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Sample records for gut reaction researchers

  1. Chemical reaction vector embeddings: towards predicting drug metabolism in the human gut microbiome.

    Mallory, Emily K; Acharya, Ambika; Rensi, Stefano E; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Bright, Roselie A; Altman, Russ B

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria in the human gut have the ability to activate, inactivate, and reactivate drugs with both intended and unintended effects. For example, the drug digoxin is reduced to the inactive metabolite dihydrodigoxin by the gut Actinobacterium E. lenta, and patients colonized with high levels of drug metabolizing strains may have limited response to the drug. Understanding the complete space of drugs that are metabolized by the human gut microbiome is critical for predicting bacteria-drug relationships and their effects on individual patient response. Discovery and validation of drug metabolism via bacterial enzymes has yielded >50 drugs after nearly a century of experimental research. However, there are limited computational tools for screening drugs for potential metabolism by the gut microbiome. We developed a pipeline for comparing and characterizing chemical transformations using continuous vector representations of molecular structure learned using unsupervised representation learning. We applied this pipeline to chemical reaction data from MetaCyc to characterize the utility of vector representations for chemical reaction transformations. After clustering molecular and reaction vectors, we performed enrichment analyses and queries to characterize the space. We detected enriched enzyme names, Gene Ontology terms, and Enzyme Consortium (EC) classes within reaction clusters. In addition, we queried reactions against drug-metabolite transformations known to be metabolized by the human gut microbiome. The top results for these known drug transformations contained similar substructure modifications to the original drug pair. This work enables high throughput screening of drugs and their resulting metabolites against chemical reactions common to gut bacteria.

  2. Emerging Technologies for Gut Microbiome Research

    Arnold, Jason W.; Roach, Jeffrey; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the importance of the gut microbiome on modulation of host health has become a subject of great interest for researchers across disciplines. As an intrinsically multidisciplinary field, microbiome research has been able to reap the benefits of technological advancements in systems and synthetic biology, biomaterials engineering, and traditional microbiology. Gut microbiome research has been revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing technology, permitting compositional and functional analyses that were previously an unrealistic undertaking. Emerging technologies including engineered organoids derived from human stem cells, high-throughput culturing, and microfluidics assays allowing for the introduction of novel approaches will improve the efficiency and quality of microbiome research. Here, we will discuss emerging technologies and their potential impact on gut microbiome studies. PMID:27426971

  3. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  4. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  5. Challenges of metabolomics in human gut microbiota research.

    Smirnov, Kirill S; Maier, Tanja V; Walker, Alesia; Heinzmann, Silke S; Forcisi, Sara; Martinez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The review highlights the role of metabolomics in studying human gut microbial metabolism. Microbial communities in our gut exert a multitude of functions with huge impact on human health and disease. Within the meta-omics discipline, gut microbiome is studied by (meta)genomics, (meta)transcriptomics, (meta)proteomics and metabolomics. The goal of metabolomics research applied to fecal samples is to perform their metabolic profiling, to quantify compounds and classes of interest, to characterize small molecules produced by gut microbes. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are main technologies that are applied in fecal metabolomics. Metabolomics studies have been increasingly used in gut microbiota related research regarding health and disease with main focus on understanding inflammatory bowel diseases. The elucidated metabolites in this field are summarized in this review. We also addressed the main challenges of metabolomics in current and future gut microbiota research. The first challenge reflects the need of adequate analytical tools and pipelines, including sample handling, selection of appropriate equipment, and statistical evaluation to enable meaningful biological interpretation. The second challenge is related to the choice of the right animal model for studies on gut microbiota. We exemplified this using NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of cross-species comparison of fecal metabolite profiles. Finally, we present the problem of variability of human gut microbiota and metabolome that has important consequences on the concepts of personalized nutrition and medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Gut

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Balercia, Giancarlo; Barrea, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...... which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes. The intestinal microbiota may be responsible...... metabolism. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to review the current evidence on the role of the gut in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, taking into account both hormonal and microbiological aspects....

  8. Gut Microbiota and Host Reaction in Liver Diseases

    Hiroshi Fukui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol feeding produces evident intestinal microbial changes in animals, only some alcoholics show evident intestinal dysbiosis, a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria. Gut dysbiosis is related to intestinal hyperpermeability and endotoxemia in alcoholic patients. Alcoholics further exhibit reduced numbers of the beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Large amounts of endotoxins translocated from the gut strongly activate Toll-like receptor 4 in the liver and play an important role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD, especially in severe alcoholic liver injury. Gut microbiota and bacterial endotoxins are further involved in some of the mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. There is experimental evidence that a high-fat diet causes characteristic dysbiosis of NAFLD, with a decrease in Bacteroidetes and increases in Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and gut dysbiosis itself can induce hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Clinical data support the above dysbiosis, but the details are variable. Intestinal dysbiosis and endotoxemia greatly affect the cirrhotics in relation to major complications and prognosis. Metagenomic approaches to dysbiosis may be promising for the analysis of deranged host metabolism in NASH and cirrhosis. Management of dysbiosis may become a cornerstone for the future treatment of liver diseases.

  9. Gut Microbiota: From Fundamental Research to Translational Medicine

    Yujing Bi

    2015-12-01

    aroused strong interest in recent years, is reported to be a highly successful therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. These studies support novel research ideas that are no longer focused solely on the host, but rather on the intimacy of the host-microbiota relationship. Considering the relative ease of regulating the gut microbiota[1], targeting these organisms through diet, prebiotics, probiotics, or other methods may become a useful strategy for curing diseases. To date, a large number of studies have been devoted to uncovering the relationship between microbial metabolites and human diseases, and it is highly likely that more bacterial or related pathways involved in human disease will be identified. In the future, targeting the microbiome may represent an effective and complementary strategy to current approaches for preventing and treating diseases.

  10. [Research advances in the relationship between childhood malnutrition and gut microbiota].

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Wen, Fei-Qiu; Wei, Ju-Rong

    2016-11-01

    Childhood malnutrition is an important disease threatening healthy growth of children worldwide. Gut microbiota has close links to food digestion, absorption and intestinal function. Current research considers that alterations in gut microbiota have been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. This review article addresses the latest understanding and evidence of interrelationship between gut microbiota and individual nutrition status, the changes of gut microbiota in different types of malnutrition, and the attribution of gut microbiota in the treatment and prognosis of malnutrition. It provides in depth understanding of childhood malnutrition from the perspective of microbiome.

  11. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  12. Recent researches on prebiotics for gut health in Thailand

    Santad Wichienchot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the food industries, several oligosaccharides have received increasing attention as key components for functional foods and nutraceutical products. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides which have been shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve gut health and well-being. Recent researches much pay attention to find alternative sources, improve specific properties and proof on health benefits of these prebiotics. Methods: This is the summary of research works have been done by our research group on prebiotics and gut health in Thailand. These works aimed to study sources of prebiotics from fruits and vegetables in Thailand, production by enzymatic synthesis of prebiotics, purification by microbial fermentation and membrane technology and applications of the prebiotics in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Results: Among the 30 parts of 14 plants, six appear to have the highest potential for commercialization based on extract yield and the amount and type of indigestible oligosaccharides. These include dragon fruit, palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okra pod. At least three of them, dragon fruit, jackfruit flesh and seed, were confirmed on their prebiotic property by selectively in vitro colonic microflora fermentation in an artificial colon system. Among 52 LAB isolates for production of GOS, BFP32 showed highest intracellular β-galactosidase activity and GOS yield. It was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum by 16S rDNA sequencing. Composition of GOS consisted of oligosaccharides with having DP of 3, 4 and 5. A mixture of GOS was purified successful by sequential bacterial and yeast fermentation whereas nanofiltration could be used for partial purification. Prebiotic index (PI of the GOS produced was1.19 in batch culture. A crude extract from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. had transfructosylating activity for

  13. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  14. Induction of an antigen specific gut inflammatory reaction in mice and rats: a model for human Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil Teixeira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an adverse reaction that occurs in susceptible people when they eat sensitizing foods and is one of the causes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. The effort to understand the induction process of these diseases is important as IBD is increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental antigen specific inflammatory process of the gut of mice and rats, using peanut seeds. Animals were immunized with peanut protein extract before their exposure to the in natura peanut seeds. Results showed that systemic immunization with peanut protein extracts rendered significantly higher antibody titers than control groups and that immunized animals submitted to a challenge diet containing peanuts presented time dependent alterations of the gut similar to celiac disease. In conclusion, results suggested that this experimental model was a convenient tool to study the evolution of alterations in chronic antigen specific gut inflammatory process.A alergia alimentar consiste em uma reação adversa que ocorre em pessoas susceptíveis quando ingerem alimentos sensibilizantes, sendo uma das causas das Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais (IBD. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental de indução de um processo inflamatório intestinal antígeno-específico em camundongos e ratos. Foi escolhida para a indução deste processo a semente de amendoim. Os animais foram imunizados com o extrato protéico previamente à exposição com a semente in natura. Nossos resultados mostram que a imunização sistêmica com extratos protéicos de amendoim ocasiona títulos significativamente maiores de anticorpos quando comparado ao grupo controle e que os animais imunizados submetidos ao desafio com a dieta contendo exclusivamente amendoim apresentam alterações intestinais tempo-dependente similares àquelas observadas na doença celíaca. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que este modelo

  15. A gut reaction: the combined influence of exercise and diet on gastrointestinal microbiota in rats.

    Batacan, R B; Fenning, A S; Dalbo, V J; Scanlan, A T; Duncan, M J; Moore, R J; Stanley, D

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high-intensity interval training (HIIT), light-intensity training (LIT), sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet. No significant differences in microbiota were apparent between activity conditions in rats fed a HF diet but changes in the presence/absence of phylotypes were observed in the LIT and HIIT groups. In rats fed SC, significant differences in intestinal microbiota were evident between exercised and nonexercised rats. Both LIT and HIIT induced significant differences in intestinal microbiota in SC-fed rats compared to their respective SC-fed controls. Characterization of the exercise-induced bacterial phylotypes indicated an increase in bacteria likely capable of degrading resistant polysaccharides and an increase in short chain fatty acid producers. While a significant effect of exercise on microbiota composition occurred in SC-fed rats, the HF-fed rats microbiota showed little response. These data suggest that a HF diet prevented microbiota differentiation in response to exercise. The importance of diet-exercise interaction is extended to the level of intestinal bacteria and gut health. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Impact of Cranberries on Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Health: Proceedings of the Cranberry Health Research Conference 2015.

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Basu, Arpita; Krueger, Christian G; Lila, Mary Ann; Neto, Catherine C; Novotny, Janet A; Reed, Jess D; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Toner, Cheryl D

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in cranberry research have expanded the evidence for the role of this Vaccinium berry fruit in modulating gut microbiota function and cardiometabolic risk factors. The A-type structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins seems to be responsible for much of this fruit's efficacy as a natural antimicrobial. Cranberry proanthocyanidins interfere with colonization of the gut by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro and attenuate gut barrier dysfunction caused by dietary insults in vivo. Furthermore, new studies indicate synergy between these proanthocyanidins, other cranberry components such as isoprenoids and xyloglucans, and gut microbiota. Together, cranberry constituents and their bioactive catabolites have been found to contribute to mechanisms affecting bacterial adhesion, coaggregation, and biofilm formation that may underlie potential clinical benefits on gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, as well as on systemic anti-inflammatory actions mediated via the gut microbiome. A limited but growing body of evidence from randomized clinical trials reveals favorable effects of cranberry consumption on measures of cardiometabolic health, including serum lipid profiles, blood pressure, endothelial function, glucoregulation, and a variety of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. These results warrant further research, particularly studies dedicated to the elucidation of dose-response relations, pharmacokinetic/metabolomics profiles, and relevant biomarkers of action with the use of fully characterized cranberry products. Freeze-dried whole cranberry powder and a matched placebo were recently made available to investigators to facilitate such work, including interlaboratory comparability. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Report on research in progress in the reaction mechanism area

    Toledo, A.S. de; Canto, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Research on reaction mechanisms which are being done by several groups in Brazil are reported. They are grouped in four types, namely, reactions induced by heavy and light ions, induced by electrons and finally by photons. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Report on research in progress in the reaction mechanism area

    Toledo, A.S. de; Canto, L F [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1982-09-01

    Research on reaction mechanisms which are being done by several groups in Brazil are reported. They are grouped in four types, namely, reactions induced by heavy and light ions, induced by electrons and finally by photons.

  19. Modifications in bacterial groups and short chain fatty acid production in the gut of healthy adult rats after long-term consumption of dietary Maillard reaction products.

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Pastoriza de la Cueva, Silvia; Peinado, M Jesús; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Navarro, M Pilar; Rubio, Luis A

    2017-10-01

    Bread crust (BC) is one of the major sources of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the Western diet. This work was designed to analyze the impact of diets containing important levels of MRPs from BC on intestinal bacterial growth and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in adult rats. Additionally, the pools of compounds excreted in feces attending to their molecular weights were analyzed. Rats were fed for 88days a control diet or diets containing BC or its soluble high molecular weight (HMW), soluble low molecular weight (LMW) or insoluble fractions, respectively. Intestinal (cecum) microbiota composition was determined by qPCR analysis. Consumption of the BC diet lowered (PMaillard reaction products are in vivo fermented by the gut microbiota, thereby changing both the pattern of SCFAs production and the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GUTs without guts

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl [NIKHEF Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The structure of a Standard Model family is derived in a class of brane models with a U(M)×U(N) factor, from two mildly anthropic requirements: a massless photon and a universe that does not turn into a plasma of massless charged particles. If we choose M=3 and N=2, the only option is shown to be the Standard Model with an undetermined number of families. We do not assume the U(1) embedding, charge quantization, family repetition, nor the fermion representations; all of these features are derived, assuming a doublet Higgs. With a slightly stronger assumption even the Higgs representation is determined. We also consider a more general class, requiring an asymptotically free strong SU(M) (with M⩾3) interaction from the first factor and an electromagnetic U(1) embedded in both factors. We allow Higgs symmetry breaking of the U(N)×U(1) flavor group by at most one Higgs boson in any representation, combined with any allowed chiral symmetry breaking by SU(M). For M=3 there is a large number of solutions with an unbroken U(1). In all of these, “quarks” have third-integral charges and color singlets have integer charges in comparison to leptons. Hence Standard Model charge quantization holds for any N. Only for N=2 these models allow an SU(5) GUT extension, but this extension offers no advantages whatsoever for understanding the Standard Model; it only causes complications, such as the doublet–triplet splitting problem. Although all these models have a massless photon, all except the Standard Model are ruled out by the second anthropic requirement. In this class of brane models the Standard Model is realized as a GUT with its intestines removed, to keep only the good parts: a GUT without guts.

  1. GUTs without guts

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of a Standard Model family is derived in a class of brane models with a U(M)×U(N) factor, from two mildly anthropic requirements: a massless photon and a universe that does not turn into a plasma of massless charged particles. If we choose M=3 and N=2, the only option is shown to be the Standard Model with an undetermined number of families. We do not assume the U(1) embedding, charge quantization, family repetition, nor the fermion representations; all of these features are derived, assuming a doublet Higgs. With a slightly stronger assumption even the Higgs representation is determined. We also consider a more general class, requiring an asymptotically free strong SU(M) (with M⩾3) interaction from the first factor and an electromagnetic U(1) embedded in both factors. We allow Higgs symmetry breaking of the U(N)×U(1) flavor group by at most one Higgs boson in any representation, combined with any allowed chiral symmetry breaking by SU(M). For M=3 there is a large number of solutions with an unbroken U(1). In all of these, “quarks” have third-integral charges and color singlets have integer charges in comparison to leptons. Hence Standard Model charge quantization holds for any N. Only for N=2 these models allow an SU(5) GUT extension, but this extension offers no advantages whatsoever for understanding the Standard Model; it only causes complications, such as the doublet–triplet splitting problem. Although all these models have a massless photon, all except the Standard Model are ruled out by the second anthropic requirement. In this class of brane models the Standard Model is realized as a GUT with its intestines removed, to keep only the good parts: a GUT without guts

  2. Radiation and Gut

    Potten, C.S.; Hendry, J.H.

    1995-08-01

    Texts on gut with reference to radiation (or other cytotoxic and carcinogenic agents) consist of primary research papers, review articles, or books which are now very out-of-date. With this in mind, the present book was conceived. Here, with chapters by experts in the field, we cover the basic structure and cell replacement process in the gut, the physical situation relevant for gut radiation exposure and a description of some of the techniques used to study radiation effects, in particular the clonal regeneration assay that assesses stem cell functional capacity. Chapters comprehensively cover the effects of radiation in experimental animal model systems and clinical experiences. The effects of radiation on the supportive tissue of the gut is also reviewed. The special radiation situation involving ingested radionuclides is reviewed and the most important late response-carcinogenesis-within the gut is considered. This book follows a volume on 'Radiation and Skin' (1985) and another on 'Radiation and Bone Marrow' is in preparation. The present volume is intended to cover the anatomy and renewal characteristics of the gut, and its response in terms of carcinogenicity and tissue injury in mammalian species including in particular man. The book is expected to be useful to students and teachers in these topics, as well as clinical oncologists (radiotherapists) and medical oncologists, and industrial health personnel. 70 figs., 20 tabs., 869 refs

  3. US nuclear reaction data program in support of basic research

    Bhat, M.R.; Chadwick, M.B.; Smith, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Information about the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN) such as its members, work in progress, summaries of meetings, and organizational details may be found in its WWW Homepage. This paper is an overview of the data support provided by the network for basic research in nuclear astrophysics, radioactive ion beams, high energy heavy-ion and electron interactions and related activities involving all aspects of data stewardship

  4. Iron Contamination Mechanism and Reaction Performance Research on FCC Catalyst

    Zhaoyong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalyst iron poisoning would not only influence units’ product slate; when the poisoning is serious, it could also jeopardize FCC catalysts’ fluidization in reaction-regeneration system and further cause bad influences on units’ stable operation. Under catalytic cracking reaction conditions, large amount of iron nanonodules is formed on the seriously iron contaminated catalyst due to exothermic reaction. These nodules intensify the attrition between catalyst particles and generate plenty of fines which severely influence units’ smooth running. A dense layer could be formed on the catalysts’ surface after iron contamination and the dense layer stops reactants to diffuse to inner structures of catalyst. This causes extremely negative effects on catalyst’s heavy oil conversion ability and could greatly cut down gasoline yield while increasing yields of dry gas, coke, and slurry largely. Research shows that catalyst’s reaction performance would be severely deteriorated when iron content in E-cat (equilibrium catalyst exceeds 8000 μg/g.

  5. Research progress on trifluoromethyl-based radical reaction process

    Song, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Due to the unique properties imparted by the trifluoromethyl group, such as high electron density and strong lipotropy, which effectively improve acidity, lipophilicity and metabolic stability of the molecule itself, trifluoromethyl-substituted organic compounds are becoming increasingly important as structural motifs in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and organic materials. In this review, we present several methods developed for the direct introduction of a trifluoromethyl group, beginning with its rich and storied history. Then the present article addresses mechanism and process in carbon-carbon bond forming reaction based on radical process which is divided into three parts according to the way of CF3 radical generation. Finally, challenges and opportunities of researches on trifluoromethylation reactions facing are prospected.

  6. The shift work and health research agenda: Considering changes in gut microbiota as a pathway linking shift work, sleep loss and circadian misalignment, and metabolic disease.

    Reynolds, Amy C; Paterson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Sally A; Stanley, Dragana; Wright, Kenneth P; Dawson, Drew

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence and impact of metabolic disease is rising. In particular, overweight and obesity are at epidemic levels and are a leading health concern in the Western world. Shift work increases the risk of overweight and obesity, along with a number of additional metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). How shift work contributes to metabolic disease has not been fully elucidated. Short sleep duration is associated with metabolic disease and shift workers typically have shorter sleep durations. Short sleep durations have been shown to elicit a physiological stress response, and both physiological and psychological stress disrupt the healthy functioning of the intestinal gut microbiota. Recent findings have shown altered intestinal microbial communities and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in circadian disrupted mice and jet lagged humans. We hypothesize that sleep and circadian disruption in humans alters the gut microbiota, contributing to an inflammatory state and metabolic disease associated with shift work. A research agenda for exploring the relationship between insufficient sleep, circadian misalignment and the gut microbiota is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  8. Research progress in roles of gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism in development and progression of NAFLD

    LU Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasing year by year. Studies have uncovered the important roles of gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism in the development and progression of NAFLD. The roles of gut microbiota, as well bile acid and bile acid receptors, in the development and progression of NAFLD are highlighted.

  9. Genomics: A gut prediction

    Vos, de W.M.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial cells make up the majority of cells in the human body, and most of these reside in the intestinal tract. Researchers have long recognized that some intestinal microorganisms are associated with health, but the beneficial impact of most of the gut's microbes on human metabolism has been

  10. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe interaction networks.

  11. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project.

    Debelius, Justine W; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond.

  12. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project

    Justine W. Debelius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond.

  13. Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention: A Review of Potential Mechanisms and Promising Targets for Future Research.

    Song, Mingyang; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity. Most of the epidemiologic evidence derives from cross-sectional or short-term, highly controlled feeding studies that are limited in size. Therefore, high-quality large-scale prospective studies with dietary data collected over the life course and comprehensive gut microbial composition and function assessed well prior to neoplastic occurrence are critically needed to identify microbiome-based interventions that may complement or optimize current diet-based strategies for colorectal cancer prevention and management.

  14. Catalytic activity of catalysts for steam reforming reaction. Contract research

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing a hydrogen production system by means of steam reforming of methane (chemical reation: CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O = CO + 3H{sub 2}) coupling with High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization. Prior to construction of HTTR hydrogen production system, a mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube was constructed to investigate transient behavior of the hydrogen production system an establish system controllability. In order to predict transient behavior and hydrogen productivity of the hydrogen production system, it is important to estimate the reaction characteristics under the same temperature and pressure conditions as those of HTTR hydrogen production system. For the purpose of investigate an apparent activation energy of catalysts, catalytic activity test using small apparatus was carried out under the condition of methane flow rate from 1.18 x 10{sup -3} to 3.19 x 10{sup -3} mol/s, temperature from 500 to 900degC, pressure from 1.1 to 4.1MPa, and mol ratio of steam to methane from 2.5 to 3.5. It was confirmed that apparent activation energies of two kinds of Ni catalysts which are to be used in the mock-up test were 51.7 and 57.4kJ/mol, respectively, and reaction rate constants were propositional to the value from P{sup -0.15} to P{sup -0.33}. (author)

  15. Student Research in Rocket and Plume-Reaction Kinetics

    Fontijn, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Semi-empirical configuration interaction (SECI) theory has been extended to predict activation barriers for combustion reactions of boron group halide oxidation reactions, Good agreement with experiments has been obtained...

  16. String GUTs

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Standard SUSY-GUTs such as those based on SU(5) or SO(10) lead to predictions for the values of α s and sin 2 θ W in amazing agreement with experiment. In this article we investigate how these models may be obtained from string theory, thus bringing them into the only known consistent framework for quantum gravity. String models with matter in standard GUT representations require the realization of affine Lie algebras at higher levels. We start by describing some methods to build level k=2 symmetric orbifold string models with gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We present several examples and identify generic features of the type of models constructed. Chiral fields appropriate to break the symmetry down to the standard model generically appear in the massless spectrum. However, unlike in standard SUSY-GUTs, they often behave as string moduli, i.e., they do not have self-couplings. We also discuss briefly the doublet-triplet Higgs splitting. We find that, in some models, built-in sliding-singlet type of couplings exist. (orig.)

  17. [Recent results in research on oscillatory chemical reactions].

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of the complicated periodical phenomenas in the nature (e.g. hearth beat, sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, etc) could be understood with using the laws of nonlinear chemical systems. In this article the newest result in the research of the subfield of nonlinear chemical dynamics aimed at constructing oscillatory chemical reactions, which are novel either in composition or in configuration, are presented. In the introductory part the concept of chemical periodicity is defined, then the forms as it can appear in time and space and the methods of their study are discussed. Detailed description of the experimental work that has resulted in two significant discoveries is provided. A method was developed to design pH-oscillators which are capable of operating under close conditions. The batch pH-oscillators are more convenient to use in some proposed applications than the equivalent CSTR variant. A redox oscillator that is new in composition was found. The permanganate oxidation of some amino acids was shown to take place according to oscillatory kinetics in a narrow range of the experimental parameters. The KMnO4 - glycine - Na2HPO4 system represents the first example in the family of manganese based oscillators where amino acids is involved. In the conclusion formal analogies between the simple chemical and some more complicated biological oscillatory phenomena are mentioned and the possibility of modeling periodic processes with the use of information gained from the studies of chemical oscillations is pointed out.

  18. Research Participants' Understanding of and Reactions to Certificates of Confidentiality.

    Beskow, Laura M; Check, Devon K; Ammarell, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Certificates of Confidentiality are intended to facilitate participation in critical public health research by protecting against forced disclosure of identifying data in legal proceedings, but little is known about the effect of Certificate descriptions in consent forms. To gain preliminary insights, we conducted qualitative interviews with 50 HIV-positive individuals in Durham, North Carolina to explore their subjective understanding of Certificate descriptions and whether their reactions differed based on receiving a standard versus simplified description. Most interviewees were neither reassured nor alarmed by Certificate information, and most said it would not influence their willingness to participate or provide truthful information. However, compared with those receiving the simplified description, more who read the standard description said it raised new concerns, that their likelihood of participating would be lower, and that they might be less forthcoming. Most interviewees said they found the Certificate description clear, but standard-group participants often found particular words and phrases confusing, while simplified-group participants more often questioned the information's substance. Valid informed consent requires comprehension and voluntariness. Our findings highlight the importance of developing consent descriptions of Certificates and other confidentiality protections that are simple and accurate. These qualitative results provide rich detail to inform a larger, quantitative study that would permit further rigorous comparisons.

  19. The optimization of soybean oil hydrolysis reaction research

    Hasnisa Hashim; Jumat Salimon

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of soybean oil was optimized. The concentration effect of ethanolic alkaline solution (KOH and NaOH) to the oil acidity was studied. The alkaline concentrations, reaction time and temperature factors was investigated during the optimization of the hydrolysis or saponification reaction. KOH solution of 1 M showed a good saponification activity which resulted oil acid value of 226.8 mg/ g compared to NaOH solution with acid value of 225.4 mg/ g for the same reaction. The optimum saponification reaction of soybean oil occurred at 60 degree Celsius in 30 minutes by using ethanolic KOH 1 M with acid value of 229.6 mg/ g. Composition of free fatty acid before and after hydrolysis were determined by using gas chromatography. (author)

  20. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  1. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  2. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  3. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  4. Calculation of multigroup reaction rates for the Ghana Research ...

    The discrete ordinate spatial model, which pro-vides solution to the differential form of the transport equation by the Carlson-SN (N=4) approach was adopted to solve the Ludwig-Boltzmann multigroup neutron transport equation for this analysis. The results show that for any fissile resonance absorber, the reaction rates ...

  5. Application of laplace transform method in heavy ion reaction research

    Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua

    1993-01-01

    Laplace transform method (LTM) is applied to investigate the effects of different spectroscopy amplifiers parameters on identification of the light charged particles (LCP) emitted from 12 C(46,7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of LTM in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is also discussed

  6. Recent developments in research on catalytic reaction networks

    Roberto Serra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, analyses performed on a stochastic model of catalytic reaction networks have provided some indications about the reasons why wet-lab experiments hardly ever comply with the phase transition typically predicted by theoretical models with regard to the emergence of collectively self-replicating sets of molecule (also defined as autocatalytic sets, ACSs, a phenomenon that is often observed in nature and that is supposed to have played a major role in the emergence of the primitive forms of life. The model at issue has allowed to reveal that the emerging ACSs are characterized by a general dynamical fragility, which might explain the difficulty to observe them in lab experiments. In this work, the main results of the various analyses are reviewed, with particular regard to the factors able to affect the generic properties of catalytic reactions network, for what concerns, not only the probability of ACSs to be observed, but also the overall activity of the system, in terms of production of new species, reactions and matter.

  7. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  8. Upper atmosphere research: Reaction rate and optical measurements

    Stief, L. J.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to provide photochemical, kinetic, and spectroscopic information necessary for photochemical models of the Earth's upper atmosphere and to examine reactions or reactants not presently in the models to either confirm the correctness of their exclusion or provide evidence to justify future inclusion in the models. New initiatives are being taken in technique development (many of them laser based) and in the application of established techniques to address gaps in the photochemical/kinetic data base, as well as to provide increasingly reliable information.

  9. Photosynthetic Reaction Centres-from Basic Research to Application

    László NAGY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that studying the photosynthetic conversion of light into chemical energy is extremely important in many points of view; e.g., 1 technical-in order to improve the utilization of the solar energy; 2 food production-to improve the photosynthetic production of plants in agriculture; 3 ecology-keeping the primer production in ecosystems in the biosphere balanced, etc. In the photosynthetic reaction centre protein, RC, light energy is converted by a quantum yield of almost unity. There is no such a system designed by human which is able to do that. The RC purified from purple bacteria provides an extremely unique system for studying the requirements for high efficiency conversion of light into electrochemical energy. Thanks to the recent structural (e.g. crystallography (Nobel prize to Michel, Deisenhofer, Huber and functional (Nobel prize to Marcus results together with the works of molecular biology, computer- and electro-techniques, a wealth of information made a relatively clear picture about the kinetics, energetics and stabilization of electron transport within this protein that opens possibilities for new generation practical applications. In this paper we provide a short summary of fields in which the reaction centre protein can be important from practical points of view.

  10. Reaction

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  11. Compilation status and research topics in Hokkaido University Nuclear Reaction Data Centre

    Aikawa, M.; Furutachi, N.; Katō, K.; Ebata, S.; Ichinkhorloo, D.; Imai, S.; Sarsembayeva, A.; Zhou, B.; Otuka, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reaction data are necessary and applicable for many application fields. The nuclear reaction data must be compiled into a database for convenient availability. One such database is the EXFOR database maintained by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC). As a member of the NRDC, the Hokkaido University Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG) compiles charged-particle induced reaction data and contributes about 10 percent of the EXFOR database. In this paper, we show the recent compilation status and related research topics of JCPRG. (author)

  12. Tail gut cyst.

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  13. SUSY GUT Model Building

    Raby, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the evolution of SUSY GUT model building as I see it. Starting with 4 dimensional model building, I then consider orbifold GUTs in 5 dimensions and finally orbifold GUTs embedded into the E 8 xE 8 heterotic string.

  14. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. SO(10) GUT baryogenesis

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-01-01

    Baryogenesis, through the decays of heavy bosons, was considered to be one of the major successes of the grand unified theories (GUTs). It was then realized that the sphaleron processes erased any baryon asymmetry from the GUT-baryogenesis at a later stage. In this Letter, we discuss the idea of resurrecting GUT-baryogenesis [M. Fukugita, T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 131602] in a large class of SO(10) GUTs. Our analysis shows that fast lepton number violating but baryon number conserving processes can partially wash out the GUT-baryogenesis produced lepton and/or baryon asymmetry associated with or without the sphaleron and/or Yukawa interactions

  16. Gut metabolome meets microbiome

    Lamichhane, Santosh; Sen, Partho; Dickens, Alex M

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that gut microbes and their metabolic products regulate host metabolism. The interactions between the host and its gut microbiota are highly dynamic and complex. In this review we present and discuss the metabolomic strategies to study the gut microbial ecosystem. We...... highlight the metabolic profiling approaches to study faecal samples aimed at deciphering the metabolic product derived from gut microbiota. We also discuss how metabolomics data can be integrated with metagenomics data derived from gut microbiota and how such approaches may lead to better understanding...

  17. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies......' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs...

  18. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity

    Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota of lean and obese humans, (3) the impact of diet on the gut microbiota, (4) manipulating the gut microbiota and (5) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can impact on weight gain. PMID:22572830

  19. Fundamental Researches on the High-speed and High-efficiency Steelmaking Reaction

    Kitamura, Shin-ya; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Maruoka, Nobuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, steelmaking reactions have been analyzed by thermodynamics. Recently, software packages that can be used to calculate the equilibrium conditions have improved greatly. In some cases, information obtained in this software is useful for analyzing the steelmaking reaction. On the other hand, in industrial operation, steelmaking reactions, i.e., decarburization, dephosphorization, desulfurization or nitrogen removal, do not reach the equilibrium condition. Therefore, the kinetic model is very important for gaining a theoretical understanding of the steelmaking reaction. In this paper, the following recent research activities were shown; 1) mass transfer of impurities between solid oxide and liquid slag, 2) simulation model of hot metal dephosphorization by multiphase slag, 3) evaluation of reaction rate at bath surface in gas-liquid reaction system and 4) condition for forming of metal emulsion by bottom bubbling.

  20. Recent research on nuclear reaction using high-energy proton and neutron

    Shibata, Tokushi [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1997-11-01

    The presently available high-energy neutron beam facilities are introduced. Then some interesting research on nuclear reaction using high-energy protons are reported such as the intermediate mass fragments emission and neutron spectrum measurements on various targets. As the important research using high-energy neutron, the (p,n) reactions on Mn, Fe, and Ni, the elastic scattering of neutrons, and the shielding experiments are discussed. (author)

  1. Influence of gut microbiota on neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Cenit, María Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2017-08-14

    The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, alterations in the gut microbiota composition in humans have also been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, autism and Parkinson's disease. However, it is not yet clear whether these changes in the microbiome are causally related to such diseases or are secondary effects thereof. In this respect, recent studies in animals have indicated that gut microbiota transplantation can transfer a behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a modifiable factor modulating the development or pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions. Further studies are warranted to establish whether or not the findings of preclinical animal experiments can be generalized to humans. Moreover, although different communication routes between the microbiota and brain have been identified, further studies must elucidate all the underlying mechanisms involved. Such research is expected to contribute to the design of strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and its functions with a view to improving mental health, and thus provide opportunities to improve the management of psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders and the state of the art regarding the mechanisms underlying its contribution to mental illness and health. We also consider the stages of life where the gut microbiota is more susceptible to the effects of environmental stressors, and

  2. The human gut resistome.

    van Schaik, Willem

    2015-06-05

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota ('the gut resistome'). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium.

  3. The Gut Microbiota of Marine Fish

    Egerton, Sian; Culloty, Sarah; Whooley, Jason; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2018-01-01

    The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking. We review here the factors shaping marine fish gut microbiota and highlight gaps in the research. PMID:29780377

  4. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  5. 2013 Gordon Research Conference, Inorganic reaction mechanisms, Galveston, TX, March 3-8 2013

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-12-08

    The 2013 Gordon Conference on Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms will present cutting-edge research on the molecular aspects of inorganic reactions involving elements from throughout the periodic table and state-of-the art techniques that are used in the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, metallobiochemistry, electron-transfer in energy reactions, polymerization, nitrogen fixation, green chemistry, oxidation, solar conversion, alkane functionalization, organotransition metal chemistry, and computational chemistry. The talks will cover themes of current interest including energy, materials, and bioinorganic chemistry. Sections cover: Electron-Transfer in Energy Reactions; Catalytic Polymerization and Oxidation Chemistry; Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Catalysts; Metal-Organic Chemistry and its Application in Synthesis; Green Energy Conversion;Organometallic Chemistry and Activation of Small Molecules; Advances in Kinetics Modeling and Green Chemistry; Metals in Biology and Disease; Frontiers in Catalytic Bond Activation and Cleavage.

  6. Gut microbiome and its role in cardiovascular diseases.

    Ahmadmehrabi, Shadi; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, an interest in intestinal microbiota-host interactions has increased due to many findings about the impact of gut bacteria on human health and disease. Dysbiosis, a change in the composition of the gut microbiota, has been associated with much pathology, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This article will review normal functions of the gut microbiome, its link to CVD, and potential therapeutic interventions. The recently discovered contribution of gut microbiota-derived molecules in the development of heart disease and its risk factors has significantly increased attention towards the connection between our gut and heart. The gut microbiome is virtually an endocrine organ, arguably the largest, capable of contributing to and reacting to circulating signaling molecules within the host. Gut microbiota-host interactions occur through many pathways, including trimethylamine-N-oxide and short-chain fatty acids. These molecules and others have been linked to much pathology including chronic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Although our understanding of gut microbiota-host interactions has increased recently; many questions remain about the mechanistic links between the gut microbiome and CVD. With further research, we may one day be able to add gut microbiota profiles as an assessable risk factor for CVD and target therapies towards the gut microbiota.

  7. Gut microbiota sustains hematopoiesis

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1......In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1...

  8. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Building GUTs from strings

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    We study in detail the structure of Grand Unified Theories derived as the low-energy limit of orbifold four-dimensional strings. To this aim, new techniques for building level-two symmetric orbifold theories are presented. New classes of GUTs in the context of symmetric orbifolds are then constructed. The method of permutation modding is further explored and SO(10) GUTs with both 45- or 54-plets are obtained. SU(5) models are also found through this method. It is shown that, in the context of symmetric orbifold SO(10) GUTs, only a single GUT Higgs, either a 54 or a 45, can be present and it always resides in an order-two untwisted sector. Very restrictive results also hold in the case of SU(5). General properties and selection rules for string GUTs are described. Some of these selection rules forbid the presence of some particular GUT-Higgs couplings which are sometimes used in SUSY-GUT model building. Some semi-realistic string GUT examples are presented and their properties briefly discussed. (orig.)

  10. A geographically-diverse collection of 418 human gut microbiome pathway genome databases

    Hahn, Aria S.; Altman, Tomer; Konwar, Kishori M.; Hanson, Niels W.; Kim, Dongjae; Relman, David A.; Dill, David L.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    the Pathway Tools software, empowering researchers and clinicians interested in visualizing and interpreting metabolic pathways encoded by the human gut microbiome. For the first time, GutCyc provides consistent annotations and metabolic pathway predictions

  11. Summary Report of Third Research Coordination Meeting on Minor Actinide Nuclear Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    Gunsing, Frank; Otsuka, Naohiko

    2010-12-01

    The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 19 to 22 October 2010. A summary of the presentation, and the discussions which took place during the meeting, are reported here. In addition, a task assignment list of the experimental data assessment activities was agreed, and is provided together with the plan for future CRP activities. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 19 to 22 October 2010. A summary of the presentation, and the discussions which took place during the meeting, are reported here. In addition, a task assignment list of the experimental data assessment activities was agreed, and is provided together with the plan for future CRP activities. (author)

  12. Euro-led research team creates first ever reaction between matter and antimatter

    2006-01-01

    "An EU-funded team of international researchers has produced the first ever reaction between matter and antimatter, creating protonium. Protonium is a unique type of atom that consists of a proton and an antiproton orbiting around each other." (1 page)

  13. Summary report of 2. research coordination meeting on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    Nagai, Y.; Mengoni, A.

    2009-07-01

    The second Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 31 March to 3 April 2009. A summary of the discussion which took place at the meeting is reported here together with a list of the main outcomes and recommendations produced by the RCM participants. (author)

  14. Research project AUS-10370/CF: electron impact ionization and surface induced reactions of edge plasma constituents

    Maerk, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to better understand elementary reactions which are taking place at the plasma edge of thermonuclear fusion devices, three areas of research were persuaded: I) Experimental studies about electron ionization of neutrals and ions and electron attachment to molecules, II) Theoretical studies about electron ionisation of neutrals and ions and III) Reactive interaction of molecular ions with surfaces

  15. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism.......New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...

  16. Empathy, burn-out and the use of gut feeling

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Ingeman, Mads Lind; Vedsted, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that physicians' gut feelings are associated with parents' concerns for the well-being of their children. Gut feeling is particularly important in diagnosis of serious low-incidence diseases in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether...... results suggest that gut feelings have diagnostic value, these findings highlight the importance of incorporating empathy and interpersonal skills into medical training to increase sensitivity to patient concern and thereby increase the use and reliability of gut feeling....

  17. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  18. Linking the Gut Microbial Ecosystem with the Environment: Does Gut Health Depend on Where We Live?

