major phases: Gypsum, subhydratesCaSO 4(H 2O) x (1 > x > 0),AIII-CaSO 4, AII-CaSO 4. For the subhydrates a maximum water content of x > = 0.74was determined. A different kinetic was found using Guinier X-ray technique with the heated sample prepared on a thin foil. Only with high local H 2O steam pressure, produced in the comparable larger sample container of the neutron diffraction experiment, could this high H 2O occupation of the subhydrate tunnel structure be found. A topotactic mechanism can describe the phase transitions for this reaction.

  8. Radioecology of and radiation dose from Dutch waste gypsum released into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, H.W.; Weers, A.W. van; Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten)

    1985-11-01

    The Dutch industries release 9 kinds of waste gypsum, 90% of the total quantity is phosphogypsum. Only waste gypsums from the phosphate industries show increased radioactivity, the strongest in phosphogypsum. All phosphogypsum, 2 Tg.a -1 , is disposed of into the Rhine at Rotterdam. This leads to an increase of radionuclides, from the U-238 chain, along the Dutch coast. The calculated increase of activity concentrations in sea food causes an increase of the individual radiation dose of maximal 150 μSv.a -1 and of the Dutch population dose of 170 manSv.a -1 . Stacking of the phosphogypsum would result in a dose increase of one order of magnitude lower. The need for environmental disposal or stacking of at least the fine and coarse fractions of the phosphogypsum, which are difficult to recycle, will remain. (Auth.)

  9. Thermal Dehydration Kinetics of Gypsum and Borogypsum under Non-isothermal Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Y.Elbeyli; S.Piskin

    2004-01-01

    Thermal dehydration of gypsum and borogypsum was investigated under nonisothermal conditions in air by using simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyzer. Nonisothermal experiments were carried out at various linear heating rates. Kinetics of dehydration in the temperature range of 373-503 K were evaluated from the DTA (differential thermal analysis)-TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) data by means of Coats-Redfern,Kissinger and Doyle Equations. Values of the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the dehydration were calculated. The results of thermal experiments and kinetic parameters indicated that borogypsum is similar to gypsum from dehydration mechanism point of view although it consists of boron and small amount of alkali metal oxides.

  10. Influence of the gypsum dehydration temperature and alkali additives on the properties of anhydrite cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskeviciene V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While dehydrating gypsum with additives at the temperatures of 800°C and 900°C the influence of alkali additives on both the crystalline structure of anhydrite and properties of anhydrite binder was investigated. The industrial and household wastes including other lowcost materials were used as additives. Having heated them with gypsum the anhydrite with alkali activation properties was obtained. The properties of such substances were evaluated using the methods of chemical, diffractive X-ray scanning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. Some additives, e.g. 5 % ground glass waste, were found to increase crystal agglomerate formation of anhydrite binder, accelerate the hydration process of anhydrite and double the compressive strength of hydrated samples compared to samples without additives.

  11. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum on Reducing Soluble Phosphorus in Successive Runoff Events from a Coastal Plain Bermudagrass Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the threat that pastures intensively managed with poultry litter (PL) pose to accelerating eutrophication is a major issue in the southeastern United States. Gypsum (CaSO) has been identified as a promising management tool for ameliorating litter P losses to runoff. Thus, research was conducted to elucidate gypsum's residual effects on P losses from a bermudagrass ( L.) pasture. Runoff events (60 min) were created using rainfall simulations. Treatments consisted of applying four flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum rates (0, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.9 Mg ha) to bermudagrass fertilized with 13.4 Mg ha PL plus a nonfertilized check (no litter or gypsum) and 8.9 Mg ha FGD gypsum only as controls. Rainfall simulations (∼ 85 mm h) were conducted immediately, 5 wk, and 6 mo (i.e., at the end of growing season) after PL application to determine gypsum's effectiveness at controlling P loss over successive runoff events. The greatest dissolved P (DP) in runoff occurred immediately after PL application. Gypsum effectively reduced cumulative DP concentration losses (54%) compared with PL alone in initial runoff events. Gypsum reduced DP concentrations in succeeding runoff events also regardless of timing, suggesting that its effect is persistent and will not diminish over a growing season. Generally, maximum DP reductions were achieved with 8.9 Mg ha. However, it was surmised from this study that optimal P reduction in a bermudagrass pasture can be achieved with 4.4 Mg ha. Information ascertained from this study may be useful in aiding land managers making prescriptions for management practices that reduce DP losses from agricultural fields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. The effect of gypsum products and separating materials on the typography of denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firtell, D N; Walsh, J F; Elahi, J M

    1980-09-01

    The typography of polymethyl methacrylate processed against various gypsum products coated with various separating materials was studied under an SEM. Tinfoil and two commercial tin foil substitutes were used as separating material during processing, and the surfaces of the resulting acrylic resin forms were studied for topographical differences. Tinfoil and alpha 2 hemihydrates produced the smoothest surfaces. As a practical solution, a good quality tinfoil substitute and alpha 1 hemihydrate could be used when processing polymethyl methacrylate resin.

  13. Elementary characterization of samples of Portland cement, natural gypsum and phosphogypsum mortars from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Torres, Catarina Alzira Peddis; Mazer, Wellington; Macioski, Gustavo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Lara, Alessandro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Casali, Juliana Machado, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: alellara@hotmail.com, E-mail: jucasali@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Portland cement, the basic ingredient of concrete and is manufactured by crushing, milling and proportioning limestone, sand, clay, iron ore and secondary materials such as shells, chalk or marl combined with shale slate or blast furnace slag, fly ash, gypsum, phosphogypsum, and some others. Evaluating the physical and mineralogical characteristics of the cement and its chemical composition is essential to establish the quality of the product. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the most common chemical elements in the samples of Brazilian Portland cement, natural gypsum, and phosphogypsum mortars by means of X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDXRF), as well as to evaluate the strength of these mortars. For analysis of the compressive strength, initially prepared samples were submitted to a destructive mechanical test. Subsequently samples were milled and compacted to form thin tablets, which were submitted to the EDXRF analysis. The qualitative and quantitative analyzes showed that for phosphogypsum mortar the largest mass fractions were found of 49.8±2.5% (Si), 24.66±0.96% (S) and 22.10±0.42% (Ca). For gypsum mortar those values were found of 43.41±0.45% (Ca), 33.8 ± 0.8% (S) and 18.9±1.2% (Si), respectively; and for Portland cement mortar, the predominant elements in those samples have the mass fractions of 64.20±0.52% (Ca) and 27.3±1.5% (Si). The results showed that obtained values of mass fraction of the elements Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe are in rather good agreement with quantities indicated for manufacture. Besides, gypsum and phosphogypsum presented almost the same composition and compressive strength. (author)

  14. Accuracy of Gypsum Casts after Different Impression Techniques and Double Pouring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Caroline Rodolfo Silva

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the accuracy of gypsum casts after different impression techniques and double pouring. Ten patients were selected and for each one it was obtained 5 partial putty/wash impressions with vinyl polysiloxane (VPS material from teeth #13 to #16 with partial metal stock trays. The following techniques were performed: (1 one-step; two-step relief with: (2 PVC film; (3 slow-speed tungsten carbide bur and scalpel blade, (4 small movements of the tray and (5 without relief-negative control. The impressions were disinfected with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 10 minutes and stored during 110 and 230 minutes for the first and second pouring, respectively, with type IV gypsum. Three intra-oral lateral photographs of each patient were taken using a tripod and a customized radiographic positioner. The images were imported into ImageJ software and the total area of the buccal surface from teeth #13 to #16 was measured. A 4.0% coefficient of variance was criterion for using these measurements as Baseline values. The casts were photographed and analyzed using the same standardization for the clinical images. The area (mm2 obtained from the difference between the measurements of each gypsum cast and the Baseline value of the respective patient were calculated and analyzed by repeated-measures two way-ANOVA and Mauchly's Sphericity test (α = 0.05. No significant effect was observed for Impression technique (P = 0.23, Second pouring (P = 0.99 and their interaction (P = 0.25. The impression techniques and double pouring did not influence the accuracy of the gypsum casts.

  15. Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast

    OpenAIRE

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Dowah, Omir S.; Gana, Naif S.; Al-Hytham, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 21...

  16. Elementary characterization of samples of Portland cement, natural gypsum and phosphogypsum mortars from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Torres, Catarina Alzira Peddis; Mazer, Wellington; Macioski, Gustavo; Lara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Portland cement, the basic ingredient of concrete and is manufactured by crushing, milling and proportioning limestone, sand, clay, iron ore and secondary materials such as shells, chalk or marl combined with shale slate or blast furnace slag, fly ash, gypsum, phosphogypsum, and some others. Evaluating the physical and mineralogical characteristics of the cement and its chemical composition is essential to establish the quality of the product. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the most common chemical elements in the samples of Brazilian Portland cement, natural gypsum, and phosphogypsum mortars by means of X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDXRF), as well as to evaluate the strength of these mortars. For analysis of the compressive strength, initially prepared samples were submitted to a destructive mechanical test. Subsequently samples were milled and compacted to form thin tablets, which were submitted to the EDXRF analysis. The qualitative and quantitative analyzes showed that for phosphogypsum mortar the largest mass fractions were found of 49.8±2.5% (Si), 24.66±0.96% (S) and 22.10±0.42% (Ca). For gypsum mortar those values were found of 43.41±0.45% (Ca), 33.8 ± 0.8% (S) and 18.9±1.2% (Si), respectively; and for Portland cement mortar, the predominant elements in those samples have the mass fractions of 64.20±0.52% (Ca) and 27.3±1.5% (Si). The results showed that obtained values of mass fraction of the elements Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe are in rather good agreement with quantities indicated for manufacture. Besides, gypsum and phosphogypsum presented almost the same composition and compressive strength. (author)

  17. 18O and 34S in the Upper Bartonium gypsum deposits of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.C.; Letolle, R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotopic analyses ( 18 O and 34 S) of the Eocene gypsum from the Paris basin show a range beyond the normal Tertiary marine values. The possibility of a reduction process during diagenesis is discussed. A hypothesis of continental origin by leaching of Permotriassic deposits is proposed for this formation on the basis of a comparison of the isotopic contents recorded from Germany and eastern France

  18. Mechanical properties of simulated Mars materials: gypsum-rich sandstones and lapilli tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn; Lockner, David; Okubo, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Observations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity, and other recent studies on diagenesis in the extensive equatorial layered deposits on Mars, suggest that the likely lithologies of these deposits are gypsum-rich sandstones and tuffaceous sediments (for example, Murchie and others, 2009; Squyres and others, 2012; Zimbelman and Scheidt, 2012). Of particular interest is how the diagenesis history of these sediments (degree of cementation and composition) influences the strength and brittle behavior of the material. For instance, fractures are more common in lower porosity materials under strain, whereas deformation bands, characterized by distributed strain throughout a broader discontinuity in a material, are common in higher porosity sedimentary materials. Such discontinuities can either enhance or restrict fluid flow; hence, failure mode plays an important role in determining the mechanics of fluid migration through sediments (Antonellini and Aydin, 1994; 1995; Taylor and Pollard, 2000; Ogilvie and Glover, 2001). As part of a larger study to characterize processes of fault-controlled fluid flow in volcaniclastic and gypsum-rich sediments on Mars, we have completed a series of laboratory experiments to focus on how gypsum clast content and degree of authigenic cementation affects the strength behavior of simulated Mars rocks. Both axial deformation and hydrostatic pressure tests were done at room temperature under dry conditions.

  19. Clay stabilization by using gypsum and paddy husk ash with reference to UCT and CBR value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, I. P.; Dianty, W. O.

    2018-02-01

    Clays that have low shear strength need to be stabilized in order to meet the technical requirements to serve as a subgrade material. One of the usual soil stabilization methods is by adding chemicals such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and paddy husk ash. The research goals were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% paddy husk ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT value of original soil was 1.41 kg/cm2. While the CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.41% and 6.23% respectively. The research results showed the addition of paddy husk ash decreased the value of unconfined compressive strength as well as CBR. The stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 0% paddy husk ash gave maximum UCT value of 1.67 kg/cm2, while the maximum value of CBR were found 6.71% for CBR soaked and 8.00% for CBR unsoaked. The addition of paddy husk ash did not alter the soil classification according to AASHTO or USCS, even degrade the engineering properties of original soil.

  20. Developing biodiversity indicators on a stakeholders' opinions basis: the gypsum industry Key Performance Indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Carline; Mahy, Grégory; Vermeulen, Cédric; Marlet, Christine; Séleck, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. In order to integrate different opinions and to reach a consensus framework, an original participatory process approach has been developed among different stakeholder groups: Eurogypsum, European and regional authorities, university scientists, consulting offices, European and regional associations for the conservation of nature, and the extractive industry. The strategy is developed around four main steps: (1) building of a maximum set of indicators to be submitted to stakeholders based on the literature (Focus Group method); (2) evaluating the consensus about indicators through a policy Delphi survey aiming at the prioritization of indicator classes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and of individual indicators; (3) testing acceptability and feasibility through analysis of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and visits to three European quarries; (4) Eurogypsum final decision and communication. The resulting framework contains a set of 11 indicators considered the most suitable for all the stakeholders. Our KPIs respond to European legislation and strategies for biodiversity. The framework aims at improving sustainability in quarries and at helping to manage biodiversity as well as to allow the creation of coherent reporting systems. The final goal is to allow for the definition of the actual biodiversity status of gypsum quarries and allow for enhancing it. The framework is adaptable to the local context of each gypsum quarry.

  1. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA, CSIC, Apto. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ballesteros, J.C.; Gimenez, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10{sup -2}-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively.

  2. Mineral potential of clays that cover the gypsum deposits in Araripina-PE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, B.B.; Anjos, I.F. dos; Rego, S.A.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the applicability of the clays that cover the deposits of Gypsum Plaster in the region of Araripina - PE for use as the ceramic pigments and for bricks production in the red ceramic industry was analyzed. The clay minerals contained the illite, kaolinite and smectite, with high proportion of the last one. The possibility of industrial application of this mineral clay is considerable; however, the mining industries that mine and process the gypsum in the region do not take the clays into account as the potential mineral. In general, industries use the clay minerals in manufacturing processes or as key raw materials, or as the alternatives for some kinds of the chemical processing industries. This paper aims to highlight the potential of materials that cover the deposits of gypsum in reference. The material sampled from different deposit layers was characterized and the physical treatment of ore was applied. The results showed that the material analyzed can be used in various kinds of industry, such as the production of natural ceramic pigments. (author)

  3. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuan-Jiang; Zheng Hai-Fei

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) phase precipitates at 250–320°C in the pressure range of 1.0–1.5GPa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO 4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) = 0.0068T−0.7126 (250°C≤T≤320°C). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  4. Implications of moisture content determination in the environmental characterisation of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tomas, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    The leachable contents of elements of environmental concern considered in the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal were determined in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum. To this end, leaching tests were performed following the standard EN-12457-4 which specifies the determination of the dry mass of the material at 105 deg. C and the use of a liquid to solid (L/S) ratio of 10 l kg{sup -1} dry matter. Additionally, leaching tests were also carried out taking into account the dry mass of the material at 60 deg. C and using different L/S ratios (2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20 l kg{sup -1} dry matter). It was found that the dry mass determination at 105 deg. C turns out to be inappropriate for FGD gypsum since at this temperature gypsum transforms into bassanite, and so, in addition to moisture content, crystalline water is removed. As a consequence the moisture content is overvalued (about 16%), what makes consider a lower L/S ratio than that specified by the standard EN-12457-4. As a result the leachable contents in FGD gypsum are, in general, overestimated, what could lead to more strict environmental requirements for FGD gypsum when considering its disposal in landfills, specially concerning those elements (e.g., F) risking the characterisation of FGD gypsum as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes.

  5. Fabrication and properties of microencapsulated-paraffin/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Junfeng; Wang Xinyu; Wang Shengbao; Zhao Yunhui; Huang Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DSC curves of microPCMs/gypsum composite samples before and after a thermal cycling treatment. Highlights: ► Microcapsules containing paraffin was fabricated by in-situ polymerization. ► Methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) was used as shell material. ► MicroPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials were applied for solar energy storage. ► The structure and thermal conductivity of composites had been investigated. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The aim of this work was to prepare and investigate the properties of microPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage. MicroPCMs contain paraffin was fabricated by in situ polymerization using methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) as shell material. A series of microPCMs samples were prepared under emulsion stirring rates in range of 1000–3000 r min −1 with core/shell weight ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. The shell of microPCMs was smooth and compact with global shape, its thickness was not greatly affected by the core/shell ratio and emulsion stirring rate. DSC tests showed that the shell of microPCMs did not influence the phase change behavior of pure paraffin. It was found from TGA analysis that microPCMs samples containing paraffin lost their weight at the temperature of nearly 250 °C, which indicated that the PCM had been protected by shell. More shell material in microPCMs could enhance the thermal stability and provide higher compact condition for core material. After a 100-times thermal cycling treatment, the microPCMs contain paraffin also nearly did not change the phase change behaviors of PCM. With the increasing of weight contents of microPCMs in gypsum board, the thermal conductivity (λ) values of composites had decreased. The simulation of temperature tests proved that the

  6. Surface controlled dissolution rates of gypsum in aqueous solutions exhibit nonlinear dissolution kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Alexander A.; Vosbeck, Katrin; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The effective dissolution rates of gypsum are determined by mixed kinetics, where the rate constants of dissolution at the surface and the transport constant of molecular diffusion of dissolved material are similar. To obtain the surface reaction rate law it is necessary to know the transport constant. We have determined the surface rate law for monocrystalline selenite by using a rotating disc set-up, where the transport coefficients are well known. As a result, up to a calcium concentration of 0.6 · ceq, we find a nearly linear rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, where cs is the total calcium concentration at the surface and ceq the equilibrium concentration with respect to gypsum, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2, and ksl = 1.1 · 10 -4 mmol cm -2 s -1 ± 15%. We also employed batch-experiments for selenite, alabaster and gypsum rock samples. The result of these experiments were interpreted by using a transport constant determined by NaCl dissolution experiments under similar physical conditions. The batch experiments reveal a dissolution rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, ksl = 1.3 · 10 -4 mmol · cm -2 s -1, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2 for c ≤ 0.94 · ceq. Close to equilibrium a nonlinear rate law, Rs = ks2 (1- cs/ ceq) n2, is observed, where ks2 is in the order of 10 mmol · cm -2 s -1 and n2 ≈ 4.5. The experimentally observed gypsum dissolution rates from the batch experiments could be accurately fitted, with only minor variations of the surface reaction constant obtained from the rotating disk experiment and the transport coefficient from the NaCl dissolution batch experiment. Batch experiments on pure synthetic gypsum, reveal a linear rate law up to equilibrium. This indicates inhibition of dissolution in natural samples close to equilibrium, as is known also for calcite minerals.

  7. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  8. Polymeric-SiO2-PCMs for improving the thermal properties of gypsum applied in energy efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borreguero, Ana M.; Serrano, Angel; Garrido, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Juan F.; Carmona, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Inorganic–organic PCM microcapsules were incorporated into gypsum. • The physical and thermal properties of the gypsum composites were studied. • The gypsum composites presented better properties than some previously investigated. • 10.20 kW h/operating cycle could be saved in a room with 1 m 3 of this material. • 1.26 kg of CO 2 emissions could be reduced per one operating cycle. - Abstract: A new thermoregulating material containing the commercial paraffin Rubitherm®RT27 stabilized by SiO 2 with a polymeric shell from polystyrene–divinylbenzene (Polymeric-SiO 2 -PCMs) was incorporated into gypsum up to a 15 mass ratio respect to the initial hemihydrate in order to develop building materials with a high thermal energy store (TES) capacity. The effect of this material on the gypsum crystals and the main physical, thermal and mechanical properties were studied and compared to those caused by another three kinds of thermoregulating materials. Polymeric-SiO 2 -PCMs presented the lowest agglomeration and therefore, the best distribution into the gypsum pores. As expected, the thermoregulating effect of the PCM improved the thermal properties of the gypsum since, the higher the microcapsules content, the higher the equivalent heat capacity (c p ) and the accumulated heat power (q acc ). Considering a conversion of 100% of the accumulated heat into electricity savings, the addition of a 15% of microcapsules respect to the hemihydrate allowed to save 10.20 kW h/m 3 and, consequently, reduced the CO 2 emissions in a 1.26 kg of CO 2 per operating cycle. Besides, the addition of the Polymeric-SiO 2 -PCMs reduces the gypsum density, but it is always higher than 600 kg/m 3 , as required by the European regulation EN 13279-2. The thermal conductivity (k) is also reduced by the microcapsules addition but for the case of a content of 15%. On the other hand, the porosity is barely affected just varying always less than a 3.5%. Finally, despite of the

  9. Evaluation of potential for mercury volatilization from natural and FGD gypsum products using flux-chamber tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Scott S; Noggle, Jessica J; Bloom, Nicholas; Yost, Lisa J

    2009-04-01

    Synthetic gypsum produced by flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) in coal-fired power plants (FGD gypsum) is put to productive use in manufacturing wallboard. FGD gypsum wallboard is widely used, accounting for nearly 30% of wallboard sold in the United States. Mercury is captured in flue gas and thus is one of the trace metals present in FGD gypsum; raising questions about the potential for mercury exposure from wallboard. Mercury is also one of the trace metals present in "natural" mined gypsum used to make wall board. Data available in the literature were not adequate to assess whether mercury in wallboard from either FGD or natural gypsum could volatilize into indoor air. In this study, mercury volatilization was evaluated using small-scale (5 L) glass and Teflon flux chambers, with samples collected using both iodated carbon and gold-coated sand traps. Mercury flux measurements made using iodated carbon traps (n=6) were below the detection limit of 11.5 ng/m2-day for all natural and synthetic gypsum wallboard samples. Mercury flux measurements made using gold-coated sand traps (n=6) were 0.92 +/- 0.11 ng/m2-day for natural gypsum wallboard and 5.9 +/- 2.4 ng/m2-day for synthetic gypsum wallboard. Room air mercury concentrations between 0.028 and 0.28 ng/m3 and between 0.13 and 2.2 ng/m3 were estimated based on the flux-rate data for natural and synthetic gypsum wallboard samples, respectively, and were calculated assuming a 3 m x 4 m x 5 m room, and 10th and 90th percentile air exchange rates of 0.18/hour and 1.26/hour. The resulting concentration estimates are well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference concentration for indoor air elemental mercury of 300 ng/m3 and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry minimal risk level (MRL) of 200 ng/m3. Further, these estimates are below background mercury concentrations in indoor air and within or below the range of typical background mercury concentrations in outdoor air.

  10. Why does carbon increase in highly weathered soil under no-till upon lime and gypsum use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Thiago Massao; de Moraes Sá, João Carlos; Caires, Eduardo Fávero; Gonçalves, Daniel Ruiz Potma

    2017-12-01

    Field experiments have been used to explain how soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is affected by lime and gypsum applications, however, how SOC storage occurs is still debatable. We hypothesized that although many studies conclude that Ca-based soil amendments such as lime and gypsum may lead to SOC depletion due to the enhancement of microbial activity, the same does not occur under conservation agriculture conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on soil microbial activity and SOC stocks in a no-till field and in a laboratory incubation study simulating no-till conditions. The field experiment was established in 1998 in a clayey Oxisol in southern Brazil following a completely randomized blocks design with a split-plot arrangement and three replications. Lime and gypsum were surface applied in 1998 and reapplied in 2013. Undisturbed soil samples were collected before the treatments reapplications, and one year after. The incubation experiment was carried out during 16months using these samples adding crop residues on the soil surface to simulate no-till field conditions. Lime and gypsum applications significantly increased the labile SOC stocks, microbial activity and soil fertility attributes in both field and laboratory experiments. Although the microbial activity was increased, no depletion of SOC stocks was observed in both experiments. Positive correlations were observed between microbial activity increase and SOC gains. Labile SOC and Ca 2+ content increase leads to forming complex with mineral soil fractions. Gypsum applications performed a higher influence on labile SOC pools in the field than in the laboratory experiment, which may be related to the presence of active root system in the soil profile. We conclude that incubation experiments using lime and gypsum in undisturbed samples confirm that soil microbial activity increase does not deplete SOC stocks under conservation agriculture

  11. Fate of gypsum-sulphur applied to soybean on Typic haplustepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharan, Neelam; Rattan, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the sulphur-deficient Typic Haplustepts of the IARI farm for two consecutive, kharif seasons viz. 1996 and 1997 with soybean cultivar Pusa 22 as the crop. Varying rates of S as gypsum were basally applied in the main plots adjacent to the micro plots (1 m x 1 m) to quantify the partitioning of the fertilizer-sulphur taken up by soybean and its distribution in the soil profile. Soybean responded to the application of sulphur, with increase in yield being obtained up to rate of 40 kg S ha -1 . Data computed on distribution of the S derived from labelled gypsum and percent S utilization by the soybean crop increased from 13.23 and 4.15 to 23.41 and 6.39, respectively. During 1996, the per cent utilization of labelled S ranged from 5.6 to 8.8. Monitoring of added sulphur in the soil profile up to a depth of 1 m revealed maximum accumulation of the added S in 30-60 cm soil layer. With the help of 35 S around 11 to 18 per cent of the added S was traced in 60-100 cm soil layer. It can be concluded from the data for two years that during kharif season the application of S through water soluble sources like ammonium sulphate and ammonium phosphate sulphate should be avoided because even S from the sparingly soluble gypsum migrated to a depth of 1 m during the cropping season. (author)

  12. High Levels of Antibiotic Resistance but No Antibiotic Production Detected Along a Gypsum Gradient in Great Onyx Cave, KY, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Lavoie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of antibiotic production and antibiotic resistance was conducted in Great Onyx Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park, KY, to determine if gypsum (CaSO4∙2H2O affects these bacterial activities. The cave crosses through the width of Flint Ridge, and passages under the sandstone caprock are dry with different amounts of gypsum. The Great Kentucky Desert hypothesis posits that gypsum limits the distribution of invertebrates in the central areas of Great Onyx Cave. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were cultivated from swabs and soils. Using three methods (soil crumb, soil crumb with indicator bacteria, and the cross-streak method using isolated bacteria we did not detect any production of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, with all 24 isolates resistant to a minimum of two antibiotics of seven tested, with three isolates resistant to all. Antibiotic resistance was high and not correlated with depth into the cave or the amount of gypsum. The Great Kentucky Desert hypothesis of the negative effects of gypsum seems to have no impact on bacterial activity.

  13. The impact of gypsum mine water: A case study on morphology and DNA integrity in the freshwater invertebrate, Gammarus balcanicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternjej, Ivančica; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Ivković, Marija; Previšić, Ana; Stanković, Igor; Maldini, Krešimir; Želježić, Davor; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate how exposure to heavy metal-rich waters from gypsum mining affects the morphology and levels of primary DNA damage in Gammarus balcanicus. Chemical analysis revealed increased concentrations of metals in water and sediment collected at a site impacted by gypsum mine wastewaters. The specimens also showed elevated total tissue metal levels when compared with the organisms collected at the reference site. The most prominent increase was observed for strontium, followed by iron, nickel, vanadium, aluminium, and manganese. The major pathway of entry for these toxic substances was through the degraded exoskeleton as a consequence of excessive strontium input (unbalanced calcium/strontium ratio) and altered permeability. Disturbed exoskeleton integrity was observed only in individuals collected downstream of the gypsum mine, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. Levels of primary DNA damage were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay in the haemolymph of the specimens. - Highlights: • Our findings suggest toxic potential of gypsum mine wastewaters. • The Gammarus specimens showed elevated total tissue metal levels. • Strontium uptake disturbed exoskeleton integrity. • Corrupted cuticle altered permeability to other toxic substances. • Combined effects of all contaminants caused genotoxicity. - Gypsum mine wastewaters have genotoxic potential and affect the gammarid exoskeleton morphology and biochemistry associated with a high strontium uptake

  14. Estimates of the radiation dose from phospho-gypsum plaster-board if used in domestic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.; Peggie, J.R.; Leith, I.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out to estimate the annual effective dose equivalent contribution from phospho-gypsum plaster-board if it were used as an internal lining in buildings. The study considered four sources of radiation exposure that would arise in such use, such as inhalation of 222 Rn and its daughters, inhalation of phospho-gypsum dust and exposure to beta and gamma radiation. Measurements of the 22 6Ra content and 222 Rn exhalation rate were made for a number of samples of phospho-gypsum plaster-board, and the behaviour of 222 Rn and its daughters in a typical building was modelled. The results of the study suggest that, for building ventilation rates greater than approximately 0.5 air changes per hour, the contribution to the total annual effective dose equivalent from inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and its daughters ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Po) exhaled from the phospho-gypsum plaster-board should be well below the recommended limit of 1 milli-Sievert for members of the public. The total annual effective dose equivalent from all these sources should be less than 0.6 milli-Sieverts, provided reasonable work practices are observed during installation of the phospho-gypsum plaster-board and the ventilation rate is kept above approximately 0.5 air changes per hour. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Physical and mechanical characterization of gypsum boards containing phase change materials for latent heat storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver-Ramírez, A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the design and manufacture of a gypsum board which, despite its 45 % wt content of phase change materials, meets the minimum physical and mechanical requirements laid down in the legislation on gypsum plasters (Spanish and European standard UNE EN 13279 and Spanish specifications for gypsum acceptance, RY 85. Under this design, a one-metre square, 1.5-cm thick board contains 4.75 kg of PCM, much more than in any prior drylining (the maximum attained to date is 3 kg per m2. The mechanical and physical characteristics of this new composite were previously improved with two joint-action additives: polypropylene fibres and melamine formaldehyde as a dispersing agent. In the 20-30 ºC temperature range, a gypsum board 1.5 cm thick containing this percentage of PCMs can store five times more thermal energy than conventional plasterboard of the same thickness, and the same amount of energy as half-foot hollow brick masonry.

    En esta investigación se ha diseñado y fabricado un panel de escayola que incorpora un 45% en peso de material de cambio de fase, manteniendo las propiedades físicas y mecánicas exigidas en la normativa de aplicación para yesos de construcción (UNE EN 13279 y referencias a la RY 85. Así, un panel de 1,0 m2 y 1,5 cm de espesor, contiene 4,75 kg de PCM, cantidad muy superior a la conseguida hasta la fecha (3 kg/m2. Para ello se ha mejorado previamente sus prestaciones mecánicas y físicas mediante adiciones binarias: fibras de polipropileno y dispersión de melanina formaldehído. Este porcentaje es capaz de almacenar en 1,5 cm de espesor cinco veces la energía térmica de un panel de cartón yeso con el mismo espesor y la misma cantidad que una fábrica de 1/2 pie de ladrillo hueco, en el rango de temperaturas próximas a la de confort (20-30 ºC.

  16. Luminescence rigidochromism as a probe for the setting of gypsum plaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkely, Horst; Vogler, Arnd

    2008-01-01

    The setting of gypsum plaster can be monitored by luminescence rigidochromism. The progress of the setting process which is accompanied by hardening is indicated by a blue shift of the phosphorescence of a suitable water soluble rhenium complex. This rigidity increase of the plaster/water mixture takes place in two phases. In the beginning the rigidity increase is rather large while in the second much longer phase it is relatively small. The addition of a plasticizer (or retarder) keeps the rigidity smaller in the beginning, but only slightly affects the final rigidity of the set plaster

  17. Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Paolo S.; Fricker, Mattias B.; Günther, Detlef; Forti, Paolo; Mercuri, Anna-Maria; Loreti, Mara; Capaccioni, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico ( Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11 m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area ( Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160 m-deep vertical section of the local drainage basin. Similar to other hypogenic caves, all these caves lack a direct connection with the land surface and should be unrelated with climate. A record of multi-technique fluid inclusion data and pollen spectra from cave and mine gypsum indicates surprisingly that climatic changes occurring at Naica could have controlled fluid composition in these caves, and hence crystal growth. Microthermometry and LA-ICP-Mass Spectrometry of fluid inclusions indicate that the shallow, chemically peculiar, saline fluid (up to 7.7 eq. wt.%NaCl) of CLE could have formed from evaporation, during a dry and hot climatic period. The fluid of the deep caves was instead of low salinity (˜ 3.5 eq. wt.% NaCl) and chemically homogeneous, and was poorly affected by evaporation. We propose that mixing of these two fluids, generated at different depths of the Naica drainage basin, determined the stable supersaturation conditions for the gigantic gypsum crystals to grow. Fluid mixing was controlled by the hydraulic communication between CLE and the other deep caves, and must have taken place during cycles of warm-dry and fresh-wet climatic periods, which are known to have occurred in the region. Pollen grains from a 35 ka-old gypsum crystal of CLC corresponds to a fairly homogenous catchment basin made of a mixed broadleaf wet forest, which suggests precipitation during a fresh-wet climatic period and confirms our interpretation of the fluid inclusion data. The unusual combination of geological and geochemical factors of Naica suggests that other hypogenic caves found elsewhere may not host similar crystals. However, this work shows that

  18. Determination of Ra-226 and Th-232 in samples of natural phosphates, industrial gypsums and surface soils by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Nadai, E.A. de; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in Ra-226 and Th-232 in samples of natural phosphates, industrial gypsums (phosphogypsums) and surface soils of different regions was measured by γ-ray spectrometry. The majority of phosphates and gypsums examined showed significantly higher values than soils, mainly in relation to Ra-226 activity. The activity ranges found for phosphates, gypsums and soils were: 79.1 - 3180 Bq/kg, 56.3 - 986.6 Bq/kg, 8.8 - 54.3 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and 33.6 - 1450.3 Bq/kg; 17.4 - 130,1 Bq/kg, 9.8 - 108.9 Bq/kg for Th-232, respectively. (author) [pt

  19. An analysis of the persistent presence of opportunistic pathogens on patient-derived dental impressions and gypsum casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Watamoto, Takao; Abe, Keike; Kobayashi, Munemasa; Kaneda, Yoshitoshi; Ashida, Shunji; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the persistent presence of microorganisms on patient-derived dental impressions and gypsum casts, while highlighting important human pathogens such as Candida, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The practices and opinions regarding cross-infection control from 59 general dentists in Japan were obtained via a questionnaire. Alginate impressions were made from 56 patients. Using a brain heart infusion agar medium, impression and imprint cultures were carried out to visualize the microbial contamination on the surfaces of the impressions and gypsum casts, respectively. The colonies on the surfaces of the 30 impression cultures and 26 imprint cultures were collected by swabbing and then inoculated onto selective agar plates to detect streptococci, staphylococci, Candida, MRSA, and P aeruginosa. The questionnaire showed that only 54% of general dentists had a cross-infection policy in their dental clinics, and only 30% to 40% were aware of the possible persistence of MRSA or P aeruginosa on impressions and gypsum casts. The impression/imprint cultures grew a large number of visible bacterial colonies on all of impression/gypsum cast samples investigated. Selective agar cultures demonstrated the presence of streptococci (100, 100%), staphylococci (56.7, 65.4%), Candida (30, 46.2%), MRSA (26.7, 15.4%), and P aeruginosa (6.7, 7.7%) on the impressions and the gypsum casts, respectively. This investigation showed that patient-derived dental impressions and gypsum casts are contaminated with numerous microbes, including Candida, MRSA, and P aeruginosa, which are known pathogens responsible for nosocomial and/or life-threatening infection in the immunocompromised host.

  20. Leaching characteristics of trace elements in desulfurization gypsum from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.K.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Zhu, Z.W.; Chen, C.H. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The contents and leaching characteristics of Cr, Cd, As, Pb and Se in FGD gypsum from a 200 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated in this study. Experimental results revealed that: the leaching characteristics of As and Se were similar, both leaching rates were not obviously affected by pH but increased with increase of the liquid-solid ratio. Pb and Cr had similar leaching characteristics, their leaching rates were closely related with the pH of leaching solution and increased with the lowering of pH and both increased with the increasing of solid-liquid ratio. Along with the increase of the liquid-solid ratio, the leaching gradually achieved balance, and the balanced liquid-solid ratio was bigger when pH of leaching solution was lower. Cd content of leaching solution was below detect limit, and thus failed to get its leaching characteristics. The order of trace element content in leaching solution is Pb < Cr < As < Se, and the order of leaching rates is Cr < As < Pb < Se. BCR extraction procedure revealed that trace elements in FGD gypsum were mainly existed as available fraction and migration ability was stronger than that of trace elements in fly ash from coal-fired power plants.

  1. Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of the Cavity Evolution in Gypsum Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Einstein, Herbert H.