    Nishat Tasnim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Global comparisons reveal a decrease in gut microbiota diversity attributed to Western diets, lifestyle practices such as caesarian section, antibiotic use and formula-feeding of infants, and sanitation of the living environment. While gut microbial diversity is decreasing, the prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity, allergies and asthma is on the rise in Westernized societies. Since the immune system development is influenced by microbial components, early microbial colonization may be a key factor in determining disease susceptibility patterns later in life. Evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is vertically transmitted from the mother and this affects offspring immunity. However, the role of the external environment in gut microbiome and immune development is poorly understood. Studies show that growing up in microbe-rich environments, such as traditional farms, can have protective health effects on children. These health-effects may be ablated due to changes in the human lifestyle, diet, living environment and environmental biodiversity as a result of urbanization. Importantly, if early-life exposure to environmental microbes increases gut microbiota diversity by influencing patterns of gut microbial assembly, then soil biodiversity loss due to land-use changes such as urbanization could be a public health threat. Here, we summarize key questions in environmental health research and discuss some of the challenges that have hindered progress toward a better understanding of the role of the environment on gut microbiome development.

  19. Supersymmetric GUTs and cosmology

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1982-06-01

    By examining the behaviour of supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near the superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUTs. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry breaking scale a la Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out. Further constraint on model building appears if global R invariance is employed to resolve the strong CP problem. (author)

  20. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  2. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on chemical reaction simulator technology; 1999 nendo kagaku hanno simulator gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although various chemical reactions are made use of at scenes of chemical industry for the acquisition of desired chemicals, the control of reaction process governing factors, such as temperature, pressure, catalysts, solutions, etc., is found to be carried out only on the empirical basis. At the present time, rational or optimum reaction designs are not to be prepared in a short period of time in the presence of the widespread shortage of knowledge about chemical reactions and of the shortage of understanding of chemical reactions at the micro level. Leading survey and research are conducted for the development of a 'chemical reaction simulator' technology to enable the acquisition of optimum reaction designing guidelines in a short period of time. Using the simulator, a chemical of his choice is inputted by a researcher engaged in the study of an real chemical reaction and then various techniques of computer science are mobilized for the preparation of a huge number of feasible reaction routes, and high-precision simulations are conducted for the feasible reaction routes. The results achieved this fiscal year are reported. The purpose of this research and its ripple effect on new product industry creation are stated. Then the positioning, mission, and concept of such a chemical reaction simulator are described. Finally, the result of research and survey of knowledge databases and the result of research and survey of computational chemistry are stated. (NEDO)

  3. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on chemical reaction simulator technology; 1999 nendo kagaku hanno simulator gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although various chemical reactions are made use of at scenes of chemical industry for the acquisition of desired chemicals, the control of reaction process governing factors, such as temperature, pressure, catalysts, solutions, etc., is found to be carried out only on the empirical basis. At the present time, rational or optimum reaction designs are not to be prepared in a short period of time in the presence of the widespread shortage of knowledge about chemical reactions and of the shortage of understanding of chemical reactions at the micro level. Leading survey and research are conducted for the development of a 'chemical reaction simulator' technology to enable the acquisition of optimum reaction designing guidelines in a short period of time. Using the simulator, a chemical of his choice is inputted by a researcher engaged in the study of an real chemical reaction and then various techniques of computer science are mobilized for the preparation of a huge number of feasible reaction routes, and high-precision simulations are conducted for the feasible reaction routes. The results achieved this fiscal year are reported. The purpose of this research and its ripple effect on new product industry creation are stated. Then the positioning, mission, and concept of such a chemical reaction simulator are described. Finally, the result of research and survey of knowledge databases and the result of research and survey of computational chemistry are stated. (NEDO)

  4. Summary report of first research coordination meeting on Minor Actinide Nuclear Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    Kaeppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.

    2008-09-01

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the MANREAD (Minor Actinides Neutron Reaction Data) was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 19 to 23 November 2007. A summary of the discussion which took place at the meeting is reported here. In addition, a task assignment list of the experimental data assessment activities was agreed, and is provided together with the plan for future CRP activities. (author)

  5. U.S. nuclear reaction data program in support of basic research

    Bhat, M.R.; Chadwick, M.B.; Smith, M.S.

    1998-03-01

    Information about the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN) such as its members, work in progress, summaries of meetings, and organizational details may be found in its WWW Homepage. This paper is an overview of the data support provided by the network for basic research in nuclear astrophysics, radioactive ion beams, high energy heavy ion and electron interactions and related activities involving all aspects of data stewardship

  6. HOW ADVERSE DRUG-REACTIONS CAN PLAY A ROLE IN INNOVATIVE DRUG RESEARCH - SIMILARITIES IN ADVERSE DRUG REACTION PROFILES OF CAPTOPRIL AND PENICILLAMINE

    RIKKEN, F; VOS, R

    1995-01-01

    We describe how adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can play an important role in pharmaceutical research and drug development. Not only do ADRs represent the risks and drawbacks associated with drugs but they can also be related to other knowledge available in pharmaceutical and medical research. We

  7. Potential for Monitoring Gut Microbiota for Diagnosing Infections and Graft-versus-Host Disease in Cancer and Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

    Koh, Andrew Y

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS). The technical approaches and resources needed for each approach are outlined, and advantages and disadvantages for each approach are summarized. The findings regarding the role of the gut microbiota in the health of patients with cancer and stem cell transplant (SCT) patients (specifically in modulating the development of gut-derived bacterial infections and a posttransplant immune-mediated complication known as graft-vs-host-disease) are reviewed. Finally, there is discussion of the potential viability of these approaches in the actual clinical treatment of cancer and SCT patients. Advances in next-generation sequencing have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiome to human health. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MSS are currently too labor-intensive or computationally burdensome to incorporate into real-time clinical monitoring of gut microbiomes. Yet, the lessons learned from these technologies could be adapted to currently used methods (e.g., qPCR) that could then be rigorously tested in the clinical care of these patients. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Gut microbiota and the development of obesity.

    Boroni Moreira, A P; Fiche Salles Teixeira, T; do C Gouveia Peluzio, M; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R

    2012-01-01

    Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation, which are related to the induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. The impact of the proposed mechanisms for humans still needs further investigations. However, the fact that gut microbiota can be modulated through dietary components highlights the importance to study how fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, and probiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and the management of obesity. Gut microbiota seems to be an important and promising target in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disturbances in future studies and in clinical practice.

  9. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  10. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  11. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. It starts with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs and then goes on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. (author)

  12. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis in Vertebrates: Gut Microbiota Effect, a Review

    Chun Hua Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is integral to an organism’s digestive structure and has been shown to play an important role in producing substrates for gluconeogenesis and energy production, vasodilator, and gut motility. Numerous studies have demonstrated that variation in diet types is associated with the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota, a relationship that plays a significant role in nutrient absorption and affects gut size. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis states (ETH that the metabolic requirement of relatively large brains is offset by a corresponding reduction of the other tissues, such as gut size. However, how the trade-off between gut size and brain size in vertebrates is associated with the gut microbiota through metabolic requirements still remains unexplored. Here, we review research relating to and discuss the potential influence of gut microbiota on the ETH.

  13. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota......, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity......-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated...

  14. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces

    Williams, J

    1989-01-01

    A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the "Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces" was held in St. Andrews, Scotland in June 1988. Many of the leading international researchers in this area were present at the workshop and all made oral presentations of their results. In addition, significant amounts of time were set aside for Round Table discussions, in which smaller groups considered the current status of mechanistic knowledge, identified areas of dispute or disagreement, and proposed experiments that need to be carried out to resolve such disputes so as to advance our understanding of this important research area. All the papers presented at the workshop are collected in this volume, together with summaries of the conclusions reached at the Round Table discussions. The workshop could not have taken place without financial support from NATO, and donations were also received from Associated Octel, Ltd., STC Ltd., and Epichem Ltd., for which the organisers are very grateful. The orga...

  16. Studying mechanism of radical reactions: From radiation to nitroxides as research tools

    Maimon, Eric; Samuni, Uri; Goldstein, Sara

    2018-02-01

    Radicals are part of the chemistry of life, and ionizing radiation chemistry serves as an indispensable research tool for elucidation of the mechanism(s) underlying their reactions. The ever-increasing understanding of their involvement in diverse physiological and pathological processes has expanded the search for compounds that can diminish radical-induced damage. This review surveys the areas of research focusing on radical reactions and particularly with stable cyclic nitroxide radicals, which demonstrate unique antioxidative activities. Unlike common antioxidants that are progressively depleted under oxidative stress and yield secondary radicals, nitroxides are efficient radical scavengers yielding in most cases their respective oxoammonium cations, which are readily reduced back in the tissue to the nitroxide thus continuously being recycled. Nitroxides, which not only protect enzymes, cells, and laboratory animals from diverse kinds of biological injury, but also modify the catalytic activity of heme enzymes, could be utilized in chemical and biological systems serving as a research tool for elucidating mechanisms underlying complex chemical and biochemical processes.

  17. Nuclear chemistry research of high-energy nuclear reactions at Carnegie-Mellon University, 1961--1977. Summary report

    Caretto, A.A. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The activities and the results of research in the study of high energy nuclear reactions carried out at Carnegie Institute of Technology from 1957 to 1967 and at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1967 to 1977 are summarized. A complete list of all publications, doctoral dissertations, and reports resulting from the research of this project is also included. A major part of the report is a review of the research activities and results. The objective of the research of this project was the study of reactions initiated by projectiles of energy above about 100 MeV. The main effort was the investigation of simple nuclear reactions with the objective to deduce reaction mechanisms. These reactions were also used as probes to determine the nuclear structure of the target. In addition, a number of studies of spallation reactions were undertaken which included the determination of excitation functions and recoil properties. Recent research activities which have involved the study of pion induced reactions as well as reactions initiated by heavy ions is also discussed

  18. Philosophy with Guts

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  19. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  20. Healthy human gut phageome

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  1. Gut microbiota and malnutrition.

    Million, Matthieu; Diallo, Aldiouma; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is the leading cause of death worldwide in children under the age of five, and is the focus of the first World Health Organization (WHO) Millennium Development Goal. Breastfeeding, food and water security are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM. Besides refeeding and antibiotics, future trials including non-toxic missing microbes and nutrients necessary to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM, including prebiotics and antioxidants, are warranted in children with severe or refractory disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Human Gut Microbiota

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very

  3. Nuclear chemistry research of high-energy nuclear reactions at Carnegie-Mellon University, 1961--1977. Summary report. [Summaries of research activities at Carnegie-Mellon University

    Caretto, A.A. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The activities and the results of research in the study of high energy nuclear reactions carried out at Carnegie Institute of Technology from 1957 to 1967 and at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1967 to 1977 are summarized. A complete list of all publications, doctoral dissertations, and reports resulting from the research of this project is also included. A major part of the report is a review of the research activities and results. The objective of the research of this project was the study of reactions initiated by projectiles of energy above about 100 MeV. The main effort was the investigation of simple nuclear reactions with the objective to deduce reaction mechanisms. These reactions were also used as probes to determine the nuclear structure of the target. In addition, a number of studies of spallation reactions were undertaken which included the determination of excitation functions and recoil properties. Recent research activities which have involved the study of pion induced reactions as well as reactions initiated by heavy ions is also discussed.

  4. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality.

    Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W; Peperkorn, Henrik M; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user's sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom-up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution model of

  5. Microbes vs. chemistry in the origin of the anaerobic gut lumen.

    Friedman, Elliot S; Bittinger, Kyle; Esipova, Tatiana V; Hou, Likai; Chau, Lillian; Jiang, Jack; Mesaros, Clementina; Lund, Peder J; Liang, Xue; FitzGerald, Garret A; Goulian, Mark; Lee, Daeyeon; Garcia, Benjamin A; Blair, Ian A; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Wu, Gary D

    2018-04-17

    The succession from aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to obligate anaerobes in the infant gut along with the differences between the compositions of the mucosally adherent vs. luminal microbiota suggests that the gut microbes consume oxygen, which diffuses into the lumen from the intestinal tissue, maintaining the lumen in a deeply anaerobic state. Remarkably, measurements of luminal oxygen levels show nearly identical pO 2 (partial pressure of oxygen) profiles in conventional and germ-free mice, pointing to the existence of oxygen consumption mechanisms other than microbial respiration. In vitro experiments confirmed that the luminal contents of germ-free mice are able to chemically consume oxygen (e.g., via lipid oxidation reactions), although at rates significantly lower than those observed in the case of conventionally housed mice. For conventional mice, we also show that the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota adherent to the gut mucosa and in the lumen throughout the length of the gut correlates with oxygen levels. At the same time, an increase in the biomass of the gut microbiota provides an explanation for the reduction of luminal oxygen in the distal vs. proximal gut. These results demonstrate how oxygen from the mammalian host is used by the gut microbiota, while both the microbes and the oxidative chemical reactions regulate luminal oxygen levels, shaping the composition of the microbial community throughout different regions of the gut.

  6. No Gut No Gain! Enteral Bile Acid Treatment Preserves Gut Growth but Not Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Injury in a Novel Extensive Short Bowel Animal Model.

    Villalona, Gustavo; Price, Amber; Blomenkamp, Keith; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Saxena, Saurabh; Ratchford, Thomas; Westrich, Matthew; Kakarla, Vindhya; Pochampally, Shruthika; Phillips, William; Heafner, Nicole; Korremla, Niraja; Greenspon, Jose; Guzman, Miguel A; Kumar Jain, Ajay

    2018-04-27

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides nutrition intravenously; however, this life-saving therapy is associated with significant liver disease. Recent evidence indicates improvement in PN-associated injury in animals with intact gut treated with enteral bile acid (BA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and a gut farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, which drives the gut-liver cross talk (GLCT). We hypothesized that similar improvement could be translated in animals with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Using piglets, we developed a novel 90% gut-resected SBS model. Fifteen SBS piglets receiving PN were given CDCA or control (vehicle control) for 2 weeks. Tissue and serum were analyzed posteuthanasia. CDCA increased gut FXR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction; P = .008), but not downstream FXR targets. No difference in gut fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19; P = .28) or hepatic FXR (P = .75), FGF19 (P = .86), FGFR4 (P = .53), or Cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (P = .61) was noted. PN resulted in cholestasis; however, no improvement was noted with CDCA. Hepatic fibrosis or immunostaining for Ki67, CD3, or Cytokeratin 7 was not different with CDCA. PN resulted in gut atrophy. CDCA preserved (P = .04 vs control) gut mass and villous/crypt ratio. The median (interquartile range) for gut mass for control was 0.28 (0.17-0.34) and for CDCA was 0.33 (0.26-0.46). We note that, unlike in animals with intact gut, in an SBS animal model there is inadequate CDCA-induced activation of gut-derived signaling to cause liver improvement. Thus, it appears that activation of GLCT is critically dependent on the presence of adequate gut. This is clinically relevant because it suggests that BA therapy may not be as effective for patients with SBS. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  8. Gut microbiota: the next-gen frontier in preventive and therapeutic medicine?

    Ravinder eNagpal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our gut harbors an extremely diverse collection of trillions of microbes that, besides degrading the complex dietary constituents, execute numerous activities vital for our metabolism and immune health. Although the importance of gut microbiota in maintaining digestive health has long been believed, its close correlation with numerous chronic ailments has recently been exposed, thanks to the innovative mechanistic studies on the compositional and functional aspects of gut microbial communities using germ-free or humanized animal models. Since a myriad of mysteries about the precise structures and functions of gut microbial communities in specific health situations still remains to be explicated, the emerging field of gut microbiota remains a foremost objective of research for microbiologists, computational biologists, clinicians, nutritionalists etc. Nevertheless, it is only after a comprehensive understanding of the structure, density and function of the gut microbiota that the new therapeutic targets could be captured and utilized for a healthier gut as well as overall wellbeing.

  9. Incorporating the gut microbiota into models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.

    Amato, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  11. Gut microbiota modulates alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety in mice.

    Xiao, Hui-Wen; Ge, Chang; Feng, Guo-Xing; Li, Yuan; Luo, Dan; Dong, Jia-Li; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Cui, Ming; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that alcohol consumption did not alter the abundance of bacteria, but markedly changed the composition of gut microbiota. Moreover, the transplantation of enteric microbes from alcohol-fed mice to normal healthy controls remarkably shaped the composition of gut bacteria, and elicited behavioral signs of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we further confirmed that the expression of genes implicated in alcohol addiction, BDNF, CRHR1 and OPRM1, was also altered by transplantation of gut microbes from alcohol-exposed donors. Collectively, our findings suggested a possibility that the alterations of gut microbiota composition might contribute to the development of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety, and reveal potentially new etiologies for treating alcohol addiction. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dextransucrase cellobiose acceptor products on the growth of human gut bacteria

    The selective fermentation by human gut bacteria of gluco-oligosaccharides obtained from the reaction between the glucosyl group of sucrose and cellobiose, catalyzed by dextransucrases from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been evaluated. Oligosaccharides were fractionated according to their molecula...

  13. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  14. Metaproteomic analysis of human gut microbiota: where are we heading?

    Lee, Pey Yee; Chin, Siok-Fong; Neoh, Hui-Min; Jamal, Rahman

    2017-06-12

    The human gut is home to complex microbial populations that change dynamically in response to various internal and external stimuli. The gut microbiota provides numerous functional benefits that are crucial for human health but in the setting of a disturbed equilibrium, the microbial community can cause deleterious outcomes such as diseases and cancers. Characterization of the functional activities of human gut microbiota is fundamental to understand their roles in human health and disease. Metaproteomics, which refers to the study of the entire protein collection of the microbial community in a given sample is an emerging area of research that provides informative details concerning functional aspects of the microbiota. In this mini review, we present a summary of the progress of metaproteomic analysis for studying the functional role of gut microbiota. This is followed by an overview of the experimental approaches focusing on fecal specimen for metaproteomics and is concluded by a discussion on the challenges and future directions of metaproteomic research.

  15. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality

    Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W.; Peperkorn, Henrik M.; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user’s sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom–up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution

  16. The psyche and the gut

    Paul Enck; Ute Martens; Sibylle Klosterhalfen

    2007-01-01

    Research on gut-brain interactions has increased over the last decade and has brought about a number of new topics beyond "classical" subjects, such as "stress" and "personality", which have dominated the psychosomatic literature on gastrointestinal disorders over the past century. These novel topics include brain imaging of intestinal functions, placebo responses in gastroenterology, learning of gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life in patients with intestinal complaints, and psychotherapy and familial aggregation of functional intestinal disorders. Currently, these new topics appear with a frequency of 1% to 3% in leading gastroenterological journals, either as data presentation or review papers. Increasing focus underlines the importance of enhancing our understanding on how the psyche and the brain communicate in order to better meet the needs of our patients.

  17. The psyche and the gut

    Enck, Paul; Martens, Ute; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Research on gut-brain interactions has increased over the last decade and has brought about a number of new topics beyond "classical" subjects, such as "stress" and "personality", which have dominated the psychosomatic literature on gastrointestinal disorders over the past century. These novel topics include brain imaging of intestinal functions, placebo responses in gastroenterology, learning of gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life in patients with intestinal complaints, and psychotherapy and familial aggregation of functional intestinal disorders. Currently, these new topics appear with a frequency of 1% to 3% in leading gastroenterological journals, either as data presentation or review papers. Increasing focus underlines the importance of enhancing our understanding on how the psyche and the brain communicate in order to better meet the needs of our patients. PMID:17659685

  18. Comparative gut physiology symposium: The microbe-gut-brain axis

    The Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium titled “The Microbe-Gut-Brain Axis” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association on Thursday, July 21, 2016, in Salt Lake City Utah. The goal of the symposium was to present basic r...

  19. The Gut Microbiota: Ecology and Function

    Willing, B.P.; Jansson, J.K.

    2010-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is teeming with an extremely abundant and diverse microbial community. The members of this community have coevolved along with their hosts over millennia. Until recently, the gut ecosystem was viewed as black box with little knowledge of who or what was there or their specific functions. Over the past decade, however, this ecosystem has become one of fastest growing research areas of focus in microbial ecology and human and animal physiology. This increased interest is largely in response to studies tying microbes in the gut to important diseases afflicting modern society, including obesity, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. Although the importance of a resident community of microorganisms in health was first hypothesized by Pasteur over a century ago (Sears, 2005), the multiplicity of physiological changes induced by commensal bacteria has only recently been recognized (Hooper et al., 2001). The term 'ecological development' was recently coined to support the idea that development of the GI tract is a product of the genetics of the host and the host's interactions with resident microbes (Hooper, 2004). The search for new therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers has escalated the need to understand the identities and functions of the microorganisms inhabiting the gut. Recent studies have revealed new insights into the membership of the gut microbial community, interactions within that community, as well as mechanisms of interaction with the host. This chapter focuses on the microbial ecology of the gut, with an emphasis on information gleaned from recent molecular studies.

  20. Handling stress may confound murine gut microbiota studies

    Cary R. Allen-Blevins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO, the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis, a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004. Exposure to gut bacteria like B. infantisduring critical neurodevelopment windows in early life appears to have behavioral consequences; however, environmental, physical, and social stress during this period can also have behavioral and microbial consequences. While rodent models are a useful method for determining causal relationships between HMO, gut microbiota, and behavior, murine studies of gut microbiota usually employ oral gavage, a technique stressful to the mouse. Our aim was to develop a less-invasive technique for HMO administration to remove the potential confound of gavage stress. Under the hypothesis that stress affects gut microbiota, particularly B. infantis, we predicted the pups receiving a prebiotic solution in a less-invasive manner would have the highest amount of Bifidobacteria in their gut. Methods This study was designed to test two methods, active and passive, of solution administration to mice and the effects on their gut microbiome. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice housed in a specific-pathogen free facility received increasing doses of fructooligosaccharide (FOS solution or deionized, distilled water. Gastrointestinal (GI tracts were collected from five dams, six sires, and 41 pups over four time points. Seven fecal pellets from unhandled pups and two pellets from unhandled dams were also collected. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to quantify and compare the amount of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, and

  1. Receptors and effects of gut hormones in three osteoblastic cell lines

    Wilson Peter JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years the interest on the relationship of gut hormones to bone processes has increased and represents one of the most interesting aspects in skeletal research. The proportion of bone mass to soft tissue is a relationship that seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle regulations that imply "cross-talks" between the nutrient intake and tissues like fat. Thus, recognition of the mechanisms that integrate a gastrointestinal-fat-bone axis and its application to several aspects of human health is vital for improving treatments related to bone diseases. This work analysed the effects of gut hormones in cell cultures of three osteoblastic cell lines which represent different stages in osteoblastic development. Also, this is the first time that there is a report on the direct effects of glucagon-like peptide 2, and obestatin on osteoblast-like cells. Methods mRNA expression levels of five gut hormone receptors (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], glucagon-like peptide 2 [GLP-2], ghrelin [GHR] and obestatin [OB] were analysed in three osteoblastic cell lines (Saos-2, TE-85 and MG-63 showing different stages of osteoblast development using reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. The responses to the gut peptides were studied using assays for cell viability, and biochemical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptides (P1NP, and osteocalcin production. Results The gut hormone receptor mRNA displayed the highest levels for GIP in Saos-2 and the lowest levels in MG-63, whereas GHR and GPR39 (the putative obestatin receptor expression was higher in TE-85 and MG-63 and lower in Saos-2. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were expressed only in MG-63 and TE-85. Treatment of gut hormones to cell lines showed differential responses: higher levels in cell viability in Saos-2 after GIP, in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2, ghrelin and

  2. Flipped GUT inflation

    Ellis, John; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model paramet...

  3. Research about the Physical Reactions to Appear in Herbal Acupuncture Operating

    Kim Young-Ho

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was done to observe the physical reactions after herbal acupuncture operating, through the questionnaire. Methods : The study group was divided into six groups that were NS group(N=20, CF group(N=22, BU group(N=23, BUM(N=19, HP group(N=20 and BV group(N=19. The herbal acupuncture was injected by 0.05ml at the Fengmen(風門:B12, Feishu(肺兪:B13, Fufen(附分:B41, Pohu(魄戶:B42 4 points. Therefore suffers recorded the existence of the symptoms on questionnaire paper which we exemplified the above symptoms on that day, in the first day, in the second day and in the seventh day. Results : The following results were obtained ; 1. General symptoms which appear in the herbal acupuncture operating were following as : pain of body partially, discomfort, pain which appear in activity and fatigue. 2. The symptoms which appear in the herbal acupuncture operating were most extreme in the first day, since then those were reduced. Conclusions : By the above results, it would be needed further research about statistically comparative-study among herbal acupunctures and alternative plans which is decreased side effect.

  4. The interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system.

    Geuking, Markus B; Köller, Yasmin; Rupp, Sandra; McCoy, Kathy D

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels to achieve a mutualistic relationship. Host-microbial homeostasis involves appropriate immune regulation within the gut mucosa to maintain a healthy gut while preventing uncontrolled immune responses against the beneficial commensal microbiota potentially leading to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the microbiota composition might impact on the susceptibility to immune-mediated disorders such as autoimmunity and allergy. Understanding how the microbiota modulates susceptibility to these diseases is an important step toward better prevention or treatment options for such diseases.

  5. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  6. First Foods and Gut Microbes

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    , are generally recognized to be of particular importance for the healthy development of children. While dietary changes are known to affect the adult gut microbiota, there is a gap in our knowledge on how the introduction of new dietary components into the diet of infants/young children affects the gut...... microbiota development. This perspective paper summarizes the currently very few studies addressing the effects of complementary diet on gut microbiota, and highlights the recent finding that transition to family foods greatly impacts the development of gut microbial diversity. Further, we discuss potential......(breast/formula). Consequently, the neonatal period and early infancy has attracted much attention. However, after this first period the gut microbial composition continues to develop until the age of 3 years, and these 1st years have been designated "a window of opportunity" for microbial modulation. The beginning and end...

  7. Low calorie sweeteners: Evidence remains lacking for effects on human gut function.

    Bryant, Charlotte; Mclaughlin, John

    2016-10-01

    The importance of nutrient induced gut-brain signalling in the regulation of human food intake has become an increasing focus of research. Much of the caloric excess consumed comes from dietary sugars, but our knowledge about the mechanisms mediating the physiological and appetitive effects of sweet tastants in the human gut and gut-brain axis is far from complete. The comparative effects of natural sugars vs low calorie sweeteners are also poorly understood. Research in animal and cellular models has suggested a key functional role in gut endocrine cells for the sweet taste receptors previously well described in oral taste. However human studies to date have very consistently failed to show that activation of the sweet taste receptor by low calorie sweeteners placed in the human gut fails to replicate any of the effects on gastric motility, gut hormones or appetitive responses evoked by caloric sugars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Steering endogenous butyrate production in the intestinal tract of broilers as a tool to improve gut health

    Lonneke eOnrust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that is sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies.

  9. Mammalian Gut Immunity

    Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T.; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a “love–hate relationship.” Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases. PMID:25163502

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Theory of Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    1986-01-01

    The calculation of cross sections and rate constants for chemical reactions in the gas phase has long been a major problem in theoretical chemistry. The need for reliable and applicable theories in this field is evident when one considers the significant recent advances that have been made in developing experimental techniques, such as lasers and molecular beams, to probe the microscopic details of chemical reactions. For example, it is now becoming possible to measure cross sections for chemical reactions state selected in the vibrational­ rotational states of both reactants and products. Furthermore, in areas such as atmospheric, combustion and interstellar chemistry, there is an urgent need for reliable reaction rate constant data over a range of temperatures, and this information is often difficult to obtain in experiments. The classical trajectory method can be applied routinely to simple reactions, but this approach neglects important quantum mechanical effects such as tunnelling and resonances. For al...

  11. Research of Hydrogen Preparation with Catalytic Steam-Carbon Reaction Driven by Photo-Thermochemistry Process

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of hydrogen preparation from steam-carbon reaction catalyzed by K2CO3 was carried out at 700°C, which was driven by the solar reaction system simulated with Xenon lamp. It can be found that the rate of reaction with catalyst is 10 times more than that without catalyst. However, for the catalytic reaction, there is no obvious change for the rate of hydrogen generation with catalyst content range from 10% to 20%. Besides, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to chemical energy is more than 13.1% over that by photovoltaic-electrolysis route. An analysis to the mechanism of catalytic steam-carbon reaction with K2CO3 is given, and an explanation to the nonbalanced [H2]/[CO + 2CO2] is presented, which is a phenomenon usually observed in experiment.

  12. Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats

    Qian Zhang; Hongyue Yu; Xinhua Xiao; Ling Hu; Fengjiao Xin; Xiaobing Yu

    2018-01-01

    Background & Aims Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-tre...

  13. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism

    Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol

    1996-12-01

    This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.

  14. Gut microbiota in health and disease

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease.

  15. The Lower Extremities Exoskeleton Actuator Dynamics Research Taking into Account Support Reaction

    A. A. Vereikin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows high relevance of research, aimed at the robotic exoskeleton creation. It defines some problems related to the process of their designing; including a lack of power supply to provide enough autonomy, and difficulties of man-machine complex control. There is a review of literature on the walking robots with tree-like kinematic structure development. This work reflects the continuing investigations, currently conducted by the authors, and relies heavily on the results of previous works, devoted to this subject.The article presents the exoskeleton dynamics equation, taking into account the impact of external forces and torques, as well as external relations imposed. Using a model of lower extremities exoskeleton developed in SolidWorks software complex, baricentric parameters of the actuator links were found. The different types of movements, committed due to harmonic changes of generalized coordinates in exoskeleton degrees of mobility, equipped with electrohydraulic actuators, were analyzed. The laws of generalized coordinate changes in time, corresponding to the worst case loading, were found. All the necessary input data for the exoskeleton dynamics equation solution were determined.The numerical values of all components of the dynamics equation were obtained as result of the dynamics equation simulation. In this case, the exoskeleton actuator load capacity was assumed to be 50 kg. The article shows dependences of torque and power in the actuator degrees of mobility on the time, as well as a curve of total capacity of all drives both, ignoring and taking into consideration the support surface reactions. Obtained dependences are the initial data for the calculation of the drive system.The proposed method for determination of exoskeleton energy parameters allows developer to perform a prompt evaluation of various options for the actuator design in accordance with the selected criteria. As a main evaluation criterion, a minimum

  16. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  17. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    Fazlollahi, M; Chun, Y; Grishin, A; Wood, R A; Burks, A W; Dawson, P; Jones, S M; Leung, D Y M; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Bunyavanich, S

    2018-07-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multicenter Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected, and clinical evaluation, egg-specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles. Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg-allergic subjects (Kruskal-Wallis P adj  = 0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg-allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  18. Quantitative metagenomics reveals unique gut microbiome biomarkers in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Wen, Chengping; Zheng, Zhijun; Shao, Tiejuan; Liu, Lin; Xie, Zhijun; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; He, Zhixing; Zhong, Wendi; Fan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Linshuang; Li, Haichang; Wu, Chunyan; Hu, Changfeng; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Jia; Cai, Shunfeng; Wang, Dawei; Huang, Yun; Breban, Maxime; Qin, Nan; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko

    2017-07-27

    The assessment and characterization of the gut microbiome has become a focus of research in the area of human autoimmune diseases. Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory autoimmune disease and evidence showed that ankylosing spondylitis may be a microbiome-driven disease. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and ankylosing spondylitis, a quantitative metagenomics study based on deep shotgun sequencing was performed, using gut microbial DNA from 211 Chinese individuals. A total of 23,709 genes and 12 metagenomic species were shown to be differentially abundant between ankylosing spondylitis patients and healthy controls. Patients were characterized by a form of gut microbial dysbiosis that is more prominent than previously reported cases with inflammatory bowel disease. Specifically, the ankylosing spondylitis patients demonstrated increases in the abundance of Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella copri, and Prevotella sp. C561 and decreases in Bacteroides spp. It is noteworthy that the Bifidobacterium genus, which is commonly used in probiotics, accumulated in the ankylosing spondylitis patients. Diagnostic algorithms were established using a subset of these gut microbial biomarkers. Alterations of the gut microbiome are associated with development of ankylosing spondylitis. Our data suggest biomarkers identified in this study might participate in the pathogenesis or development process of ankylosing spondylitis, providing new leads for the development of new diagnostic tools and potential treatments.

  19. Gut Protozoa: Friends or Foes of the Human Gut Microbiota?

    Chabé, Magali; Lokmer, Ana; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-12-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota for human health has sparked a strong interest in the study of the factors that shape its composition and diversity. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that helminths and protozoa significantly interact with gut bacteria, gut microbiome studies remain mostly focused on prokaryotes and on populations living in industrialized countries that typically have a low parasite burden. We argue that protozoa, like helminths, represent an important factor to take into account when studying the gut microbiome, and that their presence - especially considering their long coevolutionary history with humans - may be beneficial. From this perspective, we examine the relationship between the protozoa and their hosts, as well as their relevance for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flipped GUT inflation

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, 1217 Meyrin (Switzerland); Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  1. Flipped GUT inflation

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: tomas.gonzalo.11@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: j.harz@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  2. Flipped GUT Inflation

    Ellis, John; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)$\\times$U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, $A_s$, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, $n_s$, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, $r$. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  3. Is the Gut Microbiota a New Factor Contributing to Obesity and Its Metabolic Disorders?

    Kristina Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota refers to the trillions of microorganisms residing in the intestine and is integral in multiple physiological processes of the host. Recent research has shown that gut bacteria play a role in metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which the gut microbiota affects metabolic diseases are by two major routes: (1 the innate immune response to the structural components of bacteria (e.g., lipopolysaccharide resulting in inflammation and (2 bacterial metabolites of dietary compounds (e.g., SCFA from fiber, which have biological activities that regulate host functions. Gut microbiota has evolved with humans as a mutualistic partner, but dysbiosis in a form of altered gut metagenome and collected microbial activities, in combination with classic genetic and environmental factors, may promote the development of metabolic disorders. This paper reviews the available literature about the gut microbiota and aforementioned metabolic disorders and reveals the gaps in knowledge for future study.

  4. Beyond gut feelings: how the gut microbiota regulates blood pressure.

    Marques, Francine Z; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke, and is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex, but lifestyle factors such as diet are important contributors to the disease. High dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced blood pressure and lower cardiovascular mortality. A critical relationship between dietary intake and the composition of the gut microbiota has been described in the literature, and a growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and its metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, trimethylamine N-oxide, and lipopolysaccharides, act on downstream cellular targets to prevent or contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. These effects have a direct influence on tissues such as the kidney, the endothelium, and the heart. Finally, we consider the role of the gut microbiota in resistant hypertension, the possible intergenerational effect of the gut microbiota on blood pressure regulation, and the promising therapeutic potential of gut microbiota modification to improve health and prevent disease.

  5. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. I start with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs before going on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The first section is an update on conventional GUTs, which is followed by a reminder of some of the motivations for going supersymmetric. There then follows a simple primer on susy and a discussion of the structure and phenomenology of simple sysy GUTs. Finally we come to the cosmological issues, including problems arising from the degeneracy of susy minima, baryosynthesis and supersymmetric inflation, the possibility that gravity is an essential complication in constructing susy GUTs and discussing their cosmology, and the related question of what mass range is allowed for the gravitino. Several parts of this write-up contain new material which has emerged either during the Workshop or subsequently. They are included here for completeness and the convenience of the prospective reader. Wherever possible, these anachronisms will be flagged so as to keep straight the historical record

  6. Research on the quantum multistep theory for pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction

    Su Zong Di; Abdurixit, A; Wang Shu Nuan; Li Bao Xian; Huang Zhong; Liu Jian Feng; Zhang Benai; Zhu Yao Yin; Li Zhi Wen

    2002-01-01

    The Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) quantum multistep theory of the pre-equilibrium reaction is further improved and perfected. A unified description for the multistep compound (MSC) process of the pre-equilibrium reaction and the compound nucleus (CN) process of full equilibrium reaction can be presented. This formula can integrate MSC and CN theories with the optical model and Hauser-Feshbach formula, and can get self-consistent expression. In multistep direct (MSD) process of the pre-equilibrium reaction, the mu-step cross section can be expressed by the convolution of mu one-step cross section. And the one step cross section for continuum can be written as the product of an averaged DWBA matrix element and the state density. For calculating the multistep direct reaction cross section, two methods, the state densities and full microscopic model, are used and compared. Some typical experiments are analyzed by using the work mentioned above. The calculated results are reasonable and in good agreement with the e...

  7. First Foods and Gut Microbes

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the human gut microbiota in early life has been associated with later health and disease. During the 1st months after birth, the microbial composition in the gut is known to be affected by the mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, geographical location and type of feeding...... of this window is currently debated, but it likely coincides with the complementary feeding period, marking the gradual transition from milk- based infant feeding to family diet usually occurring between 6 and 24 months. Furthermore, the 'first 1000 days,' i.e., the period from conception until age 2 years...... microbiota development. This perspective paper summarizes the currently very few studies addressing the effects of complementary diet on gut microbiota, and highlights the recent finding that transition to family foods greatly impacts the development of gut microbial diversity. Further, we discuss potential...

  8. Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Libraries and Software Tools for Nuclear Astrophysics Research

    Smith, Michael S.; Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Karl; Warren, Scott; Ferguson, Ryan; Wiescher, Michael; Lingerfelt, Eric; Buckner, Kim; Nesaraja, Caroline D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates are a crucial input for simulating a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A new collaboration has been formed to ensure that astrophysical modelers have access to reaction rates based on the most recent experimental and theoretical nuclear physics information. To reach this goal, a new version of the REACLIB library has been created by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), now available online at http://www.nscl.msu.edu/~nero/db. A complementary effort is the development of software tools in the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to streamline, manage, and access the workflow of the reaction evaluations from their initiation to peer review to incorporation into the library. Details of these new projects will be described

  9. Feed additives shift gut microbiota and enrich antibiotic resistance in swine gut.

    Zhao, Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; An, Xin-Li; Huang, Fu-Yi; Rensing, Christopher; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-15

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants posing a threat to public health. Antibiotics and metals are widely used as feed additives and could consequently affect ARGs in swine gut. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) based ARG chip and next-generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data were analyzed using multiple statistical approaches to profile the antibiotic resistome and investigate its linkages to antibiotics and metals used as feed additives and to the microbial community composition in freshly collected swine manure samples from three large-scale Chinese pig farms. A total of 146 ARGs and up to 1.3×10 10 total ARG copies per gram of swine feces were detected. ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) and tetracycline were dominant in pig gut. Total abundance of ARGs was positively correlated with in-feed antibiotics, microbial biomass and abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (Padditives and community composition (16.5%). These results suggest that increased levels of in-feed additives could aggravate the enrichment of ARGs and MGEs in swine gut. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Some Heteroaromatic Organomercurials, Their Syntheses and Reactions: A Review of Our Research (1980-2000

    Piotr Wroczynski

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This review reports some novel (or improved synthetic methods for preparing a number of aromatic (carbocyclic and predominantly heterocyclic organomercurials, particularly those derived from theophylline, theobromine and uracil, as well as some novel halo- and cyano-demercuration reactions. We have also synthesized the first stable organic derivative of mercury(I, viz. 1,8-bis(acetoxydimercurio theobromine, and studied its novel reactions. We have also improved the old Willgerodt method (1897, applicable for preparing various diaryliodonium chlorides from appropriate (dichloroiodoarenes and symmetric aromatic mercurials. A full list of our works, published over the past twenty years (1980-2000, is also provided (see Refs. 1-16.

  11. Obesity: An overview of possible role(s) of gut hormones, lipid sensing and gut microbiota.

    Mishra, Alok Kumar; Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major challenges for public health in 21st century, with 1.9 billion people being considered as overweight and 600 million as obese. There are certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and several forms of cancer which were found to be associated with obesity. Therefore, understanding the key molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of obesity could be beneficial for the development of a therapeutic approach. Hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) secreted by an endocrine organ gut, have an intense impact on energy balance and maintenance of homeostasis by inducing satiety and meal termination. Glucose and energy homeostasis are also affected by lipid sensing in which different organs respond in different ways. However, there is one common mechanism i.e. formation of esterified lipids (long chain fatty acyl CoAs) and the activation of protein kinase C δ (PKC δ) involved in all these organs. The possible role of gut microbiota and obesity has been addressed by several researchers in recent years, indicating the possible therapeutic approach toward the management of obesity by the introduction of an external living system such as a probiotic. The proposed mechanism behind this activity is attributed by metabolites produced by gut microbial organisms. Thus, this review summarizes the role of various physiological factors such as gut hormone and lipid sensing involved in various tissues and organ and most important by the role of gut microbiota in weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required. PMID:27433087

  13. Theoretical Research on the Mechanism of the Dimerization Reactions of Alkyl Ketene

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantum chemical method was employed to investigate the mechanism of dimerization reactions of alkyl ketene. All the geometric configurations of the stationary points on the reactions path were optimized with Gaussian03 employing density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311G++(d, p level by energy gradient technique. The transition states were also investigated through synchronous transit method, and its reasonability was confirmed by using frequency analysis and intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis. The results can be summed up as follows: according to the frontier orbital theory, the dimerization reaction (3 to generate four-membered carbon cyclic product P3 is forbidden. Two different dimerization processes of alkyl ketene are all concerted but nonsynchronous, taking place through twisted four-membered cyclic transition states. The activation energies were calculated to be 34.54 and 61.73 kJ/mol, respectively for the two ketene dimerization processes. Calculation results satisfactorily explained the experimental facts.

  14. Defensive reactions to health-promoting information: an overview and implications for future research

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    It is a common finding that recipients of threatening health-promoting information are motivated to dismiss or disregard the information, thus reacting defensively'. This article gives an overview of the literature on defensive reactions to health-promoting information. A distinction is made

  15. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  16. Nuclear reactions

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  17. Research on high-energy chemical reactions. Annual progress report, August 1, 1974--October 31, 1975

    Cross, R.J. Jr.

    1975-10-01

    Product yields for the reactions T* + c - C 6 D 12 → c - C 6 D 11 T, DT have been measured using a beam of T* formed by charge exchange in the energy range of 25 eV to 100 eV. A computer program was written to calculate the probability of collision vs. energy of a beam of T* moderated by He gas

  18. THEORETICAL RESEARCH ON THE MULTI-CHANNEL REACTION MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF HNCS WITH OH-

    Li-Jie Hou

    Full Text Available We presented a theoretical study on the detailed reaction mechanism and kinetics of the HNCS molecule with the OH-. The barrierless minimum energy path and the most favorable entrance channel have been determined by study the thermodynamic and kinetic characters of the channel with low energy barrier. The B3LYP/6-311++G** method was employed for all the geometrical optimizations and a multi-level extrapolation method based on the G3 energies was employed for further energy refinements. In addition, the analysis of the combining interaction between hydroxide ion and HNCS was performed by natural bond orbitals (NBO analysis. The calculation results indicated that the reaction of OH- with HNCS had four channels, and the channel of H-atom in HNCS direct extraction to OH- (OH-+HNCS→IM1→TS3→IM4→P2(SCN- +H2O in singlet state was the main channel with the low potential energy and high equilibrium constant and reaction rate constant. SCN- and H2O were main products.

  19. The Human Gut Antibiotic Resistome in the Metagenomic Era: Progress and Perspectives

    Yongfei Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is populated by a vast number of bacteria, which play a critical role in human health. In recent years, attention has focused on the gut bacteria as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods have been applied to investigate numerous ARGs, collectively called the antibiotic resistome, harbored by gut bacteria. This has led to an increased understanding of the overall profile of the gut antibiotic resistome, although it remains incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the recent research findings on the human gut antibiotic resistome, with an emphasis on progress achieved using the culture-independent metagenomic strategy. We also describe the features of different available ARG databases used for annotation in metagenomic analysis, discuss the potential problems and limitations in current research, and suggest several directions for future investigation.

  20. Research of influence of time of reaction of the driver on the calculation of the capacity of the highway

    Anastasiya SHEVTSOVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the work we performed a review of studies of foreign scholars on changing the reaction time of the driver depending on various road conditions, namely the change in the response time when using the traffic light regulation. Earlier by the authors of this article have already been carried out research in the field of throughput of a site of a highway with traffic regulation, which showed that this value depends on the time of reaction of the driver. In this article the estimation of how much bandwidth the highway using different result obtained in the course of analysis, time value of reaction of the driver and is a direct correlation bandwidth from the time of reaction of the driver. The values obtained allow to conclude that taking into account the psycho-physiological characteristics of drivers (response time will have a significant impact on the throughput and the various methods of organization and reorganization of sections of the road network, implementation of which is used investigated the amount of bandwidth.

  1. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An introduction to Randell Mills' Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUT-CP) : an Eindhoven University of Technology Honors Program 2007-2008 research project

    van der Heijden, E.H.M.; van der Heijden, M.A.; Roosmalen, van J.; Verdonschot, S.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Nijdam, S.

    2008-01-01

    This document represents the results of a year of research as part of the Honors Program of Eindhoven University of Technology. We heard about Randell L. Mills abandoning Quantum Mechanics and proposing an alternative theory. This sounded interesting enough to contact Gerrit M.W. Kroesen whose group

  3. Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms of the Interplay Between Herbal Medicines and Gut Microbiota.

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Herbal medicines (HMs) are much appreciated for their significant contribution to human survival and reproduction by remedial and prophylactic management of diseases. Defining the scientific basis of HMs will substantiate their value and promote their modernization. Ever-increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in HM therapy by complicated interplay with HM components. This interplay includes such activities as: gut microbiota biotransforming HM chemicals into metabolites that harbor different bioavailability and bioactivity/toxicity from their precursors; HM chemicals improving the composition of gut microbiota, consequently ameliorating its dysfunction as well as associated pathological conditions; and gut microbiota mediating the interactions (synergistic and antagonistic) between the multiple chemicals in HMs. More advanced experimental designs are recommended for future study, such as overall chemical characterization of gut microbiota-metabolized HMs, direct microbial analysis of HM-targeted gut microbiota, and precise gut microbiota research model development. The outcomes of such research can further elucidate the interactions between HMs and gut microbiota, thereby opening a new window for defining the scientific basis of HMs and for guiding HM-based drug discovery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Potential for Gut Organoid Derived Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Replacement Therapy

    Jerry Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective digestion requires propagation of food along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves coordinated waves of peristalsis produced by enteric neural cell types, including different categories of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC. Impaired food transport along the gastrointestinal tract, either too fast or too slow, causes a range of gut motility disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Notably, loss of ICC has been shown to affect gut motility. Patients that suffer from gut motility disorders regularly experience diarrhoea and/or constipation, insomnia, anxiety, attention lapses, irritability, dizziness, and headaches that greatly affect both physical and mental health. Limited treatment options are available for these patients, due to the scarcity of human gut tissue for research and transplantation. Recent advances in stem cell technology suggest that large amounts of rudimentary, yet functional, human gut tissue can be generated in vitro for research applications. Intriguingly, these stem cell-derived gut organoids appear to contain functional ICC, although their frequency and functional properties are yet to be fully characterised. By reviewing methods of gut organoid generation, together with what is known of the molecular and functional characteristics of ICC, this article highlights short- and long-term goals that need to be overcome in order to develop ICC-based therapies for gut motility disorders.

  5. Pathophysiology of the Gut and the Microbiome in the Host Response.

    Lyons, John D; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-03-01

    To describe and summarize the data supporting the gut as the motor driving critical illness and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome presented at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development MODS Workshop (March 26-27, 2015). Summary of workshop keynote presentation. Not applicable. Presented by an expert in the field, the data assessing the role of gastrointestinal dysfunction driving critical illness were described with a focus on identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities. Summary of presentation and discussion supported and supplemented by relevant literature. The understanding of gut dysfunction in critical illness has evolved greatly over time, and the gut is now often considered as the "motor" of critical illness. The association of the gut with critical illness is supported by both animal models and clinical studies. Initially, the association between gut dysfunction and critical illness focused primarily on bacterial translocation into the bloodstream. However, that work has evolved to include other gut-derived products causing distant injury via other routes (e.g., lymphatics). Additionally, alterations in the gut epithelium may be associated with critical illness and influence outcomes. Gut epithelial apoptosis, intestinal hyperpermeability, and perturbations in the intestinal mucus layer have all been associated with critical illness. Finally, there is growing evidence that the intestinal microbiome plays a crucial role in mediating pathology in critical illness. Further research is needed to better understand the role of each of these mechanisms and their contribution to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in children.

  6. Immune homeostasis, dysbiosis and therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota.

    Peterson, C T; Sharma, V; Elmén, L; Peterson, S N

    2015-03-01

    The distal gut harbours ∼10(13) bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system. Imbalances of gut microbiota may lead to a number of pathologies such as obesity, type I and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammaging/immunosenscence in the elderly. In-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control homeostasis and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota represents an important step in our ability to reliably modulate the gut microbiota with positive clinical outcomes. The potential of microbiome-based therapeutics to treat epidemic human disease is of great interest. New therapeutic paradigms, including second-generation personalized probiotics, prebiotics, narrow spectrum antibiotic treatment and faecal microbiome transplantation, may provide safer and natural alternatives to traditional clinical interventions for chronic diseases. This review discusses host-microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  7. [Diet and gut microbiota: two sides of the same coin?

    Schiumerini, Ramona; Pasqui, Francesca; Festi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem, resident in the digestive tract, exerting multiple functions that can have a significant impact on the pathophysiology of the host organism. The composition and functions of this "superorganism" are influenced by many factors, and among them, the host's dietary habits seem to have a significant effect. Dietary changes in the evolution of human history and in the different stages of life of the human subjects are responsible for qualitative and functional modification of gut microbiota. At the same time, the different dietary models adopted in worldwide geographic areas take into account the inter-individual differences concerning composition and microbial function. This close relationship between diet, gut microbiota and host seems, in fact, to be responsible for the protection or predisposition to develop several metabolic, immunological, neoplastic and functional diseases. Thus, several studies have evaluated the impact of diet and lifestyle modification strategies on gut microbiota composition and functions which, in turn, seems to affect the effectiveness of such therapeutic measures. Gut microbiota manipulation strategies, as complementary to dietary modifications, represent a fascinating field of research, even if consolidated data are still lacking.

  8. Probiotic Species in the Modulation of Gut Microbiota: An Overview

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are microbial strains that are beneficial to health, and their potential has recently led to a significant increase in research interest in their use to modulate the gut microbiota. The animal gut is a complex ecosystem of host cells, microbiota, and available nutrients, and the microbiota prevents several degenerative diseases in humans and animals via immunomodulation. The gut microbiota and its influence on human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immunity are addressed, and several probiotic species and strains are discussed to improve the understanding of modulation of gut microbiota. This paper provides a broad review of several Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and other coliform bacteria as the most promising probiotic species and their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malignancy, liver disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. This review also discusses a recent study of Saccharomyces spp. in which inflammation was prevented by promotion of proinflammatory immune function via the production of short-chain fatty acids. A summary of gut microbiota alteration with future perspectives is also provided.

  9. Exercise, fitness, and the gut.

    Cronin, Owen; Molloy, Michael G; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and gut symptomatology have long been connected. The possibility that regular exercise fosters intestinal health and function has been somewhat overlooked in the scientific literature. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss a selection of recent, relevant, and innovative studies, hypotheses and reviews that elucidate a complex topic. The multiorgan benefits of regular exercise are extensive. When taken in moderation, these benefits transcend improved cardio-respiratory fitness and likely reach the gut in a metabolic, immunological, neural, and microbial manner. This is applicable in both health and disease. However, further work is required to provide safe, effective recommendations on physical activity in specific gastrointestinal conditions. Challenging methodology investigating the relationship between exercise and gut health should not deter from exploring exercise in the promotion of gastrointestinal health.

  10. Global F-theory GUTs

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Jurke, Benjamin; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.

  11. Global F-theory GUTs

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Grimm, Thomas W.; Jurke, Benjamin; Weigand, Timo

    2010-01-01

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4)xU(1) X ] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P 4 [4].

  12. The Ethical Judgment and Moral Reaction to the Product-Harm Crisis: Theoretical Model and Empirical Research

    Dong Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dual-process theory of ethical judgment, a research model is proposed for examining consumers’ moral reactions to a product-harm crisis. A national-wide survey was conducted with 801 respondents in China. The results of this study indicate that consumers will react to a product-harm crisis through controlled cognitive processing and emotional intuition. The results of the study also show that consumers view a product-harm crisis as an ethical issue, and they will make an ethical judgment according to the perceived severity and perceived relevance of the crisis. The ethical judgment in the perceived crisis severity and perceived crisis relevance will affect consumers’ condemning emotions in terms of contempt and anger. Through controlled cognitive processing, a personal consumption-related reaction (purchasing intention is influenced by the perceived crisis severity. Furthermore, a social and interpersonal reaction (negative word of mouth is influenced by the perceived crisis relevance through the controlled cognitive processing. This social and interpersonal reaction is also influenced by the perceived crisis severity and perceived crisis relevance through the intuition of other-condemning emotion. Moreover, this study finds that the product knowledge negatively moderates the impact of the perceived crisis severity on the condemning emotions. Therefore, when a consumer has a high level of product knowledge, the effect of perceived crisis severity on the condemning emotions will be attenuated, and vice versa. This study provides scholars and managers with means of understanding and handling of consumers’ reactions to a product-harm crisis.

  13. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section of Uranium, Americium and Curium Isotopes. Progress report - Research Contract 14485, Coordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2009-12-01

    This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for 236 U, 242m Am, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm and 246 Cm done at this spectrometer. The work was partially supported through the IAEA research contract RC-14485-RD in the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project 'Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)'. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA-1182 (2007) and JIA-1212 (2009) reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian. Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. (author)

  14. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  15. Reactions to Participating in Dating Violence Research: Are Our Questions Distressing Participants?

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Cornelius, Tara L.; Bell, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased research focus on dating violence, producing important information for reducing these violent relationships. Yet Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are often hesitant to approve research on dating violence, citing emotional distress of participants as a possible risk of participation. However, no known…

  16. Psychobiotics and the Manipulation of Bacteria-Gut-Brain Signals.

    Sarkar, Amar; Lehto, Soili M; Harty, Siobhán; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Burnet, Philip W J

    2016-11-01

    Psychobiotics were previously defined as live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. We expand this definition to encompass prebiotics, which enhance the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. We review probiotic and prebiotic effects on emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural variables relevant to health and disease. We discuss gut-brain signalling mechanisms enabling psychobiotic effects, such as metabolite production. Overall, knowledge of how the microbiome responds to exogenous influence remains limited. We tabulate several important research questions and issues, exploration of which will generate both mechanistic insights and facilitate future psychobiotic development. We suggest the definition of psychobiotics be expanded beyond probiotics and prebiotics to include other means of influencing the microbiome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  18. 33 CFR 117.537 - Townsend Gut.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Townsend Gut. 117.537 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.537 Townsend Gut. The draw of the Southport (SR27) Bridge, at mile 0.7, across Townsend Gut between Boothbay Harbor and Southport, Maine shall open on...

  19. Cross-talk of human gut with bifidobacteria

    Trebichavský, Ilja; Rada, V.; Šplíchalová, Alla; Šplíchal, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2009), s. 77-82 ISSN 0029-6643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bifidobacteria * gut * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.443, year: 2009

  20. The brain-gut interaction: the conversation and the implications

    experience? If we look ... hormonal system.3 The brain-gut axis can be compared with a complex ... efferent neurons.11 The part of the nervous system that is connected with the .... habits.16,22 In addition, there is a substantial psychological co-morbidity .... Research focusing on the role of anxiety in the exacerbation of IBS.

  1. Intestinal Immunomodulatory Cells (T Lymphocytes: A Bridge between Gut Microbiota and Diabetes

    Qingwei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most familiar chronic diseases threatening human health. Recent studies have shown that the development of diabetes is closely related to an imbalance of the gut microbiota. Accordingly, there is increasing interest in how changes in the gut microbiota affect diabetes and its underlying mechanisms. Immunomodulatory cells play important roles in maintaining the normal functioning of the human immune system and in maintaining homeostasis. Intestinal immunomodulatory cells (IICs are located in the intestinal mucosa and are regarded as an intermediary by which the gut microbiota affects physiological and pathological properties. Diabetes can be regulated by IICs, which act as a bridge linking the gut microbiota and DM. Understanding this bridge role of IICs may clarify the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota contributes to DM. Based on recent research, we summarize this process, thereby providing a basis for further studies of diabetes and other similar immune-related diseases.

  2. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  3. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  4. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  5. Getting to the guts of the matter: the status and potential of 'omics' research of parasitic protists of the human gastrointestinal system.

    Jex, Aaron R; Koehler, Anson V; Ansell, Brendan R; Baker, Louise; Karunajeewa, Harin; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-11-01

    Parasitic protists are a major cause of diarrhoeal illnesses in humans globally. Collectively, enteric pathogens exceed all other forms of infectious disease, in terms of their estimated global prevalence and socioeconomic impact. They have a disproportionately high impact on children in impoverished communities, leading to acute (diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and death) and chronic disease (malabsorption, malnutrition, physical and cognitive stunting and predisposition to chronic, non-communicable disease) consequences. However, historically, investment in research and disease control measures has been disproportionately poor, leading to their current classification as neglected pathogens. A sound understanding of their biology is essential in underpinning detection, treatment and control efforts. One major tool in rapidly improving our knowledge of these parasites is the use of biological systems, including 'omic' technologies. In recent years, these tools have shown significant success when applied to enteric protists. This review summarises much of this knowledge and highlights the significant remaining knowledge gaps. A major focus of the present review was to provide a perspective on a way forward to address these gaps using advanced biotechnologies. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiota and Neurological Disorders: A Gut Feeling.

    Moos, Walter H; Faller, Douglas V; Harpp, David N; Kanara, Iphigenia; Pernokas, Julie; Powers, Whitney R; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, noncommunicable diseases have surpassed infectious diseases as the principal cause of sickness and death, worldwide. Trillions of commensal microbes live in and on our body, and constitute the human microbiome. The vast majority of these microorganisms are maternally derived and live in the gut, where they perform functions essential to our health and survival, including: digesting food, activating certain drugs, producing short-chain fatty acids (which help to modulate gene expression by inhibiting the deacetylation of histone proteins), generating anti-inflammatory substances, and playing a fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of our immune system. Among the many roles the microbiome ultimately plays, it mitigates against untoward effects from our exposure to the environment by forming a biotic shield between us and the outside world. The importance of physical activity coupled with a balanced and healthy diet in the maintenance of our well-being has been recognized since antiquity. However, it is only recently that characterization of the host-microbiome intermetabolic and crosstalk pathways has come to the forefront in studying therapeutic design. As reviewed in this report, synthetic biology shows potential in developing microorganisms for correcting pathogenic dysbiosis (gut microbiota-host maladaptation), although this has yet to be proven. However, the development and use of small molecule drugs have a long and successful history in the clinic, with small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors representing one relevant example already approved to treat cancer and other disorders. Moreover, preclinical research suggests that epigenetic treatment of neurological conditions holds significant promise. With the mouth being an extension of the digestive tract, it presents a readily accessible diagnostic site for the early detection of potential unhealthy pathogens resident in the gut. Taken together, the data outlined

  7. Gut Microbiota, Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and related disorders such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes has vastly increased throughout the world. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective suggesting that our microbiota might be involved in the development of these disorders. This represents an area of scientific need, opportunity and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems. CONTENT: Our bowels have two major roles: the digestion and absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of a barrier against the external environment. They fulfill these functions in the context of, and with the help from, tens of trillions of resident microbes, known as the gut microbiota. Studies have demonstrated that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with profound microbiotal changes, and the induction of a metabolic syndrome phenotype through fecal transplants corroborates the important role of the microbiota in this disease. Dietary composition and caloric intake appear to swiftly regulate intestinal microbial composition and function. SUMMARY: The interaction of the intestinal microbial world with its host, and its mutual regulation, will become one of the important topics of biomedical research and will provide us with further insights at the interface of microbiota, metabolism, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. A better understanding of the interaction between certain diets and the human gut microbiome should help to develop new guidelines for feeding humans at various time points in their life, help to improve global human health, and establish ways to prevent or treat various food-related diseases. KEYWORDS: gut microbiota, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes.

  8. The human gut microbiome of Latin America populations: a landscape to be discovered.

    Magne, Fabien; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Vidal, Roberto; Farfan, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    The gut microbiome is critical for human health, and its alteration is associated with intestinal, autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Numerous studies have focused on prevention or treatment of dysbiotic microbiome to reduce the risk or effect of these diseases. A key issue is to define the microbiome associated with the state of good health. The purpose of this review is to describe factors influencing the gut microbiome with special emphasis on contributions from Latin America. In addition, we will highlight opportunities for future studies on gut microbiome in Latin America. A relevant factor influencing gut microbiome composition is geographical location associated with specific genetic, dietary and lifestyle factors. Geographical specificities suggest that a universal 'healthy microbiome' is unlikely. Several research programs, mostly from Europe and North America, are extensively sequencing gut microbiome of healthy people, whereas data from Latin America remain scarce yet slowly increasing. Few studies have shown difference in the composition of gut microbiome between their local populations with that of other industrialized countries (North American populations). Latin America is composed of countries with a myriad of lifestyles, traditions, genetic backgrounds and socioeconomic conditions, which may determine differences in gut microbiome of individuals from different countries. This represents an opportunity to better understand the relationship between these factors and gut microbiome.

  9. A Large High Vacuum Reaction Chamber for Nuclear Physics Research at VECC, Kolkata

    Kundu, S; Bhattacharya, S; Meena, J K; Ghosh, T K; Bhattacharjee, T; Mukhopadhyay, P; Bhattacharya, C; Rana, T K; Banerjee, K; Mukherjee, G; Banerjee, S R; Bandyopadhyay, D L; Ahammed, M; Bhattacharya, P

    2012-01-01

    A large, segmented, horizontal axis, reaction chamber (SHARC) has recently been fabricated, installed and integrated with the beam line in the VECC superconducting cyclotron (SCC) experimental area. It is a cylindrical, three segment, stainless steel chamber of length 2.2 m, diameter 1 m. Two pairs of parallel rails have been provided internally for placement of the target assembly and detector systems within the chamber. The whole target assembly can be placed anywhere on the rail to facilitate optimum flight path. The nominal vacuum of ∼1×10 −7 mbar has been obtained in ∼8 hrs by means of two turbo molecular (1000 l/s) and two cryo pumps (2500 l/s) backed by mechanical pumps. The whole vacuum system as well as the target positioning (vertical and rotational movements) operations are fully automated with manual override option; both are monitored and controlled locally as well as remotely through the local and remote control units providing real time status display.

  10. Experimental study of the reaction p vector d → π -X. Research of multibaryonic resonances

    Benabdelouahed, D.

    1987-11-01

    The polarized proton beam is produced by the synchrotron of the National Laboratory Saturne (LNS), at incident energies of 1.45 GeV, 2.1 GeV and 2.7 GeV. The pions were detected at an angle 13 0 , with the magnetic spectrometer SPES-III. The limits of the cross section for the formation of tribaryon resonances are given as functions of missing mass, in the range between 3 GeV et 3,8 GeV. At the 1,45 GeV incident energy two structures located near the acceptance limit of the spectrometer are interpreted in term of conventional physics. The first structure near a mass of 2855 MeV should be from the nucleon-nucleon interactions in the final state whereas the second one at about 2950 MeV is attributed to the upper thresholds of different pion production reactions. The analysing power variations are attributed to two baryons interactions in the final state rather than to a manifestation of possible tribaryon resonances. A qualitative agreement has been obtained between the values of the cross sections measured at the incident energy of 1.45 GeV and the theoretical values obtained with a model based on meson exchange. This model does not reproduce the variations of the analysing power [fr

  11. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  12. Neuroimmune modulation of gut function

    There is considerable interest in the mechanisms and pathways involved in the neuro-immune regulation of gut function. The number of cell types and possible interactions is staggering and there are a number of recent reviews detailing various aspects of these interactions, many of which focus on ...

  13. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes.

    Anubhav Das

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends.

  14. The gut-liver axis

    Visschers, Ruben G. J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Schaap, Frank G.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    The liver adaptively responds to extra-intestinal and intestinal inflammation. In recent years, the role of the autonomic nervous system, intestinal failure and gut microbiota has been investigated in the development of hepatic, intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. The autonomic nervous system

  15. Neutrino assisted GUT baryogenesis revisited

    Huang, Wei-Chih; Päs, Heinrich; Zeißner, Sinan

    2018-03-01

    Many grand unified theory (GUT) models conserve the difference between the baryon and lepton number, B -L . These models can create baryon and lepton asymmetries from heavy Higgs or gauge boson decays with B +L ≠0 but with B -L =0 . Since the sphaleron processes violate B +L , such GUT-generated asymmetries will finally be washed out completely, making GUT baryogenesis scenarios incapable of reproducing the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In this work, we revisit the idea to revive GUT baryogenesis, proposed by Fukugita and Yanagida, where right-handed neutrinos erase the lepton asymmetry before the sphaleron processes can significantly wash out the original B +L asymmetry, and in this way one can prevent a total washout of the initial baryon asymmetry. By solving the Boltzmann equations numerically for baryon and lepton asymmetries in a simplified 1 +1 flavor scenario, we can confirm the results of the original work. We further generalize the analysis to a more realistic scenario of three active and two right-handed neutrinos to highlight flavor effects of the right-handed neutrinos. Large regions in the parameter space of the Yukawa coupling and the right-handed neutrino mass featuring successful baryogenesis are identified.

  16. Participants' Reactions to and Suggestions for Conducting Intimate Partner Violence Research: A Study of Rural Young Adults.

    Edwards, Katie M; Greaney, Kayleigh; Palmer, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    To document rural young adults' reasons for emotional reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) research as well as to hear young adults' perspectives on how to most effectively conduct comprehensive IPV research in their rural communities. The data presented in this paper draw from 2 studies (ie, an online survey study and an in-person or telephone interview study) that included the same 16 US rural counties in New England and Appalachia. Participants, 47% of whom were in both studies, were young (age range 18-24), white (92%-94%), heterosexual (89%-90%), female (62%-68%), and mostly low to middle income. Nine percent of participants reported they were upset by the questions due to personal experiences with IPV or for other reasons not related to personal IPV experiences. Forty percent of participants reported they personally benefited from participating in the study, and they provided various reasons for this benefit. Regarding suggestions for conducting IPV research with rural young adults, participants believed that both online recruitment and online data collection methods were the best ways to engage young adults, although many participants suggested that more than 1 modality was ideal, which underscores the need for multimethod approaches when conducting research with rural young adults. These findings are reassuring to those committed to conducting research on sensitive topics with rural populations and also shed light on best practices for conducting this type of research from the voices of rural young adults themselves. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Gut Homeostasis, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Opioids.

    Wang, Fuyuan; Roy, Sabita

    2017-01-01

    Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics. However, it is unclear how opioids modulate the gut microbiome and metabolome. Our study, showing opioid modulation of gut homeostasis in mice, suggests that medical interventions to ameliorate the consequences of drug use/abuse will provide potential therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for opioid-modulated intestinal infections. The study of morphine's modulation of the gut microbiome and metabolome will shed light on the toxicological pathology of opioids and its role in the susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  18. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of the gut microbiota has intensified within the past decade with the introduction of cultivation-independent methods. By investigation of the gut bacterial genes, our understanding of the compositional and functional capability of the gut microbiome has increased. It is now widely...... recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response......, and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several factors have been identified that might affect the healthy microbiota, potentially inducing a dysbiotic microbiota associated with a disease state. This increased understanding of the gut microbiota might potentially contribute to targeted intervention...

  19. Interaction between gut immunity and polysaccharides.

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-09-22

    The human gut is colonized with a vast and diverse microbial ecosystem, and these bacteria play fundamental roles in the well being of our bodies. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the largest mucosal immune system, should never be overlooked for their profound effect in maintaining the host immunity. Therefore, we discussed the relationship between gut immunity and host health, primarily from two aspects: the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and the function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Polysaccharides, widely concerned as bioactive macromolecules in recent centuries, have been proved to benefit the intestinal health. Dietary polysaccharides can improve the ratio of probiotics, regulate the intestinal microenvironment like decreasing the gut pH, and stimulate the macrophages or lymphocytes in gut tissues to fight against diseases like cancer. Based on various experimental and clinical evidence, the impacts of dietary polysaccharides on intestinal health are summarized, in order to reveal the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides.

  20. A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research: a response to Shanahan

    Marwan, J.; McKubre, M. C. H.; Tanzella, F. L.; Hagelstein, Peter L.; Miles, M. H.; Swartz, M. R.; Storms, Edmund; Iwamura, Y.; Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Forsley, L. P. G.

    2010-01-01

    In his criticisms of the review article on LENR by Krivit and Marwan, Shanahan has raised a number of issues in the areas of calorimetry, heat after death, elemental transmutation, energetic particle detection using CR-39, and the temporal correlation between heat and helium-4. These issues are addressed by the researchers who conducted the original work that was discussed in the Krivit-Marwan (K&M) review paper.

  1. Gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic syndrome.

    Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large diverse community of bacteria collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of disease states including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Transplant of microbiota from diseased persons (or mice) to germfree mice transfers some aspects of disease phenotype, indicating that altered microbiota plays a role in disease establishment and manifestation. There are myriad potential mechanisms by which alterations in gut microbiota might promote disease, including increasing energy harvest, production of toxic metabolites, and molecular mimicry of host proteins. However, our research indicates that an overarching mechanism by which an aberrant microbiota negatively impacts health is by driving chronic inflammation. More specifically, we hypothesize that the histopathologically evident gut inflammation that defines IBD is a severe but relatively rare outcome of an altered host-microbiota relationship, while a much more common consequence of such disturbances is "low-grade" inflammation characterized by elevated proinflammatory gene expression that associates with, and may promote, metabolic syndrome. In this context, a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases may stem from inability of the mucosal immune system to properly manage a stable healthy relationship with the gut microbiota. While one's ability to manage their gut microbiota is dictated in part by genetics, it can be markedly influenced by the composition of the microbiota one inherits from their early environment. Moreover, the host-microbiota relationship can be perturbed by instigator bacteria or dietary components, which may prove to play a role in promoting chronic inflammatory disease states.

  2. The mysterious case of the C. elegans gut granule: death fluorescence, anthranilic acid and the kynurenine pathway

    David eGems

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on the nematode C. elegans, it still contains many hidden secrets. One such is the function of the prominent organelles known as gut granules, which are numerous in the intestinal cells of nematodes throughout the suborder Rhabditina. A striking feature of gut granules is the blue fluorescence that they emit under ultraviolet light. Clues to gut granule function include their acidic interior and capacity for endocytosis, both lysosome-like features (though gut granules are much bigger than normal lysosomes. This and the fluorescent material within identify gut granules as lysosome-like organelles (LROs, akin to pigment-containing melanosomes in mammals and eye pigment granules in Drosophila. Thus, the identity of the blue fluorescent substance could provide a key to understanding gut granule function.

  3. The anthrax vaccine and research: reactions from postal workers and public health professionals.

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Thomas, Tammy; Kumar, Supriya

    2008-12-01

    During the 2001 anthrax attacks, public health agencies faced operational and communication decisions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and the anthrax vaccine with affected groups, including postal workers. This communication occurred within an evolving situation with incomplete and uncertain data. Guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics changed several times, contributing to confusion and mistrust. At the end of 60 days of taking antibiotics, people were offered an additional 40 days' supply of antibiotics, with or without the anthrax vaccine, the former constituting an investigational new drug protocol. Using data from interviews and focus groups with 65 postal workers in 3 sites and structured interviews with 16 public health professionals, this article examines the challenges for public health professionals who were responsible for communication with postal workers about the vaccine. Multiple factors affected the response, including a lack of trust, risk perception, disagreement about the recommendation, and the controversy over the military's use of the vaccine. Some postal workers reacted with suspicion to the vaccine offer, believing that they were the subjects of research, and some African American workers specifically drew an analogy to the Tuskegee syphilis study. The consent forms required for the protocol heightened mistrust. Postal workers also had complex and ambivalent responses to additional research on their health. The anthrax attacks present us with an opportunity to understand the challenges of communication in the context of uncertain science and suggest key strategies that may improve communications about vaccines and other drugs authorized for experimental use in future public health emergencies.

  4. [Gut microbiota in health and disease].

    Icaza-Chávez, M E

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Gut microbiota and probiotics: Focus on diabetes mellitus.

    Bordalo Tonucci, Livia; Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; De Luces Fortes Ferreira, Celia Lucia; Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte

    2017-07-24

    The characterization of gut microbiota has become an important area of research in several clinical conditions, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Changes in the composition and/or metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can contribute to human health. Thus, this review discusses the effects of probiotics and gut microbiota on metabolic control in these individuals. Relevant studies were obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Science. The main probiotics used in these studies belonged to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The authors found seven randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and 13 experimental studies directly related to the effect of probiotics on metabolic control in the context of T2DM. The hypothesis that gut microbiota plays a role in the development of diabetes indicates an important beginning, and the potential of probiotics to prevent and reduce the severity of T2DM is better observed in animal studies. In clinical trials, the use of probiotics in glycemic control presented conflicting results, and only few studies have attempted to evaluate factors that justify metabolic changes, such as markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and incretins. Thus, further research is needed to assess the effects of probiotics in the metabolism of diabetic individuals, as well as the main mechanisms involved in this complex relationship.

  6. Deoxynivalenol, gut microbiota and immunotoxicity: A potential approach?

    Liao, Yuxiao; Peng, Zhao; Chen, Liangkai; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is the most frequent mycotoxin in grains and grain products. DON contamination in fodder and food is a serious threat for health, since it impairs the immune and gastrointestinal systems of both human and animals. Gut microbiota seems to play a more and more important part in human and animals' health according to related researches. Previous studies implied some associations among gut microbiota, DON and immune system. For example, DON affects immune system as well as the composition and abundance of gut microbiota, and the latter influences immune system as well. In the present short review, we not only provide the available information about the toxic consequences of DON-induced immunotoxicity on different animals and cell lines and discuss its main possible molecule mechanisms, but also summarize research results concerning the role of gut microbiota in DON-induced immunotoxicity and gender differences, with the aim to find some potential therapeutic strategies to tackle DON-induced immunotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Active migration is associated with specific and consistent changes to gut microbiota in Calidris shorebirds.

    Risely, Alice; Waite, David W; Ujvari, Beata; Hoye, Bethany J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Gut microbes are increasingly recognised for their role in regulating an animal's metabolism and immunity. However, identifying repeatable associations between host physiological processes and their gut microbiota has proved challenging, in part because microbial communities often respond stochastically to host physiological stress (e.g. fasting, forced exercise or infection). Migratory birds provide a valuable system in which to test host-microbe interactions under physiological extremes because these hosts are adapted to predictable metabolic and immunological challenges as they undergo seasonal migrations, including temporary gut atrophy during long-distance flights. These physiological challenges may either temporarily disrupt gut microbial ecosystems, or, alternatively, promote predictable host-microbe associations during migration. To determine the relationship between migration and gut microbiota, we compared gut microbiota composition between migrating and non-migrating ("resident") conspecific shorebirds sharing a flock. We performed this across two sandpiper species, Calidris ferruginea and Calidris ruficollis, in north-western Australia, and an additional C. ruficollis population 3,000 km away in southern Australia. We found that migrants consistently had higher abundances of the bacterial genus Corynebacterium (average 28% abundance) compared to conspecific residents (average gut community variation when excluding Corynebacterium. Our findings suggest a consistent relationship between Corynebacterium and Calidris shorebirds during migration, with further research required to identify causal mechanisms behind the association, and to elucidate functionality to the host. However, outside this specific association, migrating shorebirds broadly maintained gut community structure, which may allow them to quickly recover gut function after a migratory flight. This study provides a rare example of a repeatable and specific response of the gut microbiota to a

  8. Manipulating the Gut Microbiota: Methods and Challenges.

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Franklin, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are colonized by rich and dynamic communities of microbes, both internally (e.g., in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts) and externally (e.g., on skin and external mucosal surfaces). The vast majority of bacterial microbes reside in the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and it is estimated that the gut of a healthy human is home to some 100 trillion bacteria, roughly an order of magnitude greater than the number of host somatic cells. The development of culture-independent methods to characterize the gut microbiota (GM) has spurred a renewed interest in its role in host health and disease. Indeed, associations have been identified between various changes in the composition of the GM and an extensive list of diseases, both enteric and systemic. Animal models provide a means whereby causal relationships between characteristic differences in the GM and diseases or conditions can be formally tested using genetically identical animals in highly controlled environments. Clearly, the GM and its interactions with the host and myriad environmental factors are exceedingly complex, and it is rare that a single microbial taxon associates with, much less causes, a phenotype with perfect sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, while the exact numbers are the subject of debate, it is well recognized that only a minority of gut bacteria can be successfully cultured ex vivo. Thus, to perform studies investigating causal roles of the GM in animal model phenotypes, researchers need clever techniques to experimentally manipulate the GM of animals, and several ingenious methods of doing so have been developed, each providing its own type of information and with its own set of advantages and drawbacks. The current review will focus on the various means of experimentally manipulating the GM of research animals, drawing attention to the factors that would aid a researcher in selecting an experimental approach, and with an emphasis on mice and rats, the

  9. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Panda Gut Microbiome

    Lu, M.; Leung, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) diet consists primarily of bamboo leaves, stems and shoots. However, the Giant Panda lacks genes for the enzymes needed to digest cellulose, the core component of bamboo. Thus, it is hypothesized that the cellulolytic digestion necessary for maintaining the Giant Panda diet is carried out by microbial symbionts in the panda gut microbiota. Fecal microbiota is used as surrogate index for gut microbiota since the Giant Panda is listed by the World Conservation Union as a Threatened Species. Two bacterial isolates with potential cellulolytic activity were isolated from Giant Panda fecal samples and cultured on selective media CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) agar and CMC-Congo Red agar using various methods of inoculation. After incubation, clearance zones around colonies were observed and used as qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene was completed and species identification was done based on the BLAST result of 16S rRNA sequence obtained using Sanger sequencing. Once the cellulase activity is confirmed, genomic DNA of the bacteria will be extracted and used for whole genome shotgun sequencing. Illumina next generation sequencing platform will be adopted as it yields high-throughput information, providing a better understanding of cellulose digestion and the molecular genetic pathways to renewable sources of biofuels. Researchers have identified multiple cellulose-digesting microbes in the Giant Panda gut, but few have applied such bacteria in converting cellulose into glucose to create biofuel. Cellulosic ethanol, a biofuel, is produced through the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomasses. This anaerobic process is aided by cellulose-digesting enzymes. Certain microbes, such as those present in the Giant Panda gut, can produce enzymes that cleave the glycosidic bonds of cellulose (C6H10O5) into glucose molecules (C6H12O6), which can then be fermented into ethanol

  10. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed.

  11. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  12. The Gut Microbiome as Therapeutic Target in Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications for Stroke.

    Winek, Katarzyna; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Research on commensal microbiota and its contribution to health and disease is a new and very dynamically developing field of biology and medicine. Recent experimental and clinical investigations underscore the importance of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and course of stroke. Importantly, microbiota may influence the outcome of cerebral ischemia by modulating central nervous system antigen-specific immune responses. In this review we summarize studies linking gut microbiota with physiological function and disorders of the central nervous system. Based on these insights we speculate about targeting the gut microbiome in order to treat stroke.

  13. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  14. Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome

    dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha

    Understanding the link between the human gut microbiome and human health is one of the biggest scientific challenges in our decade. Because 90% of our cells are bacteria, and the microbial genome contains 200 times more genes than the human genome, the study of the human microbiome has...... the potential to impact many areas of our health. This PhD thesis is the first study to generate a large amount of experimental data on the DNA and RNA of the human gut microbiome. This was made possible by our development of a human gut microbiome array capable of profiling any human gut microbiome. Analysis...... of our results changes the way we link the gut microbiome with diseases. Our results indicate that inflammatory diseases will affect the ecological system of the human gut microbiome, reducing its diversity. Classification analysis of healthy and unhealthy individuals demonstrates that unhealthy...