    2017-11-01

    When water flows through a preexisting cylindrical tube in gypsum rock, the nonuniform dissolution alters the tube into an enlarged tapered tube. A 2-D analytical model is developed to study the transport-controlled dissolution in an enlarged tapered tube, with explicit consideration of the tapered geometry and induced radial flow. The analytical model shows that the Graetz solution can be extended to model dissolution in the tapered tube. An alternative form of the governing equations is proposed to take advantage of the invariant quantities in the Graetz solution to facilitate modeling cavity evolution in gypsum rock. A 2-D finite volume model was developed to validate the extended Graetz solution. The time evolution of the transport-controlled and the reaction-controlled dissolution models for a single tube with time-invariant flow rate are compared. This comparison shows that for time-invariant flow rate, the reaction-controlled dissolution model produces a positive feedback between the tube enlargement and dissolution, while the transport-controlled dissolution does not.

  2. Influence of Curing Humidity on the Compressive Strength of Gypsum-Cemented Similar Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analogous simulation experiment is widely used in geotechnical and mining engineering. However, systematic errors derived from unified standard curing procedure have been underestimated to some extent. In this study, 140 gypsum-cemented similar material specimens were chosen to study their curing procedure with different relative humidity, which is 10%–15%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, respectively. SEM microstructures and XRD spectra were adopted to detect the correlation between microstructures and macroscopic mechanical strength during curing. Our results indicated that the needle-like phases of similar materials began to develop in the early stage of the hydration process through intersecting with each other and eventually transformed into mat-like phases. Increase of humidity may inhibit the development of needle-like phases; thus the compressive strength changes more smoothly, and the time required for the material strength to reach the peak value will be prolonged. The peak strength decreases along with the increase of humidity while the humidity is higher than 40%; however, the reverse tendency was observed if the humidity was lower than 40%. Finally, we noticed that the material strength usually reaches the peak value when the water content continuously reduces and tends towards stability. Based on the above observation, a curing method determination model and experimental strength predication method for gypsum-cemented similar materials were proposed.

  3. The production of hydroxyapatite prototypes from solid bodies of Gypsum/Polyvinyl Alcohol composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Amanda Alves; Ferraz, Andrea de Vasconcelos; Dantas, Alan Christie; Olivier, Nelson Cardenas, E-mail: andrea.ferraz@univasf.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Prototypes of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) were produced from Gypsum/PVA composite, using a mass proportion of 15% polymer. The material was obtained by means of chemical conversion in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} 0.5 mol.L{sup -1} solution and NH{sub 4}OH 6.0 mol.L{sup -1} alkaline medium for pH control, maintained between 6.0 and 9.0. The reaction occurred at a temperature of 100°C at different test times. The obtained HAp was characterized by several techniques, such as FTIR, which identified the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups characteristic for the Gypsum block, and the PO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups that are attributed to the biomaterial HAp, besides XRD and SEM, which made it possible to confirm a successful conversion of the material. Tests for mechanical resistance to compression (σ{sub c}) were carried out for both materials as well. (author)

  4. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  5. Evolution of microstructure and elastic wave velocities in dehydrated gypsum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike

    2012-12-01

    We report on changes in P and S-wave velocities and rock microstructure induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air, at ambient pressure, and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Dehydration did not proceed homogeneously but via a reaction front moving sample inwards separating an outer highly porous rim from the remaining gypsum which, above approximately 393 (±5) K, concurrently decomposed into hemihydrate. Overall porosity was observed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% for fully hydrated samples to 30% for completely dehydrated ones. Concurrently, P and S-wave velocities linearly decreased with porosity from 5.2 and 2.7 km/s to 1.0 and 0.7 km/s, respectively. It is concluded that a linearized empirical Raymer-type model extended by a critical porosity term and based on the respective time dependent mineral and pore volumes reasonably replicates the P and S-wave data in relation to reaction progress and porosity.

  6. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  7. Populations of some molds in water-damaged homes may differ if the home was constructed with gypsum drywall compared to plaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in the 1940s, gypsum drywall began replacing plaster and lathe in the U.S. home construction industry. Our goal was to evaluate whether some mold populations differ in water- damaged homes primarily constructed with gypsum drywall compared to plaster. The dust samples fr...

  8. Lipid and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Gypsum-hosted Endoevaporitic Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, K. A.; Jahnke, L. L.; Green, S. J.; Kubo, M. D.; Vogel, M. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    Gypsum evaporites host diverse, productive and volumetrically significant microbial communities and are relevant modern-day analogs to both Precambrian sabkha deposits and, potentially, Martian evaporites. Extensive evaporites form in subaqueous environments of high salinity ponds (>150 permil) maintained by the Exportadora de Sal, S. A. (ESSA) in Guerrero Negro, B.C.S., Mexico. A gypsarenite (reworked clastic gypsum) crust found along the southeast margin of ESSA's Pond 9 was collected in February 2004 and each vibrantly colored layer in the top centimeter was sampled. Extant microbial communities from each layer were characterized using complementary culture-independent molecular techniques, lipid biomarker analysis, and compound specific isotopic analysis. Coupling molecular analysis with lipid biomarker analysis revealed that oxygenic photosynthetic organisms dominate the surface layers (top 3 mm). Polar lipids from the surface layers consisted predominantly of glycolipids, which are characteristic of algae, cyanobacteria and green anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Consistent with prior analyses of gypsum evaporites, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicate that cyanobacterial populations belong primarily to the genus Cyanothece. The bacterial community below the surface layers is more diverse and dominated by anaerobic organisms. Phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and Bacteroidetes were particularly abundant. The relative abundances of SRB increased with depth; Desulfobacteraceae clones were distributed throughout the crust, but not at the surface, while Desulfovibrionaceae clones were found predominantly in the deepest layers. These molecular results are consistent with fatty acid biomarker analysis. δ13C values of major lipid classes in the crust and sediment range from 14 to 36‰, which is considerably lower than corresponding values for benthic Microcoleus-dominated cyanobacterial mats found at lower salinities at ESSA

  9. High-yield synthesis of vaterite microparticles in gypsum suspension system via ultrasonic probe vibration/magnetic stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Pan, Zihe; Cheng, Huaigang; Chen, Zuliang; Cheng, Fangqin

    2018-06-01

    Vaterite-type calcium carbonate particles have some unique properties such as high hydrophilicity, large surface areas, and hierarchical structures consisting of primary vaterite particles in comparison with calcite or aragonite-type polymorphs. In this paper, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) suspension is used to synthesize micro-sized vaterite CaCO3 through magnetic stirring (MS) and ultrasonic probe vibration (UPV) methods. The effects of ammonia concentration, CO2 flow rate, solid-liquid ratio on the gypsum carbonation process, mineral phase composition, morphology and particle size distribution of CaCO3 are investigated. The results show that the carbonation process is significantly influenced by ammonia concentration, CO2 flow rate and ultrasound. Comparing with magnetic stirring, ultrasonic probe vibration take less time to reach the complete carbonate reaction. Gypsum is transformed to vaterite with the conversion rate about ∼95% when the mole ratio of NH4+/Ca2+ is 2.4 otherwise the carbonation reaction was uncompleted with gypsum residues left. Comparing with MS method, the UPV method resulted in smaller size and narrower size distribution of as-prepared microparticles and approximately 80% reduction of the particle size was achieved. It is established that increasing the solid-liquid ratio resulted in larger particle size in MS system and smaller particle size in UPV system. Increasing CO2 flow rate caused the particle size decreased in MS system and increased in UPV system.

  10. Impact of Leaching Conditions on Constituents Release from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) and FGDG-Soil Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum(FGDG) has increased recently. This study evaluates the leaching characteristics of trace elements in "modern" FGDG (produced after fly ash removal) and FGDG-mixed soil (SF) under different environmental conditions using rece...

  11. Towards establishing a combined rate law of nucleation and crystal growth - The case study of gypsum precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Pedro M.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2018-03-01

    The main obstacle in the formulation of a quantitative rate-model for mineral precipitation is the absence of a rigorous method for coupling nucleation and growth processes. In order to link both processes, we conducted a series of batch experiments in which gypsum nucleation was followed by crystal growth. Experiments were carried out using various stirring methods in several batch vessels made of different materials. In the experiments, the initial degree of supersaturation of the solution with respect to gypsum (Ωgyp) was set between 1.58 and 1.82. Under these conditions, heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mode. Based on changes in SO42- concentration with time, the induction time of gypsum nucleation and the following rate of crystal growth were calculated for each experiment. The induction time (6-104 h) was found to be a function of the vessel material, while the rates of crystal growth, which varied over three orders of magnitude, were strongly affected by the stirring speed and its mode (i.e. rocking, shaking, magnetic stirrer, and magnetic impeller). The SO42- concentration data were then used to formulate a forward model that couples the simple rate laws for nucleation and crystal growth of gypsum into a single kinetic model. Accordingly, the obtained rate law is based on classical nucleation theory and heterogeneous crystal growth.

  12. Metals in soil and runoff from a piedmont hayfield amended with broiler litter and flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) from coal-fired power plants is available for agricultural use in many US regions. Broiler litter (BL) provides plant available N, P, and K but may be a source of unwanted arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). FGDG provides Ca and S and can reduce runoff lo...

  13. Influence of gypsum on efflorescence in ceramic tiles; Influence da gipsita no surgimento de eflorescencia em telhas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.M.O.L. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPgCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The red ceramic industry is recognized as of major importance in Piaui State. The State capital, Teresina, is the greatest producer of this material, which is used mainly for masonry sealing blocks. One of the most frequent problems in this kind of products is the efflorescence.This paper has the main objective of studying the influence of gypsum on tiles, using the local industry production standards. The raw materials were characterized by FRX, DRX, thermal analysis and sulfates. Extruded test specimens were made with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of gypsum in the ceramic paste, burned at 850 deg C, 950 deg C and 1050 deg C and submitted to further technological and analysis for MEV. The reference ceramic paste did not show tendency to efflorescence formation after burning for samples with 1% gypsum added to the paste. The reference ceramic paste showed tendency to efflorescence formation after drying and consolidated efflorescence after burning for samples with 5% gypsum added to the paste. (author)

  14. Gypsum (CaSO42H2O) scaling on polybenzimidazole and cellulose acetate hollow fiber membranes under forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Si Cong

    2013-11-08

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO42H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42 14.85 after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  15. Hydrate Phase Assemblages in Blends of Ye'elimite and Gypsum with Alite and Belite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Calcium sulpho-aluminate (CSA) cements all contain ye’elimite, either as the main phase or in intermediate amounts, while they differ in their content of accessory phases. Belite is the main phase in most CSA cements, however, alite - CSA cements have been produced. The hydrate phases formed during...... and hydration kinetics. The improved understanding of the hydrate phase assemblages as well as the hydration kinetics for the model systems will form the fundamental basis for further optimizations of blended systems including ye’elimite with the aim of maximizing the reaction degree of the main clinker phases...... hydration of CSA cements depend on the type of CSA cement and the amount of gypsum added. The hydration reactions of the main phases are by themselves well documented, whereas the simultaneous hydration of CSA cement components is not fully understood in terms of hydration products and kinetics. To further...

  16. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  17. Application of reject of gypsum from Trindade/PE in ceramic masses formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Thalles Confessor de; Souza, Marcondes Mendes de; Almeida, Ana Beatriz Dantas de; Farias, Debora Santos Umbelino de; Nobrega, Luiz Felipe Pereira de Medeiros; Mendes, Luciana Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    The mining industry is a major producer of waste is to be harmful to the environment besides not being made possible for use in producing means, since the product of economic interest has been extracted. In order to reduce this problem, this work shows the characterization of the waste generated by gypsum mining in Trindade/PE in the ceramic coating. The residue was collected, ground and sieved to #200, then was chemically characterized by XRF analysis process, to evaluate its potential to be incorporated into the formulation of ceramic material, the material studied can be used in porcelain tile formulation as a flux element for that were obtained in the laboratory ceramic bodies adding the residue then were performed physical testing of linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural breaking strain technically order to evaluate the addition of this residue ceramic coating. (author)

  18. Effect of disinfection on irreversible hydrocolloid and alternative impression materials and the resultant gypsum casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprono, Montry S; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Goodacre, Charles J; Winer, Myron S

    2012-10-01

    Many new products have been introduced and marketed as alternatives to traditional irreversible hydrocolloid materials. These alternative materials have the same structural formula as addition reaction silicone, also known as vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), impression materials. Currently, there is limited in vitro and in vivo research on these products, including on the effects of chemical disinfectants on the materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a spray disinfecting technique on a traditional irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 new alternative impression materials in vitro. The tests were performed in accordance with the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification Nos. 18 and 19. Under standardized conditions, 100 impressions were made of a ruled test block with an irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 alternative impression materials. Nondisinfected irreversible hydrocolloid was used as the control. The impressions were examined for surface detail reproduction before and after disinfection with a chloramine-T product. Type III and Type V dental stone casts were evaluated for linear dimensional change and gypsum compatibility. Comparisons of linear dimensional change were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA of mean ranks with the Scheffé post hoc comparisons (α=.05). Data for surface detail reproduction were analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank procedure and gypsum compatibility with the Kruskal-Wallis Rank procedure (α=.05). The alternative impression materials demonstrated significantly better outcomes with all 3 parameters tested. Disinfection with chloroamine-T did not have any effect on the 3 alternative impression materials. The irreversible hydrocolloid groups produced the most variability in the measurements of linear dimensional change. All of the tested materials were within the ADA's acceptable limit of 1.0% for linear dimensional change, except for the disinfected irreversible hydrocolloid

  19. Effect Of Coir Fibres On The Compaction And Unconfined Compressive Strength Of Bentonite-Lime-Gypsum Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilak B. Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of coir fibres on the compaction and unconfined compressive strength of a bentonite-lime-gypsum mixture. The coir fiber content varied from 0.5 to 2 %. The results indicated that the dry unit weight and the optimum moisture content of a bentonite – lime mix increased with the addition of gypsum. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite increased with the increase in the lime content up to 8 %. Beyond 8 %, the unconfined compressive strength decreased. The dry unit weight of the reference mix decreased, and the optimum moisture content increased with the addition of coir fibre. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime mix increased up to 4 % with the gypsum. Beyond 4 %, the unconfined compressive strength decreased. The unconfined compressive strength of the reference mix increased with the addition of coir fibre up to a fibre content of 1.5 %. The unconfined compressive strength of the reference mix-coir fibre composite was less in comparison to the reference mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite increased with the addition of lime and gypsum and with the increase in the curing period. The improvement in the post-peak region was better for the reference mix with reinforced coir fibres as compared to the unreinforced reference mix. The improved post-peak behaviour of the bentonite-lime-gypsum-coir fibre mixture could boost the construction of temporary roads on such problematic soils. Further, its use will also provide an environmental motivation for providing a means of consuming large quantities of coir fibres.

  20. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry.; Determinacion de Radio 226 en fertilizantes fosfatados y en yeso mediante espectrometria gamma.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez A, M C

    1996-12-31

    The {sup 226} Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of {sup 226} Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the {sup 226} Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that {sup 226} Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The {sup 226} Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 {sup -4} - 10 {sup -5} {mu}g g{sup -1}. (Author).

  1. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado

    2016-08-01

    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  2. Gypsum dissolution risk analysis in the Prealpine part of the Vaud County (Western Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Choffet, Marc; Bohren, Delphine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Lauraux, Bertrand; Lance, Jean-Marc; Champod, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Subsidence or collapse due to bedrock dissolution is a relatively common phenomenon in Vaud County (Western Switzerland). Indeed, soluble rocks are present in the Jura and Prealpine parts. Solubility is significantly higher in evaporitic rocks (such as gypsum) than in Limestones, resulting in possibly important dissolution during a building's lifetime. In Limestone, subsidence results mainly from cover collapse over existing voids. This study aims at evaluating the cost of this phenomenon for the building portfolio of the region in which gypsum occurs. Currently, 2.5% of the portfolio value is located over gypsum-bearing formations and is therefore potentially affected. Since this phenomenon is not covered by the public building insurance yet, no centralized event record exists. Therefore, a survey has been conducted with the affected communities to estimate the events frequency and damage severity. Some records from the archives of BERTAND LAURAUX SA have been added and allow to compare reparation costs with insured values. From these cases, a frequency and a buildings vulnerability distribution are established. The vulnerability distribution is considered to represent the reality, whereas the frequency is corrected to take into account the different amount of information gathered in the different municipalities and the incompleteness of the inventory, even in the communities with more information. Assuming that the distribution of collapse events occurs with a constant average frequency and is time-independent, insurance financial years are modeled with a number of cases assigned randomly following a Poisson distribution. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed, where the affected buildings value is chosen among the potentially affected portfolio and its corresponding damage rate is assigned following the distribution previously established. The maximum damage for each building is limited to CHF 1,000,000 (EUR 827,000), to ignore unrealistic values. Thus, a cost

  3. Characterization mixtures of thick gypsum with addition of treated waste from laminated plasterboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Orejón, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available nvironmental protection involves the reuse of construction and demolition waste. In order to improve recycling, waste from laminated plasterboards is used in the cement and laminated gypsum boards manufacture.This article analyzes the use of ground and burnt laminated plasterboard (BLG waste mixed with thick gypsum (TG. Physical-mechanical characterization of superficial hardness and mechanical strength has been performed on different batches of plaster powder materials with different BLG waste particle sizes to determine its suitability. Coarse particle sizes were preferred in order to reduce the waste treatment. From all the mixtures studied, the one with the best results was TG + 5% BLG1.25 which forms a material of higher superficial hardness and strength. The results obtained in the study have proved suitable products for building use (both as renders and as prefabricated elements enabling for a reduction in the consumption of natural resources.La protección del medio ambiente implica la reutilización de los residuos de construcción y demolición. Los residuos de placas de yeso laminado se utilizan en la fabricación de cemento y de placas de yeso laminado. En este artículo se ha estudiado la utilización deresiduos de placa de yeso laminado cocido (YLC mezclado con yeso grueso (YG, realizándose la caracterización físico-mecánica de dureza superficial y resistencias mecánicas, para determinar su idoneidad formando materiales de yeso en polvo con distintas granulometrías de residuos de (YLC, teniendo preferencia por granulometrías gruesas, que reducen el tratamiento del residuo. De las mezclas estudiadas la que mejores resultados ha ofrecido es YG + 5%YLC1,25 formando un material de mayor dureza superficial y resistencia. De los resultados obtenidos en el estudio se puede afirmar que se han conseguido productos aptos para su utilización en edificación posibilitando una reducción del consumo de recursos naturales.

  4. Technical Note: Historic gypsum-kilns (Morata de Tajuña, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamas Borrajo, J. F.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the locality of Morata de Tajuña and surroundings there was an important settlement of gypsum pits and limekilns, together with other historical industries, now disappear. These activities were developed mainly during the 1960´s and 70´s, but its production decreased because of changes in the productive processes (substitution of discontinuous processes by continuous ones, higher kilns, etc. (1. Nevertheless, some of these furnaces still remain, as well as ancient workers who have provided important information. Within the research project funded by the Madrid´s Government, entitled: Industrial archaeology: Conservation of the mining and metallurgical heritage of Madrid (IV, ancient gypsum pits have been identified and inventoried. The ancient gypsiferous extraction history was recovered and the productive processes fluxes were reconstructed. The state of the heritage is evaluated and the conservation of some of the elements is recommended. Likewise, the intangible heritage was also investigated, being able to show a legend related with these kilns.En Morata de Tajuña y pueblos limítrofes hay una importante tradición yesera y calera, así como de otras industrias de materiales de la construcción ya desaparecidas, sobre todo en los años 60-70 del pasado siglo, debido a cambios en los sistemas productivos (paso de sistemas discontinuos a continuos, hornos mayores, etc. (1. Por eso aún se conservan algunos hornos y también viven antiguos productores, a los que hemos podido preguntar sobre los procesos productivos. En el marco de un proyecto de investigación de la Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Madrid titulado “Arqueología Industrial: conservación del patrimonio minero-metalúrgico madrileño (IV” se están identificando e inventariando viejas yeserías, recuperando la historia yesera local, reconstruyendo los flujos productivos y entrevistando a antiguos operarios. De esta manera, se pretende evaluar

  5. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast-An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Ranjith; George, Navia; Thummala, Niharika R; Ravi, S V; Nagpal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate. A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with self-disinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness. Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable. Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

  6. A study of the effectiveness of the use of gypsum and volcanic ash against the stability of clay soil in terms of UCT and CBR values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, IP; Lubis, AIU

    2018-02-01

    Soil stabilization is an effort to improve engineering properties of soil. The conventional soil stabilization is by adding additives to the soil such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and volcanic ash. The research purposes were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% volcanic ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT values of original soil and original soil plus 2% gypsum were 1.40 kg/cm2 and 1.66 kg/cm2 respectively. The CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.44% and 6.28% correspondingly. Meanwhile, CBR soaked and CBR unsoaked values of original soil plus 2% gypsum were 6.74% and 8.02% respectively. The research results showed that the additives materials of gypsum and volcanic ash improved the engineering properties of clay. The UCT result from the stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 10% volcanic ash gave value of 2.79 kg/cm2 (increased 99.28% from original soil). For CBR test, the most effective mixture were in variation of 2% gypsum and 9% volcanic ash which gave value of 9.07% (104.27% increase from original soil) for CBR soaked and 10.29% (63.85% increase from original soil) for CBR unsoaked. The stabilized soil with 2% gypsum and 9% volcanic ash was classified as CL based on USCS and was classified as A-6 (4) based on AASHTO classification system.

  7. Factors affecting the precipitation of pure calcium carbonate during the direct aqueous carbonation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyungsun; Jang, Young-Nam; Kim, Wonbaek; Lee, Myung Gyu; Shin, Dongbok; Bang, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Chi Wan; Chae, Soo Chun

    2014-01-01

    The mineral carbonation of FGD (flue gas desulfurization) gypsum was carried out through CO 2 sorption into ammonia solution containing FGD gypsum. High-purity calcium carbonate was precipitated from DCC (dissolved calcium carbonate) solution which was extracted during the induction period. The factors affecting the preparation of pure calcium carbonate were examined under the following conditions: CO 2 flow rate (1–3 L/min), ammonia content (4–12%), and S/L (solid-to-liquid) ratio (5–300 g/L). X-Ray diffraction study revealed that the PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) was round-shaped vaterite. The induction time for PCC decreased as the CO 2 flow rate increased. The maximum formation efficiency for pure PCC was seen to increase linearly with the ammonia content. The formation efficiency for pure PCC was the highest (90%) for S/L ratio of 5 g/L but it decreased as S/L ratio increased. On the other hand, S/L ratio didn't affect the maximum solubility limit of DCC. It is believed that the pure PCC would add an economic value to the FGD gypsum carbonation for industrial CO 2 sequestration. - Highlights: • Pure and white CaCO 3 was synthesized using induction period during direct carbonation of FGD gypsum. • Its formation efficiency was increased with ammonia content but decreased with solid-to-liquid ratio. • This method is expected to extend to other industrial CO 2 sequestration for the enhanced economic value of precipitated CaCO 3

  8. Synthesis of Fluorite (CaF2 Crystal from Gypsum Waste of Phosphoric Acid Factory in Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Misbah Khunur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper report the synthesis and characterization of fluorite single crystal prepared from gypsum waste of phosphoric acid production in silica gel. Instead of its high calcium, gypsum was used to recycle the waste which was massively produces in the phosphoric acid production. The gypsum waste, the raw material of CaCl2 supernatant, was dissolved in concentrated HCl and then precipitated as calcium oxalate (CaC2O4 by addition of ammonium oxalate. The CaCl2 was obtained by dissolving the CaC2O4 with HCl 3M. The crystals were grown at room temperature in silica gel and characterized by AAS, FTIR and powder XRD. The optimum crystal growth condition, which is pH of gel, CaCl2 concentration and growth time, were investigated. The result shows that at optimum condition of pH 5.80, CaCl2 concentrations of 1.2 M, and growth time of 144 hours, colorless crystals with the longest size of 3 mm, were obtained (72.57%. Characterization of the synthesized crystal by AAS indicates that the obtained crystal has high purity. Meanwhile, analysis by FTIR spectra shows a Ca–F peak at 775 cm-1, and powder-XRD analysis confirms that the obtained crystal was fluorite (CaF2. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 11st April 2012; Revised: 4th June 2012; Accepted: 13rd June 2012[How to Cite: M.M. Khunur, A. Risdianto, S. Mutrofin, Y.P. Prananto. (2012. Synthesis of Fluorite (CaF2 Crystal from Gypsum Waste of Phosphoric Acid Factory in Silica Gel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 71-77.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.3171.71-77 ][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.3171.71-77 ] | View in 

  9. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yongqiang; Chen Liming; Gao Lihong; Michel, Frederick C.; Wan Caixia; Li Yebo; Dick, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55–74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible. - Highlights: ► Melamine resin in waste paint sludges could be efficiently composted at bench scale. ► Melamine resin degradation after 147 days of composting was 73–95% complete. ► Nutrients, gypsum and melamine-degrading microorganisms increased composting rate. ► Melamine degradation products first increased and then decreased in the compost. ► Final compost was enriched in nitrogen and other essential plant nutrients. - Melamine resin in waste paint sludges was efficiently composted at bench scale, with finished composts having low levels of heavy metals and enriched in plant nutrients.

  10. Remediation of saline-sodic soil with flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a reclaimed tidal flat of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yumei; Li, Xiaping; Dick, Warren A; Chen, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Salinization and sodicity are obstacles for vegetation reconstruction of coastal tidal flat soils. A study was conducted with flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum applied at rates of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60Mg/ha to remediate tidal flat soils of the Yangtze River estuary. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), exchangeable sodium (ExNa), pH, soluble salt concentration, and composition of soluble salts were measured in 10cm increments from the surface to 30cm depth after 6 and 18months. The results indicated that the effect of FGD-gypsum is greatest in the 0-10cm mixing soil layer and 60Mg/ha was the optimal rate that can reduce the ESP to below 6% and decrease soil pH to neutral (7.0). The improvement effect was reached after 6months, and remained after 18months. The composition of soluble salts was transformed from sodic salt ions mainly containing Na(+), HCO3(-)+CO3(2-) and Cl(-) to neutral salt ions mainly containing Ca(2+) and SO4(2-). Non-halophyte plants were survived at 90%. The study demonstrates that the use of FGD-gypsum for remediating tidal flat soils is promising. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  12. Problems and possible remedies concerning NORM in by-Product gypsum produced by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Hull, C.D

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities (∼ 30 million tons/year) of phosphogypsum are produced as a by-product of fertilizer production in Florida. The sedimentary phosphate rock, used as the raw material for phosphoric acid production, is enriched in uranium and daughter products. Relatively high concentrations of some of these U-series daughters, particularly 226 Ra (av. = 910 Bq.Kg -1 ), prevent use of the by-product gypsum for construction or other purposes. The material is thus stockpiled on huge stacks which are unsightly and a potential threat to the surrounding air and especially groundwater resources. It is estimated that ∼ 10 9 tons of this material will be on Florida stacks by the turn of the century. We have been investigating the detailed radiochemistry of phosphogypsum in the hope that can understanding of how these radionuclides are fixed in the material may lead to cost-effective purification schemes. Our work has focused on the distribution of 226 Ra but has also included 210 Pb and 210 Po (av. = 860 Bq.Kg -1 ) which are also enriched in phosphogypsum. This paper summarizes the problems associated with this material and reviews its radiochemistry as elucidated by sequential extraction and other methodologies. We also present some possible alternatives to long-term storage as a solution to the phosphogypsum problem. (author)

  13. Development of materials that cover the deposits of gypsum exploited in the polo plasterer in Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Moraes, A.S. de; Anjos, I.F. dos; Lira, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    The mineral clay found on the surface of gypsum deposits in the region of Recife - PE are considered mining tailings and job search reference in new industrial applications for these minerals, ores. In this context, we performed the characterization of these materials with the purpose of its use as inorganic pigments in the ceramic coating. These minerals present 'in locus' different colors ranging from beige to reddish. After heat treatment at 1000° C their colors have varied tones that can be used as natural pigments in the ceramic industry. The techniques of fluorescence X-ray diffraction X-ray, infrared and colorimetry were applied in the characterization of mineral-ore in question. Using mineral processing techniques we obtain a physical separation of clay minerals associated. The use of concentrated after processing showed that the material has the potential to replace traditional pigments used in ceramic industry, and thus represent a new alternative on the market of natural pigments. Another potential comprehensive analysis of the material is its use associated with polymers in order to develop new materials. (author)

  14. Removal of Hg, As in FGD gypsum by different aqueous ammonia (amines) during CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyi, Tan; Wenhui, Fan; Hongyi, Li; Zixin, Zhang; Yunkun, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    CO 2 sequestration by flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has become a promising FGDG disposal technology due to simultaneous CO 2 emission reduction and FGDG conversion into calcium carbonate. In this paper, another merit of the novel technology, i.e., the removal of toxic elements (e.g., Hg and As) in FGDG, will be addressed for the first time. In three different aqueous ammonia (or amines) media, removal efficiencies of Hg and As in FGDG samples were evaluated during CO 2 sequestration. Higher than 90% and 20% removal efficiencies, respectively, for Hg and As are achieved at 40°C in aqueous ammonia media, but they decrease at elevated temperatures. Ammonia loss takes place at 80°C and pH varies greatly with temperatures in aqueous ammonia. This is disadvantageous for the formation of Hg-ammonia complexes and for the yield of carbonates, which are responsible for Hg or As re-adsorption. The sequential chemical extraction method suggests that the speciation changes of Hg are induced by FGDG carbonation, and that unstable Hg speciation in triethanolamine increases at elevated temperatures.

  15. A comparative study of AMF diversity in annual and perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.; Díaz, G.; Torres, P.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities composition regulate plant interactions and determine the structure of plant communities. In this study we analysed the diversity of AMF in the roots of two perennial gypsophyte plant species, Herniaria fruticosa and Senecio auricula, and an annual herbaceous species, Bromus rubens, growing in a gypsum soil from a semiarid area. The objective was to determine whether perennial and annual host plants support different AMF communities in their roots and whether there are AMF species that might be indicators of specific functional plant roles in these ecosystems. The roots were analysed by nested PCR, cloning, sequencing of the ribosomal DNA small subunit region and phylogenetic analysis. Twenty AMF sequence types, belonging to the Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversisporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, were identified. Both gypsophyte perennial species had differing compositions of the AMF community and higher diversity when compared with the annual species, showing preferential selection by specific AMF sequences types. B. rubens did not show host specificity, sharing the full composition of its AMF community with both perennial plant species. Seasonal variations in the competitiveness of AM fungi could explain the observed differences in AMF community composition, but this is still a working hypothesis that requires the analysis of further data obtained from a higher number of both annual and perennial plant species in order to be fully tested.

  16. Indoor Pollution Emissions from Building Materials; Case of Study: Gypsum Boards Indoor Pollution Emissions from Building Materials; Case of Study: Gypsum Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio Hernández Moreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este reporte presenta una evaluación de las emisiones de materiales de construcción, al interior de los edificios que pueden causar daño a la salud de los usuarios durante la ocupación, pues emiten sustancias tóxicas al interior de los edificios. Este reporte presenta un caso de studio que evalúa a los tableros de yeso, frecuentemente usados en la construcción de muros divisorios y falsos plafones. La parte experimental se basa en un espacio tridimensional el cual simula un cuarto de cualquier tipo de edificación; por ejemplo: un salón de clases u oficina. Las condiciones ambientales al interior, tales como: ventilación, temperatura y humedad, afectan directamente las emisiones de sustancias químicas por los materiales de construcción. La metodología se basa en la comparación de materiales convencionales y materiales alternativos con distinta composición y similares características, en donde usamos métodos de prueba, condiciones ambientales, instrumentos y herramientas similares. Este es un estudio muy importante para entender los problemas relacionadoscon la contaminación ambiental, específicamente del aire y sus efectos en el interior de los edificios, y que se relaciona directamente con la salud pública e indirectamente con los sistemas constructivos y la selección de materiales en los edificios. Las pruebas concluyen que los materiales alternativos (de contenido reciclado son mejores que los tradicionales, porque reducen la contaminación del aire al interior de los edificios. This report presents an evaluation of emissions from indoor building materials that may cause health damage to the people who occupy the building, since these materials emit toxic chemicals into the air and indoor surfaces. This report presents a case study which evaluates Gypsum Boards, frequently used in the construction of dividing walls and ceilings. The experimental part of this report is based on a three-dimensional space that simulates a

  17. Analyzing the rules of fracture and damage, and the characteristics of the acoustic emission signal of a gypsum specimen under uniaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, En-yuan; Li, Nan

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of rock bursts in a mined-out area of a gypsum mine, in this paper acoustic emission testing of the uniaxial compression of gypsum and sandstone samples is carried out. The case of rupture of the specimen is observed, and the load axial deformation curve and acoustic emission parameters are obtained for the whole process of specimen rupture. The similarities and differences between the gypsum and sandstone samples are determined in terms of their mechanical properties, their damage evolution laws and frequency band energy distributions, and the instantaneous energy characteristics of their acoustic emission. The results show that the main fracture morphology of gypsum is ‘eight’-type, and the macroscopic fracture morphology of sandstone is mainly of partial ‘Y’-type and inverted Y-type. The intensity and uniformity of the gypsum and sandstone of the medium are different; because the gypsum is more uniform, it does not show as much variation as sandstone, instead suddenly increasing and decreasing. The maximum value of the damage variable D of gypsum reached 1, but the maximum value of D of the sandstone only reached 0.9. The frequency band of the maximum energy of gypsum and sandstone gradually decreased across the the four stages of rupture, while the maximum energy percentage increased gradually. From the stage where damage gradually increases to the stage of integral fracture of the specimen, the instantaneous energy showed a certain degree of increase. With an increase in the strength of the sample, the maximum energy percentage of the two materials corresponding to each phase gradually increases, and from the stage where damage gradually increases to the stage of integral fracture of the specimen, the value of instantaneous energy obviously increases. The results indicate that gypsum mines will also experience rock bursts, as coal mines do, but the intensity will be different. Therefore, using the three indicators, the

  18. Elastic wave velocity and acoustic emission monitoring during Gypsum dehydration under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; David, E. C.; Héripré, E.; Schubnel, A. J.; Zimmerman, R. W.; Gueguen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Dehydration experiments were performed on natural Gypsum polycrystal samples coming from Volterra, Italy in order to study contemporaneously the evolution of P and S elastic wave velocities and acoustic emission (AE) triggering. During these experiments, temperature was slowly raised at 0.15 degrees C per minute under constant stress conditions. Two experiments were realized under quasi-hydrostatic stress (15 and 55 MPa respectively). The third experiment was realized under constant triaxial stress (σ3=45MPa, σ1=75MPa). All three were drained (10MPa constant pore pressure). In each experiments, both P and S wave velocities reduced drastically (as much as approx. 50% in the low confining pressure case) at the onset of dehydration. Importantly, the Vp/Vs ratio also decreased. Shortly after the onset of decrease in P and S wave velocities, the dehydration reaction was also accompanied by bursts of AEs. Time serie locations of the AEs show that they initiated from the pore pressure port, ie from where the pore fluid could easily be drained, and then slowly migrated within the sample. In each experiments, the AE rate could be positively correlated to the reaction rate, inferred from pore volumetry. In such a way, the AE rate reached a peak when the reaction was the fastest. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed they had a large volumetric component in compaction, confirming that AEs were indeed related to pore closure and/or collapse. In addition, the AE rate also increased with confinement, ie when a larger amount of compaction was observed. Interestingly, when under differential stress conditions, AE focal mechanisms were mainly in shear. Additional dehydration experiments performed within an environmental scanning electron microscope under low vacuum highlight that, in drained conditions at least, the reaction seems to take place in two phases. First, cracks are being opened along cleavage planes within a single gypsum crystal, which allows for the

  19. Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Del Campo, P. Pérez; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M.; Sancho, C.