  15. Prebiotics as a modulator of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity.

    Nicolucci, A C; Reimer, R A

    2017-08-01

    This review highlights our current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity and the potential role for dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics in managing paediatric obesity. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial and is now known to include microbial dysbiosis in the gut. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which selectively modulate the number and/or composition of gut microbes. The goal of prebiotic consumption is to restore symbiosis and thereby confer health benefits to the host. There is convincing evidence that prebiotics can reduce adiposity and improve metabolic health in preclinical rodent models. Furthermore, there are several clinical trials in adult humans highlighting metabolic and appetite-regulating benefits of prebiotics. In paediatric obesity, however, there are very limited data regarding the potential role of prebiotics as a dietary intervention for obesity management. As the prevalence of paediatric obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities increases globally, interventions that target the progression of obesity from an early age are essential in slowing the obesity epidemic. This review emphasizes the need for further research assessing the role of prebiotics, particularly as an intervention in effectively managing paediatric obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  16. On Growth and Form of the Zebrafish Gut Microbiome

    Jemielita, Matthew; Taormina, Michael; Rolig, Annah; Burns, Adam; Hampton, Jennifer; Guillemin, Karen; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2014-03-01

    The vertebrate gut is home to a diverse microbial community whose composition has a strong influence on the development and health of the host organism. Researchers can identify the members of the microbiota, yet little is known about the spatial and temporal dynamics of these microbial communities, including the mechanisms guiding their nucleation, growth, and interactions. We address these issues using the larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism, which are raised microbe-free and then inoculated with controlled compositions of fluorophore-expressing bacteria. Live imaging using light sheet fluorescence microscopy enables visualization of the gut's entire microbial population over the first 24 hours of colonization. Image analysis allows us to quantify microbial populations that range from a few individuals to tens of thousands of microbes, and analyze the structure and growth kinetics of gut bacterial communities. We find that genetically-identical microbes can show surprisingly different growth rates and colonization abilities depending on their order of arrival. This demonstrates that knowing only the constituents of the gut community is insufficient to determine their dynamics; rather, the history of colonization matters.

  17. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    M. Pilar Francino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  18. Vertical mother-neonate transfer of maternal gut bacteria via breastfeeding.

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian P; Rochat, Florence; Chassard, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The present study investigated whether viable strains of gut-associated obligate anaerobes are shared between the maternal and neonatal gut ecosystem via breastfeeding. Maternal faeces, breast milk and corresponding neonatal faeces collected from seven mothers-neonate pairs at three neonatal sampling points were analyzed by culture-independent (pyrosequencing) and culture-dependent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction. Pyrosequencing allowed identifying gut-associated obligate anaerobic genera, like Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and members of the Clostridia (Blautia, Clostridium, Collinsella and Veillonella) shared between maternal faeces, breast milk and neonatal faeces. Using culture, a viable strain of Bifidobacterium breve was shown to be shared between all three ecosystems within one mother-neonate pair. Furthermore, pyrosequencing revealed that several butyrate-producing members of the Clostridia (Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia and Subdoligranulum) were shared between maternal faeces and breast milk. This study shows that (viable) obligate gut-associated anaerobes may be vertically transferred from mother to neonate via breastfeeding. Thus, our data support the recently suggested hypothesis of a novel way of mother-neonate communication, in which maternal gut bacteria reach breast milk via an entero-mammary pathway to influence neonatal gut colonization and maturation of the immune system. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Balance of bacterial species in the gut

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Balance of bacterial species in the gut. Protective. Lactobacillus species. Bifidobacterium species. Selected E. coli. Saccharomyces boulardii. Clostridium butyricum.

  20. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  1. High-Altitude-Induced alterations in Gut-Immune Axis: A review.

    Khanna, Kunjan; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly; Kumar, Bhuvnesh; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2018-03-04

    High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity. The low oxygen partial pressure may cause alterations in gut microbiota, which may cause changes in gut immunity. Effect of high altitude on gut-associated mucosal system is new area of research. Many studies have been carried out to understand the physiology and immunology behind the high-altitude-induced gut problems. Few interventions have also been discovered to circumvent the problems caused due to high-altitude conditions. In this review, we have discussed the effects of high-altitude-induced changes in gut immunity particularly peyer's patches, NK cells and inflammatory cytokines, secretary immunoglobulins and gut microbiota. The published articles from PubMed and Google scholar from year 1975 to 2017 on high-altitude hypoxia and gut immunity are cited in this review.

  2. Methods in gut microbial ecology for ruminants

    Makkar, H.P.S.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive up-to-date account of the methodologies and protocols for conventional and modern molecular techniques that are currently in use for studying the gut microbial ecology of ruminants. Each chapter has been contributed by experts in the field and methods have been presented in a recipe-like format designed for direct practical use in the laboratory and also to provide insight into the most appropriate techniques, their applications and the type of information that could be expected. The techniques and procedures described are also relevant and adaptable to other gastrointestinal ecosystems and the microbiology of anaerobic environments in general. This manual will 'demystify' the methods in molecular microbial ecology for readers who are novice in the field but are excited by the prospects of this technology. It would also be invaluable for the experienced workers striving for giving new dimension to their research - expanding the work in other fields and initiating cross-cutting activities

  3. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated ...

  4. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of...

  5. Reaction mechanisms

    Nguyen Trong Anh

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported [fr

  6. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    Sue eGrenham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behaviour. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain-gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the centre of focus for some

  7. Mind-altering with the gut: Modulation of the gut-brain axis with probiotics.

    Kim, Namhee; Yun, Misun; Oh, Young Joon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2018-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging. Here, we review the role of gut microbiota in bidirectional interactions between the gut and the brain, including neural, immune-mediated, and metabolic mechanisms. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of probiotic modulation of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders via the gut-brain axis.

  8. Gut health in the pig

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  9. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    Sue eGrenham; Gerard eClarke; Gerard eClarke; John F Cryan; John F Cryan; Timothy G Dinan; Timothy G Dinan

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous i...

  10. Wheat bran cereal, human gut bacteria and subjective wellbeing

    Smith, Andrew; Deaville, Eddie; Gibson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that consumption of high fiber breakfast cereal is associated with improved subjective well-being, especially increased energy. One possible explanation of these results is through metabolism by gut bacteria and concomitant production of metabolites that influence psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) welfare. This was examined in the present study to determine whether consumption of wheat bran could modulate the composition of the GI microbiota. This human volunteer stud...

  11. On building superpotentials in F-GUTs

    Saidi, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Using characters of finite group representations, we construct the fusion algebras of operators of the spectrum of F-theory grand unified theories (GUTs). These fusion relations are used in building monodromy-invariant superpotentials of the low-energy effective 4D N=1 supersymmetric GUT models

  12. Gut-Brain Axis and Behavior.

    Martin, Clair R; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-01-01

    In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication. Observed dysbiotic states in depression, chronic stress, and autism may reflect altered brain signaling to the gut, while altered gut microbial signaling to the brain may play a role in reinforcing brain alterations. On the other hand, primary dysbiotic states due to Western diets may signal to the brain, altering ingestive behavior. While studies performed in patients with depression and rodent models generated by fecal microbial transfer from such patients suggest causation, evidence for an influence of acute gut microbial alterations on human behavioral and clinical parameters is lacking. Only recently has an open-label microbial transfer therapy in children with autism tentatively validated the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target. The translational potential of preclinical findings remains unclear without further clinical investigation. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Experimental models of the gut microbiome

    Venema, K.; Abbeele, P. van den

    2013-01-01

    The human gut contains a diverse microbiota with large potential to influence health. Given the difficulty to access the main sites of the gut, in vitro models have been developed to dynamically monitor microbial processes at the site of metabolic activity. These models range from simple batch

  14. Imidacloprid decreases honey bee survival but does not affect the gut microbiome.

    Raymann, Kasie; Motta, Erick V S; Girard, Catherine; Riddington, Ian M; Dinser, Jordan A; Moran, Nancy A

    2018-04-20

    Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated. Here we investigated the impact of imidacloprid on the gut microbiome composition, survivorship of honey bees, and susceptibility to pathogens. Consistent with other studies, we show that imidacloprid exposure results in elevated mortality of honey bees in the hive and increases susceptibility to infection by pathogens. However, we did not find evidence that imidacloprid affects the gut bacterial community of honey bees. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that honey bee gut bacteria can grow in the presence of imidacloprid, and we found some evidence that imidacloprid can be metabolized in the bee gut environment. However, none of the individual bee gut bacterial species tested could metabolize imidacloprid, suggesting that the observed metabolism of imidacloprid in vitro bee gut cultures is not caused by the gut bacteria. Overall, our results indicate that imidacloprid causes increased mortality in honey bees, but this mortality does not appear to be linked to the microbiome. Importance Growing evidence suggests that the extensive use of pesticides has played a large role in the increased rate of honey bee colony loss. Despite extensive research on the effects of imidacloprid on honey bees, it is still unknown whether it impacts the community structure of the gut microbiome. Here we investigated the impact of imidacloprid on the gut microbiome composition

  15. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Interventions to Modulate the Gut Microbiome-How Far Away Are We From Precision Medicine.

    De Filippis, Francesca; Vitaglione, Paola; Cuomo, Rosario; Berni Canani, Roberto; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-04-13

    The importance of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is fully acknowledged. A perturbation in the equilibrium among the different microbial populations living in the gut (dysbiosis) has been associated with the development of several types of diseases. Modulation of the gut microbiome through dietary intervention is an emerging therapeutic and preventive strategy for many conditions. Nevertheless, interpersonal differences in response to therapeutic treatments or dietary regimens are often observed during clinical trials, and recent research has suggested that subject-specific features of the gut microbiota may be responsible. In this review, we summarize recent findings in personalized nutrition, highlighting how individualized characterization of the microbiome may assist in designing ad hoc tailored dietary intervention for disease treatment and prevention. Moreover, we discuss the limitations and challenges encountered in integrating patient-specific microbial data into clinical practice.

  17. Losing weight for a better health: Role for the gut microbiota

    Maria Carlota Dao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been several reviews on gut microbiota, obesity and cardiometabolism summarizing interventions that may impact the gut microbiota and have beneficial effects on the host (some examples include [1–3]. In this review we discuss how the gut microbiota changes with weight loss (WL interventions in relation to clinical and dietary parameters. We also evaluate available evidence on the heterogeneity of response to these interventions. Two important questions were generated in this regard: 1 Can response to an intervention be predicted? 2 Could pre-intervention modifications to the gut microbiota optimize WL and metabolic improvement? Finally, we have delineated some recommendations for future research, such as the importance of assessment of diet and other environmental exposures in WL intervention studies, and the need to shift to more integrative approaches of data analysis.

  18. The crosstalk between gut microbiota and obesity and related metabolic disorders.

    Xu, Wen-Ting; Nie, Yong-Zhan; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are currently a threat to global public health. The occurrence and development of these conditions result from the combined effects of multiple factors. The human gut is a diverse and vibrant microecosystem, and its composition and function are a focus of research in the fields of life science and medicine. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that interactions between the gut microbiota and their genetic predispositions or dietary changes may be key factors that contribute to obesity and other metabolic diseases. Defining the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases will bring about revolutionary changes that will enable practitioners to prevent and control metabolic diseases by targeting the gut microbiota.

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous...... nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  20. Nutrition in cancer patients with cachexia: A role for the gut microbiota?

    Laure B. Bindels

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that includes muscle wasting and inflammation, and that is associated with chronic underlying diseases, such as cancer, chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Since gut microbes influence host immunity and metabolism, we hypothesized a few years ago that the gut microbiota could be a potential therapeutic target to tackle cancer-related cachexia. In this review, we present evidence from animal and human studies suggesting that the gut microbiota and its crosstalk with the intestine might constitute unexpected targets in the therapeutic management of cancer and related cachexia. Finally, we discuss future research directions and hypotheses to progress in this new promising field, i.e. the role of the gut microbiota in cancer cachexia.

  1. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  2. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  3. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity...... for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti....... In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention....

  4. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND......) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  5. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  6. Cardiovascular and Antiobesity Effects of Resveratrol Mediated through the Gut Microbiota.

    Bird, Julia K; Raederstorff, Daniel; Weber, Peter; Steinert, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet. By upregulating the expression of genes involved in maintaining tight junctions between intestinal cells, resveratrol contributes to gut barrier integrity. The composition of the gut microbiome and rapid metabolism of resveratrol determines the production of resveratrol metabolites, which are found at greater concentrations in humans after ingestion than their parent molecule and can have similar biological effects. Resveratrol may affect cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood cholesterol or trimethylamine N -oxide concentrations. Modulating the composition of the gut microbiota by resveratrol may affect central energy metabolism and modify concentrations of satiety hormones to produce antiobesity effects. Encouraging research from animal models could be tested in humans. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Role of gut microbiota in obesity, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

    Naseer, Muhammad I; Bibi, Fehmida; Alqahtani, Mohammed H; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Azhar, Esam I; Kamal, Mohammad A; Yasir, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest in research to investigate the importance of gut microbiome in health and diseases. This opens a new area of research for the role of microbial flora of the human gut in inflammation, energy homeostasis, pathogenesis of obesity and other associated disorders. Recent studies propose association of the gut microbiome with development of obesity and metabolic syndromes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The T2DM is a metabolic disease that is mainly caused by obesity-linked insulin resistance. The vascular effects of obesity appears to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is one of the rapidly growing diseases of a late stage of life all over the world. Studies from both humans and mice models have been demonstrated the engagement of gut microbial flora in the pathogenesis of obesity and host metabolism. The aim of this review is to discuss the current findings that may explain the cascade of gut microbial flora participation in the development of obesity, T2DM and further initiation of AD. In addition, the available data regarding the mechanisms that have been proposed to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in weight gain and possible cause of T2DM and AD have been examined.

  8. “I Am I and My Bacterial Circumstances”: Linking Gut Microbiome, Neurodevelopment, and Depression

    Lima-Ojeda, Juan M.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Baghai, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in the role played by microbiome in both human health and human disease. A correct equilibrium between the human host and their microorganisms is important for an appropriate physiological function. Extensive research has shown that microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract—or gut microbiota—are involved not only in both nutritive and digestive activities but also in immunological processes. Moreover, the gut microbiome influences both central nervous system and energy homeostasis. An altered gut microbiome has been associated with the pathophysiology of different diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Apparently, both environmental—diet, exposition to antibiotics, and infections—and host-genetic factors have a strong influence on gut microbiome, modulating the risk for neuropsychiatric illness. Also, early life disruption of the microbiome–gut–brain (MGB) axis has been associated with an increased risk of developing depression later in life, suggesting a link between gut microbiome, neurodevelopment, and depression. This review aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring the role played by the gut microbiome in neurodevelopment and in the etiology of the depressive syndrome, including nutritional, immunological, and energy homeostasis approaches. PMID:28878696

  9. Drunk bugs: Chronic vapour alcohol exposure induces marked changes in the gut microbiome in mice.

    Peterson, Veronica L; Jury, Nicholas J; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-14

    The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (pgut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (pgut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. “I Am I and My Bacterial Circumstances”: Linking Gut Microbiome, Neurodevelopment, and Depression

    Juan M. Lima-Ojeda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been renewed interest in the role played by microbiome in both human health and human disease. A correct equilibrium between the human host and their microorganisms is important for an appropriate physiological function. Extensive research has shown that microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract—or gut microbiota—are involved not only in both nutritive and digestive activities but also in immunological processes. Moreover, the gut microbiome influences both central nervous system and energy homeostasis. An altered gut microbiome has been associated with the pathophysiology of different diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Apparently, both environmental—diet, exposition to antibiotics, and infections—and host-genetic factors have a strong influence on gut microbiome, modulating the risk for neuropsychiatric illness. Also, early life disruption of the microbiome–gut–brain (MGB axis has been associated with an increased risk of developing depression later in life, suggesting a link between gut microbiome, neurodevelopment, and depression. This review aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring the role played by the gut microbiome in neurodevelopment and in the etiology of the depressive syndrome, including nutritional, immunological, and energy homeostasis approaches.

  11. Gut feelings as a third track in general practitioners' diagnostic reasoning.

    Stolper, Erik; Van de Wiel, Margje; Van Royen, Paul; Van Bokhoven, Marloes; Van der Weijden, Trudy; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2011-02-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are often faced with complicated, vague problems in situations of uncertainty that they have to solve at short notice. In such situations, gut feelings seem to play a substantial role in their diagnostic process. Qualitative research distinguished a sense of alarm and a sense of reassurance. However, not every GP trusted their gut feelings, since a scientific explanation is lacking. This paper explains how gut feelings arise and function in GPs' diagnostic reasoning. The paper reviews literature from medical, psychological and neuroscientific perspectives. Gut feelings in general practice are based on the interaction between patient information and a GP's knowledge and experience. This is visualized in a knowledge-based model of GPs' diagnostic reasoning emphasizing that this complex task combines analytical and non-analytical cognitive processes. The model integrates the two well-known diagnostic reasoning tracks of medical decision-making and medical problem-solving, and adds gut feelings as a third track. Analytical and non-analytical diagnostic reasoning interacts continuously, and GPs use elements of all three tracks, depending on the task and the situation. In this dual process theory, gut feelings emerge as a consequence of non-analytical processing of the available information and knowledge, either reassuring GPs or alerting them that something is wrong and action is required. The role of affect as a heuristic within the physician's knowledge network explains how gut feelings may help GPs to navigate in a mostly efficient way in the often complex and uncertain diagnostic situations of general practice. Emotion research and neuroscientific data support the unmistakable role of affect in the process of making decisions and explain the bodily sensation of gut feelings.The implications for health care practice and medical education are discussed.

  12. Efficient Computational Research Protocol to Survey Free Energy Surface for Solution Chemical Reaction in the QM/MM Framework: The FEG-ER Methodology and Its Application to Isomerization Reaction of Glycine in Aqueous Solution.

    Takenaka, Norio; Kitamura, Yukichi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2016-03-03

    In solution chemical reaction, we often need to consider a multidimensional free energy (FE) surface (FES) which is analogous to a Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. To survey the FES, an efficient computational research protocol is proposed within the QM/MM framework; (i) we first obtain some stable states (or transition states) involved by optimizing their structures on the FES, in a stepwise fashion, finally using the free energy gradient (FEG) method, and then (ii) we directly obtain the FE differences among any arbitrary states on the FES, efficiently by employing the QM/MM method with energy representation (ER), i.e., the QM/MM-ER method. To validate the calculation accuracy and efficiency, we applied the above FEG-ER methodology to a typical isomerization reaction of glycine in aqueous solution, and reproduced quite satisfactorily the experimental value of the reaction FE. Further, it was found that the structural relaxation of the solute in the QM/MM force field is not negligible to estimate correctly the FES. We believe that the present research protocol should become prevailing as one computational strategy and will play promising and important roles in solution chemistry toward solution reaction ergodography.

  13. Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III). Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    Capote Noy, R.

    2004-08-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a critical review of the RIPL-2 file. The new library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  14. Simultaneous gut colonisation and infection by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in hospitalised patients.

    Asir, Johny; Nair, Shashikala; Devi, Sheela; Prashanth, Kenchappa; Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been recovered from the hospital environment. These drug-resistant organisms have also been found to be present in humans as commensals. The present investigation intended to isolate ESBL-producing E. coli from the gut of already infected patients; to date, only a few studies have shown evidence of the gut microflora as a major source of infection. This study aimed to detect the presence of ESBL genes in E.coli that are isolated from the gut of patients who have already been infected with the same organism. A total of 70 non-repetitive faecal samples were collected from in-patients of our hospital. These in-patients were clinically diagnosed and were culture-positive for ESBL-producing E. coli either from blood, urine, or pus. Standard microbiological methods were used to detect ESBL from clinical and gut isolates. Genes coding for major betalactamase enzymes such as bla CTX-M , bla TEM, and bla SHV were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ESBL-producing E. coli was isolated from 15 (21 per cent) faecal samples of the 70 samples that were cultured. PCR revealed that out of these 15 isolates, the bla CTX-M gene was found in 13 (86.6 per cent) isolates, the bla TEM was present in 11 (73.3 per cent) isolates, and bla SHV only in eight (53.3 per cent) isolates. All 15 clinical and gut isolates had similar phenotypic characters and eight of the 15 patients had similar pattern of genes (bla TEM, bla CTX-M, and bla SHV) in their clinical and gut isolates. Strains with multiple betalactamase genes that colonise the gut of hospitalised patients are a potential threat and it may be a potential source of infection.

  15. Kiwifruit, mucins, and the gut barrier.

    Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Balan, Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Kiwifruit has long been regarded in China, where it originated from, for its health properties and particularly in relation to digestion and general gut health. There are a number of physical and chemical properties of the fruit, including its dietary fiber content, the presence of raphides, its high water holding capacity and actinidin content, that suggest that kiwifruit may be effective in influencing gut mucin production and thus enhancing the integrity of the gut barrier. The mucous layer, which comprises mucins and other materials, overlying the mucosal epithelium, is an important component of the gut barrier. The gut barrier plays a crucial role in separating the host from the often noxious external environment. The mucous layer, which covers the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is the front line of innate host defense. There have been few direct studies of the effect of kiwifruit ingestion on mucin production in the GIT, and findings that are available using animal models are somewhat inconsistent. Taking results for digesta mucin content, number of goblet cells, and mucin gene expression, together, it would seem that green kiwifruit and possibly gold kiwifruit do influence gut mucin production, and the kiwifruit as part of a balanced diet may help to maintain the mucous layer and gut barrier. More corroborative experimental evidence is needed, and studies need to be undertaken in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing GUTs: where do monopoles fit

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    The report shows why the inadequacies of the standard model of elementary particles impel some theorists toward embedding the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in a simple GUT group, and explains why the grand unification scale and hence the GUM (Grand Unified Monopoles) mass are expected to be so large (greater than or equal to 10 14 GeV). It goes on to describe some model GUTs, notably minimal SU(5) and supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The grand unified analogues of generalized Cabibbo mixing angles are introduced relevant to the prediction of baryon decay modes in different theories as well as to the Decay modes catalyzed by GUMs. Phenomenologies of conventional and susy GUTs are contrasted including the potential increase in the grand unification scale as well as possible different baryon decay modes in susy GUTs. The phenomenology of GUMs is discussed, principally their ability to catalyze baryon decays. Some of the astrophysical and cosmological constraints on GUMs, GUMs, which make it difficult to imagine ever seeing a GUM and may impose serious restrictions on GUT model-building via their behavior in the very early universe are introduced. Finally, the reasons why GUMs are crucial aspects and tests of GUTs are summarized

  17. Gut proteases target Yersinia invasin in vivo

    Freund Sandra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica is a common cause of food borne gastrointestinal disease. After oral uptake, yersiniae invade Peyer's patches of the distal ileum. This is accomplished by the binding of the Yersinia invasin to β1 integrins on the apical surface of M cells which overlie follicle associated lymphoid tissue. The gut represents a barrier that severely limits yersiniae from reaching deeper tissues such as Peyer's patches. We wondered if gut protease attack on invasion factors could contribute to the low number of yersiniae invading Peyer's patches. Findings Here we show that invasin is rapidly degraded in vivo by gut proteases in the mouse infection model. In vivo proteolytic degradation is due to proteolysis by several gut proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, and pepsin. Protease treated yersiniae are shown to be less invasive in a cell culture model. YadA, another surface adhesin is cleaved by similar concentrations of gut proteases but Myf was not cleaved, showing that not all surface proteins are equally susceptible to degradation by gut proteases. Conclusions We demonstrate that gut proteases target important Yersinia virulence factors such as invasin and YadA in vivo. Since invasin is completely degraded within 2-3 h after reaching the small intestine of mice, it is no longer available to mediate invasion of Peyer's patches.

  18. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  19. Alterations of the Gut Microbiome in Hypertension

    Qiulong Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner.Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing.Results: Hypertension implicated a remarkable gut dysbiosis with significant reduction in within-sample diversity and shift in microbial composition. Metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS revealed 53,953 microbial genes that differ in distribution between the patients and healthy controls (false discovery rate, 0.05 and can be grouped into 68 clusters representing bacterial species. Opportunistic pathogenic taxa, such as, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Parabacteroides merdae were frequently distributed in hypertensive gut microbiome, whereas the short-chain fatty acid producer, such as, Roseburia spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, were higher in controls. The number of hypertension-associated species also showed stronger correlation to the severity of disease. Functionally, the hypertensive gut microbiome exhibited higher membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and steroid degradation, while in controls the metabolism of amino acid, cofactors and vitamins was found to be higher. We further provided the microbial markers for disease discrimination and achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC of 0.78, demonstrating the potential of gut microbiota in prediction of hypertension.Conclusion: These findings represent specific alterations in microbial diversity, genes, species and functions of the hypertensive gut microbiome. Further studies on the causality relationship between

  20. Computational determination of the effects of virulent Escherichia coli and salmonella bacteriophages on human gut.

    Mostafa, Marwa Mostafa; Nassef, Mohammad; Badr, Amr

    2016-10-01

    Salmonella and Escherichia coli are different types of bacteria that cause food poisoning in humans. In the elderly, infants and people with chronic conditions, it is very dangerous if Salmonella or E. coli gets into the bloodstream and then they must be treated by phage therapy. Treating Salmonella and E. coli by phage therapy affects the gut flora. This research paper presents a system for detecting the effects of virulent E. coli and Salmonella bacteriophages on human gut. A method based on Domain-Domain Interactions (DDIs) model is implemented in the proposed system to determine the interactions between the proteins of human gut bacteria and the proteins of bacteriophages that infect virulent E. coli and Salmonella. The system helps gastroenterologists to realize the effect of injecting bacteriophages that infect virulent E. coli and Salmonella on the human gut. By testing the system over Enterobacteria phage 933W, Enterobacteria phage VT2-Sa and Enterobacteria phage P22, it resulted in four interactions between the proteins of the bacteriophages that infect E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and Salmonella typhimurium and the proteins of human gut bacterium strains. Several effects were detected such as: antibacterial activity against a number of bacterial species in human gut, regulation of cellular differentiation and organogenesis during gut, lung, and heart development, ammonia assimilation in bacteria, yeasts, and plants, energizing defense system and its function in the detoxification of lipopolysaccharide, and in the prevention of bacterial translocation in human gut. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A gut feeling: Microbiome-brain-immune interactions modulate social and affective behaviors.

    Sylvia, Kristyn E; Demas, Gregory E

    2018-03-01

    The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis. We are now just beginning to understand the intricate relationships among the brain, microbiome, and immune system and how they work in concert to influence behavior. The effects of different forms of experience (e.g., changes in diet, immune challenge, and psychological stress) on the brain, gut microbiome, and the immune system have often been studied independently. Though because these systems do not work in isolation, it is essential to shift our focus to the connections among them as we move forward in our investigations of the gut-brain axis, the shaping of behavioral phenotypes, and the possible clinical implications of these interactions. This review summarizes the recent progress the field has made in understanding the important role the gut microbiome plays in the modulation of social and affective behaviors, as well as some of the intricate mechanisms by which the microbiome may be communicating with the brain and immune system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of NMR-based metabolomics to the study of gut microbiota in obesity.

    Calvani, Riccardo; Brasili, Elisa; Praticò, Giulia; Sciubba, Fabio; Roselli, Marianna; Finamore, Alberto; Marini, Federico; Marzetti, Emanuele; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle habits, host gene repertoire, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota concur to the development of obesity. A great deal of research has recently been focused on investigating the role gut microbiota plays in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunctions and increased adiposity. Altered microbiota can affect host physiology through several pathways, including enhanced energy harvest, and perturbations in immunity, metabolic signaling, and inflammatory pathways. A broad range of "omics" technologies is now available to help decipher the interactions between the host and the gut microbiota at detailed genetic and functional levels. In particular, metabolomics--the comprehensive analysis of metabolite composition of biological fluids and tissues--could provide breakthrough insights into the links among the gut microbiota, host genetic repertoire, and diet during the development and progression of obesity. Here, we briefly review the most insightful findings on the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity. We also discuss how metabolomic approaches based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy could help understand the activity of gut microbiota in relation to obesity, and assess the effects of gut microbiota modulation in the treatment of this condition.

  3. Feeding the microbiota-gut-brain axis: diet, microbiome, and neuropsychiatry.

    Sandhu, Kiran V; Sherwin, Eoin; Schellekens, Harriët; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. Therefore, research targeting the modulation of this gut microbiota as a novel therapy for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric conditions is gaining interest. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth, and environment. However, it is diet composition and nutritional status that has repeatedly been shown to be one of the most critical modifiable factors regulating the gut microbiota at different time points across the lifespan and under various health conditions. Thus the microbiota is poised to play a key role in nutritional interventions for maintaining brain health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  5. The "Gut Feeling": Breaking Down the Role of Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Freedman, Samantha N; Shahi, Shailesh K; Mangalam, Ashutosh K

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. Recently, the gut microbiota has emerged as a potential factor in the development of MS, with a number of studies having shown that patients with MS exhibit gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota helps the host remain healthy by regulating various functions, including food metabolism, energy homeostasis, maintenance of the intestinal barrier, inhibition of colonization by pathogenic organisms, and shaping of both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Alteration of the gut microbiota, and subsequent changes in its metabolic network that perturb this homeostasis, may lead to intestinal and systemic disorders such as MS. Here we discuss the findings of recent MS microbiome studies and potential mechanisms through which gut microbiota can predispose to, or protect against, MS. These findings highlight the need of an improved understanding of the interactions between the microbiota and host for developing therapies based on gut commensals with which to treat MS.

  6. Does smoking tighten the gut?

    Prytz, H.; Benoni, C.; Tagesson, C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a low prevalence of smoking in ulcerative colitis. The disease often starts or relapses after stopp of smoking. Increased intestinal permeability for harmful substances has been proposed as one causal factor in ulcerative colitis. The authors therefore wanted to study the relationship between smoking and intestinal permeability in healthy subjects. In 25 smoking and 25 non-smoking healthy persons, urine recoveries of two different oral probes, 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr-EDTA) and low-molecular-weight polymers of polyethylene glycol, were measured. The smokers had significantly lower 24-h urine recoveries of 51 Cr-EDTA than the non-smokers. In contrast, 6-h urine recoveries of PEG 400 were not significantly different in smokers and non-smokers. Thus, smoking appears to tighten the gut either by effects on the paracelluar junctions in the intestinal epithelium, or by decreasing the permeability in the distal small bowel and the colon. 21 refs

  7. Acoustic signal processing for the detection of sodium boiling or sodium-water reaction in LMFRs. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1990-1995

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of the work performed under a co-ordinated research programme entitled Acoustic Signal Processing for the Detection of Sodium Boiling or Sodium-Water Reaction in Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactors. The programme was organized by the IAEA and carried out from 1990 to 1995. It was the continuation of an earlier research co-ordination programme entitled Signal Processing Techniques for Sodium Boiling Noise Detection, which was carried out from 1984 to 1989. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Prebiotics and synbiotics: dietary strategies for improving gut health.

    Krumbeck, Janina A; Maldonado-Gomez, Maria X; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Hutkins, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    A wide range of dietary carbohydrates, including prebiotic food ingredients, fermentable fibers, and milk oligosaccharides, are able to produce significant changes in the intestinal microbiota. These shifts in the microbial community are often characterized by increased levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. More recent studies have revealed that species of Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia, and other less well studied members may also be enriched. We review the implications of these recent studies on future design of prebiotics and synbiotics to promote gastrointestinal health. Investigations assessing the clinical outcomes associated with dietary modification of the gut microbiota have shown systemic as well as specific health benefits. Both prebiotic oligosaccharides comprised of a linear arrangement of simple sugars, as well as fiber-rich foods containing complex carbohydrates, have been used in these trials. However, individual variability and nonresponding study participants can make the outcome of dietary interventions less predictable. In contrast, synergistic synbiotics containing prebiotics that specifically stimulate a cognate probiotic provide additional options for personalized gut therapies. This review describes recent research on how prebiotics and fermentable fibers can influence the gut microbiota and result in improvements to human health.

  9. Circadian Disruption Changes Gut Microbiome Taxa and Functional Gene Composition.

    Deaver, Jessica A; Eum, Sung Y; Toborek, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms and alterations of the gut microbiome composition were proposed to affect host health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to identify whether these events are connected and if circadian rhythm disruption by abnormal light-dark (LD) cycles affects microbial community gene expression and host vulnerability to intestinal dysfunction. Mice were subjected to either a 4-week period of constant 24-h light or of normal 12-h LD cycles. Stool samples were collected at the beginning and after the circadian rhythm disruption. A metatranscriptomic analysis revealed an increase in Ruminococcus torques , a bacterial species known to decrease gut barrier integrity, and a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii , a bacterium that helps maintain the intestinal epithelial cell layer, after circadian rhythm disruption. In addition, genes involved in pathways promoting host beneficial immune responses were downregulated, while genes involved in the synthesis and transportation of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide were upregulated in mice with disrupted circadian cycles. Importantly, these mice were also more prone to dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. These results further elucidate the impact of light-cycle disruption on the gut microbiome and its connection with increased incidence of disease in response to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Kimberley Lau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF diet has been shown to induce gut dysbiosis and reduce intestinal integrity. Recent studies have revealed that dysbiosis contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs by promoting two major CVD risk factors—atherosclerosis and hypertension. Imbalances in host–microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression. Dysbiosis has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis through metabolism-independent and metabolite-dependent pathways. This review will illustrate how these pathways contribute to the various stages of atherosclerotic plaque progression. In addition, dysbiosis can promote hypertension through vascular fibrosis and an alteration of vascular tone. As CVD is the number one cause of death globally, investigating the gut microbiota as a locus of intervention presents a novel and clinically relevant avenue for future research, with vast therapeutic potential.

  11. Gut microbiota changes as a risk factor for obesity.

    Kvit, Krystyna B; Kharchenko, Natalia V

    The number of obese people in recent decades is increasing significantly. Among the many aspects of obesity in the last decade, the role and importance of changes in the gut microbiota (GM) attracts special attention. The aim of the review was to analyze the results of studies, focused on the role of gut microbiota in the obesity development. Screening was conducted on 33 researches, which examined the role of the gut microbiota balance in the development of obesity. Among them, 13 studies were selected for more detailed analysis. Obesity revealed typical changes in GM: an increase in the number of microbes of the genus Firmicutes and a decrease in the number of microbes of the genus Bacteroeidetes, which is particularly vividly demonstrated by studies of rodents. In obese mice, the microfamilies of the genus Firmicutes account for 80% of all GM (in control animals 60%), and the number of microorganisms of the genus Bacteroeidetes decreases by half (from 40 to 20%), compared to mice with normal weight. Despite the complexity of the question of the relationship between GM and obesity, the totality of the data received, especially the results of experimental studies, affirm the thesis that changes in GM may contribute to the development of obesity.

  12. Gut Microbiota-Immune System Crosstalk and Pancreatic Disorders

    D. Pagliari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is key to the development and modulation of the mucosal immune system. It plays a central role in several physiological functions, in the modulation of inflammatory signaling and in the protection against infections. In healthy states, there is a perfect balance between commensal and pathogens, and microbiota and the immune system interact to maintain gut homeostasis. The alteration of such balance, called dysbiosis, determines an intestinal bacterial overgrowth which leads to the disruption of the intestinal barrier with systemic translocation of pathogens. The pancreas does not possess its own microbiota, and it is believed that inflammatory and neoplastic processes affecting the gland may be linked to intestinal dysbiosis. Increasing research evidence testifies a correlation between intestinal dysbiosis and various pancreatic disorders, but it remains unclear whether dysbiosis is the cause or an effect. The analysis of specific alterations in the microbiome profile may permit to develop novel tools for the early detection of several pancreatic disorders, utilizing samples, such as blood, saliva, and stools. Future studies will have to elucidate the mechanisms by which gut microbiota is modulated and how it tunes the immune system, in order to be able to develop innovative treatment strategies for pancreatic disorders.

  13. Summary remarks and recommended reactions for an international data file for dosimetry applications for LWR, FBR, and MFR reactor research, development and testing programs

    McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Fabry, A.; Dierckx, R.; Farinelli, U.

    1979-01-01

    The need for the use of an internationally accepted data file for dosimetry applications for light water reactor (LWR), fast breeder reactor (FBR), and magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) research, development, and testing programs continues to exist for the Nuclear Industry. The work of this IAEA meeting, therefore, will be another important step in achieving consensus agreement on an internationally recommended file and its purpose, content, structure, selected reactions, and associated uncertainy files. Summary remarks and a listing of recommended reactions for consideration in the formulation of an ''International Data File for Dosimetry Applications'' are presented in subsequent sections of this report

  14. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  15. Hadronic EDM constraints on orbifold GUTs

    Hisano, Junji; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Nagai, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    We point out that the null results of the hadronic electric dipole moment (EDM) searches constrain orbifold grand unified theories (GUTs), where the GUT symmetry and supersymmetry (SUSY) are both broken by boundary conditions in extra dimensions and it leads to rich fermion and sfermion flavor structures. A marginal chromoelectric dipole moment (CEDM) of the up quark is induced by the misalignment between the CP violating left- and right-handed up-type squark mixings, in contrast to the conventional four-dimensional SUSY GUTs. The up quark CEDM constraint is found to be as strong as those from charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) searches. The interplay between future EDM and LFV experiments will probe the structures of the GUTs and the SUSY breaking mediation mechanism

  16. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular...... health. Although drug treatment represents a confounding factor, ACVD status, and not current drug use, is the major distinguishing feature in this cohort. We identify common themes by comparison with gut microbiome data associated with other cardiometabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes...

  17. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review

    Núria Mach

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The present review provides a comprehensive overview of how gut microbiota may have a key role in controlling the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as well as improving metabolism and energy expenditure during intense exercise.

  18. Multislice ct in gut related pathologies

    Nadeem, A.; Shaukat, A.; Ahmad, M.W.; Amin, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Multislice CT in Gut related pathologies. 50 consecutive patients, referred from surgical and medical departments, with gut pathology suspicion were scanned in this respect on Toshiba MSCT 4 slice Aquilion. Patients were. 100 ml iodinated non ionic IV contrast was given. Preferably water was used as oral contrast and oral iodinated contrast was used only in selective cases. As a result, 33 patients showed positive response and 17 were normal; 23 were females and 10 were males. We found following pathologies Acute Appendicitis 10, Diverticulitis 02, Inflammatory Bowel Disease 03, Small Bowel Obstruction 04, Malignant Gut masses 08, Omental Implants 05, Perforation (Duodenal) 01. It is thus concluded that MDCT has a definite role in gut pathologies especially when the ultrasound is negative. (author)

  19. The diagnostic role of gut feelings in general practice A focus group study of the concept and its determinants

    van der Weijden Trudy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners sometimes base clinical decisions on gut feelings alone, even though there is little evidence of their diagnostic and prognostic value in daily practice. Research into these aspects and the use of the concept in medical education require a practical and valid description of gut feelings. The goal of our study was therefore to describe the concept of gut feelings in general practice and to identify their main determinants Methods Qualitative research including 4 focus group discussions. A heterogeneous sample of 28 GPs. Text analysis of the focus group discussions, using a grounded theory approach. Results Gut feelings are familiar to most GPs in the Netherlands and play a substantial role in their everyday routine. The participants distinguished two types of gut feelings, a sense of reassurance and a sense of alarm. In the former case, a GP is sure about prognosis and therapy, although they may not always have a clear diagnosis in mind. A sense of alarm means that a GP has the feeling that something is wrong even though objective arguments are lacking. GPs in the focus groups experienced gut feelings as a compass in situations of uncertainty and the majority of GPs trusted this guide. We identified the main determinants of gut feelings: fitting, alerting and interfering factors, sensation, contextual knowledge, medical education, experience and personality. Conclusion The role of gut feelings in general practice has become much clearer, but we need more research into the contributions of individual determinants and into the test properties of gut feelings to make the concept suitable for medical education.

  20. Gut inflammation in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kirchgessner, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestin...