    1995-04-01

    The central Ebro Basin comprises thick evaporite materials whose high solubility produces typically karstic landforms. The sinkhole morphology developed in the overlying alluvium has been studied using gravimetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) on stream terraces, as well as analyzing the evolution of sinkhole morphologies observed in aerial photographs taken in 1928, 1957, and 1985. The sinkhole morphologies give some idea of possible subsurface processes as well as an indication of the final mechanisms involve in sinkhole development. On stream terraces and cover pediments the most commonly encountered dolines are bowl-shaped in their morphology with both diffuse and scarped edges. In contrast, dolines developed in the gypsiferous silt infilled valleys have a funnel and well-shaped morphology. The diffuse-edged bowl-shaped dolines are developed through the progressive subsidence of the alluvial cover, due to washing down of alluvial particles through small voids and cracks into deeper subsurface caves, resulting in a decrease alluvial density. Future compaction of the alluvial cover will produce surface subsidences. This type of dolines are associated with negative gravity anomalies. In contrast, the scarped-edge dolines are formed by the sudden collapse of a cavity roof. The cavities and cracks formed in the gypsum karst may migrate to the surface through the alluvial deposits by piping, and they may subsequently collapse. In this instance, the cavities can be detected by both gravity and GPR anomalies where the voids are not deeper than 4 5 m from the surface. These processes forming sinkholes can be enhanced by man-induced changes in the groundwater hydrologic regime by both inflows, due to irrigation, ditch losses, or pipe leakages, and by outflows from pumping activities.

  20. Analysis of gypsum ore conversion with aid of gamma-ray transmission and CCRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, W.E.; Dantas, C.C.; Lira, C.A.B.O.; Narain, R.; Santos, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, except for very few kettles imported, the monitoring of the conversion of the produced plaster at the Pole Plaster of Araripe is not done with aid of on-line techniques. It shows a simulation of operational conditions with an online meter of chemically combined water in plaster, by means of Central Composite Rotatable Designs (CCRD) and nuclear technique of gamma-ray transmission. In the family of central composite rotatable designs, the CCRD is more efficient than the others, regarding uniformity of variances of the points at the same distance from the center of the design. It is a simulation of operational conditions with an online meter of chemically combined water in plaster, by means of nuclear technique of gamma radiation transmission. Such determination can be achieved by the effect caused by the variation of the mass attenuation coefficient of the dehydrated partially material. An Americium-241 gamma source (60 keV) was simulated in the implementation of the Beer-Lambert equation. The nuclear data required for simulation were obtained from XMuDat software, available from site of the International Atomic Energy Agency. A program in Matlab programming language has demonstrated the possibility of monitoring at all stages of the dehydration process with measures of the specific mass of the sample having an estimated error of the order of 1%. To verify the operating conditions suitable for the process, experiments were simulated using a CCRD. The independent variables were the thickness sample and chemically combined water in plaster. Optimal conditions of the process were determined (STATISTICA software, Release 7.0), which allowed the derivation of a model represented by response surface of the gypsum conversion. (author)

  1. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiyong [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, 518055, (China); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bitton, Gabriel [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H{sub 2}S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H{sub 2}S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H{sub 2}S generation, with Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} reducing H{sub 2}S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH){sub 2} providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl{sub 3} was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H{sub 2}S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and FeCl{sub 3} inhibited H{sub 2}S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH){sub 2} decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H{sub 2}S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration.

  2. Uptake and speciation of uranium in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O): Applications to radioactive mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinru; Sun, Wei; Desmarais, Jacques; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Zhang, Patrick; Li, Dien; Lieu, Arthur; Tse, John S; Pan, Yuanming

    2018-01-01

    Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation of gypsum-rich wastes in the world and commonly contains elevated radionuclides, including uranium, as well as other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, billions-of-tons of phosphogypsum stockpiled worldwide not only possess serious environmental problems but also represent a potential uranium resource. Gypsum is also a major solid constituent in many other types of radioactive mine tailings, which stems from the common usage of sulfuric acid in extraction processes. Therefore, management and remediation of radioactive mine tailings as well as future beneficiation of uranium from phosphogysum all require detailed knowledge about the nature and behavior of uranium in gypsum. However, little is known about the uptake mechanism or speciation of uranium in gypsum. In this study, synthesis experiments suggest an apparent pH control on the uptake of uranium in gypsum at ambient conditions: increase in U from 16 μg/g at pH = 6.5 to 339 μg/g at pH = 9.5. Uranium L 3 -edge synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of synthetic gypsum show that uranyl (UO 2 ) 2+ at the Ca site is the dominant species. The EXAFS fitting results also indicate that uranyl in synthetic gypsum occurs most likely as carbonate complexes and yields an average U-O distance ∼0.25 Å shorter than the average Ca-O distance, signifying a marked local structural distortion. Applications to phosphogypsum from the New Wales phosphoric acid plant (Florida, USA) and uranium mine tailings from the Key Lake mill (Saskatchewan, Canada) show that gypsum is an important carrier of uranium over a wide range of pH and controls the fate of this radionuclide in mine tailings. Also, development of new technologies for recovering U from phosphogypsum in the future must consider lattice-bound uranyl in gypsum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth of cowpea plants inoculated with Rhizobium in a saline-sodic soil after application of gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jessyka Pereira Brito Fontenele

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with the aim of evaluating the growth of cowpea cultivated in saline-sodic soils corrected with gypsum: one experiment in the laboratory, to identify the best level of gypsum for the correction of the saline-sodic soils of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil; and the other in a greenhouse, after correction of the soils. As the test plant, the cowpea cultivar pele de moça, inoculated with Rhizobium strain BR3267 was used. The experiments were arranged in a randomised block design in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement, two soils and five levels of the gypsum requirement (GR, equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250% of the GR of the soil, as determined by the Schoonover M-1 method, with five replications. The following were evaluated: electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract (EC, soil exchangeable sodium and percentage of soil exchangeable sodium (ESP, number of nodules (NN, nodule dry weight (NDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, shoot height (PH and nitrogen concentration (N in the shoots. Application of 100% of the GR, followed by the enough water for leaching, was effective for the correction of soil sodicity. The application of increasing levels of soil GR resulted in an increase in the number of nodules, dry weight of the nodules and shoots, and the height and levels of N absorbed by the plants in soil S2. In soil S1, the use of levels of 200 and 250% of soil the GR caused a decrease in all the variables under study.

  4. Determination of boron content and isotopic composition in gypsum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Qi; Peng, Zhang-Kuang; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    As a stable isotope, boron plays an important role in hydrogeology, environmental geochemistry, ore deposit geochemistry and marine paleoclimatology. However, there is no report of boron isotopic composition in gypsum. This is mainly confined to complete dissolution of Gypsum by water or acid. In this study, gypsum was converted to calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) with ammonium bicarbonate(NH 4 HCO 3 ) by two steps at 50°C. In every step, the mass ratio of NH 4 HCO 3 /CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O was twice, and conversion rate reached more than 98%. Converted CaCO 3 was totally dissolved with hydrochloric acid (the dissolution rate was over 99%). In order to overcome the difficulties of the matrix interference and the detection limit of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), we use Amberlite IRA 743 resin to purify and enrichment the boron at first, then eluting boron from the resin with 10mL 0.1mol/L hydrochloric acid at 75°C. The boron isotopic composition of natural gypsum samples was determined using positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS). The boron isotopic composition of gypsum may be an excellent indicator for the formation environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial communities and the nitrogen cycle in the gypsum soils of Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, coahuila: a Mars analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lozano, Nguyen E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; García-Oliva, Felipe; Martínez-Piedragil, Celeste; Rooks, Christine; Souza, Valeria

    2012-07-01

    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified gypsum at several sites on Mars in 2005. These minerals constitute a direct record of past aqueous activity and are important with regard to the search of extraterrestrial life. Gale Crater was chosen as Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity's landing site because it is rich in gypsum, as are some desert soils of the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) (Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico). The gypsum of the CCB, which is overlain by minimal carbonate deposits, was the product of magmatic activity that occurred under the Tethys Sea. To examine this Mars analogue, we retrieved gypsum-rich soil samples from two contrasting sites with different humidity in the CCB. To characterize the site, we obtained nutrient data and analyzed the genes related to the N cycle (nifH, nirS, and nirK) and the bacterial community composition by using 16S rRNA clone libraries. As expected, the soil content for almost all measured forms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were higher at the more humid site than at the drier site. What was unexpected is the presence of a rich and divergent community at both sites, with higher taxonomic diversity at the humid site and almost no taxonomic overlap. Our results suggest that the gypsum-rich soils of the CCB host a unique microbial ecosystem that includes novel microbial assemblies.

  6. Reciclado de placas de yeso laminado aligeradas con residuos de poliuretano = Recycling of gypsum plasterboard lightened with polyurethane waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Alameda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un proceso experimental de reutilización de residuos obtenidos de desechos de placas de yeso laminado elaboradas con residuos poliméricos de origen industrial (espuma de poliuretano y reforzadas con fibras de polipropileno, para la fabricación de nuevas placas de yeso laminado. Para ello, se expone la metodología de reciclado de placas prefabricadas buscando de esta forma aumentar el ciclo de vida del yeso y de los residuos de poliuretano empleados. Para ello se detalla el proceso de fabricación las nuevas placas así como su caracterización mediante ensayos físicos y mecánicos a través de ensayos normalizados para placas de yeso laminado (densidad aparente, resistencia a flexión, absorción total en agua y dureza superficial. Los resultados obtenidos indican que es posible reciclar este tipo de prefabricados de una manera sencilla. De la misma forma se ha demostrado que las nuevas placas fabricadas con el residuo recuperado, presentan un buen comportamiento mecánico, a la par que se reduce su capacidad de absorción de agua y se aumenta su dureza su superficial. Abstract This paper presents the results of an experimental process of reusing waste obtained from waste gypsum plasterboard made from polymeric industrial waste (polyurethane foam and polypropylene fibers whit the aim to manufacturer new gypsum plasterboards. Therefore, a methodology to recycle is presented to increase the life cycle of waste gypsum. The manufacturing process of the plates is detailed as well as their physical and mechanical characterization by means of standardized for gypsum plasterboard (bulk density, flexion strength, total water absorption and surface hardness. The results indicate that it is possible to recycle this type of prefabricated in a simple way. Likewise it has been demonstrated that new plates made with the residue reusing, have good mechanical strength, at the same time reduce the capacity of water

  7. Relative Shock Effects in Mixed Powders of Calcite, Gypsum, and Quartz: A Calibration Scheme from Shock Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    The shock behavior of calcite and gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Tertiary event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets. Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of CO2 or SO2 to better understand their role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [e.g., papers in 1,2,3,4]. Devolatilization of carbonate is also important because the dispersion and fragmentation of ejecta is strongly controlled by the expansion of large volumes of gas during the impact process as well [5,6]. Shock recovery experiments for calcite yield seemingly conflicting results: early experimental devolatilization studies [7,8,9] suggested that calcite was substantially outgassed at 30 GPa (> 50%). However, the recent petrographic work of [10,11,12] presented evidence that essentially intact calcite is recovered from 60 GPa experiments. [13] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of those phases with silica. Their observations indicate little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another (preliminary) report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, [14] observe calcite recrystallization when shock loaded at 61 GPa, only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa. [15] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa. All of the quartz grains were trans-formed to glass and the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggest that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid state transformation. [16] reanalyzed the calcite and anhydrite shock

  8. Use of the “red gypsum” industrial waste as substitute of natural gypsum for commercial cements manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gázquez, M. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research has been the valorisation of a waste from the TiO2 production process (sulphate method, called red gypsum, in the production of cements. This waste is mainly formed by di-hydrate calcium sulphate and iron hydroxides. To cover this objective it has been necessary to perform the physico-chemical characterisation of the red gypsum as well as the main components in the production of cements and of the new cements generated. Moreover, for the red gypsum, has been analyzed its radioactive content because it is generated in a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials industry. Finally, the most important properties of the obtained cements with different proportions of red gypsum in their composition have been studied by comparing them with the standard ones obtained in a Portland cement. Lastly, we have demonstrated that the new cements fulfil all the quality tests imposed by the European legislation.

    El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar la valorización de un residuo generado en el proceso de producción de dióxido de titanio (vía sulfato, denominado yeso rojo, en la producción de cementos. Dicho residuo está compuesto fundamentalmente por sulfato de calcio di-hidratado e hidróxidos de hierro. Para ello, ha sido necesaria la caracterización físico-química del yeso rojo, así como la de los otros componentes fundamentales en la fabricación de cementos y de los cementos generados con el mencionado residuo. Además, en el caso del yeso rojo, se ha analizado su contenido radiactivo al generarse éste en una industria NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials. Posteriormente, se han estudiado las propiedades más importantes de los cementos producidos con diferentes porcentajes de yeso rojo añadido, comparando estas mezclas con las propiedades de un cemento Portland comercial, comprobándose que se cumplen todas las normas Europeas de calidad exigibles.

  9. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-08

    Uncontrolled excess moisture in buildings is a common problem that can lead to changes in fungal communities. In buildings, moisture parameters can be classified by location and include assessments of moisture in the air, at a surface, or within a material. These parameters are not equivalent in dynamic indoor environments, which makes moisture-induced fungal growth in buildings a complex occurrence. In order to determine the circumstances that lead to such growth, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of in situ moisture measurement, the influence of building factors on moisture parameters, and the levels of these moisture parameters that lead to indoor fungal growth. Currently, there are disagreements in the literature on this topic. A literature review was conducted specifically on moisture-induced fungal growth on gypsum drywall. This review revealed that there is no consistent measurement approach used to characterize moisture in laboratory and field studies, with relative humidity measurements being most common. Additionally, many studies identify a critical moisture value, below which fungal growth will not occur. The values defined by relative humidity encompassed the largest range, while those defined by moisture content exhibited the highest variation. Critical values defined by equilibrium relative humidity were most consistent, and this is likely due to equilibrium relative humidity being the most relevant moisture parameter to microbial growth, since it is a reasonable measure of moisture available at surfaces, where fungi often proliferate. Several sources concur that surface moisture, particularly liquid water, is the prominent factor influencing microbial changes and that moisture in the air and within a material are of lesser importance. However, even if surface moisture is assessed, a single critical moisture level to prevent fungal growth cannot be defined, due to a number of factors, including variations in fungal genera and

  10. Removal of phosphorus, fluoride and metals from a gypsum mining leachate using steel slag filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Wallace, Scott; Comeau, Yves

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of steel slag filters to treat a gypsum mining leachate containing 11-107 mg P/L ortho-phosphates, 9-37 mg/L fluoride, 0.24-0.83 mg/L manganese, 0.20-3.3 zinc and 1.7-8.2 mg/L aluminum. Column tests fed with reconstituted leachates were conducted for 145-222 days and sampled twice a week. Two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) slags and three filter sequences were tested. The voids hydraulic retention time (HRT(v)) of columns ranged between 4.3 and 19.2 h. Precipitates of contaminants present in columns were sampled and analyzed with X-ray diffraction at the end of tests. The best removal efficiencies over a period of 179 days were obtained with sequential filters that were composed of Fort Smith EAF slag operated at a total HRT(v) of 34 h which removed 99.9% of phosphorus, 85.3% of fluoride, 98.0% of manganese and 99.3% of zinc. Mean concentration at this system's effluent was 0.04 mg P/L ortho-phosphates, 4 mg/L fluoride, 0.02 mg/L manganese, 0.02 zinc and 0.5 mg/L aluminum. Thus, slag filters are promising passive and economical systems for the remediation of mining effluents. Phosphorus was removed by the formation of apatite (hydroxyapatite, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH or fluoroapatite, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F) as confirmed by visual and X-ray diffraction analyses. The growth rate of apatite was favored by a high phosphorus concentration. Calcite crystals were present in columns and appeared to be competing for calcium and volume needed for apatite formation. The calcite crystal growth rate was higher than that of apatite crystals. Fluoride was removed by precipitation of fluoroapatite and its removal was favored by a high ratio of phosphorus to fluoride in the wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of gypsum and farmyard manure on fertilizer zinc uptake by wheat and its residual effect on succeeding rice and wheat crops in a sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.; Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of gypsum and FYM on a sodic soil on fertilizer Zn uptake by wheat and residual effect on succeeding crops of rice and wheat. Application of FYM significantly increased the yield of first wheat crop as well as the yield of subsequent rice and wheat crops, but gypsum showed significant effect only on rice. FYM application also resulted in an increase in Zn content of all the three crops. Utilisation of the fertilizer Zn by the first crop of wheat ranged between 0.30 to 0.54 per cent while succeeding crop of rice utilised 1.00 to 1.25 per cent of the applied Zn. Application of gypsum to the first crop did not influence the fertilizer Zn uptake by wheat, rice and wheat, however, it significantly reduced the soil pH and increased the available Zn content in soil. (author). 15 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Utilization of desulfurization gypsum to producing SO{sub 2} and CaO in multi-stage fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Zuyi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    With emission control becomes more and more stringent, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) is commonly employed for desulfurization. However, the product of FGD, gypsum, causes the unexpected environmental problems. How to utilize the byproduct of FGD effectively and economically is a challenging task. This paper proposed the new technical process to produce SO{sub 2} and CaO by reducing the gypsum in multi-stage fluidized bed reactor with different atmosphere. In addition, some preliminary experiments were carried out in PTGA. The results show that CO concentration has little effect on the initial decomposing temperature, but affect the decomposing rate of phosphogypsum obviously. The decomposing product composed of CaS and CaO simultaneously. The ratio of the two products was determined by CO concentration. Lower CO content benefits to produce more CO product and more SO{sub 2}. The decomposition reaction of phosphogypsum in reducing atmosphere is parallel competition reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the effect of CaS and other byproduct efficiently by the new technology, which utilize multi-atmosphere in multistage fluidized bed reactors.

  13. Collapse susceptibility mapping in karstified gypsum terrain (Sivas basin - Turkey) by conditional probability, logistic regression, artificial neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Isik; Keskin, Inan; Marschalko, Marian; Bednarik, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This study compares the GIS based collapse susceptibility mapping methods such as; conditional probability (CP), logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) applied in gypsum rock masses in Sivas basin (Turkey). Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was first constructed using GIS software. Collapse-related factors, directly or indirectly related to the causes of collapse occurrence, such as distance from faults, slope angle and aspect, topographical elevation, distance from drainage, topographic wetness index- TWI, stream power index- SPI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) by means of vegetation cover, distance from roads and settlements were used in the collapse susceptibility analyses. In the last stage of the analyses, collapse susceptibility maps were produced from CP, LR and ANN models, and they were then compared by means of their validations. Area Under Curve (AUC) values obtained from all three methodologies showed that the map obtained from ANN model looks like more accurate than the other models, and the results also showed that the artificial neural networks is a usefull tool in preparation of collapse susceptibility map and highly compatible with GIS operating features. Key words: Collapse; doline; susceptibility map; gypsum; GIS; conditional probability; logistic regression; artificial neural networks.

  14. Study of heat and mass transfer of water evaporation in a gypsum board subjected to natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannouni, K.; El Abrach, H.; Dhahri, H.; Mhimid, A.

    2017-06-01

    The present paper reports a numerical study to investigate the drying of rectangular gypsum sample based on a diffusive model. Both vertical and low sides of the porous media are treated as adiabatic and impermeable surfaces plate. The upper face of the plate represents the permeable interface. The energy equation model is based on the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the fluid and the solid phases. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for solving the governing differential equations system. The obtained numerical results concerning the moisture content and the temperature within a gypsum sample were discussed. A comprehensive analysis of the influence of the mass transfer coefficient, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the external temperature, the relative humidity and the diffusion coefficient on macroscopic fields are also investigated. They all presented results in this paper and obtained in the stable regime correspond to time superior than 4000 s. Therefore the numerical error is inferior to 2%. The experimental data and the descriptive information of the approach indicate an excellent agreement between the results of our developed numerical code based on the LBM and the published ones.

  15. Simultaneous and continuous stabilization of As and Pb in contaminated solution and soil by a ferrihydrite-gypsum sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Yohey; Wang, Shan-Li; Hirai, Yasumasa; Miyahara, Hidetaka

    2017-04-05

    For the increasing need of stabilization both cationic and anionic metal(loid)s simultaneously, we newly developed a metal sorbent (FIXALL), consisting mainly of ferrihydrite and gypsum. The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular mechanisms of Pb and As stabilization in an aqueous system and to examine a simultaneous and long-term (up to 754days) effect on Pb and As stabilization in an anthropogenically contaminated soil using the FIXALL sorbent. When the solution contained a low concentration of Pb (5mgL -1 ), the mechanisms of Pb removal by FIXALL were based chiefly on the formation of inner-sphere surface complex with ferrihydrite. In the highly concentrated Pb solution (1200mgL -1 ), contrarily, the removal of Pb by FIXALL was the direct consequence of the dissolution of gypsum and subsequent precipitation of PbSO 4 , which strengthens the drawback of low capability of ferrihydrite for Pb removal. Regardless of initial concentrations, the primary mechanism of FIXALL for As stabilization is attributed to the formation of inner-sphere surface complex with ferrihydrite. A contaminated soil study demonstrated that FIXALL could decrease the concentration of water soluble As and Pb simultaneously and continuously for 754days without notable changes in their chemical species and soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Successful lichen translocation on disturbed gypsum areas: A test with adhesives to promote the recovery of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ayerbe, J.; Casares, M.; Cañadas, E. M.; Lorite, J.

    2017-04-01

    The loss of biological soil crusts represents a challenge for the restoration of disturbed environments, specifically in particular substrates hosting unique lichen communities. However, the recovery of lichen species affected by mining is rarely addressed in restoration projects. Here, we evaluate the translocation of Diploschistes diacapsis, a representative species of gypsum lichen communities affected by quarrying. We tested how a selection of adhesives could improve thallus attachment to the substrate and affect lichen vitality (as CO2 exchange and fluorescence) in rainfall-simulation and field experiments. Treatments included: white glue, water, hydroseeding stabiliser, gum arabic, synthetic resin, and a control with no adhesive. Attachment differed only in the field, where white glue and water performed best. Adhesives altered CO2 exchange and fluorescence yield. Notably, wet spoils allowed thalli to bind to the substrate after drying, revealing as the most suitable option for translocation. The satisfactory results applying water on gypsum spoils are encouraging to test this methodology with other lichen species. Implementing these measures in restoration projects would be relatively easy and cost-effective. It would help not only to recover lichen species in the disturbed areas but also to take advantage of an extremely valuable biological material that otherwise would be lost.

  17. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum effects on urea-degrading bacteria and ammonia volatilization from broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2017-08-01

    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gypsum has been proposed as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 volatilization, but reports of NH3 abatement vary among studies and the mechanism responsible for decreasing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 20 or 40% flue-gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) to broiler litter on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water potential, urea-degrading bacteria abundance, NH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution, and nitrogen (N) mineralization in several 21-d experiments. The addition of FGDG to broiler litter increased EC by 24 to 33% (P mineralization by 10 to 11% (P = 0.0001) as compared to litters not amended with FGDG. Furthermore, the addition of FGDG to broiler litter decreased NH3 volatilization by 18 to 28% (P litter pH values compared to un-amended litter (P litter with 20% FGDG can decrease NH3 volatilization and increase the fertlizer value of broiler litter. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  19. Visualization of the structural changes in plywood and gypsum board during the growth of Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Peuhkuri, Ruut H.

    2016-01-01

    of building materials such as plywood and gypsum wallboard. This study focuses on using micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate changes of the structure of plywood and gypsum wallboard during fungal degradation by S. chartarum and C. globosum. Changes in the materials as a result of dampness...... and fungal growth were determined by measuring porosity and pore shape via microCT. The results show that the composition of the building material influenced the level of penetration by fungi as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Plywood appeared to be the most affected, with the penetration...

  20. Effect of gypsum, pressmud, fulvic acid and zinc sources on yield and zinc uptake by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, M.

    1980-01-01

    The application of fulvic acid to a saline-sodic soil augmented the solubility of zinc by thousands fold. Zinc fulvate when applied at levels equivalent to that of zinc sulphate was more effective in enhancing diffusion of zinc in the soil. Application of gypsum, zinc sulphate and fulvic acid significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of zinc by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil. Application of gypsum with pressmud or with fulvic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significantly higher yield and zinc uptake than in other treatments. (orig.)

  1. Filler de grafito reciclado de EDM en pastas de yeso = EDM recycled graphite filler in gypsum pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Flores

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El grafito puede obtenerse de forma natural o sintética, pero este último se ha utilizado en carreteras debido a su dureza, así como en placas de cerámica fina. Se demuestran las posibilidades de la adición del polvo de grafito isostático procedente del fresado de moldes fabricados por Electroerosión de Penetración (EDM en compuestos a base de yeso. Para ello se prepararon mezclas de yeso industrial con adiciones en porcentajes diferentes de grafito EDM para evaluar las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, caracterizando previamente ambos materiales. El yeso fue sustituido por grafito en cinco fracciones diferentes, 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25%, en peso, en la preparación de las mezclas. En la designación Y-0.7G-0 y Y-0.6G-0 de las series de probetas prismáticas de 40x40x160mm, la letra Y se refiere al yeso y G significa grafito (G-0 probetas patrón sin grafito, con relaciones agua/yeso (a/y 0,7 y 0,6. Después del análisis de los resultados obtenidos, se realizó unas nuevas series con la adición de plastificante y también con mayor cantidad de grafito, 25 a 50% en peso y otras relaciones a/y basadas en su trabajabilidad, para verificar la incidencia en la resistencia a flexión y compresión. Abstract Graphite can be obtained naturally or synthetically, but the latter has been used on roads because of its hardness, as well as in thin ceramic plates. The possibilities of the addition of the isostatic graphite powder from the milling of molds made by EDM in gypsum-based compounds are demonstrated. For this purpose mixtures of industrial gypsum with additions in different percentages of EDM graphite were prepared to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties, previously characterizing both materials. The gypsum was replaced by graphite in five different fractions, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight, in the preparation of the mixtures. In the designation Y-0.7G-0 and Y-0.6G-0 of the series of prismatic specimens of 40x40x160mm, the letter Y

  2. Effect of different forms of silica on the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum plaster composites

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    Khalil, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum plaster/silica composites prepared by dry blending (0.2-10 % natural sand, silica fume or silica gel and subsequently hydrated. Their physical and mechanical properties, including normal consistency, setting time, apparent porosity, bulk density and compressive strength, were determined after hydration for 7- and 28-days. The results indicated that adding different forms of silica lowered the bulk density and increased the normal consistency, setting time, apparent porosity and, to some limited extent, compressive strength of the composites. This improvement in properties can be attributed to the existence of silica in the interstitial pores in the hardened plaster matrices. While most of the composites revealed only scant rises in compressive strength, their composition was beneficial in so far as it included either a readily available low-cost constituent (sand or industrial by-products. Consequently, the formed plaster-silica composites are of economic value, contribute to a cleaner environment by minimizing waste and can be used for applications where high porosity, lightweight units are required or recommended for low-cost buildings.Se prepararon pastas compuestas de yeso y sílice mediante la mezcla en seco de yeso con distintas proporciones (0,2- 10 % de arena natural, o gel o humo de sílice, procediéndose a continuación a su hidratación. A fin de determinar las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de las pastas, a los 7 y los 28 días de hidratación se hallaron su fluidez, tiempo de fraguado, porosidad aparente, densidad aparente y resistencia a la compresión. Los resultados obtenidos indican que al incorporar las distintas modalidades de sílice a la mezcla, disminuyó la densidad aparente y aumentaron la fluidez, el tiempo de fraguado, la porosidad aparente y, en menor medida, la resistencia a la compresión de las muestras. Se considera que esta mejora de las propiedades del material se debe a la presencia de sílice en los

  3. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  4. Geomorphological Evidence of Plausible Water Activity and Evaporatic Deposition in Interdune Areas of the Gypsum-rich Olympia Undae Dune Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szynkiewicz, A.; Ewing, R. C.; Fishbaugh, K. E.; Bourke, M. C.; Bustos, D.; Pratt, L. M.

    2009-03-01

    New morphological features (e.g., cross-bedding strata, bright patches), revealed by HiRISE for the gypsum-rich Olympia Undae Dune Field, appear to indicate the change(s) in paleoenvironmental conditions likely controlled by climate fluctuations in the North Pole of Mars.

  5. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  6. A Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy Study of Cubic and Orthorhombic C3A and Their Hydration Products in the Presence of Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rheinheimer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the microstructural differences and phase characterization of pure phases and hydrated products of the cubic and orthorhombic (Na-doped polymorphs of tricalcium aluminate (C3A, which are commonly found in traditional Portland cements. Pure, anhydrous samples were characterized using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD and demonstrated differences in the chemical and mineralogical composition as well as the morphology on a micro/nano-scale. C3A/gypsum blends with mass ratios of 0.2 and 1.9 were hydrated using a water/C3A ratio of 1.2, and the products obtained after three days were assessed using STXM. The hydration process and subsequent formation of calcium sulfate in the C3A/gypsum systems were identified through the changes in the LIII edge fine structure for Calcium. The results also show greater Ca LII binding energies between hydrated samples with different gypsum contents. Conversely, the hydrated samples from the cubic and orthorhombic C3A at the same amount of gypsum exhibited strong morphological differences but similar chemical environments.

  7. Land subsidence and caprock dolines caused by subsurface gypsum dissolution and the effect of subsidence on the fluvial system in the Upper Tigris Basin (between Bismil Batman, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Uğur

    2005-11-01

    Karstification-based land subsidence was found in the Upper Tigris Basin with dimensions not seen anywhere else in Turkey. The area of land subsidence, where there are secondary and tertiary subsidence developments, reaches 140 km 2. Subsidence depth ranges between 40 and 70 m. The subsidence was formed as a result of subsurface gypsum dissolution in Lower Miocene formation. Although there are limestones together with gypsum and Eocene limestone below them in the area, a subsidence with such a large area is indicative of karstification in the gypsum. The stratigraphical cross-sections taken from the wells and the water analyses also verify this fact. The Lower Miocene gypsum, which shows confined aquifer features, was completely dissolved by the aggressive waters injected from the top and discharged through by Zellek Fault. This resulted in the development of subsidence and formation of caprock dolines on loosely textured Upper Miocene-Pliocene cover formations. The Tigris River runs through the subsidence area between Batman and Bismil. There are four terrace levels as T1 (40 m), T2 (30 m), T3 (10 m) and T4 (4-5 m) in the Tigris River valley. It was also found that there were some movements of the levels of the terraces in the valley by subsidence. The subsidence developed gradually throughout the Quaternary; however no terrace was formed purely because of subsidence.

  8. Ultrasonically nebulised electrolysed oxidising water: a promising new infection control programme for impressions, metals and gypsum casts used in dental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Yu, X; Gu, Z

    2008-04-01

    Controlling the transmission of infectious diseases by impressions, metals and dental casts in dental hospitals remains a challenge. Current disinfection methods have various drawbacks. This study introduced and provided a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of using ultrasonically nebulised, electrolysed oxidising water (UNEOW) as a new infection control programme. UNEOW was produced from freshly generated electrolysed oxidising water (EOW). Samples of impressions, titanium and gypsum were subjected to the following treatments: (1) immersion in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10min; (2) immersion in EOW for 10min; (3) exposure to UNEOW for 15, 30 and 45min; (4) no disinfection (control). Bactericidal efficacy was examined using Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores as indicators. Dimensional accuracy, surface quality, and effect of corrosion were also evaluated for the different samples. Results showed that except for B. subtilis var. niger spores on gypsum casts, the bacterial reduction log(10) values after 30-45min treatment with UNEOW were all above 4. The impression dimensional changes showed no difference between control and UNEOW groups, but both were significantly lower than the EOW and sodium hypochlorite groups (Pimpressions and gypsum casts. No assessable corrosion was found on the titanium surface after a 45min treatment with UNEOW. The findings indicated that use of UNEOW is a feasible and promising approach for controlling the transmission of infectious diseases by impressions, gypsum casts and denture metals in dental facilities.

  9. A low-temperature ductile shear zone: The gypsum-dominated western extension of the brittle Fella-Sava Fault, Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Esther Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann

    2014-12-01

    Based on structural and fabric analyses at variable scales we investigate the evaporitic gypsum-dominated Comeglians-Paularo shear zone in the Southern Alps (Friuli). It represents the lateral western termination of the brittle Fella-Sava Fault. Missing dehydration products of gypsum and the lack of annealing indicate temperatures below 100 °C during development of the shear zone. Despite of such low temperatures the shear zone clearly exhibits mylonitic flow, thus evidencing laterally coeval activity of brittle and viscous deformation. The dominant structures within the gypsum rocks of the Lower Bellerophon Formation are a steeply to gently S-dipping foliation, a subhorizontal stretching lineation and pure shear-dominated porphyroclast systems. A subordinate simple shear component with dextral displacement is indicated by scattered σ-clasts. Both meso- and microscale structures are characteristic of a subsimple shear type of deformation with components of both coaxial and non-coaxial strain. Shortening in a transpressive regime was accommodated by right-lateral displacement and internal pure shear deformation within the Comeglians-Paularo shear zone. The shear zone shows evidence for a combination of two stretching faults, where stretching occurred in the rheologically weaker gypsum member and brittle behavior in enveloping lithologies.

  10. Effect of Organic Matter and Gypsum Powder Some Traits of Maize in a Saline-Sodic Soil

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    M Khotabaee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Saline-sodic soils have improper physical, chemical and biological condition and the crop productivity is low in these conditions. Application of conditioners often can be a proper solution for reclamation and improving the productivity of saline-sodic soils. In order to study the effect of some conditioners on soil chemical characteristics and yield of maize (SC260 cultivar in a saline-sodic soil, an experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with 3 replications in a research greenhouse of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. The studied treatments included control and 10 ton/ha of compost (MC, vermi-compost (VC, poultry manure (PM, and gypsum powder (G. The results showed that poultry manure and vemi-compost treatments increased significantly (p

  11. The study of Influencing Maintenance Factors on Failures of Two gypsum Kilns by Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing technology and using equipment in Iranian industries caused that maintenance system would be more important to use. Using proper management techniques not only increase the performance of production system but also reduce the failures and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of maintenance system and the effects of its components on failures of kilns in two gypsum production companies using Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA. Furthermore the costs of failures were studied. After the study of gypsum production steps in the factories, FMEA was conducted by the determination of analysis insight, information gathering, making list of kilns’ component and filling up the FMEA’s tables. The effects of failures on production, how to fail, failure rate, failure severity, and control measures were studied. The evaluation of maintenance system was studied by a check list including questions related to system components. The costs of failures were determined by refer in accounting notebooks and interview with the head of accounting department. It was found the total qualities of maintenance system in NO.1 was more than NO.2 but because of lower quality of NO.1’s kiln design, number of failures and their costs were more. In addition it was determined that repair costs in NO.2’s kiln were about one third of NO.1’s. The low severity failures caused the most costs in comparison to the moderate and low ones. The technical characteristics of kilns were appeared to be the most important factors in reducing of failures and costs.

  12. Assessment of groundwater contamination by gypsum dissolution in San Luis Potosí (México) using geoelectrical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Ramos-Leal, J. A.; Yáñez-Rodríguez, M. A.; Corbo-Camargo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Cerritos and Río Verde aquifers in San Luis Potosí (central México) make up a very complex aquifer system that is seriously affected by the overexploitation and the high concentration of sulphates. Currently, it is partially closed for extraction causing a substantial decrease in per capita drinking water availability affecting to more than 50,000 inhabitants in the region. Therefore, a very comprehensive study has been proposed in order to evaluate not only the groundwater contamination distribution but also to better know the aquifer configuration and its main hydrogeological characteristics as well. These studies include a detailed geological reconnaissance, hydrogeochemical analyses and a geoelectrical characterization. The main goal is to assess the aquifer geometry and to identify the gypsum horizons causing the presence of higher concentrations of sulphates in drinking water. A total of 26 audiomagnetotelluric soundings were measured and modelled along profiles following a perpendicular direction to the NW regional trending. Two-dimensional resistivity models suggest the presence of a shallow conductive layer (C1) with resistivity values ranging from 10 to 20 Ohm.m. It is related to the upper aquifer with a very low exploitation potential. A less conductive horizon (C2; 50 Ohm.m) underlying the shallow aquifer could be related to a very fractured limestone horizon forming a confined aquifer in the middle of the valley. A very resistive layer (R1) is observed underlying C1 and C2 units. This strata shows higher resistivity values (>100 Ohm.m) and could be associated with a reefal limestone identified as El Abra Formation. Finally, a conductive layer (<100 Ohm.m) observed beneath this horizon could be related to the oldest stratigraphic unit outcropping on the region, the Guaxcamá Formation, a gypsum-enriched unit, that contributes to the presence of sulphates in the upper aquifers by dissolution processes.