  1. "Sport Guts" in Japanese Girl Anime

    Miho Tsukamoto

    2015-01-01

    "Sport Guts" in Japanese anime developed not only to strengthen mentality but also to challenge for objectives. This paper helps to understand the development of Japanese girl anime, and its philosophical concepts of Japanese amine. This paper focuses on girls' sport anime "Sport Guts,", which is the major philosophy of Japanese girl anime and centers on a girl who is enthusiastic about volleyball and makes an effort to compete in the World Series by focusing on girl anime b...

  2. Reactions to Participating in Intimate Partner Violence and Minority Stress Research: A Mixed Methodological Study of Self-Identified Lesbian and Gay Emerging Adults.

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research.

  3. Administration of two probiotic strains during early childhood does not affect the endogenous gut microbiota composition despite probiotic proliferation.

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-08-17

    Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200 Danish infants (N = 290 enrolled; N = 201 all samples analyzed), as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Further, we evaluated probiotic presence and proliferation by use of specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Probiotic administration did not significantly alter gut microbiota community structure or diversity as compared to placebo. The probiotic strains were detected in 91.3% of the fecal samples from children receiving probiotics and in 1% of the placebo treated children. Baseline gut microbiota was not found to predict the ability of probiotics to establish in the gut after the 6 month intervention. Within the probiotics group, proliferation of the strains LGG® and BB-12® in the gut was detected in 44.7% and 83.5% of the participants, respectively. A sub-analysis of the gut microbiota including only individuals with detected growth of the probiotics LGG® or BB-12® and comparing these to placebo revealed no differences in community structure or diversity. Six months of probiotic administration during early life did not change gut

  4. [Preparation of Coated CMC-Fe0 Using Rheological Phase Reaction Method and Research on Degradation of TCE in Water].

    Fan, Wen-jing; Cheng, Yue; Yu, Shu-zhen; Fan, Xiao-feng

    2015-06-01

    The coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (coated CMC-Fe0) was synthesized with cheap and environment friendly CMC as the coating agent using rheological phase reaction. The sample was characterized by means of XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-stripping and used to study reductive dechlorination of TCE. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of TCE was about 100% when the CMC-Fe0 dosage was 6 g x L(-1), the initial TCE concentration was 5 mg x L(-1) and the reaction time was 40 h. The TCE degradation reaction of coated CMC-Fe0 followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Finally, the product could be simply recovered.

  5. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

    Usha Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management.

  6. A human gut phage catalog correlates the gut phageome with type 2 diabetes.

    Ma, Yingfei; You, Xiaoyan; Mai, Guoqin; Tokuyasu, Taku; Liu, Chenli

    2018-02-01

    Substantial efforts have been made to link the gut bacterial community to many complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the gut phages are often neglected. In this study, we used multiple bioinformatic methods to catalog gut phages from whole-community metagenomic sequencing data of fecal samples collected from both type II diabetes (T2D) patients (n = 71) and normal Chinese adults (n = 74). The definition of phage operational taxonomic units (pOTUs) and identification of large phage scaffolds (n = 2567, ≥ 10 k) revealed a comprehensive human gut phageome with a substantial number of novel sequences encoding genes that were unrelated to those in known phages. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in the number of gut phages in the T2D group and, in particular, identified 7 pOTUs specific to T2D. This finding was further validated in an independent dataset of 116 T2D and 109 control samples. Co-occurrence/exclusion analysis of the bacterial genera and pOTUs identified a complex core interaction between bacteria and phages in the human gut ecosystem, suggesting that the significant alterations of the gut phageome cannot be explained simply by co-variation with the altered bacterial hosts. Alterations in the gut bacterial community have been linked to the chronic disease T2D, but the role of gut phages therein is not well understood. This is the first study to identify a T2D-specific gut phageome, indicating the existence of other mechanisms that might govern the gut phageome in T2D patients. These findings suggest the importance of the phageome in T2D risk, which warrants further investigation.

  7. Research Program to Determine Redox Reactions and Their Effects on Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium in DOE Wastes

    Choppin, G.R.; Rai, D.

    2000-10-01

    Plutonium in geologic matrices undergoes a variety of complex reactions which complicate its environmental behavior. These complexities in plutonium chemistry whereby a large variety of precipitation, dissolution, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions control plutonium speciation and concentrations, result in the need for a rather large amount of reliable, fundamental data to predict Pu behavior in geologic media. These data are also needed for evaluation of remediation strategies that involve removing most of the contaminants by selective methods, followed by in situ immobilization of residual contaminants. Two areas were studied during this project: (1) thermodynamic data for Th(IV) and Pu(IV) complexes of EDTA and for Pu(V) interactions with chloride; (2) kinetic data for redox reactions of Pu in the presence of common redox agents (e.g., H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MnO{sub 2}, and NaOCl) encountered under waste disposal conditions. These studies are relevant to understanding Pu behavior in wastes disposed of in diverse geologic conditions (e.g., at the WIPP and YUCCA Mountain repositories and in contaminated sediments at many different DOE sites) and also for developing effective remediation strategies (e.g., processing of high level waste tanks). These studies have yielded data to address redox reactions of plutonium in the presence of environmentally important agents (e.g. organic and inorganic oxidants/reductants).

  8. Research Program to Determine Redox Reactions and Their Effects on Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium in DOE Wastes

    Choppin, G.R.; Rai, D.

    2000-01-01

    Plutonium in geologic matrices undergoes a variety of complex reactions which complicate its environmental behavior. These complexities in plutonium chemistry whereby a large variety of precipitation, dissolution, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions control plutonium speciation and concentrations, result in the need for a rather large amount of reliable, fundamental data to predict Pu behavior in geologic media. These data are also needed for evaluation of remediation strategies that involve removing most of the contaminants by selective methods, followed by in situ immobilization of residual contaminants. Two areas were studied during this project: (1) thermodynamic data for Th(IV) and Pu(IV) complexes of EDTA and for Pu(V) interactions with chloride; (2) kinetic data for redox reactions of Pu in the presence of common redox agents (e.g., H 2 O 2 , MnO 2 , and NaOCl) encountered under waste disposal conditions. These studies are relevant to understanding Pu behavior in wastes disposed of in diverse geologic conditions (e.g., at the WIPP and YUCCA Mountain repositories and in contaminated sediments at many different DOE sites) and also for developing effective remediation strategies (e.g., processing of high level waste tanks). These studies have yielded data to address redox reactions of plutonium in the presence of environmentally important agents (e.g. organic and inorganic oxidants/reductants)

  9. Hh pathway expression in human gut tissues and in inflammatory gut diseases

    Nielsen, Corinne M.; Williams, Jerrell; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Roberts, Drucilla J.

    2004-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) directs early gut patterning via epithelial-mesenchymal signaling and remains expressed in endoderm-derived tissues into the adult period. In human adult gut epithelium SHH/SHH expression is strongest in basal layers, which suggests that SHH may function in the maintenance of

  10. Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity.

    Million, M; Lagier, J-C; Yahav, D; Paul, M

    2013-04-01

    Although probiotics and antibiotics have been used for decades as growth promoters in animals, attention has only recently been drawn to the association between the gut microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. Studies in mice have associated the phylum Firmicutes with obesity and the phylum Bacteroidetes with weight loss. Proposed mechanisms linking the microbiota to fat content and weight include differential effects of bacteria on the efficiency of energy extraction from the diet, and changes in host metabolism of absorbed calories. The independent effect of the microbiota on fat accumulation has been demonstrated in mice, where transplantation of microbiota from obese mice or mice fed western diets to lean or germ-free mice produced fat accumulation among recipients. The microbiota can be manipulated by prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics. Probiotics affect the microbiota directly by modulating its bacterial content, and indirectly through bacteriocins produced by the probiotic bacteria. Interestingly, certain probiotics are associated with weight gain both in animals and in humans. The effects are dependent on the probiotic strain, the host, and specific host characteristics, such as age and baseline nutritional status. Attention has recently been drawn to the association between antibiotic use and weight gain in children and adults. We herein review the studies describing the associations between the microbiota composition, its manipulation, and obesity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. N=2 extended supersymmetric GUTs

    Fayet, P.

    1984-01-01

    We construct N = 2 extended SUSY GUTs which provide a general association between massive spin-1 gauge bosons, spin-1/2 inos and spin-0 Higgs bosons. The corresponding gauge hypermultiplets are of four different types, while leptons and quarks are associated with mirror and spin-0 partners. The anticommutators of the two supersymmetry generators provide two spin-0 symmetry generators Zsub(s) and Zsub(p), which do not commute. Their field-independent parts and do commute, however, and appear as central charges in the symmetry algebra of the spontaneously broken gauge theory. These central charges and are linear combinations of global symmetry generators with grand unification generators such as the weak hypercharge (but not the electrical charge). They survive the electroweak symmetry breaking. They do not vanish for massive gauge hypermultiplets of types II and III, which verify M 2 = 2 + 2 > 0 and M 2 > 2 + 2 > 0, respectively. The formula M 2 approx.= 2 + 2 determines the mass spectrum on the grand unification scale, up to electroweak corrections. Finally, we indicate how our mass relations can be interpreted in a 5- or 6-dimensional formalism, the central charges appearing as the extra components of the covariant momentum along the compact fifth or sixth dimensions; and how to evaluate the grand unification mass msub(x) in terms of the lengths of the latter (msub(x)approx.=(h/2π)/Lsub(5(6))c). (orig./HSI)

  12. Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases.

    Fasano, Alessio

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by tissue damage and loss of function due to an immune response that is directed against specific organs. This review is focused on the role of impaired intestinal barrier function on autoimmune pathogenesis. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiologic modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, autoimmune disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. Both animal models and recent clinical evidence support this new paradigm and provide the rationale for innovative approaches to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases.

  13. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  14. Embracing the gut microbiota: the new frontier for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    van den Elsen, Lieke WJ; Poyntz, Hazel C; Weyrich, Laura S; Young, Wayne; Forbes-Blom, Elizabeth E

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host–microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called ‘normal' or ‘healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases. Current translational research combined with recent technological and computational advances have enabled in-depth study of the link between microbial composition and immune function, addressing the interplay between the gut microbiota and immune responses. As such, beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota is a promising clinical target for many prevalent diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, metabolic abnormalities such as obesity, reduced insulin sensitivity and low-grade inflammation, allergy and protective immunity against infections. PMID:28197336

  15. Gut microbiota’s effect on mental health: The gut-brain axis

    Megan Clapp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and gut microbiota, referred to as the gut-brain-axis, has been of significant interest in recent years. Increasing evidence has associated gut microbiota to both gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal diseases. Dysbiosis and inflammation of the gut have been linked to causing several mental illnesses including anxiety and depression, which are prevalent in society today. Probiotics have the ability to restore normal microbial balance, and therefore have a potential role in the treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression. This review aims to discuss the development of the gut microbiota, the linkage of dysbiosis to anxiety and depression, and possible applications of probiotics to reduce symptoms.

  16. [Gut microbiome and psyche: paradigm shift in the concept of brain-gut axis].

    Konturek, Peter C; Zopf, Yurdagül

    2016-05-25

    The concept of the brain-gut axis describes the communication between the central and enteric nervous system. The exchange of information takes place in both directions. The great advances in molecular medicine in recent years led to the discovery of an enormous number of microorganisms in the intestine (gut microbiome), which greatly affect the function of the brain-gut axis. Overview Numerous studies indicate that the dysfunction of the brain-gut axis could lead to both inflammatory and functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it was shown that a faulty composition of the gut microbiota in childhood influences the maturation of the central nervous system and thus may favor the development of mental disorders such as autism, depression, or other. An exact causal relationship between psyche and microbiome must be clarified by further studies in order to find new therapeutic options.

  17. Early-Life Antibiotic Exposure, Gut Microbiota Development, and Predisposition to Obesity.

    Azad, Meghan B; Moossavi, Shirin; Owora, Arthur; Sepehri, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved. Obesity is a complex and multifactorial condition; thus, a multipronged prevention strategy will be required to curb the current obesity epidemic. Evidence to date suggests this strategy should include the judicious use of antibiotics, especially in early life when the developing gut microbiota is particularly susceptible to perturbations with long-lasting implications for metabolic programming and obesity risk. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Impact of cadmium on the bacterial communities in the gut of Metaphire posthuma

    Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Mu-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Colin S [Department of Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ssu Ching, E-mail: osycchna@ksts.seed.net.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-30

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil onto the bacterial communities of the guts pooled from ten Metaphire posthuma were addressed during 14 days' incubation. We found that about 50% of Cd (5 mg/kg, dry weight soil) in the contaminated soil was bio-accumulated into the earthworms. DNA was extracted from the guts of M. posthuma and their dwelling soil irrespective of Cd treatment for the analysis of the bacterial communities of guts in M. posthuma and in soil by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). A distinctive cluster of bacterial communities of the guts in the earthworm with and without Cd treatment using the analysis of unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was observed, indicating that the bacterial community of guts could be changed by Cd. However, no differences in the bacterial communities in soil irrespective of Cd treatment were observed, which could be resulted from the bioremediation of Cd by earthworms leading to insignificant effect of Cd on bacterial communities in soil. For the sequencing of some of the dominant bands in the DGGE profile, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Stenotrophomonas sp. D2, and Labrys, sp. CC-BB4, whose sequences display an identity of more than 97% using blast program against a known sequence in the GeneBank database and Ribosomal database, were identified. Collectively, our results showed that earthworm treatment can decrease the concentrations of Cd in soil, and Cd cause a shift in the bacterial communities in the guts of M. posthuma. The application of M. posthuma for Cd bioremediation would be desired.

  19. Impact of cadmium on the bacterial communities in the gut of Metaphire posthuma

    Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Mu-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Colin S.; Chen, Jiun-Hong; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2009-01-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil onto the bacterial communities of the guts pooled from ten Metaphire posthuma were addressed during 14 days' incubation. We found that about 50% of Cd (5 mg/kg, dry weight soil) in the contaminated soil was bio-accumulated into the earthworms. DNA was extracted from the guts of M. posthuma and their dwelling soil irrespective of Cd treatment for the analysis of the bacterial communities of guts in M. posthuma and in soil by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). A distinctive cluster of bacterial communities of the guts in the earthworm with and without Cd treatment using the analysis of unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was observed, indicating that the bacterial community of guts could be changed by Cd. However, no differences in the bacterial communities in soil irrespective of Cd treatment were observed, which could be resulted from the bioremediation of Cd by earthworms leading to insignificant effect of Cd on bacterial communities in soil. For the sequencing of some of the dominant bands in the DGGE profile, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Stenotrophomonas sp. D2, and Labrys, sp. CC-BB4, whose sequences display an identity of more than 97% using blast program against a known sequence in the GeneBank database and Ribosomal database, were identified. Collectively, our results showed that earthworm treatment can decrease the concentrations of Cd in soil, and Cd cause a shift in the bacterial communities in the guts of M. posthuma. The application of M. posthuma for Cd bioremediation would be desired.

  20. Impact of cadmium on the bacterial communities in the gut of Metaphire posthuma

    Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Mu-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Colin S. [Department of Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ssu Ching, E-mail: osycchna@ksts.seed.net.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-30

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil onto the bacterial communities of the guts pooled from ten Metaphire posthuma were addressed during 14 days' incubation. We found that about 50% of Cd (5 mg/kg, dry weight soil) in the contaminated soil was bio-accumulated into the earthworms. DNA was extracted from the guts of M. posthuma and their dwelling soil irrespective of Cd treatment for the analysis of the bacterial communities of guts in M. posthuma and in soil by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). A distinctive cluster of bacterial communities of the guts in the earthworm with and without Cd treatment using the analysis of unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was observed, indicating that the bacterial community of guts could be changed by Cd. However, no differences in the bacterial communities in soil irrespective of Cd treatment were observed, which could be resulted from the bioremediation of Cd by earthworms leading to insignificant effect of Cd on bacterial communities in soil. For the sequencing of some of the dominant bands in the DGGE profile, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Stenotrophomonas sp. D2, and Labrys, sp. CC-BB4, whose sequences display an identity of more than 97% using blast program against a known sequence in the GeneBank database and Ribosomal database, were identified. Collectively, our results showed that earthworm treatment can decrease the concentrations of Cd in soil, and Cd cause a shift in the bacterial communities in the guts of M. posthuma. The application of M. posthuma for Cd bioremediation would be desired.

  1. Gut as a target for cadmium toxicity.

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to review the impact of Cd exposure on gut microbiota and intestinal physiology, as well as to estimate whether gut may be considered as the target for Cd toxicity. The review is based on literature search in available databases. The existing data demonstrate that the impact of Cd on gut physiology is two-sided. First, Cd exposure induces a significant alteration of bacterial populations and their relative abundance in gut (increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio), accompanied by increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production, reflecting changed metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome. Second, in intestinal wall Cd exposure induces inflammatory response and cell damage including disruption of tight junctions, ultimately leading to increased gut permeability. Together with increased LPS production, impaired barrier function causes endotoxinemia and systemic inflammation. Hypothetically, Cd-induced increase gut permeability may also result in increased bacterial translocation. On the one hand, bacteriolysis may be associated with aggravation of endotoxemia. At the same time, together with Cd-induced impairment of macrophage inflammatory response, increased bacterial translocation may result in increased susceptibility to infections. Such a supposition is generally in agreement with the finding of higher susceptibility of Cd-exposed mice to infections. The changed microbiome metabolic activity and LPS-induced systemic inflammation may have a significant impact on target organs. The efficiency of probiotics in at least partial prevention of the local (intestinal) and systemic toxic effects of cadmium confirms the role of altered gut physiology in Cd toxicity. Therefore, probiotic treatment may be considered as the one of the strategies for prevention of Cd toxicity in parallel with chelation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  3. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    Yulan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more accurately, we need to elucidate the relationships between the gut microbiota and several human pathologies more precisely, as understanding the impact that the microbiota plays in various diseases is fundamental for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the importance of the gut microbiota for human health and the potential to manipulate gut microbial composition for purposes such as the treatment of antibiotic-resistant Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infections. The concept of altering the gut community by microbial intervention in an effort to improve health is currently in its infancy. However, the therapeutic implications appear to be very great. Thus, the removal of harmful organisms and the enrichment of beneficial microbes may protect our health, and such efforts will pave the way for the development of more rational treatment options in the future.

  4. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-01-01

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through a number of pathways, including the trimethylamine (TMA)/ trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these “metabolism dependent” pathways, metabolism independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to CVD pathogenesis. For example, heart failure associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are believed to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:28360349

  5. Future coordinated researches by Argonne (USA), Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan) nuclear centres on the nuclear reactions and astrophysics

    Artemov, S.V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Burtebaev, N.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Rehm, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    An actual problem of modern nuclear physics and astrophysics is realistic evaluation of astrophysical S-factors and rates of the nuclear reactions, which are responsible for the energy generation and nucleosynthesis in Universe. The essential progress in understanding of these processes has been made in the last decade. Those are the discovery of neutrino oscillations, obtaining new precise data on the reactions cross sections at rather low energies, development of methods of extrapolation to the stellar energy region. Nevertheless, the available experimental data close to stellar energies are very poor especially for unstable particles interactions, and uncertainties remain rather remarkable. It leads to large errors when measured data are extrapolated to astrophysical important super low energy region. The experimental possibilities for improvement the accuracy of the data using 'indirect' measurements are discussed. One of them is based on the peripheral character of charged particles interaction at low energy in which the asymptotical normalization coefficients (ANC) of overlapping functions are used for extrapolation. In this case the differential cross-section of the particle transfer reaction is expressed via the product of ANCs squares of participating particles. Their values may be obtained from the peripheral reactions at larger energies where the accuracy of measurement is higher. From this point of view the particle transfer A(x,y)B reactions are the most preferable, where (x,y) are ( 13 N, 12 C) or ( 17 F, 16 O) (proton transfer) and ( 13 C, 12 C) or ( 17 O, 16 O) (neutron transfer). We should know firstly the ANCs for 13 C→ 12 C+n ( 17 O→ 16 O+n) and 13 N→ 12 C+p ( 17 F→ 16 O+p) systems, and all other ANCs B→ A+p(n) are expressed through these values. The nucleon separation energies ε N are relatively small for these nuclei (ε 13N → 12C+p =1.943 MeV; ε 17F → 16O+p =0.6003 MeV; ε 13C → 12C+n =4.946 MeV and ε 17O → 16O+n =4.143 Me

  6. The Gut Microbiome and Mental Health: Implications for Anxiety- and Trauma-Related Disorders.

    Malan-Muller, Stefanie; Valles-Colomer, Mireia; Raes, Jeroen; Lowry, Christopher A; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J

    2018-02-01

    Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. This review challenges this assumption and suggests that the gut microbiome and its interactome also deserve attention to understand brain disorders and develop innovative treatments and diagnostics in the 21st century. The recent, in-depth characterization of the human microbiome spurred a paradigm shift in human health and disease. Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis sits at the epicenter of this new approach to mental health. The microbiome plays an important role in the programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life, and stress reactivity over the life span. In this review, we highlight emerging findings of microbiome research in psychiatric disorders, focusing on anxiety- and trauma-related disorders specifically, and discuss the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target. 16S rRNA sequencing has enabled researchers to investigate and compare microbial composition between individuals. The functional microbiome can be studied using methods involving metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics, as discussed in the present review. Other factors that shape the gut microbiome should be considered to obtain a holistic view of the factors at play in the complex interactome linked to the MGB. In all, we underscore the importance of microbiome science, and gut microbiota in particular, as emerging critical players in mental illness and maintenance of mental health. This new frontier of biological psychiatry and postgenomic medicine should be embraced by the mental health community as it plays an ever-increasing transformative role in integrative and holistic health research in the next decade.

  7. Report compiled by Research Center for Carbonaceous Resources, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science, Tohoku University; Tohoku Daigaku Hanno Kagaku Kenkyusho tanso shigen hanno kenkyu center hokokusho

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    The Research Center for Carbonaceous Resources was established in April 1991 for the purpose of developing a comprehensive process for converting carbonaceous resources into clean fuels or into materials equipped with advanced functions. In this report, the track records etc. of the center are introduced. Under study in the conversion process research department is the organization of a comprehensive coal conversion process which will be a combination of solvent extraction, catalytic decomposition, and catalytic gasification, whose goal is to convert coal in a clean way at high efficiency. Under study in the conversion catalyst research department are the development of a coal denitrogenation method, development of a low-temperature gasification method by use of inexpensive catalysts, synthesis of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons in a methane/carbon dioxide reaction, etc. Other endeavors under way involve the designing and development of new organic materials such as new carbon materials and a study of the foundation on which such efforts stand, that is, the study of the control of reactions between solids. Furthermore, in the study of interfacial reaction control, the contact gasification of coal, brown coal ion exchange capacity and surface conditions, carbonization of cation exchanged brown coal, etc., are being developed. (NEDO)

  8. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    Ellis, John; /CERN /King' s Coll. London; Mustafayev, Azar; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  9. Constrained supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT phenomenology

    Ellis, John [CERN, TH Division, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); King' s College London, Theoretical Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Mustafayev, Azar [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Stanford University, Department of Physics and SLAC, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, M{sub in}, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tau}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2},m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to M{sub in}, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta}=10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large M{sub in}, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses. (orig.)

  10. Contribution of Gut Bacteria to Liver Pathobiology

    Gakuhei Son

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease. The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestinal venous outflow, the liver represents the first line of defense against gut-derived antigens and is equipped with a broad array of immune cells (i.e., macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells to accomplish this function. In the setting of tissue injury, whereby the liver is otherwise damaged (e.g., viral infection, toxin exposure, ischemic tissue damage, etc., these same immune cell populations and their interactions with the infiltrating gut bacteria likely contribute to and promote these pathologies. The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology. Defining these connections will likely provide new targets for therapy or prevention of a wide variety of acute and chronic liver pathologies.

  11. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  12. [Glucose homeostasis and gut-brain connection].

    De Vadder, Filipe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    Since the XIX(th) century, the brain has been known for its role in regulating food intake (via the control of hunger sensation) and glucose homeostasis. Further interest has come from the discovery of gut hormones, which established a clear link between the gut and the brain in regulating glucose and energy homeostasis. The brain has two particular structures, the hypothalamus and the brainstem, which are sensitive to information coming either from peripheral organs or from the gut (via circulating hormones or nutrients) about the nutritional status of the organism. However, the efforts for a better understanding of these mechanisms have allowed to unveil a new gut-brain neural axis as a key regulator of the metabolic status of the organism. Certain nutrients control the hypothalamic homeostatic function via this axis. In this review, we describe how the gut is connected to the brain via different neural pathways, and how the interplay between these two organs drives the energy balance. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. Introduction to the human gut microbiota.

    Thursby, Elizabeth; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-05-16

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections. The interpretation of these studies relies on a better understanding of inter-individual variations, heterogeneity of bacterial communities along and across the GI tract, functional redundancy and the need to distinguish cause from effect in states of dysbiosis. This review summarises our current understanding of the development and composition of the human GI microbiota, and its impact on gut integrity and host health, underlying the need for mechanistic studies focusing on host-microbe interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Constrained supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT phenomenology

    Ellis, John; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, M in , above the GUT scale, M GUT . We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino χ and the lighter stau τ 1 is sensitive to M in , as is the relationship between m χ and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m 1/2 ,m 0 ) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to M in , as we illustrate for several cases with tan β=10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large M in , unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses. (orig.)

  15. Intestinal microbiome-gut-brain axis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Moser, Gabriele; Fournier, Camille; Peter, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    Psychological comorbidity is highly present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent research points to a role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Increased disease reactivity to psychological stress has been described too. A few clinical studies have attempted to identify features of dysbiosis in IBS. While animal studies revealed strong associations between stress and gut microbiota, studies in humans are rare. This review covers the most important studies on intestinal microbial correlates of psychological and clinical features in IBS, including stress, anxiety, and depression.

  16. Capturing One of the Human Gut Microbiome's Most Wanted

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Hernandez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    The role of the microbiome in health and disease is attracting great attention, yet we still know little about some of the most prevalent microorganisms inside our bodies. Several years ago, Human Microbiome Project (HMP) researchers generated a list of "most wanted" taxa: bacteria both prevalent...... the environment, and to lack virulence genes. Thus, the evidence is consistent with a secondary degrader that occupies a host-dependent, nutrient scavenging niche within the gut; its ability to produce butyrate, which is thought to play an anti-inflammatory role, makes it intriguing for the study of diseases...

  17. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diminution of the gut resistome after a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention in obese children.

    Wu, Guojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ruirui; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Menghui

    2016-04-05

    The gut microbiome represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Effective methods are urgently needed for managing the gut resistome to fight against the antibiotic resistance threat. In this study, we show that a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention, which shifts the dominant fermentation of gut bacteria from protein to carbohydrate, significantly diminished the gut resistome and alleviated metabolic syndrome in obese children. Of the non-redundant metagenomic gene catalog of ~2 × 10(6) microbial genes, 399 ARGs were identified in 131 gene types and conferred resistance to 47 antibiotics. Both the richness and diversity of the gut resistome were significantly reduced after the intervention. A total of 201 of the 399 ARGs were carried in 120 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs) directly binned from the gene catalog across both pre-and post-intervention samples. The intervention significantly reduced several CAGs in Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia, which were the major hubs for multiple resistance gene types. Thus, dietary intervention may become a potentially effective method for diminishing the gut resistome.

  19. Understanding the gut microbiome of dairy calves: Opportunities to improve early-life gut health.

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-07-01

    Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth. Still, comprehensive understanding of the effect of dietary interventions on gut microbiota-one of the key aspects of gut health-is lacking. Such knowledge may provide in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind functional changes in response to dietary interventions. Understanding of host-microbial interactions with dietary interventions and the role of the gut microbiota during pathogenesis at the site of infection in early life is vital for designing effective tools and techniques to improve calf gut health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research concerning ionic and free radical reactions in radiation chemistry. Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 15, 1977

    Williams, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on ESR studies of fluorocarbon radicals and intermediate radicals. A detailed study was made of the dimethyl, diethyl, and di-n-propyl carbonates. Studies were continued on hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions at low temperatures with view to evaluating the contribution from quantum-mechanical tunneling. Detection of the transient dimer radical anion of acetonitrile in the upper crystalline phase at -50 0 C is reported. Abstracts of current reports are included on electron attachment to fluorocarbons hydrogen atom abstraction by methyl radicals. EPR spectra of the tetrafluoroethylene radical anion, and addition of tetrafluoroethylene to the tetrafluoroethylene radical anion

  1. Intestinal crosstalk: a new paradigm for understanding the gut as the "motor" of critical illness.

    Clark, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-10-01

    For more than 20 years, the gut has been hypothesized to be the "motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As critical care research has evolved, there have been multiple mechanisms by which the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed to drive systemic inflammation. Many of these disparate mechanisms have proved to be important in the origin and propagation of critical illness. However, this has led to an unusual situation where investigators describing the gut as a "motor" revving the systemic inflammatory response syndrome are frequently describing wholly different processes to support their claim (i.e., increased apoptosis, altered tight junctions, translocation, cytokine production, crosstalk with commensal bacteria, etc). The purpose of this review is to present a unifying theory as to how the gut drives critical illness. Although the gastrointestinal tract is frequently described simply as "the gut," it is actually made up of (1) an epithelium; (2) a diverse and robust immune arm, which contains most of the immune cells in the body; and (3) the commensal bacteria, which contain more cells than are present in the entire host organism. We propose that the intestinal epithelium, the intestinal immune system, and the intestine's endogenous bacteria all play vital roles driving multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and the complex crosstalk between these three interrelated portions of the gastrointestinal tract is what cumulatively makes the gut a "motor" of critical illness.

  2. Metabolomic applications to decipher gut microbial metabolic influence in health and disease

    Francois-Pierre eMartin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary preferences and nutrients composition have been shown to influence human and gut microbial metabolism, which ultimately has specific effects on health and diseases’ risk. Increasingly, results from molecular biology and microbiology demonstrate the key role of the gut microbiota metabolic interface to the overall mammalian host’s health status. There is therefore raising interest in nutrition research to characterize the molecular foundations of the gut microbial mammalian cross-talk at both physiological and biochemical pathway levels. Tackling these challenges can be achieved through systems biology approaches, such as metabolomics, to underpin the highly complex metabolic exchanges between diverse biological compartments, including organs, systemic biofluids and microbial symbionts. By the development of specific biomarkers for prediction of health and disease, metabolomics is increasingly used in clinical applications as regard to disease aetiology, diagnostic stratification and potentially mechanism of action of therapeutical and nutraceutical solutions. Surprisingly, an increasing number of metabolomics investigations in pre-clinical and clinical studies based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS provided compelling evidence that system wide and organ-specific biochemical processes are under the influence of gut microbial metabolism. This review aims at describing recent applications of metabolomics in clinical fields where main objective is to discern the biochemical mechanisms under the influence of the gut microbiota, with insight into gastrointestinal health and diseases diagnostics and improvement of homeostasis metabolic regulation.

  3. Human gut microbiota plays a role in the metabolism of drugs.

    Jourova, Lenka; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Anzenbacherova, Eva

    2016-09-01

    The gut microbiome, an aggregate genome of trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gastrointestinal tract, is now known to play a critical role in human health and predisposition to disease. It is also involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and several recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota can affect the pharmacokinetics of orally taken drugs with implications for their oral bioavailability. Review of Pubmed, Web of Science and Science Direct databases for the years 1957-2016. Recent studies make it clear that the human gut microbiota can play a major role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and, the stability and oral bioavailability of drugs. Over the past 50 years, more than 30 drugs have been identified as a substrate for intestinal bacteria. Questions concerning the impact of the gut microbiota on drug metabolism, remain unanswered or only partially answered, namely (i) what are the molecular mechanisms and which bacterial species are involved? (ii) What is the impact of host genotype and environmental factors on the composition and function of the gut microbiota, (iii) To what extent is the composition of the intestinal microbiome stable, transmissible, and resilient to perturbation? (iv) Has past exposure to a given drug any impact on future microbial response, and, if so, for how long? Answering such questions should be an integral part of pharmaceutical research and personalised health care.

  4. Variable responses of human and non-human primate gut microbiomes to a Western diet.

    Amato, Katherine R; Yeoman, Carl J; Cerda, Gabriela; Schmitt, Christopher A; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Miller, Margret E Berg; Gomez, Andres; Turner, Trudy R; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R

    2015-11-16

    The human gut microbiota interacts closely with human diet and physiology. To better understand the mechanisms behind this relationship, gut microbiome research relies on complementing human studies with manipulations of animal models, including non-human primates. However, due to unique aspects of human diet and physiology, it is likely that host-gut microbe interactions operate differently in humans and non-human primates. Here, we show that the human microbiome reacts differently to a high-protein, high-fat Western diet than that of a model primate, the African green monkey, or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Specifically, humans exhibit increased relative abundance of Firmicutes and reduced relative abundance of Prevotella on a Western diet while vervets show the opposite pattern. Predictive metagenomics demonstrate an increased relative abundance of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in the microbiome of only humans consuming a Western diet. These results suggest that the human gut microbiota has unique properties that are a result of changes in human diet and physiology across evolution or that may have contributed to the evolution of human physiology. Therefore, the role of animal models for understanding the relationship between the human gut microbiota and host metabolism must be re-focused.

  5. Characterization of the human DNA gut virome across populations with different subsistence strategies and geographical origin.

    Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Barone, Monica; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Gallinella, Giorgio; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    It is a matter of fact that the human gut microbiome also includes a non-bacterial fraction represented by eukaryotic cells and viruses. To further explore the gut microbiome variation in human populations, here we characterized the human DNA viral community from publicly available gut metagenome data sets from human populations with different geographical origin and lifestyle. In particular, such data sets encompass microbiome information from two western urban societies (USA and Italy), as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer communities (the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru) and one pre-agricultural tribe (Tunapuco from Peru). Our results allowed for the first taxonomic reconstruction of the complex viral metacommunities within the human gut. The core virome structure included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses and anelloviruses. Using Random Forests and a co-occurrence analysis approach, we identified the viruses that distinguished populations according to their geographical origin and/or lifestyle. This paves the way for new research aimed at investigating the biological role of the gut virome in human physiology, and the importance of our viral counterpart in the microbiome-host co-evolutionary process. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A novel quick transendoscopic enteral tubing in mid-gut: technique and training with video.

    Long, Chuyan; Yu, Yan; Cui, Bota; Jagessar, Sabreen Abdul Rahman; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Guozhong; Huang, Guangming; Zhang, Faming

    2018-03-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and value of a quick technique for transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) through mid-gut. A prospective interventional study was performed in a single center. A TET tube was inserted into mid-gut through the nasal orifice and fixed on the pylorus wall by one tiny titanium endoscopic clip under anesthesia. The feasibility, safety, success rate, and satisfaction with TET placement were evaluated for enteral nutrition or fecal microbiota transplantation. A total of 86 patients underwent mid-gut TET. The success rate of the TET procedure was 98.8% (85/86). Mean tubing time of the TET procedure was 4.2 ± 1.9 min. 10 cases of procedure was enough for training of general endoscopist to shorten the procedure time (7.0 min vs 4.0 min, p tube-related adverse events were observed in 8.1% (7/86) and 7.0% (6/86) of patients respectively. There were no moderate to severe adverse events during tube extubation. TET through mid-gut is a novel, convenient, reliable and safe procedure for mid-gut administration with a high degree of patient satisfaction. This research was retrospectively registered with clinicaltrials.gov. Trial registration date: 29th November 2017. NCT03335982 .

  7. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Isabel eMoreno Indias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The establishment of gut microbiota is dependent on the type of birth. With effect from this point, gut microbiota remain quite stable, although changes take place between birth and adulthood due to external influences, such as diet, disease and environment. Understand these changes is important to predict diseases and develop therapies. A new theory suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis, provoking the development of an impairment in energy homeostasis and causing metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic endotoxemia, modifications in the secretion of incretins and butyrate production might explain the influence of the microbiota in these diseases.

  8. The gut microbiota and metabolic disease: current understanding and future perspectives.

    Arora, T; Bäckhed, F

    2016-10-01

    The human gut microbiota has been studied for more than a century. However, of nonculture-based techniques exploiting next-generation sequencing for analysing the microbiota, development has renewed research within the field during the past decade. The observation that the gut microbiota, as an environmental factor, contributes to adiposity has further increased interest in the field. The human microbiota is affected by the diet, and macronutrients serve as substrates for many microbially produced metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that may modulate host metabolism. Obesity predisposes towards type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recently, it has been established that levels of butyrate-producing bacteria are reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas levels of Lactobacillus sp. are increased. Recent data suggest that the reduced levels of butyrate-producing bacteria might be causally linked to type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery, which promotes long-term weight loss and diabetes remission, alters the gut microbiota in both mice and humans. Furthermore, by transferring the microbiota from postbariatric surgery patients to mice, it has been demonstrated that an altered microbiota may contribute to the improved metabolic phenotype following this intervention. Thus, greater understanding of alterations of the gut microbiota, in combination with dietary patterns, may provide insights into how the gut microbiota contributes to disease progression and whether it can be exploited as a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated disorders are a major public health concern. Although obesity has been mainly related with perturbations of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, other factors must nevertheless be considered. Recent insight suggests that an altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota could play an important role in the development of metabolic disorders. This review discusses research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2). The establishment of gut microbiota is dependent on the type of birth. With effect from this point, gut microbiota remain quite stable, although changes take place between birth and adulthood due to external influences, such as diet, disease and environment. Understand these changes is important to predict diseases and develop therapies. A new theory suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis, provoking the development of an impairment in energy homeostasis and causing metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance or TDM2. The metabolic endotoxemia, modifications in the secretion of incretins and butyrate production might explain the influence of the microbiota in these diseases.

  10. Role of Gut Microbiota in the Aetiology of Obesity: Proposed Mechanisms and Review of the Literature

    Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Edwards, Christine Ann; Shaikh, M. Guftar

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone. However, evidence from animal and human studies clearly indicates controversies in determining the cause or effect relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity. Metagenomics based studies indicate that functionality rather than the composition of gut microbiota may be important. Further mechanistic studies controlling for environmental and epigenetic factors are therefore required to help unravel obesity pathogenesis. PMID:27703805

  11. Serotonin: A mediator of the gut-brain axis in multiple sclerosis.

    Malinova, Tsveta S; Dijkstra, Christine D; de Vries, Helga E

    2017-11-01

    The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders. Methods, Results, and Conclusion: Our comprehensive overview of literature provides evidence that 5-HT levels in the gut are controlled by the microbiome, both via secretion and through regulation of metabolites. In addition, we demonstrate that the gut microbiome can influence the formation of the serotonergic system (SS) in the brain. We also show that SS alterations have been related to MS directly-altered expression of 5-HT transporters in central nervous system (CNS) and indirectly-beneficial effects of 5-HT modulating drugs on the course of the disease and higher prevalence of depression in patients with MS. Finally, we discuss briefly the role of other microbiome-modulated NTs such as γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine in MS to highlight a new direction for future research aiming to relate microbiome-regulated NTs to demyelinating disorders.

  12. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  13. Sneutrino driven GUT inflation in supergravity

    Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Heurtier, Lucien; Moursy, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we embed the model of flipped GUT sneutrino inflation — in a flipped SU(5) or SO(10) set up — developed by Ellis et al. in a supergravity framework. The GUT symmetry is broken by a waterfall which could happen at early or late stage of the inflationary period. The full field dynamics is thus studied in detail and these two main inflationary configurations are exposed, whose cosmological predictions are both in agreement with recent astrophysical measurements. The model has an interesting feature where the inflaton has natural decay channels to the MSSM particles allowed by the GUT gauge symmetry. Hence it can account for the reheating after the inflationary epoch.

  14. Sneutrino driven GUT inflation in supergravity

    Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Heurtier, Lucien; Moursy, Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we embed the model of flipped GUT sneutrino inflation — in a flipped SU(5) or SO(10) set up — developed by Ellis et al. in a supergravity framework. The GUT symmetry is broken by a waterfall which could happen at early or late stage of the inflationary period. The full field dynamics is thus studied in detail and these two main inflationary configurations are exposed, whose cosmological predictions are both in agreement with recent astrophysical measurements. The model has an interesting feature where the inflaton has natural decay channels to the MSSM particles allowed by the GUT gauge symmetry. Hence it can account for the reheating after the inflationary epoch.