  13. Evolution characteristic of gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm in the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin

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    Dinghong Yi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over years of oil and gas exploration in the Qaidam Basin, reservoirs have been discovered in many layers. In the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin, the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm is an important target for oil and gas exploration, and gypsum-salt rocks are the high-quality caprocks for the preservation of oil and gas reservoirs in this area. For predicting oil and gas exploration direction and target in the western Qaidam Basin and providing guidance for its oil and gas exploration deployment, its depositional characteristics and environment of gypsum-salt rocks in this area were investigated based on the core observation, thin section identification, and analysis of grain size, sensitivity parameter ratios (Sr/Cu, Fe/Mn, (Fe + Al/(Ca + Mg, V/(V + Ni and Pr/Ph, pyrite content and inclusions. The following characteristics are identified. First, gypsum-salt rocks are mainly distributed in the depocenter of the lake basin and their thickness decreases towards the margin of the basin. They are laterally transformed into carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. They are areally distributed in the shape of irregular ellipse. Second, gypsum-salt rocks are vertically developed mainly in the middle and upper parts of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm and they are interbedded with carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. Their single layer thickness changes greatly, and there are many layers with good continuity. Third, Sand Group III to Group I in the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm (inter-salt are of reductive water environment of semi-deep to deep lake facies due to their sedimentation in an arid and hot climate. It is concluded that gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm are distributed widely with great accumulative thickness in this area; and that they are originated from deep lake water by virtue of evaporation, concentration and crystallization in an arid and hot climate instead

  14. The next chapter in experimental petrology: Metamorphic dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum captured in 3D microtomographic time series datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, John; Fusseis, Florian; Leclere, Henry; Wheeler, John; Faulkner, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleation and growth of new minerals in response to disequilibrium is the most fundamental metamorphic process. However, our current kinetic models of metamorphic reactions are largely based on inference from fossil mineral assemblages, rather than from direct observation. The experimental investigation of metamorphism has also been limited, typically to concealed vessels that restrict the possibility of direct microstructural monitoring. Here we present one of the first time series datasets that captures a metamorphic reaction, dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum to form hemihydrate, in a series of three dimensional x-ray microtomographic datasets. We achieved this by installing an x-ray transparent hydrothermal cell (Fusseis et al., 2014, J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 251-253) in the microtomography beamline 2BM at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). In the cell, we heated a millimetre-sized sample of Volterra Alabaster to 388 K while applying an effective pressure of 5 MPa. Using hard x-rays that penetrate the pressure vessel, we imaged the specimen 40 times while it reacted for approximately 10 hours. Each microtomographic dataset was acquired in 300 seconds without interrupting the reaction. Our absorption microtomographic data have a voxel size of 1.3 μm, which suffices to analyse the reaction progress in 4D. Gypsum can clearly be distinguished from hemihydrate and pores, which form due to the large negative solid volume change. On the resolved scale, the first hemihydrate needles appear after about 2 hours. Our data allow tracking of individual needles throughout the entire experiment. We quantified their growth rates by measuring their circumference. While individual grains grow at different rates, they all start slowly during the initial nucleation stage, then accelerate and grow steadily between about 200 and 400 minutes before reaction rate decelerates again. Hemihydrate needles are surrounded by porous haloes, which grow with the needles, link up and

  15. Preliminary U-Th Dating of Endogenic Gypsum From Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, V. C.; Gallup, C. D.; Hodell, D.; Anselmetti, F.; Brenner, M.; Ariztegui, D.

    2007-05-01

    Uranium-thorium dating of lake sediments can provide accurate ages beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. Many lakes have endogenic precipitation of calcium bearing minerals that allow for substitution by uranium within their crystal structures. The water chemistry of Lake Petén-Itzá, located in northern Guatemala, is dominated by calcium, sulfate and carbonate ions (Deevey et al. 1980; Curtis et al. 1998). Changes in regional climate due to suspected shifts in the ITCZ over the past 85,000 years resulted in both calcite and gypsum deposition, especially during drier periods (Hodell et al. 2006). Both precipitates incorporate uranium from the lake water and can be used for U-Th dating. U-Th dating is problematic in lake systems for several reasons: the potential for 1) diagenetic alteration or dissolution while the endogenic precipitates are settling and after deposition and 2) contamination by detrital thorium. Contamination is a primary issue because of the difficulty of separating the precipitates from the sediment. Despite these concerns, U-Th dating of lake sediments has the potential to be successful with careful selection of precipitates and thorough analysis of the precipitate, the lake system, and the diagenetic environment. Preliminary samples of Lake Petén-Itzá gypsum contain euhedral crystals, indicating a lack of post-depositional alteration. However, the samples have high background thorium levels, indicating the necessity of using the U-Th total sample dissolution isochron dating method (as described by Ku, 2000) to quantify authigenic thorium. Curtis J.H., Brenner M., Hodell D.A., Balser R.A., Islebe G.A., Hooghiemstra H. 1998. A multi-proxy study of Holocene environmental change in the Maya lowlands of Petén, Guatemala. Journal of Paleolimnology 19, 139-159. Deevey E.S., Brenner M., Flannery M.S., Yezdani G.H. 1980. Lakes Yaxha and Scanab, Petén, Guatemala: Limnology and hydrology. Arch. Hydrobiol. 57, 419-460. Hodell D.A., Anselmetti F

  16. Recovery of soil physical properties by green manure, liming, gypsum and pasture and spontaneous native species¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Santos Batista Bonini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate usage can degrade natural resources, particularly soils. More attention has been paid to practices aiming at the recovery of degraded soils in the last years, e.g, the use of organic fertilizers, liming and introduction of species adapted to adverse conditions. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the recovery of physical properties of a Red Latosol (Oxisol degraded by the construction of a hydroelectric power station. In the study area, a soil layer about 8m thick had been withdrawn by heavy machines leading not only to soil compaction, but resulting in high-degree degradation. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with nine treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of: 1- soil mobilization by tilling (to ensure the effect of mechanical mobilization in all treatments without planting, but growth of spontaneous vegetation; 2- Black velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy; 3- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. DC; 4- Liming + black velvet bean; 5-Liming + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis; 6- Liming + gypsum + black velvet bean; 7- Liming + gypsum + pigeonpea until 1994, when replaced by jack bean; and two controls as reference: 8- Native Cerrado vegetation and 9- bare soil (no tilling and no planting, left under natural conditions and in this situation, without spontaneous vegetation. In treatments 1 through 7, the soil was tilled. Treatments were installed in 1992 and left unmanaged for seven years, until brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens was planted in all plots in 1999. Seventeen years after implantation, the properties soil macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, bulk density and aggregate stability were assessed in the previously described treatments in the soil layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, and soil Penetration Resistance and soil moisture in 0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. The plants were evaluated for: brachiaria

  17. Characterization of mudejar mortars from St. Gil Abbot church (Zaragoza, Spain: Investigation of the manufacturing technology of ancient gypsum mortars

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    Igea, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been focused on the investigation of the technological procedure of Mudejar mortars applied to the characterization of a group of unaltered samples from an example church of Mudejar architecture of Aragon. The research was carried out using multi-analytical techniques including petrographic study, chemistry and mineralogical analysis. All mortars present a homogeneous composition. The binder is made up of a mixture of gypsum and a very low proportion of lime, while the main components of the aggregate are gypsum and carbonate rock fragments, both in a different thermal state of decomposition. The results have proved that both, binder and aggregates display the same composition in these mortars. These aggregates are the by-product of a grinding process of the previously burnt raw materials which have had a positive influence on the properties of the mortars in improving their quality.

    Este trabajo se ha centrado en la investigación de la tecnología de fabricación de morteros mudéjares mediante la caracterización de un conjunto de muestras inalteradas procedentes de una iglesia representativa de la arquitectura Mudéjar aragonesa. La investigación se llevó a cabo mediante el uso combinado de técnicas analíticas incluyendo el estudio petrográfico y el análisis químico y mineralógico. Todos los morteros presentan una composición constante formada por una mezcla de yeso y cal, en muy baja proporción, como ligante, mientras que el árido está formado por fragmentos de rocas yesíferas y carbonatadas en distinto estado de descomposición térmica. Los resultados confirman que en la fabricación de los morteros, ligante y áridos presentan la misma composición, siendo éstos últimos el subproducto de la misma materia prima calcinada, incorporados para elaborar el mortero, tras un proceso de molienda. Esta característica ha influido positivamente en las propiedades de los morteros, mejorando su calidad.

  18. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In

  19. Corrosion behaviour of metallic and non-metallic materials in various media in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laske, D.; Wiedemann, K.H.

    1983-10-01

    The final underground disposal of radioactive wastes necessitates container materials with a good long-term resistance against corrosion from both external agents and the solidification matrix inside. For low- and medium-level active waste, repositories in anhydrite sites, among others, are under consideration. Sheet and plate samples from 14 metallic and 8 non-metallic materials have been tested for 5 years in a tunnel in the Anhydrite and Gypsum Mine Felsenau/AG for their corrosion resistance in the tunnel atmosphere, anhydrite powder, gypsum powder, gypsum, and cement. From the metallic materials tested, only chromium-nickel steel is corrosion resistant to all the media present. Zinc plated and tin plated iron sheet as well as aluminium and aluminium alloys are corrosion resistant only in the atmosphere of the tunnel, and lead plated iron sheet is resistant also in cement. Aluminium is dissolved in cement. Uncovered iron sheet undergoes severe corrosion. The non-metallic coatings tested (lacquer, stove lacquer, or synthetic resins) partially flake off already after one year's testing and are therefore not appropriate for iron sheet corrosion protection. No influence of the different media has been observed after 5 years on the 8 plastic materials tested (6 without, and 2 with glass fiber reinforcement). (author)

  20. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. PMID:25368354

  1. Arsenic leaching and speciation in C&D debris landfills and the relationship with gypsum drywall content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sulfide levels on arsenic leaching and speciation were investigated using leachate generated from laboratory-scale construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills, which were simulated lysimeters containing various percentages of gypsum drywall. The drywall percentages in lysimeters were 0, 1, 6, and 12.4wt% (weight percent) respectively. With the exception of a control lysimeter that contained 12.4wt% of drywall, each lysimeter contained chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, which accounts for 10wt% of the C&D waste. During the period of study, lysimeters were mostly under anaerobic conditions. Leachate analysis results showed that sulfide levels increased as the percentage of drywall increased in landfills, but arsenic concentrations in leachate were not linearly correlated with sulfide levels. Instead, the arsenic concentrations decreased as sulfide increased up to approximately 1000μg/L, but had an increase with further increase in sulfide levels, forming a V-shape on the arsenic vs. sulfide plot. The analysis of arsenic speciation in leachate showed different species distribution as sulfide levels changed; the fraction of arsenite (As(III)) increased as the sulfide level increased, and thioarsenate anions (As(V)) were detected when the sulfide level further increased (>10 4 μg/L). The formation of insoluble arsenic sulfide minerals at a lower range of sulfide and soluble thioarsenic anionic species at a higher range of sulfide likely contributed to the decreasing and increasing trend of arsenic leaching. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Analytical results, geology, and sample locality map of mercury-sulfur-gypsum mineralization at Crater, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.S.; Marsh, S.P.; Roemer, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Crater mercury-su l fur-gypsum ~ineral ized area is located in east-central California along the crest of the Last Chance Range, west of the north end of Death Valley (fig. 1). The area is in the northwest quarter of the Last Chance Range 15-minute quadrangle and occupies the area between 117 39 and 117 45 longitude and 37 10 and 37 15 latitudP.. The area studied lies between 5000 ( 1525 m) and 6000 ( 1830 m) feet above sea level. Relief isgenerally moderate but can be extreme in some places, as at Hanging Rock Canyon (plate 1). The climate is arid, and there are no active streams in the area. The range fronts east and west of the area are precipitous and incised by many steep canyons, whereas the range crest has relatively low relief. The old abandoned town and mine site of Crater 1 ie in this area of low relief. Access to the Crater area is by paved and dirt roads from Big Pine to the west or from the north end of the Death Valley National Monument to the southeast.

  3. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G M; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-12-13

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication of calcite blocks from gypsum blocks by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions in sodium carbonate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Kawachi, Giichiro; Tsuru, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Ayami

    2017-03-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) has been used as a bone substitute, and is a precursor for carbonate apatite, which is also a promising bone substitute. However, limited studies have been reported on the fabrication of artificial calcite blocks. In the present study, cylindrical calcite blocks (ϕ6×3mm) were fabricated by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions using different calcium sulfate blocks as a precursor. In the dissolution-precipitation reactions, both CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O and CaSO 4 transformed into calcite, a polymorph of CaCO 3 , while maintaining their macroscopic structure when immersed in 1mol/L Na 2 CO 3 solution at 80°C for 1week. The diametral tensile strengths of the calcite blocks formed using CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O and CaSO 4 were 1.0±0.3 and 2.3±0.7MPa, respectively. The fabrication of calcite blocks using CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O and CaSO 4 proposed in this investigation may be a useful method to produce calcite blocks because of the self-setting ability and high temperature stability of gypsum precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation upon rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoiled lands in the Indian arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Sharma, U.K.; Gough, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Richness, diversity and evenness of vegetation, after rehabilitation of gypsum mine spoils at Barmer were investigated in plots protected and planted one year and four years ago. There were four water harvesting treatments, viz., half-moon terraces, micro-catchments with 5% slope, ridge and furrow and control, wherein, indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs were planted at 5 ?? 5 m spacing. Sampling of the planted and natural vegetation, using quadrats and transacts, revealed much less species richness in unplanted control as compared to all treatments and in all the years. The species richness that increased initially (within one year) gradually declined over time (during four year), though the extent varied in different treatments. The water harvesting treatment showing maximum initial increase in richness also showed maximum decline over time, though decline was more in annual species. Two perennial species increased in richness with time. This was further proved from the trends in diversity and evenness indices. It was concluded that natural successional process was accelerated by rehabilitation providing stability to the habitat.

  6. Groundwater flow and its effect on salt dissolution in Gypsum Canyon watershed, Paradox Basin, southeast Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, Nadine G.; Ge, Shemin; Mueller, Karl

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater flow is an important control on subsurface evaporite (salt) dissolution. Salt dissolution can drive faulting and associated subsidence on the land surface and increase salinity in groundwater. This study aims to understand the groundwater flow system of Gypsum Canyon watershed in the Paradox Basin, Utah, USA, and whether or not groundwater-driven dissolution affects surface deformation. The work characterizes the groundwater flow and solute transport systems of the watershed using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element flow and transport model, SUTRA. Spring samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of water and total dissolved solids. Spring water and hydraulic conductivity data provide constraints for model parameters. Model results indicate that regional groundwater flow is to the northwest towards the Colorado River, and shallow flow systems are influenced by topography. The low permeability obtained from laboratory tests is inconsistent with field observed discharges, supporting the notion that fracture permeability plays a significant role in controlling groundwater flow. Model output implies that groundwater-driven dissolution is small on average, and cannot account for volume changes in the evaporite deposits that could cause surface deformation, but it is speculated that dissolution may be highly localized and/or weaken evaporite deposits, and could lead to surface deformation over time.

  7. Manufacturing of mortars and concretes non-traditionals, by Portland cement, metakaoline and gypsum (15.05%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In a thorough previous research (1, it appeared that creation, evolution and development of the values of compressive mechanical strength (CS and flexural strength (FS, measured in specimens 1x1x6cm of mortar type ASTM C 452-68 (2, manufactured by ordinary Portland cement P-1 (14.11% C3A or PY-6 (0.00% C3A, metakaolin and gypsum (CaSO4∙2H2O -or ternary cements, CT-, were similar to the ones commonly developed in mortars and concretes of OPC. This paper sets up the experimental results obtained from non-traditional mortars and concretes prepared with such ternary cements -TC-, being the portland cement/metakaolin mass ratio, as follows: 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. Finally, the behaviour of these cements against gypsum attack, has been also determined, using the following parameters: increase in length (ΔL%, compressive, CS, and flexural, FS, strengths, and ultrasound energy, UE. Experimental results obtained from these non-traditional mortars and concretes, show an increase in length (ΔL, in CS and FS, and in UE values, when there is addition of metakaolin.

    En una exhaustiva investigación anterior (1, se pudo comprobar que la creación, evolución y desarrollo de los valores de resistencias mecánicas a compresión, RMC, y flexotracción, RMF, proporcionados por probetas de 1x1x6 cm, de mortero 1:2,75, selenitoso tipo ASTM C 452-68 (2 -que habían sido preparadas con arena de Ottawa, cemento portland, P-1 (14,11% C3A o PY- 6 (0,00% C3A, metacaolín y yeso (CaSO4∙2H2O-, fue semejante a la que, comúnmente, desarrollan los morteros y hormigones tradicionales de cemento portland. En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados experimentales obtenidos de morteros y hormigones no tradicionales, preparados con dichos cementos ternarios, CT, siendo las proporciones porcentuales en masa ensayadas, cemento portland/metacaolín, las siguientes: 80/20, 70

  8. Microbial diversity in the deep-subsurface hydrothermal aquifer feeding the giant gypsum crystal-bearing Naica mine, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eRagon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Naica mine in Northern Mexico is famous for its giant gypsum crystals, which may reach up to 11 m long and contain fluid inclusions that might have captured microorganisms during their formation. These crystals formed under particularly stable geochemical conditions in cavities filled by low salinity hydrothermal water at 54-58°C. We have explored the microbial diversity associated to these deep, saline hydrothermal waters collected in the deepest (ca. 700-760 m mineshafts by amplifying, cloning and sequencing small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes using primers specific for archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. Eukaryotes were not detectable in the samples and the prokaryotic diversity identified was very low. Two archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs were detected in one sample. They clustered with, respectively, basal Thaumarchaeota lineages and with a large clade of environmental sequences branching at the base of the Thermoplasmatales within the Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences belonged to the Candidate Division OP3, Firmicutes and the Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria. Most of the lineages detected appear autochthonous to the Naica system, since they had as closest representatives environmental sequences retrieved from deep sediments or the deep subsurface. In addition, the high GC content of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the archaea and to some OP3 OTUs suggests that at least these lineages are thermophilic. Attempts to amplify diagnostic functional genes for methanogenesis (mcrA and sulfate reduction (dsrAB were unsuccessful, suggesting that those activities, if present, are not important in the aquifer. By contrast, genes encoding archaeal ammonium monooxygenase (AamoA were amplified, suggesting that Naica Thaumarchaeota are involved in nitrification. These organisms are likely thermophilic chemolithoautotrophs adapted to thrive in an extremely energy-limited environment.

  9. Seismic testing of a three-hour fire-rated steel-framed gypsum drywall partition for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulin, F.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The test specimen measured 1.22 by 3.05 m and consisted of three layers of 12.7 mm SHEETROCK Brand FIRECODE 'C' Gypsum Panels screw-attached to both sides of USG Steel 35SJ18 Studs 610 mm on centers. The specimen was first mounted in the earthquake simulator with the studs oriented horizontally and the runners vertically. Each runner was secured to a shaker support through which horizontal sinusoidal movement was induced normal to the surface of the wall. The damping ratio was found to be 9%. The average dynamic EI of the panel was 177000 GNxmm 2 . After the OBE scans, the specimen withstood the SSE scan for frequencies between 4 and 25 Hz. Resonance occured at 9 Hz. With a support acceleration of 3.0 gsub(e), the midspan acceleration reached 6.83 gsub(e). The same specimen was rotated 90 0 to a horizontal position with each runner attached to the corresponding shaker support which induced sinusoidal motion parallel to the runners. In the SSE shake at a frequency of 9 Hz and a support acceleration of 3.0 gsub(e), the midspan acceleration reached 4.66 gsub(e). To confirm the structural integrity of the specimen, it was then mounted in a vacuum chamber and tested in accordance with ASTM E 72. The rollers were spaced at 2.98 m. The panel yielded at a uniform load of 20.8 kN (equivalent to force at 8.8 gsub(e) acceleration) and failed at 26.3 kN (11.1 gsub(e)); both values greater than the 6.83 gsub(e) maximum dynamic midspan acceleration. The average static EI was 136000 GNxmm 2 - close to the 177000 GNxmm 2 dynamic EI. This transverse load test showed that the specimen was not structurally damaged by the shaker tests simulating earthquakes in nuclear plants. (orig./HP)

  10. Metals in Soil and Runoff from a Piedmont Hay Field Amended with Broiler Litter and Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomberg, Harry H; Endale, Dinku M; Jenkins, Michael B; Chaney, Rufus L; Franklin, Dorcas H

    2018-03-01

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) from coal-fired power plants is readily available for agricultural use in many US regions. Broiler litter (BL) provides plant available N, P, and K but can be a source of unwanted As, Cu, and Zn. As a source of Ca and S, FGDG can reduce losses of P and other elements in runoff from BL-amended areas. Rainfall simulation plots (2.0 m) were established on a Piedmont Cecil soil growing 'Coastal' bermudagrass ( L.) for hay. Accumulation and transport of As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Zn were evaluated after annual BL applications (13.5 Mg ha) with four FGDG rates (0, 2.2, 4.5, 9.0 Mg ha) and two FGDG treatments (0 and 9 Mg ha) without BL. Runoff As concentrations were sixfold greater with BL than without ( ≤ 0.01) and were similar to BL with FGDG at 2.2, 4.5 or 9.0 Mg ha ( ≤ 0.10). Runoff concentrations of target elements did not increase where FGDG was applied alone. After three annual applications of FGDG and BL, soil concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Cu were well below levels of environmental concern. Our findings indicate that runoff losses of As from BL application are not reduced with FGDG but support other research indicating no identifiable environmental risks from FGDG beneficial use in agricultural systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Microbial diversity in the deep-subsurface hydrothermal aquifer feeding the giant gypsum crystal-bearing Naica Mine, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Van Driessche, Alexander E. S.; García-Ruíz, Juan M.; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2013-01-01

    The Naica Mine in northern Mexico is famous for its giant gypsum crystals, which may reach up to 11 m long and contain fluid inclusions that might have captured microorganisms during their formation. These crystals formed under particularly stable geochemical conditions in cavities filled by low salinity hydrothermal water at 54–58°C. We have explored the microbial diversity associated to these deep, saline hydrothermal waters collected in the deepest (ca. 700–760 m) mineshafts by amplifying, cloning and sequencing small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes using primers specific for archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Eukaryotes were not detectable in the samples and the prokaryotic diversity identified was very low. Two archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in one sample. They clustered with, respectively, basal Thaumarchaeota lineages and with a large clade of environmental sequences branching at the base of the Thermoplasmatales within the Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences belonged to the Candidate Division OP3, Firmicutes and the Alpha- and Beta-proteobacteria. Most of the lineages detected appear autochthonous to the Naica system, since they had as closest representatives environmental sequences retrieved from deep sediments or the deep subsurface. In addition, the high GC content of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the archaea and to some OP3 OTUs suggests that at least these lineages are thermophilic. Attempts to amplify diagnostic functional genes for methanogenesis (mcrA) and sulfate reduction (dsrAB) were unsuccessful, suggesting that those activities, if present, are not important in the aquifer. By contrast, genes encoding archaeal ammonium monooxygenase (AamoA) were amplified, suggesting that Naica Thaumarchaeota are involved in nitrification. These organisms are likely thermophilic chemolithoautotrophs adapted to thrive in an extremely energy-limited environment. PMID:23508882

  12. Late Glacial temperature and precipitation changes in the lowland Neotropics by tandem measurement of δ 18O in biogenic carbonate and gypsum hydration water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, David A.; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Wiseman, Camilla J.; Escobar, Jaime; Curtis, Jason H.; Brenner, Mark; Gilli, Adrian; Mueller, Andreas D.; Anselmetti, Flavio; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brown, Erik T.

    2012-01-01

    We applied a new method to reconstruct paleotemperature in the tropics during the last deglaciation by measuring oxygen isotopes of co-occurring gypsum hydration water and biogenic carbonate in sediment cores from two lakes on the Yucatan Peninsula. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope values of interstitial and gypsum hydration water indicate that the crystallization water preserves the isotopic signal of the lake water, and has not undergone post-depositional isotopic exchange with sediment pore water. The estimated lake water δ18O is combined with carbonate δ18O to calculate paleotemperature. Three paired measurements of 1200-yr-old gypsum and gastropod aragonite from Lake Chichancanab, Mexico, yielded a mean temperature of 26 °C (range 23-29.5 °C), which is consistent with the mean and range of mean annual temperatures (MAT) in the region today. Paired measurements of ostracods, gastropods, and gypsum hydration water samples were measured in cores from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, spanning the Late Glacial and early Holocene period (18.5-10.4 ka). The lowest recorded temperatures occurred at the start of Heinrich Stadial (HS) 1 at 18.5 ka. Inferred temperatures from benthic ostracods ranged from 16 to 20 °C during HS 1, which is 6-10 °C cooler than MAT in the region today, whereas temperatures derived from shallow-water gastropods were generally warmer (20-25 °C), reflecting epilimnetic temperatures. The derived temperatures support previous findings of greater tropical cooling on land in Central America during the Late Glacial than indicated by nearby marine records. Temperature increased in two steps during the last deglaciation. The first occurred during the Bolling-Allerod (B-A; from 14.7 to 13 ka) when temperature rose to 20-24 °C towards the end of this period. The second step occurred at 10.4 ka near the beginning of the Holocene when ostracod-inferred temperature rose to 26 °C, reflecting modern hypolimnetic temperature set during winter, whereas

  13. Extension of the possibilities for disposal of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum by the development of a process for the production of FGD gypsum. Final report. Erweiterung der Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, B.; Hueller, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of this research project a completly new transformation of FGD-gypsum into FGD-anhydrite has been studied. The reaction is catalysed by small quantities of sulphuric acid resulting in a FGD-anhydrite without combined water and with an orthorhombic crystal lattice. The course of reaction was thoroughly investigated by laboratory test and hypothesis have been put forward. The process engineering has been developed from laboratory to pilot plant scale. The FGD-anhydrite is technologically a novel product. The idea was to create it for cement industry as well as to put it on the filler market as a raw product. In principle, FGD-anhdrite will be suitable for the use in the cement industry due to its characteristics. However, it is not interesting for this market in this moment. With respect to the filler industry, this application will enable a further-reaching usability of the FGD-gypsum than the traditional scope of the gypsum industry. First experiments show that the specific properties of processed FGD-anhydrite may qualify it as a high-grade filler. (orig.) With 18 refs., 21 tabs., 41 figs.

  14. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and radionuclide retention and leaching from a Joel sand amended with red mud/gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPharlin, L.R.; Jeffery, R.C.; Toussaint, L.F.; Cooper, M.

    1994-01-01

    The leaching of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and radionuclides 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 40 K from Joel sands amended with red mud/gypsum (RMG) at 9 rates (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 t/ha) was measured using columns. Intense leaching conditions (34 mm/day for 12 days) and a high rate of applied P (320 kg/ha as superphosphate) and N (680 kg/ha as ammonium nitrate) were used to simulate extremes of irrigated vegetable production on the Swan Coastal Plain. Addition of the highest rate of RMG (256 t/ha) reduced leaching of fertiliser P and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) by 85% and 50%, respectively, compared with 0 t/ha after 12 days. At 64 t RMG/ha P leaching was reduced 50% compared with 0 t/ha. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching was not affected by addition of RMG. Reduced leaching of NH4-N was attributed to an increase in cation exchange capacity of the soil with the addition of RMG. Bicarbonate-extractable P in the soil increased with rate of RMG to >50 μg P/g soil at 256 t/ha. This indicates that soil testing of residual P could be used to reduce P inputs to vegetable crops after soils were amended with RMG. This would further reduce the impact of vegetable production on the water systems of the Swan Coastal Plain and extend the period of effectiveness of RMG amended soils. The increase in 232 Th specific activity in Joel sand amended with RMG was well below statutory limits even at the highest rate. Neither 40 K nor 226 Ra were detectable in RMG amended sands up to 256 t RMG/ha. There was no evidence of leaching of 226 Ra or 228 Ra at any rate of RMG. These results suggest that the use of RMG amendment on commercial horticultural properties on the Swan Coastal Plain could be feasible. 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  16. Optimization of the level and range of working temperature of the PCM in the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM thermal energy storage unit for summer conditions in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, P.; Jaworski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper thermal energy storage (TES) unit in a form of a ceiling panel made of gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite with internal U-shaped channels was considered and optimal characteristics of the microencapsulated PCM were determined. This panel may be easily incorporated into, e.g., an office or residential ventilation system in order to reduce daily variations of air temperature during the summer without additional costs related to the consumption of energy for preparing air parameters to the desired level. For the purpose of the analysis of heat transfer in the panel, a novel numerical simulator was developed. The numerical model consists of two coupled parts, i.e., the 1D which deals with the air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the 3D which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. The computational tool was validated based on the experimental study performed on the special set-up. Using this tool an optimization of parameters of the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite was performed in order to determine its most appropriate properties for the application under study. The analyses were performed for averaged local summer conditions in Warsaw, Poland.

  17. Dedolomitization Potential of Fluids from Gypsum-to-Anhydrite Conversion: Mass Balance Constraints from the Late Permian Zechstein-2-Carbonates in NW Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hallenberger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zechstein-2-Carbonates represent one of the most prolific hydrocarbon systems of Central Europe. Carbonate reservoir quality is primarily controlled by mineralogy, with dolomite representing moderate-to-good porosities and calcite commonly representing low porosities. Current models suggest that this calcite is the result of a basin-wide phase of dedolomitization. The calcium (Ca source for the dedolomites is thought to be derived from the fluids liberated during gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion. We present an easy-to-use and generally applicable template to estimate the dedolomitization potential of these fluids. Depending on reaction stoichiometry, salinity, and temperature, we estimate that between 2.8⁎10−3 m3 and 6.2⁎10−3 m3 of calcite may replace dolomite for each m3 of anhydrite created. Within the constraints dictated by the environment of the late Permian Zechstein basin, we estimate that about 5⁎10−3 m3 of dedolomite is created for each m3 of anhydrite. Mass balance constraints indicate that fluids derived from gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion account for less than 1% of the observed dedolomite in most of the studied industry wells from northern Germany.

  18. Gypsum effects on soil chemical properties under two management systemsEfeito do gesso nas propriedades químicas do solo sob dois sistemas de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of gypsum application and soil management may influence soil chemical properties. In this context, the aim of this paper was to evaluate soil chemical properties under two management systems and residual gypsum in soil after 55 months from treatment application. This experiment was developed in FCA/UFGD in Dourados-MS, Brazil under a randomized block design with subdivided plots and four replications. Main plots, subplots and subsubplots consisted of tillage systems (conventional and no tillage, gypsum application and soil depth (0-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,15, 0,15-0,20 and 0,20-0,30 m, respectively. There were no effects of residual gypsum on calcium levels. The combination of no tillage system and residual gypsum increased potassium and sulfur as well as reduced potential acidity. However, residual gypsum increased soil potential acidity in conventional system. No tillage system increased calcium levels in the depths 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, organic matter down to 0.05 m, sulfur accumulation in the depths 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.15 m, sum of bases and base saturation in the depth 0.05-0.10. Conversely, magnesium levels in the depth 0.10-0.15 m, phosphorus from 0.05 to 0.15 m, potential acidity from 0.05 to 0.10 m and ECC in the depth 0.10-0.15 m were decreased. Effects of residual gypsum increased sulfur and base saturation from 0.20 to 0.30 m, but decreased magnesium and phosphorus levels in the depth 0.05-0.10 m. Soil active acidity and potassium levels were decreased in deeper soil layers. A combinação de gessagem e manejo do solo podem influenciar as propriedades químicas do solo. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades químicas do solo submetido a dois manejos do solo e ao efeito residual de gesso, após 55 meses de implantação dos tratamentos. Desenvolvido em uma área experimental da FCA/UFGD de Dourados, MS, o experimento foi disposto no delineamento de blocos casualizados com os fatores

  19. Late-stage anhydrite-gypsum-siderite-dolomite-calcite assemblages record the transition from a deep to a shallow hydrothermal system in the Schwarzwald mining district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Mathias; Walter, Benjamin F.; Gerdes, Axel; Lanz, Maximilian; Markl, Gregor

    2018-02-01

    The majority of hydrothermal vein systems of economic interest occur at relatively shallow crustal levels, although many of them formed at significantly greater depths. Their present position is a consequence of uplift and erosion. Although, many aspects of their formation are well constrained, the temporal chemical evolution of such systems during uplift and erosion is still poorly understood. These vein minerals comprise calcite, dolomite-ankerite, siderite-magnesite, anhydrite and gypsum forming the last gangue assemblages in Jurassic and Tertiary sulphide-fluorite-quartz-barite veins of the Schwarzwald mining district, SW Germany. Mineral textures of samples from nine localities reveal that in these sequences, mineral precipitation follows a recurring pattern: early calcite is followed by anhydrite or gypsum, siderite and/or dolomite. This succession may repeat up to three times. In-situ (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb age dating of 15 carbonates from three subsequent generations of the late-stage vein assemblage yield robust ages between 20 and 0.6 Ma. Each mineral sequence forms in a distinctive period of about 2-5 Ma. These ages clearly relate these late-stage mineral phases to the youngest geological episode of the Schwarzwald, which is associated with the Cenozoic Rhine Graben rifting and basement uplift. Based on thermodynamic modelling, the formation of the observed mineral assemblages required an deeply sourced Mg-, Fe- and SO4-rich fluid (b), which was episodically mixed with a shallow crustal HCO3-rich fluid (a). As a consequence of fluid mixing, concentrations of Mg, Fe and SO4 temporarily increased and initiated the formation of the observed sulphate-carbonate mineral sequences. This discontinuous large-scale vertical fluid mixing was presumably directly related to episodes of active tectonics associated with the Cenozoic strike-slip regime of the Upper Rhine Graben. Analogously, episodic fluid mixing is a major key in the formation of older (Jurassic to early

  20. Phases, periphases, and interphases equilibrium by molecular modeling. I. Mass equilibrium by the semianalytical stochastic perturbations method and application to a solution between (120) gypsum faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Jouanna, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The SASP (semianalytical stochastic perturbations) method is an original mixed macro-nano-approach dedicated to the mass equilibrium of multispecies phases, periphases, and interphases. This general method, applied here to the reflexive relation Ck⇔μk between the concentrations Ck and the chemical potentials μk of k species within a fluid in equilibrium, leads to the distribution of the particles at the atomic scale. The macroaspects of the method, based on analytical Taylor's developments of chemical potentials, are intimately mixed with the nanoaspects of molecular mechanics computations on stochastically perturbed states. This numerical approach, directly linked to definitions, is universal by comparison with current approaches, DLVO Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek, grand canonical Monte Carlo, etc., without any restriction on the number of species, concentrations, or boundary conditions. The determination of the relation Ck⇔μk implies in fact two problems: a direct problem Ck⇒μk and an inverse problem μk⇒Ck. Validation of the method is demonstrated in case studies A and B which treat, respectively, a direct problem and an inverse problem within a free saturated gypsum solution. The flexibility of the method is illustrated in case study C dealing with an inverse problem within a solution interphase, confined between two (120) gypsum faces, remaining in connection with a reference solution. This last inverse problem leads to the mass equilibrium of ions and water molecules within a 3 Å thick gypsum interface. The major unexpected observation is the repulsion of SO42- ions towards the reference solution and the attraction of Ca2+ ions from the reference solution, the concentration being 50 times higher within the interphase as compared to the free solution. The SASP method is today the unique approach able to tackle the simulation of the number and distribution of ions plus water molecules in such extreme confined conditions. This result is of prime

  1. Adhesives in Building--Lamination of Structural Timber Beams, Bonding of Cementitious Materials, Bonding of Gypsum Drywall Construction. Proceedings of a Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Spring 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The role of adhesives in building design is discussed. Three major areas are as follows--(1) lamination of structural timber beams, (2) bonding of cementitious materials, and (3) bonding of gypsum drywall construction. Topical coverage includes--(1) structural lamination today, (2) adhesives in use today, (3) new adhesives needed, (4) production…

  2. Lime and gypsum to improve root depth of orange crop in an Ultisol of the Coastal Tablelands Calcário e gesso no aprofundamento radicular da laranjeira em um Argissolo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafayette F. Sobral

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal Tableland is a landscape unit in the North East of Brazil in which the main soils are Ultisols. In these soils, a compacted layer denominated "cohesive horizon" occurs and root growth is limited by it. An experiment with five treatments and six replications was set up in order to study how liming and gypsum could improve root depth of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck crop in an Ultisol in which a compacted layer was found at 0.3 m. Treatments were: A - No liming and no gypsum; B - Liming to achieve 60% base saturation; C - B + 1 t of gypsum ha-1 ; D - B + 2 t of gypsum ha-1 and E - B + 3 t of gypsum ha-1. Gypsum increased calcium and sulfate in the cohesive horizon. Surface application of lime and gypsum did not cause changes in soil density and total porosity in the cohesive horizon. An improvement of root length was observed at the cohesive horizon.Os tabuleiros costeiros são uma unidade de paisagem em que um dos principais solos são os Argissolos, nos quais, uma camada compactada, denominada "horizonte coeso" ocorre e o crescimento radicular é por ela limitado. Um experimento com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições foi implantado para se estudar os efeitos da calagem e do gesso no aprofundamento radicular da laranjeira (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck em um Argissolo onde o horizonte coeso está a 0,3 m de profundidade. Os tratamentos foram: A - Sem gesso e sem calagem; B - Calagem para atingir 60% de saturação por bases; C - B + 1 t ha-1 de gesso ; D - B + 2 t ha-1 de gesso; e E - B + 3 t ha-1 de gesso. A calagem e o gesso aumentaram significativamente os teores de sulfato e de calcio no solo até a profundidade de 0,40 m. A aplicação a lanço de calcário e gesso não causaram modificações na densidade do solo e na porosidade total da camada compactada "horizonte coeso". Foi observado um aumento do comprimento das raízes da laranjeira na camada compactada.