  15. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  16. Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and enteroendocrine cells

    Hansen, Carl Frederik

    40 hormones. In this PhD study, gut morphology and the population of endocrine cells have been examined in three rodent animal models using stereological techniques. First, in a rodent model of type-2 diabetes (T2DM), the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF), the population of endocrine L-cells...... to contribute to the positive effects of bariatic surgery but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract that produce and secrete hormones are difficult to examine as they are distributed as single cells. Several types of endocrine cells together produce more than...... and the gut morphology were quantified. The number of Lcells was 4.8 million in the normal rat and the L-cells were found to double in number in the diabetic ZDF rat model. Second, the L-cell population, gut morphology and endocrine cell gene expression were examined in a rodent model of Roux-en-Y gastric...

  17. Gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Diaz-Perdigones, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin. Currently, use of pro and prebiotics and other new techniques such as gut microbiota transplant, or even antibiotic therapy, has been postulated to be useful tools to modulate the development of obesity and insulin resistance through the diet. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Pathological States

    Wang, Yulan; Wang, Baohong; Wu, Junfang

    2017-01-01

    The human microbiota is an aggregate of microorganisms residing in the human body, mostly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Our gut microbiota evolves with us and plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. In recent years, the microbiota has gained increasing attention due to its impact...... on host metabolism, physiology, and immune system development, but also because the perturbation of the microbiota may result in a number of diseases. The gut microbiota may be linked to malignancies such as gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. It may also be linked to disorders such as nonalcoholic...... fatty liver disease (NAFLD); obesity and diabetes, which are characterized as “lifestyle diseases” of the industrialized world; coronary heart disease; and neurological disorders. Although the revolution in molecular technologies has provided us with the necessary tools to study the gut microbiota more...

  19. Nutrition, the Gut and the Microbiome

    Kjølbæk, Louise

    , but an optimal diet to improve the success of weight loss maintenance has not reached consensus among worldwide expects. During the last decade, it has been observed that the gut microbiota composition is associated with obesity and obesity-associated diseases. However, a deeper understanding of how the host...... the gut and the microbiome in relation to obesity and obesity-associated diseases. The objective was investigated by the conduct of three studies (KIFU, PROKA, MNG). In KIFU, the effect of habitual calcium intake on faecal fat and energy excretions was investigated by an observational study. The 189...... (PUFA) intakes on the gut microbiota composition was investigated by a randomised cross-over study with two 4-week diets periods and a 4-week washout period. Faecal samples and metabolic markers were collected from 30 subjects before and after each diet period. Results showed that habitual dietary...

  20. Redefining the gut as the motor of critical illness

    Mittal, Rohit; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    The gut is hypothesized to play a central role in the progression of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Critical illness alters gut integrity by increasing epithelial apoptosis and permeability and by decreasing epithelial proliferation and mucus integrity. Additionally, toxic gut-derived lymph induces distant organ injury. Although the endogenous microflora ordinarily exist in a symbiotic relationship with the gut epithelium, severe physiologic insults alter this relationship, l...

  1. Effects of Gut Microbes on Nutrient Absorption and Energy Regulation

    Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Ilhan, Zehra-Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; DiBaise, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition may manifest as either obesity or undernutrition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet. The composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans and mice; however, the specific roles that individual gut microbes play in energy harvest remain uncertain. The gut microbiota may also influence the development of conditions characteriz...

  2. Gut inflammation in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier function, and the immune system have been shown to play a role in the disorder's pathogenesis. Studies examining the microecology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract have identified specific microorganisms whose presence appears related to disease; in CFS, a role for altered intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease has recently been suggested. Mucosal barrier dysfunction promoting bacterial translocation has also been observed. Finally, an altered mucosal immune system has been associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss the interplay between these factors in CFS and how they could play a significant role in GI dysfunction by modulating the activity of the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the gut. If an altered intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier dysfunction, and aberrant intestinal immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of CFS, therapeutic efforts to modify gut microbiota could be a means to modulate the development and/or progression of this disorder. For example, the administration of probiotics could alter the gut microbiota, improve mucosal barrier function, decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines, and have the potential to positively influence mood in patients where both emotional symptoms and inflammatory immune signals are elevated. Probiotics also have the potential to improve gut motility, which is dysfunctional in many CFS patients.

  3. From endocrine to rheumatism: do gut hormones play roles in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2014-02-01

    RA is characterized by chronic inflammation in the musculoskeletal system, in which TNF-α is the key cytokine trigger. TNF-α, previously known as cachectin, is implicated in the modulation of body composition and energy expenditure. Gut hormones, including acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1 and PYY, have been known to be the major regulators of appetite, nutrition, energy expenditure and body mass formation. Emerging evidence indicates that blockade of TNF-α by biologics not only ameliorates rheumatoid inflammation, but can affect the secretion and action of gut hormones on appetite, body composition, energy expenditure, muscle catabolism and bone remodelling. A link between the gastrointestinal endocrine axis and the immune system may be established through the interaction of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and these gut hormones. With the ever-increasing understanding of rheumatoid inflammation and the invention of more biologics to modulate the cytokine network, more attention should be given to the possible immunomodulatory roles of gut hormones in autoimmune inflammatory reactions.

  4. Enterochromaffin cells of the human gut: sensors for spices and odorants.

    Braun, Thomas; Voland, Petra; Kunz, Lars; Prinz, Christian; Gratzl, Manfred

    2007-05-01

    Release of serotonin from mucosal enterochromaffin cells triggered by luminal substances is the key event in the regulation of gut motility and secretion. We were interested to know whether nasal olfactory receptors are also expressed in the human gut mucosa by enterochromaffin cells and whether their ligands and odorants present in spices, fragrances, detergents, and cosmetics cause serotonin release. Receptor expression was studied by the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method in human mucosal enterochromaffin cells isolated by laser microdissection and in a cell line derived from human enterochromaffin cells. Activation of the cells by odorants was investigated by digital fluorescence imaging using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4. Serotonin release was measured in culture supernatants by a serotonin enzyme immunoassay and amperometry using carbon fiber microelectrodes placed on single cells. We found expression of 4 olfactory receptors in microdissected human mucosal enterochromaffin cells and in a cell line derived from human enterochromaffin cells. Ca(2+) imaging studies revealed that odorant ligands of the identified olfactory receptors cause Ca(2+) influx, elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) levels, and, consequently, serotonin release. Our results show that odorants present in the luminal environment of the gut may stimulate serotonin release via olfactory receptors present in human enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin controls both gut motility and secretion and is implicated in pathologic conditions such as vomiting, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, olfactory receptors are potential novel targets for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and motility disorders.

  5. The Gut Microbiome, Obesity, and Weight Control in Women's Reproductive Health.

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Faucher, Mary Ann; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie

    2017-08-01

    The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed. The higher prevalence of obesity among women and recent evidence linking obesity during pregnancy with offspring health make this topic particularly relevant. Current limitations in microbiome research to address obesity and future advances in this field are described. Applications of this science with respect to applied nursing and overall health care in general are included, with emphasis on the reproductive health of women and their offspring.

  6. Gut microbiota–derived short-chain fatty acids and kidney diseases

    Li L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingzhi Li, Liang Ma, Ping Fu Kidney Research Institute, Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China Abstract: Gut microbiota and its metabolites play pivotal roles in host physiology and pathology. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, as a group of metabolites, exert positive regulatory effects on energy metabolism, hormone secretion, immune inflammation, hypertension, and cancer. The functions of SCFAs are related to their activation of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and their inhibition of histone acetylation. Though controversial, growing evidence suggests that SCFAs, which regulate inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis, have been involved in kidney disease through the activation of the gut–kidney axis; however, the molecular relationship among gut microbiota–derived metabolites, signaling pathways, and kidney disease remains to be elucidated. This review will provide an overview of the physiology and functions of SCFAs in kidney disease. Keywords: gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids, kidney diseases, gut–kidney axis

  7. The first microbial colonizers of the human gut

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Bottacini, Francesca; Casey, Eoghan; Turroni, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer; Belzer, Clara; Palacio, Susana Delgado; Montes, Silvia Arboleya; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Bode, Lars; Vos, De Willem; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo; Sinderen, Van Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially)

  8. 21 CFR 878.4830 - Absorbable surgical gut suture.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable surgical gut suture. 878.4830 Section 878.4830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... surgical gut suture. (a) Identification. An absorbable surgical gut suture, both plain and chromic, is an...

  9. Regulation of body fat mass by the gut microbiota

    Schéle, Erik; Grahnemo, Louise; Anesten, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    New insight suggests gut microbiota as a component in energy balance. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota can impact metabolic regulation is unclear. A recent study from our lab shows, for the first time, a link between gut microbiota and energy balance circuitries...

  10. Unification beyond GUT's: Gauge-Yukawa unification

    Kubo, J.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1996-01-01

    Gauge-Yukawa Unification (GYU) is a renormalization group invariant functional relation among gauge and Yukawa couplings which holds beyond the unification point in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). We present here various models where GYU is obtained by requiring the principles of finiteness and reduction of couplings. We examine the consequences of these requirements for the low energy parameters, especially for the top quark mass. The predictions are such that they clearly distinguish already GYU from ordinary GUTs. It is expected that it will be possible to discriminate among the various GYUs when more accurate measurements of the top quark mass are available. (author)

  11. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delivery by means of cesarean section has been associated with increased risk of childhood immune-mediated diseases, suggesting a role of early bacterial colonization patterns for immune maturation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the influence of delivery method on gut and airway......-driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. CONCLUSION: Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate...

  12. On Bimaximal Neutrino Mixing and GUT's

    Altarelli, Guido; Meloni, Davide

    2015-04-21

    We briefly discuss the present status of models of neutrino mixing. Among the existing viable options we review the virtues of Bimaximal Mixing (that could be implemented by an $S_4$ discrete symmetry), corrected by terms arising from the charged lepton mass diagonalization. In particular in a GUT formulation the property of quark lepton "weak" complementarity can be naturally realized. We discuss in some detail two new versions of particular GUT models, one based on $SU(5)$ and one on $SO(10)$ and the associated phenomenology. We compare these approaches based on symmetry to models based on chance, like Anarchy or $U(1)_{FN}$.

  13. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition123

    Groen, Albert K; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities to ameliorate obesity or undernutrition. PMID:28140325

  14. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition.

    de Clercq, Nicolien C; Groen, Albert K; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-11-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor in the development and sustainment of malnutrition. However, to our knowledge, the extent to which the microbiota influences malnutrition has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms via which the gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities to ameliorate obesity or undernutrition. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effect of Nuclear Reactions on the Properties of Al-Mg-Si Alloys after Long-Time Exploitation in Research Reactors

    Hofmann, A; Szteke, W; Hajewska, E; Wagner, T; Semina, V K

    2004-01-01

    Effect of fast neutron ($E>$ 0.1~?eV) irradiation on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the Al-Mg-Si alloys (PAR-1 and ???-1) after 40 years of exploitation in research nuclear reactors has been studied. Tested specimens were cut from structural elements of reactor EWA ($\\acute{\\rm S}$wierk, Poland). Irradiation induces degradation in mechanical properties, namely yield strength and ultimate strength increase, but elongation reduces. The mechanical property changes are caused by ageing of Al--Mg--Si alloy. During irradiation Si is formed from Al by the Al($n, \\gamma $)Si reaction. The presence of Si might cause strengthening of the Al--Mg--Si alloys by increasing precipitation of Mg$_{2}$Si or pure Si in the Al matrix. Post-irradiation activity studies of EWA reactor structural elements show that the high-activity $^{60}$Co and $^{65}$Zn isotopes have been formed by the nuclear reactions.

  16. Effect of nuclear reactions on the properties of Al-Mg-Si alloys after long-time exploitation in research reactors

    Hofman, A.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Semina, V.K.; Szteke, W.; Hajewska, E.; Wagner, T.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of fast neutron (E > 0.1 MeV) irradiation on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the Al-Mg-Si alloys (PAR-1 and CAB-1) after 40 years of exploitation in research nuclear reactors has been studied. Tested specimens were cut from structural elements of reactor EWA (Swierk, Poland). Irradiation induces degradation in mechanical properties, namely yield strength and ultimate strength increase, but elongation reduces. The mechanical property changes are caused by ageing of Al-Mg-Si alloys. During irradiation Si is formed from Al by the Al(n, γ)Si reaction. The presence of Si might cause strengthening of the Al-Mg-Si alloys by increasing precipitation of Mg 2 Si or pure Si in the Al matrix. Post-irradiation activity studies of EWA reactor structural elements show that the high-activity 60 Co and 65 Zn isotopes have been formed by the nuclear reactions

  17. Searching for the gut microbial contributing factors to social behavior in rodent models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Needham, Brittany D; Tang, Weiyi; Wu, Wei-Li

    2018-05-01

    Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring. In a bottom-up approach, researchers use germ-free (GF) animals, antibiotics, probiotics or pathogens to manipulate the intestinal environment and ascertain effects on social behavior. The combination of both approaches will hopefully pinpoint specific bacterial communities that control host social behavior. Further discussion of how brain development and circuitry is impacted by depletion of gut microbiota is also included. The converging evidence strongly suggests that gut microbes affect host social behavior through the alteration of brain neural circuits. Investigation of intestinal microbiota and host social behavior will unveil any bidirectional communication between the gut and brain and provide alternative therapeutic targets for ASD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 474-499, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Proteinase, amylase, and proteinase-inhibitor activities in the gut of six cockroach species

    Vinokurov, Konstantin; Taranushenko, Yuliya; Krishnan, Natraj; Sehnal, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2007), s. 794-802 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : amylases * Blattodea * gut pH Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.294, year: 2007

  19. Gut feelings as a third track in general practitioners' diagnostic reasoning.

    Stolper, E.; Wiel, M. van de; Royen, P. Van; Bokhoven, M. Van; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Dinant, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are often faced with complicated, vague problems in situations of uncertainty that they have to solve at short notice. In such situations, gut feelings seem to play a substantial role in their diagnostic process. Qualitative research distinguished a sense of

  20. Relationship between Human Gut Microbiota and Interleukin 6 Levels in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Background: Gut microbial diversity and abundance can profoundly impact human health. Research has shown that obese individuals are likely to have altered microbiota compared to lean individuals. Obesity is often considered a pro-inflammatory state, however the relationship between microbiota and i...

  1. Exploring PE Teachers' "Gut Feelings": An Attempt to Verbalise and Discuss Teachers' Internalised Grading Criteria

    Svennberg, Lena; Meckbach, Jane; Redelius, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that teachers' grading is influenced by non-achievement factors in addition to official criteria, such as knowledge and skills. Some grading criteria are internalised by the teacher, who is sometimes unable to verbalise the criteria used and refers to what is called a "gut feeling". Therefore, transparency, validity and…

  2. The role of gut microbiota in human obesity: recent findings and future perspectives.

    Tagliabue, A; Elli, M

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, gut microbiota have gained a growing interest as an environmental factor that may affect the predisposition toward adiposity. In this review, we describe and discuss the research that has focused on the involvement of gut microbiota in human obesity. We also summarize the current knowledge concerning the health effects of the composition of gut microbiota, acquired using the most recent methodological approaches, and the potential influence of gut microbiota on adiposity, as revealed by animal studies. Original research studies that were published in English or French until December 2011 were selected through a computer-assisted literature search. The studies conducted to date show that there are differences in the gut microbiota between obese and normal-weight experimental animals. There is also evidence that a high-fat diet may induce changes in gut microbiota in animal models regardless of the presence of obesity. In humans, obesity has been associated with reduced bacterial diversity and an altered representation of bacterial species, but the identified differences are not homogeneous among the studies. The question remains as to whether changes in the intestinal microbial community are one of the environmental causes of overweight and obesity or if they are a consequence of obesity, specifically of the unbalanced diet that often accompanies the development of excess weight gain. In the future, larger studies on the potential role of intestinal microbiota in human obesity should be conducted at the species level using standardized analytical techniques and taking all of the possible confounding variables into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Fungal Frontier: A Comparative Analysis of Methods Used in the Study of the Human Gut Mycobiome.

    Huseyin, Chloe E; Rubio, Raul Cabrera; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Scanlan, Pauline D

    2017-01-01

    The human gut is host to a diverse range of fungal species, collectively referred to as the gut "mycobiome". The gut mycobiome is emerging as an area of considerable research interest due to the potential roles of these fungi in human health and disease. However, there is no consensus as to what the best or most suitable methodologies available are with respect to characterizing the human gut mycobiome. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of several previously published mycobiome-specific culture-dependent and -independent methodologies, including choice of culture media, incubation conditions (aerobic versus anaerobic), DNA extraction method, primer set and freezing of fecal samples to assess their relative merits and suitability for gut mycobiome analysis. There was no significant effect of media type or aeration on culture-dependent results. However, freezing was found to have a significant effect on fungal viability, with significantly lower fungal numbers recovered from frozen samples. DNA extraction method had a significant effect on DNA yield and quality. However, freezing and extraction method did not have any impact on either α or β diversity. There was also considerable variation in the ability of different fungal-specific primer sets to generate PCR products for subsequent sequence analysis. Through this investigation two DNA extraction methods and one primer set was identified which facilitated the analysis of the mycobiome for all samples in this study. Ultimately, a diverse range of fungal species were recovered using both approaches, with Candida and Saccharomyces identified as the most common fungal species recovered using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. As has been apparent from ecological surveys of the bacterial fraction of the gut microbiota, the use of different methodologies can also impact on our understanding of gut mycobiome composition and therefore requires careful consideration

  4. A tick gut protein with fibronectin III domains aids Borrelia burgdorferi congregation to the gut during transmission

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Boder, Eric; Hovius, Joppe W.; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi transmission to the vertebrate host commences with growth of the spirochete in the tick gut and migration from the gut to the salivary glands. This complex process, involving intimate interactions of the spirochete with the gut epithelium, is pivotal to transmission. We utilized

  5. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  6. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean...... and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose...

  7. Reframing the Teenage Wasteland: Adolescent Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

    McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Luczynski, Pauline; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-04-01

    Human adolescence is arguably one of the most challenging periods of development. The young adult is exposed to a variety of stressors and environmental stimuli on a backdrop of significant physiological change and development, which is especially apparent in the brain. It is therefore unsurprising that many psychiatric disorders are first observable during this time. The human intestine is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms, and evidence from both preclinical and clinical research focusing on the established microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders may be influenced by intestinal dysbiosis. Provocatively, many if not all of the challenges faced by the developing teen have a documented impact on these intestinal commensal microbiota. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the developing adolescent brain and intestinal microbiota, discuss recent research investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis during puberty, and propose that pre- and probiotics may prove useful in both the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders specifically benefitting the young adult. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Bacterial Impact on the Gut Metabolome

    Sulek, Karolina; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine Rask

    During the last decade, it has become evident that the complex ecosystem of mi-crobes inhabiting the human gut plays an important role for human health. An in-creasing number of publications have shown that the composition and activity of our intestinal microbiota affects a number of different so...

  9. The gut microbiota and host health

    Marchesi, Julian R.; Adams, David H.; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D.A.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed N.; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Thomas, Linda V.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new 'omic' technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial

  10. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Changing Concept of Gut Endocrinology

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are released from enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are expressed, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body. At present, it is feasible to conceive the hormones under 5 headings: the structural homology groups most...

  12. The human gut virome: a multifaceted majority

    Lesley Ann Ogilvie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we outline our current understanding of the human gut virome, in particular the phage component of this ecosystem, highlighting progress and challenges in viral discovery in this arena. We reveal how developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies and associated data analysis methodologies are helping to illuminate this abundant ‘biological dark matter’. Current evidence suggests that the human gut virome is a highly individual but temporally stable collective, dominated by phage exhibiting a temperate lifestyle. This viral community also appears to encode a surprisingly rich functional repertoire that confers a range of attributes to their bacterial hosts, ranging from bacterial virulence and pathogenesis to maintaining host-microbiome stability and community resilience. Despite the significant advances in our understanding of the gut virome in recent years, it is clear that we remain in a period of discovery and revelation, as new methods and technologies begin to provide deeper understanding of the inherent ecological characteristics of this viral ecosystem. As our understanding increases, the nature of the multi-partite interactions occurring between host and microbiome will become clearer, helping us to more rationally define the concepts and principles that will underpin approaches to using human gut virome components for medical or biotechnological applications.

  13. Constrained Supersymmetric Flipped SU(5) GUT Phenomenology

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, $M_{in}$, above the GUT scale, $M_{GUT}$. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino and the lighter stau is sensitive to $M_{in}$, as is the relationship between the neutralino mass and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons. For these reasons, prominent features in generic $(m_{1/2}, m_0)$ planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to $M_{in}$, as we illustrate for several cases with tan(beta)...

  14. Interplay between gut microbiota and antibiotics

    Jesus Bello Gonzalez, de Teresita

    2016-01-01

    The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively defined as the microbiota. In the gut, the microbiota has important roles in health and disease, and can serve as a host of antibiotic resistance genes. Disturbances in the ecological balance, e.g. by antibiotics, can

  15. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been

  16. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Feenstra, Ettje T.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or

  17. Community assembly of the worm gut microbiome

    Gore, Jeff

    It has become increasingly clear that human health is strongly influenced by the bacteria that live within the gut, known collectively as the gut microbiome. This complex community varies tremendously between individuals, but understanding the sources that lead to this heterogeneity is challenging. To address this challenge, we are using a bottom-up approach to develop a predictive understanding of how the microbiome assembles and functions within a simple and experimentally tractable gut, the gut of the worm C. elegans. We have found that stochastic community assembly in the C. elegansintestine is sufficient to produce strong inter-worm heterogeneity in community composition. When worms are fed with two neutrally-competing fluorescently labeled bacterial strains, we observe stochastically-driven bimodality in community composition, where approximately half of the worms are dominated by each bacterial strain. A simple model incorporating stochastic colonization suggests that heterogeneity between worms is driven by the low rate at which bacteria successfully establish new intestinal colonies. We can increase this rate experimentally by feeding worms at high bacterial density; in these conditions the bimodality disappears. We have also characterized all pairwise interspecies competitions among a set of eleven bacterial species, illuminating the rules governing interspecies community assembly. These results demonstrate the potential importance of stochastic processes in bacterial community formation and suggest a role for C. elegans as a model system for ecology of host-associated communities.

  18. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  19. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2}O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}{sub N}/h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  20. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH 4 + H 2 O → 3H 2 O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m 3 N /h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  1. Impact of human milk bacteria and oligosaccharides on neonatal gut microbiota establishment and gut health.

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian; Chassard, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal gut microbiota establishment represents a crucial stage for gut maturation, metabolic and immunologic programming, and consequently short- and long-term health status. Human milk beneficially influences this process due to its dynamic profile of age-adapted nutrients and bioactive components and by providing commensal maternal bacteria to the neonatal gut. These include Lactobacillus spp., as well as obligate anaerobes such as Bifidobacterium spp., which may originate from the maternal gut via an enteromammary pathway as a novel form of mother-neonate communication. Additionally, human milk harbors a broad range of oligosaccharides that promote the growth and activity of specific bacterial populations, in particular, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp. This review focuses on the diversity and origin of human milk bacteria, as well as on milk oligosaccharides that influence neonatal gut microbiota establishment. This knowledge can be used to develop infant formulae that more closely mimic nature's model and sustain a healthy gut microbiota. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A note on local GUT models in F-theory

    Chen, C.-M.; Chung, Y.-C.

    2010-01-01

    We construct non-minimal GUT local models in the F-theory configuration. The gauge group on the bulk G S is one rank higher than the GUT gauge group. The line bundles on the curves are nontrivial to break G S down to the GUT gauge groups. We demonstrate examples of SU(5) GUT from G S =SU(6) and G S =SO(10), the flipped SU(5) from G S =SO(10), and the SO(10) GUT from G S =SO(12) and G S =E 6 . We obtain complete GUT matter spectra and couplings, with minimum exotic matter contents. GUT gauge group breaking to MSSM is achievable by instanton configurations.

  3. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites in Parkinson's Disease.

    Sun, Meng-Fei; Shen, Yan-Qin

    2018-04-26

    Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metabolites that contribute to the development of PD. Microbiota-targeted interventions, such as antibiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation, have been shown to favorably affect host health. In this review, recent findings regarding alterations and the role of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites in PD are summarized, and potential molecular mechanisms and microbiota-targeted interventions in PD are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fundamental research on positive systems of waste disposal and environmental protection using redox reaction and enriching ability of iron for pollutant. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-003. Contract research

    Ohashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Seichi; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2002-03-01

    Iron corrosion products have a potential ability to retard the transport of pollutant in soil by sorption, co-precipitation and redox reaction. In this research program, an electrokinetic soil treatment method using iron anode, which can remove the pollutant and form an iron corrosion product layer in soil, was proposed as a new promising environmental remediation technique for contaminated soil with toxic heavy metal, organic materials and/or radioactive nuclides. As a fundamental study of the electrokinetic soil treatment, the formation mechanism of the corrosion product layer was discussed with the experimental data of the ion migration and the time dependence of the electric current during the treatment. In addition, diffusion behavior of Na + ions and He gas in the clay, which are closely related to the treatment, were studied. Furthermore, the potential ability of the iron corrosion layer to retard the transport of pollutant in soil was evaluated in terms of sorption coefficient of Se and Np onto the iron corrosion products and Fe-montmorillonite, which are the major component of the iron corrosion product layer. As results of these studies, it was confirmed that the electrokinetic soil treatment method using iron anode is one of promising environmental remediation techniques for contaminated soil. (author)

  5. Individual differences in zoo-housed squirrel monkeys' (Saimiri sciureus) reactions to visitors, research participation, and personality ratings.

    Polgár, Zita; Wood, Lara; Haskell, Marie J

    2017-05-01

    Understanding individual differences in captive squirrel monkeys is a topic of importance both for improving welfare by catering to individual needs, and for better understanding the results and implications of behavioral research. In this study, 23 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in an environment that is both a zoo enclosure and research facility, were assessed for (i) the time they spent by an observation window under three visitor conditions: no visitors, small groups, and large groups; (ii) their likelihood of participating in voluntary research; and (iii) zookeepers, ratings of personality. A Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon post-hoc tests comparing mean times found that the monkeys spent more time by the window when there were large groups present than when there were small groups or no visitors. Thus, visitors do not seem to have a negative effect and may be enriching for certain individuals. Through GLMM and correlational analyses, it was found that high scores on the personality trait of playfulness and low scores on cautiousness, depression, and solitude were significant predictors of increased window approach behavior when visitors were present. The GLMM and correlational analyses assessing the links between personality traits and research participation found that low scores of cautiousness and high scores of playfulness, gentleness, affection, and friendliness, were significant predictors. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to selection bias and its potential confounding effect on cognitive studies with voluntary participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Characterization of the gut microbiota of Papua New Guineans using reverse transcription quantitative PCR.

    Andrew R Greenhill

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in composition of gut microbiota in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the role the gut microbiota plays in health and disease. Most studies have been limited in their geographical and socioeconomic diversity to high-income settings, and have been conducted using small sample sizes. To date, few analyses have been conducted in low-income settings, where a better understanding of the gut microbiome could lead to the greatest return in terms of health benefits. Here, we have used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting dominant and sub-dominant groups of microorganisms associated with human gut microbiome in 115 people living a subsistence lifestyle in rural areas of Papua New Guinea. Quantification of Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, C. perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus spp. was conducted. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA revealed two dimensions with Prevotella, clostridia, Atopobium, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus grouping in one dimension, while B. fragilis, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus grouping in the second dimension. Highland people had higher numbers of most groups of bacteria detected, and this is likely a key factor for the differences revealed by PCoA between highland and lowland study participants. Age and sex were not major determinants in microbial population composition. The study demonstrates a gut microbial composition with some similarities to those observed in other low-income settings where traditional diets are consumed, which have previously been suggested to favor energy extraction from a carbohydrate rich diet.

  7. Characterization of the gut microbiota of Papua New Guineans using reverse transcription quantitative PCR.

    Greenhill, Andrew R; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Ogata, Kiyohito; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Morita, Ayako; Soli, Kevin; Larkins, Jo-Ann; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Baba, Jun; Naito, Yuichi; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Nomoto, Koji; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in composition of gut microbiota in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the role the gut microbiota plays in health and disease. Most studies have been limited in their geographical and socioeconomic diversity to high-income settings, and have been conducted using small sample sizes. To date, few analyses have been conducted in low-income settings, where a better understanding of the gut microbiome could lead to the greatest return in terms of health benefits. Here, we have used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting dominant and sub-dominant groups of microorganisms associated with human gut microbiome in 115 people living a subsistence lifestyle in rural areas of Papua New Guinea. Quantification of Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, C. perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus spp. was conducted. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed two dimensions with Prevotella, clostridia, Atopobium, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus grouping in one dimension, while B. fragilis, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus grouping in the second dimension. Highland people had higher numbers of most groups of bacteria detected, and this is likely a key factor for the differences revealed by PCoA between highland and lowland study participants. Age and sex were not major determinants in microbial population composition. The study demonstrates a gut microbial composition with some similarities to those observed in other low-income settings where traditional diets are consumed, which have previously been suggested to favor energy extraction from a carbohydrate rich diet.

  8. Probiotics modulate gut microbiota and improve insulin sensitivity in DIO mice.

    Bagarolli, Renata A; Tobar, Natália; Oliveira, Alexandre G; Araújo, Tiago G; Carvalho, Bruno M; Rocha, Guilherme Z; Vecina, Juliana F; Calisto, Kelly; Guadagnini, Dioze; Prada, Patrícia O; Santos, Andrey; Saad, Sara T O; Saad, Mario J A

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling. Swiss mice were submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD) with probiotics or pair-feeding for 5 weeks. Metagenome analyses were performed on DNA samples from mouse feces. Blood was drawn to determine levels of glucose, insulin, LPS, cytokines and GLP-1. Liver, muscle, ileum and hypothalamus tissue proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, liver and adipose tissues were analyzed using histology and immunohistochemistry. The HFD induced huge alterations in gut microbiota accompanied by increased intestinal permeability, LPS translocation and systemic low-grade inflammation, resulting in decreased glucose tolerance and hyperphagic behavior. All these obesity-related features were reversed by changes in the gut microbiota profile induced by probiotics. Probiotics also induced an improvement in hypothalamic insulin and leptin resistance. Our data demonstrate that the intestinal microbiome is a key modulator of inflammatory and metabolic pathways in both peripheral and central tissues. These findings shed light on probiotics as an important tool to prevent and treat patients with obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diet and exercise orthogonally alter the gut microbiome and reveal independent associations with anxiety and cognition.

    Kang, Silvia S; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Kurti, Aishe; Miller, Margret E Berg; Cook, Marc D; Whitlock, Keith; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Woods, Jeffrey A; White, Bryan A; Chia, Nicholas; Fryer, John D

    2014-09-13

    The ingestion of a high-fat diet (HFD) and the resulting obese state can exert a multitude of stressors on the individual including anxiety and cognitive dysfunction. Though many studies have shown that exercise can alleviate the negative consequences of a HFD using metabolic readouts such as insulin and glucose, a paucity of well-controlled rodent studies have been published on HFD and exercise interactions with regard to behavioral outcomes. This is a critical issue since some individuals assume that HFD-induced behavioral problems such as anxiety and cognitive dysfunction can simply be exercised away. To investigate this, we analyzed mice fed a normal diet (ND), ND with exercise, HFD diet, or HFD with exercise. We found that mice on a HFD had robust anxiety phenotypes but this was not rescued by exercise. Conversely, exercise increased cognitive abilities but this was not impacted by the HFD. Given the importance of the gut microbiome in shaping the host state, we used 16S rRNA hypervariable tag sequencing to profile our cohorts and found that HFD massively reshaped the gut microbial community in agreement with numerous published studies. However, exercise alone also caused massive shifts in the gut microbiome at nearly the same magnitude as diet but these changes were surprisingly orthogonal. Additionally, specific bacterial abundances were directly proportional to measures of anxiety or cognition. Thus, behavioral domains and the gut microbiome are both impacted by diet and exercise but in unrelated ways. These data have important implications for obesity research aimed at modifications of the gut microbiome and suggest that specific gut microbes could be used as a biomarker for anxiety or cognition or perhaps even targeted for therapy.

  10. Market Integration Predicts Human Gut Microbiome Attributes across a Gradient of Economic Development.

    Stagaman, Keaton; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Guillemin, Karen; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2018-01-01

    Economic development is marked by dramatic increases in the incidence of microbiome-associated diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic syndromes, but the lifestyle changes that drive alterations in the human microbiome are not known. We measured market integration as a proxy for economically related lifestyle attributes, such as ownership of specific market goods that index degree of market integration and components of traditional and nontraditional (more modern) house structure and infrastructure, and profiled the fecal microbiomes of 213 participants from a contiguous, indigenous Ecuadorian population. Despite relatively modest differences in lifestyle across the population, greater economic development correlated with significantly lower within-host diversity, higher between-host dissimilarity, and a decrease in the relative abundance of the bacterium Prevotella . These microbiome shifts were most strongly associated with more modern housing, followed by reduced ownership of traditional subsistence lifestyle-associated items. IMPORTANCE Previous research has reported differences in the gut microbiome between populations residing in wealthy versus poorer countries, leading to the assertion that lifestyle changes associated with economic development promote changes in the gut microbiome that promote the proliferation of microbiome-associated diseases. However, a direct relationship between economic development and the gut microbiome has not previously been shown. We surveyed the gut microbiomes of a single indigenous population undergoing economic development and found significant associations between features of the gut microbiome and lifestyle changes associated with economic development. These findings suggest that even the earliest stages of economic development can drive changes in the gut microbiome, which may provide a warning sign for the development of microbiome-associated diseases.

  11. Maternal Obesity Is Associated with Alterations in the Gut Microbiome in Toddlers

    Galley, Jeffrey D.; Bailey, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Christian, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18–27 months of age (n = 77) were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES). In the higher SES group (n = 47), children of obese (BMI≥30) versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course. PMID:25409177

  12. Maternal obesity is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome in toddlers.

    Jeffrey D Galley

    Full Text Available Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18-27 months of age (n = 77 were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES. In the higher SES group (n = 47, children of obese (BMI≥30 versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course.

  13. Maternal obesity is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome in toddlers.

    Galley, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Christian, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18-27 months of age (n = 77) were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES). In the higher SES group (n = 47), children of obese (BMI≥30) versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course.

  14. Distribution of some Glycoconjugates in the Notochord and Developing Gut during Early Morphogenesis in Balb/c Mouse Embryos

    Mohammad M. Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryonic endoderm germinal layer, affected by notochord inductions, forms the primary gut epithelium and parenchyma of its derived organs. This study aims to determine some expressed glycoconjugates and their potential function in notochord and developing gut.Materials and Methods : In this descriptive-analytical study, 9 and 10 embryonic days (ED of Balb/c mouse embryos were fixed in formalin and microscopic sections were prepared from them. These sections were processed for histochemical studies and then they were incubated with 6 different HRP conjugated lectins, including VVA, SBA, and PNA specific to identify terminal sugar (N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac and lectins of GSA1-B4, LTA and WGA were respectively to identify the terminal sugars of galactose, fructose and sialic acid.Results: The study results showed that the reactions of notochord and developing gut to VVA lectin were moderate on the 9ED and on the 10ED, they showed a significant difference (p < 0.001 from the day before and were severely assessed. Other GalNac specific lectins react severely and almost similarly to notochord and developing gut on the studied days. The other lectins in these two organs did not react similarly.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it seems that glycoconjugates with GalNac-terminal sugar probably have played a key role in differentiations of notochord and developing gut and may be involved in the interactions between these two organs.

  15. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic Modeling of Common Escherichia coli Strains in Human Gut Microbiome

    Yue-Dong Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent high-throughput sequencing has enabled the composition of Escherichia coli strains in the human microbial community to be profiled en masse. However, there are two challenges to address: (1 exploring the genetic differences between E. coli strains in human gut and (2 dynamic responses of E. coli to diverse stress conditions. As a result, we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. The metabolic models show obvious strain-specific characteristics, both in network contents and in behaviors. We predicted optimal biomass production for three models on four different carbon sources (acetate, ethanol, glucose, and succinate and found that these stress-associated genes were involved in host-microbial interactions and increased in human obesity. Besides, it shows that the growth rates are similar among the models, but the flux distributions are different, even in E. coli core reactions. The correlations between human diabetes-associated metabolic reactions in the E. coli models were also predicted. The study provides a systems perspective on E. coli strains in human gut microbiome and will be helpful in integrating diverse data sources in the following study.

  17. Anxiety, Depression, and the Microbiome: A Role for Gut Peptides.

    Lach, Gilliard; Schellekens, Harriet; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2018-01-01

    The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling. Given the emerging role of the gut-brain axis in a variety of brain disorders, such as anxiety and depression, it is important to understand the contribution of bidirectional interactions between peptide hormones released from the gut and intestinal bacteria in the context of this axis. Indeed, the gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in mammals, secreting dozens of different signaling molecules, including peptides. Gut peptides in the systemic circulation can bind cognate receptors on immune cells and vagus nerve terminals thereby enabling indirect gut-brain communication. Gut peptide concentrations are not only modulated by enteric microbiota signals, but also vary according to the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we will discuss the gut microbiota as a regulator of anxiety and depression, and explore the role of gut-derived peptides as signaling molecules in microbiome-gut-brain communication. Here, we summarize the potential interactions of the microbiota with gut hormones and endocrine peptides, including neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and ghrelin in microbiome-to-brain signaling. Together, gut peptides are important regulators of microbiota-gut-brain signaling in health and stress-related psychiatric illnesses.

  18. Gut metagenomes of type 2 diabetic patients have characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphism distribution in Bacteroides coprocola.

    Chen, Yaowen; Li, Zongcheng; Hu, Shuofeng; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Jiaqi; Shao, Ningsheng; Bo, Xiaochen; Ni, Ming; Ying, Xiaomin

    2017-02-01

    Gut microbes play a critical role in human health and disease, and researchers have begun to characterize their genomes, the so-called gut metagenome. Thus far, metagenomics studies have focused on genus- or species-level composition and microbial gene sets, while strain-level composition and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been overlooked. The gut metagenomes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients have been found to be enriched with butyrate-producing bacteria and sulfate reduction functions. However, it is not known whether the gut metagenomes of T2D patients have characteristic strain patterns or SNP distributions. We downloaded public gut metagenome datasets from 170 T2D patients and 174 healthy controls and performed a systematic comparative analysis of their metagenome SNPs. We found that Bacteroides coprocola, whose relative abundance did not differ between the groups, had a characteristic distribution of SNPs in the T2D patient group. We identified 65 genes, all in B. coprocola, that had remarkably different enrichment of SNPs. The first and sixth ranked genes encode glycosyl hydrolases (GenBank accession EDU99824.1 and EDV02301.1). Interestingly, alpha-glucosidase, which is also a glycosyl hydrolase located in the intestine, is an important drug target of T2D. These results suggest that different strains of B. coprocola may have different roles in human gut and a specific set of B. coprocola strains are correlated with T2D.