  3. The Potential Ability of Plaster to Cause Breast Cancer as Indicated by CA15-3 and CEA Antigens in Women Working in Gypsum Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plaster is an important form of gypsum that mainly used in building construction. Breast cancer was investigated among women exposure to the dust of such material. The levels of CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA as indicators for breast cancer were measured in the serum of 120 women working in a plaster factory. All of involved women showed a normal level of CEA, while 12.5% of them had moderately elevated levels of CA15-3. In conclusion; plaster dust has no significant effect to cause breast cancer in working women. Moderately high levels of CA15-3 in some of exposed women may relate to liver diseases. Key words: Breast Cancer, Plaster, CA15-3, CEA

  4. Application of reject of gypsum from Trindade/PE in ceramic masses formulations; Aplicacao de residuos de gipsita em formulacoes de massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thalles Confessor de; Souza, Marcondes Mendes de; Almeida, Ana Beatriz Dantas de; Farias, Debora Santos Umbelino de; Nobrega, Luiz Felipe Pereira de Medeiros, E-mail: thallesconfessor@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Mendes, Luciana Bezerra [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Norte (FAPERN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The mining industry is a major producer of waste is to be harmful to the environment besides not being made possible for use in producing means, since the product of economic interest has been extracted. In order to reduce this problem, this work shows the characterization of the waste generated by gypsum mining in Trindade/PE in the ceramic coating. The residue was collected, ground and sieved to #200, then was chemically characterized by XRF analysis process, to evaluate its potential to be incorporated into the formulation of ceramic material, the material studied can be used in porcelain tile formulation as a flux element for that were obtained in the laboratory ceramic bodies adding the residue then were performed physical testing of linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural breaking strain technically order to evaluate the addition of this residue ceramic coating. (author)

  5. Resposta da alfafa a fontes de fósforo associadas ao gesso e à calagem Alfalfa response to phosphorus sources associated to gypsum and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sarmento

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo é um dos nutriente mais importante na produção de alfafa nos solos brasileiros. Diversas fontes de P são disponíveis no mercado e o fosfato de Gafsa (FG é considerado tão eficiente como solúvel. A eficiência dos adubos fosfatados é afetada pela acidez do solo. O uso do gesso associado ao FG pode corrigir o perfil do solo em relação ao alumínio e diminuir a fixação do P no solo. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar num experimento em vasos a eficiência do superfosfato triplo (ST, do FG e do FG com gesso, aplicados antes e depois da calagem, nas doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg P dm-3. Foi utilizado um solo classificado como LATOSSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Alumínico. Foram efetuados três plantios de alfafa, realizando-se um corte no primeiro plantio e três cortes no terceiro. Com o ST obteve-se maior produção de matéria seca (MS (3,3 g/vaso do que com o FG (1,0 g/vaso no primeiro plantio. Mas no terceiro plantio ocorreu menor produção de MS com o uso do ST (2,4 g/vaso do que com o FG (6,0 g/vaso. O gesso com FG elevou a produção de MS (7,0 g/vaso em relação ao FG (3,7 g/vaso no terceiro plantio. A aplicação do ST depois da calagem aumentou a produção de MS (5,0 g/vaso comparado a aplicação antes da calagem (3,7 g/vaso, no primeiro plantio. Não houve efeito do momento de calagem para o FG com ou sem gesso.Phosphorus is one of the most important nutrients in alfalfa production in Brazilian soils. Several P sources are available in the market and the Gafsa phosphate (GP is considered as efficient and soluble. The efficiency of phosphate fertilizers is affected by soil acidity. The use of GP associated to gypsum can aliviate Al toxicity and reduce soil phosphorus fixation. Therefore, this study was curried out in a glasshouse experiment, aiming to evaluate the efficiency of the triple superphosphate (TS and GP and GP with gypsum, applied before and after liming at the rates of 50; 100 and 200 mg P dm-3. The

  6. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  7. Efeitos da adição de gesso agrícola à cama aviária sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effects of agricultural gypsum addition to broiler litter on broilers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Daniel Giusti Bruno

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de gesso agrícola à cama aviária sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Quatro níveis de gesso: G1, G2, G3 e G4 (10, 20, 30 e 40%, respectivamente, em relação a um grupo controle que usou 50 kg de maravalha de madeira como cama foram testados. O gesso foi adicionado em diferentes períodos: T1 (quando as aves apresentaram nove dias de idade das aves e T2 (quantidade total de gesso foi dividida ao meio e aplicada, respectivamente, aos 9 e 23 dias de idade das aves. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com nove tratamentos, compondo um esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (nível de gesso x idade das aves + grupo testemunha. Consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e mortalidade foram avaliados em três períodos: 9 a 21 dias, 21 a 49 dias e 9 a 49 dias de idade das aves. O gesso não influiu no desempenho das aves, exceto no consumo de ração, no primeiro período avaliado (9 a 21 dias.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of agricultural gypsum addition to broiler litter on broiler performance. Four levels of gypsum: G1, G2, G3 and G4 (respectively, 10, 20, 30 and 40% in relation to a control group that used 50 kg of wood scraps were tested. The gypsum was added at different periods: T1 (when the broiler presented nine days of age and T2 (the total amount of gypsum was divided in half and applied, respectively, at the 9 and 23 days of the broiler ages. A completely randomized design was used, with nine treatments, in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (level of gypsum x broiler ages + control group. Feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio and mortality were evaluated in three periods: from 9 to 21, from 21 to 49, and from 9 to 49 days of the broiler ages. The agricultural gypsum did not affect the broilers performance, except in the feed intake, in the first evaluated period (from 9 to 21 days.

  8. In situ flash X-ray observation of projectile penetration processes and crater cavity growth in porous gypsum target analogous to low-density asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Minami; Arakawa, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Fujita, Yukihiro; Kadono, Toshihiko

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies of impact craters formed on low-density asteroids led to the proposal of a new crater formation mechanism dominated by pore collapse and compaction. Thus, it is important to study the crater formation process associated with the projectile penetration on porous cohesive targets. Laboratory impact experiments were conducted for a porous gypsum target with porosity of 50%, and flash X-rays were used to visualize the interior of the target for in situ observation of crater formation and projectile penetration. Spherical projectiles made of three different materials, stainless steel, aluminum, and nylon were impacted at 1.9-2.4 km/s (low-velocity impact) and 5.6-6.4 km/s (high-velocity impact) by using a two-stage light-gas gun. Two imaging plates were used to take two X-ray images at a different delay time from the impact moment for one shot. Two types of crater cavity shape were found on the porous gypsum target, that is, penetration holes or hemispherical cavities, depending on the projectile size and density, and the impact velocity. The drag coefficient of a projectile was determined by measuring the penetration depth changing with time, and we found that it was closely related to the crater cavity shape: it was about 0.9 for a penetration hole, while it was 2.3-3.9 for a hemispherical cavity. This large value for a hemispherical cavity could have been caused by the deformation or the disruption of the projectile. The cratering efficiency, ρtVcr(t)/mp, was found to have a power law relationship to the scaling time for crater growth, πt = vit/rp, where vi is the impact velocity, rp is the projectile radius, and t is the time after the impact, and all data for stainless steel and aluminum projectiles merged completely and could be fitted by a power-law equation of ρtVcr(t)/mp=2.69×10-1πt1.10. Furthermore, the scaled crater volume, πV = Vcr_finalρt/mp, where Vcr_final is the final crater cavity volume, ρt is the target density, and mp is the

  9. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fusseis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time.

    We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process.

    Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway.

    Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the

  10. Pore formation during dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron radiation based X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (6.4 × 109 voxel each) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop. We

  11. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2012-03-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of 17O/16O, 18O/16O and 2H/1H of gypsum hydration water by cavity ring‐down laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Ian; Rolfe, James; Evans, Nicholas P.; Herwartz, Daniel; Staubwasser, Michael; Hodell, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The recent development of cavity ring‐down laser spectroscopy (CRDS) instruments capable of measuring 17O‐excess in water has created new opportunities for studying the hydrologic cycle. Here we apply this new method to studying the triple oxygen (17O/16O, 18O/16O) and hydrogen (2H/1H) isotope ratios of gypsum hydration water (GHW), which can provide information about the conditions under which the mineral formed and subsequent post‐depositional interaction with other fluids. Methods We developed a semi‐automated procedure for extracting GHW by slowly heating the sample to 400°C in vacuo and cryogenically trapping the evolved water. The isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O and δ2H values) of the GHW is subsequently measured by CRDS. The extraction apparatus allows the dehydration of five samples and one standard simultaneously, thereby increasing the long‐term precision and sample throughput compared with previous methods. The apparatus is also useful for distilling brines prior to isotopic analysis. A direct comparison is made between results of 17O‐excess in GHW obtained by CRDS and fluorination followed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of O2. Results The long‐term analytical precision of our method of extraction and isotopic analysis of GHW by CRDS is ±0.07‰ for δ17O values, ±0.13‰ for δ18O values and ±0.49‰ for δ2H values (all ±1SD), and ±1.1‰ and ±8 per meg for the deuterium‐excess and 17O‐excess, respectively. Accurate measurement of the 17O‐excess values of GHW, of both synthetic and natural samples, requires the use of a micro‐combustion module (MCM). This accessory removes contaminants (VOCs, H2S, etc.) from the water vapour stream that interfere with the wavelengths used for spectroscopic measurement of water isotopologues. CRDS/MCM and IRMS methods yield similar isotopic results for the analysis of both synthetic and natural gypsum samples within analytical error of the two methods. Conclusions We

  13. Localization, Weakening and Fluid-rock Coupling Mechanisms in Gypsum: Development and Initial Data From a New, Combined, Rotary Shear and Acoustic Emission Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, P. M.; Pozzi, G.; Guerin-Marthe, S.; De Paola, N.; Nielsen, S. B.; Tomas, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present initial pilot data from a newly developed apparatus designed to measure Acoustic Emissions (AE) during the shear of fault gouges to 25 MPa normal stress and up to a maximum speed of 1 m/s, simulating dynamic earthquake processes. The sample assembly consists of a titanium-vanadium alloy (Ti-alloy, Ti90Al6V4) anvil fitted with 6 ports on the lower (stationary) section for AE sensors that record the activity of the shearing occurring in the gouge layer above. AE data are amplified from between 6 to 70 dB and recorded to disk continuously at a sampling rate of 10 MHz; calibration tests with Teflon shims confirm that the machine noise is negligible. Gouge thicknesses of approximately 2 mm are used, confined with a Teflon ring. Here we focus on Gypsum gouge from the Volterra region of Italy, sieved to give a constant gouge range of between 63 to 90 micrometers. Mechanical data show the onset of weakening after a slip of 1-3 cm for velocities of v = 100 to 1 cm s-1 respectively. Microstructural observations reveal a shear zone bounded by sharp mirror surfaces, and the development of a dehydration front, which is likely to have produced small pockets of water. We also record a characteristic `pulsing' AE signal generated after shearing is arrested, manifested as a series of energy spikes occurring at regular intervals. However, these signals are only generally seen for shear tests conducted on gypsum gouges (not in anhydrite) at 10cm per second or higher. Taken together, we interpret these observations as evidence that the initial shearing generated a thin slip zone that heats up rapidly, generating the dehydration front. Once motion ceases, pockets of trapped pressurized water combined with thermal stress generates distributed micro-fracturing detected as an initial swarm of high energy AE, and allows fluids to vent in pulses to the ambient atmosphere. An initial seismic -b value analysis of the continuous AE waveform also supports these initial findings.

  14. Thermal Dehydration Kinetics of Gypsum and Borogypsum under Non-isothermal Conditions%在非等温条件下石膏和硼石膏的加热脱水动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ī.Y.Elbeyli; S.Piskin

    2004-01-01

    Thermal dehydration of gypsum and borogypsum was investigated under nonisothermal conditions in air by using simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyzer. Nonisothermal experiments were carried out at various linear heating rates. Kinetics of dehydration in the temperature range of 373-503 K were evaluated from the DTA (differential thermal analysis)-TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) data by means of Coats-Redfern,Kissinger and Doyle Equations. Values of the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the dehydration were calculated. The results of thermal experiments and kinetic parameters indicated that borogypsum is similar to gypsum from dehydration mechanism point of view although it consists of boron and small amount of alkali metal oxides.

  15. Aplicação de gesso e calcário na recuperação de solos salino-sódicos do Estado de Pernambuco Application of gypsum and limestone in the reclamation of saline-sodic soils of the Pernambuco State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de F. C. Barros

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimento em colunas de solo foi conduzido, objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de gesso e gesso + calcário, na recuperação de solos salino-sódicos do Perímetro Irrigado de Custódia, PE. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com arranjo fatorial de quatro solos, dois métodos de aplicação de gesso e gesso + calcário (aplicados na superfície e incorporados aos primeiros 5 cm da coluna de solo, duas combinações dos corretivos (100% de gesso + 0% de calcário e 80% de gesso + 20% de calcário, calculados com base na necessidade de gesso dos solos, e quatro faixas de granulometria de gesso (2,0-1,0, 1,0-0,5, 0,5-0,3 e An experiment was carried out in soil columns with the objective of evaluating the effect of application of gypsum and limestone on reclamation of the saline-sodic soils in the Irrigation district of Custódia, PE. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme of four soils, two methods for applications of gypsum and gypsum plus limestone (applied on surface and incorporated into the first five cm of the soil column, two combinations of the chemical amendments (100% gypsum plus 0% limestone and 80% gypsum plus 20% limestone, calculated on the basis of gypsum requirement of soil and four granulometry gypsum strips (2.0-1.0; 1.0-0.5; 0.5-0.3 and < 0.3 mm with three replications. The gypsum amount determined by the method of Schoonover M-1, under laboratory conditions, shows to be adequate in the displacement of the exchangeable sodium of the soil exchange complex. The efficiency of the gypsum as well as the gypsum plus lime mixture in reclamation of the soils shows to be superior, when the amendments are incorporated into the first 5 cm of the soil columns. Among the gypsum granulometry, the finest fractions, (0.5-0.3 mm and < 0.3 mm, presented better performance in replacing the exchangeable sodium of the exchange complex.

  16. Model of gypsum, calcite and silica solubilities for application to geothermal waters over a wide range of temperature, P/sub CO/sub 2// and ionic strength. Final technical report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the construction of a high temperature (25 to 250/sup 0/C), variable P/sub CO/sub 2// (1 to 40 atm), chemical model of mineral (including gypsum, calcite and amorphous silica) solubilities in the system: Na-K-Ca-H-Cl-SO/sub 4/-HCO/sub 3/-CO/sub 3/-CO/sub 2/-SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O. This model was designed to support geothermal energy production needs.

  17. The Jettencave, Southern Harz Mountains, Germany: Geophysical observations and a structural model of a shallow cave in gypsum/anhydrite-bearing rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

    2017-12-01

    Gypsum and anhydrite are soluble rocks, where fissures and bedding partings can be enlarged with time by the dissolution of the mineral species through water. The selective enlargement results in sub-surface voids acting as preferential flow path for the drainage of the rock. With time, larger cavities develop, and a network of cave passages can evolve. If the enlarged cave voids are not too deep under the surface, geophysical measurements can be used to detect, identify and trace these structures. We have used gravity measurements (GRAV), electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), self-potential measurements (SP), electrical conductivity measurements (EC), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) above the cave Jettenhöhle, a cave located in the southern Harz Mountains in Germany. The Jettencave is developed in the Hauptanhydrit formation of the Permian Zechstein sequence, characterised by large breakdown rooms and an exposed water table. The overburden of the cave is only around 10-15 m, and dolomitic rocks are located in close vicinity. We present results from our geophysical surveys in vicinity of the cave. We are able to identify the cave geometry from GRAV, ERI, and GPR measurements, which distinguish the local lithology of the Permian Zechstein rocks in the area. From the ERI and EC measurements, we derive information on the void volume in the soluble rocks. We finally present a three-dimensional structural model of the Jettencave and its surroundings, based on our geophysical results and the hydrological interpretation.

  18. Early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate (synthetic ye'elimite, ) in the presence of gypsum and varying amounts of calcium hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-06-01

    Suspensions of synthetic ye\\'elimite (C4A3S̄) in a saturated gypsum (CS̄H2) and calcium hydroxide (CH) solution were examined in-situ in a wet cell by soft X-ray transmission microscopy and ex-situ by scanning electron microscopy. The most voluminous hydration product observed was ettringite. Ettringite commonly displayed acicular, filiform, reticulated, and stellate crystal habits. Additionally, pastes with C 4A3S̄, 15% CS̄H2, and varying amounts of CH were prepared and examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isothermal calorimetry. The XRD experiments showed that increasing CH content caused more solid solution (SO4 2 -/OH-) AFm phases to form at early ages (< 1 d) and more monosulfate to form at later ages (> 1 d). Calorimetry indicated that the increased production of solid solution AFm was accompanied with an increase in the initial (< 30 min) rate of heat evolution, and increasing CH generally reduced the time till the second maximum rate of heat evolution due to the formation of ettringite and monosulfate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate (synthetic ye'elimite, ) in the presence of gypsum and varying amounts of calcium hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.; Kirchheim, Ana Paula; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Gartner, Ellis M.

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of synthetic ye'elimite (C4A3S̄) in a saturated gypsum (CS̄H2) and calcium hydroxide (CH) solution were examined in-situ in a wet cell by soft X-ray transmission microscopy and ex-situ by scanning electron microscopy. The most voluminous hydration product observed was ettringite. Ettringite commonly displayed acicular, filiform, reticulated, and stellate crystal habits. Additionally, pastes with C 4A3S̄, 15% CS̄H2, and varying amounts of CH were prepared and examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isothermal calorimetry. The XRD experiments showed that increasing CH content caused more solid solution (SO4 2 -/OH-) AFm phases to form at early ages (< 1 d) and more monosulfate to form at later ages (> 1 d). Calorimetry indicated that the increased production of solid solution AFm was accompanied with an increase in the initial (< 30 min) rate of heat evolution, and increasing CH generally reduced the time till the second maximum rate of heat evolution due to the formation of ettringite and monosulfate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Potential use of gypsum and lime rich industrial by-products for induced reduction of Pb, Zn and Ni leachability in an acid soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jorda, M.P.; Garrido, F.; Garcia-Gonzalez, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential use of four industrial by-products (phosphogypsum (PG), red gypsum (RG), sugar foam (SF), and ashes from biomass combustion (ACB)), applied at two rates in single and combined amendments to reduce the mobility and availability of Pb, Zn and Ni in a metal-spiked acid soil. Leaching experiments were done to estimate leachability indexes and assess their effectiveness. Most of the treatments significantly reduced the metal leachability although only a few were effective for all metals. Based on principal component and cluster analysis, sugar foam (SF) and a mixture of RG and ACB (RG+ACB), both applied at high rate, were selected as first choices to reduce mobility and availability of the three metals. Metal sorption mechanisms involved in the reduction of their leachability were identified using scanning electron microscopy. In the SF-treated samples, the metals were found associated to amorphous Al-hydroxy polymers deposited on phyllosilicates and organic matter particles. In the (RG+ACB)-treated samples, Pb, Zn, and traces of Ni were found associated to Fe/Ti oxide phases with a significant concentration of S, suggesting the formation of metal-sulfate ternary complexes.

  1. Compósitos à base de gesso com resíduos de EVA e vermiculita Gypsum-based composites with EVA waste and vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia P. de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O gesso é um dos materiais de construção mais antigos de que se tem conhecimento. Algumas de suas propriedades lhes conferem vantagens, tais como resistência ao fogo e isolamentos térmico e acústico. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar as propriedades físico-mecânicas de compósitos à base de gesso com a incorporação de resíduos da indústria de calçados, o etileno acetato de vinila (EVA e a vermiculita. O desenvolvimento desses compósitos tem como propósito a produção de elementos de revestimento para proteção térmica de alvenarias. Para determinar a influência dos teores de resíduo de EVA e vermiculita e da relação água/gesso nas propriedades massa específica aparente e nas resistências a flexão e a compressão, foram incorporados cinco diferentes percentuais desses materiais, combinados com três relações água/gesso. Os resultados foram analisados por meio da estatística multivariável e indicaram que a massa específica aparente de ambos os compósitos e a resistência à flexão do compósito com vermiculita, mostraram maior dependência da relação água/gesso; por sua vez, o percentual de agregado apresentou maior influência na resistência à flexão do compósito com EVA e na resistência a compressão de ambos os compósitos.Gypsum is one of the oldest known building materials. Some of its properties confer advantages such as fire resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation. This work aims to study the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum-based composite with the incorporation of residues from the footwear industry ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA and vermiculite. The aim to develop these composites is to produce components for thermal protection of masonry. To determine the influence of different residue levels of EVA and vermiculite, and the water/plaster ratio on the bulk density, flexural and compressive strength, five different percentages of these materials were incorporated combined with

  2. Barium isotope fractionation during the experimental transformation of aragonite to witherite and of gypsum to barite, and the effect of ion (de)solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E; Neubert, Nadja; von Allmen, Katja; Samankassou, Elias; Nägler, Thomas F

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we present the experimental results for stable barium (Ba) isotope fractionation ( 137 Ba/ 134 Ba) during the transformation of aragonite (CaCO 3 ) and gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O) in Ba-bearing aqueous solution to witherite (BaCO 3 ) and barite (BaSO 4 ), respectively. The process was studied at three temperatures between 4 and 60 °C. In all cases, the transformation leads to a relative enrichment of the lighter 134 Ba isotope in the solid compared to the aqueous solution, with 137/134 Ba enrichment factors between -0.11 and -0.17 ‰ for BaCO 3 , and -0.21 and -0.26 ‰ for BaSO 4 . The corresponding mass-dependent 138/134 Ba enrichment factors are -0.15 to -0.23 ‰ for BaCO 3 , and -0.28 to -0.35 ‰ for BaSO 4 . The magnitude of isotope fractionation is within the range of recent reports for witherite and barite formation, as well as trace Ba incorporation into orthorhombic aragonite, and no substantial impact of temperature can be found between 4 and 80 °C. In previous studies, ion (de)solvation has been suggested to impact both the crystallization process of Ba-bearing solids and associated Ba isotope fractionation. Precipitation experiments of BaSO 4 and BaCO 3 using an methanol-containing aqueous solution indicate only a minor effect of ion and crystal surface (de)solvation on the overall Ba isotope fractionation process.

  3. Incorporação de gesso para correção da salinidade e sodicidade de solos salino-sódicos Incorporation of gypsum to correct the salinity and sodicity of saline-sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio N. Tavares Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação do gesso nas características químicas de solos salino-sódicos coletados no Perímetro Irrigado do Moxotó, localizado no município de Ibimirim, PE, um experimento foi realizado em colunas de solo instaladas no Laboratório de Mecânica do Solo e Aproveitamento de Resíduo da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial de dois solos (S1 e S2 e sete níveis da necessidade de gesso (50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200% determinado pelo Método de Laboratório Schoonover-M1. O gesso foi incorporado aos solos, em três repetições, totalizando 42 unidades experimentais. As variáveis avaliadas foram: i condutividade elétrica (CE, ii cátions solúveis e iii relação de adsorção de sódio (RAS no extrato de saturação do solo. O nível de 100% da necessidade de gesso causou diminuição da sodicidade para valores de RAS Aiming to evaluate the effect of gypsum on the modification of chemical properties of saline-sodic soils collected in the Irrigated Perimeter of Ibimirim-PE, an experiment was carried out in soil columns installed at the Soil Mechanics and Residue Recovery Laboratoy at the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of two soils (S1 and S2 and seven levels of gypsum requirement (50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200% determined by the Laboratory Method Schoonover-M1. The gypsum was incorporated in to the soils, in three replications, totaling 42 experimental units. The parameters evaluated were: electrical conductivity (EC, soluble cations and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR in the saturation extract of soil. The level of the 100% of gypsum requirement caused decreased in sodicity values of SAR under 13 (mmol L-1½, presenting itself as an effective method in reducing the levels of sodium in areas affected

  4. Application of gypsum as shielding against low-energy X-radiation in the radiodiagnosis area; Aplicação do material gesso como blindagem contra radiação X de baixas energias na área de radiodiagnóstico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins, J.A.G.; Lima, F.R.A.; Santos, M.A.P. dos; Oliveira, D.N.S. de, E-mail: jorgelins93@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, V.H.F.F. da [Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, materials such as lead, concrete and iron have been studied for use as shielding for ionizing radiations of different energies in radiative installations. In the radiodiagnosis area, lead and barite are the most used materials as shielding. However, for beams of low energy X-radiation, such as in mammography and dentistry, the gypsum material may be used. This study aims to verify the feasibility of the use of gypsum as shielding for low-energy X-ray using standardized dental X-ray beams in a metrology laboratory. The project will allow a better understanding in the study of gypsum used as shielding, certifying its use as a good attenuator for low-energy X-ray.

  5. Alterações químicas do solo e resposta do milho à calagem e aplicação de gesso Changes in soil chemical properties and corn response to lime and gypsum applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Caires

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A calagem e a aplicação de gesso levam a modificações químicas no solo que podem influenciar o crescimento radicular e a produção de culturas anuais. Com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações químicas do solo e a resposta do milho ao calcário e gesso aplicados no sistema plantio direto, foi realizado um experimento em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico textura argilosa, em Ponta Grossa (PR. Os tratamentos, dispostos em blocos completos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, constaram da aplicação de calcário dolomítico (sem calcário e 4,5 t ha-1 de calcário na superfície, em dose total e 1/3 da dose por ano, durante três anos, e incorporado, nas parcelas, e doses de gesso (0, 3, 6 e 9 t ha-1, nas subparcelas. Os tratamentos com calcário foram aplicados em julho e as doses de gesso em outubro de 1998. A cultura do milho foi avaliada no ano agrícola de 2001/02. A correção da acidez pela calagem na superfície, com ou sem parcelamento, foi mais acentuada na camada superficial do solo (0-0,05 m e houve maior reação nas profundidades de 0,05-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, quando o calcário foi incorporado. O gesso melhorou o subsolo, aumentando os teores de Ca e S-SO4(2-, aumentou a concentração de N, K e Ca no tecido foliar do milho e causou redução do Mg no solo e nas folhas. O crescimento radicular do milho não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos de calcário e gesso. A calagem na superfície, com ou sem parcelamento, ou com incorporação e a aplicação de gesso aumentaram a produção de milho, em decorrência do aumento da saturação por Ca nas camadas superficiais do solo. A aplicação de gesso agrícola, associada à calagem, foi uma estratégia eficiente para maximizar a produção de milho.Root growth and crop yield can be affected by chemical modifications of the soil profile owing to lime and gypsum applications. A field trial was carried out on a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox in Ponta Grossa, Paran

  6. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 5, A laboratory greenhouse study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 2 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)

    1997-01-31

    The Clean Air Act, as revised in 1992, has spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have resulted in large volumes of wet scrubber sludges. In general, these sludges must be dewatered, chemically treated, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives must be found. Wet scrubbing with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has emerged as an efficient, cost effective technology for SO2 removal. When combined with an appropriate oxidation system, the wet scrubber sludge can be used to produce gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use. Product value generally increases with purity of the by-product(s). The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati produces gypsum by products that can be formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2. Such materials may have agricultural value as soil conditioners, liming agents and sources of plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, S). This report describes a greenhouse study designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg gypsum from the Zimmer Station pilot plant as amendments for improving the quality of agricultural soils and mine spoils that are currently unproductive because of phytotoxic conditions related to acidity and high levels of toxic dissolved aluminum (Al). In particular, the technical literature contains evidence to suggest that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone in modifying soil chemical conditions below the immediate zone of application. Representative samples of by-product gypsum and Mg(OH)2 from the Zimmer Station were initially characterized. The gypsum was of high chemical purity and consisted of well crystalline, lath-shaped particles of low specific surface area. By contrast, the by-product Mg(OH)2 was a high surface area material (50 m2 g

  7. Gypsum as a source of sulfur for strawberry cropsGesso agricola como fonte de enxofre para a cultura do morango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste

    2013-09-01

    in a randomized block design with three replications, with six doses of S: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg kg-1 in the form of gypsum, and two doses of P: 300 and 600 mg kg-1 of P2O5. The Albion variety of strawberry plants was transplanted to pots and grown for 170 days. The fruits were harvested and weighed throughout the experiment; a similar procedure was followed for the shoots at the end of the experiment. The shoots and fruits were dried, weighed, ground, and analyzed for the content of S, Ca, and P. The production of strawberry fruits was influenced by S rates, with the highest productivity obtained by using S rates of 60 and 37 mg kg-1 with the application of 300 and 600 mg kg-1 of P, respectively.

  8. Fitorremediação de solo salino s ódico por Atriplex nummularia e gesso de jazida Use of Atriplex nummularia and gypsum for phytoremediation of saline-sodic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Gomes Leal

    2008-06-01

    -sodic soil irrigated with saline water was evaluated. Additionally, gypsum was tested for improving phytoremediation. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of: no gypsum and 50 % of the regularly recommended gypsum dose, and three salinity levels of irrigation water: C1 = 175 μS cm-1; C2 = 500 μS cm-1; C3 = 1,500 μS cm-1. The Na concentration in plant tissues and soil were evaluated 40, 70, 100 and 130 days after A nummularia transplanting. The results showed that there was a 96 % increase in root dry matter as a result of gypsum application. Sodium accumulation in shoots increased significantly in the third (90.1 g kg-1 and fourth (109.7 g kg-1 sampling period. This effect was magnified by gypsum application. After 100 days, the soil Na+ content had decreased by 31 and 26 %, with and without gypsum addition, respectively. Our results indicate that A. Nummularia is a Na+ accumulator species. Gypsum was effective as a phytoextraction enhancer. A. nummularia irrigation aiming at Na phytoremediation is possible with saline water varying from 175 to 1,500 μS cm-1.

  9. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Study of Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and Epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) Dehydration Utilizing an Ultrasonic Levitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotton, Stephen J; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2013-02-21

    We present an original apparatus combining an acoustic levitator and a pressure-compatible process chamber. To characterize in situ the chemical and physical modifications of a levitated, single particle while heated to well-defined temperatures using a carbon dioxide laser, the chamber is interfaced to a Raman spectroscopic probe. As a proof-of-concept study, by gradually increasing the heating temperature, we observed the variations in the Raman spectra as 150 μg of crystals of gypsum and epsomite were dehydrated in anhydrous nitrogen gas. We display spectra showing the decreasing intensities of the ν1 symmetric and ν3 asymmetric stretching modes of water with time and the simultaneous shift of the ν1(SO4(2-)) symmetric stretch mode to higher wavenumbers. Our results demonstrate that the new apparatus is well suited to study the dehydration of levitated species such as minerals and offers potential advantages compared with previous experiments on bulk samples.

  10. Soybean yield and quality a function oflime and gypsum applications Produção e qualidade da soja em função do calagem e aplicação de gesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fávero Caires

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of lime and gypsum applications on the quality of soybeans grown under no-till (NT are not well defined yet. A field trial established in 1998 on a dystrophic clayey Rhodic Hapludox, at Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, evaluated grain yield and soybean quality based on oil, protein and nutrient content, after lime and gypsum applications under NT, in a randomized complete block design (n = 3, split-plot experiment. In the main plots, the treatments with dolomitic lime were: control (no lime, split application of lime on the surface (three yearly applications of 1.5 Mg ha¹, surface lime (4.5 Mg ha¹, and incorporated lime (4.5 Mg ha¹. Subplots received four different rates of gypsum: 0, 3, 6, and 9 Mg ha-1. The soybean crop was evaluated in the agricultural years of 20022003 and 20032004. After 58 months, the correction of acidity through surface liming, with full or split rates, was more pronounced in the top layer (00.05 m and there was greater reaction at the depths of 0.050.10 and 0.100.20 m when lime was incorporated. Surface or incorporated liming had no effect on grain yield, soybean oil and protein content. Gypsum improved chemical subsoil conditions, raising pH (0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 as well as Ca2+ and S-SO4(2- contents; it also caused exchangeable Mg2+ leaching in the soil profile. The application of gypsum did not affect grain yield, yet it improved soybean quality through an increase in protein and S contents, in 20032004, and in grain P, K and Ca, in the two cropping years. The use of gypsum in NT soybeans can be especially important for fields of seeds production.Os efeitos da aplicação de calcário e gesso na qualidade da soja cultivada em plantio direto não são muito conhecidos. O experimento foi instalado em 1998 em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico textura argilosa, em Ponta Grossa (PR, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de soja e a concentração de óleo, proteína e nutrientes nos grãos, após a aplica

  11. CRESCIMENTO RADICULAR E NUTRIÇÃO DA CEVADA EM FUNÇÃO DA CALAGEM E APLICAÇÃO DE GESSO BARLEY NUTRITION AND ROOT GROWTH AS AFFECTED BY LIME AND GYPSUM APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO FÁVERO CAIRES

    2001-01-01

    .Root growth can be affected by chemical modifications in the soil profile due to lime and gypsum applications. A field trial was carried out on a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, aiming at evaluating lime and gypsum effects on root growth and plant chemical traits of barley, cv. BR 2 (Al susceptible. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot layout. The main plots received dolomitic limestone treatments (no lime and 4.5 t.ha-1 of lime-on the surface or incorporated into the soil and the subplots, the rates of gypsum (0, 3, 6 and 9 t.ha-1, applied in the installation of a no-tillage system, in 1998. Barley was grown during the 1999 winter season, after the soybean crop. Liming (whether surface applied or incorporated into the soil, and gypsum rates did not significantly affected barley root growth, although gypsum provided better root relative distribution in the soil profile, mainly when associated to liming. Under severe water stress conditions there was no limitation to barley root growth in depth (for 6 mmol c.dm-3 exchangeable Ca and 35% Al saturation. Lime incorporation improved the plant nutrition as to N and K, but liming treatments did not affect grain yields-these were limited by the prolonged water deficit during flowering stage. However, gypsum increased N, P, K, Ca and S plant levels, even under water stress conditions, with significant effects on grain yields, due to increases in the exchangeable Ca, Ca/Mg relationships and S-SO4(2- levels available in the soil.