  19. Review article: gut-directed hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Peters, S L; Muir, J G; Gibson, P R

    2015-06-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is being increasingly applied to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to a lesser extent, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the technique, mechanisms of action and evidence for efficacy, and to identify gaps in the understanding of gut-directed hypnotherapy as a treatment for IBS and IBD. A review of published literature and a systematic review of clinical trials in its application to patients with IBS and IBD were performed. Gut-directed hypnotherapy is a clearly described technique. Its potential mechanisms of action on the brain-gut axis are multiple with evidence spanning psychological effects through to physiological gastrointestinal modifications. Six of seven randomised IBS studies reported a significant reduction (all P hypnotherapy ranged between 24% and 73%. Efficacy was maintained long-term in four of five studies. A therapeutic effect was also observed in the maintenance of clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. Uncontrolled trials supported the efficacy and durability of gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS. Gaps in understanding included to whom and when it should be applied, the paucity of adequately trained hypnotherapists, and the difficulties in designing well controlled-trials. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has durable efficacy in patients with IBS and possibly ulcerative colitis. Whether it sits in the therapeutic arsenal as a primary and/or adjunctive therapy cannot be ascertained on the current evidence base. Further research into efficacy, mechanisms of action and predictors of response is required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The chain reaction: a golden jubilee commemorative volume on research in basic sciences at DAE Institutions. V. 1

    2005-01-01

    This book has been chosen to metaphorically reflect how research in basic sciences in various institutions of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has evolved over the years, closely mimicking what goes on in a nuclear chain reactor. Since, for harnessing atomic energy for peaceful uses, nuclear physics and atomic physics are the two core activities, work was undertaken in these areas during initial days at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. These activities then promoted the growth of major programmes in a number of areas, such as, reactor physics, accelerator physics, condensed matter physics and materials science, theoretical physics and mathematical physics, astronomy and astrophysics, laser and plasma physics, radiation chemistry, photochemistry, chemical dynamics, nuclear chemistry, radiation biology and health sciences, molecular and cellular biology, structural biology and biophysics, agriculture and food sciences etc. In turn, all these programmes have been fostering the growth in several other domains of science, engineering and technology

  1. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Author Affiliations. Sarita Ahlawat1. Research Associate Malaria Group International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi 110067, India.

  2. Summary Report of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Data for Charged-Particle Monitor Reactions and Medical Isotope Production

    Nichols, Alan L.; Noy, Roberto Capote

    2013-02-01

    A summary is given of the first IAEA research coordination meeting on ''Nuclear Data for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions and Medical Isotope Production'. Participants reassessed and reviewed the requirements for both cross-section and decay data, based on the earlier findings of three IAEA consultants' meetings (High-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes, INDC(NDS)-0535, December 2008; Improvements in charged-particle monitor reactions and nuclear data for medical isotope production, INDC(NDS)-0591, September 2011; Intermediate-term nuclear data needs for medical applications: cross sections and decay data, INDC(NDS)-0596, September 2011). While significant emphasis was placed on the needs defined in IAEA report INDC(NDS)-0591, a limited number of relevant items and issues were also considered from the other two technical meetings. Recommendations focused on cross-section studies for a reasonably wide range of targets and projectiles, along with decay data measurements and evaluations for specific radionuclides. Individual presentations and discussions are described in this report, along with listings of the agreed work packages to be undertaken by the participants of the coordinated research project. (author)

  3. The Human Neonatal Gut Microbiome: A Brief Review

    Emily C. Gritz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of genomics has expanded into subspecialties such as metagenomics over the course of the last decade and a half. The development of massively parallel sequencing capabilities has allowed for increasingly detailed study of the genome of the human microbiome, the microbial super organ that resides symbiotically within the mucosal tissues and integumentary system of the human host. The gut microbiome, and particularly the study of its origins in neonates, have become subtopics of great interest within the field of genomics. This brief review seeks to summarize recent literature regarding the origins and establishment of the neonatal gut microbiome, beginning in utero, and how it is affected by neonatal nutritional status (breastfed versus formula fed and gestational age (term versus preterm. We also explore the role of dysbiosis, a perturbation within the fragile ecosystem of the microbiome, and its role in the origin of select pathologic states, specifically, obesity and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. We discuss the evidence supporting enteral pre- and probiotic supplementation of commensal organisms such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the neonatal period, and their role in the prevention and amelioration of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Finally, we review directions to consider for further research to promote human health within this field.

  4. The Human Gut Phage Community and Its Implications for Health and Disease.

    Manrique, Pilar; Dills, Michael; Young, Mark J

    2017-06-08

    In this review, we assess our current understanding of the role of bacteriophages infecting the human gut bacterial community in health and disease. In general, bacteriophages contribute to the structure of their microbial communities by driving host and viral diversification, bacterial evolution, and by expanding the functional diversity of ecosystems. Gut bacteriophages are an ensemble of unique and shared phages in individuals, which encompass temperate phages found predominately as prophage in gut bacteria (prophage reservoir) and lytic phages. In healthy individuals, only a small fraction of the prophage reservoir is activated and found as extracellular phages. Phage community dysbiosis is characterized by a shift in the activated prophage community or an increase of lytic phages, and has been correlated with disease, suggesting that a proper balance between lysis and lysogeny is needed to maintain health. Consequently, the concept of microbial dysbiosis might be extended to the phage component of the microbiome as well. Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms to restore balance after dysbiosis is an active area of research. The use of phage transplants to re-establish health suggests that phages can be used as disease treatment. Such advances represent milestones in our understanding of gut phages in human health and should fuel research on their role in health and disease.

  5. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health.

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies.

  6. Impact of the gut microbiota on rodent models of human disease.

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2014-12-21

    Traditionally bacteria have been considered as either pathogens, commensals or symbionts. The mammal gut harbors 10(14) organisms dispersed on approximately 1000 different species. Today, diagnostics, in contrast to previous cultivation techniques, allow the identification of close to 100% of bacterial species. This has revealed that a range of animal models within different research areas, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, allergy, behavior and colitis, are affected by their gut microbiota. Correlation studies may for some diseases show correlation between gut microbiota composition and disease parameters higher than 70%. Some disease phenotypes may be transferred when recolonizing germ free mice. The mechanistic aspects are not clear, but some examples on how gut bacteria stimulate receptors, metabolism, and immune responses are discussed. A more deeper understanding of the impact of microbiota has its origin in the overall composition of the microbiota and in some newly recognized species, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Segmented filamentous bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which seem to have an impact on more or less severe disease in specific models. Thus, the impact of the microbiota on animal models is of a magnitude that cannot be ignored in future research. Therefore, either models with specific microbiota must be developed, or the microbiota must be characterized in individual studies and incorporated into data evaluation.

  7. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  8. Albumin infusion after reperfusion prevents gut ischemia-reperfusion-induced gut-associated lymphoid tissue atrophy.

    Ikezawa, Fumie; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Hara, Etsuko; Hiraide, Hoshio; Compher, Charlene W

    2006-01-01

    Our recent study clarified that gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass atrophy, a possible mechanism for increased morbidity of infectious complications after severe surgical insults. Because albumin administration reportedly reduces hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury, we hypothesized that albumin treatment prevents GALT atrophy due to gut I/R. Male mice (n = 37) were randomized to albumin, normal saline, and sham groups. All groups underwent jugular vein catheter insertion. The albumin and normal saline groups underwent 75-minute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. During gut ischemia, all mice received normal saline infusions at 1.0 mL/h. The albumin group was given 5% bovine serum albumin in normal saline at 1.0 mL/h for 60 minutes after reperfusion, whereas the normal saline group received 0.9% sodium chloride at 1.0 mL/h. The sham group underwent laparotomy only. Mice were killed on day 1 or 7, and the entire small intestine was harvested. GALT lymphocytes were isolated and counted. Their phenotypes (alphabetaTCR, gammadeltaTCR, CD4, CD8, B220) were determined by flow cytometry. On day 1, the gut I/R groups showed significantly lower total lymphocyte and B cell numbers in Peyer's patches and the lamina propria than the sham group. However, the albumin infusion partially but significantly restored these cell numbers. On day 7, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured among the 3 groups. Albumin infusion after a gut ischemic insult may maintain gut immunity by preventing GALT atrophy.

  9. Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats.

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Hongyue; Xiao, Xinhua; Hu, Ling; Xin, Fengjiao; Yu, Xiaobing

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats. A diabetic rat model was generated by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injections (HF/STZ). Inulin was orally administered to normal and diabetic rats. To determine the composition of the gut microbiota, fecal DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing were performed. We found that inulin treatment reduced fasting blood glucose levels and alleviated glucose intolerance and blood lipid panels in diabetic rats. Additionally, inulin treatment increased the serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level, reduced serum IL-6 level, Il6 expression in epididymal adipose tissue, and Pepck , G6pc expression in liver of diabetic rats. Pyrophosphate sequencing of the 16s V3-V4 region demonstrated an elevated proportion of Firmicutes and a reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes at the phylogenetic level in diabetic rats compared to normal control rats. The characteristics of the gut microbiota in control and inulin-treated rats were similar. Inulin treatment can normalize the composition of the gut microbiota in diabetic rats. At the family and genus levels, probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria Lachnospiraceae , Phascolarctobacterium , and Bacteroides were found to be significantly more abundant in the inulin-treated diabetic group than in the non-treated diabetic group. In addition, inulin-treated rats had a lower abundance of Desulfovibrio , which produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The

  10. Differential effects of whisky brands on human gut microbiome and fecal metabolome

    Priyanka Sarkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gut bacteria have significant impact on human physiology and are influenced by dietary habit [1]. Apart from normal diet, alcoholic beverages have also been shown to influence gut microbial makeup. The wine polyphenols have been linked to increase the beneficial bacteria in the gut after 4 weeks of consumption [2]. Consumption of alcoholic beverages for longer period (>10 years has also been correlated to detrimental gut bacterial dysbiosis [3]. The contrasting effects of alcoholic beverages in these two studies necessitate further research. Globally, 45.7% of alcoholic drinkers are spirit drinkers with India having the highest (71% [4]. In India whisky is preferred by most of the drinkers and 1400 million liters of whisky was consumed in India in the year 2012 [5]. Till date, no study has been reported to understand the effect of long-term consumption of different types of whisky on gut bacterial profile (GBP. In this purview apilot study of gut bacterial and metabolite profile was performed between the whisky drinker (n=18 and non-drinker (n=8 along with rice beer drinkers (n=3. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS analysis on illumina miseq platform revealed decrease in gut bacterial diversity in the drinkers compared to the non-drinkers. The whisky types have differential effects on the GBP. The GBP of whisky type 1 drinkers had higher abundance of Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fold change log 2: 3.33 & 3.1537, respectively; p< 0.002 in comparison to the non-drinker group, while the type 2 whisky drinkers had increased abundance of Lactococcus and Streptococcus (fold change log 2: 9.1827 & 4.2986; p< 0.002 compared to the non-drinker group. The butyric acid producing genera, Ruminococcaceae was found to be decreased in both the whisky drinking cohorts (fold change log 2: -1.5449 & -2.7327, respectively; p<0.002. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, mainly butyric acid

  11. Nuclear reaction studies

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ''hot'' nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ''flow'' measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study 40 Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs

  12. Recruitment and establishment of the gut microbiome in arctic shorebirds.

    Grond, Kirsten; Lanctot, Richard B; Jumpponen, Ari; Sandercock, Brett K

    2017-12-01

    Gut microbiota play a key role in host health. Mammals acquire gut microbiota during birth, but timing of gut microbial recruitment in birds is unknown. We evaluated whether precocial chicks from three species of arctic-breeding shorebirds acquire gut microbiota before or after hatching, and then documented the rate and compositional dynamics of accumulation of gut microbiota. Contrary to earlier reports of microbial recruitment before hatching in chickens, quantitative PCR and Illumina sequence data indicated negligible microbiota in the guts of shorebird embryos before hatching. Analyses of chick feces indicated an exponential increase in bacterial abundance of guts 0-2 days post-hatch, followed by stabilization. Gut communities were characterized by stochastic recruitment and convergence towards a community dominated by Clostridia and Gammaproteobacteria. We conclude that guts of shorebird chicks are likely void of microbiota prior to hatch, but that stable gut microbiome establishes as early as 3 days of age, probably from environmental inocula. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  14. The microbiota-gut-brain axis as a key regulator of neural function and the stress response: Implications for human and animal health.

    Wiley, N C; Dinan, T G; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Clarke, G; Cryan, J F

    2017-07-01

    The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression. Therefore, much research effort in recent years has focused on understanding the potential of targeting the intestinal microbiota to prevent and treat such disorders. This review aims to explore the influence of the gut microbiota on host neural function and behavior, particularly those of relevance to stress-related disorders. The involvement of microbiota in diverse neural functions such as myelination, microglia function, neuronal morphology, and blood-brain barrier integrity across the life span, from early life to adolescence to old age, will also be discussed. Nurturing an optimal gut microbiome may also prove beneficial in animal science as a means to manage stressful situations and to increase productivity of farm animals. The implications of these observations are manifold, and researchers are hopeful that this promising body of preclinical work can be successfully translated to the clinic and beyond.

  15. Reaction-Based Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2006-01-01

    This research project (started Fall 2004) was funded by a grant to The Pennsylvania State University, University of Central Florida, and The University of Alabama in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR Program (DE-FG04-ER63914/63915/63196). Dr. Eric Roden, formerly at The University of Alabama, is now at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Our project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and is directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. NABIR FRC Field Project at Area 2

  16. Effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy on IBS in different clinical settings-results from two randomized, controlled trials.

    Lindfors, Perjohan; Unge, Peter; Arvidsson, Patrik; Nyhlin, Henry; Björnsson, Einar; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Simrén, Magnus

    2012-02-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy has been found to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, randomized, controlled studies are rare and few have been performed outside highly specialized research centers. The objective of this study was to study the effect of gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS in different clinical settings outside the traditional research units. The study population included IBS patients refractory to standard management. In study 1, patients were randomized to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy (12 sessions, 1 h/week) in psychology private practices or supportive therapy, whereas patients were randomized to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy in a small county hospital or to serve as waiting list controls in study 2. Gastrointestinal symptom severity and quality of life were evaluated at baseline, at 3 months follow-up and after 1 year. We randomized 138 IBS patients refractory to standard management, 90 in study 1 and 48 in study 2. In both the studies, IBS-related symptoms were improved at 3 months in the gut-directed hypnotherapy groups (Phypnotherapy group than in the control group (Phypnotherapy is an effective treatment alternative for patients with refractory IBS, but the effectiveness is lower when the therapy is given outside the highly specialized research centers.

  17. Gut transit is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and gut hormone profile in patients with cirrhosis

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sadik, Riadh; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, insulin resistance, and altered gut transit. We aimed to assess the prevalence of gut transit abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis, compared with healthy controls, and to evaluate the rela......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, insulin resistance, and altered gut transit. We aimed to assess the prevalence of gut transit abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis, compared with healthy controls, and to evaluate...... the relation of gut transit with gastrointestinal symptoms and postprandial glucose and hormone profiles. METHODS: Half gastric emptying, small bowel residence, and colonic filling times were measured with a validated radiologic procedure in 42 consecutive patients with cirrhosis. In a subgroup of 25 patients......, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by using a validated questionnaire and a caloric satiation test. Postprandial glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and PYY responses were also studied. Eighty-three healthy subjects served as controls for the transit studies and 10 for the hormone...

  18. Metformin Alters Gut Microbiota of Healthy Mice: Implication for Its Potential Role in Gut Microbiota Homeostasis

    Wei Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the first-line anti-diabetic drug metformin has been shown to be also useful for the treatment of other diseases like cancer. To date, few reports were about the impact of metformin on gut microbiota. To fully understand the mechanism of action of metformin in treating diseases other than diabetes, it is especially important to investigate the impact of long-term metformin treatment on the gut microbiome in non-diabetic status. In this study, we treated healthy mice with metformin for 30 days, and observed 46 significantly changed gut microbes by using the 16S rRNA-based microbiome profiling technique. We found that microbes from the Verrucomicrobiaceae and Prevotellaceae classes were enriched, while those from Lachnospiraceae and Rhodobacteraceae were depleted. We further compared the altered microbiome profile with the profiles under various disease conditions using our recently developed comparative microbiome tool known as MicroPattern. Interestingly, the treatment of diabetes patients with metformin positively correlates with colon cancer and type 1 diabetes, indicating a confounding effect on the gut microbiome in patients with diabetes. However, the treatment of healthy mice with metformin exhibits a negative correlation with multiple inflammatory diseases, indicating a protective anti-inflammatory role of metformin in non-diabetes status. This result underscores the potential effect of metformin on gut microbiome homeostasis, which may contribute to the treatment of non-diabetic diseases.

  19. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  20. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, gut microbes and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Stanisavljević, S; Lukić, J; Momčilović, M; Miljković, M; Jevtić, B; Kojić, M; Golić, N; Mostarica Stojković, M; Miljković, D

    2016-06-01

    Gut microbiota and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have been increasingly appreciated as important players in pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis that can be induced with an injection of spinal cord homogenate emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, but not in Albino Oxford (AO) rats. In this study, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), Peyer's patches (PP) and gut microbiota were analysed in these two rat strains. There was higher proportion of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in non-immunised DA rats in comparison to AO rats. Also, DA rat MLN and PP cells were higher producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17. Finally, microbial analyses showed that uncultivated species of Turicibacter and Atopostipes genus were exclusively present in AO rats, in faeces and intestinal tissue, respectively. Thus, it is clear that in comparison of an EAE-susceptible with an EAE-resistant strain of rats, various discrepancies at the level of gut associated lymphoid tissue, as well as at the level of gut microbiota can be observed. Future studies should determine if the differences have functional significance for EAE pathogenesis.

  1. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  2. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  3. The gut mycobiome of elderly danes

    Bin Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Kot, Witold

    mycobiome on health and disease in elderly remain sparsely investigated. Consequently, the aim of this study was to characterise the feacal mycobiota in relation to host health parameters.Feacal samples from 99 healthy individuals ranging from 65 to 81 years old were collected, and fungal composition...... categories associated with the clinical features among individuals.The elderly gut is home to three main phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, with genera Penicillium, Candida, and Aspergillus being particularly common. Based on HbA1c-levels, the individuals could be clustered into 3 groups, High...... glucose level.Collectively, these findings suggest that the presences of specific gut mycobiome member is associated with glycemic behaviours among the healthy individuals of the elderly Danes population....

  4. Preface to a GUT (Grand Unified Theory)

    Honig, W.

    1982-01-01

    A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is proposed exhibiting relativistic invariance and based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, proton, etc., consist of separate unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns. This GUT is also based on the use of transfinite axiomatic number forms and on a concept of metrical relativity which hopefully reconciles the many logical dichotomies in and between Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. These ideas result in a number of experimental proposals and predicted results which appear to be underivable from present paradigms, first among which is a physical model for the hidden variable of Quantum Mechanics. It is on these features that attention should rest. (Auth.)

  5. Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development...... of atherosclerotic plaques. Third, diet and specific components that are metabolized by gut microbiota can have various effects on atherosclerosis; for example, dietary fibre is beneficial, whereas the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered harmful. Although specific bacterial taxa have been...... associated with atherosclerosis, which is supported by increasing mechanistic evidence, several questions remain to be answered to understand fully how the microbiota contributes to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Such knowledge might pave the way for novel diagnostics and therapeutics based...

  6. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

    Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Raes, Jeroen; Pelletier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previou......Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries....... This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species...

  7. Gut perturbation and probiotics in neonatology

    Giacomo Biasucci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that foetal colonisation begins prior to birth. There are other major determinants for neonatal gut colonisation other than that of a possible prenatal transfer of maternal bacteria to the foetus, including the delivery and feeding mode, as well as perinatal antibiotic exposure. Generally, vaginally born infants are first colonised by bacteria from the maternal vagina, whereas the gut microbiota of infants born by caesarean section (CS more often resembles that of maternal skin and oral microbiota. Indeed, CS delivered babies seem to have a higher incidence of obesity, type 1 diabetes and asthma. The mode of feeding also plays an important role in influencing early intestinal microbiota. A more eubiotic microbiota composition is conferred to breastfed infants than to their formula-fed counterparts. Nowadays, we have evidence of antibiotic induced intestinal dysbiosis, which is, in turn, associated to an increased risk of developing overweight/obesity, as well as asthma, wheezing and/or inflammatory bowel disease, later in life. Overall, the early gut dysbiosis may have long-term negative effects on an infant’s healthy immunological, hormonal and metabolic development. There has been extensive evaluation of how probiotic supplementation early in life may re-establish gut eubiosis and reduce the negative long-term effects of early dysbiosis. The most commonly used and studied probiotic strains and species include Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and S. boulardii. Accumulated evidence in neonatology suggests that some probiotic strains may be effective in preventing antibiotic associated diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and/or eczema. L. reuteri may also be effective in treating infantile colic.

  8. What is Obesity Doing to Your Gut?

    LEE, Yeong Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-emerging epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, with numbers paralleling the rising global prevalence within the past 30 years. The landscape of gut diseases in Asia has been drastically changed by obesity. In addition to more non-specific abdominal symptoms, obesity is the cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, various gastrointestinal cancers (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer and ga...

  9. Immunology. Therapeutic manipulation of gut flora.

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    In developed countries as many as two individuals in every thousand suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s disease). In his Perspective, Shanahan discusses a new therapeutic approach to treating these conditions in which bacteria normally found in the gut are engineered to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and then are fed as probiotics to mice with these disorders (Steidler et al.).

  10. Microbiota and Neurological Disorders: A Gut Feeling

    Moos, Walter H.; Faller, Douglas V.; Harpp, David N.; Kanara, Iphigenia; Pernokas, Julie; Powers, Whitney R.; Steliou, Kosta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past century, noncommunicable diseases have surpassed infectious diseases as the principal cause of sickness and death, worldwide. Trillions of commensal microbes live in and on our body, and constitute the human microbiome. The vast majority of these microorganisms are maternally derived and live in the gut, where they perform functions essential to our health and survival, including: digesting food, activating certain drugs, producing short-chain fatty acids (which help to m...

  11. Phenomenology of GUT-less Supersymmetry Breaking

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Sandick, Pearl

    2007-01-01

    We study models in which supersymmetry breaking appears at an intermediate scale, M_{in}, below the GUT scale. We assume that the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the MSSM are universal at M_{in}, and analyze the morphology of the constraints from cosmology and collider experiments on the allowed regions of parameter space as M_{in} is reduced from the GUT scale. We present separate analyses of the (m_{1/2},m_0) planes for tan(beta)=10 and tan(beta)=50, as well as a discussion of non-zero trilinear couplings, A_0. Specific scenarios where the gaugino and scalar masses appear to be universal below the GUT scale have been found in mirage-mediation models, which we also address here. We demand that the lightest neutralino be the LSP, and that the relic neutralino density not conflict with measurements by WMAP and other observations. At moderate values of M_{in}, we find that the allowed regions of the (m_{1/2},m_0) plane are squeezed by the requirements of electroweak symmetry breaking and that the ligh...

  12. GUTs in type IIB orientifold compactifications

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Braun, Volker; Grimm, Thomas W.; Weigand, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We systematically analyse globally consistent SU(5) GUT models on intersecting D7-branes in genuine Calabi-Yau orientifolds with O3- and O7-planes. Beyond the well-known tadpole and K-theory cancellation conditions there exist a number of additional subtle but quite restrictive constraints. For the realisation of SU(5) GUTs with gauge symmetry breaking via U(1) Y flux we present two classes of suitable Calabi-Yau manifolds defined via del Pezzo transitions of the elliptically fibred hypersurface P 1,1,1,6,9 [18] and of the Quintic P 1,1,1,1,1 [5], respectively. To define an orientifold projection we classify all involutions on del Pezzo surfaces. We work out the model building prospects of these geometries and present five globally consistent string GUT models in detail, including a 3-generation SU(5) model with no exotics whatsoever. We also realise other phenomenological features such as the 10105 H Yukawa coupling and comment on the possibility of moduli stabilisation, where we find an entire new set of so-called swiss-cheese type Calabi-Yau manifolds. It is expected that both the general constrained structure and the concrete models lift to F-theory vacua on compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds.

  13. The Super-GUT CMSSM Revisited

    Ellis, John

    2016-01-01

    We revisit minimal supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification (GUT) models in which the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) are universal at some input scale, $M_{in}$, above the supersymmetric gauge coupling unification scale, $M_{GUT}$. As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), we assume that the scalar masses and gaugino masses have common values, $m_0$ and $m_{1/2}$ respectively, at $M_{in}$, as do the trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters $A_0$. Going beyond previous studies of such a super-GUT CMSSM scenario, we explore the constraints imposed by the lower limit on the proton lifetime and the LHC measurement of the Higgs mass, $m_h$. We find regions of $m_0$, $m_{1/2}$, $A_0$ and the parameters of the SU(5) superpotential that are compatible with these and other phenomenological constraints such as the density of cold dark matter, which we assume to be provided by the lightest neutralino. Typically, these allowed regions appear for $m_0$ and $m_{1/...

  14. GUTs on Compact Type IIB Orientifolds

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Braun, Volker; /Dublin Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2008-12-01

    We systematically analyze globally consistent SU(5) GUT models on intersecting D7-branes in genuine Calabi-Yau orientifolds with O3- and O7-planes. Beyond the well-known tadpole and K-theory cancellation conditions there exist a number of additional subtle but quite restrictive constraints. For the realization of SU(5) GUTs with gauge symmetry breaking via U(1)Y flux we present two classes of suitable Calabi-Yau manifolds defined via del Pezzo transitions of the elliptically fibred hypersurface P{sub 1,1,1,6,9}[18] and of the Quintic P{sub 1,1,1,1,1}[5], respectively. To define an orientifold projection we classify all involutions on del Pezzo surfaces. We work out the model building prospects of these geometries and present five globally consistent string GUT models in detail, including a 3-generation SU(5) model with no exotics whatsoever. We also realize other phenomenological features such as the 10 10 5{sub H} Yukawa coupling and comment on the possibility of moduli stabilization, where we find an entire new set of so-called swiss-cheese type Calabi-Yau manifolds. It is expected that both the general constrained structure and the concrete models lift to F-theory vacua on compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds.

  15. The structure of GUT breaking by orbifolding

    Hebecker, Arthur; March-Russell, John

    2002-01-01

    Recently, an attractive model of GUT breaking has been proposed in which a 5-dimensional supersymmetric SU(5) gauge theory on an S 1 /(Z 2 xZ 2 ') orbifold is broken down to the 4d MSSM by SU(5)-violating boundary conditions. Motivated by this construction and several related realistic models, we investigate the general structure of orbifolds in the effective field theory context, and of this orbifold symmetry breaking mechanism in particular. An analysis of the group theoretic structure of orbifold breaking is performed. This depends upon the existence of appropriate inner and outer automorphisms of the Lie algebra, and we show that a reduction of the rank of the GUT group is possible. Some aspects of larger GUT theories based on SO(10) and E 6 are discussed. We explore the possibilities of defining the theory directly on a space with boundaries and breaking the gauge symmetry by more general consistently chosen boundary conditions for the fields. Furthermore, we derive the relation of orbifold breaking with the familiar mechanism of Wilson line breaking, finding a one-to-one correspondence, both conceptually and technically. Finally, we analyse the consistency of orbifold models in the effective field theory context, emphasizing the necessity for self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian and other conserved operators, and especially the highly restrictive anomaly cancellation conditions that apply if the bulk theory lives in more than 5 dimensions

  16. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  17. Advances and perspectives in in vitro human gut fermentation modeling.

    Payne, Amanda N; Zihler, Annina; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The gut microbiota is a highly specialized organ containing host-specific assemblages of microbes whereby metabolic activity directly impacts human health and disease. In vitro gut fermentation models present an unmatched opportunity of performing studies frequently challenged in humans and animals owing to ethical concerns. Multidisciplinary systems biology analyses supported by '-omics' platforms remain widely neglected in the field of in vitro gut fermentation modeling but are key to advancing the significance of these models. Model-driven experimentation using a combination of in vitro gut fermentation and in vitro human cell models represent an advanced approach in identifying complex host-microbe interactions and niches central to gut fermentation processes. The aim of this review is to highlight the advances and challenges exhibited by in vitro human gut fermentation modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Goodman, Brett Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Copepod guts as biogeochemical hotspots in the sea

    Tang, Kam W.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Glud, Anni

    2011-01-01

    The environmental conditions inside the gut of Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis were measured with microelectrodes. An acidic potential hydrogen (pH) gradient was present in the gut of C. hyperboreus, and the lowest pH recorded was 5.40. The gut pH of a starved copepod decreased by 0.53 after...... the copepod resumed feeding for a few hours, indicating the secretion of acidic digestive fluid. A copepod feeding on Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) had slightly lower pH than that feeding on Rhodomonas salina (cryptophyte). Oxygen was undersaturated in the gut of both C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis......, with a steep gradient from the anal opening to the metasome region. The central metasome region was completely anoxic. Food remains in the gut led to a lower oxygen level, and a diatom diet induced a stronger oxygen gradient than a cryptophyte diet. The acidic and suboxic–anoxic environments of the copepod gut...

  20. Radiative breaking scenario for the GUT gauge symmetry

    Fukuyama, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the grand unified theory (GUT) scale from the top-down perspective is explored. The GUT gauge symmetry is broken by the renormalization group effects, which is an extension of the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking scenario to the GUT models. That is, in the same way as the origin of the electroweak scale, the GUT scale is generated from the Planck scale through the radiative corrections to the soft supersymmetry breaking mass parameters. This mechanism is applied to a perturbative SO(10) GUT model, recently proposed by us. In the SO(10) model, the relation between the GUT scale and the Planck scale can naturally be realized by using order-one coupling constants. (orig.)

  1. Breaking down the gut microbiome composition in multiple sclerosis.

    Budhram, Adrian; Parvathy, Seema; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Silverman, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The gut microbiome, which consists of a highly diverse ecologic community of micro-organisms, has increasingly been studied regarding its role in multiple sclerosis (MS) immunopathogenesis. This review critically examines the literature investigating the gut microbiome in MS. A comprehensive search was performed of PubMed databases and ECTRIMS meeting abstracts for literature relating to the gut microbiome in MS. Controlled studies examining the gut microbiome in patients with MS were included for review. Identified studies were predominantly case-control in their design and consistently found differences in the gut microbiome of MS patients compared to controls. We examine plausible mechanistic links between these differences and MS immunopathogenesis, and discuss the therapeutic implications of these findings. Review of the available literature reveals potential immunopathogenic links between the gut microbiome and MS, identifies avenues for therapeutic advancement, and emphasizes the need for further systematic study in this emerging field.

  2. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-06-17

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and the microbiome in schizophrenia: more than a gut feeling.

    Severance, Emily G; Yolken, Robert H; Eaton, William W

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmunity, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and schizophrenia have been associated with one another for a long time. This paper reviews these connections and provides a context by which multiple risk factors for schizophrenia may be related. Epidemiological studies strongly link schizophrenia with autoimmune disorders including enteropathic celiac disease. Exposure to wheat gluten and bovine milk casein also contribute to non-celiac food sensitivities in susceptible individuals. Co-morbid GI inflammation accompanies humoral immunity to food antigens, occurs early during the course of schizophrenia and appears to be independent from antipsychotic-generated motility effects. This inflammation impacts endothelial barrier permeability and can precipitate translocation of gut bacteria into systemic circulation. Infection by the neurotropic gut pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, will elicit an inflammatory GI environment. Such processes trigger innate immunity, including activation of complement C1q, which also functions at synapses in the brain. The emerging field of microbiome research lies at the center of these interactions with evidence that the abundance and diversity of resident gut microbiota contribute to digestion, inflammation, gut permeability and behavior. Dietary modifications of core bacterial compositions may explain inefficient gluten digestion and how immigrant status in certain situations is a risk factor for schizophrenia. Gut microbiome research in schizophrenia is in its infancy, but data in related fields suggest disease-associated altered phylogenetic compositions. In summary, this review surveys associative and experimental data linking autoimmunity, GI activity and schizophrenia, and proposes that understanding of disrupted biological pathways outside of the brain can lend valuable information regarding pathogeneses of complex, polygenic brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A geographically-diverse collection of 418 human gut microbiome pathway genome databases

    Hahn, Aria S.

    2017-04-11

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing are reshaping how we perceive microbial communities inhabiting the human body, with implications for therapeutic interventions. Several large-scale datasets derived from hundreds of human microbiome samples sourced from multiple studies are now publicly available. However, idiosyncratic data processing methods between studies introduce systematic differences that confound comparative analyses. To overcome these challenges, we developed GutCyc, a compendium of environmental pathway genome databases (ePGDBs) constructed from 418 assembled human microbiome datasets using MetaPathways, enabling reproducible functional metagenomic annotation. We also generated metabolic network reconstructions for each metagenome using the Pathway Tools software, empowering researchers and clinicians interested in visualizing and interpreting metabolic pathways encoded by the human gut microbiome. For the first time, GutCyc provides consistent annotations and metabolic pathway predictions, making possible comparative community analyses between health and disease states in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and type 2 diabetes. GutCyc data products are searchable online, or may be downloaded and explored locally using MetaPathways and Pathway Tools.

  5. Robust and effective methodologies for cryopreservation and DNA extraction from anaerobic gut fungi.

    Solomon, Kevin V; Henske, John K; Theodorou, Michael K; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2016-04-01

    Cell storage and DNA isolation are essential to developing an expanded suite of microorganisms for biotechnology. However, many features of non-model microbes, such as an anaerobic lifestyle and rigid cell wall, present formidable challenges to creating strain repositories and extracting high quality genomic DNA. Here, we establish accessible, high efficiency, and robust techniques to store lignocellulolytic anaerobic gut fungi long term without specialized equipment. Using glycerol as a cryoprotectant, gut fungal isolates were preserved for a minimum of 23 months at -80 °C. Unlike previously reported approaches, this improved protocol is non-toxic and rapid, with samples surviving twice as long with negligible growth impact. Genomic DNA extraction for these isolates was optimized to yield samples compatible with next generation sequencing platforms (e.g. Illumina, PacBio). Popular DNA isolation kits and precipitation protocols yielded preps that were unsuitable for sequencing due to carbohydrate contaminants from the chitin-rich cell wall and extensive energy reserves of gut fungi. To address this, we identified a proprietary method optimized for hardy plant samples that rapidly yielded DNA fragments in excess of 10 kb with minimal RNA, protein or carbohydrate contamination. Collectively, these techniques serve as fundamental tools to manipulate powerful biomass-degrading gut fungi and improve their accessibility among researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of diet to the composition of the human gut microbiota.

    Graf, Daniela; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Fåk, Frida; Flint, Harry J; Nyman, Margareta; Saarela, Maria; Watzl, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In the human gut, millions of bacteria contribute to the microbiota, whose composition is specific for every individual. Although we are just at the very beginning of understanding the microbiota concept, we already know that the composition of the microbiota has a profound impact on human health. A key factor in determining gut microbiota composition is diet. Preliminary evidence suggests that dietary patterns are associated with distinct combinations of bacteria in the intestine, also called enterotypes. Western diets result in significantly different microbiota compositions than traditional diets. It is currently unknown which food constituents specifically promote growth and functionality of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. The aim of this review is to summarize the recently published evidence from human in vivo studies on the gut microbiota-modulating effects of diet. It includes sections on dietary patterns (e.g. Western diet), whole foods, food constituents, as wells as food-associated microbes and their influence on the composition of human gut microbiota. The conclusions highlight the problems faced by scientists in this fast-developing field of research, and the need for high-quality, large-scale human dietary intervention studies.

  7. The Importance of Diet and Gut Health to the Treatment and Prevention of Mental Disorders.

    Dawson, S L; Dash, S R; Jacka, F N

    2016-01-01

    The departure from traditional lifestyles and the rising disease burden of mental disorders are increasing global health concerns. Changes in diet around the world mean that populations are now increasingly reliant on highly processed, poor quality foods, which have been linked to increased risk for mental disorder. Conversely, a nutrient-rich diet is understood to be protective of mental health, and researchers are now aiming to understand the biological underpinnings of this relationship. The gut microbiota has been proposed as a key mediator of this link, given its association with both diet and mental health. Importantly, several critical "windows of opportunity" for prevention and intervention have been identified, particularly early life and adolescence; these are periods of rapid development and transition that provide a foundation for future health. Strategies that promote overall diet quality, high in fiber and nutrients, have been linked to increased microbial diversity and gut health. Improving diet quality and subsequent gut health may have benefits for individuals' mental health, as well as the mental health of future generations. Here we discuss specific, targeted dietary and gut focused strategies for the prevention and treatment of mental disorder. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The gut microbiota in larvae of the housefly Musca domestica and their horizontal transfer through feeding.

    Zhao, Yao; Wang, Wanqiang; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2017-12-01

    House fly larvae provide a prolific and sustainable source of proteins used in poultry and fish feed. Wheat bran is a superior diet for house fly larvae and has been widely investigated to exploit its potential in the food and feed area. Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing, this study investigated the gut microbiota of house fly larvae feeding on wheat bran and the bacterial community in the wheat bran. The bacterial communities in the house fly larvae were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Enterobacteriaceae and Providencia were the predominant bacteria at the family and genus levels, respectively. Some bacteria in the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes may be transferred from the gut of house flies to the wheat bran during feeding and may be involved in degrading and utilizing polysaccharides in the cell wall of wheat bran. The significance of the gut microbiota of house fly larvae, their transferring and roles in degradation of wheat bran is discussed. These findings regarding the gut microbiota of house fly larvae will provide opportunities for research on the impact of microbial communities on poultry and fish.

  9. Structural Modulation of Gut Microbiota during Alleviation of Suckling Piglets Diarrhoea with Herbal Formula

    Cui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the traditional Chinese herbal formula of Shen Ling Baizhu (SLB could modulate the composition of the gut microbiota and alleviate diarrhoea in suckling piglets, twenty-four newly born piglets (Large White × Landrace × Duroc were selected and allocated to 4 groups (control group and experimental groups I, II, and III randomly. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. The result indicated that experimental groups I and II exhibited significantly different gut microbiota from the control group. Most notably, the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly elevated in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. Collinsella and Faecalibacterium were also enhanced in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. The results showed that SLB treatment could modulate the gut microbiota composition of suckling piglets, enriching the amount of beneficial bacteria in particular. The observed changes in the gut microbiota could provide the basis for further research on the pharmacological mechanism of the tested Chinese herbal formula.

  10. Gut Microbiota Analysis in Rats with Methamphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    Tingting Ning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is a major public health crisis. Because accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the gut microbiota plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS function, and research on the roles of the microbiome in CNS disorders holds conceivable promise for developing novel therapeutic avenues for treating CNS disorders, we sought to determine whether administration of methamphetamine leads to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. In this study, the gut microbiota profiles of rats with methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP were analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal microbial diversity was slightly higher in the METH CPP group. The propionate-producing genus Phascolarctobacterium was attenuated in the METH CPP group, and the family Ruminococcaceae was elevated in the METH CPP group. Short chain fatty acid analysis revealed that the concentrations of propionate were decreased in the fecal matter of METH-administered rats. These findings provide direct evidence that administration of METH causes gut dysbiosis, enable a better understanding of the function of gut microbiota in the process of drug abuse, and provide a new paradigm for addiction treatment.

  11. The microbiome-gut-brain axis in health and disease

    Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. While these neurotransmitters primarily act locally in the gut, modulating the enteric nervous system, evidence is now accumulating to support the view that gut microbes through multiple mechanisms can influence central neurochemistry and behavior. This has been described as a fundamental paradigm shift in neuroscience. Bifidobacteria for example can produce and increase plasma levels of the serotonin precu...

  12. Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota

    Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui; Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran

    2018-01-01

    The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria–xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota. Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin contamination and

  13. Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota

    Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria–xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota. Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin

  14. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity

    Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lene S. Myrmel; Even Fjære; Bjørn Liaset; Karsten Kristiansen; Karsten Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  15. Links between dietary protein sources, the gut microbiota, and obesity

    Madsen, Lise; Myrmel, Lene S.; Fjære, Even; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  16. Keeping gut lining at bay: impact of emulsifiers.