  12. Recuperação de solos afetados por sais pela aplicação de gesso de jazida e calcário no Nordeste do Brasil Reclamation of salt-affected soils in Northeast Brazil with application of mined gypsum and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de F. C. Barros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de corretivos químicos sobre as propriedades físicas e químicas, bem como na recuperação de solos afetados por sais do Perímetro Irrigado de Custódia, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, realizou-se um experimento em colunas de solo, instaladas no Laboratório de Salinidade do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com arranjamento fatorial de quatro solos, dois métodos de aplicação de gesso e gesso + calcário (aplicados na superfície e incorporados nos primeiros 5 cm da coluna de solo, duas combinações dos corretivos (100% de gesso + 0% de calcário e 80% de gesso + 20% de calcário, calculados com base na necessidade de gesso dos solos, e quatro faixas de granulometria de gesso (2,0 - 1,0, 1,0 -0,5, 0,5 - 0,3 e With the objective of evaluating the effect of the application of chemical amendments on the physical and chemical properties as well as on reclamation of the salt-affected soils in the "Perímetro Irrigado de Custódia", in Pernambuco state, Brazil, an experiment was carried out in soil columns installed at the Soil Salinity Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme consisting of four soils, two methods of applications of gypsum and gypsum + limestone (applied on the surface and incorporated into the first 5 cm of the soil column, two combinations of the chemical amendments (100% gypsum and 80% gypsum + 20% limestone, calculated on the basis of gypsum requirement of soils and four granulometry gypsum fractions (2.0 - 1.0; 1.0 - 0.5; 0.5 - 0.3 and < 0.3 mm with three replications. In the saturation extract the electrical conductivity and the soluble cations were determined. The application of gypsum and the mixture of gypsum + limestone showed to be efficient for correction of soil sodicity, which

  13. Gypsum-saturated water to reclaim alluvial saline sodic and sodic soils Água saturada com gesso na recuperação de solos aluviais salino-sódicos e sódicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Rodrigues da Silveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate management of soil and irrigation water contribute to soil degradation, particularly in the alluvial areas of Northeast Brazil, where salinity and sodicity are already common features. This study evaluates the effects of the addition of gypsum in the irrigation water on physical and chemical properties of soils with different levels of salinity and sodicity. Samples were collected at the Custódia irrigation area of Brazil, predominantly covered by alluvial soils. Leaching tests using simulated irrigation water classified as C3S1, and gypsum-saturated irrigation water were carried out in soil columns of 20 and 50 cm depth. Soil leaching with gypsum saturated water (T2 resulted in an increase in the amounts of exchangeable calcium and potassium, and in a decrease of soil pH, in relation to the original soil (T0, with significant statistical differences to the treatment using only water (T1. There was a reduction in the electrical conductivity, exchangeable sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage in both treatments (T1 and T2, with treatment T2 being more effective in the leaching of soil sodium. No changes of electrical conductivity, calcium and pH in depth were observed, but the 20 - 50 cm layer presented higher amounts of magnesium, sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage. Gypsum saturated water improved the hydraulic conductivity in both layers. The use of gypsum in the irrigation water improved soil physical and chemical properties and should be considered as an alternative in the process of reclamation of saline-sodic and sodic soils in Northeast Brazil.O manejo inadequado do solo e da água de irrigação contribui para a degradação dos solos, particularmente nas áreas aluviais do Nordeste do Brasil, onde a salinidade e a sodicidade são características comumente observadas. Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição do gesso na água de irrigação, sobre as propriedades físicas e químicas de solos com diferentes níveis de

  14. Gypsum application in the soybeans no-tillage system with and without potassium fertilization. = Gessagem na cultura da soja no sistema de plantio direto com e sem adubação potássica

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    Leandro Rosatto Moda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gypsum can be used as a sulfur source, thereby improving nutrition and promoting gains in yield of soybeans in no-tillage system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sulfur applied as gypsum in the soybean culture under the no-tillage system with and without potassium fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the city of Guaíra-SP in an OXISOL. The experimental design used was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 5 with four replications. The treatments were obtained by combining two levels of K (0 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O, applied as potassium chloride, and five doses of sulfur (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 S applied in the form of gypsum. Foliar potassium, calcium and sulfur, in addition to grain yield and oil content in the grains were evaluated. It was observed that the application of sulfur in the soil improved the nutritional status of soybean in potassium, calcium and sulfur, without affecting grain yield, independent of potassium fertilization. The presenceof sulfur in the soil increased the oil content in soybean grain with or without potassium fertilization. = O gesso agrícola pode ser utilizado como fonte de enxofre, desta forma, melhorando a nutrição e promovendo ganhos na produtividade da cultura da soja em sistema de plantio direto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitosdo enxofre (S aplicados na forma de gesso agrícola na cultura da soja em sistema de plantio direto com e sem adubação potássica. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Guairá-SP em solo da classe LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Eutrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram obtidos pela combinação de dois níveis de K (0 e 60 kg ha-1 de K2O, fonte cloreto de potássio; e cinco doses de enxofre (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de S, fonte gesso agrícola. Foram avaliados os teores foliares de potássio, cálcio e enxofre, al

  15. A saúde no contexto do polo gesseiro de Araripina-Pernambuco, Brasil Health in the context of the gypsum production area of the city of Araripina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Marcilio Sandro de Medeiros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de deteriorização socioambiental do polo gesseiro de Pernambuco necessita ser mais bem conhecido. Este artigo objetivou estudar os fatores epidemiológicos que concorrem com a saúde das pessoas. Um estudo epidemiológico transversal foi realizado no período de 2001 a 2003, por meio da aplicação de um questionário fechado no distrito de Morais, município de Araripina, considerado uma das principais localidades de produção de gesso e artefatos. Uma amostra randomizada foi extraída a partir dos 2.486 habitantes, considerando-se como erro aceitável de 5% para o Intervalo de Confiança (IC de Katz de 95%. Quatrocentas e sessenta e duas pessoas foram entrevistadas e os problemas de saúde mais referidos foram: irritação dos olhos (42,92%, sangramento de nariz (37,39%, tosse (28,26%, cansaço (21,73%, irritação na pele (18,48%, falta de ar (16,26% e história de doença respiratória pregressa (16,34%, todos estatisticamente significantes. No geral, crianças (de 1 a 9 anos e idosos ( > 60 anos relataram mais sintomas respiratórios. A poeira de gesso dentro de casa apresentou-se como um importante indicador qualitativo na avaliação de seu impacto na saúde das pessoas. Nos domicílios avaliados, a presença de poeira de gesso mostrou-se mais prevalente com as queixas de irritação dos olhos (RP = 1,91, irritação na pele (RP = 1,79, cansaço (RP = 1,77 e tosse (RP = 1,70.The socio-environmental deterioration process of the gypsum production area of the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, must be better known. We aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors that coexist with people's health. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out between 2001 and 2003 by means of the administration of a closed questionnaire in the district of Morais, municipality of Araripina, considered as one of the main production areas of gypsum and artifacts. A random sample was extracted from the 2,486 inhabitants, and a

  16. Available phosphorus and sulphur, exchangeable aluminum and remaining phosphorus in rhodic eutrudox submitted to gypsum cultivated with wheat and soybean Fósforo e enxofre disponível, alumínio trocável e fósforo remanescente em latossolo vermelho submetido ao gesso cultivado com trigo e soja

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    Leandro Rampim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The response to gypsum as a supplier of nutrients in the subsurface provides better root distribution for annual crops plants and thus provides use of larger volume of soil increasing the uptake of water and nutrients and therefore increased productivity, especially with evidence of interference of gypsum in phosphorus available in the soil. In this study evaluated the use of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O the levels of available phosphorus and sulfur, exchangeable aluminum and interference in the remaining phosphorus in the soil at 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.40 m of deep in Rhodic Eutrudox in no tillage and crop yields of wheat and soybean. We conducted sampling of soil at six and 12 months after surface application of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 kg ha-1 gypsum and treatment without application of gypsum. The use of gypsum increased linearly the S content is available in layers from 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20 and 0,20 to 0,40 m deep, with the minimum content of available P at a dose of 2200 kg ha-1 and exchangeable Al with a dose of 3000 kg ha-1 layers evaluated, however, did not influence the values of remaining P. The use of gypsum increased linearly the S content available at depths of 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, minimum P content available at the dose of 3166 kg ha-1 and exchangeable Al minimum point at the dose of 3300 kg ha-1 at a depth of 0.20-0.40 m however, did not affect the remaining P values. The use of gypsum increased the productivity of wheat, but did not influence soybean yield. A resposta ao gesso agrícola como fornecedor de nutrientes na subsuperfície proporciona melhor distribuição de raízes para culturas anuais e assim propicia às plantas explorar maior volume de solo aumentando a absorção de água e nutrientes e consequentemente incrementar a produtividade, com indícios da interferência do gesso no teor de fósforo disponível no solo. Neste trabalho o objetivo foi avaliar o uso do gesso agrícola (CaSO4.2H2O nos teores de f

  17. Pcm inclusion in gypsum boards for thermal energy storage through latent heat: thermal characterization with DSC; Incorporacion de materiales de cambio de fase en placas de yeso para almacenamiento de energia termica mediante calor latente: caracterizacion termica del material mediante la tecnica DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Neila, F. J.; Garcia, A.

    2011-07-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis technique which has been used for more than three decades to measure the temperatures and heat flows associated with transitions in materials as a function of time. Other techniques, are Differential Thermal Analysis DTA and Conventional Calorimetry. There is great uncertainty in the values supplied by the manufacturers (because they are referred to pure substances) and the DSC should be used to get more accurate values. It will be analyzed the thermal storage capacity depending on temperature for several compound materials formed by some aggregates, mainly gypsum and phase change materials, in various proportions. The results have been compared with other building materials such as gypsum boards and brick layer. The suitability of the new construction material for thermal energy storage will be assessed in comparison with other materials traditionally used for this purpose. (Author) 21 refs.

  18. Development of materials that cover the deposits of gypsum exploited in the polo plasterer in Pernambuco; Aproveitamento dos materiais que recobrem as jazidas de gipsita explotadas no polo gesseiro de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Moraes, A.S. de; Anjos, I.F. dos, E-mail: sheila.abc.rego@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil); Lira, B.B. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The mineral clay found on the surface of gypsum deposits in the region of Recife - PE are considered mining tailings and job search reference in new industrial applications for these minerals, ores. In this context, we performed the characterization of these materials with the purpose of its use as inorganic pigments in the ceramic coating. These minerals present 'in locus' different colors ranging from beige to reddish. After heat treatment at 1000° C their colors have varied tones that can be used as natural pigments in the ceramic industry. The techniques of fluorescence X-ray diffraction X-ray, infrared and colorimetry were applied in the characterization of mineral-ore in question. Using mineral processing techniques we obtain a physical separation of clay minerals associated. The use of concentrated after processing showed that the material has the potential to replace traditional pigments used in ceramic industry, and thus represent a new alternative on the market of natural pigments. Another potential comprehensive analysis of the material is its use associated with polymers in order to develop new materials. (author)

  19. Obtention of agricultural gypsum traced on 34 S (Ca34 SO4.2H2O), by chemical reaction between H234 SO4 and Ca(OH)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossete, Alessandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose A.; Ignoto, Raquel de Fatima; Batagello, Hugo Henrique

    2002-01-01

    The gypsum (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) has double function in the soil: as source of calcium and sulfur and reducing agent of aluminum saturation. The sulfur for the plants has acting in the vital functions and it is proven fact increase of the S deficiency in Brazilian soils. The isotope tracer 34 S can elucidate important aspects in the sulfur cycle. The Ca 34 SO 4 .2H 2 O was obtained by chemical reaction between Ca(OH) 2 and H 2 34 SO 4 solution. The acid was obtained by chromatography ionic change, using cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Na 2 34 SO 4 solution. The reaction was realized under slow agitation. After the reaction, the precipitate was separated and dried in ventilated stove at 60 deg C temperature. The Mass of the Ca 34 SO 4 .2H 2 O produced was determined by method gravimetric. This way, a system contends resin 426 cm 3 , considering volume of 2.2 liters can be obtained a solution contends 44.2 g of H 2 34 SO 4 , theoretically could be produced 78.0 g of Ca 34 SO 4 .2H 2 O approximately. With results of the tests were verified that there was not total precipitation of the Ca 34 SO 4 .2H 2 O. Were produced 73.7± 0.6 g of Ca 34 SO 4 .2H 2 O representing average income 94.6±0.8 %. The purity of the produced CaSO 4 .2H 2 O was 98%. (author)

  20. Co-treatment of flotation waste, neutralization sludge, and arsenic-containing gypsum sludge from copper smelting: solidification/stabilization of arsenic and heavy metals with minimal cement clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Gang; Min, Xiao-Bo; Ke, Yong; Chai, Li-Yuan; Liang, Yan-Jie; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Yao, Li-Wei; Wang, Zhong-Bing

    2018-03-01

    Flotation waste of copper slag (FWCS), neutralization sludge (NS), and arsenic-containing gypsum sludge (GS), both of which are difficult to dispose of, are major solid wastes produced by the copper smelting. This study focused on the co-treatment of FWCS, NS, and GS for solidification/stabilization of arsenic and heavy metals with minimal cement clinker. Firstly, the preparation parameters of binder composed of FWCS, NS, and cement clinker were optimized to be FWCS dosage of 40%, NS dosage of 10%, cement clinker dosage of 50%, mill time of 1.5 h, and water-to-binder ratio of 0.25. On these conditions, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the binder reached 43.24 MPa after hydration of 28 days. Then, the binder was used to solidify/stabilize the As-containing GS. When the mass ratio of binder-to-GS was 5:5, the UCS of matrix can reach 11.06 MPa after hydration of 28 days, meeting the required UCS level of MU10 brick in China. Moreover, arsenic and other heavy metals in FWCS, NS, and GS were effectively solidified or stabilized. The heavy metal concentrations in leachate were much lower than those in the limits of China standard leaching test (CSLT). Therefore, the matrices were potential to be used as bricks in some constructions. XRD analysis shows that the main hydration products of the matrix were portlandite and calcium silicate hydrate. These hydration products may play a significant role in the stabilization/solidification of arsenic and heavy metals.

  1. Fixação biológica de nitrogênio e teores foliares de nutrientes na soja em função de doses de molibdênio e gesso agrícola Biological nitrogen fixation and leaf nutrient concentration on soybean as a function of molybdenum and gypsum levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Gelain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade econômica da soja brasileira no mercado mundial se deve, em grande parte, aos benefícios da fixação biológica do nitrogênio na cultura. O trabalho foi conduzido a campo, sob sistema plantio direto, em condição de sequeiro, no Município de Maracaju-MS, com o objetivo de avaliar a nodulação, o crescimento, nutrição mineral e produtividade de grãos da soja submetida a diferentes doses de gesso agrícola e molibdênio. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas representadas por quatro doses de gesso agrícola (0, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 kg ha-1 e as subparcelas, por quatro doses de molibdênio (0, 20, 40 e 60 g ha-1. Não houve efeito da interação gesso x Mo sobre a produtividade da soja. O gesso agrícola não influencia no teor foliar de N e na produtividade. O Mo proporciona incrementos na produtividade e no teor de proteínas dos grãos.The economic competitiveness of Brazilian soybeans on the world market occurs, in large part, due to the benefits of biological nitrogen fixation in this crop. The field experiment was carried out in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, under no-tillage system, in rainfed condition. The aim was to evaluate nodulation, growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of soybeans under different doses of gypsum and molybdenum. The experimental design used was a randomized block with five replicates and arranged in a split-plot squeme, with the plot represented by four doses of gypsum (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 kg ha-1 and the subplots by four doses of molybdenum (0, 20, 40 and 60 g ha-1. There were no interaction effects of Mo x gypsum for grain yield. Gypsum has no influence in the N leaf content and grain yield. Mo increases grain yield and protein levels in the grain.

  2. Quality control of gypsum “Plasterboard”

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl primer yeso plasterboard producido consistía en dos capas externas de cartón sujetando un núcleo de yeso que; a su vez, contenía dos o más capas adicionales de papel, separada cada una de ellas por una delgada capa de yeso. Los pioneros del plasterboard tenían la idea completamente errónea de que esta multilaminación de papel y yeso era necesaria para producir un panel ligero de peso, flexible y que podía clavarse fácilmente; sin embargo, se apreció que cualquier intento de penetración de un clavo a través de una placa de plasterboard sólido, la fracturaba en todas las direcciones. Los modernos fabricantes de plasterboard han superado todas estas objeciones, empleando un yeso de París cuidadosamente controlado para formar un núcleo de yeso completamente celular, que se encuentra encajado sólo en dos láminas de cartón especialmente preparado.

  3. Thermochemical reduction of pelletized gypsum mixed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... Other saleable products such as sulphur may also be produced ... in the absence of air, as air was observed to impact nega- tively on the conversion of ... able mechanical strength to minimize disintegration during handling ...

  4. The semidry acid-anhydrite process (the use of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum by development of a new process for the production of FGD anhydrite); Das quasitrockene Saeure-Anhydrit-Verfahren (Erweiterung der Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Hueller, R. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Limmer, B. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    A completely new reaction for conversion of FGD gypsum into FGD anhydrite was investigated in the research project which forms the basis for this article. The reaction takes place with moist, finely divided, FGD gypsum with the catalytic action of small quantities of sulphuric acid at temperatures around 100 to 200 C. Moisture-free FGD anhydrite with an orthorhombic crystalline structure ist obtained. The conversion of the crystalline lattice of calcium sulphate dihydrate into calcium anhydrite II takes place directly through neoformation. This conversion is developed into a new process called the `Semidry Acid-Anhydrite Process`. The reaction and its mechanism were first investigated in laboratory trials. Any finely divided calcium sulphate dihydrate is suitable as the starting material. The FGD gypsum with 10% residual moisture, which is already in a finely divided crystalline state when it is generated in the power station, is particularly advantageous as for this application it does not have to be dried or ground first. The process development was carried out up to a semi-industrial scale and the design principles were worked out for large-scale plants at power station sites. The directly heated rotary tube kiln proved to be a suitable reaction unit. The FGD anhydrite is obtained in this process as a dry, finely divided, product with reproducible properties. Investigations were carried out into its potential applications for the cement industry and as a raw material for producing fillers. In principle it is suitable for the cement industry. Applications as a filler allows the FGD gypsum to extend its uses outside the traditional areas of the gypsum industry. Initial trials indicate that after a processing procedure, which was also newly developed in the laborator, FGD anhydrite processes the characteristic features necessary for a high grade filler. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsprojekt wurde eine voellig neue Umwandlungsreaktion von REA-Gips in REA

  5. Production of 34S-labeled gypsum (Ca34SO4.2H2O Produção de gesso (Ca34SO4.2H2O, marcado com 34S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O stands out as an effective source of calcium and sulfur, and to control aluminum saturation in the soil. Labeled as 34S it can elucidate important aspects of the sulfur cycle. Ca34SO4.2H2O was obtained by chemical reaction between Ca(OH2 and H2(34SO4, performed under slow agitation. The acid was produced by ion exchange chromatography using the Dowex 50WX8 cation exchange resin and a Na2(34SO4 eluting solution. After precipitation, the precipitate was separated and dried in a ventilated oven at 60ºC. From 2.2 L H2SO4 0.2 mol L-1 and 33.6 g Ca(OH2, 73.7 ± 0.6 g Ca34SO4.2H2O were produced on average in the tests, representing a mean yield of 94.6 ± 0.8%, with 98% purity. The 34SO2 gas was obtained from Ca34SO4.2H2O in the presence of NaPO3 in a high vacuum line and was used for the isotopic determination of S in an ATLAS-MAT model CH-4 mass spectrometer.O gesso agrícola (CaSO4.2H2O destaca-se como fonte eficiente de cálcio e enxofre e na redução da saturação de alumínio no solo. O 34S como traçador isotópico pode elucidar aspectos importantes no ciclo do enxofre. Para tanto o Ca34SO4.2H2O foi obtido por reação química entre o Ca(OH2 e solução de H2(34SO4, realizada sob agitação lenta. O ácido foi produzido por cromatografia de troca iônica, utilizando resina catiônica Dowex 50WX8 e solução eluente de Na2(34SO4. Após a precipitação foi separado o precipitado e realizada a secagem em estufa ventilada à temperatura de 60ºC. Nos testes, a partir de 2,2 L de H2SO4 0,2 mol L-1 e 33,6 g de Ca(OH2, foram produzidos em média 73,7 ± 0,6 g de Ca34SO4.2H2O representando um rendimento médio de 94,6 ± 0,8%, com pureza de 98%. A partir do Ca34SO4.2H2O na presença de NaPO3, em linha de alto vácuo, obteve-se o gás 34SO2 utilizado para a determinação isotópica do S no espectrômetro de massas ATLAS-MAT modelo CH-4.

  6. CALCÁRIO E GESSO COMO CONDICIONANTES FÍSICO E QUÍMICO DE UM SOLO DE CERRADO SOB TRÊS SISTEMAS DE MANEJO LIME AND GYPSUM AS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONDITIONERS OF A SAVANNAH SOIL UNDER THREE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, coletadas sob três condições de uso, foram incubadas com calcário, em doses para a obtenção de 0%, 60% e 100% de saturação por bases, e com gesso agrícola, nas doses 0 kg ha-1, 500 kg ha-1, 1000 kg ha-1 e 2000 kg ha-1. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3x4, com quatro repetições. Após a aplicação dos corretivos, as amostras de solo foram incubadas por um período de 45 dias. Em seguida, procederam-se as análises físicas e químicas especificadas. Observou-se que, independentemente do uso do solo, houve uma correlação inversa (r = -0,9801; p < 0,01 entre os valores de argila dispersa em água (ADA e o grau de floculação. Em solos submetidos a culturas anuais, sem o uso de calcário, obtiveram-se maiores valores de ADA que naqueles submetidos à pastagem ou sob vegetação nativa. A calagem em solos sob pastagem, com doses para elevação da saturação de bases a 60%, proporcionou aumentos nos valores de agregados maiores que 1,0 mm. O gesso induziu aumentos no grau de floculação, independentemente da dose ou do tipo de uso do solo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Manejo do solo; calagem; gessagem.

    Samples of a savannah dystroferric Oxisol were collected from three management systems, incubated with lime to 0%, 60% and 100% base saturation, and with agricultural gypsum to 0 kg ha-1, 500 kg ha-1, 1,000 kg ha-1 and 2,000 kg ha-1. A completely randomized 3x3x4 factorial experimental design was used, with four replications. After lime and gypsum application, soil samples were incubated for 45 days. Afterwards, physical and chemical analyses were

  7. Gypsum speleothems in lava tubes from Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Did you say gypsum?

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Pedro; Martín-García, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Iglesia, A. la; Martín-Pérez, Andrea; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Lanzarote is the easternmost island of the volcanic Canary archipielago considered together with Fuerteventura the low relief islands of the archipielago. These island receive less rain than 300 mm/year. Basaltic lava flows preserves lava tubes formed during cooling and solidification of external parts of lava, while internal parts were still hot and flowing. When lava flow stopped the lava abandoned the tubes, and the tubes preserved empty. These tubes actuate as caves and som...

  8. Alterações químicas do solo e resposta da soja ao calcário e gesso aplicados na implantação do sistema plantio direto Changes in chemical soil characteristics and soybean response to lime and gypsum applications in a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Caires

    2003-04-01

    carried out on a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, from 1998 to 2001, with the aim to evaluate changes in chemical soil characteristics, as well as the soybean response to lime and gypsum applications in a no-tillage system. A completely randomized block design with three replications in a split-plot experiment was used. The main plots received dolomitic limestone treatments (no lime, total rate of 4.5 t ha-1 of lime, 1/3 of this dosage during three years, as surface application and incorporated into the soil and the subplots, the gypsum rates (0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. Liming, whether surface applied or incorporated into the soil, provided a more accentuated soil acidity correction in the superficial layer (0-5 cm, but there was a stronger reaction in the 5-10 and 10-20 cm layers when lime was incorporated into the soil. The beneficial effects of lime for subsoil acidity correction were not very pronounced and more evident where lime was incorporated. Gypsum improved the subsoil, increasing the pH (CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1, Ca, and S-SO4(2- concentrations, P concentrations in the superficial soil layer (0-5 cm and in soybean leaves, and decreased Mg concentrations in the soil and soybean leaves. Results showed no soybean response, in three years, to lime and gypsum treatments. It was concluded that gypsum, whether applied as superficial or incorporated liming, did not present an interesting strategy for the installation of soybean crop in a no-tillage system, since no improvement in grain yields could be observed.

  9. Organic residue, limestone, gypsum, and phosphorus adsorption by lowland soils Resíduo orgânico, calcário e gesso e a adsorção de fósforo por solos de várzea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Teixeira Andrade

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic residue application is a low cost alternative to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers and correctives. In order to study the effect of organic residues, limestone and gypsum application on phosphorus adsorption by lowland soils, four experiments were carried out. A Mesic Organosol (OY, a Melanic Gleysol (MG, a Haplic Gleysol (GX, and a Fluvic Neosol (RU were used in a completely randomized design and factorial scheme (3 x 2, with five replicates: three soil amendment practices (limestone, gypsum and no corrective and two levels of organic residue (with and without corral manure. Soil samples were incubated for 60 days, with and without organic residue incorporation. After this period, we applied the corrective and incubated the soil for 30 days, then P and basic fertilization (macro and micronutrients were applied and the soil was incubated for additional 60 days. Equilibrium phosphorus, maximum phosphate adsorption capacity, pH, exchangeable Al and phosphorus-buffering index were measured. Organic residue and limestone application increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable Al, decreasing P adsorption. Gypsum application did not increase the pH but reduced exchangeable Al and P adsorption.A aplicação de resíduo orgânico é uma alternativa de baixo custo para reduzir a aplicação de fertilizantes inorgânicos e corretivos. Com objetivo de estudar a relação da aplicação de resíduo orgânico, calcário e gesso com adsorção de fósforo em solos de várzea conduziram-se simultaneamente quatro experimentos com os solos Organossolo Mésico (OY, Gleissolo Melânico (GM, Gleissolo Háplico (GX e Neossolo Flúvico (RU. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2, com cinco repetições, sendo três práticas de correção do solo (calcário, gesso e sem corretivo e dois níveis de resíduo orgânico com e sem esterco de curral curtido. Amostras dos solos foram incubadas por 60 dias

  10. Modificações químicas em solos ácidos ocasionadas pelo método de aplicação de corretivos da acidez e de gesso agrícola Chemical modifications in acid soils caused by addition of gypsum or limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do calcário aplicado sobre a superfície do solo no rendimento vegetal podem estar associados à melhoria na composição química das águas de percolação. Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar alterações na fase sólida e na solução percolada em dois solos ácidos (Latossolo Bruno Álico e Cambissolo Húmico Álico, ocasionadas pelo método de aplicação (na superfície ou incorporado de corretivos da acidez (CaCO3 e MgCO3 e de gesso agrícola. O CaCO3 foi utilizado na dose equivalente a 0,25 daquela necessária para elevar o pH a 6,0, e os demais em doses molares equivalentes. O CaCO3 foi ainda incorporado nas doses de 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 vez a necessidade de calcário para pH 6,0. Em colunas de lixiviação, com 1,5 kg de solo, percolou-se água destilada durante 12 semanas num volume de 200 mL semana-1. Os corretivos da acidez, quando incorporados aos solos, aumentaram o pH das duas fases, diminuíram o Al trocável, porém não afetaram o Al percolado; quando foram aplicados na superfície, não afetaram nenhum parâmetro da solução percolada, e alteraram a composição química somente da camada de 0 a 2,0 cm de profundidade. O gesso agrícola diminuiu o pH do solo e da solução percolada, não afetou o Al trocável, mas percolou muito mais Ca, Mg e Al que os corretivos da acidez, principalmente quando foi incorporado ao solo. A mobilidade dos cátions integrantes dos corretivos foi muito pequena, e a aplicação de calcário na superficie dos solos não afetou a composição química da solução coletada 30 cm abaixo.The increase on crop yield caused by lime addition on the soil surface may be associated to improvements in the chemical composition of the percolating water. This study was carried out to evaluate chemical changes in the solid phase and in the percolating water in two acid soils (Oxisol and Inceptisol caused by the application method (incorporated or on soil surface of gypsum, CaCO3, or MgCO3. Calcium

  11. Efeitos de métodos de estabelecimento de braquiária e estilosantes e de doses de calcário, fósforo e gesso sobre alguns componentes nutricionais da forragem Effect of establishment methods of brachiaria and stylosanthes, limestone, gypsum and phosphorus on some forage nutritional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Eustáquio Mesquita

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar, em dois anos, os efeitos de métodos de estabelecimento (sulcamento: 1,5 e 1,0 m entre linhas em etapa única; 1,5 e 1,0 m em duas e três etapas, respectivamente; aração, gradeação e sulcos espaçados de 1,0 m entre linhas, doses de calcário (25, 50, 75 e 100% da necessidade de calagem-NC, obtida pelo método do Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis, gesso agrícola (0, 230, 940, 1.880 e 2.820 kg/ha, referentes à substituição de 0, 3,0, 12,5, 25,0 e 37,5% do CaO do calcário pelo CaO do gesso, na dose de 100% da NC e P2O5 (50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg/ha nas concentrações de minerais (P, K, Ca, Mg e S, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e lignina na matéria seca e na DIVMS de Brachiaria decumbens consorciada com Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão. Os métodos de estabelecimento em duas e três etapas propiciaram maiores concentrações de K na braquiária e Ca no estilosantes. As maiores concentrações de PB na braquiária foram alcançadas com o estabelecimento com aração e gradeação do solo. A substituição do calcário pelo gesso elevou as concentrações de S, Ca e PB na matéria seca da braquiária e do estilosantes e reduziu as concentrações de FDN na gramínea. As doses de P elevaram as concentrações de P, PB e a DIVMS e reduziram as concentrações de FDN na braquiária, melhorando seu valor nutritivo.A field trial was carried out to evaluate the establishment methods (Furrow only: row 1,5 and 1,0 m apart at one time; 1.5 and 1.0 at two and three times, respectively; Plowing and horrowing: row 1,0 apart, limestone (25, 50, 75 e 100% of necessity of limestone, obtained by Al, Ca e Mg exchangeable, gypsum (0, 230, 940, 1.880 e 2.820 kg/ha and P2O5 (50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 kg/ha on minerals concentration (P, K, Ca, Mg e S; crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent acid (ADF and in vitro dry matter

  12. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOIL CORRECTIVES AND GYPSUM ON THE SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS CROPPED WITH RICE AND SOYBEANS AÇÃO DE DIFERENTES CORRETIVOS E DO GESSO SOBRE AS CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS DE UM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO ESCURO NA SUCESSÃO ARROZ E SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mozena Leandro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aiming to verify the action of different soil correctives on the chemical characteristics of a dark red latosoil median texture, a two-years field experiment was carried out. A completely randomized design with 7 treatments (6 different soil correctives and a control with no liming and four repetitions were used. As soil correctives limestone (calcitic, dolomitic, calcinated dolomitic, and magnesian, gypsum and calcium hydroxide were employed. On the first year the experimental area was cropped with rice (Oryza sativa L. c.v. IAC-25 and on the second one with soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill c.v. IAC-8. Dolomitic limestone caused the greatest chemical alterations on soil characteristics, with increase on pH, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 and decrease on H+ + Al+3 values, during the first year. Losses of exchangeable Mg+ by leaching have been found during the second year, due to the use of gypsum and calcitic limestone. All liming materials, but gypsum, increased rice yields when compared with the control. The calcinated dolomitic limestone gave the highest soybean yields.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil; soil acidity; liming materials; pH.

  1. Preparation of ammonium sulfate, calcium oxide and rare earth concentrate from phospho-gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.M.; Rusin, N.F.; Dejneka, G.F.; Zinchenko, T.A.; Burova, T.I.

    1978-01-01

    A technological scheme is proposed which gives ammonium sulfate, purified (from admixtures of silicon, iron, titanium, aluminium) calcium oxide with direct yield of calcium 91% and rare-earth concentrate, containing 5.6% of Ln 2 O 3 with direct yield of 99.5%

  2. Thermal Behaviour of a Gypsum Fibre Board Associated with Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Standard Fire Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kolding, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Due to its low thermal conductivity (λ ≈ 20 mW/m.K), rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam has the potential to improve the thermal performance of buildings without increasing the thickness of construction elements. Nevertheless, PUR foam has the drawback of having a low resistance to fire: non-flaming t......Due to its low thermal conductivity (λ ≈ 20 mW/m.K), rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam has the potential to improve the thermal performance of buildings without increasing the thickness of construction elements. Nevertheless, PUR foam has the drawback of having a low resistance to fire: non...

  3. Chemical Alterations of Pb using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data include chemical composition of Pb contaminated soils by adding FGDG as an amendment. The data shows the changes in Pb speciation to sulfur based minerals....

  4. Habitat Fragmentation Differentially Affects Genetic Variation, Phenotypic Plasticity and Survival in Populations of a Gypsum Endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, i.e., fragment size and isolation, can differentially alter patterns of neutral and quantitative genetic variation, fitness and phenotypic plasticity of plant populations, but their effects have rarely been tested simultaneously. We assessed the combined effects of size and connectivity on these aspects of genetic and phenotypic variation in populations of Centaurea hyssopifolia, a narrow endemic gypsophile that previously showed performance differences associated with fragmentation. We grew 111 maternal families sampled from 10 populations that differed in their fragment size and connectivity in a common garden, and characterized quantitative genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity to drought for key functional traits, and plant survival, as a measure of population fitness. We also assessed neutral genetic variation within and among populations using eight microsatellite markers. Although C. hyssopifolia is a narrow endemic gypsophile, we found substantial neutral genetic variation and quantitative variation for key functional traits. The partition of genetic variance indicated that a higher proportion of variation was found within populations, which is also consistent with low population differentiation in molecular markers, functional traits and their plasticity. This, combined with the generally small effect of habitat fragmentation suggests that gene flow among populations is not restricted, despite large differences in fragment size and isolation. Importantly, population’s similarities in genetic variation and plasticity did not reflect the lower survival observed in isolated populations. Overall, our results indicate that, although the species consists of genetically variable populations able to express functional plasticity, such aspects of adaptive potential may not always reflect populations’ survival. Given the differential effects of habitat connectivity on functional traits, genetic variation and fitness, our study highlights the need to shift the focus of fragmentation studies to the mechanisms that regulate connectivity effects, and call for caution on the use of genetic variation and plasticity to forecast population performance.

  5. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL PAINT EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, some surface cleaning is performed and paint is applied in an attempt to alleviate the problem. The efficacy of antimicrobial paints to eliminate or control mold regrowth on surfaces can easily be tested on non-...

  6. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  7. Calculation of thermal conductivity of gypsum plasterboards at ambient and elevated temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Plasterboard often protects steel structures of buildings because it conducts heat slowly and absorbs the heat of the fire by its volumetric enthalpy. The most important property governing the heat transfer is the thermal diffusion. This property depends on the density, specific heat and thermal

  8. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaião, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between anomalies and causes in the sample is also thoroughly analyzed. Anomalies are also evaluated for area affected, size, repair urgency and aesthetic value of the affected area. The conclusions of the statistical analysis allowed the creation of an inventory of preventive measures to be implemented in the design, execution and use phases in order to lessen the magnitude or eradicate the occurrence of anomalies in DW. These measures could directly help improve the quality of construction.

    Este trabajo presenta un sistema experto de apoyo a la inspección y diagnóstico de tabiques o revestimientos de yeso laminado. Dicho sistema, que permite la clasificación de las anomalías del yeso laminado y sus causas probables, se empleó en un trabajo de campo en el que se estudiaron 121 elementos construidos con este material. El trabajo incluye el análisis estadístico de las anomalías detectadas durante las inspecciones y sus motivos probables. También se analizó en detalle la correlación entre las anomalías y sus causas, evaluándose aquellas en función de la superficie afectada, la urgencia de las reparaciones y el valor estético de la zona implicada. Las conclusiones del análisis estadístico permitieron la elaboración de un inventario de medidas preventivas que deberían implantarse en las fases de proyecto, ejecución y utilización de estos elementos a fin de erradicar la aparición de anomalías en el yeso laminado o reducir su frecuencia. Dichas medidas contribuirían directamente a la mejora de la calidad de la construcción.

  9. An Archeological Survey in the Gypsum Breaks on the Elm Fork of the Red River,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Pumpkin Creek in Love County, Oklahoma. The projectile points resemble Meserve, Milnesand, Plainview, Plainview golondrina, Scottsbluff, in addition to...in this survey corresponds to the criteria or factors proposed by Bell and Gettys (n.d.). 1. Size-Area of occupation 7. Degree of preservation 2. Depth...Archeological Survey. Norman. Wyckoff, Don G. and Lyonel Taylor 1971 The Pumpkin Creek Site: An Early Archaic Camp on the Southern Plains Border. Plains

  10. Conversion of calcium sulphide to calcium carbonate during the process of recovery of elemental sulphur from gypsum waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available (calcite and vaterite), as well as trace minerals originating from the starting material. These products could replace the Sappi Enstra CaCO(sub3) (69 mass% CaCO(sub3), a by-product from the paper industry which is used in many full-scale AMD neutralisation...

  11. Synthesis of high-purity precipitated calcium carbonate during the process of recovery of elemental sulphur from gypsum waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (PCC). The process used an acid gas (H2S) to improve the aqueous dissolution of CaS, which is otherwise poorly soluble. The carbonate product was primarily calcite (99.5%) with traces of quartz (0.5%). Calcite was the only CaCO3 polymorph obtained...

  12. On Nonlinear Inverse Problems of Heat Transfer with Radiation Boundary Conditions: Application to Dehydration of Gypsum Plasterboards Exposed to Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Belmiloudi, A.; Mahé, F.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The paper investigates boundary optimal controls and parameter estimates to the well-posedness nonlinear model of dehydration of thermic problems. We summarize the general formulations for the boundary control for initial-boundary value problem for nonlinear partial differential equations modeling the heat transfer and derive necessary optimality conditions, including the adjoint equation, for the optimal set of parameters minimizing objective functions J. Numerical si...

  13. Vertical distribution of bacteria and intensity of microbiological processes in two stratified gypsum Karst Lakes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krevs A.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical parameters and the vertical distribution of bacteria and organic matter production-destruction processes were studied during midsummer stratification in two karst lakes (Kirkilai and Ramunelis located in northern Lithuania. The lakes were characterized by high sulfate concentrations (369–1248 mg·L-1. The O2/H2S intersection zone formed at 2–3 m depth. In Lake Kirkilai, the highest bacterial densities (up to 8.7 × 106 cell·mL-1 occurred at the O2/H2S intersection zone, whereas in Lake Ramunelis the highest densities were observed in the anoxic hypolimnion (up to 11 × 106 cell·mL-1. Pigment analysis revealed that green sulfur bacteria dominated in the microaerobic–anaerobic water layers in both lakes. The most intensive development of sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed in the anaerobic layer. Photosynthetic production of organic matter was highest in the upper layer. Rates of sulfate reduction reached 0.23 mg S2−·dm3·d-1 in the microaerobic-anaerobic water layer and 1.97 mg S2−·dm3·d-1 in sediments. Karst lakes are very sensitive to organic pollution, because under such impact in the presence of high sulfate amounts, sulfate reduction may become very intensive and, consequently, the increase in hydrogen sulfide and development of sulfur cycle bacteria may reduce the variety of other hydrobionts.

  14. Authigenic Gypsum in Gas-Hydrate Associated Sediments from the East Coast of India (Bay of Bengal)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.

    operation respectively. This is NIO contribution no… 10 4.0 References. Aharon, P., Graber, E. R. Roberts, H. H., 1992. Dissolved carbon and delta c-13 anomalies in the water column caused by hydrocarbon seeps on the northwestern Gulf of Mexico... hydrate. Geology, 24: 655–658. Botz, R., Faber, E., Whiticar, M, Brooks, J.M., 1988. Authigenic carbonates in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 88: 263-272. Bohrmann, G., Greinert, J., Suess, E., Torres, M., 1998...

  15. Alterations of lead speciation by sulfate from addition of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), ceru...

  16. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Kevin W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solutional sinks are commonly the result of overprinting of collapsed forms. Epigene caves are laterally limited with rapid aperture decreases away from insurgence, with passages developed along fractures and anticline fold axes. Hypogene karst occurs as diverse manifestations, forming the deepest and longest caves within the region as well as abundant zones of brecciation. Hypogene caves exhibit a wide range of morphologies from complex maze and anastomotic patterns to simple, steeply dipping patterns, but all hypogene caves exhibit morphologic features (i.e. risers, outlet cupolas and half-tubes that provide a definitive suite of evidence of dissolution within a mixed convection (forced and free convection hydrologic system. Extensive blanket breccias, abundant breccia pipes and numerous occurrences of calcitized evaporites indicate widespread hypogene speleogenesis throughout the entire Castile Formation. Although most cave and karst development within the Castile outcrop region appears to have hypogene origins, epigene processes areactively overprinting features, creating a complex speleogenetic evolution within the Castile Formation.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF WOOD-CONCRETE AND WOOD-GYPSUM MASONRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likhacheva Svetlana Yur'evna

    2012-12-01

    The findings of the prototype testing include identification of the two areas of deformations: areas of elastic deformations and areas of intensive development of deformations. The first area of partial elastic deformations is characterized by the linear stress function, while the second area demonstrates that this relationship is nonlinear. Permanent deformations appear as of the startup of the loading process and disproportionate stress is demonstrated throughout the deformation process. However, in the first area (partial elastic deformations residual deformations are so small that this area is considered as the area of "the area of incomplete elasticity".

  18. Raman imaging in geomicrobiology: endolithic phototrophic microorganisms in gypsum from the extreme sun irradiation area in the Atacama Desert

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Petr; Ascao, C.; Artieda, O.; Wierzchos, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 408, č. 15 (2016), s. 4083-4092 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : hyperspectral imaging * carotenoids * astrobiology * photosynthesis * adaptation strategy * Mars Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2016

  19. The use of gypsum mining by-product and lime on the engineering properties of compressed earth blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rocío Jaramillo-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las desventajas de los bloques de tierra comprimida son sus baj as propiedades mecánicas y resistencia al daño al agua. Por lo tanto, su uso es vulnerable al deterioro y requiere cuidado y mantenimien to, dependiendo del grado de estabilización y compactación del suelo arcilloso. Residuos de minería del yeso y cal se utilizaron com o estabilizantes para mejorar las propiedades de estos material es de construcción. Resistencia a compresión y flexión, ablandamiento en agua, retracción por secado y peso unitario se determinaron . La resistencia aumento con la adición de residuo de minería. La re sistencia al ablandamiento en agua fue mayor con 25% de residuo de minería. La contracción por secado disminuyo con el aumento del contenido de residuo de minería. El peso unitario seco no esta ba en los estándares recomendados. Los resultados mostraron que los resid uos de minería del yeso pueden utilizarse como materiales alter nativos en la estabilización de bloques de tierra comprimida.

  20. Assessment of dissolved-solids loading to the Colorado River in the Paradox Basin between the Dolores River and Gypsum Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Christopher L.; Gerner, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity loads throughout the Colorado River Basin have been a concern over recent decades due to adverse impacts on population, natural resources, and regional economics. With substantial financial resources and various reclamation projects, the salt loading to Lake Powell and associated total dissolved-solids concentrations in the Lower Colorado River Basin have been substantially reduced. The Colorado River between its confluence with the Dolores River and Lake Powell traverses a physiographic area where saline sedimentary formations and evaporite deposits are prevalent. However, the dissolved-solids loading in this area is poorly understood due to the paucity of water-quality data. From 2003 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation conducted four synoptic sampling events to quantify the salinity loading throughout the study reach and evaluate the occurrence and impacts of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The results from this study indicate that under late-summer base-flow conditions, dissolved-solids loading in the reach is negligible with the exception of the Green River, and that variations in calculated loads between synoptic sampling events are within measurement and analytical uncertainties. The Green River contributed approximately 22 percent of the Colorado River dissolved-solids load, based on samples collected at the lower end of the study reach. These conclusions are supported by water-quality analyses for chloride and bromide, and the results of analyses for the stable isotopes of oxygen and deuterium. Overall, no significant sources of dissolved-solids loading from tributaries or directly by groundwater discharge, with the exception of the Green River, were identified in the study area.

  1. Study on uranium loss during 'Iron-Gypsum Cake' precipitation from acid leach liquor of Jaduguda ore using factorially designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amrita; Yadav, Manoj; Chatterjee, Ankur; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acid leaching process for uranium recovery from ore often generates considerable amounts of impurities into the solution. It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable impurities as manageable and stable waste products for final disposal, without losing the valuable constituents. The main impurities that come with the leach liquor are iron and sulfate. Their removal is essential for meeting the iron requirement in leaching circuit and also for making the effluent suitable for recycle. Factorial design analysis was applied to study of process variables for precipitation of iron and sulphate from leach liquor with composition using CaO as precipitation reagent

  2. Oxidizer in phosphoric reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Benedetto, J. dos

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation during the manufacture of wet-process phosphoric acid affected the distribution of uranium and impurities between phosphoric acid and gypsum, by decreasing the uranium loss to gypsum and the impurities solubilization in phosphoric acid. (Author) [pt

  3. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  4. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  5. Hydration modeling of calcium sulphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, Hashem; Mustapha, Kamal N.; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2008-01-01

    The CEMHYD3D model has been extended at the University of Twente in the last ten years [1,2]. At present the cement hydration model is extended for the use of gypsum. Although gypsum was present in the model already, the model was not suitable for high contents of gypsum and did not include the

  6. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.W.; Gaynor, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a process for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum, anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid: a portion of the anhydrite crystals is converted to subtantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on radiation free gypsum seed crystals. These coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are then separated from the small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination

  7. Implications of Earth analogs to Martian sulfate-filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-filled fractures in fine-grained sediments on Mars are interpreted to be the result of fluid movement during deep burial. Fractures in the Dewey Lake (aka Quartermaster) Formation of southeastern New Mexico and west Texas are filled with gypsum that is at least partially synsedimentary. Sulfate in the Dewey Lake takes two principal forms: gypsum cement and gypsum (mainly fibrous) that fills fractures ranging from horizontal to vertical. Apertures are mainly mm-scale, though some are > 1 cm. The gypsum is antitaxial, fibrous, commonly approximately perpendicular to the wall rock, and displays suture lines and relics of the wall rock. Direct evidence of synsedimentary, near-surface origin includes gypsum intraclasts, intraclasts that include smaller intraclasts that contain gypsum clasts, intraclasts of gypsum with suture lines, gypsum concentrated in small desiccation cracks, and intraclasts that include fibrous gypsum-filled fractures that terminate at the eroded clast boundary. Dewey Lake fracture fillings suggest that their Martian analogs may also have originated in the shallow subsurface, shortly following the deposition of Martian sediments, in the presence of shallow aquifers.

  8. Changes in chemical composition and engineering properties of gypseous soils through leaching: an example from Mashhad, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghari, Somaye; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Tabatabai, Salman

    2018-01-01

    on the samples and the gypsum and sulfate concentration maps were produced based on these results, combined with the previously available data from 511 boreholes drilled in the area. Seven soil samples with different gypsum concentrations were selected for further analysis in four major groups of tests...... and direct shear). Changes in the mentioned parameters were investigated through a 5-day leaching process. The results indicate that extensive dissolution of gypsum and removal of gypsum bonding between soil particles change soil chemical composition and decrease the soil compressibility and strength...

  9. A influência da imersão em ácido peracético sobre a reprodução de detalhes e compatibilidade dos elastômeros com gesso = The influence of peracetic acid immersion on detail reproduction and compatibility of elastomers with gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fracaro, Gisele Baggio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da imersão no desinfetante a base de ácido peracético 0,2% sobre a reprodução de detalhes e compatibilidade com gesso dos elastômeros: Silicona de Adição, Silicona de Condensação e Poliéter. Para a reprodução de detalhes foram confeccionados 10 corpos de prova de cada material utilizando-se a matriz determinada pela especificação n. 19 para Materiais de Impressão Elastoméricos Não-Aquosos da A. D. A. , sendo que 5 corpos de prova foram imersos no desinfetante por 10 minutos e os outros 5, utilizados como controle. A reprodução de detalhes foi analisada pela visualização de uma linha de 30 mm de comprimento e 20 µm de espessura de forma completa e contínua em pelo menos duas de três impressões, segundo a especificação. Para compatibilidade com gesso avaliou-se a reprodução dos mesmo detalhes nos modelos vazados com gesso tipo IV sobre as referidas impressões. Todos os materiais utilizados apresentaram reprodução de detalhes e compatibilidade com gesso em 100% dos corpos de prova. Concluiu-se que a imersão no desinfetante a base de ácido peracético não alterou as propriedades avaliadas destes materiais

  10. Investigation on application of coal ash, lime and gypsum-based compositions. ; Development of technology to utilize and dispose of used desulfurizing agnet. Sekitanbaiter dot sekkaiter dot sekkokei soseibutsu no oyo ni kansuru chosa. ; Shiyozumi datsuryu zai no riyo shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K. (The Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan))

    1991-11-20

    This paper describes the result of an investigation by testing on re-utilizing the used desulfurizing agent discharged from a thermal power plant as a sludge disposer and a deodorant. The used desulfurizing agent used in the test is a nearly neutral substance composed mainly of SiO{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4}. The paper describes that the tested agent has a character to solidify when added with water, and the solidified substance made from the agent added into a sludge is nearly neutral and usable in the similar manner as in the commercially available sludge solidifying materials. The paper also reports that in a field test for applying this tested agent to cover the sludge surface, a marked effect of improving water quality was recognized, including the increased water transparency. It also states that the tested agent absorbs ammonia actively, and that as a result of investigating its applicability as a deodorant for pet excreta odors, the agent can be handled more easily than the commercially available deodorants and has a deodorizing effect equivalent to or better than them. 4 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Reclamation of sodic soils in northern Tanzania, using locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... gypsum significantly (p≤0.05) improved pH, electrical conductivity of the saturated paste (ECe), ... Owing to the problems of land shortage, some farmers in this area ... Longoi village in the east, Tanganyika Planting Company sugar estate in the south, .... was followed by FYM and gypsum supplied alone.

  12. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  13. Kinetic study of the precipitation of radioactive elements in the production process of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mahmoud, Souha

    2009-01-01

    In this engineering study we determined the activities of gamma emitting radionuclides belonging to the families of 238 U , 232 Th and 40K in phosphate, the acid derivatives and gypsum in Tunisian Chemical Group. The most important activities are those of 238 U and 226 Ra, which are located in the phosphate, gypsum and the precipitates formed in the pipes.

  14. Subsidence hazards connected to quarrying activities in a karst area: the case of the Moncalvo sinkhole event (Piedmont, NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonetto, Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is an important raw material for constructions and other industrial sectors. In Piedmont (NW Italy, main gypsum bodies are located in the Monferrato area, where large open pits and underground quarries are present. The gypsum-bearing formation outcropping in this area shows typical geological, structural, and hydrogeological features, which affect the quarrying and the related interaction with natural phenomena, human activities, and land use. In particular, gypsum karst has considerable influence on mining operations, as well as mining operations can produce strong impact on gypsum karst. In Monferrato, a specific case of interaction between the quarrying activity and geological, hydrogeological, and territorial setting is represented by the event of water inrush that happened in the Moncalvo underground quarry in association with the development of a surface sinkhole phenomenon.

  15. Technical economical study of plaster production in a continuous rotate kiln using natural gas; Estudo tecnico-economico do processo de producao de gesso em forno rotativo continuo com uso de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benachour, M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Peres, Luciano dos S. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco (ITEP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio R.T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas - COPERGAS, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    At Araripe Gypsum Site, Pernambuco State, gypsum is dehydrated to produce plaster using wood and BPF oil as major fuels, which generate serious environmental impacts. Natural gas provides important advantages over conventional fuels. Using this gas improves the thermal efficiency of direct contact process, producing no contamination in final product, also reducing considerably environmental pollution levels. In this scope, a rotate kiln was designed in pilot scale, where was carried out gypsum dehydration tests to produce beta plaster using natural gas. In this work are presented mathematical models to simulate the axial profiles of the gypsum conversion and the gas and solid temperatures on the axial length of the kiln. The mathematical models are used as restrictions to obtention of the operational optimized conditions to a minimum gypsum conversion of the 85%. The simulation results were compared to experimental ones and were obtained a good agreement between both the values. (author)

  16. Implications of diapir-derived detritus and gypsic paleosols in Lower Triassic strata near the Castle Valley salt wall, Paradox Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Timothy F.; Buck, Brenda J.

    2006-10-01

    Gypsum-bearing growth strata and sedimentary facies of the Moenkopi Formation on the crest and NE flank of the Castle Valley salt wall in the Paradox Basin record salt rise, evaporite exposure, and salt-withdrawal subsidence during the Early Triassic. Detrital gypsum and dolomite clasts derived from the middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation were deposited in strata within a few kilometers of the salt wall and indicate that salt rise rates roughly balanced sediment accumulation, resulting in long-term exposure of mobile evaporite. Deposition took place primarily in flood-basin or inland sabkha settings that alternated between shallow subaqueous and subaerial conditions in a hyperarid climate. Matrix-supported and clast-supported conglomerates with gypsum fragments represent debris-flow deposits and reworked debris-flow deposits, respectively, interbedded with flood-basin sandstone and siltstone during development of diapiric topography. Mudstone-rich flood-basin deposits with numerous stage I to III gypsic paleosols capped by eolian gypsum sand sheets accumulated during waning salt-withdrawal subsidence. Association of detrital gypsum, eolian gypsum, and gypsic paleosols suggests that the salt wall provided a common source for gypsum in the surrounding strata. This study documents a previously unrecognized salt weld with associated growth strata containing diapir-derived detritus and gypsic palesols that can be used to interpret halokinesis.

  17. 自然発症高血圧ラットにおける釣藤散の抗高血圧作用 : 釣藤鈎及び石膏の役割について

    OpenAIRE

    趙, ??; 渡辺, 裕司; 村上, 孝寿; 東田, 道久; 松本, 欣三; Zhao, QI; Hiroshi, WATANABE; Yukihisa, MURAKAMI; Michihisa, TOHDA; Kinzo, MATSUMOTO; 富山医科薬科大学 和漢薬研究所 生物試験部門; 富山医科薬科大学 和漢薬研究所 生物試験部門; 富山医科薬科大学 和漢薬研究所 生物試験部門; 富山医科薬科大学 和漢薬研究所 生物試験部門; 富山医科薬科大学 和漢薬研究所 生物試験部門

    2002-01-01

    To clarify a role of Chotoko (Uncaria sp.) and gypsum in the anti-hypertensive effect of a Kampo prescription Choto-san (Diao-Teng-San), we investigated effects of Choto-san except Chotoko or gypsum, Chotoko alone and gyp-sum alone on the blood pressure and the heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Choto-san (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent hypotensive effect, but did not affect the heart rate in SHR. It affected neither blood pressure nor heart rate in n...

  18. Cost effective treatment for wet FGD scrubber bleedoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecek, K.F. [EIMCO Process Equipment Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kim, J.Y. [Samkook Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The dewatering of scrubber bleedoff gypsum is a thoroughly proven technology, whether for production of wallboard grade gypsum or environmentally responsible land fill. Careful review of the technology options will show which one is the most effective for the specific plant site. Likewise, a recipe for wastewater treatment for heavy metals removal can be found that will meet local regulatory limits. EIMCO has worldwide experience in FGD gypsum sludge dewatering and wastewater treatment. Contacting EIMCO can be the most important step toward a practical cost effective system for handling FGD scrubber bleed slurries.

  19. Thermophysical Properties of a Possible Martian Duricrust Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N. W.; Mellon, M. T.; Jakosky, B. M.; Budd, D. A.

    2008-03-01

    We examined a terrestrial deposit of gypsum duricrust located near Las Cruces, NM, and measured its thermophysical properties. We used the thermal properties to then evaluate whether this duricrust is representative of indurated surfaces on Mars.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Martian Duricrust Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N. W.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Budd, D. A.

    2009-03-01

    We measured thermophysical properties of samples of terrestrial duricrust from a gypsum deposit in New Mexico and Lunar Lake Playa. Our results suggest that well-indurated materials may cover a significant portion of the Mars surface.

  1. Environ: E00181 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00181 Exsiccated gypsum (JP17) Crude drug Calcium sulfate hemihydrate [CPD:C17258...] ... Same as: D06820 Natural calcium sulfate (heated at 110~120 degrees) Major component: Calcium sulfate hemihydrate [CPD:C17258] ...

  2. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue is characterized in that, as flux is used, rich-in-lime poor-in-sulfur portland-cement clinker, by which the usual gypsum addition, is avoided.

  3. 25 CFR 214.8 - Acreage limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., silver, copper, or other useful metals, 640 acres. (b) For beds of placer gold, gypsum, asphaltum, phosphate, iron ores, and other useful minerals, other than coal, lead, and zinc, 960 acres. (c) For coal, 4...

  4. Relationship between pore structure and compressive strength of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J BU

    compressive strength relationship in ... He applied this equation to experimental data on gypsum plasters and ... Popovics [15] observes that this is true even for different types of ... proportions and curing ages of concrete samples are listed in table 1.

  5. Jakobssonite, CaAlF5, a new mineral from fumaroles at the Eldfell and Hekla volcanoes, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, A.; Mitolo, D.

    2012-01-01

    (IMA2011-059), ralstonite, heklaite, anhydrite, gypsum, jarosite, hematite, opal and several fluoride minerals that have not been fully characterized. Jakobssonite occurs as soft white fragile crusts of acicular crystals

  6. Possible microbial origin of phosphorites on Error Seamount, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.; Natarajan, R

    -sized granules on gypsum surfaces. The laminated crust phosphorites consist of organic-rich and organic-poor laminae interlayered with ghost pellets, index fossils of Oligocene to lower Miocene age, peloids and coated grains...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayodele Azeez A

    Sample of gypsum from the site was obtained and its physical and chemical properties were determined. It was o ... of sisal fiber showed lower rate of 25.4% water absorbency. The result confirmed ..... Crystal System Habit. Cleavage. Lusture.

  8. SYSTEMS OF INTERIOR STYLING AND TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samatdinov Marat Orynbaevich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the quality of construction works and heat insulation efficiency of building envelope as well as providing additional fire proof and acoustic comfort suppose the use of special construction systems provided with the whole complex of components — composite construction systems. Composite interior systems include structural solutions of dividing walls, floors, suspended ceilings, inner facing of walls and fireproof facing, as well as assembling technology of these constructions. The main components of interior composite systems are gypsum board and gypsum-fiber sheets, gypsum-containing dry mortars. Less often gypsum partition blocks or panels based on Portland cement are used (cement fibrolite plates, aquapanels, etc.. The companies producing these materials are usually the movers of the creation of complex systems of interior facing. The systems are developed by leading Russian design organizations or engineering services of companies-the movers.

  9. Fabricação de chapas de partículas aglomeradas usando gesso como material cimentante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, gypsum bonded particleboards were manufactured using recycled paper (newspaper and offset and pine wood particles. In all treatments the ratio wood/gypsum was kept in 0.25 (ovendry base and two water content (w were employed: 0.4 and 0.8, corresponding to the water/gypsum ratio. The boards were cold pressed in laboratory in a process similar to the conventional particlebo ard fabrication. Then, they were tested in static bending, hardness, screw withdrawal and thickness swelling. In general, the addition of fibers improved the board properties. Significant differences were found for some of the treatments for static bending strength, hardness and screw withdrawal, while the inclusion of paper recycled fibers with w = 0,4 did not show differences for water absorption and thickness swelling, when compared to conventional gypsum boards. The best results were obtained when newspaper type recyclable fibers were introduced, with w = 0,4.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Minneapolis Residence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    This interior foundation project employed several techniques to improve performance and mitigate moisture issues: dimple mat; spray polyurethane foam insulation; moisture and thermal management systems for the floor; and paperless gypsum board and steel framing.

  11. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plywood, gypsum board or other materials of similar shape. Lumber or building products which are not... the middle tier that must be secured may not exceed 6 feet about the deck of the trailer; or (ii...

  12. Prediction of the environmental impact and sustainability of large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... trating the gypsiferous soil solution through crop evapotranspiration precipitates gypsum in the soil profile, removing it from the water system and ..... can be applied successfully. .... from a groundwater hydrology perspective.

  13. Drying of plasterboard - some quality aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesman, L. (University of Lund (Sweden)); Wimmerstedt, R. (University of Lund (Sweden))

    1993-06-01

    The manufacture process, especially the drying operation, of plasterboard was studied. The purpose was to measure physical properties, which can be used for the optimization of the process with respect to energy and quality. The cardboard was found to be hygroscopic whereas the gypsum was not. It was determined that the chloride content in the gypsum raw material should not exceed 75 ppm. The starch was found to migrate towards the surface of the gypsum core during the drying process (air temperture 140 C, dew-point of air 30 C and air velocity 10 m/s). The drying of different qualitites of plasterboard was also investigated. It was found that the cardboard is a very important parameter whereas the gypsum core has little effect on the drying rate and core temperature. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of organic desulfurization additives affecting the calcium sulfate crystals formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Lina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the optimal experimental conditions for gypsum crystals formation were 323 K, 300 rpm stirring speed. The major impurities of Mg2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ were found to inhibit calcium sulfate crystals formation. Fe3+ caused the strongest inhibition, followed by Mg2+ and Al3+. The influence of desulfurization additives on the gypsum crystals formation was explored with the properties of moisture content, particle size distribution and crystal morphology. The organic desulfurization additives of adipic acid, citric acid, sodium citrate and benzoic acid were investigated. Citric acid and sodium citrate were found to improve the quality of gypsum. Moisture contents were reduced by more than 50%, gypsum particle sizes were respectively enlarged by 9.1 and 22.8%, induction time extended from 4.3 (blank to 5.3 and 7.8 min, and crystal morphology trended to be thicker.

  15. Treatment of a diamond mine's slimes tailings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-21

    Jul 21, 2006 ... Most of the commercial settling reagents (for coagulation .... a larger body of water subjected to all the environmental fac- tors. The objectives ... the macro- and micro-components making up the gypsum), ..... Company report.

  16. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  17. The influence of compound admixtures on the properties of high-content slag cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxu, L.; Xuequan, W.; Jinlin, S.; Yujiang, W.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the activation theory of alkali and sulfate, the influence of compound admixtures on the properties of high-content slag cement was studied by testing the strength, pore structure, hydrates, and microstructure, Test results show that compound admixtures can obviously improve the properties of high-content slag cement. The emphasis of the present research is two-fold: substituting gypsum with anhydrite and calcining gypsum. These both can improve early and later performance.

  18. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  19. Compréhension des mécanismes de séchage dans les matériaux de construction : cas du plâtre

    OpenAIRE

    Seck , Mamadou Diaga

    2015-01-01

    Issues related to sustainability encourage more building material industries to engage policies in making processes energy consumption reduction. This study is conducted in this purpose, and is focused on the case of plasterboard. Indeed for plasterboard manufacturing, gypsum from quarry are first calcined to get hemihydrate, which is then mixed with water to make again gypsum we find in plasterboard. However, to get a good workability during the preparation process, it is necessary to add an...

  20. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  1. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  2. Analysis of the Erosion Law of Karst Groundwater Using Hydrogeochemical Theory in Liulin Spring Area, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical model of the Liulin karstic spring area in the eastern limb of the Ordos syncline was established by a combination of chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics and hydrogeology. The study area was divided into four zones based on the saturation indices of calcite, dolomite and gypsum, which were computed by the groundwater-chemical simulation software PHREEQC (a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, with consideration of the geological and hydrogeological conditions and hydro-geochemical reactions. The weight and volume modulus of carbonate rocks and sulphate rocks in each zone were calculated by the method of correlation analysis to evaluate the dissolution law of karst groundwater. The results showed that in the zone I (saturation index of calcite βc ≤ 1 the dissolution of calcite was the major geochemical reaction, the weight modulus of calcite was higher than that of dolomite and gypsum, and the pore space generated by the dissolution of calcite was one order of magnitude larger than that of dolomite and gypsum. In zone II (saturation index of calcite βc > 1 to saturation index of dolomite βd ≤ 1 the corrosion moduli were all smaller than that in zone I, the solubility of dolomite and gypsum increased, and calcite reached saturation. The space occupied by the calcite sediment was less than that dissolved by dolomite and gypsum. In zone III (saturation index of dolomite βd > 1 to saturation index of gypsum βg ≤ 1, calcite and dolomite had reached saturation, accompanied by dedolomitization, and the amount of gypsum dissolution increased obviously. The conclusions indicate that the hydrogeochemical environment plays an important role in mineral dissolution.

  3. Application of small panel damping measurements to larger walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Godfrey, Richard; Babcock, G. Madison

    1996-05-01

    Damping properties of a viscoelastic material were determined using a standard resonant beam technique. The damping material was then applied to 1 by 2 foot gypsum panels in a constrained layer construction. Damping loss factors in panels with and without the constrained layer were determined based on reverberation times after excitation at third-octave band center frequencies. The constrained damping layer had been designed to increase damping by an order of magnitude above that of a single gypsum panel at 2000 Hz; however, relative to a gypsum panel of the same overall thickness as the panel with the constrained layer, loss factors increased only by a factor of three to five. Next modal damping loss factors in 9 by 14 foot gypsum single and double walls were calculated from the experimentally determined quality factor for each modal resonance. Results showed that below 2500 Hz, modes in 1 by 2 foot gypsum panels had nearly the same damping loss factors as modes in a 9 by 14 foot gypsum wall of the same thickness; however, loss factors for the wall were an order of magnitude lower than those of the 1 by 2 foot panels at frequencies above 2500 Hz, the coincidence frequency for 5/8-inch thick gypsum plates. Thus it was inconclusive whether or not damping loss factors measured using small panels could be used to estimate the effect of a constrained damping layer on transmission loss through a 9 by 14 foot wall unless boundary conditions and modal frequencies were the same for each size.

  4. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (MCD) are consistent with the observed concentration of gypsum at dune crests. Density-driven differentiation in transport should not influence sediment fluxes of finer grains (<1 mm) as strongly on Earth, suggesting that the high ratio of fine gypsum grains to other minerals at WSNM is caused by a relatively

  5. Model study of initial adsorption of SO{sub 2} on calcite and dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaga-Starzec, Katarina; Panas, Itai; Lindqvist, Oliver

    2004-01-30

    The rate of calcareous stone degradation is to a significant extent controlled by their surface chemistry with SO{sub 2}. Initial surface sulphite is converted to a harmful gypsum upon, e.g. NO{sub 2} catalysed oxidation. However, it has been observed by scanning electron microscopy that the lateral distributions of gypsum crystals differ between calcitic and dolomitic marbles. The first-principles density functional theory is employed to understand the origin of these fundamentally different morphologies. Here, the stability differences of surface sulphite at calcite CaCO{sub 3} (s) and dolomite Ca{sub x}Mg{sub 1-x}CO{sub 3} (s) are determined. A qualitative difference in surface sulphite stability, favouring the former, is reported. This is taken to imply that calcitic micro-crystals embedded in a dolomitic matrix act as sinks in the surface sulphation process, controlled by SO{sub 2} diffusion. The subsequent formation of gypsum under such conditions will not require SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (aq) ion transport. This explains the homogeneous distribution of gypsum observed on the calcitic micro-crystals in dolomite. In contrast, sulphation on purely calcitic marbles never reaches such high SO{sub 2} coverage. Rather, upon oxidation, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (aq) transport to nucleation centres, such as grain boundaries, is required for the growth of gypsum crystals.

  6. Model study of initial adsorption of SO2 on calcite and dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaga-Starzec, Katarina; Panas, Itai; Lindqvist, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    The rate of calcareous stone degradation is to a significant extent controlled by their surface chemistry with SO 2 . Initial surface sulphite is converted to a harmful gypsum upon, e.g. NO 2 catalysed oxidation. However, it has been observed by scanning electron microscopy that the lateral distributions of gypsum crystals differ between calcitic and dolomitic marbles. The first-principles density functional theory is employed to understand the origin of these fundamentally different morphologies. Here, the stability differences of surface sulphite at calcite CaCO 3 (s) and dolomite Ca x Mg 1-x CO 3 (s) are determined. A qualitative difference in surface sulphite stability, favouring the former, is reported. This is taken to imply that calcitic micro-crystals embedded in a dolomitic matrix act as sinks in the surface sulphation process, controlled by SO 2 diffusion. The subsequent formation of gypsum under such conditions will not require SO 4 2- (aq) ion transport. This explains the homogeneous distribution of gypsum observed on the calcitic micro-crystals in dolomite. In contrast, sulphation on purely calcitic marbles never reaches such high SO 2 coverage. Rather, upon oxidation, SO 4 2- (aq) transport to nucleation centres, such as grain boundaries, is required for the growth of gypsum crystals

  7. Structure and mineralization of the Richton Dome Caprock Boring MRIG-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.L.

    1986-08-01

    Observations of the texture, fracture fabric, and vein mineralization in the caprock core from Boring MRIG-9 were used to provide data on the origin, deformation, and alteration of the caprock at Richton Salt Dome. The anhydrite portion of the caprock was formed by accumulation of anhydrite residuum from the salt stock. Lithification appears to have occurred through pressure solution, with the compression being applied by the rising salt stock. The origin of the limestone caprock is not yet understood. The fracturing at MRIG-9 is interpreted to have been caused by the upward arching movement of the underlying salt stock. Water entered the fractures, causing anhydrite to alter to gypsum along the fracture walls. The transformation to gypsum involved a volume increase, which in turn induced additional fracturing and allowed further penetration of water into the anhydrite. Three hydrochemical events are observed in the anhydrite rock. In order of occurrence, they are (1) formation of gypsum veins, (2) slight dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of small quantities of calcite and sulfur, and (3) dissolution of both gypsum and calcite from a small fraction of the veins. The effects of all three events are limited to the fractures that are interpreted to have formed in late Oligocene

  8. Assessment of contamination by percolation of septic tank effluent through natural and amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K C; Venkitachalam, T H

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash has been found to be a potential material for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, and may be useful in the treatment of septic tank effluent. Laboratory columns (30 cm) were used to determine the sorption capacity and hydraulic properties of lagoon fly ash, loamy sand, sand, and sand amended by lagoon fly ash (30 and 60%) and red mud gypsum (20%). The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was high in all column effluents (71-93%). Extent of nitrification was high in Spearwood sand, Merribrook loamy sand and 20% red mud gypsum amended Spearwood sand. However, actual removal of nitrogen (N) was high in columns containing lagoon fly ash. Unamended Spearwood sand possessed only minimal capacity for P sorption. Merribrook loamy sand and red mud gypsum amended sand affected complete P removal throughout the study period of 12 weeks. Significant P leakage occurred from lagoon fly ash amended sand columns following 6-10 weeks of operation. Neither lagoon fly ash nor red mud gypsum caused any studied heavy metal contamination including manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) of effluent. It can be concluded that Merribrook loamy sand is better natural soil than Spearwood sand as a filter medium. The addition of lagoon fly ash enhanced the removal of P in Spearwood sand but the efficiency was lower than with red mud gypsum amendment.

  9. Effect of inorganic amendments for in situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto-availability to wheat and rice under rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia-ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Naeem, Asif; Ali, Shafaqat; Sabir, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a widespread problem in crops grown on contaminated soils, and little information is available on the role of inorganic amendments in Cd immobilization, uptake, and tolerance in crops especially under filed conditions. The effect of three amendments, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum, and elemental sulfur (S), on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake in wheat and rice plants, under rotation, were investigated under field conditions receiving raw city effluent since >20 years and contaminated with Cd. Three levels of each treatment, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% by weight, were applied at the start of the experiment, and wheat was sown in the field. After wheat harvesting, rice was sown in the same field without application of amendments. Both crops were harvested at physiological maturity, and data regarding grain yield, straw biomass, Cd concentrations, and uptake in grain and straw, and bioavailable Cd in soil and soil pH were recorded. Both MAP and gypsum application increased grain yield and biomass of wheat and rice, while S application did not increase the yield of both crops. MAP and gypsum amendments decreased gain and straw Cd concentrations and uptake in both crops, while S application increased Cd concentrations in these parts which were correlated with soil bioavailable Cd. We conclude that MAP and gypsum amendments could be used to decrease Cd uptake by plants receiving raw city effluents, and gypsum might be a better amendment for in situ immobilization of Cd due to its low cost and frequent availability.

  10. Removal of Calcium from Scheelite Leaching Solution by Addition of CaSO4 Inoculating Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenting; Li, Yongli; Zeng, Dewen; Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the solubility behaviors of gypsum and anhydrite in the H2SO4-H3PO4-H2O system were investigated over the temperature range T = 30-80°C, and the results showed that the solubility of anhydrite was considerably lower than that of gypsum. On the basis of the differential solubilities of gypsum and anhydrite, a method was developed to remove calcium from the scheelite leaching solution by adding anhydrite as an inoculating crystal. The effects of the reaction time, concentration of the CaSO4 inoculating crystals, and temperature were investigated. With an addition of CaSO4 inoculating crystals at a concentration of 60 g/L, the Ca2+ concentration of the scheelite leaching solution decreased to a low level of approximately 0.76 g/L after 10 h at 70°C.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum alone is not effective to recover plants affected by root rot. The application of potassium phosphite, combined or not with dolomitic lime or gypsum enables the partial recovery ‘Hass’ avocado plants affected by the disease.

  12. High Strength Phosphogypsum and Its Use as a Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Wellington Massayuki; Rossetto, Hebert Luis; de Souza, Milton Ferreira; Máduar, Marcelo Francis; de Campos, Marcia Pires; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2008-08-01

    A new process (patent applied) that works equally well with both plaster of mineral gypsum and phosphogypsum for the preparation of gypsum components, UCOS, has been developed. The process consists of the following steps: humidification of plaster by fine water droplets, uni-axial compression, hydration reaction and drying. Strong hydrogen bonds develop among the crystals together with adhesion provided by confined water that accounts for nearly 70% of the adhesion forces. By reducing the plaster to water ratio to close the minimum necessary, new features are generated. An experimental house has been constructed, in which walls and ceilings have been built of gypsum and phosphogypsum. Since phosphogypsum potentially contain radioactive elements, the application of an activity concentration index to the phosphogypsum employed in the building was carried out.