    Cani, Patrice D; Everard, Amandine

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with altered gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation. Both dietary habits and food composition contribute to the onset of such diseases. Emulsifiers, compounds commonly used in a variety of foods, were shown to induce body weight gain, low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders. These dietary compounds promote gut microbiota alteration and gut barrier dysfunction leading to negative metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Charged particle cross-section database for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic radioisotopes and monitor reactions. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    2001-05-01

    Medical applications of nuclear radiation are of considerable interest to the IAEA. Cyclotrons and accelerators, available in recent years in an increasing number of countries, are being used for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The physical basis of this production is described through interaction of charged particles, such as protons, deuterons and alphas, with matter. These processes have to be well understood in order to produce radioisotopes in an efficient and clean manner. In addition to medical radioisotope production, reactions with low energy charged particles are of primary importance for two major applications. Techniques of ion beam analysis use many specific reactions to identify material properties, and in nuclear astrophysics there is interest in numerous reaction rates to understand nucleosynthesis in the Universe. A large number of medically oriented cyclotrons have been running in North America, western Europe and Japan for more than two decades. In recent years, 30-40 MeV cyclotrons and smaller cyclotrons (E p < 20 MeV) have been installed in several countries. Although the production methods are well established, there are no evaluated and recommended nuclear data sets available. The need for standardization was thus imminent. This was pointed out at three IAEA meetings. Based on the recommendations made at these meetings, the IAEA decided to undertake and organize the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross-Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production. The project was initiated in 1995. It focused on radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes and on the related beam monitor reactions in order to meet current needs. It constituted the first major international effort dedicated to standardization of nuclear data for radioisotope production. It covered the following areas: Compilation of data on the most important reactions for monitoring light ion

  18. The Microbiome-Gut-Behavior Axis: Crosstalk Between the Gut Microbiome and Oligodendrocytes Modulates Behavioral Responses.

    Ntranos, Achilles; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Environmental and dietary stimuli have always been implicated in brain development and behavioral responses. The gut, being the major portal of communication with the external environment, has recently been brought to the forefront of this interaction with the establishment of a gut-brain axis in health and disease. Moreover, recent breakthroughs in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice have demonstrated the significant impact of the microbiome in modulating behavioral responses in mice and have established a more specific microbiome-gut-behavior axis. One of the mechanisms by which this axis affects social behavior is by regulating myelination at the prefrontal cortex, an important site for complex cognitive behavior planning and decision-making. The prefrontal cortex exhibits late myelination of its axonal projections that could extend into the third decade of life in humans, which make it susceptible to external influences, such as microbial metabolites. Changes in the gut microbiome were shown to alter the composition of the microbial metabolome affecting highly permeable bioactive compounds, such as p-cresol, which could impair oligodendrocyte differentiation. Dysregulated myelination in the prefrontal cortex is then able to affect behavioral responses in mice, shifting them towards social isolation. The reduced social interactions could then limit microbial exchange, which could otherwise pose a threat to the survival of the existing microbial community in the host and, thus, provide an evolutionary advantage to the specific microbial community. In this review, we will analyze the microbiome-gut-behavior axis, describe the interactions between the gut microbiome and oligodendrocytes and highlight their role in the modulation of social behavior.

  19. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  20. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit

    Tromas, Nicolas; Amyot, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and “traditional” diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome. We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the gut microbiomes of Montrealers with a Western diet to those of the Inuit consuming a range of traditional and Western diets. At the overall microbial community level, the gut microbiomes of Montrealers and Inuit were indistinguishable and contained similar levels of microbial diversity. However, we observed significant differences in the relative abundances of certain microbial taxa down to the subgenus level using oligotyping. For example, Prevotella spp., which have been previously associated with high-fiber diets, were enriched in Montrealers and among the Inuit consuming a Western diet. The gut microbiomes of Inuit consuming a traditional diet also had significantly less genetic diversity within the Prevotella genus, suggesting that a low-fiber diet might not only select against Prevotella but also reduce its diversity. Other microbes, such as Akkermansia, were associated with geography as well as diet, suggesting limited dispersal to the Arctic. Our report provides a snapshot of the Inuit microbiome as Western-like in overall community structure but distinct in the relative abundances and diversity of certain genera and strains. IMPORTANCE Non-Western populations have been shown to have distinct gut microbial communities shaped by traditional diets. The hitherto-uncharacterized microbiome of the Inuit may help us to

  1. Gut microbiota and probiotics in modulation of epithelium and gut-associated lymphoid tissue function.

    Sanz, Yolanda; De Palma, Giada

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal tract mucosa is exposed to a vast number of environmental antigens and a large community of commensal bacteria. The mucosal immune system has to provide both protection against pathogens and tolerance to harmless bacteria. Immune homeostasis depends on the interaction of indigenous commensal and transient bacteria (probiotics) with various components of the epithelium and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Herein, an update is given of the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and probiotics are translocated through the epithelium, sensed via pattern-recognition receptors, and activate innate and adaptive immune responses.

  2. Gut microbiomes and their metabolites shape human and animal health.

    Park, Woojun

    2018-03-01

    The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health. This editorial introduces six review papers that provide new discoveries of disease-associated microbiomes and suggest possible microbiome-based therapeutic approaches to human disease.

  3. Gut-Bioreactor and Human Health in Future.

    Purohit, Hemant J

    2018-03-01

    Gut-microbiome provides the complementary metabolic potential to the human system. To understand the active participation and the performance of the microbial community in human health, the concept of gut as a plug-flow reactor with the fed-batch mode of operation can provide better insight. The concept suggests the virtual compartmentalized gut with sequential stratification of the microbial community in response to a typical host genotype. It also provides the analysis plan for gut microbiome; and its relevance in developing health management options under the identified clinical conditions.

  4. Brain Gut Microbiome Interactions and Functional Bowel Disorders

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Savidge, Tor; Shulman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the bidirectional interactions between the gut and the nervous system play an important role in IBS pathophysiology and symptom generation. A body of largely preclinical evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate these interactions. Characterizations of alterations of gut microbiota in unselected IBS patients, and assessment of changes in subjective symptoms associated with manipulations of the gut microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics support a small, but poorly defined role of dybiosis in overall IBS symptoms. It remains to be determined if the observed abnormalities are a consequence of altered top down signaling from the brain to the gut and microbiota, if they are secondary to a primary perturbation of the microbiota, and if they play a role in the development of altered brain gut interactions early in life. Different mechanisms may play role in subsets of patients. Characterization of gut microbiome alterations in large cohorts of well phenotyped patients as well as evidence correlating gut metabolites with specific abnormalities in the gut brain axis are required to answer these questions. PMID:24583088

  5. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  6. Precision LEP data, supersymmetric GUTs and string unification

    Ellis, J.; Kelley, S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Houston Area Research Center

    1990-01-01

    The precision of sin 2 θ w MS (m Z ) extracted from LEP data (0.233±0.001) confirms the prediction of minimal supersymmetric GUTs (0.235±0.004) within the errors of about 2%. Moreover, supersymmetric GUTs with three generations and a heavy top quark also predict m b =5.2±0.3 GeV in perfect agreement with potential model estimates (5.0±0.2 GeV). String unification would require that the effective grand unification scale m GUT be no larger than the effective string unification scale m SU , which is indeed consistent with the LEP data, which indicate m GUT ≅ 2x10 16 GeV in a minimal supersymmetric GUT, compared with the theoretical estimate m SU ≅ 10 17 GeV. Specific choices of the string model moduli could enforce m GUT =m SU even in minimal supersymmetric GUTs, whilst non-minimal supersymmetric GUTs can reconcile the successful predictions of sin 2 θ w with m GUT = m SU for generic values of the moduli, but tend to have m b too large. (orig.)

  7. Targeting gut microbiome: A novel and potential therapy for autism.

    Yang, Yongshou; Tian, Jinhu; Yang, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severely neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. Children with neurodevelopmental disorder, including ASD, are regularly affected by gastrointestinal problems and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. On the other hand, humans live in a co-evolutionary association with plenty of microorganisms that resident on the exposed and internal surfaces of our bodies. The microbiome, refers to the collection of microbes and their genetic material, confers a variety of physiologic benefits to the host in many key aspects of life as well as being responsible for some diseases. A large body of preclinical literature indicates that gut microbiome plays an important role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that communicates between the gut and central nervous system. Moreover, accumulating evidences suggest that the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of ASD. The present review introduces the increasing evidence suggesting the reciprocal interaction network among microbiome, gut and brain. It also discusses the possible mechanisms by which gut microbiome influences the etiology of ASD via altering gut-brain axis. Most importantly, it highlights the new findings of targeting gut microbiome, including probiotic treatment and fecal microbiota transplant, as novel and potential therapeutics for ASD diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social behaviour and gut microbiota in red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer): In search of the role of immunity in the evolution of sociality.

    Raulo, Aura; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Lane, Avery; Amato, Katherine; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven; Stumpf, Rebecca; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Baden, Andrea L; Tecot, Stacey R

    2018-03-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiota form a key component of immunity and a dynamic link between an individual and the ecosystem. Microbiota might play a role in social systems as well, because microbes are transmitted during social contact and can affect host behaviour. Combining methods from behavioural and molecular research, we describe the relationship between social dynamics and gut microbiota of a group-living cooperative species of primate, the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer). Specifically, we ask whether patterns of social contact (group membership, group size, position in social network, individual sociality) are associated with patterns of gut microbial composition (diversity and similarity) between individuals and across time. Red-bellied lemurs were found to have gut microbiota with slight temporal fluctuations and strong social group-specific composition. Contrary to expectations, individual sociality was negatively associated with gut microbial diversity. However, position within the social network predicted gut microbial composition. These results emphasize the role of the social environment in determining the microbiota of adult animals. Since social transmission of gut microbiota has the potential to enhance immunity, microbiota might have played an escalating role in the evolution of sociality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Gut microbiota in early life and its influence on health and disease: A position paper by the Malaysian Working Group on Gastrointestinal Health.

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Hassan, Siti Asma; Ismail, Intan Hakimah; Chong, Sze Yee; Raja Ali, Raja Affendi; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Lee, Way Seah; Majid, Noorizan Abdul

    2017-12-01

    The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts' stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life. However, as evidence is lacking, especially from the Asia-Pacific region, further studies are needed to understand how gut microbiota in early life affects subsequent diseases, including allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and infantile colic. Lastly, although beneficial in acute diarrhoeal disease and probably allergic eczema, probiotics (and/or prebiotics) should be used cautiously in other gut dysbiotic conditions until more data are available. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. A hundred-year-old insight into the gut microbiome!

    Aziz, Ramy Karam

    2009-12-07

    As the National Institutes of Health-funded Human Microbiome Project enters its second phase, and as a major part of this project focuses on the human gut microbiome and its effects on human health, it might help us to travel a century back in time and examine how microbiologists dealt with microbiome-related challenges similar to those of the 21st century using the tools of their time. An article by Arthur I. Kendall, published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry in November 1909 (Some observations on the study of the intestinal bacteria J Biol Chem 1909, 6:499-507), offers a visionary insight into many of today's hot research questions.

  11. A hundred-year-old insight into the gut microbiome!

    Aziz Ramy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the National Institutes of Health-funded Human Microbiome Project enters its second phase, and as a major part of this project focuses on the human gut microbiome and its effects on human health, it might help us to travel a century back in time and examine how microbiologists dealt with microbiome-related challenges similar to those of the 21st century using the tools of their time. An article by Arthur I. Kendall, published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry in November 1909 (Some observations on the study of the intestinal bacteria J Biol Chem 1909, 6:499-507, offers a visionary insight into many of today's hot research questions.

  12. Effect of feeding soybean meal and differently processed peas on the gut mucosal immune system of broilers.

    Röhe, I; Göbel, T W; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Zentek, J

    2017-07-01

    Peas are traditionally used as a protein source for poultry. However, peas contain antinutritional factors (ANF), which are associated with the initiation of local and systemic immune reactions. The current study examined the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas in comparison with feeding a soybean meal (SBM) based control diet (C) on the gut mucosal immune system of broilers in a 35 day feeding trial. In six replicates, a total of 360 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to four different groups receiving C, or three treatment diets containing raw, fermented, and enzymatically pre-digested peas, each supplying 30% of required crude protein. After slaughtering, jejunal samples were taken for immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and gene expression analyses. Investigations were focused on the topological distribution of intraepithelial leukocytes (villus tip, villus mid, and crypt region) as well as on the further characterization of the different intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and concomitant pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Broilers receiving the raw or processed pea diets had higher numbers of intraepithelial CD45+ leukocytes in the tip (P = 0.004) and mid region (P pea containing diets in comparison with those fed C. The flow cytometric phenotyping showed a similar relative distribution of IEL among the feeding groups. The expression of intestinal pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was affected by feeding the different diets only to a minor extent. To conclude, feeding of diets formulated with raw and processed peas in comparison with feeding a SBM control diet initiated mucosal immune responses in the jejunum of broilers indicated by a quantitative increase of intraepithelial T cells. Further research is needed in order to ascertain the specific factors which are responsible for observed local immune reactions and how these local reactions might affect the immune status and health of broilers. © 2017 Poultry Science

  13. Assessing the Influence of Vegan, Vegetarian and Omnivore Oriented Westernized Dietary Styles on Human Gut Microbiota: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Losasso, Carmen; Eckert, Ester M; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Villiger, Jorg; Mancin, Marzia; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Di Cesare, Andrea; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Pernthaler, Jakob; Corno, Gianluca; Ricci, Antonia

    2018-01-01

    Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area. The results displayed a picture where the three different dietetic profiles could be well distinguished on the basis of participant's dietetic regimen. Regarding the gut microbiota; vegetarians had a significantly greater richness compared to omnivorous. Moreover, counts of Bacteroidetes related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were greater in vegans and vegetarians compared to omnivores. Interestingly considering the whole bacterial community composition the three cohorts were unexpectedly similar, which is probably due to their common intake in terms of nutrients rather than food, e.g., high fat content and reduced protein and carbohydrate intake. This finding suggests that fundamental nutritional choices such as vegan, vegetarian, or omnivore do influence the microbiota but do not allow to infer conclusions on gut microbial composition, and suggested the possibility for a preferential impact of other variables, probably related to the general life style on shaping human gut microbial community in spite of dietary influence. Consequently, research were individuals are categorized on the basis of their claimed feeding types is of limited use for scientific studies, since it appears to be oversimplified.

  14. Assessing the Influence of Vegan, Vegetarian and Omnivore Oriented Westernized Dietary Styles on Human Gut Microbiota: A Cross Sectional Study

    Carmen Losasso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area. The results displayed a picture where the three different dietetic profiles could be well distinguished on the basis of participant’s dietetic regimen. Regarding the gut microbiota; vegetarians had a significantly greater richness compared to omnivorous. Moreover, counts of Bacteroidetes related operational taxonomic units (OTUs were greater in vegans and vegetarians compared to omnivores. Interestingly considering the whole bacterial community composition the three cohorts were unexpectedly similar, which is probably due to their common intake in terms of nutrients rather than food, e.g., high fat content and reduced protein and carbohydrate intake. This finding suggests that fundamental nutritional choices such as vegan, vegetarian, or omnivore do influence the microbiota but do not allow to infer conclusions on gut microbial composition, and suggested the possibility for a preferential impact of other variables, probably related to the general life style on shaping human gut microbial community in spite of dietary influence. Consequently, research were individuals are categorized on the basis of their claimed feeding types is of limited use for scientific studies, since it appears to be oversimplified.

  15. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism.

    Mohammed, Akram; Guda, Chittibabu

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, cofactors and

  16. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids

  17. Influence of red wine polyphenols and ethanol on the gut microbiota ecology and biochemical biomarkers.

    Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Boto-Ordóñez, María; Murri, Mora; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan Miguel; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Estruch, Ramon; Cardona Diaz, Fernando; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured. The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P red wine consumption can significantly modulate the growth of select gut microbiota in humans, which suggests possible prebiotic benefits associated with the inclusion of red wine polyphenols in the diet. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN88720134.

  18. Chain reaction

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  19. Total Lipopolysaccharide from the Human Gut Microbiome Silences Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    d'Hennezel, Eva; Abubucker, Sahar; Murphy, Leon O; Cullen, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Cohabitation of microbial communities with the host enables the formation of a symbiotic relationship that maintains homeostasis in the gut and beyond. One prevailing model suggests that this relationship relies on the capacity of host cells and tissues to remain tolerant to the strong immune stimulation generated by the microbiota such as the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indeed, gut microbial LPS is thought to be one of the most potent activators of innate immune signaling and an important mediator of the microbiome's influence on host physiology. In this study, we performed computational and experimental analyses of healthy human fecal samples to examine the TLR4 signaling capacity of the gut microbiota. These analyses revealed that an immunoinhibitory activity of LPS, conserved across the members of the order Bacteroidales and derived from an underacylated structural feature, silences TLR4 signaling for the entire consortium of organisms inhabiting the human gut. Comparative analysis of metagenomic data from the Human Microbiome Project and healthy-donor samples indicates that immune silencing via LPS is a microbe-intrinsic feature in all healthy adults. These findings challenge the current belief that robust TLR4 signaling is a feature of the microbiome and demonstrate that microbiome-derived LPS has the ability to facilitate host tolerance of gut microbes. These findings have broad implications for how we model host-microbe interactions and for our understanding of microbiome-linked disease. IMPORTANCE While the ability for humans to host a complex microbial ecosystem is an essential property of life, the mechanisms allowing for immune tolerance of such a large microbial load are not completely understood and are currently the focus of intense research. This study shows that an important proinflammatory pathway that is commonly triggered by pathogenic bacteria upon interaction with the host is, in fact

  20. Antibiotic-induced gut microbiota disruption during human endotoxemia: a randomised controlled study.

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Cranendonk, Duncan R; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Alex F; de Vos, Willem M; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W Joost

    2017-09-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for the development of the intestinal immune system. Animal models have suggested that the gut microbiota also acts as a major modulator of systemic innate immunity during sepsis. Microbiota disruption by broad-spectrum antibiotics could thus have adverse effects on cellular responsiveness towards invading pathogens. As such, the use of antibiotics may attribute to immunosuppression as seen in sepsis. We aimed to test whether disruption of the gut microbiota affects systemic innate immune responses during endotoxemia in healthy subjects. In this proof-of-principle intervention trial, 16 healthy young men received either no treatment or broad-spectrum antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and metronidazole) for 7 days, after which all were administered lipopolysaccharide intravenously to induce a transient sepsis-like syndrome. At various time points, blood and faeces were sampled. Gut microbiota diversity was significantly lowered by the antibiotic treatment in all subjects. Clinical parameters, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, coagulation activation and endothelial activation during endotoxemia were not different between antibiotic-pretreated and control individuals. Antibiotic treatment had no impact on blood leucocyte responsiveness to various Toll-like receptor ligands and clinically relevant causative agents of sepsis ( Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli ) during endotoxemia. These findings suggest that gut microbiota disruption by broad-spectrum antibiotics does not affect systemic innate immune responses in healthy subjects during endotoxemia in humans, disproving our hypothesis. Further research is needed to test this hypothesis in critically ill patients. These data underline the importance of translating findings in mice to humans. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02127749; Pre-results). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  1. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Sun, Botong; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; Xue, Minqian; You, Minsheng

    2018-01-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella , while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  2. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.

    Xiaofeng Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes, Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria, and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella, while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  3. Altered gut and adipose tissue hormones in overweight and obese individuals: cause or consequence?

    Lean, M E J; Malkova, D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to review the research into the main peripheral appetite signals altered in human obesity, together with their modifications after body weight loss with diet and exercise and after bariatric surgery, which may be relevant to strategies for obesity treatment. Body weight homeostasis involves the gut-brain axis, a complex and highly coordinated system of peripheral appetite hormones and centrally mediated neuronal regulation. The list of peripheral anorexigenic and orexigenic physiological factors in both animals and humans is intimidating and expanding, but anorexigenic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and orexigenic ghrelin from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) from the pancreas and anorexigenic leptin from adiposites remain the most widely studied hormones. Homeostatic control of food intake occurs in humans, although its relative importance for eating behaviour is uncertain, compared with social and environmental influences. There are perturbations in the gut-brain axis in obese compared with lean individuals, as well as in weight-reduced obese individuals. Fasting and postprandial levels of gut hormones change when obese individuals lose weight, either with surgical or with dietary and/or exercise interventions. Diet-induced weight loss results in long-term changes in appetite gut hormones, postulated to favour increased appetite and weight regain while exercise programmes modify responses in a direction expected to enhance satiety and permit weight loss and/or maintenance. Sustained weight loss achieved by bariatric surgery may in part be mediated via favourable changes to gut hormones. Future work will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of each element of the axis, and whether modifying these signals can reduce the risk of obesity.

  4. Abundance profiling of specific gene groups using precomputed gut metagenomes yields novel biological hypotheses.

    Konstantin Yarygin

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is essentially a multifunctional bioreactor within a human being. The exploration of its enormous metabolic potential provides insights into the mechanisms underlying microbial ecology and interactions with the host. The data obtained using "shotgun" metagenomics capture information about the whole spectrum of microbial functions. However, each new study presenting new sequencing data tends to extract only a little of the information concerning the metabolic potential and often omits specific functions. A meta-analysis of the available data with an emphasis on biomedically relevant gene groups can unveil new global trends in the gut microbiota. As a step toward the reuse of metagenomic data, we developed a method for the quantitative profiling of user-defined groups of genes in human gut metagenomes. This method is based on the quick analysis of a gene coverage matrix obtained by pre-mapping the metagenomic reads to a global gut microbial catalogue. The method was applied to profile the abundance of several gene groups related to antibiotic resistance, phages, biosynthesis clusters and carbohydrate degradation in 784 metagenomes from healthy populations worldwide and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and obesity. We discovered country-wise functional specifics in gut resistome and virome compositions. The most distinct features of the disease microbiota were found for Crohn's disease, followed by ulcerative colitis and obesity. Profiling of the genes belonging to crAssphage showed that its abundance varied across the world populations and was not associated with clinical status. We demonstrated temporal resilience of crAssphage and the influence of the sample preparation protocol on its detected abundance. Our approach offers a convenient method to add value to accumulated "shotgun" metagenomic data by helping researchers state and assess novel biological hypotheses.

  5. Gut Microbiota Promotes Obesity-Associated Liver Cancer through PGE2-Mediated Suppression of Antitumor Immunity.

    Loo, Tze Mun; Kamachi, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Shin; Kanda, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuriko; Nakajima-Takagi, Yaeko; Iwama, Atsushi; Koga, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ozawa, Takayuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Kumagai, Miho; Watashi, Koichi; Taketo, Makoto M; Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh; Oshima, Masanobu; Arita, Makoto; Hara, Eiji; Ohtani, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the precise molecular mechanisms through which obesity promotes HCC development are still unclear. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota may influence liver diseases by transferring its metabolites and components. Here, we show that the hepatic translocation of obesity-induced lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a Gram-positive gut microbial component, promotes HCC development by creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment. LTA enhances the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) collaboratively with an obesity-induced gut microbial metabolite, deoxycholic acid, to upregulate the expression of SASP factors and COX2 through Toll-like receptor 2. Interestingly, COX2-mediated prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production suppresses the antitumor immunity through a PTGER4 receptor, thereby contributing to HCC progression. Moreover, COX2 overexpression and excess PGE 2 production were detected in HSCs in human HCCs with noncirrhotic, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), indicating that a similar mechanism could function in humans. Significance: We showed the importance of the gut-liver axis in obesity-associated HCC. The gut microbiota-driven COX2 pathway produced the lipid mediator PGE 2 in senescent HSCs in the tumor microenvironment, which plays a pivotal role in suppressing antitumor immunity, suggesting that PGE 2 and its receptor may be novel therapeutic targets for noncirrhotic NASH-associated HCC. Cancer Discov; 7(5); 522-38. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 443 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Relationship between inflammation, the gut microbiota, and metabolic osteoarthritis development: studies in a rat model.

    Collins, K H; Paul, H A; Reimer, R A; Seerattan, R A; Hart, D A; Herzog, W

    2015-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) may result from intrinsic inflammation related to metabolic disturbance. Obesity-associated inflammation is triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the gut microbiota. However, the relationship between gut microbiota, LPS, inflammation, and OA remain unclear. To evaluate the associations between gut microbiota, systemic LPS levels, serum and local inflammatory profiles, and joint damage in a high fat/high sucrose diet induced obese rat model. 32 rats were randomized to a high fat/high sucrose diet (diet-induced obese (DIO), 40% fat, 45% sucrose, n = 21) or chow diet group (12% fat, 3.7% sucrose n = 11) for 28 weeks. After a 12-week obesity induction period, DIO animals were stratified into Obesity Prone (DIO-P, top 33% by change in body mass, n = 7), and Obesity Resistant groups (DIO-R, bottom 33%, n = 7). At sacrifice, joints were scored using a Modified Mankin Criteria. Blood and synovial fluid analytes, serum LPS, and fecal gut microbiota were analyzed. DIO animals had greater Modified Mankin scores than chow animals (P = 0.002). There was a significant relationship (r = 0.604, p = 0.001) between body fat, but not body mass, and Modified Mankin score. Eighteen synovial fluid and four serum analytes were increased in DIO animals. DIO serum LPS levels were increased compared to chow (P = 0.031). Together, Lactobacillus species (spp.) and Methanobrevibacter spp. abundance had a strong predictive relationship with Modified Mankin Score (r(2) = 0.5, P gut microbiota and adiposity-derived inflammation and metabolic OA warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gut Microbiota and a Selectively Bred Taste Phenotype: A Novel Model of Microbiome-Behavior Relationships.

    Lyte, Mark; Fodor, Anthony A; Chapman, Clinton D; Martin, Gary G; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Jobin, Christian; Dess, Nancy K

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota-gut-brain axis is increasingly implicated in obesity, anxiety, stress, and other health-related processes. Researchers have proposed that gut microbiota may influence dietary habits, and pathways through the microbiota-gut-brain axis make such a relationship feasible; however, few data bear on the hypothesis. As a first step in the development of a model system, the gut microbiome was examined in rat lines selectively outbred on a taste phenotype with biobehavioral profiles that have diverged with respect to energy regulation, anxiety, and stress. Occidental low and high-saccharin-consuming rats were assessed for body mass and chow, water, and saccharin intake; littermate controls had shared cages with rats in the experimental group but were not assessed. Cecum and colon microbial communities were profiled using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate analysis of microbial diversity and composition. The saccharin phenotype was confirmed (low-saccharin-consuming rats, 0.7Δ% [0.9Δ%]; high-saccharin-consuming rats, 28.1Δ% [3.6Δ%]). Regardless of saccharin exposure, gut microbiota differed between lines in terms of overall community similarity and taxa at lower phylogenetic levels. Specifically, 16 genera in three phyla distinguished the lines at a 10% false discovery rate. The study demonstrates for the first time that rodent lines created through selective pressure on taste and differing on functionally related correlates host different microbial communities. Whether the microbiota are causally related to the taste phenotype or its correlates remains to be determined. These findings encourage further inquiry on the relationship of the microbiome to taste, dietary habits, emotion, and health.

  8. Using H2O2 as oxidant in leaching of uranium ores. The new research on the reaction of H2O2 with Fe2+

    Gao Xizhen

    1997-05-01

    The new research on the reaction of H 2 O 2 with Fe 2+ has been studied. Through determining the electric potential, pH and O 2 release during the mutual titration between H 2 O 2 solution and FeSO 4 solution, deduced the chemical equations of H 2 O 2 (without free hydroxyl) oxidizing FeSO 4 and Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 oxidizing H 2 O 2 . The research results show that acid is a catalytic agent for decomposing H 2 O 2 to be O 2 and H 2 O besides iron ions. The maximum oxidizing potential is up to about 640 mV. While using H 2 O 2 as an oxidant in uranium heap leaching and in-situ leaching, controlling electric potential can be regarded as a method for adjusting the feeding speed of H 2 O 2 to keep the electric potential below 500 mV, thus the H 2 O 2 decomposition can be reduced. (13 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.)

  9. A tribute to Ulrich Heber (1930-2016) for his contribution to photosynthesis research: understanding the interplay between photosynthetic primary reactions, metabolism and the environment.

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Krause, G Heinrich; Siebke, Katharina; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2018-07-01

    The dynamic and efficient coordination of primary photosynthetic reactions with leaf energization and metabolism under a wide range of environmental conditions is a fundamental property of plants involving processes at all functional levels. The present historical perspective covers 60 years of research aiming to understand the underlying mechanisms, linking major breakthroughs to current progress. It centers on the contributions of Ulrich Heber who had pioneered novel concepts, fundamental methods, and mechanistic understanding of photosynthesis. An important first step was the development of non-aqueous preparation of chloroplasts allowing the investigation of chloroplast metabolites ex vivo (meaning that the obtained results reflect the in vivo situation). Later on, intact chloroplasts, retaining their functional envelope membranes, were isolated in aqueous media to investigate compartmentation and exchange of metabolites between chloroplasts and external medium. These studies elucidated metabolic interaction between chloroplasts and cytoplasm during photosynthesis. Experiments with isolated intact chloroplasts clarified that oxygenation of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate generates glycolate in photorespiration. The development of non-invasive optical methods enabled researchers identifying mechanisms that balance electron flow in the photosynthetic electron transport system avoiding its over-reduction. Recording chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence allowed one to monitor, among other parameters, thermal energy dissipation by means of 'nonphotochemical quenching' of the excited state of Chl a. Furthermore, studies both in vivo and in vitro led to basic understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of freezing damage and frost tolerance of plant leaves, to SO 2 tolerance of tree leaves and dehydrating lichens and mosses.

  10. Analysis of gut microbial regulation of host gene expression along the length of the gut and regulation of gut microbial ecology through MyD88.

    Larsson, Erik; Tremaroli, Valentina; Lee, Ying Shiuan; Koren, Omry; Nookaew, Intawat; Fricker, Ashwana; Nielsen, Jens; Ley, Ruth E; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2012-08-01

    The gut microbiota has profound effects on host physiology but local host-microbial interactions in the gut are only poorly characterised and are likely to vary from the sparsely colonised duodenum to the densely colonised colon. Microorganisms are recognised by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule MyD88. To identify host responses induced by gut microbiota along the length of the gut and whether these required MyD88, transcriptional profiles of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were compared from germ-free and conventionally raised wild-type and Myd88-/- mice. The gut microbial ecology was assessed by 454-based pyrosequencing and viruses were analysed by PCR. The gut microbiota modulated the expression of a large set of genes in the small intestine and fewer genes in the colon but surprisingly few microbiota-regulated genes required MyD88 signalling. However, MyD88 was essential for microbiota-induced colonic expression of the antimicrobial genes Reg3β and Reg3γ in the epithelium, and Myd88 deficiency was associated with both a shift in bacterial diversity and a greater proportion of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. In addition, conventionally raised Myd88-/- mice had increased expression of antiviral genes in the colon, which correlated with norovirus infection in the colonic epithelium. This study provides a detailed description of tissue-specific host transcriptional responses to the normal gut microbiota along the length of the gut and demonstrates that the absence of MyD88 alters gut microbial ecology.

  11. The food-gut human axis: the effects of diet on gut microbiota and metabolome.

    De Angelis, Maria; Garruti, Gabriella; Minervini, Fabio; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-04-27

    Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome. Within the dietary components, polymers (mainly fibers, proteins, fat and polyphenols) that are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes seem to be the main leads of the metabolic pathways of gut microbiota, which in turn directly influences the human metabolome. Specific relationships between diet and microbes, microbes and metabolites, microbes and immune functions and microbes and/or their metabolites and some human diseases are being established. Dietary treatments with fibers are the most effective to benefit the metabolome profile, by improving the synthesis of short chain fatty acids and decreasing the level of molecules, such as p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and trimethylamine N-oxide, involved in disease state. Based on the axis diet-microbiota-health, this review aims at describing the most recent knowledge oriented towards a profitable use of diet to provide benefits to human health, both directly and indirectly, through the activity of gut microbiota. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Molecular biological methods for studying the gut microbiota : the EU human gut flora project

    Blaut, M; Collins, MD; Welling, GW; Dore, J; van Loo, J; de Vos, W

    Seven European laboratories co-operated in a joint project (FAIR CT97-3035) to develop, refine and apply molecular methods towards facilitating elucidation of the complex composition of the human intestinal microflora and to devise robust methodologies for monitoring the gut flora in response to

  13. Does the Gut Microbiota Contribute to Obesity? Going beyond the Gut Feeling

    Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota is an environmental factor that plays a crucial role in obesity. However, the aetiology of obesity is rather complex and depends on different factors. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus about the exact role that this microbial community plays

  14. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  15. Effect of rice beer on gut bacteria

    Bhuwan Bhaskar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria, called microbiota influences human health and is effected by several host factors. The studies in humans and model organisms have clearly demonstrated that out of several important factors, diet has the most dominant role in regulation of the gut microbiota. Additionally, with an increase in the knowledge on the microbiota, the connections between microbial actions on dietary consumption are being revealed. Consumption of fermented beverages holds a long tradition and accounts for approximately one-third of the human diet globally. In various societies, fermentation has not only been well established as a process for food preservation, human nutrition, traditional medicine and culture but also for the improving the sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavor and aroma and most importantly for the magnification of the nutritional values. Consumption of rice beer is an essential part of the socio-cultural life of several tribes of North-East India. It is believed to be effective against several ailments such as ameboisis, acidity, vomiting and has health modulating effects including cholesterol reduction and endocrine function. Effect of rice beer was tested on mice model. 17 healthy Swiss albino mice were taken for the study and divided into two groups: control and treated. Rice beer was fed to the treated group once daily and fecal samples were collected. Metagenomic DNA from stool samples was extracted and V6 - V8 region of the 16S rDNA gene was amplified, followed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE.The DGGE gel was scored using GelCompar II software. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS analysis of stool samples was also carried out. Multidimensional scaling (MDS plot of the DGGE profiles showed distinct clustering of control and treated groups, indicating the effect of rice beer consumption on gut microbes.

  16. Environmental and gut Bacteroidetes: the food connection

    François eThomas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the diverse bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes have colonized virtually all types of habitats on Earth. They are among the major members of the microbiota of animals, especially in the gastro-intestinal tract, can act as pathogens and are frequently found in soils, oceans and freshwater. In these contrasting ecological niches, Bacteroidetes are increasingly regarded as specialists for the degradation of high molecular weight organic matter, i.e. proteins and carbohydrates. This review presents the current knowledge on the role and mechanisms of polysaccharide degradation by Bacteroidetes in their respective habitats. The recent sequencing of Bacteroidetes genomes confirms the presence of numerous carbohydrate-active enzymes covering a large spectrum of substrates from plant, algal and animal origin. Comparative genomics reveal specific Polysaccharide Utilization Loci shared between distantly related members of the phylum, either in environmental or gut-associated species. Moreover, Bacteroidetes genomes appear to be highly plastic and frequently reorganized through genetic rearrangements, gene duplications and lateral gene transfers, a feature that could have driven their adaptation to distinct ecological niches. Evidence is accumulating that the nature of the diet shapes the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We address the potential links between gut and environmental bacteria through food consumption. Lateral gene transfer can provide gut bacteria with original sets of utensils to degrade otherwise refractory substrates found in the diet. A more complete understanding of the genetic gateways between food associated environmental species and intestinal microbial communities sheds new light on the origin and evolution of Bacteroidetes as animals' symbionts. It also raises the question as to how the consumption of increasingly hygienic and processed food deprives our microbiota from useful environmental genes and possibly affects

  17. Environmental and gut bacteroidetes: the food connection.

    Thomas, François; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Rebuffet, Etienne; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2011-01-01

    Members of the diverse bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes have colonized virtually all types of habitats on Earth. They are among the major members of the microbiota of animals, especially in the gastrointestinal tract, can act as pathogens and are frequently found in soils, oceans and freshwater. In these contrasting ecological niches, Bacteroidetes are increasingly regarded as specialists for the degradation of high molecular weight organic matter, i.e., proteins and carbohydrates. This review presents the current knowledge on the role and mechanisms of polysaccharide degradation by Bacteroidetes in their respective habitats. The recent sequencing of Bacteroidetes genomes confirms the presence of numerous carbohydrate-active enzymes covering a large spectrum of substrates from plant, algal, and animal origin. Comparative genomics reveal specific Polysaccharide Utilization Loci shared between distantly related members of the phylum, either in environmental or gut-associated species. Moreover, Bacteroidetes genomes appear to be highly plastic and frequently reorganized through genetic rearrangements, gene duplications and lateral gene transfers (LGT), a feature that could have driven their adaptation to distinct ecological niches. Evidence is accumulating that the nature of the diet shapes the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We address the potential links between gut and environmental bacteria through food consumption. LGT can provide gut bacteria with original sets of utensils to degrade otherwise refractory substrates found in the diet. A more complete understanding of the genetic gateways between food-associated environmental species and intestinal microbial communities sheds new light on the origin and evolution of Bacteroidetes as animals' symbionts. It also raises the question as to how the consumption of increasingly hygienic and processed food deprives our microbiota from useful environmental genes and possibly affects our health.

  18. Intestinal crosstalk – a new paradigm for understanding the gut as the “motor” of critical illness

    Clark, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the gut has been hypothesized to be the “motor” of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). As critical care research has evolved, there have been multiple mechanisms by which the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed to drive systemic inflammation. Many of these disparate mechanisms have proved to be important in the origin and propagation of critical illness. However, this has led to an unusual situation where investigators describing the gut as a “motor” revving the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are frequently describing wholly different processes to support their claim (i.e. increased apoptosis, altered tight junctions, translocation, cytokine production, crosstalk with commensal bacteria, etc). The purpose of this review is to present a unifying theory as to how the gut drives critical illness. Although the gastrointestinal tract is frequently described simply as “the gut,” it is actually made up of a) an epithelium, b) a diverse and robust immune arm, which contains the majority of immune cells in the body, and c) the commensal bacteria, which contain more cells than are present in the entire host organism. We propose that the intestinal epithelium, the intestinal immune system and the intestine’s endogenous bacteria all play vital roles driving MODS, and the complex crosstalk between these three interrelated portions of the gastrointestinal tract are cumulatively what makes the gut a “motor” of critical illness. PMID:17577136

  19. Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air.

    M Tanweer Khan

    Full Text Available The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precluded its clinical application in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The present studies were therefore aimed at developing a strategy to keep F. prausnitzii alive at ambient air. Our previous research showed that F. prausnitzii can survive in moderately oxygenized environments like the gut mucosa by transfer of electrons to oxygen. For this purpose, the bacterium exploits extracellular antioxidants, such as riboflavin and cysteine, that are abundantly present in the gut. We therefore tested to what extent these antioxidants can sustain the viability of F. prausnitzii at ambient air. The present results show that cysteine can facilitate the survival of F. prausnitzii upon exposure to air, and that this effect is significantly enhanced the by addition of riboflavin and the cryoprotectant inulin. The highly oxygen-sensitive gut bacterium F. prausnitzii can be kept alive at ambient air for 24 h when formulated with the antioxidants cysteine and riboflavin plus the cryoprotectant inulin. Improved formulations were obtained by addition of the bulking agents corn starch and wheat bran. Our present findings pave the way towards the biomedical exploitation of F. prausnitzii in redox-based therapeutics for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory disorders of the human gut.

  20. A global comparison of the microbiome compositions of three gut locations in commercial pigs with extreme feed conversion ratios.

    Quan, Jianping; Cai, Gengyuan; Ye, Jian; Yang, Ming; Ding, Rongrong; Wang, Xingwang; Zheng, Enqin; Fu, Disheng; Li, Shaoyun; Zhou, Shenping; Liu, Dewu; Yang, Jie; Wu, Zhenfang

    2018-03-14

    In an attempt to increase profits and sustainability in the swine industry, the gut microbiome has become a focus of much research. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in the ileum, cecum, and colon of Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pigs showing two extreme feed conversion ratios (FCRs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that the microbial community in the cecum and colon had significantly higher alpha diversity than the ileum. We further identified 11, 55, and 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significantly different relative abundances between the high and low FCR pigs among the three gut locations, respectively. These OTUs were mainly associated with bacteria that participate in the metabolism of dietary polysaccharides and proteins. We then identified two and nine metabolic pathways that were enriched in the cecum and colon of the high FCR pigs, respectively. The results suggested that the short chain fatty acids and indolic compounds produced by microbial fermentation might influence porcine feed efficiency. These results should improve our understanding of microbiota compositions in the different gut locations of commercial pigs and provide important insights into the effect of gut microbiota on porcine FCRs.