  13. Evaluation of disposal methods for oxidized FGD sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of wet flue gas desulfurization - in response to the Clean Air Act of 1990 - will cause many power generators and state regulatory personnel to face important decisions on the disposal of large volumes of resultant solid waste. Even with the selection of forced oxidation technology, it is widely recognized that the vast majority of flue gas desulfurization by-products will be disposed. This paper analyzes the water quality issues associated with gypsum stacking, macroencapsulation of gypsum, and the stabilization/fixation of gypsum. Water quality issues include leachate quality, leachate generation, runoff management, and groundwater impact. The following analysis uses both field and literature data to measure the environmental impact of the three most discussed disposal options

  14. Selection strategy for the most Suitable CEC method for clay barrier characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is one of the most relevant properties of clay barriers. CEC results often are used for characterization of the clay host rock or for sensitive detection of degradation of the barrier material, e.g. bentonite buffer. Numerous methods exist for the determination of the CEC and exchangeable cations. However, a lot of methods suffer from systematic errors. These errors are caused by interactions (that differ from cation exchange) of the exchange solutions used with minerals in the barrier material: i) Dissolution of soluble minerals such as calcite, gypsum, or dolomite which causes inflated exchangeable calcium (magnesium) values. Other reactions of carbonates or gypsum not only affect exchangeable cations but also the CEC (index cation) values in a way that ii) witherite (barium carbonate) is formed and dissolved later (barium chloride method) which causes inflated CEC values or iii) rests of gypsum are present during reexchange with magnesium chloride (barium chloride method) which then leads to drastic CEC underestimation by formation of barium sulphate (here simultaneously barium ions are desorbed from exchange positions and sulphate enters the solution due to gypsum dissolution). When the ammonium acetate method is used for CEC determination of calcareous clays/bentonites another mechanism for a systematic CEC decrease occurs: iv) ammonium acetate is first used to saturate the clay components in a regular way (cation exchange), but during washing for removal of excess salt, ammonium is desorbed again from exchange positions by calcium which is liberated (dissolved) from remaining calcite of calcareous clays studied. Other errors may be v) the degradation of cationic complexes (silver thiourea, if pH > 8) or vi) substances which are added to adjust the pH of the exchange solutions such as triethanolamine in barium chloride exchange solution which may be protonated and adsorbed in

  15. Possibilities of using aluminate cements in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddo, Maria

    2018-03-01

    The article describes preferable ways of usage of alternative binders for high-rise construction based on aluminate cements. Possible areas of rational use of aluminate cements with the purpose of increasing the service life of materials and the adequacy of the durability of materials with the required durability of the building are analyzed. The results of the structure, shrinkage and physical and mechanical properties of concrete obtained from dry mixes on the base of aluminate cements for self-leveling floors are presented. To study the shrinkage mechanism of curing binders and to evaluate the role of evaporation of water in the development of shrinkage was undertaken experiment with simple unfilled systems: gypsum binder, portland cement and «corrosion resistant high alumina cement + gypsum». Principle possibility of binder with compensated shrinkage based on aluminate cement, gypsum and modern superplasticizers was defined, as well as cracking resistance and corrosion resistance provide durability of the composition.

  16. DIVERSITY OF THE TYPE 1 INTRON-ITS REGION OF THE 18S rRNA GENE IN PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS SPECIES FROM THE RED HILLS OF KANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Crupper, Scott S

    2016-09-01

    Gypsum caves found throughout the Red Hills of Kansas have the state's most diverse and largest population of cave-roosting bats. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which threatens all temperate bat species, has not been previously detected in the gypsum caves as this disease moves westward from the eastern United States. Cave soil was obtained from the gypsum caves, and using the polymerase chain reaction, a 624-nucleotide DNA fragment specific to the Type 1 intron-internal transcribed spacer region of the 18S rRNA gene from Pseudogymnoascus species was amplified. Subsequent cloning and DNA sequencing indicated P. destructans DNA was present, along with 26 uncharacterized Pseudogymnoascus DNA variants. However, no evidence of WNS was observed in bat populations residing in these caves.

  17. Hydrogeologie im Gipskarst als Basis geotechnischer Langzeitprognosen im Bergbau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke; Arminger, Viktoria; Riepler, Franz; Gschwandtner, Gunter; Galler, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The hydrogeology of the "Haselgebirge" is of great significance in the context of gypsum mining. Knowledge of water balance, recharge areas and mean residence times, as well as hydrochemistry is crucial to assessing the long term stability of mines. Aside from a karstified local aquifer, a regional flow system can also contribute appreciable proportions to the total discharge. Groundwater from the local flow system with low mineralization is subsaturated, thus holding a high potential for karstification. Water from the regional system infiltrates the mine in a status of saturation with regard to gypsum and anhydrite. Hence, these waters have only negligible influences on karstification. The presented example of a gypsum mine in Austria describes the quantitative proportions of local and regional flow which is in the range of 1:3. The results were verified by means of hydrochemical modeling.

  18. Source of sulphur in the Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). Tertiary nonmarine evaporite deposits as evidenced by sulphur isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, S.J.; Coleman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Ebro Basin is an intermontane basin, located in northern Spain, filled with Tertiary (largely Oligocene and Miocene) elastic and chemical deposits. Sulphur isotopes are utilized to determine the source of sulphur in the sulphate deposits (predominantly gypsum with accessory thenardite, mirabolite and epsomite). Data obtained from Tertiary gypsum rocks produce a range of delta 34 S values from +9.16% to + 14.02% with a mean of +13.61%. Data obtained from Triassic gypsum rocks (in source area) produce a range from +13.73% to +15.14%, with a mean of +14.66%. Values for Tertiary marine water range from +18% to +24%. These data indicate a nonmarine origin for sulpur within the Tertiary sulphate rocks. The contribution of Triassic sulphur to the groundwater system, plus varying degrees of dilution by isotopically lighter (atmospheric and sulphide) sulphur, best explains the isotopic ratios observed in the Tertiary Basin deposits. (Auth.)

  19. Optimisation of a wet FGD pilot plant using fine limestone and organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jan; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2001-01-01

    , but the residual limestone content in the gypsum increased to somewhere between 19 and 30 wt%, making this pH range unsuitable for use in a full-scale plant. The investigations have shown that both the addition of organic acids and the use of a limestone with a fine PSD can be used to optimise wet FGD plants. (C......The effects of adding an organic acid or using a limestone with a fine particle size distribution (PSD) have been examined in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant. Optimisation of the plant with respect to the degree of desulphurisation and the residual limestone content of the gypsum...... has been the aim of the work. In contrast to earlier investigations with organic acids, all essential process parameters (i.e. gas phase concentration profiles of SO(2), slurry pH profiles. and residual limestone in the gypsum) were considered. Slurry concentrations of adipic acid in the range of 0...

  20. Dimensional changes in plaster cast models due to the position of the impression tray during setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Grehs Porto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess whether the positioning of the impression tray could cause distortion to plaster casts during gypsum setting time.Materials and Methods: Fifteen pairs of master models were cast with alginate impression material and immediately filled with gypsum. Impressions were allowed to set with the tray in the noninverted position (Group A or in the inverted position (Group B. The plaster models were digitized using a laser scanner (3Shape R-700, 3Shape A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark. Measurements of tooth size and distance were obtained using O3d software (Widialabs, Brazil measurement tools. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and linear regression with 5% significance.Results and Conclusion: Most of the measurements from both groups were similar, except forthe lower intermolar distance. It was not possible to corroborate the presence of distortions due to the position of the impression tray during gypsum setting time.

  1. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  2. Origin of increased sulfate in groundwater at the ETF disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.

    1997-09-01

    Treated effluent being discharged to the vadose zone from the C-018H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Hanford Site has infiltrated vertically to the unconfined aquifer, as indicated by increasing tritium activity levels in the groundwater. Well 699-48-77A, in particular, exhibits increased levels of tritium and also sulfate in the groundwater. The origin of increased sulfate levels in the groundwater is attributed to the dissolution of gypsum as the effluent flows through the vadose zone. This is supported by the observation that sulfate was found to be present in soils collected from the vadose zone at an average value of about 10.6 ppm. The maximum observed sulfate concentration of 190 mg/L from well 699-48-77A was observed on August 6, 1996, and is less than the maximum value of 879 mg/L that potentially could be achieved if water in the vadose zone was to attain saturation with respect to gypsum and calcite. It is suggested that infiltration rates were high enough that the effluent did not completely equilibrate with gypsum in the vadose zone, and thus, sulfate levels remained below gypsum saturation levels. Sulfate levels appear to be dropping, which may be attributed to the completion of the dissolution of the bulk of gypsum present along the vadose zone flow path traversed by the effluent. Geochemical modeling was undertaken to evaluate the influence of effluent chemistry on sulfate concentration levels in the presence of excess calcite and gypsum. In general, the effect is fairly minor for dilute solutions, but becomes more significant for concentrated solutions

  3. Optimization of joint recycling process of drilling sludge and phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Ablieieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint recycling of drilling sludge and phosphogypsum with obtaining a building material is environmentally appropriate and cost-effective, as it helps not only to prevent environmental pollution, but also to solve the problem of rational nature management. Drilling sludge is a waste formed during drilling oil wells, and phosphogypsum is a waste of the chemical industry, formed as a result of the production of concentrational phosphoric acid. However, technogenic raw materials contain heavy metals that can be transformed into a finished product and leached out of it. The problem of minimizing the negative impact of pollutants is very important to reduce the risk to human health. The author's idea is to optimize ecological characteristics of drilling waste and phosphogypsum recycling process. The concentration of heavy metals in the extract of gypsum concrete was determined as the function of the target which depends primarily on structural and technological parameters. The purpose of the article is solution to mathematical programming task, i.e., finding optimal solutions for the factors values of drilling sludge and phosphogypsum recycling process. Mathematical programming solution to optimization problem of the gypsum concrete environmental characteristics (to minimize concentration of heavy metals in the extract was performed by the method of simple random search in the Borland C ++ programming environment using C programming language. It is necessary to observe the values of such factors to minimize concentration of heavy metals in the extract of gypsum concrete. The mass ratio of gypsum binder and drilling sludge is 2.93 units, the mass ratio of quick lime and gypsum binder is 0.09 units, the age of gypsum concrete is above 19 days, exposure time is 28 days.

  4. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloppmann, W.; Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M.; Verges-Belmin, V.; Rolland, O.; Guerrot, C.; Gosselin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the δ 34 S and δ 18 O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in 34 S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: → Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). → Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation. → Origin of building materials

  5. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, W., E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M. [CICRP, 21, rue Guibal, F-13003 Marseille (France); Verges-Belmin, V. [LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France); Rolland, O. [Independent restorer, 3, rue du Gue, 37270 Montlouis s/Loire (France); Guerrot, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Gosselin, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in {sup 34}S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: {yields} Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). {yields} Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation

  6. The British flue gas desulphurisation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.

    1989-09-01

    Retrofitting UK power plants with flue gas desulfurization equipment should reduce SO{sub 2} emission by around 15%. Three systems appear suitable for UK installations: limestone/gypsum, regenerative Wellman Lord, and spray dry. The CEGB has used limestone/gypsum at Drax A B, West Burton, Fawley and Kingsnorth, and Wellman Lord at Fiddlers Ferry. Despite the environmental benefits, however, there is concern that the negative aspects of the programme (choice of technology, waste disposal, by-product disposal) may delay implementation and thus threaten Britain's aim of 30% reduction by 1999. 3 tabs.

  7. Application areas of phosphogypsum in production of mineral binders and composites based on them: a review of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvorkin Leonid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the consumption of gypsum products in construction industry with a limited amount of natural gypsum deposits requires alternative sources of gypsum-containing raw materials. In some countries which have fertilizers industry plants, the problem can be solved using industrial wastes, e.g. phosphorgypsum – a byproduct of fertilizers’ production. Kept in dumps over decades, phosphorgypsum is subjected to the chemical changes due to washing out impurities with rain and other natural factors. However, there are observed deviations of harmful impurities in dumped PG depending on its age., Phosphorgypsum of any age requires chemical treatment to neutralize remains of phosphorus and sulfuric acids, fluorine compounds. According to our researches one of the most simple and effective method of neutralization the impurities is using lime-containing admixtures. The paper presents results of laboratory tests of phosphorgypsum as a component of clinker and non-clinker binders. There were investigated the impact of phosphorgypsum as admixture for clinker binders to substitute natural gypsum. Neutralized phosphorgypsum can be applied as mineralizing admixture in calcination of Portland cement clinker. Adding 2 to 2.5% of phosphorgypsum as setting time regulator resulted in a similar physical and mechanical properties compared to mix made with natural gypsum. Another important area of phosphorgypsum application is sulphate activatoion of low-clinker blast-furnace slag cement (clinker content is less than 19%. According to results, the incorporation of phosphorgypsum as sulphate activator in cement has the better effect as natural gypsum. Other development has been carried out to modify the phosphorgypsum binder properties. Complex additive consisted of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer and slaked lime permitted an increase mechanical properties of hardened phosphorgypsum binder due to significant a reduction of water consumption. Such

  8. Advantages of using microbial technology over traditional chemical technology in removal of black crusts from stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Toniolo, Lucia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Gulotta, Davide; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    This study compares two cleaning methods, one involving an ammonium carbonate-EDTA mixture and the other involving the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, for the removal of black crust (containing gypsum) on marble of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). In contrast to the chemical cleaning method, the biological procedure resulted in more homogeneous removal of the surface deposits and preserved the patina noble under the black crust. Whereas both of the treatments converted gypsum to calcite, allowing consolidation, the chemical treatment also formed undesirable sodium sulfate.

  9. Advantages of Using Microbial Technology over Traditional Chemical Technology in Removal of Black Crusts from Stone Surfaces of Historical Monuments▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Toniolo, Lucia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Gulotta, Davide; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Sorlini, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This study compares two cleaning methods, one involving an ammonium carbonate-EDTA mixture and the other involving the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, for the removal of black crust (containing gypsum) on marble of the Milan Cathedral (Italy). In contrast to the chemical cleaning method, the biological procedure resulted in more homogeneous removal of the surface deposits and preserved the patina noble under the black crust. Whereas both of the treatments converted gypsum to calcite, allowing consolidation, the chemical treatment also formed undesirable sodium sulfate. PMID:17601804

  10. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...... of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. The fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (RH) of approximately 97%. A specially designed small chamber (P-FLEC) was placed on the gypsum board. The release...

  11. Recovery of drinking water and by-products from gold mine effluents via alkali-bariumcalcium processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilsenach, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , after which the produced sludge was removed, and a fresh batch of BaCO3 dosed. Sludges (metal hydroxides, gypsum/Mg(OH)2 and BaSO4/CaCO3) were collected and treated in batch operation for dewatering, drying and reduction in a kiln..., potassium and chloride can be treated via conventional reverse osmosis following the chemical desalination as pretreatment to remove all scale forming substances, such as metals, calcium and sulphate. Sulphate removal as gypsum Sulphate...

  12. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage and evaporated minerals in the Sangdong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheon-Young; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Choi, Nag-Choul; Kang, Ji-Sung; Park, Shin-Sook; Kim, Seoung-Ku [Chosun University, Kwangju(Korea)

    2000-08-31

    This study investigated geochemical characteristics of acid mine drainage(AMD) discharged from the abandoned coal mine at the Sangdong area. Surface stream water samples were collected from 13 locations along Okdong creek. The yellowish and brown color of evaporated mineral was prepared by air dry for SJ-13 acid water sample during 121 days in the laboratory. As the SJ-13 acid water sample becomes fully drying, the concentration of this water become progressively more concentrated and its may be eventually reached saturation with respect to either gypsum or copiapite. At the upstream site, the Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Se, Th, U, Fe and SO{sub 4} ion contents were relatively high but those contents decreased significantly with the distance from the coal mine. On the contrary, the Na, K and Cl ion contents were low in the upstream site, but those contents increased to the downstream. The value of saturation index for gypsum increase with increasing ion strength, TDS and TDI in this surface stream water. The x-ray powder diffraction studies identified that the evaporated minerals were well crystallized gypsum and copiapite. Diagnostic peaks used for identification of gypsum were the 7.62, 4.28 and 3.06 A.U. peaks. Diffraction peaks at 18.78, 9.30, 6.18, 4.51 and 3.58 A.U. may indicate copiapite. The IR absorption bands of evaporated mineral which indicated gypsum and copiapite were found from OH stretching, deformation of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} stretching vibration, respectively. In the SEM and EDS analysis, the crystals of acicular and columnar in the evaporated mineral probably shown the gypsum. The efflorescenting growth of thin tabular crystals and radiating clusters of fibrous crystals in the evaporated mineral may be identified as the copiapite. The fine-grained alabaster of crystals with large platy cleavable radiating of gypsum crystals were shown in EPMA. According to the EPMA analysis for gypsum, the atomic % ratios of Ca to S

  13. Transport-Induced Spatial Patterns of Sulfur Isotopes (δ34S) as Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Muammar; Harouaka, Khadouja; Gonzales, Matthew S.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Cave minerals deposited in the presence of microbes may host geochemical biosignatures that can be utilized to detect subsurface life on Earth, Mars, or other habitable worlds. The sulfur isotopic composition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) formed in the presence of sulfur-oxidizing microbes in the Frasassi cave system, Italy, was evaluated as a biosignature. Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) of gypsum sampled from cave rooms with sulfidic air varied from -11 to -24‰, with minor deposits of elemental sulfur having δ34S values between -17 and -19‰. Over centimeter-length scales, the δ34S values of gypsum varied by up to 8.5‰. Complementary laboratory experiments showed negligible fractionation during the oxidation of elemental sulfur to sulfate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans isolated from the caves. Additionally, gypsum precipitated in the presence and absence of microbes at acidic pH characteristic of the sulfidic cave walls has δ34S values that are on average 1‰ higher than sulfate. We therefore interpret the 8.5‰ variation in cave gypsum δ34S (toward more negative values) to reflect the isotopic effect of microbial sulfide oxidation directly to sulfate or via elemental sulfur intermediate. This range is similar to that expected by abiotic sulfide oxidation with oxygen, thus complicating the use of sulfur isotopes as a biosignature at centimeter-length scales. However, at the cave room (meter-length) scale, reactive transport modeling suggests that the overall ˜13‰ variability in gypsum δ34S reflects isotopic distillation of circulating H2S gas due to microbial sulfide oxidation occurring along the cave wall-atmosphere interface. Systematic variations of gypsum δ34S along gas flow paths can thus be interpreted as biogenic given that slow, abiotic oxidation cannot produce the same spatial patterns over similar length scales. The expression and preservation potential of this biosignature is dependent on gas flow parameters and diagenetic

  14. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1984-03-01

    About 120 samples of natural and manufactured building materials have been analyzed by gamma-spectrometry for their Thorium 232-, Radium 226- and Potassium 40 - content. Granites showed generally the greatest amounts of the above mentioned radionuclides, whereas other natural products like sand, gravels, marbles and gypsum contained only traces of radionuclides. As regards the manufactured building materials only some types of bricks and chemical gypsum showed relatively high concentrations of radionuclides, while the rest of the bricks, tiles, plaster and accessory materials fulfilled the criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (Author)

  15. Origin of the brines near WIPP from the drill holes ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 based on stable isotope concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.; Updegraff, D.

    1983-03-01

    Pathways which might alter the isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 meteoric water, seawaters, and in hydration waters in gypsum to the isotopic compositions of brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are discussed. Present geologic conditions do not favor the alteration of the isotopic compositions of waters that exist near the WIPP site to those of the brines by these pathways. It is concluded that the brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are probably derived from ancient ocean waters that have been isotopically enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange interaction with rock. The dehydration of gypsum as a process of origin of these brines cannot be ruled out

  16. Housing: plastered versus un-plastered brooder walls in poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to study the health impact of inadequate brooder house with poor make-up on chicks. Two brooder houses were constructed with a mixture of sand and cementitious materials consisting of lime and/or gypsum to form concrete blocks. Brooder 1 was plastered with cement (cemented) and ...

  17. Engineering-geological properties of carbonates and shale: their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    rock mass shear strength parameters (C, ϕ), the Lst, MLst, and gypsum have a ..... dominated layer is witnessed by the dry bore hole (>300m depth) drilled at the .... Total RMR=R1+R2…+R6. 52. Class Description. III/F. (Note: III/F = Fair Rock ...

  18. Bearing capacity check of aluminum profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Grigoraşenco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of suspended ceiling options to be customizable they are the choice for implementation in spaces like offices buildings, schools, hospitals and commercial premises. Recent problems with suspended gypsum ceilings falling in some commercial premises led to verification by tensile test and flexural bearing capacity of 5 types of aluminum elements used to suspend the ceilings.

  19. genetic diversity of microsatellit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    微软用户

    with inhabit inland dry gypsum soils, coastal cliffs and salt marshes (Palacios .... Twenty microsatellite loci generated a total of 117 alleles in the 102 samples of 6 .... self-incompatibility is thought to take important part in the maintenance of the ...

  20. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.; Ben Boubaker, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Elfil, Hamza

    2013-01-01

    of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic

  1. Fungi and mites on humid indoor walls : a laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Siebers, Rob; Cunningham, M.; Fitzharris, P.

    2000-01-01

    The potential allergen source formed by mites and fungi developing on walls has been studied in a semi-natural model. Gypsum and wooden pieces, representing indoor walls, were artificially soiled with one of two different organic compounds, a yeast/vegetable mixture (Mannite) or a red currant juice

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perlite and pumice, road metal and building stones. - g. Quaternary sediments and sedimentary rocks. Principal mineral and industrial rock occurrences are potash, sulphur, lignite, limestone, gypsum, diatomite, salt and clay. Figs 2 and 3 show the distribution of the main deposits of the principal minerals and industrial.

  3. 78 FR 49149 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Sphaeralcea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... collected to reestablish pre-mining population numbers in reclaimed areas. Furthermore, preliminary data... educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E..., modification, and degradation resulting from gypsum mining operations; livestock grazing; the spread of...

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum, calcite and lime were associated with both rock phosphates indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in water, probably because it ... fertilizers and direct application in crop production. Keywords: Phosphorus, apatite, crop production, fertilizer, Ogun rock phosphate, Sokoto rock phosphate ...

  5. Recovery of drinking water and valuable minerals from acid mine drainage using an integration of magnesite, lime, soda ash, CO(sub)2 and reverse osmosis treatment processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available that drinking water, metals, gypsum, hydrated lime/limestone were recovered from the treatment process as valuable resources. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Morphological properties of initial and recovered minerals...

  6. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  7. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  8. effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    largely the micritic limestone and some extent the crystalline limestone. But in the shale the dominant components are silica and iron which are less soluble in groundwater. The sulphate in the groundwater is limited, because of the limited amount of gypsum and its less solubility. Recommendation. The causes for the quality ...

  9. Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rentzia, A

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial efficacy and effect of 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA(®)) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of gypsum casts retrieved from an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

  10. levels of some physiochemical parameters in leachates from open

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based building materials and gypsum based materials changing the ... dumpsite leachates may be characterized as a water- ... The physical appearance of leachates from a typical ... “placing” waste in line pit or a mound with ... the quality of the urban environment. ... rinsed with distilled water before drying in the oven.

  11. The influence of surface and incorporated lime and gypsiferous by-products on surface and subsurface soil acidity. II. Root growth and agronomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Hedley, M.J.; Bolan, N.S.; Horne, D.J. [New Zealand Forest Research Institute, Rotorua (New Zealand)

    1999-04-01

    Lucerne (Medicago sativa. L) root elongation in acid soils amended by gypsiferous coal combustion by-products was investigated in a glasshouse study. Lime, fluidised bed boiler ash (FBA), and flue gas desulfurisation gypsum (FGDG) were mixed into the surface 50 mm of either an Allophanic (the Patua sand loam) or an Ultic (the Kaawa clay loam) soil column, at rates containing calcium equivalent to 5000 kg/ha of CaCO{sub 3}. Lucerne was grown on each column after it was leached with 400 mm of water. Whereas the lime treatment had no effect on root elongation in the acidic subsurface of the Patua soil, the FBA and FGDG treatments significantly improved lucerne root penetration into the subsurface soil. This was due to the `self liming effect` induced by sulfate adsorption. In contrast, topsoil incorporated amendments did not influence root penetration into the acidic subsurface of the Kaawa soil, which is dominated by permanently charged clay minerals. The `self-liming erect` caused by gypsum application is not a sustainable practice. Lime should be applied to neutralise the topsoil acidity, when gypsum is used as subsurface soil acidity ameliorant. FBA, which contains both lime and gypsum, can meet these requirements.

  12. Genesis of some tertiary Indian coals from the chemical composition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baruah. 2008) that in northeast Indian coals, the major minerals (wt% >5) identified in the crystalline matter of coal are quartz, kaolin, illite, feldspar, calcite, pyrite, and gypsum. Vassilev et al. (2010a, b) reported that the rank of the coal increases with.

  13. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Methods. Two pits (W9 & W10) at Bap-Malar (figure 2), to a depth of about 4m, were excavated .... contain gypsum as a principal evaporate mineral, ... have yielded a good number of pollen represented ..... 4. Hill slopes. Not prominent. Prominent. 5. Topography. Gentle. Steep .... ery of Kot Diji pottery on these dunes opens.

  14. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wierzchos, J.; DiRuggiero, J.; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, O.; Souza-Egipsy, V.; Škaloud, P.; Tisza, M.; Davilla, A. F.; Vilchez, C.; Garbayo, I.; Ascaso, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 934 (2015), s. 1-17 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Atacama Desert * carotenoids * endolithic chlorophototrophs * extreme environment * gypsum * scytonemin Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  15. Marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained using different digital scanning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Oliveira PEDROCHE

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained with different digital scanning methods. A human mandibular first molar was set in a typodont with its adjacent and antagonist teeth and prepared for an all-ceramic crown. Digital impressions were made using an intraoral scanner (3Shape. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions and Type IV gypsum models were also obtained and scanned with a benchtop laboratory scanner (3Shape D700. Ten zirconia copings were fabricated for each group using CAD-CAM technology. The marginal and internal fit of the zirconia copings was assessed by the silicone replica technique. Four sections of each replica were obtained, and each section was evaluated at four points: marginal gap (MG, axial wall (AW, axio-occlusal edge (AO and centro-occlusal wall (CO, using an image analyzing software. The data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. They showed statistically significant differences for MG, AO and CO. Regarding MG, intraoral scanning showed lower gap values, whereas gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values. Regarding AO and CO, intraoral digital scanning showed lower gap values. Polyvinyl siloxane impression scanning and gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values and were statistically similar. It can be concluded that intraoral digital scanning provided a lower mean gap value, in comparison with conventional impressions and gypsum casts scanned with a standard benchtop laboratory scanner.

  16. the use of multivariat statistical methode to study the aquifer system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bettahar

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... -2. ) that gathers the drillings. (MPII4, MPII19, MPI8, MPI4) and the drilling of the third layer Eocene (OE1) characterized by high salinity (EC varies between 5500 and 6000μs / cm), the sodium chloride facies, or sulfated sodium caused by the dissolution of evaporate rocks and gypsum that characterizes.

  17. 78 FR 18943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Designation of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... within States that fall within the jurisdiction of the Tenth Circuit (as this designation does) should... conservation efforts associated with the following categories of activity: (1) Gypsum mining; (2) livestock... small entities (i.e., small businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions...

  18. Influence of delayed pouring on irreversible hydrocolloid properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Becker Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of irreversible hydrocolloid materials poured immediately and after different storage periods. Four alginates were tested: Color Change (Cavex; Hydrogum (Zhermack; Hydrogum 5 (Zhermack; and Hydro Print Premium (Coltene. Their physical properties, including the recovery from deformation (n = 3, compressive strength (n = 3, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility (n = 3, were analyzed according to ANSI/ADA specification no. 18. Specimens were stored at 23ºC and humidity and were then poured with gypsum immediately and after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test at p < 0.05. All of the alginate impression materials tested exhibited detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility at all times. Hydro Print Premium and Hydrogum 5 showed recovery from deformation, as established by ANSI/ADA specification no. 18, after 5 days of storage. As the storage time increased, the compressive strength values also increased. Considering the properties of compounds' recovery from deformation, compressive strength, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility, irreversible hydrocolloids should be poured immediately.

  19. Experimental study on the foundation of soft soil solidification formula based on the Design - Expert software search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaojun; Li, Dahua; Zhang, xian; Zhou, Dongqing; Zhang, Baoliang

    2017-08-01

    Xuan city + 1100 kv search for converter station in Anhui province, in the process of foundation treatment, there is a cloth with a large number of lacustrine soft soil can not reach the need of engineering construction, so we want to cure the soft soil. By combining ratio of blast furnace slag (GGBS), gypsum, exciting agent CaO as a main curing agent for combination of reinforcing soft soil, the indoor unconfined compressive strength test, the influence factors on blast furnace slag, exciting agent and dosage of gypsum as impact factors, response value is 7 d and 28 d unconfined compressive strength of solidified soil, the experimental method is the Box - Behnken. The results show that the 7 d gypsum and the interaction of the blast furnace slag is obvious; 28 d exciting agent and gypsum interaction is obvious. By the analysis plaster, CaO, GGBSIn 7 d optimal proportion is 3.71%, 3.62%, 12.18%, the actual strength of the solidified soil age 1479.33 kPa; 28 d optimal proportion was 4.08%, 4.50%, 11.6%, the actual strength of the solidified soil age 2936.78 kPa. In the soil and the water curing effect of GGBS solidified soil, thereby GGBS this is a kind of new solidification material that can be used as the engineering foundation treatment of soft soil stabilizer has a certain value.

  20. Oskarssonite, AlF3, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Heimaey, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Morten Jølnæs; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Mitolo, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    with anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum, jarosite, anatase, hematite, opal, ralstonite, jakobssonite and meniaylovite. Chemical analyses by energy-dispersive spectrometry with a scanning electronmicroscope produced the following mean elemental composition: Al, 31.70; F, 58.41; O, 9.22; total 99.33 wt.%. The empirical...

  1. Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for sustainable sugarcane production in Kesem Allaideghe plains irrigation project area, Eastern Ethiopia. ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues and organic matter are recommended. Keywords: Soil survey ...

  2. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  3. New developments with respect to concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, H.; Mustapha, K.N.; Nuruddin, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete based on the binders cement, quicklime and/or gypsum. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarized. Then the major constituent, from an environmental

  4. Využití energosádrovce jako suroviny pro výrobu důlně-stavebních hmot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slivka, V.; Vavro, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2002), s. 10-12 ISSN 1210-7697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/01/0304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : waste * gypsum * construction material Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  5. Improved leaching test methods for environmental assessment of coal ash and recycled materials used on construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants will result in lower emissions of mercury and other pollutants. Fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, and other air pollution control residues are used in agricultural, commercial, and engineering applications. Resea...

  6. Application of PCM energy storage in combination with night ventilation for space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Reza; Chen, John J.J.; Young, Brent R.; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Night ventilation were tested in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards. • The Price-based method were experimentally used to perform peak load shifting. • Importance of the application of a smart control were experimentally investigated. • A cost and energy saving up to 93% and 92% per day respectively were achieved. - Abstract: In recent years, as a result of the continuous increase in energy demand, the use of energy storage has become increasingly important. To address this problem, the application of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings has received attention because of their high energy storage density and their ease of incorporation in building envelopes. Despite large experimental works conducted on the application phase change materials in buildings, there is very little work done on this application in combination with night ventilation. In this study, the application of night ventilation in combination with PCM-impregnated gypsum boards for cooling purposes was experimentally investigated. Two identical test huts equipped with “smart” control systems were used for testing the concept. One hut was constructed using impregnated gypsum boards, while the other hut was finished with ordinary gypsum board. Initially an air conditioning (AC) unit, without night ventilation, was used in both huts to charge the PCM during low peak period, showing very little savings in electricity. However, when night ventilation was used to charge the PCM instead, a weekly electricity saving of 73% was achieved.

  7. Nonlinear effects at volume charge polarization and calculation of the structure radiation changes in the crystals with hydrogen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkonogov, M.P.; Medvedev, V.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    The formulas for volume charge distribution, complex permittivity, static dielectric constant for the crystals with hydrogen bonds are proposed. With help of the formulas the structure defect concentration, relaxation energy of relaxators were calculated for important electronic and optoelectronic materials as mica, KDP and DKDP crystals, gypsum, talk

  8. EJST V9N2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Natural Resources Management, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar. University ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues ... achieving food self sufficiency is currently the most .... three quantities as cumulative intake (cm), average.

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gypsum, anhydrite, mirabilite and thenardite have been examined as potential sources of sulphate dissolved in groundwater. Since Jeffara groundwater is recharged by the Continental Intercalaire (CI) geothermal water, water temperature decreases from the CI to the Jeffara aquifer. Solubility of the majority of minerals is ...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by complete dehydration of gypsum, below 300 °C, in an electric oven. (b) The ingredient meets the... in § 170.3(n)(23) of this chapter, 0.35 percent for processed vegetables as defined in § 170.3(n)(36...

  11. Application of ICP-MS to a trace elements mass balance study in a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettinelli, M.; Spezia, S.; Fiore, A.; Pastorelli, N.; Terni, C.; Holland, G.; Tanner, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    The distributions of seven trace elements in a power plant are detd. in 3 fuels (Orimulsion, coal, and fuel oil) and output flows, i.e., ash, wastewater, gypsum, and emulsions by using ICP-MS. The power plant is equipped with sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide removal facilities. [on SciFinder (R)

  12. Feasibility of surface sampling in automated inspection of concrete aggregates during bulk transport on a conveyor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Automated optic inspection of concrete aggregates for pollutants (e.g. wood, plastics, gypsum and brick) is required to establish the suitability for reuse in new concrete products. Inspection is more efficient when directly sampling the materials on the conveyor belt instead of feeding them in a

  13. Thermal preparation effects on the x-ray diffractograms of compounds produced during flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, D.L.; Burns, K.H.; Keeton, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The diffractograms of syn-gypsum and of flue gas desulfurization products indicate that CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O is converted to other phase(s) when heated to 100 degrees C. Syn-hannebachite CaSO 3 ·0.5H 2 O is unaffected by similar thermal treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  14. Effect of various parameters on the efficiency of zinc phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... insoluble organic phosphate by organic acid production has been the ..... solubilization as oxalic acid and other acid production was stimulated by ... gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and the formation of calcium oxalate by. Aspergillus ...

  15. Petrography and mineralgy of gachsaran formation in west of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gachsaran Formation is the most important cap rock of hydrocarbon reservoir in Iran and has important deposits of salt, sulfur and gypsum. A section of Gachsaran formation (Early to Middle Miocene) in south- east of zagros area, west of Bandar- e- Abbas province, was studied from sedimentary geology view. Gachsaran ...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... formation, a body of limestone, anhydride, and/or gypsum, overlying a salt dome. Sulphur deposit means a... injection of mine water. Brine means the water containing dissolved salt obtained from a brine well by circulating water into and out of a cavity in the salt core of a salt dome. Brine well means a well drilled...

  17. Palygorskite from cave sediments: case study from Wadi Haqil, United Arab Emirates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Skála, Roman; Al-Farraj, A.; Šťastný, Martin; Bosák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 17 (2016), č. článku 689. ISSN 1866-7511 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : palygorskite * gypsum * cave sediments * X-ray powder diffraction * scanning electron microscopy * Ras Al-Khaimah Emirate Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.955, year: 2016

  18. Age refinement of the Messinian salinity crisis onset in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzi, V.; Gennari, R.; Hilgen, F.; Krijgsman, W.; Lugli, S.; Roveri, M.; Sierro, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a revised age calibration of the Messinian salinity crisis onset in the Mediterranean at 5.971 Ma based on the recognition of an extra gypsum cycle in the transitional interval of the Perales section (Sorbas basin, Spain) and the revision of the magnetostratigraphy of the Monticino

  19. Precessional control of Sr ratios in marginal basins during the Messinian Salinity Crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topper, R.P.M.; Lugli, S.; Manzi, V.; Roveri, M.; Meijer, P.Th.

    Based on 87Sr/86Sr data of the Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) deposits in the Vena del Gesso basin—a marginal basin of the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis—a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr values and precessional forcing has recently been proposed but not yet confirmed. In this study, a

  20. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...